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The role of speech in the educative process

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THE ROIE OF SPEECH IN THE EDUCATIVE PROCESS
A D issertatio n
P resen ted
to
th e F a c u lty of th e School o f Speech
U n iv e rs ity of S outhern C a lif o r n ia
In P a rtia l F u lfillm en t
o f th e R eq u ire m e n ts f o r th e D egree
D octor o f P h ilo so p h y
by
C o n r a d W* F r e e d
J u n e 1940
UMI Number: DP31946
All rights reserved
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Th is dissertation, w rit te n by
................CGNRAD..WALLACE..FM
.........................
under the gui dance of hJLs. F ac u lty C o m m it te e
on Stu die s, an d a p p r o v e d by all its members, has
been pr es e nt e d to and ac c e p te d by the Council
on Grad ua te S t u d y and Rese arch , in pa rt ia l f u l ­
fillment of requirements f o r the degre e of
D O CTO R OF P H IL O S O P H Y
Dehn
Secretary
Date.
JUNE. 1 9 4 0 .............
C om m ittee on Studies
Chairman
k tC
T * .....................................
y ------ —
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.
II,
PAGE
THE PROBLEM .
.
1
The e x a c t s t a t e m e n t o f t h e t h e s i s
•.
1
The m a i n s o u r c e s o f b i o l o g i c a l d a t a
•
4
N e g l e c t o f t h e p r o b l e m by s c h o l a r s
••
10
THE BIOLOGICAL BASES FOR SOCIALIZATION
..
14
The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f l i v i n g m a t t e r
••
14
R elatio n
.
.
.
.
of stru ctu re
.
.
.
.
.
to fu n c tio n
.
16
The h u m a n r e p r o d u c t i v e p r o c e s s
• •
•
•
18
D iffe re n tia tio n of tis s u e s
♦ .
♦
.
19
. •
•
•
23
E nergy and th e l i f e
cycle
•
Energy i n r e l a t i o n to s t r u c t u r e and
fu n ctio n
*
•*
•
•
»
.
*
•
Views on t h e c a u s a t i o n o f d e a t h
The n a t u r e
of
26
•
••
in te g ratio n
P ro to p la sm and e x c i t a t i o n
O rigin
*
of g rad ien ts
•
•
* .
•
•
E a r l i e s t behavior p a tte rn s a re
o v e r-a ll p a ttern s
•
*
•
32
*
34.
•
36
•
40
large
...............................................
R ecep to r organs in i n t e g r a t i o n
B io lo g ic a l n a tu re o f language
44
•
*
•
48
* •
*
•
50
O p in io n s o f P i l l s b u r y and H eader
••
52
O p i n i o n s o f C. M. C h i l d ...............................
57
iv
CHAPTER
PAGE
O p i n i o n s o f G e o r g e M e a d ...............................
O p i n i o n s o f K i m b a l l Young
• '
• •
«
58
O p i n i o n s o f O sw ald S p e n g l e r
*
• •
•
59
C o n clud ing o b s e rv a tio n s - .
III.
58
.
.
.
.
TRADITIONAL EDUCATIONAL PRACTICE
The ’p r e p a r a t i o n ” c o n c e p t
.
.
.
The s u b j e c t - m a t t e r c u r r i c u l u m
.
62
.
.
.
.
.
66
.
.
.
70
.
The p e c u l i a r a t m o s p h e r e o f t h e c l a s s r o o m
The n o n - s o c i a l p r o c e d u r e s
The l a c k o f a c t i v i t y
•
.
•
•
65
.
.
.
.
The d o g m a , ’' K n o w l e d g e i s P o w e r ”
.
71
.
73
«
74
.
80
.
B io lo g ic a l s t r u c t u r e and e d u c a tio n a l
co n ten t are exact c o u n te rp arts
•
•
81
Know ledge g a i n s s i g n i f i c a n c e o n l y i n
r e l a t i o n to s k i l l s
The s i l e n t
«
•
•
•
•
.
84
c o n d itio n in g p ro cess in
t r a d i t i o n a l schools
.......................................
89
P s y c h i a tr i c o p in io n s of the " s i l e n t ”
ch ild
...............................................
F a l la c i e s o f th e s i l e n t approach
O p i n i o n o f C. J . H e r r i c k
.
O p i n i o n o f K i m b a l l Young
.
O p in io n o f Com enius .
.
.
•
.
•
.
.
98
.
• •
.
97
.
99
•
100
104
S ile n t tech n iq u es d isre g a rd d ata
f r o m p h y s i o l o g y ......................................
106
V
CHAPTER
PAGE
C riticism s
o f t r a d i t i o n a l m ethods •
•
C riticism
by
F ra n k lin B o b b itt
C riticism
by
Lord M acaulay
C riticism
by
The C o m m i t t e e o n t h e
•
•
•
•
•
109
•
.
•
109
R e l a t i o n o f Em otion to
th e E d u cativ e
Process
»
•
•
«
•
•
•
109
•
•
•
C riticism
o f S h a ttu c k and Barnes
C ritic ism
of C harles R u s s e ll
C riticism
of
W itty and Kopel
C riticism
of
A. L . K r o e b e r
C riticism
o f P a u l M c K e e ........................................ 116
O ther c r i t ic i s m s
«
C o n tra ry o p in io n s
The r o l e
.
.
•
110
.
112
•
113
.
.
.
114
.
.
•
115
•
•
117
•
•
•
•
•
•
118
of speech i n th e l i g h t of
c u rre n t e d u ca tio n al o p in io n s
•
•
•
121
C o n te n t c an be l e a r n e d by i n d i r e c t
m ethods
................................................124
M ere o r a l w o r k d o e s n o t c o n s t i t u t e u s e
of speech tech n iq u es
...........................................
Language i s anthropom orphic
O p i n i o n o f Oswald S p e n g l e r
126
•
.
•
127
•
•
.
12 8
L an g u ag e m ust be fo u n d e d on r e a l
experiences
•
•
•
•
•
O ral tech n iq u es a c tu a lly
C oncluding o b s e r v a tio n s
•
•
•
sa v e tim e
.
.
•
.
130
•
133
•
136:
vi
CHAPTER
IV .
PAGE
NATURE AND SCOPE OF THE FIELD OF SPEECH
Two a s p e c t s o f t h e f i e l d
.
.
.
.
S peech view ed a s a n a rro w f i e l d
.
The c l a s s i c a l o p i n i o n s
.
•
•
•
.
139
.
140
.
.
142
•
144
P e rv e rs io n of th e c l a s s i c a l p o s i t i o n
during th e E n g lish R enaissance
The m o d e r n r e t u r n t o
.
.
.
the c la s s ic a l
p o sitio n
C am pbell, B l a i r ,
147
151
and W hately
•
.
•
151
W oolbert and th e t w e n t i e t h c e n tu ry
a u t h o r i t i e s ...........................................................
C o n clud ing o b s e r v a tio n s
V.
.............................................
156
164.
SOME VISUAL AND AUDITORY CONSIDERATIONS
RELATED TO THE LEARNING PROCESS
M a tu ra tio n and re a d in g
•
•
.
•
.
•
•
.
167
•
170
E x p e rim e n ta l d a t a com paring a u d i t o r y
and v i s u a l s tim u li
171
A uditory f a c to r s in th e
environm ent
•
•
179
S p e e ch com bines audi t o r y an d v i s u a l
stim u li
............................................
C oncluding o b s e r v a tio n s
VI...
SPEECH, AND PERSONALITY .
•
.
•
.
«
.
•
.
•
.
•
1.86;
189
*
190
P e rs o n a lity as a f a c to r in p ersu asio n
•
191
Speech as a b aro m eter of p e r s o n a l i t y
•
193
CHAPTER
PAGE
C ausal r e l a ti o n s h i p of speech and
p erso n ality
•
•
•
G uidance as r e l a t e d to
•
•
•
•
speech
.
•
.
«
• •
•
»
•
194
•
197
V ario us ex p erim en tal s tu d ie s of th e
sp eech -p erso n ality re la tio n s h ip
•
199
N e g le c t o f p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s by e x p e r t s
in the
field
of speech
.
.
.
.
.
.
C o n tr ib u tio n s of th e sp eech p a t h o l o g i s t
204
•
206
•
209
O r a l work p r o v i d e s t h e g r e a t e s t
o p p o rtu n ities fo r so c ial p a rtic ip a tio n
C oncluding o b s e r v a tio n s
.
.
•
•
•
•
•
211
V I I * REVIEW OF EXPERIMENTATION COMPARING ORAL AND
TRADITIONAL TEACHING PROCEDURES
.
•
.
.
213
E xperim ent o f Prudence C u t r ig h t
.
.
.
.
217
E x p e r im e n t o f C ra w fo rd and R oyer
.
•
♦
•
220
E xperim ent o f H a r r i e t C arm ichael
.
♦
•
•
221
E x p e r i m e n t o f Homer S t r o n g
S u p porting o p in io n s
.......................................
222
.......................................................
22 5
C oncluding o b s e r v a tio n s •
V III*
RETROSPECT AND PROSPECT
.
228
.
.
.
.
.
.
229
S o c ia liz a tio n is a p h y sio lo g ic al process
.
231
S tr u c tu r e and f u n c tio n develop to g e th e r
•
23 2
Energy and i n t e g r a t i o n .
......................................... 2 3 3
R e f le x e s a r e le a r n e d form s o f b e h a v io r
S i l e n t t e c h n i q u e s and th e s c h o o l s
.
•
.
•
.
233
234
v iii
CHAPTER
PAGE
C o n te n t and s k i l l s
to fu n c tio n
•
r e l a te d as s tr u c tu r e
•
•
•
•
•
*
•
»
Trend tow ard g r e a t e r s o c i a l i z a t i o n
.
234
•
235
Abandonment o f s u b j e c t - m a t t e r c u r r i c u l a
235
O ra l te c h n iq u e s c o n s i s t e n t w ith
b io lo g ic a l d ata
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
237
O ra l te c h n iq u e s c o n s i s t e n t w ith
ed u catio n al tren d s
......................................*
239
C ontent of th e f i e l d o f speech
.
.
.
24 0
S u p e rio rity
.
.
.
240
of a u d ito ry s tim u li
A u d ito ry n a tu re o f environm ent
R elatio n sh ip of
•
•
240
speech and p e rso n a lity *
24&
C o n t e n t m a s t e r y i s n o t l o s t by u s e o f
o r a l tech n iq u es
C onclusion:
BIBLIOGRAPHY
•
•
•
*
S tatem ent o f b a s ic
.
•
•
th esis
241
•
....................................................................
243
245
L I S T OFCHARTS
ix
CHART
I*
PAGE
The R e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e F i e l d o f S p e e c h t o
O ther C ourses
II*
• *
................................................................. 157
D eg ree s of P a r t i c i p a t i o n P e r m i t t e d by
V arious
Form s o f
S o cialIn te rc o u rs e
•
•
210
CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM
The t e c h n i q u e s o f s p e e c h a r e common t o a l l
so cial
situ atio n s.
W herever p e o p le c o n g r e g a t e ,
th ey f in d i t
n e c e s s a r y t o e m p l o y some s p e e c h d e v i c e i n o r d e r
to fu n c tio n s o c i a l ly .
in school or ou t,
A s o c i e t y w i t h o u t some s o r t o f s p e e c h
tec h n iq u e i s u n th in k ab le*
S peaking i s
so c ializ in g .
C u rren t c r itic is m s of e d u catio n al p ra c tic e s c o n ta in
many c o n d e m n a t i o n s o f t h e w i d e s p r e a d p r a c t i c e o f h i g h l y
s p e c i a l i z i n g and co m p a rtm e n ta liz in g th e c u rric u lu m .
V arious
s u g g e s t i o n s h a v e b e e n made f o r c o r r e l a t i n g a n d i n t e g r a t i n g
ed u catio n al o ffe rin g s .
little
niq u es.
Among t h e s u g g e s t i o n s , h o w e v e r ,
a t t e n t i o n h as been given to th e r o le o f speech te c h ­
No d o u b t t h i s h a s b e e n ,
i n a l a r g e m ea su re , due to
th e v e r y obvious im p o rta n c e of la n g u a g e .
tak en fo r g ran ted as n e ce ssa ry to
tio n s of th is
Language h a s b e e n
ed u catio n , b u t th e
f a c t have had no th o ro u g h t r e a t m e n t .
I n t h i s p a p e r a n e f f o r t w i l l b e made t o
com m unicative p r o c e s s
speech te c h n iq u e s to
be p r e s e n t e d ,
im plica­
exam ine t h e
in o rd e r to e v a lu a te th e im portance of
educatio n*
an e f f o r t w ill
From t h e e v i d e n c e w h i c h w i l l
b e made t o e s t a b l i s h t h e t h e s i s
t h a t a. t h o r o u g h c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e b i o l o g i c a l b a s e s o f b e ­
h a v io r i n d i c a t e s t h a t m ost e f f i c i e n t e d u c a tio n a l p ro c e d u re s
w o u l d b e t h o s e w h i c h make t h e f u l l e s t u s e o f s p e e c h t e c h n i q u e s *
a
In o t h e r w ords,
tech n iq u es,
e v id e n c e w i l l he o f f e r e d to prove t h a t sp eech
whe n a c t i v e l y a n d p u r p o s e f u l l y g u i d e d , a n d n o t
m erely ta k e n f o r g r a n t e d , a r e v e ry l i k e l y
im proved r e s u l t s
to c o n trib u te to
from t h e t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n *
In d ev elo p in g t h i s t h e s i s ,
a n e f f o r t w i l l b e made t o
show t h a t t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l l i n e s o f e v i d e n c e , a l l
seem t o c o n v e r g e i n t h i s
chapters,
th is
d en tal e f f o r ts
scru tin y re la te -
sin g le
so lu tio n *
o f w hich
Through s u c c e s s i v e
e v id e n c e w i l l be exam ined i n d e t a i l , w ith i n c i ­
t o s h o w , i n e a c h c h a p t e r , how t h e d a t a u n d e r
t o t h e w hole problem *
Follow ing t h i s ,
e f f o r t w i l l b e made t o s u m m a r i z e t h e e n t i r e
how t h e v a r i o u s p o i n t s a r e i n t e g r a t e d
an
p a p e r a n d show
in the b a s ic
The s e q u e n c e o f c h a p t e r s h a s some m e a n i n g .
th esis*
It
is
n o t by ch an ce t h a t t h e secon d c h a p t e r c o n c e rn s b i o l o g i c a l d a t a .
In c o n s id e rin g e d u c a tio n a l tech n iq u e s
one c a n n o t h e l p
rea liz in g
t h a t i n e v e r y i n s t a n c e t h e medium i n w h i c h t h e y o p e r a t e i s a
liv in g one.
As J o h n Dewey h a s
s a i d i n h i s P edagogic C re e d ,
♦•The c h i l d * s own i n s t i n c t s a n d p o w e r s f u r n i s h
and g iv e the s t a r t i n g
It
is
p o in t fo r a l l
th e m a te ria l
e d u c a t i o n . 11*
n e c e s s a r y to u n d e r s t a n d th e u n i t s w i t h w hich
e d u c a t o r s m u st d e a l b e f o r e an y d e v i c e s c a n be a g r e e d u p o n f o r
th e management o f t h o s e u n i t s .
be d e t e c t e d
in th e courses of
schools of ed u ca tio n .
R e co g n itio n of t h i s need can
s t u d y c a t a l o g e d by v a r i o u s
A lm ost w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n t e a c h e r s a r e
^ J o h n D e w e y , My P e d a g o g i c C r e e d ( n . p . :
C o m pany , [ 1 9 1 0 ] , p . 2 .
F lanagan
3
r e q u i r e d t o h a v e o n e o r m o re c o u r s e s i n p s y c h o l o g y *
it
may n o t . b e p o s s i b l e
A lthough
f o r e v e r y o n e t o a c c e p t H* R u g g * s p a r ­
t i c u l a r form o f a c h i l d - c e n t e r e d
sch o o l,^ i t
is
not d iffic u lt
t o a g r e e t h a t a “ c h i l d - c e n t e r e d s c h o o l 11 i s a p r o p o s o f t h e
b e s t c u r r e n t t h i n k i n g on e d u c a t i o n a l p ro b lem s*
b eing a b i o lo g i c a l organism
w orld,
it
is
The c h i l d
s tr u g g lin g to g e t alo n g in th e
c e r t a i n l y n o t in a p p ro p ria te to b eg in c o n s id e r­
a t i o n o f t h i n g s w h i c h c o n c e r n him b y a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f h i s
b i o lo g i c a l natu re*
The b i o l o g i c a l d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r a r e
n o t i n t e n d e d a s a c o m p l e t e p h y s i o l o g i c a l e x p o s i t i o n o f hum an
behavior,
b u t,
rath er,
as s u g g e s tiv e of th e v a lu e s such an
e x p o s i t i o n w ould h a v e f o r e d u c a ti o n *
A p a r t i c u l a r phase o f
b i o l o g y w i l l be d e v e lo p e d f o r t h e p u rp o s e o f show ing t h a t
s c h o o l s a r e one a s p e c t o f t h e o r g a n is m * s e n v i r o n m e n t ,
th at,
as such,
t h e y m ust be g u id e d by th e
and
sa me r u l e s o f
o r g a n i s m i c b e h a v i o r w hich c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e o rg a n is m i n a l l
its. in te ra c tio n s
w ith i t s
surroundings*
An e f f o r t w i l l b e
m ad e t o show t h a t s o c i a l b e h a v i o r ,
a s t h a t te rm i s most
u su ally
d i f f e r e n t from o t h e r b e ­
h avior*
d ica te
em ployed,
is not b asically
In c o n n e c tio n w ith
th is,
it
w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o i n ­
t h a t t h e human, o r any o t h e r ,
o rg a n is m c a n n o t be f u l l y
^ H a r o l d R ug g a n d Ann S h u m a k e r , The C h i l d - C e n t e r e d
S c h o o l (New Y o r k : W o r l d Book Co m pan y, 1 9 2 8 ) *
4
u n d e r s t o o d th ro u g h p a r t i a l a n a l y s e s w hich c o n c e rn th e m s e lv e s
w ith l im i te d f i e l d s
su ch a s s o c io lo g y o r psychology*
The
human o r g a n i s m m ust be c o n c e i v e d a s a n i n t e g r a t e d w h o le i f a
pro p er und erstan d in g of i t s
C o n sequently,
fu n ctio n in g
i s to be ach iev ed *
some s p a c e w i l l b e d e v o t e d t o a n a n a l y s i s
of the
b io lo g ic a l n atu re of in te g ra tio n .
The b i o l o g i c a l v i e w p o i n t h e l d i n t h i s p a p e r i s
tia lly
the
same a s t h a t h e l d b y C. M* C h i l d ,
G-. E . C o g h i l l , 5 G* H* M e a d , 6 a n d o t h e r s .
seems t h a t u n u s u a l r e l i a n c e
let
i t be r e a l i z e d t h a t t h i s
oth er sin g le
in d iv id u a l,
is
If,
J.
essen4
S. H uxley,
a t tim es,
it
b e i n g p l a c e d o n C . M* C h i l d
is in te n tio n a l.
C h ild is
More t h a n a n y
r e s p o n s i b l e f o r th e grow ing
te n d e n c y to e x p l a i n s o c i a l b e h a v io r i n p h y s i o l o g i c a l term s*
K i m b a l l Young h a s r e l i e d
work o f t h a t s e c t i o n
on C h i l d f s f i n d i n g s f o r t h e g ro u n d ­
of h is
famous w o rk , S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y »
w hich d e a l s w ith t h e p sy c h o lo g y o f i n d i v i d u a l b e h a v io r *
7
3 C h a r l e s Manning C h i l d , P h y s i o l o g i c a l F o u n d a t i o n s o f
B e h a v i o r (New Y o r k : H e n r y H o l t a n d C o m p any , 1 9 2 4 ) •
4 J.
D ial P re s s ,
S . H u x l e y , P r o b l e m s o f R e l a t i v e G r o w t h (New Y o r k :
1931)*
5 G. E . C o g h i l l , A n a to m y a n d t h e P r o b l e m o f B e h a v i o r
(L ondon: C am bridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 2 8 )•
^ G e o r g e H. Mead, " S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y a s C o u n t e r p a r t t o
P h y s i o l o g i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , ,f The P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n . VI
(Decem ber, 1 9 0 2 ), 401-408*
^ K im b a ll Young, S o c i a l P s y c h o lo g y
C r o f t s a n d C o m p an y, 1 9 3 0 T i
(New Y o r k : F .
S.
The C o m m i t t e e o n t h e R e l a t i o n o f E m o t i o n t o
th e E du cative
P ro c ess in t h e i r report® fin d s i t n e c e ssa ry to use h i s f in d ­
in g s to
ex p lain c e r ta in p o rtio n s of i t s
p h y sio lo g ical b asis
r e n d itio n of the
Q
of a f f e c t.
R . ML O g d e n a n d F . S . F r e e m a n 17
u s e th e f i n d i n g s o f C o g h i l l and C h i ld a s th e b a s i c d a t a f o r
t h e i r c h a p t e r d e a l i n g w ith r e f l e x e s and h a b i t f o r m a tio n .
W. I .
Thomas,
the em inent s o c i o l o g i s t ,
se lec t a b io lo g ist
to c o n trib u te
of th e u n c o n scio u s,
w h en r e q u e s t e d t o
t o a symposium on t h e n a t u r e
s e l e c t e d C h ild to p r e s e n t th e s e b a s i c
c o n c e p ts w hich he d i d u n d e r th e t i t l e ,
U n ity and O rder i n L iv in g
T h in g s .
“ The B e g i n n i n g o f
” 1^ The sa m e m a t e r i a l was
i n c l u d e d by R. H. W h ee le r i n h i s R e a d in g s i n P s y c h o l o g y
It
is
in te restin g
to n o te a ls o
at
t h e sa me b i o l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f l a n g u a g e a s t h a t
expounded by C h i l d .
t h a t Oswald S p e n g l e r a r r i v e d
12
The w o r k d o n e b y C h i l d r e p r e s e n t s a l i f e t i m e o f r e 0 D a n i e l A l f r e d P r e s c o t t , c h a i r m a n , E m o t i o n a n d The
E d u c a t i v e P r o c e s s ( W a s h i n g t o n : A m e r i c a n C o u n c i l on E d u c a t i o n ,
1 9 3 8 ) , pp. 5 4 -5 5 .'
9 R o b e r t M o r r i s Ogden a n d F r a n k S . F re e m a n , P s y c h o l o g y
a n d E d u c a t i o n (New Y o rk:: H a r c o u r t , B r a c e a n d C o m p a n y , 1 9 3 2 ) 7
Ch. I I .
^ C. M. C h i l d , a n d O t h e r s , The U n c o n s c i o u s , A Sym posiu m
(New Y o r k :: A l f r e d A. K n o p f , 1 9 2 9 ) .
York:
H Raymond H o l d e n W h e e l e r , R e a d i n g s i n P s y c h o l o g y
Thomas Y. C r o w e l l Com pany, 1 9 3 0 ) .
12 O s w a l d S p e n g l e r , D e c l i n e o f t h e W e s t (New Y o r k s
A l f r e d A. K n o p f , 1 9 3 4 ) .
(New
6
s e a r c h e f f o r t s a c c l a i m e d by z o o l o g i s t s t h e w o r ld o v e r .
a d d it i o n to im p lie d a p p ro v a ls ,
such as th o se c it e d
s t a n d s t h e o p i n i o n o f W. E . R i t t e r
expressed in
In
above,
1919.
R i t t e r th en s ta te d :
F o r th e m ost th o ro u g h and s u s t a i n e d ex­
p e rim e n ta l in v e s ti g a t i o n of th e prim ary in ­
t e g r a t i v e p r o c e s s e s i n grow ing o rg an ism s
t h a t h a s b e e n made, b i o l o g y i s i n d e b t e d to
C. M. C h i l d .
I n tw o r e c e n t v o l u m e s h e h a s
summed u p a n d s y s t e m a t i z e d t h e e l a b o r a t e r e ­
s e a r c h e s p r o s e c u t e d by him i n t h i s f i e l d a l ­
m ost e x c l u s i v e l y f o r f i f t e e n y e a r s . ^
When o n e r e a l i z e s t h e p r a i s e
u p o n t h e work o f C h i l d ,
work i s
lativ e
it
which h a s b e e n b e sto w e d
i s astounding to d isc o v er t h a t h is
seldom m e n tio n e d i n p e d a g o g ic c i r c l e s . .
The d a t a r e ­
to th e b i o l o g i c a l n a t u r e of th e i n d i v i d u a l a r e p r e ­
s e n t e d , n o t b e c a u s e t h e y a r e t h e work o f a g r e a t z o o l o g i s t ,
b u t b ecau se they have s i g n i f ic a n c e
n o t been reco g n ized .
f o r e d u c a ti o n w hich h a s
I n so d o in g i t
i s h o p e d some s m a l l
c o n t r i b u t i o n w i l l b e made t o w a r d f i l l i n g
a l backg ro u n d w hich J .
a gap i n o u r e d u c a ti o n ­
C. J o h n s o n p e r c e i v e d when h e s a i d ,
I t h a s lo n g b e en r e c o g n i z e d by e d u c a to r s ;
and b i o l o g i s t s t h a t c e r t a i n w e ll e s t a b l i s h e d
f a c t s , p r i n c i p l e s , a n d l a w s may s e r v e a s a
background f o r th e u n d e rs ta n d in g of th e c h ild
a n d a s a b a s i s f o r t h e s o l u t i o n o f many t e a c h ­
in g problem s.
U n t i l v ery r e c e n t l y , how ever,
no o ne h a s a t t e m p t e d t o c o l l e c t , s e l e c t , i n t e r ­
p r e t , and o r g a n i z e t h e s e f a c t s and law s i n
w i l l i a m E m e r s o n R i t t e r , The U n i t y o f t h e O r g a n i s m
( B o s t o n : R i c h a r d U. B a d g e r , 1 9 1 9 ) , p p . 1 0 7 - 1 0 8 .
The tw o
v olum es by C h i l d to w hich R i t t e r r e f e r s a r e S e n e s c e n c e and
R e ju v e n e s c e n c e , (1 9 1 5 a ), and I n d i v i d u a l i t y i n O rganism s,
(1915b).
b o o k f o r m * 14
U n f o r t u n a t e l y , J o h n s o n 1s b o o k r e d u c e s i t s e l f
a t e a c h e r ’s m anual i n b i o l o g y and n o t ,
as i t s
l a r g e ly to
preface in d ic ate s
t o an e v a l u a t i o n o f b i o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r e d u c a tio n *
a c e r ta in sense, th a t
In
i s a la rg e p a r t of what t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n
i s a t t e m p t i n g t o do*
F o l l o w i n g t h e b i o l o g i c a l b a c k g r o u n d , a n e f f o r t w i l l be
made i n C h a p t e r I I I
n atu re
to d e s c r ib e i n b road term s th e g e n e r a l
of c u rr e n t pedagogic p r a c t i c e s ,
erence to b io lo g ic a l
co n sid eratio n s*
p a r t i c u l a r l y w ith r e f ­
C u r r e n t demands f o r
e d u c a t i o n a l r e fo rm w i l l be exam ined i n an e f f o r t to
m ost s u g g e s tio n s
classroom *
It
show t h a t
recommend a g r e a t e r s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f t h e
w i l l be p o in te d o u t i n t h i s
any s o c i a l i z i n g p r o c e s s i n e v i t a b l y
s i s on sp e e c h te c h n iq u e s * .
co n n ectio n t h a t
l e a d s t o a g r e a t e r empha­
A long w i t h a l l t h i s ,
an e f f o r t w ill
b e made t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e
s i z i n g w r i t t e n and s i l e n t p ro c e d u re s i s
to th e d e v e lo p in g organism *
In th is
a p o sitiv e
way i t
o f empha­
d etrim en t
w i l l b e shown
-
t h a t th e tr e n d s i n e d u c a tio n a re tow ard a g r e a t e r u se of
sp e e c h te c h n iq u e s and t h a t such t r e n d s a r e j u s t i f i e d
on
l o g i c a l and b i o l o g i c a l grounds*
C h a p t e r IV w i l l be d e v o te d t o
ita tiv e
an e x a m in a tio n o f a u th o r ­
o p i n i o n s w i t h t h e v ie w o f m ak in g more c l e a r j u s t w hat
A4 J a m e s G* J o h n s o n , E d u c a t i o n a l B i o l o g y
The M a c m i l l a n C o m p a n y , 1 9 3 0 ) , p* v i i *
(New Y o r k :
a
the h i s t o r i c a l a ttitu d e
to w a rd sp e ec h t r a i n i n g h a s been*
E v i d e n c e w i l l b e p r e s e n t e d t o show t h a t among c l a s s i c a l
sch o lars
it
w a s t h e g e n e r a l o p i n i o n t h a t s p e e c h was t h e n a t ­
u r a l i n t e g r a t o r o f t h e w hole o u r r ic u lu m *
w i l l th e n be g iv e n to
the
Some c o n s i d e r a t i o n s
f a c t o r s w hich p ro d u c e d ,
in th e la te
M id d le Ages and R e n a i s s a n c e , a p e r v e r s i o n o f t h i s v i e w p o i n t
resu ltin g
i n a v e ry n a rro w and unsound c o n c e p t o f th e t r u e
n a tu re of speech t r a i n i n g .
F i n a l l y , more r e c e n t c r i t i c a l
o p i n i o n w i l l be a n a l y z e d t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t c u r r e n t r e c o n ­
sid e ratio n s
r e t u r n to
in th e
of th e
the
c l a s s i c a l view point have r e s u l t e d
in a
e a r l i e r p o s itio n re g a rd in g th e p la c e of speech
ed u cativ e p ro c e s s , but th a t p ro p er a p p lic a tio n of
t h e s e i d e a s h a s b e e n i n h i b i t e d by t h e d o m in a t in g i n f l u e n c e
of s u b je c t- m a tte r in c u rr e n t e d u c a tio n a l p h ilo so p h ies*
The i n t e n t i o n o f t h e s e t h r e e c h a p t e r s i s
to o u tlin e
i n some d e t a i l t h r e e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f e v i d e n c e , a l l
i n g on th e
same p r o b l e m , a n d t o
show t h e i r
bear­
e s s e n tia l agree­
m e n t t h a t some s o r t o f o r a l l a n g u a g e o r s p e e c h t e c h n i q u e s ;
would be t h e m ost e f f i c i e n t t e c h n i q u e s f o r e d u c a t i o n *
fu rth er
su p p o rt of such a c o n c lu s io n ,
o f e v id e n c e w i l l be exam ined.
dence on th e r e l a t i v e
F irst,
In
th re e a d d itio n a l types
the
experim ental e v i­
e f f e c t i v e n e s s of v i s u a l and a u d ito r y
s t i m u l i w i l l b e c o n s i d e r e d i n C h a p t e r V t o show t h a t t h e
e v id e n c e seem s t o f a v o r a u d i t o r y
stim u li.
Second, th e
r e l a t i o n o f s p e e c h work t o p e r s o n a l i t y i n t e g r a t i o n w i l l be
9
c o n s i d e r e d i n C h a p t e r VI t o show t h a t t h e
p a r ts of the
sa me p r o c e s s *
T h ird ,
two a r e i n s e p a r a b l e
th e few e x p e r im e n ts r e ­
p o r t e d on a c t u a l a t t e m p t s t o a p p l y o r a l t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s
i n c o n t r o l l e d s i t u a t i o n s w i l l be r e v ie w e d i n C h a p te r VII*
I t w i l l b e sh o w n t h a t ,
w ith o u t ex cep tio n ,
im e n te rs found a s u p e r i o r i t y
in C hapter V I I I ,
the v a rio u s exper­
i n th e o r a l m ethod. F i n a l l y ,
a n e f f o r t w i l l b e made t o s u m m a r i z e t h e m a j o r
c o n c l u s i o n s o f e a c h c h a p t e r a n d , by s h o w i n g h ow t h e y a r e
r e l a t e d to
each o th e r , d e m o n stra te th a t th e m ost e f f e c t i v e
e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s w o u l d b e t h o s e w h i c h make t h e f u l l e s t
use of speech te c h n iq u e s .
In essence,
scattered ,
a basic
t h i s .d i s s e r t a t i o n a tte m p ts to
and h e r e t o f o r e u n r e l a t e d ,
b io lo g ic a l p h ilo so p h y .
syn th esize
l i n e s o f ev id en ce about
The c o n t r i b u t i o n
lie s
in the
d e m o n s tra tio n o f an e s s e n t i a l u n i t y o f a p p a r e n t l y d i s s i m i l a r
co n cep ts.
In th is
respect i t
i n sp e e c h and e d u c a tio n *
th is paper r e s ts
was b e g u n .
to be th e
d iffers
N a tu ra lly the
e v id e n c e on w hich
was a l r e a d y i n e x i s t e n c e when t h i s
The c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h i s
ev id en ce i t s e l f ,
c l u s i o n c o m p e l l e d by t h a t
pounded in th e
from p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s
paper
work i s n o t i n t e n d e d
b u t th e d e m o n s tra tio n of a con­
ev id en ce, y e t n o t h e r e to f o r e
ex­
literatu re*
Among t h e t h e s e s l i s t e d b y F r a n k l i n K no w er
th ere
^ F r a n k l i n K n o w e r , 11G r a d u a t e T h e s e s - An I n d e x o f
G r a d u a t e Work i n t h e F i e l d o f S p e e c h , ” S p e e c h M o n o g r a p h s ,
II-V I (1935-1939).
10
a r e none w hich a tt e m p t to s y n t h e s i z e th e f i n d i n g s o f b i o lo g y ,
rh eto ric,
by t h i s
and e d u c a ti o n a l p h ilo s o p h y i n th e m anner a tte m p te d
paper.
the f i e l d
The f i n d i n g s o f C h i l d ,
C o g h ill,
and o t h e r s
in
o f b i o lo g y a r e w o rld fam ous, y e t no r e c o r d s w h ich
h a v e b e e n exam ined i n d i c a t e
t h a t a n y e f f o r t h a s b e e n made by
any p e rs o n in sp eech o r e d u c a tio n to c o n s id e r th e
sig n ifican ce
of th e ir
fin d in g s
th esis
k no w n t o
th e w orld b e fo re th e N a tio n a l A s s o c ia t io n of T ea ch e rs
for speech.
o f S p e e c h was f o u n d e d ,
m e n t i o n by J .
but h is
D r . C h i l d made h i s
work r e c e i v e s n o t e v e n p a s s i n g
1A
M. 0 * N e i l l a n d A. T . W e a v e r , ° J o n E i s e n s o n
m en tio n s C o g h i l l once and C h ild n o t a t a l l .
17
G. W. G r a y a n d
*1 Q
C. M. Wise-*title ,
ignore b o th ,
i n s p i t e o f the f a c t t h a t t h e i r
The B a s e s o f S p e e c h , w o u l d seem t o i n d i c a t e a n e c e s s i t y
o f r e l y i n g o n two o f t h e
le a d in g p h y s io lo g is ts of our tim e.
E l w o o d M u r r a y * s much l a u d e d b o o k
19
co n tain s not a s in g le
re f e r e n c e to any p h y s i o lo g is t o r n e u r o l o g i s t ,
attem p ts
to
e x p lain th e
im portance of
although i t
speech to p e r s o n a lity
/
16 J a m e s M. 0 * N e i l l a n d A n d r e w T . W e a v e r , The E l e m e n t s
o f S p e e c h ( r e v i s e d e d i t i o n j New Y o r k : L o n g m a n s , G r e e n a n d
Company, 1 9 3 0 ) .
F. S.
1^ J o n E i s e n s o n , The P s y c h o l o g y o f S p e e c h (New Y o r k :
C r o f t s a n d C om p an y , 1 9 3 8 ; , p . 46*
G i l e s W i l k e s o n G r a y a n d C l a u d e M e r t o n W i s e , The
B a s e s o f S p e e c h (New Y o r k : H a r p e r a n d B r o t h e r s , 1 9 3 4 ) .
J.
• 19 E lw o o d M u r r a y , T he S p e e c h P e r s o n a l i t y
B. L i p p i n c o t t Com pany, 1 9 3 7 ; •
(New Y o r k :
11
d evelopm ent.
R o b e r t W e s t , L ou K e n n e d y ,
l i k e w i s e g i v e no i n d i c a t i o n
m a t e r i a l o f t h e s e men.
of th e
a n d Ann a C a r r
20
of any r e l i a n c e on th e b i o l o g i c a l
O n l y L* E . T r a v i s
p *1
A shows a w a r e n e s s
s i g n i f i c a n t d a t a u n c o v e re d by C o g h ill and C h i ld ,
but
t h e s c o p e o f h i s book p r e c l u d e s a n y e f f o r t by him t o show
the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h a t m a te r ia l r e l a t i v e
to the p la c e o f
speech in th e
J.
la r g e r ed u cativ e p ro c e ss e s .
M* O ' N e i l l a n d
J a m e s M c B u r n e y ^ h a v e two p a r a g r a p h s t o u c h i n g u p o n t h e b i o ­
lo g ic a l a sp e c ts of speech,
n e s s to C la r e n c e L. M eader,
v i e w p o in t i n an y way.
f o r w h i c h t h e y s h o w some i n d e b t e d 23
bu t they f a i l
to
T his n e g l e c t to r e l a t e
estab lish ed b io lo g ic al p rin c ip le s
en larg e t h i s
c e r t a i n w ell
to speech e d u c a tio n i s n o t
p o in te d o u t h e r e i n any s p i r i t of c e n s u r e , b u t m erely to
make c l e a r
t h a t what i s
b ein g a tte m p te d i n t h i s
paper has a
c e r t a i n degree of n o v e lty .
What h a s b e e n s a i d a b o u t a u t h o r i t i e s
speech can a ls o
be s a i d ,
in th e f i e l d of
i n a n o t h e r way, a b o u t a u t h o r i t i e s
R o b e r t W e s t , L ou K e n n e d y a n d Anna C a r r , The
R e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f S p e e c h (New Y o r k : H a r p e r a n d B r o t h e r s ,
in
1937).
21
L e e E d w a r d T r a v i s , S p e e c h P a t h o l o g y (New Y o r k : D.
A p p l e t o n a n d Company, 1 9 3 1 ) , p p . 2 5 , 5 7 , 2 5 0 .
22
J a m e s M. O ' N e i l l a n d J a m e s H. M c B u r n e y , The W o r k i n g
P r i n c i p l e s o f A r g u m e n t (New York :: The M a c m i l l a n C o m pany, 1 9 3 2 ) ,
p . 270.
W a l t e r B. P i l l s b u r y , a n d C l a r e n c e L . M e a d e r , The
P s y c h o l o g y o f L a n g u a g e (New Y o r k : D. A p p l e t o n a n d Com pany,
1928), p . 1 8 „
12
the
tio n
f i e l d of edu catio n#
of b io lo g ic a l d a ta
W hile t h e r e
is
co n sid era b le
in ed u catio n al l i t e r a t u r e ,
p r a c t i c a l l y no m e n t i o n o f t h e p l a c e o f s p e e c h ,
r e l a t i o n to t h e b i o l o g i c a l d a t a ,
is
e i t h e r w ith
l i k e W# L# W r i n k l e * s
PA
T he New H i g h S c h o o l i n t h e . M a k i n g * * s p e e c h i s
speech.
th ere
o r i n any o t h e r c o n n e c tio n *
E x c e p t f o r some m o r e r e c e n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s ,
by e d u c a t o r s .
recogni­
alm ost ig n o red
L . C. M e n d e n h a l l h a s d e p l o r e d t h i s n e g l e c t o f
He h a s n o t e d t h a t :
. . .
i n th e p r e s e n t epidem ic of r e ­
e x am in a tio n and s c r u t i n y o f e d u c a tio n a l
c u r r i c u l a th e s u b je c t of speech enjoys
a b a f f l i n g im m unity.
The p e c u l i a r c o n ­
d i t i o n seems e s p e c i a l l y m arked i n c a s e s
w h e r e e f f o r t s h a v e b e e n made t o d e s i g n
se co n d a ry s c h o o l o f f e r i n g s to m eet t h e
needs of a changed s o c ia l o rd e r; fo r
m ost e d u c a t o r s n o t d i r e c t l y a s s o c i a t e d
w ith th e f i e l d o f speech a re e v id e n tly
s a t i s f i e d w ith th e p re se n t h ig h school
tr a in in g in speech a r ts .^ 5
I t appears,
th erefo re,
th at s p e c ia liz a tio n has re s u lte d
i n t h e n e g l e c t o f c e r t a i n b ro a d p r i n c i p l e s w hich n e e d to be
e x t r a c t e d from o u r m a t r i x of know ledge and a p p l i e d to p r e s e n t day e d u c a ti o n a l p ro b le m s.
In consequence of i t s
o th e r w orkers,
r e l i a n c e on t h e r e s e a r c h o f
t h e m ethods and t e c h n i q u e s o f t h i s p a p e r must
# 4 W i l l i a m L . W r i n k l e , The New H i g h S c h o o l i n t h e
. M a k i n g (New Y o r k : A m e r i c a n Book C o m pany, 1 9 3 8 ) . E s p e c i a l l y
C h a p t e r V, '’L a n g u a g e A c t i v i t i e s . ”
L a w r e n c e C. M e n d e n h a l l , ’’S p e e c h M e t h o d s — A Con­
s e r v a t i o n o f N a t u r a l I l l u s i o n s , ” E d u c a t i o n ^ LV ( M a r c h , 1 9 3 5 ) ,
4 40#
13
be t h o s e o f th e p h ilo s o p h y o f e d u c a ti o n .
b lo c k s from w hich t h i s
e stab lish ed fa c ts ,
i n the
stru c tu re
the m a te r ia ls ,
and,
w ill,
th u s,
in the
w i l l be b u i l t a r e a lr e a d y w e ll
w h a t e v e r d e f e c t s may b e f o u n d
fin al
an aly sis,
but w ith th e a r c h i t e c t .
p a p er i s approached,
the
th esis
r e a d e r look in
p r e c i s i o n w hich i s
it
The s t o n e s a n d
seems w is e t o
r e s t not w ith
As t h e b o d y o f t h e
suggest,
how ever,
every se n ten c e only f o r th e degree of
s u ite d to
it.
th at
CHAPTER I I
THE BIOLOGICAL BASES FOR SOCIALIZATION
A ll l i f e
about a l l
is
e sse n tia lly
a lik e#
The s t a r t l i n g
th in g
s p e c i e s i s n o t s o much t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s a s t h e i r
lik en esses.
It
is
sta rtlin g
to r e a l i z e ,
as K a rl Gegenbaur d e m o n stra te d in
u n fertiliz ed
f o r exam ple,
th at,
1861, a l l u n i n c u b a t e d and
eggs o f v e r t e b r a t e s a s w e ll a s o t h e r a n im a ls ,
r e g a r d l e s s of s i z e and c o n d i t i o n ,
The s i m i l a r i t y
of a l l v e r t e b r a t e
s ta g e s of developm ent i s
are a c tu a lly
sin g le c e lls .
embryos i n t h e i r
strik in g #
e arlie st
F o r exam ple, t h e
first
s t a g e o f em bryonic dev elo p m en t i n such w id e ly d i f f e r i n g
s p e c ie s as the
fish ,
salam ander,
to rto ise ,
ch ick , hog,
a n d hu m an a p p e a r s so n e a r l y a l i k e
b io lo g ist is
alik e#
It,
th ere fo re ,
a ll
seems a d v i s a b l e
liv in g
them#'*'
At
th in g s are
to b eg in th e s e b io ­
lo g ic a l c o n s id e r a tio n s w ith a d is c u s s io n of l i f e
list
rab b it,
th a t only an ex p ert
a b le c o n f id e n tly to d i f f e r e n t i a t e
le a s t in th e ir u n ic e llu la r o rig in ,
calf,
in its
sim p-
form s#
There e x i s t i n n a tu r e
c a l l e d m a t t e r and e n e r g y .
two f a m i l i a r e n t i t i e s
These a re
the
fam ous law s o f c o n s e r v a t i o n which s t a t e
com m only
o b j e c t s o f t h e two
t h a t n e i t h e r can be
-*■ S e e i l l u s t r a t i v e p l a t e s f r o m L u l l a n d R o m a n e s , D a r w i n
A f t e r D a r w i n a s r e p r o d u c e d i n J o h n C# J o h n s o n * s E d u c a t i o n a l
B i o l o g y (New Y o r k s The M a c m i l l a n C o m p a n y , 1 9 3 0 ) , p p . 2 3 6 - 2 3 7 .
15
c r e a t e d and n e i t h e r can be d e s t r o y e d .
The v a l i d i t y
law s and t h e i r p h i l o s o p h i c i m p l i c a t i o n s i s ,
m ajor, im p o r ta n c e to
th in g is
th e problem a t i s s u e .
th a t th ere is
do e x i s t .
stru c tu re ,
howewer, n o t o f
The i m p o r t a n t
agreem ent t h a t b o th m a tte r and en erg y
In a c e rta in
has a dual n a tu re
sense,
then,
the n a tu r a l
or,
environm ent
— one a s p e c t i n c o n c e rn e d w i t h form o r
th e o th e r w ith fo rc e o r im p u lse .
It
two a s p e c t s o f n a t u r e w h i c h t h e t e r m s s t r u c t u r e
refer;
of th ese
more e x a c t l y ,
stru ctu re
refers
or s u b s ta n c e , w hile fu n c tio n r e f e r s
t h e s e w i t h some f o r c e ,
d riv e,
to th e
to
is
to
these
and f u n c t i o n
form , m a t t e r ,
in te rac tio n of
or energy c h a rg e .
Now, s t r u c t u r e a n d f u n c t i o n a r e t e r m s e q u a l l y a p p l i c a b l e
to
o r g a n i c and i n o r g a n i c
not a p e cu lia r a ttrib u te
e q u a t i o n H2 O i s
su b sta n ces.
In b r ie f ,
of liv in g m a te ria ls .
fu n ctio n is
The c h e m i c a l
sy m bolic o f in o r g a n ic f u n c t i o n i n g .
co u p led w ith an a c c e p ta n c e of th e
T h is,
t h e o r y o f e v o l u t i o n , has.
p ro v id e d C h ild w ith th e b a s i s f o r th e b e l i e f
th at:
. . .
t h e l i v i n g m ust have a r i s e n from th e
l i f e l e s s and t h a t th e fu n d a m e n ta l law s g o v e rn ­
in g b o t h a r e th e sam e.^
A c c e p tin g th e p o s i t i o n ta k e n by C h i ld ,
th e problem o f
ex p la in in g l i f e
becom es somewhat s i m p l i f i e d ,
even i f n o t
n early
so lv ed .
T he i n e v i t a b l e
arise,
both o r i g i n a l l y and in th e re p ro d u c tiv e p ro c e s s ,
co n clu sio n is th a t
life
must
^ C h a r l e s M anning C h i l d , S e n e s c e n c e and R e j u v e n e s c e n c e
( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 1 6 ) , p . 13#
16
t h r o u g h some s o r t
W hile i t
is
tru e
of i n t e r a c t i o n o f energy w ith m a t t e r .
th at
energy does i n t e r a c t w ith v a rio u s sub­
sta n c e s w ith o u t producing l i f e ,
yet it is
eq u ally tru e
th at
o n ly c e r t a i n c o m b in a tio n s pro d u ce any p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s .
The e n e r g y r e l e a s e d b y a b u r n i n g f l a m e h a s o n e e f f e c t o n
asb esto s,
a n o th e r on c e l l u l o i d .
i g n i t e when s t r u c k
o n l y when s t r u c k
S im ilarly ,
on any s u r f a c e ,
on c e r t a i n
w h ile o t h e r m atches i g n i t e
surfaces.
energy w ith m a tte r p ro d u ces r e a c t i o n s ,
v aries,
c e r t a i n m atches
Each i n t e r - a c t i o n o f
v ary in g as the s i t u a t i o n
w h i c h may b e c l a s s i f i e d a s p o s i t i v e
the b a s is of observable
actio n s is
resu lts.
co m m o nly c a l l e d
L i f e comes i n t o
o r n e g a t i v e on
One o f t h e p o s i t i v e
re­
life .
b e i n g o n l y when c e r t a i n
c o n ta c t c e r t a i n su b sta n c e s under c e r t a i n
energy ch arg es
co n d itio n s.
That a l l
the c o n d itio n s su rro u n d in g t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n a re n o t f u l l y
u n d ersto o d does n o t a l t e r
th e f a c t t h a t an i n t e r a c t i o n i s
known t o b e p r e s e n t w h e n e v e r l i f e
in te rac tio n s
i n ch em ical changes.
a rises.
It
C h ild fin d s
is h is
o p in io n t h a t ;
. . .
l i f e i t s e l f c o n s is ts i n chem ical
change, n o t i n chem ical c o n s t i t u t i o n s .
The d y n a m i c p r o c e s s e s w h i c h o c c u r i n
o r g a n i s m s do n o t a n d c a n n o t c o n s t i t u t e l i f e
i n the absence of c o llo id su b s tra tu m , nor
is the c o llo id su b stratu m a li v e w ith o u t
t h e dynamic p r o c e s s e s .
But s i n c e t h e
c o l l o i d s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of th e organism a re
3 i b i d . T p« 1 5 .
these
17
a m ong t h e p r o d u c t s o f t h e d y n a m i c p r o c e s s e s ,
i t i s a lso ev id en t th a t th e p ro ce sses cannot
go o n i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y w i t h o u t p r o d u c i n g
th e c o ll o i d su bstratum *
In o th e r w ords,
n e i t h e r s tr u c tu r e n o r fu n c tio n i s co n ceiv ­
a b le ex cep t in r e l a t i o n to each o th e r * 4
I n t h e w o r d " f u n c t i o n 11 e x i s t s
a n i m p l i c a t i o n o f some­
t h i n g dynam ic, a s a g a i n s t an i m p l i c a t i o n of so m eth in g
sta tic
i n t h e word " s t r u c t u r e * "
It
is
the d if f e r e n c e
s e n s e s i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g p h y s i o l o g y fro m anatom y*
the
d i f f e r e n c e b etw een a c lo c k t h a t
is
r u n down*
T his i s
a ll
is
an a c t i v e ,
dynam ic,
is
and t h e
b y way o f s a y i n g t h a t f u n c t i o n i n g
ev er changing process*
such i n o r g a n i c m achines a s th e
lo co m o tiv e,
of l iv i n g
steam s h o v e l
but th ese a n alo g ies a re h a rd ly ad eq u ate.
T hey i g n o r e a b a s i c p h y s i o l o g i c a l f a c t ,
th at,
w hile th e s e
m achines h ad to be b u i l t b e f o r e th e y c o u ld f u n c t i o n ,
ism i s
b u ilt
thro u g h fu n c tio n in g *
c o u n terp art of fu n ctio n ,
m o tiv e o r a steam sh o v e l*
be t h a t o f a r i v e r *
d iffers
b u t t h e r e i s no grow th i n a l o c o ­
A m o re a c c e p t a b l e a n a l o g y w o u l d
The m o r p h o l o g y o f a r i v e r ,
e x h ib it c e rta in c h a ra c te ris tic
and f u n c t i o n w hich a r e
4 Ib id ..
it
is
tru e,
but a r i v e r does
r e l a t i o n s h i p s . b etw een s t r u c t u r e
com parable*
The f l o w o f w a t e r may b e
e n e rg y c h a rg e o r dynam ic p r o c e s s ,
p. 36.
an o rg a n ­
G row th i s t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l
w id e ly from t h a t o f m ost o r g a n is m s ,
c o n sid ere d as the
is
wound u p a n d o n e t h a t
Some p e o p l e h a v e l i k e n e d t h e f u n c t i o n i n g
o rganism s to
It
one
w hile the
18
r i v e r bed and banks can c o rre sp o n d to
of organism s#
but lik ew ise
its
The f l o w
is
in the
course of c e n tu rie s ,
the M is s is s ip p i
show t h i s
s t r e s s h e r e , how ever,
w ater c o n s titu te
tw o,
the
p ro p erties
of th e bed,
t h e b ed a n d b a n k s a r e a l t e r e d by t h e flow#
w here once th e s e a e x is te d #
to
stru c tu ra l
r e g u l a t e d by t h e n a t u r e
m outh a r i v e r u s u a l l y d e p o s i t s
w hich,
the
a riv er,
silt
At
and o t h e r m a t e r i a l s
resu lt
in landed a re as
The d e l t a s
o f b o th th e N ile and
co n clu siv ely #
The i m p o r t a n t t h i n g
is
t h a t n e i t h e r banks n o r a flow of
but th at
it
is
th e r e l a t i o n o f the
r e l a t i o n o f a dynamic p r o c e s s w i t h a s t r u c t u r e ,
produces a riv er#
It
is
th is
which
same p r o c e s s w h i c h p r o d u c e s a
hum an#
In th e
c a s e o f hu m an r e p r o d u c t i o n
o r z y g o t e , grow s by a s e r i e s
the f e r t i l i z e d
c e ll,
of cleav ag es s im ila r to t h a t
observable in th e rep ro d u c tio n of u n ic e llu la r c re a tu re s lik e
th e amoeba#
The n u m b e r o f c e l l s
s ix cleavages u n t i l
in c r e a s e s through f iv e o r
t h e d e v e l o p i n g embryo h a s a r r i v e d a t t h e
s t a g e known a s t h e b l a s t u l a #
At t h i s
stag e th e c e lls are
found d i s t r i b u t e d a s a ro u n d th e p e r ip h e r y of a h o llo w b a ll#
At t h i s
t i m e some s o r t o f p o l a r i z a t i o n
e v id e n c e d by an i n c r e a s e d
the
rate
r a t e o f c l e a v a g e o v e r one p a r t o f
su rfa c e , of the b l a s t u l a #
"tlie b l a s t u l a
tak es p lace as i s
It
i s n o t p o s s ib le p r io r to
s t a g e to p r e d i c t i n w hich c e l l s
th is
in creased
of c le a v a g e w i l l ta k e p la c e and i t m ust be t h e r e f o r e
concluded t h a t th e i n t r a u t e r i n e
environm ent p l a y s a l a r g e
19
part
in such a d eterm in atio n * .
th is
d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n cleav ag e r a t e s ,
p la c e pro d u cin g
g a stru la *
the
In any c a s e ,
an i n v a g i n a t i o n ta k e s
s t a g e o f d e v e lo p m e n t known a s t h e
The s h a p e now r e s e m b l e s a h o l l o w r u b b e r b a l l w h i c h
h a s been p u n c tu re d to r e l e a s e
thumb on one s i d e *
At t h i s
o n one s i d e a n d a d o u b l e
on t h e o t h e r *
t h e a i r a n d p r e s s e d i n by t h e
sta g e the
embryo h a s a n o p e n i n g
la y e r of c e lls
As c l e a v a g e
co n tin u es,
s e p a r a t e d by a c a v i t y
a th ird
th e m esoderm , d e v e lo p s betw een th e o u t e r
and th e
as a r e s u lt of
in n er lay er,
th e
endoderm *
la y e r of c e l ls ,
lay er,
From t h i s
the
s t a g e on i t
obvious t h a t
th e environm ent of th e v a rio u s c e l l s
in cre asin g ly
varied*
c irc u m sta n ce th a t
Probably i t
is
w i l l become
i s w ith t h i s
th a t organogeny, or d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of organs,
th at d if f e r e n tia tio n
is
as a consequence of t h i s
em b ry o lo g ists b e lie v e i t
R e c o n s id e ra tio n of t h i s
ectoderm ,
stag e
com m ences*
em bryonic p r o c e s s w i l l r e v e a l
of s t r u c t u r e
comes a b o u t a s t h e d i r e c t
r e s u l t o f th e norm al p ro c e ss of c e l l
l i f e known a s r e p r o d u c ­
tio n *
such s t r u c t u r e s as
It
h as been d em o n strated t h a t
nervous t is s u e
from t h e
the
and th e
ectoderm , th a t
lungs,
b ile
d u cts,
d ev elo p ed , w hile
v essels,
kidneys,
th e m esoderm *
tia tio n s,
lin in g
o f t h e m outh a n d a n u s a r i s e
from th e endoderm su ch s t r u c t u r e s
and t h e
in n er alim en tary
th e i n t e r n a l s k e le to n , m u scles,
as
canal are
h eart,
blood
and c e r t a i n o t h e r o r g a n s a r e p r o d u c t s o f
Two d e f i n i t e
fu n ctio n s forced th ese d if f e r e n ­
th e tendency of th e
c e l l s to
d iv id e
and t h e te n d e n c y
so
f o r them t o k e e p t h e i r
protoplasm
continuous*
C onsider th e
consequences of com plete s e p a r a tio n of p ro to p lasm fo llo w in g
th e f i r s t
d iv isio n *
The r e s u l t w o u l d ,
of co u rse,
t w i n s , b u t t h e p o i n t w h i c h i s b e i n g made h e r e
th e in v ag in atio n sta g e ,
at
the s ix t y - f o u r c e l l
tw en ty -eig h t c e lls
sin g le
cell
stag e,
six th
w ould be t h e
ru p lets,
and th e o t h e r
The p o i n t i s
be an i n n a t e p r e d i s p o s i t i o n ,
I t m ig h t be s a i d t h a t ,
th e
th at
as to
it
it
is
b u t,
n o t t h e number
s h a l l we s a y ,
The f o r m e r w o u l d
is
as a r e s u lt
env iro n m en tal*
of th e re p ro d u c tiv e
in a p ro to p lasm ic u n ity ,
subsequent c e lls
b e c o m e s so a l t e r e d
and d e te rm in e t h e i r su b s e q u e n t f u n c tio n in g *
r e a c t i o n to
can be se e n t h a t
o f the
quad­
f o r c e them t o u n d e r g o s t r u c t u r a l a d j u s t m e n t s w h ich i n
tu rn r e s t r i c t
L fe i s
the l a t t e r
bound t o g e t h e r
environm ent o f th e
illu stra tio n
w ith t r i p l e t s ,
cro w d in g of c e l l s w hich p ro d u ce s i t *
fu n ctio n of c e lls
case of a
c a s e t h e d i f f e r e n c e w ould be c o r ­
o f c l e a v a g e s w hich c a u s e s i n v a g i n a t i o n ,
the
I n the
c le av a g e w hereas in th e case of
seventh c le a v a g e ,
resp o n d in g ly g re a te r*
at
t h e r e w ould be one h u n d re d
the in v a g in a tio n sta g e i n t h i s
tw in s i t
th at,
assum ing i n v a g i n a t i o n to t a k e p l a c e
in stea d of six ty -fo u r*
w ould b e g i n w i t h t h e
is
be i d e n t i c a l
environm ent.
c ell
I n t h e human o r g a n i s m , t h e n ,
rep ro d u ctio n
in c re a s e s the
com plexity
e n v iro n m e n t to a p o i n t where t h e e n v iro n m e n t n e c e s s i t a t e s
stru c tu ra l
changes*
n o t do t h i s ,
in fa c t,
The c e l l
d i v i s i o n p r o c e s s a lo n e could
ob servatio n of
l o w e r a n i m a l f o r m s shows
21
th at
it
d o e s n o t do t h i s ,
b u t,
when c o u p l e d w i t h a t e n d e n c y
to m ain tain p ro to p lasm ic c o n tin u ity ,
ita te s
stru c tu ra l
o f.in te ra c tin g
D iffere n tia tio n
changes.
the
in teractio n necess­
D iffere n tia tio n ,
then,
f o r c e s and one o f t h e s e f o r c e s i s
d ep en d s on c o n d i t i o n s *
is
a resu lt
environm ent*
H. S . J e n n i n g s d o e s
n o t s e e t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e a d u l t i n t h e g e rm p l a s m .
I n 1924 he s t a t e d :
The c h a r a c t e r s o f t h e a d u l t a r e n o m o r e
p r e s e n t i n t h e germ c e l l s t h a n i s t h e a u t o ­
m o b ile i n th e m e t a l l i c o r e s o u t o f w hich
i t i s u ltim a te ly m anufactured.
To g e t t h e
com plete, n o rm ally a c tin g organism , th e
p ro p er m a te ria ls a re e s s e n tia l; but eq u ally
e s s e n t i a l i s i t t h a t th ey sh o u ld i n t e r a c t
p r o p e r l y w ith one a n o t h e r and w ith o t h e r
th in g s.
And t h e way t h e y i n t e r a c t a n d w h a t
t h e y p r o d u c e d e p e n d s on t h e c o n d i t i o n s . 5
S ince c o n d itio n s ,
change,
it
o r the
becomes n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s i d e r t h e d e v elo p m e n t o f
th e organism th ro u g h th e s e
a s grow th.
cy cle.
It
environm ent o f th e o rg an ism ,
changes♦
The w h o l e p r o c e s s
T his i s
g e n e r a l l y k no w n
o f g ro w th i s known a s t h e l i f e
c o n s i s t s o f tw o f e a t u r e s kn o w n a s s e n e s c e n c e a n d
reju v en escen ce.
s ta rtin g p o in t,
The n o r m a l e n d o f t h e l i f e
rep ro d u ctio n .
consequence of l iv i n g i s
cycle i s
its
T hat d e a th i s n o t an i n h e r e n t
a b u n d a n t l y p r o v e d by t h e b i l l i o n s
o f m ic r o s c o p ic o rg an ism s w hich n e v e r d i e ,
b u t m erely d i v i d e .
H. S . J e n n i n g s , ^ H e r e d i t y a n d E n v i r o n m e n t , H S c i e n t i f i c
M o n t h l y , XIX ( 1 9 2 4 ) , 2 3 0 .
2a
U n l i k e t h e more c o m p le x o r g a n i s m s ,
th e amoeba n e v e r d i e s ;
n a tu ra lly
in rep ro d u ctio n .
its
p lic atio n s
ex isten ce
term in a tes
o f t h e s e f a c t s w i l l become m ore e v i d e n t i f
rep ro d u ctiv e process is
F e rtiliza tio n
the
is
the
r e s u l t o f t h e u n i o n o f tw o c e l l s ,
As b e t w e e n t h e s e t w o ,
t h e more h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d .
It
n o t p r e s e n t i n t h e ovum a n d i t
appendage f o r use
in
s e lf - lo c o r a o tiv e pow er.
grow ing w hereas th e
the
again co n sid ered .
s p e r m a n d t h e o vu m .
lik e
The im­
the
sperm i s
e x h ib its a d e fin ite
is
p o larity
eq u ip p ed w ith a f l a g e l l a t e -
l o c o m o t i o n w h i l e t h e ovum h a s n o
F urtherm ore,
ovum h a s n o t .
c o n c l u s i o n t h a t th e sperm i s
the
sperm h a s c e a s e d
These f a c t s
im pel th e
the c o m p a ra tiv e ly o ld e r c e l l .
C o n sid e ratio n of the a c tu a l f e r t i li z a t io n ! p ro cess also
p o rts
th is
view .
When t h e
tia tio n
s p e r m e n t e r s t h e ovum, a p r o c e s s
e n s u e s i n w hat was t h e
and g r a d u a l ly ta k e s
n u cleu s.
on t h e
Such a p r o c e s s
sperm .
and n e a r l y a l l
b io lo g is ts agree th a t i t
grow th i s
th at
its
flag ellu m
of an o rd in ary
re­
t h e accom panim ent o f s e n e s c e n c e ,
A ccording to C h ild ,
of d if f e r e n tia tio n tak es p lac e,
p lace,
lo ses
of d e d iffe re n ­
of d e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n c o n s t i t u t e s
If
reju v en escence.
It
ch aracteristics
juvenescence.
is
sup­
is,
th en th e o p p o site
i n grow th a p ro c e s s
when d e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n t a k e s
i s known a s r e j u v e n e s c e n c e .
Says he:
. . .
sen escen ce i s p r im a rily a de­
c r e a s e i n r a t e o f dynam ic p r o c e s s e s co n ­
d i t i o n e d by t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n , d i f f e r e n -
23
t i a t i o n , and o t h e r a s s o c i a t e d c h a n g e s o f
th e m a te ria l of th e c o llo id su b stra tu m .
R e ju v e n esce n ce i s an in c r e a s e i n th e r a t e
o f dynam ic p r o c e s s e s c o n d i t i o n e d by t h e
changes in th e c o llo id su b stratu m in r e ­
d u c ti o n and d e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n .
Senescence i s th e n a n e c e s s a ry and i n ­
e v i t a b l e f e a t u r e o f grow th and d i f f e r e n ­
t i a t i o n , w hile re ju v e n e sc e n c e i s a s s o c ia te d
w ith r e d u c t io n and w ith th e v a r i o u s r e p r o ­
d u c t i v e p r o c e s s e s i n w h ich more o r l e s s
d i f f e r e n t i a t e d p a r t s of the org an ism u n d e r­
go d e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . 6
S ince the
cess
to
sperm d o es u n d erg o a d e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n p r o ­
fo llo w in g
in fe r th at
its
it
en tran ce
i n t o t h e ovum ,
was an o l d c e l l
re ju v e n a tin g process#
it
and t h a t i t
The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s
seem s
is
lo g ical
undergoing a
fa c t is
still
t h e p o s i t i o n t a k e n was t h a t l i f e
arose
to be c o n s id e r e d .
At t h e o u t s e t
from an i n t e r a c t i o n
e n tity .
I t was a l s o
nor d estro y ed .
latio n
of an e n e rg iz in g f o r c e w ith a m a t e r i a l
agreed th a t
e n e r g y was n e i t h e r c r e a t e d
I t now b e c o m e s n e c e s s a r y tro c o n s i d e r t h e r e ­
of th e s e f a c t s
to
the p ro cess of f e r t i l i z a t i o n .
I n th e words o f Jo h n so n ,
through:
The f e r t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e e g g b y t h e s p e r m
cell . . .
a phy sico -ch em ical stim u lu s i s
g iv e n to th e egg, c a u s in g i t to c o n tin u e i t s
i n t e r r u p t e d developm ent » • . • 7
h C h ild ,
op. c i t . , pp.
7 Johnson,
o£ .
c i t .,
58-59.
p .. 2 1 5 .
24
T his i s
o n e way o f s a y i n g t h a t a n e n e r g i z i n g
r e le a s e d w ith in the
p a ttern
in to
egg p u t t i n g i t s
o p eratio n .
to m a tte r r e s u ltin g
S ince i t
In sh o rt,
in fu n ctio n .
left
is
to
Whence came t h i s
suppose t h a t
process; of reju v en escen ce
p ro to p la sm ic behavior
energy h a s been im p arted
is not co n sid ered p o ssib le
a lte rn a tiv e
fo rc e has been
to c re a te
it
energy^
energy, th e o n ly
was r e l e a s e d b y t h e
in th e sperm .
At l e a s t i t
is
w ell
k now n t h a t g r o w t h b y c l e a v a g e n e v e r t a k e s p l a c e u n t i l a f t e r
th is
d e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f t h e sperm h a s b e e n c o m p l e t e d .
For convenience i t
now c a n b e s a i d t h a t
sperm r e p r e s e n t s t h e e n e rg y
ch aracteristics,
facto r,
in f e r tiliz a tio n
p lu s,
w h i l e t h e ovum r e p r e s e n t s
it
is
the
tru e,
the
m aterial
su b stan tiv e
o r s t r u c t u r a l f a c t o r w ith grow th e v e n t u a t i n g a s t h e
fu n ctio n al
r e s u l t of the in te r a c tio n ..
to con­
I t now b e c o m e s p o s s i b l e
s i d e r c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f t h e human l i f e
to
th is
cy cle w ith re fe re n c e
energy flo w .
It
i s u s u a l to d i v id e l i f e
a s em bryonic,
infancy,
in to
s e v e r a l p h a s e s known
y o u th , m iddle l i f e ,
and o ld a g e .
Even
though t h e s e a re n o t a l t o g e t h e r c a p a b le o f e x a c t d e f i n i t i o n ,
th ey w ill s u f f i c e
for illu s tra tiv e
o f e a r l y em bryonic dev elopm ent th e
d iv id u al is u tiliz e d
energy i s
u tiliz e d
e n tire
D uring th e p e r i o d
energy o f th e in ­
fo r rep ro d u ctiv e purposes,
i n m a k in g more c e l l s .
i t m ight be s a i d t h a t
z y g o te and b l a s t u l a
purposes.
is
the
th at
is,
In a c e r ta in
f u n c tio n o f such form s as th e
e n t i r e l y one o f grow th.
the
sense
85
Follow ing th e
embryo i s
in v ag in atin g p ro cess,
the d e v elo p in g
c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a t e n d e n c y to w a r d an i n c r e a s i n g
com plexity o f in c r e a s in g ly d i f f e r e n t i a t e d
b eg in n in g s of t h i s
c e lls.
W ith t h e
d if f e r e n tia tio n process th e c e l ls
ceaso
to be c o n c e rn e d e n t i r e l y w ith grow th and b e g in t o d e v o te
co n sid erab le
energy to o th e r p u rp o s e s .
developm ent of th e p l a c e n t a
em bryo. T h is t i s s u e
g ettin g process.
is
F or exam ple,
some t i s s u e
sp ecialized
is
in th e
s u p p l i e d by t h e
to a s s i s t in the
food
T h i s h a s become n e c e s s a r y b e c a u s e o f a n
environm ental change.
The o r i g i n a l
f o o d s u p p l y o f t h e egg
h a s b e e n a b s o r b e d a n d a new s o u r c e o f n o u r i s h m e n t m u s t b e
secured.
c ells
F u rth er,
su b seq u e n t to th e b l a s t u l a s ta g e ,
become s e p a r a t e d by o t h e r l a y e r s o f
p o t e n t i a l s o u rc e s o f food s u p p ly .
n e c e s s i t a t e d t o meet t h e s e
c ells
some
from a l l
H e n c e ,sp e c ia liz a tio n i s
changed c o n d it i o n s .
Soon t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e o r g a n i s m w i l l h a v e become
so g r e a t t h a t t h e
lymph b e tw e e n t h e
c e l l s w i l l no l o n g e r be
a d e q u a te f o r th e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f fo o d and th e ru d im e n ts o f
a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system w i l l b e g in to a p p e a r .
o bserve t h a t as each s p e c ia liz e d c e l l
b e g in s to
t h e c e l l s now h a v e o t h e r f u n c t i o n s
th e f u n c t i o n s o f grow th and r e p r o d u c t i o n .
d ev elo p in g fu n c tio n s a r i s e
easy to
becomes c o m p le te i t
engage i n f u n c t i o n s w hich a r e p e c u l i a r to
o th e r w ords,
to
I t is
because of th e
it.
In
in a d d itio n ,
A ll t h e s e new ly
changed c o n d itio n s
c r e a t e d by t h e g r o w in g c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e o r g a n is m an d a l l
of
26
t h e s e new ly d e v e lo p in g f u n c t i o n s
k eeping the
w hole o r g a n is m
T his p ro c e s s
se rv e th e
in teg rated .
c o n tin u e s throughout th e
o f d e v e lo p m e n t and e v e n somewhat b e y o n d .
th e m ost n o t i c e a b l e
is
to
say,
is
one o f g ro w th .
fu n c tio n of th e
a ll
c e n te r e d around th e v i t a l
of th e
c ells
and e l i m i n a t i o n ,
in d iv id u a l c e ll,
th is in te g rativ e
the
m ainly of food
from th e s t a n d p o i n t
but an o th er fu n c tio n .
in d iv id u a l c e lls ,
o th er
embryo i s
sp e cia liz ed
is
In th is
clo se r e la tio n s h ip
grow th,
The d e v e l o p ­
sense
su b o rd in atio n
betw een
At t h i s
stag e
f u n c t i o n o f one
t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of food w h ile
of the c e l l s
t h e i r fu n ctio n in g
In te g ra tio n in th is
th e
groups have d i f f e r i n g
c o n s id e rin g the r e l a t i o n s h i p
each o t h e r ,
o th er
b u t by t h e n e e d s o f t h e
a n d f u n c t i o n a g a i n becomes e v i d e n t .
group o f s p e c i a li z e d c e l l s
to
fu n ctio n in g i s
th e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of food to
c o n s id e re d as a w hole.
fu n c tio n of the
still
processes,
n ev erth eless,
o f t h e p a r t to t h e w hole t h e
stru c tu re
c e l l o r group
of s p e c i a liz e d f u n c tio n in g i s n o t determ in ed
by t h e n e e d s o f t h e
m osaic o f c e l l s
d e v e l o p i n g embryo
from th e s t a n d p o i n t o f
Wh i l e ,
life
i s n o t food g e t t i n g ,
m ent and n a tu r e
That
one s e e s th e a d d i t i o n a l f u n c t i o n i n g w hich
embryo a s a w h o le ,
g ettin g
D uring t h i s p r o c e s s
L ooking a t any s p e c i a l i z e d
h a s b een term ed i n t e g r a t i o n .
the
em bryonic p e r i o d
embryo i s g r o w t h .
the o v e r a ll p a tte r n of the
o f c e l l s , how ever,
s in g le purpose of
is
c alle d
to
fu n ctio n s,
b u t,
t h e e m b ry o a n d
in te g ratio n .
i s n o t only a f u n c tio n ,
but a
27
p a rtic u la r rela tio n sh ip
Now t o
fertiliz ed
tio n of th e
in to
r e t u r n f o r a moment t o
egg a l l
the
young c e l l s
it
e x ist.
Through
as s p e c ia liz a tio n
fu n ctio n s necessary fo r in te g ra tio n .
embryo a s a w h o le , h o w e v e r , i t
sta te
organism i s
b ein g used to
t h a t m ost,
if not a ll,
liv e r,
of the
f u r th e r grow th.
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c n o t only o f th e
The h e a r t ,
sets-
d i v e r t e d from th e r e p r o d u c t i v e f u n c t i o n
a c c u ra te to
p art.
energy
as soon as a c e l l h as m atured
As s o o n , h o w e v e r ,
one o r a n o t h e r o f th e
C o n sid erin g th e
th eir
d iv isio n
d i v i d e s , a n d i n p l a c e o f o n e o l d c e l l tw o
in ,so m e e n e rg y i s
to
In th is
in accom plishing i t s
sam e t y p e o f r e p r o d u c t i o n .
cleav ag e s ta g e s ,
su fficie n tly ,
each o t h e r .
zy g o te.
each o f w hich i n t u r n u t i l i z e
f o r c a r r y in g on th e
early
the
to
e n e r g y r e l e a s e d by t h e d e d i f f e r e n t i a ­
sperm i s u t i l i z e d
tw o c e l l s
th ese
of fu n ctio n in g u n its
ton g u e,
reasonably
energy of th e
T his grow th i s
whole o r g a n i s m ,
hands,
is
but o f every
and o t h e r p a r t s a l l
a r e grow ing and fu n d a m e n ta lly th e y a r e grow ing j u s t as th e
zygote d id ,
is
by c e l l d i v i s i o n .
Thus,
o f f s e t by t h e p ro .c e ss o f r e j u v e n e s c e n c e .
p lace,
to a la r g e
ex ten t a t le a s t,
. . .
the s u b s ti t u t io n
stra tu m o r p ro to p lasm fo r
may s e r v e i n a g r e a t e r o r
a s o u r c e o f e n e r g y and of
""
th e p ro c e s s of a g in g
""
g ■■
............—■
-° C h ild ,
o jd
.
c i t . , p.
446.
is,
..What i s
tak in g
a s C h ild d e s c rib e s
o f a new s u b ­
t h e o l d , w hich
le s s degree as
m ateria l.®
it:
28
D uring the s ta g e s o f
of the
rials#
em bryonic d e v e lo p m e n t th e
o r g a n i s m i s m a i n l y u s e d f o r t h e b u i l d i n g o f new m a t e ­
The i n t e g r a t i o n w h i c h t a k e s p l a c e i s
o f p a r t s w i t h i n a c o n t i g u o u s whole*
b ry o a s a w hole b e g in s t o u t i l i z e
has sig n ific an c e
ment#
fo r the
th e
in teg ratio n ,
Soon, how ever,
the
em­
e n e rg y i n b e h a v i o r w hich
e x te rn al,
n o n -contiguous en v iro n ­
J u s t a s e a c h s p e c i a l i z e d c e l l t o o k on f u n c t i o n s u n ­
rela te d
to
th e
s p e c i f i c grow th of t h a t
as a u n i t b eg in s to
to a s s i s t
c o rr e c t to
of grow th,
in th e grow th of th e in d iv id u a l#
say t h a t t h e s e
of the
so th e
e m b ry o
It
would be i n ­
p a tte rn s of beh av io r are u n re la te d
a l a r g e m easure, a c o n se q u e n c e
but th e consequence of the b e h av io r p a tt e r n s
th em selv es i s
It
c e ll,
p a rta k e of b e h av io r n o t designed p rim a rily
to grow th b e c a u se th e y a r e , i n
ju st
energy
is
n o t grow th#
common t o
co n sid er th a t th ese
behavior responses
i n d i v i d u a l a s a w hole h a p p e n o n ly a f t e r
im m ed iately p r i o r to
G-# E . C o g h i l l ,
9
rep o rtin g
b irth ,
b irth ,
b u t th at* i s n o t
or
th e case#
on t h e f i n d i n g s o f J# Y a n a s e ,
10
^ Gr# E# C o g h i l l , ‘'T h e E a r l y D e v e l o p m e n t o f B e h a v i o r
i n A m blystom a an d i n M an," A r c h i v e s o f N e u r o lo g y a n d
P s y c h i a t r y , XXI ( 1 9 2 9 ) , 9 8 9 - 1 0 0 9 # ( R e p r i n t e d i n Raymond
H# W h e e l e r , R e a d i n g s i n P s y c h o l o g y (New Y o r k : Thomas Y.
C r o w e l l C o m p an y , 1 9 3 0 T 7 p p # 5 3 1 - 5 4 9 #
^ J# Y a n ase, "B e i t r a g e z u r P h y s i o l o g i e d e r p e r i s t a l t i s c h e n Bewegungen d e s e m b rv o n a le n D a rm e s. " A r c h iv f u r d i e
g e s a m m t e p h y s i o l o g i e d e s m e n c h e n u n d d e r t h i e r e « CXVII ( 1 9 0 7 ) ,
345-383#
M. M i n k o w s k i ,
a fetu s
11
and o t h e r s ,
o f t w o cm. l e n g t h ,
o f f o u r cm. a n d s o on*
is
in te restin g *
p re se n ts d ata
to
show m o v e m e n t s - i n
i s o l a t e d f i n g e r m ovem ents i n one
C o g h i l l * s r e p o r t on t h e o r a l r e f l e x
He s t a t e s :
T h e e a r l i e s t o r a l r e f l e x i n man i s r e ­
p o r t e d b y M i n k o w s k i f o r a f e t u s o f 3 * 5 cm*
B ut t h e o p e n i n g an d c l o s i n g o f the- m outh i n
t h i s c a se did. n o t occur as a d i s c r e t e a c t ;
i t was a l l i e d w i t h l e g m o v e m e n t ; t h a t i s t o
say, the r e f l e x p a tte r n in v o lv ed th e neu ro ­
m o to r m echanism from t h e t r i g e m i n a l n u c l e i
to th e d i s t a l s p in a l c e n te rs *
On t h e o t h e r
h a n d , th e e a r l i e s t o p ening and c l o s i n g of
t h e m outh a s a p u r e l o c a l r e f l e x , t h a t i s ,
w ith o u t p a r t i c i p a t i o n of o th e r p a r ts , is
r e c o r d e d e x p l i c i t l y f i r s t a t 2 1 * 5 cm.
So
f a r a s my e v i d e n c e g o e s , t h e r e f o r e , t h e
o r a l m o v e m e n t s i n r e s p o n s e t o t o u c h on
o r n e a r t h e m o u t h o c c u r a t f i r s t a s a com­
p o n e n t o f a much l a r g e r p a t t e r n o f m o v e m e n t , p
and o n ly l a t e r a p p e a r as a d i s c r e t e r e f l e x .
F rom t h i s
ev id en ce i t
can be c o n c lu d e d t h a t th e
d e v e lo p in g i n d i v i d u a l b e g in s to f u n c t i o n a s a w hole p r i o r to
b irth ,
w hich i s
a n o t h e r Y?ay o f s a y i n g t h a t some e n e r g y i s
b e i n g u s e d by t h e o r g a n is m
to
ex tern al fo rc e s.
ten d e n cy to u t i l i z e
f o r a c t i v i t i e s w hich have r e l a t i o n
As g r o w t h c o n t i n u e s a n d b i r t h
energy fo r o th e r purposes
b ody t i s s u e s b e c o m es e v e r more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
ensues, t h i s
th an b u ild in g
of th e organism .
i i M. M i n k o w s k i , HR e f l e x e s e t m o u v e m e n t s d e l a t e t e a
d u t r o n c e t d e s e x t r e m i t e s , du f o e t u s h u m a in p e n d a n t l a
p r e m i e r e m o i t i e de l a g r o s s e s s e ," C om ptes r e n d u s h e b d o m a d a i r e s
d e s s e a n c e s e t m e m o i r e s S o c i e t e d e b i o l o g i e , P a r i s , LXXX III
T 1 92 0) » 1 2 0 2 f f .
30
D uring th e p e r io d of
c h ild 's
i n f a n c y a g r e a t amount o f t h e
en erg y i s u se d f o r body b u i ld i n g a c t i v i t y #
As t h e
body t i s s u e s become more f u l l y d e v e l o p e d a n i n c r e a s i n g
of energy is r e le a s e d
i n t h e form o f b e h a v i o r r e l a t e d
e x te r n a l surroundings*
has been r e a liz e d
a ll
ages.
The p r e s e n c e o f t h i s
in an u n s c ie n tif ic
C h ild re n a re r e q u ir e d to
young, but as
t h e y grow o l d e r t h i s
L ik ew ise th e h our o f r e tir e m e n t i s
th e
c h ild m atu res.
co g n izin g th a t
less
A ll t h is
o th er a c tiv ity .
due to
ten d en cy of each c e l l
o f new t i s s u e s
th a n th e breakdow n o f o ld
to
in crease
lik ew ise
the
not
T h is a g a in c o n s t i t u t e s a su b ­
t o t h e w hole, f o r i t
is
the n a t u r a l
c o n t i n u a l l y r e p r o d u c e by d i v i s i o n .
such a p ro c e s s c o n tin u e d ,
and s t r u c t u r e s .
for
energy.
a n d ,h e n c e ,a l 1 th e energy of th e in d iv id u a l i s
c o n tin u ally
as
co n stru ctio n
the fa c t t h a t th e b u ild in g
o rd in a tio n of th e p a r t
b ig g er,
pushed l a t e r and l a t e r
c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e p r e s e n c e o f an
needed fo r c e l l re p ro d u c tio n .
If
requirem ent i s abandoned.
The d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l t h r o u g h
proceeding a t a g r e a te r r a t e
tissu e s
t a k e n a p s w h en t h e y a r e
i s a n u n s c i e n t i f i c way o f r e ­
i n c r e a s in g amount of s u r p lu s
is
the
su rp lu s of-energy
t h e r e f o r e , more e n e r g y i s a v a i l a b l e
in f a n c y and c h ild h o o d i s
T his i s
to
f a s h i o n by p a r e n t s t h r o u g h
energy i s needed f o r th e
o f body t i s s u e s a n d ,
amount
how ever,
in siz e .
lungs,
I n many t h e
t h e o rg a n is m would
The h e a r t w o u l d k e e p g e t t i n g
bones,
eyes,
and o t h e r o rg a n s
r e s u l t of such a c t i v i t y
w ould be
death*
A ll c e lls
t h e same r a t e
regard
an d ,h en c e, u n r e g u la te d grow th o f a l l p a r t s w ith o u t
fo r the
d i s t o r t th e
31
i n t h e h u m a n o r g a n i s m do n o t r e p r o d u c e a t
rela tio n sh ip s
body e q u i l i b r i u m
tak es p lace in
th e y h a v e f o r each o t h e r w ould
to a f a t a l d e g re e.
T his i s
what
such m a la d ie s a s enlargem en t o f th e h e a r t and
cancer.
In can c er the
b e s t e v id e n c e seem s t o
in d ic ate
th e
a ctiv ity
o f c e l l s w h i c h h a v e somehow b e c o m e c o m p l e t e l y i n ­
d i v i d u a l i z e d i n t h e i r b e h a v i o r and a r e no l o n g e r u n d e r t h e
re stric tiv e
iza tio n .
in flu e n c e of the
It
t o ta l b o d ily p a tte rn of organ­
i s th e ach iev em en t of th e
m etam o rp h o sis w hich r e s t r i c t s
the r a te
f i n a l s t a g e o f human
o f grow th of th e
v a r io u s s t r u c t u r e s and p e rm its th e r e l e a s e o f energy f o r
o th er b eh av io r.
W ith t h e a r r i v a l
istic
of t h e com pleted grow th c h a r a c t e r ­
of th e a d u lt of the
s p e c ie s th e need f o r th e p ro d u c tio n
o f new t i s s u e h a s b e e n c o m p l e t e l y
tissu e
i s now p r o d u c e d c a n b e c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e n a t u r e
p lacem ent o r m ain ten an ce.
stag e
in th e l i f e
fo r u sin g h is
of b eh av io r.
i s w i t h t h e com ing o f t h i s
energy f o r b u ild in g o f h i s
to u se h i s
tis s u e s and,
conse­
en erg y i n o t h e r form s
F ro m t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l a s a w h o l e ,
rep resen ts
t h e p e r i o d o f maximum o p p o r t u n i t y f o r
in g w ith, r e l a t i o n
ly
It
of r e ­
c y cle t h a t the in d iv id u a l fin d s l e a s t need
q u e n tly , m ost o p p o rtu n ity
th is
e li m in a te d and w h a te v e r
to
the e x te rn a l
en viron m ent.
c a l l e d th e p e rio d of m iddle l i f e .
It
is
fu n ctio n ­
common­
I n one s e n s e t h i s
is
32
tru ly
d escrip tiv e
for
it
d o e s c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e t i m e when
th e organism h a s c o m p leted i t s
precedes
s t r u c t u r a l d e v e lo p m e n t and
t h e t i m e when t h e v a r i o u s c e l l s w i l l n e e d r e p l a c e ­
m ents i n any c o n s i d e r a b le p r o p o r tio n s *
A f t e r a number o f y e a r s ,
th e c e l l s
tin g
b e g i n t o b r e a k down a t a n i n c r e a s e d
a g r e a te r use o f the
of rep lacem en t tis s u e s *
the
v a ry in g w ith each i n d iv i d u a l,
o r g a n i s m 1s e n e r g y f o r t h e b u i l d i n g
When t h e p o i n t i s
e n e rg y m ust be u se d f o r
comes i n e v i t a b l e ,
rate n ecessita­
r e a c h e d where a l l
replacem ent of t i s s u e s
death be­
f o r a s s o o n a s t h e n e e d f o r new t i s s u e s
g r e a te r th an th e a b i l i t y
t o p r o v i d e new t i s s u e s
the
is
organism
w ill die*
The e x a c t e x p l a n a t i o n o f why d e a t h h a p p e n s o n l y i n
com plex o r g a n is m s i s
as
are
H .
3 *
Jennings has p o in te d
the d ir e c t
su lted
carry
only of p assin g i n t e r e s t h e re .
in the
o u t ,
r e s u lt of in creased
loss
^-3
1 4
t h a t age and d e a th
c o m p l e x i t y w h ic h has: r e ­
through d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n
on fu n d a m e n ta l v i t a l
M inot h a s c o n te n d e d ,
15
I t may b e ,
processes*
of the a b i l i t y
I t may b e ,
to
a s C. 3*
t h a t t h e i n c r e a s e i n -the a m o u n t o f
H. "s'V J e n n i n g s , " A g e , D e a t h a n d C o n j u g a t i o n i n t h e
L i g h t o f Work o n L o w e r O r g a n i s m s , ” P o p u l a r S c i e n c e M o n t h l y t
LXXX ( J u n e , 1 9 1 2 ) , 563-77.*
^ _________ , " T h e E f f e c t o f C o n j u g a t i o n i n P a r a m e c i u m , "
J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l Z o o l o g y , XIV ( 1 9 1 3 ) , 2 7 9 - 3 9 1 .
15
C . S* M i n o t , The P r o b l e m o f A g e , G-rowth a n d D e a t h
(New Y o r k : G-* P . P u t n a m * s S o n s , 1 9 0 8 7 *
cy to p lasm w ith r e l a t i o n to
th e n u cleo p lasm i s
E. M e t c h n i k o f f h a s h eld th a t
w astes k i l l s
th e
a n d C. M. C h i l d ,
organism *
21
th e cause*
i n t o x i c a t i o n from u n e l i m i n a t e d
P. E n riq u es,
17
ifl
E . Gr. C o n k l i n ,
a re in e s s e n t i a l agreem ent t h a t
iq
c
*
death ensues
as a r e s u l t o f a d ecrease in th e p ro p o rtio n of ch em ically
a ctiv e
p ro to p la s m d u r in g developm ent w ith o u t any c o m p e n sa tin g
p ro cess of rejuvenescence*
accepted as th e
it
is
su fficien t
on a p o i n t
tru e
W h a t e v e r may e v e n t u a l l y come t o b e
e x p la n a tio n of death in s c i e n t i f i c
fo r the
purposes of t h i s p a p er to
r e g a r d in g w hich t h e r e
is
o ld age th e e n e rg y of th e o rg an ism m ust
used to
reb u ild tissu e s
a s a w hole i s
and, as a consequence,
bei n c r e a s i n g l y
t h e amount o f
f o r c a r r y i n g on t h e b e h a v i o r of t h e o r g a n is m
in creasin g ly
lim ite d .
E* M e t c h n i k o f f , The P r o l o n g a t i o n o f L i f e
G-. P . P u t n a m ’ s S o n s , 1 9 1 0 ) .
(1907),
conclude
u n ifo rm a g re e m e n t, n am ely,
th a t in
energy a v a i l a b l e
term s,
P . E n riq u es,
106-126.
(New Y o r k :
"La m o r t e , " R i v i s t a d i S c i e n z a ,
II
18
_________ , " W a c h s t r u m u n d s e i n e a n a l y t i s c h e P u r s t e H u n g ,
B i o l o g i s c h e Z e n t r a l b l a t t . XXIX“ T l 9 0 9 ) , 3 3 1 - 3 5 2 .
19
E . G-.
of E x p erim en tal
C o n k lin , " C e ll S iz e and N u c le a r
Z o o lo g y , X II (1 9 1 2 ), 1-98*
20
S ize,*' J o u r n a l
_________ , " T h e S i z e o f O r g a n i s m s a n d o f T h e i r
C o n s t i t u e n t P a r t s i n . R e l a t i o n to L o n g e v i ty , S e n e s c e n c e and
R e j u v e n e s c e n c e , “ P o p u l a r S c i e n c e M o n t h l y , LX X X III ( A u g u s t ,
1913), 178-98.
21
C h ild , ££* c i t «. p , 4 4 6 f f •
34
I n s u m m a r i z a t i o n o f what h a s b e e n s a i d a b o u t t h e
p la c e of energy in th e
th at
the
energy a v a i la b l e
b u ild in g
tissu e s
developm ent,
it
ch ildhood, y o u th ,
a p lateau
If
for
th is
u tiliz e
is
r e p r e s e n ti n g m iddle l i f e , th e p r o ­
to f u n c tio n ,
is
it
com pleted i t
L ik ew ise,
has a ch iev e d an o v e r - a l l
life
it
to
ev id en ce re g a rd in g
s i x m onths.
i n two w a y s ,
tissu e
second,
p attern
Energy c a n ,
first
e m b ry o
th at of la te r
a s was n o t e d i n c o n n e c t i o n
the b eh a v io r of th e f e tu s p r i o r
th erefo re,
be u s e d by an o rg a n is m
in co n n ectio n w ith the p ro d u c tio n of
d iv isio n ,
of th e produced t i s s u e s
c ell*
been n o t e d ^
resu lte d
th ese
£ £ S u p r a % p • 26*
a c tiv itie s
and,
f o r purposes o th e r
th a n the grow th of t h a t p a r t i c u l a r
th at
in the i n t e r ­
d ev elo p in g
w h ic h i n c l u d e s r e p r o d u c t i o n by c e l l
in the use
as
embryo a n d t h e m a t e r n a l
com parable to
p attern ,
say
em ployed to
f o r exam ple,
b e g in s to a s s i s t
a s soon as th e
b eg in s to u se th a t
w ith the
energy i s
As s o o n ,
change of fo o d p r o d u c ts betw een th e
blood stre a m .
re la tio n ­
w ould be c o r r e c t to
com pleted,
com pleted s t r u c t u r e *
p lacen ta is
s m a l l e r amount o f e n e rg y
c o n sid e re d in co n n ectio n w ith th e
each s t r u c t u r e
th e
and e a r l y a d u lth o o d
th ese n o n tissu e -b u ild in g a c tiv itie s *
sh ip s of s tru c tu re
as
n e e d o n l y be rem em bered
th ro u g h th e p e r i o d s o f em bryonic
r e v e r s e d and a p r o g r e s s i v e l y
is av aila b le
th at,
cy cle,
fo r fu n c tio n s n o t r e l a te d w ith
in creases
in fan cy ,
and t h a t , a f t e r
cess is
life
E lsew here i t h as
in in te g ratio n .
35
To u s e t h a t
term in o lo g y ,
it
c an be s a i d t h a t
energy is used
f o r g r o w th on t h e o n e h a n d a n d i n t e g r a t i o n on t h e
th at,
a s betw een th e tw o,
grow th i s
t h e more b a s i c an d w i l l ,
th e re fo re ,c o m m a n d th e u s e o f energy#
p lace,
th erefo re,
m ains t o
I n t e g r a t i o n can tak e
o n ly a f t e r grow th and d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n
o n l y when t h e r e r e m a i n s a f t e r
e n tia tio n ,
the f u n c tio n s of grow th,
and re p r o d u c tio n a re s id u e
of energy.
c o n sid e r th e b io lo g ic a l n a tu re of t h i s
p r o c e s s m o re f u l l y
and i n
In teg ra tio n ,
its
as used h e re ,
c o n d itio n s a re n e cessary .
means t h e
w ith r e l a t i o n to
fu n ctio n in g ,
elem en ts,
or p arts,
organism .
It
several
in an o rd e rly
c o n tro llin g
p a ttern .
exam ples o f n o n - i n t e g r a t e d a c t i v i t y
b o d ily p a tte r n .
th ey a re h ig h ly a c t iv e ,
of a l a r g e r w hole,
fu n c tio n in g under th e le a d e rsh ip
of the
in te g rativ e
T here m ust be v a r i o u s e le m e n ts o r
th e t o t a l
in fa c t
I t now r e ­
To h a v e i n t e g r a t i o n ,
in flu e n ce of a la rg e
are
d iffer­
o rd e rly fu n ctio n in g
component p a r t s and t h e s e m ust be f u n c t i o n i n g
Rampant c a n c e r c e l l s
and
broader a s p e c ts .
o f p a r t s w ith r e l a t i o n t o a w hole.
f a s h io n under the
o th e r and
can be s e e n ,
These c e l l s a re
and th e y a r e
but th ey are not
of the t o t a l b o d ily p a tte r n
th erefo re,
th at several
th in g s are necessary before in te g ra tio n i s p o s s ib le .
Now,
g ratio n
i s made p o s s i b l e .
d ev elo p in g
c ells
i t becom es n e c e s s a r y to
embryo p r i o r t o
c o n s i d e r ho w t h i s
in te ­
In th e cleav ag e sta g e s of th e
the
in v ag in atio n process a ll
th e
a r e bound t o g e t h e r i n one c o n t i n u o u s p r o t o p l a s m i c m a s s.
36
Under such c irc u m s ta n c e s i t
how t h e
is not d if f ic u lt
organism can f u n c t i o n a s a u n i t ,
b u t when,
th e subsequent p ro cesses of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n ,
thousands of c e l l s
is,
how c a n d i s s i m i l a r c e l l s a t
co o rd in ated a c t i v i t y
in th e e x c i t a b i l i t y
various c ells*
thou sand s upon
is p o ssib le?
The q u e s t i o n
rem ote d i s t a n c e s
f r o m e a c h o t h e r b e m ad e a w a r e of- t h e a c t i v i t y
so t h a t
th ro u g h
a re produced w ith s p e c i a li z e d f u n c tio n s ,
t h e p r o c e s s i s no l o n g e r e a s y to com prehend*
a t issu e
to understand
o f one a n o t h e r
The a n s w e r l i e s
of t h e p r o to p la s m w hich c o n s t i t u t e s
th e
The i m p o r t a n c e and n a t u r e o f t h i s p r o p e r t y
of p ro to p lasm has been w e ll
e x p la in e d by C h ild *
sta te d th at:
W hile t h e m a t e r i a l r e l a t i o n s b e tw een
p ro to p la sm s and th e e x te r n a l w orld a r e o f
c o u rse a b s o lu te ly e s s e n t i a l f o r th e m ainte n a n c e of l i f e , s in c e they supply f u e l ,
jl*_e• , e n e r g y t o t h e s y s t e m a n d a c c o m p l i s h
th e rem oval o f r e s i d u e s , th e e x c i t a t o r y
r e l a t i o n s c o n s t i t u t e the prim ary f a c t o r
in th e b eh av io r of liv in g th in g s*
The
i r r i t a b i l i t y of p ro to p lasm , i t s s e n s i t i v e ­
n e ss to th e im pact of e x te r n a l e n e r g ie s
and t h e c h a n g e i n s t a t e b r o u g h t a b o u t by
such im p a c t, a r e the. fo u n d a tio n s o f a l l
t h a t we c a l l r e a c t i o n o r r e s p o n s e i n o r ­
g a n i s m s « • • • « T he e v o l u t i o n o f i n ­
t e l l i g e n t b e h a v i o r from t h e r e l a t i v e l y
sim p le e x c i t a t i o n and i t s t r a n s m i s s io n
in a p r im itiv e p ro to p lasm i s of co u rse
a s s o c i a t e d w ith and d ependent upon th e
d e v e lo p m e n t and i n t e g r a t i o n o f com plex
m echanism s o f e x c i t a t i o n , c o n d u c t i o n and
e f f e c t and i n v o l v e s t h e w hole p ro b lem o f
th e e v o lu tio n o f organism s, b u t i t i s
n e v e rth e le s s tr u e th a t th e e x c i t a b i l i t y
o f p ro to p lasm s in g e n e ra l i s the p rim ary
He h a s
37
p h y s io lo g ic a l f a c t o r concerned in th e
f u n c t i o n i n g o f a l l t h e s e m echanism s • •
• • • We c a n n o t c o n c e i v e w h a t l i f e w i t h ­
o u t e x c i t a t i o n w ould be and i t i s a q u e s ­
t i o n o f some i m p o r t a n c e « • . • how l o n g
l i f e can c o n tin u e i n the t o t a l absence of
ex citatio n #
Many e x c i t a t i o n s a r e o b v i o u s l y
only i n d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to an e x te r n a l
f a c t o r , b u t we h a v e a t p r e s e n t n o e v i d e n c e
to i n d i c a t e t h a t p rotoplasm i s fu n d am en tally
cap ab le of s e l f - e x c i t a t i o n in th e s t r i c t
se n se and th e argum ents of th e v i t a l i s t i n
f a v o r o f s u c h autonom y a r e i n t h e p r e s e n t
s t a t e o f o u r k n o w l e d g e f a r f r o m c o n c l u s i v e . 23
C h ild i s h e re m e re ly propounding th e
is
re a c tio n to
th at
life
en v iro n m en t and t h a t su ch r e a c t i o n s a r e only
made p o s s i b l e by t h e
Such i r r i t a t i o n s
e x te r n a l to
th esis
th e
in h eren t i r r i t a b i l i t y
of p ro to p lasm .
a lw ay s come, a c c o r d in g t o C h i l d ,
organism i t s e l f .
from f a c t o r s
H e n c e ,it is n o t p o ssib le
to
co n ceiv e of an organism w ith o u t an e n v iro n m en t.
In th e b ro ad est
se n se ,th e n ,th e
su rro u n d in g s
organism i s
because, of the a b i l i t y
S ince,
of i t s
as in d icated
organs a re only i n d i r e c t l y
though,
of c o u rs e ,
ja c e n t en v iro n m en t,
a b le
to a d ju s t to
pro to p lasm
to respond to
in the p re v io u s
e x te r n a l w orld,
c o n ta c t w ith t h e i r
becomes n e c e s s a r y b r i e f l y
t h e p r o c e s s e s by w hich t r a n s m i s s i o n o f s t i m u l i
In u n ic e llu la r c re atu re s i t
is
stim u li.
q u o t a t i o n , many
connected w ith the
th ey a re in d i r e c t
it
its
to
ad­
exam ine
tak es p lace.
obvious th a t a l l
p arts
C h a r l e s M. C h i l d , P h y s i o l o g i c a l F o u n d a t i o n s o f
B e h a v i o r (New Y o r k j H e n r y H o l t a n d C o m p a n y , 1 9 2 4 ) , p . 1 5 .
of the
in d iv id u a l a re c a p a b le o f e x c i t a t i o n and tr a n s m is s io n .
An a m o e b a , b e i n g n e g a t i v e l y p h o t o - t r o p i c ,
l i g h t no m a t t e r t o
w hich s i d e th e
th e p re s e n ta tio n of t h is
stim ulus
lig h t
to
w ith d ra w s from a
is
p resen ted .
one s i d e o f t h e amoeba
a pseudopodium d e v e lo p s on th e s i d e m ost rem o te
stim u lu s.
It
is
obvious t h a t th e
from t h e
e x c ita tio n has been t r a n s ­
m itte d th ro u g h o u t th e p ro to p lasm of
the am oeba. S in ce t h i s
ty p e o f b e h a v io r e n su e s w ith o u t r e g a r d to w hich s i d e
stim u lated ,
ism ,
a ll
it
can be concluded t h a t ,
th e p ro to p lasm
tran sm ittin g ex cita to ry
show t h a t t h i s
is
is
at
is
le a st in th is
cap ab le o f b e in g e x c ite d
im p u lses.T h ere
not th e
On
organ­
and o f
i s no e v id e n c e t o
case w ith a l l p ro to p lasm .
In h ig h ly d ev elo p ed r a u l t i c e l l u l a r organism s c e r t a i n
c e l l s h av in g g r e a t e r
su sce p tib ility
to
w h a t i s known a s t h e n e r v o u s s y s t e m .
th at
a l l the
carried
develop in to
To some i t m i g h t a p p e a r
t r a n s m i s s i o n and com m unication o f s t i m u l i
on by t h e s e c e l l s ,
needs only to
stim u li
b u t the f a c t s
a re o th erw ise.
co n sid er th e p h y sio lo g ic a l a c t i v i t i e s
a tte n d an in f la m a tio n of th e appendix to a p p re c ia te
fac t.
I n the
is
em ploym ent o f t h e b lo o d c o u n t .
the
d iag n o sis of
r e l a t i v e number o f w h ite
and from t h e s e f i n d i n g s
B ehavior
One
w hich
th is
t h i s a i l m e n t a common t e c h n i q u e
In t h i s p ro c e ss the
and r e d c o r p u s c l e s i s
the
is
exam ined
ex ten t of the i n f e c ti o n
is
C. J . H e r r i c k , N e u r o l o g i c a l F o u n d a t i o n s o f A nim al
(New Y o r k : H e n r y H o l t C o m p a n y , 1 9 2 4 ) , C h a p . VI*
in ferred .
The s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t o f t h i s
p r e s e n t problem i s
c e lls,
th at
procedure fo r
th e blood c o r p u s c l e s ,
the
though l i v i n g
a r e n o t c o n n e c te d to any o t h e r p a r t of th e org an ism
by n e r v o u s t i s s u e .
They a r e
s t i m u l a t e d by t h e
th e b lo o d s tr e a m and n o t by th e d i r e c t a c t i v i t y
iz e d nervous t i s s u e .
haps th is
w ill
of stim u li,
tissu e ,
ch em istry of
o f any s p e c i a l ­
O th e r ex am p les c o u ld be g i v e n ,
su ffice
to
alth o u g h i t
illu stra te
is
th at
but per­
t h e ‘t r a n s m i s s i o n
th e p a r t i c u l a r fu n c tio n of nervous
i s n o t c o n fin e d to nervous t i s s u e s .
T h i s w h o le p ro b le m c a n be a p p r o a c h e d i n a n o t h e r way.
In th e review of
e m b ry o n ic d e v e lo p m e n t i t was n o t e d t h a t
a l l m u l t i c e l l u l a r organism s b e g in w ith a s i n g l e
c e l l form
c alle d
several
the z y g o te . In t h i s
cleav ag es,
it
form , and even a f t e r
was p o i n t e d o u t t h a t n o d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n
f u n c t i o n was d e m o n s t r a b l e .
U n til a f te r
v a g in a tio n th e v a rio u s c e l l s
m anner,
th a t d iv isio n s
e arlie r,
c ip itated
behaved in a n e a r ly uniform
in v ag in atio n process i t
a f t e r the
som etim es l a t e r ,
th e
six ty -fo u r cell
in v ag in atio n .
r e s u l t of the
Thus, i t
to
was s h o w n
som etim es
was c o n c l u d e d ,
ensuing s t r u c t u r a l
en v iro n m en tal f a c to r
th an of an in n a te p r e d is p o s itio n .
re la tiv e
stag e,
appeared.
p ro d u ce d a cro w d in g w hich p r e ­
c e l l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and th e
the
th e p ro cess of in ­
but fo llo w in g in v a g in a tio n d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s
In c o n n ec tio n w ith the
of
of
changes w ere
crow ding r a t h e r
There a r e
t h i s p r o c e s s w hich w ere n o t
th at
certain facto rs
considered a t th a t
40
tim e,
b u t w hich m ust be b ro u g h t to
W hile a l l
p ro to p lasm
is
a tte n tio n at
of e x c ita tio n s.
cap ab le of
u su a lly
the
irrita tio n
surface,
th e m ost s e n s i t i v e
a ll
or th e
th is
That
is
of th e
of response
w e ll to
stim u li
is
also
lo ca te d
s u r f a c e m ust be
by t h e f a c t t h a t i t
to
recall at
It
th is
circu m stan ce
t o d e s i g n a t e a s th e m ost b a s i c
of a l l
s tim u li, the s u r f a c e - in t e r i o r p a tte r n .
t h i s p o in t t h a t th e nervous t i s s u e
organism s th e
ev id e n t.
is
ectoderm o f th e g a s t r u l a .
su sce p tib ility
In p lan ts
th is
is
of c e rta in areas
the
grow ing t i p .
N early everyone i s
f a m i l i a r w ith t h e te n d e n c y o f m ost p l a n t s
to t u r n tow ard th e
lig h t.
the
ends of the
and n o t th e
re g io n s of th e
I n so d o i n g i t
s t e m s arid b r a n c h e s
reverse.
is
c o n t a c t w ith t h e e n v iro n m e n t from w hich
a d u l t human d e v e l o p s fro m t h e
In a l l
is
th e
is n ecessitated
o r i g i n a l s t i m u l a t i o n m ust come.
p attern s
to
e c t o d e r m , b u t i n m any f o r m s o f
stru c tu re .
p art
in d ir e c t
T his p o r t i o n i s
ty p e of p ro to p lasm
w hich h a s l e d b i o l o g i s t s
It
cap ab le of tra n s m is s io n
th an o th e r p o rtio n s*
i n te r io r of th e
th e p o rtio n
eq u ally
t h i s does n o t
I n e v e r y o r g a n i s m som e p o r t i o n i s m o r e
h i g h e r anim al l i f e
in th e
is
tim e*
cap a b le of e x c i t a t i o n and
t r a n s m i s s i o n , i t m ust b e k e p t i n m ind t h a t
' mean t h a t a l l p r o t o p l a s m
th is
lead
The a c t i v i t i e s
organism ,
th erefo re,
of
w ill
th e
be n o te d t h a t
body o f t h e p l a n t
th e m ost i r r i t a b l e
c o n tro l the
behavior of
t h e r e g i o n s w h ic h a r e more s l o w i n t h e i r r e a c t i o n s
to
stim u li.
41
In th is
way v a r i o u s
g ra d ie n ts are
g r a d i e n t would be t h e
e x c ita tio n w hile
c ita b le
area.
d e p en d on t h e
L. E.
the
b u ilt up.
area of g re a te s t p o te n tia litie s
lo w e s t g r a d i e n t w ould be t h e
The num ber o f g r a d i e n t s w o u ld ,
th e only w r i t e r i n th e
g i v e s any e x te n d e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n to
to in c lu d e h is
e x p lan atio n .
field
for
lea st
ex­
of c o u rs e ,
degree of co m plexity of th e organism .
T ravis is
be w e l l
The h i g h e s t
S ince
o f s p e e c h who
th ese g ra d ie n ts
it
m ight
He o b s e r v e s :
. . .
a p h y sio lo g ic a l o r m etabolic
g r a d ie n t equals a d i f f e r e n t i a l in t e n ­
sio n , a d i f f e r e n tia l in e x c ita b ility . I t
eq u als c e r ta in p a tte r n s of i r r i t a b i l i t y
w hich a r e r e a d i l y s e e n i n s p h e r i c a l and
c y lin d r ic a l organic s t r u c tu r e s .
The
s i m p l e s t s p h e r i c a l o r g a n i s m s show a s u r ­
f a c e - in te r io r g ra d ie n t, th a t i s , th e
g r e a te s t e ff e c t of a stim u lu s o ccurs a t
the s u r f a c e .
The s u r f a c e e f f e c t o r e x ­
c i t a t i o n i s tr a n s m itte d to th e i n t e r i o r
w ith a r e l a t i v e l y ra p id d ecrem en t.
As
t h e d e v e l o p i n g embryo a s s u m e s a c y l i n ­
d r i c a l s h a p e , t h e r e form s an a p i c o - b a s a l
g r a d i e n t t h e l e n g t h o f th e body w i t h t h e
p o in t of h ig h e s t i r r i t a b i l i t y a t th e head
end and th e p o i n t o f lo w e st i r r i t a b i l i t y
a t th e t a i l end.
The h i g h e r a n d more
s p e c i a li z e d s e n s e s , th e b r a in , and o th e r
o rg an s of high m e ta b o lic r a t e s d evelop
o u t o f t h e w hole a t th e h e a d end ( g l o r ­
i f i c a t i o n o f h e a d end)..
T he p r i m a r y g r a d i e n t s a r e d e t e r m i n e d
by t h e p h y s i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e tw e e n
th e organism and i t s e n v iro n m e n t.
G rad­
i e n t s may b e c o n t r o l l e d by l i g h t , o x y g e n
supply , e l e c t r i c c u r r e n ts , lo c a l i n j u r i e s ,
and th e l i k e . ^
Lee Edward T r a v i s ,
A p p l e t o n a n d Company, 1 9 3 1 ) ,
Speech P a th o lo g y
pp. 25-26.
(New Y o r k :
D. ,
Whenever an y p a r t
citem en t
it
ten d s to
of an organism i s
do m in ate th e
The o r g a n i s m a s a w h o l e t e n d s t o
to
the
externa],
w hich th e
stim u lu s#
in a s ta te
rem ainder of th e
o rien t
In t h i s
itse lf
as in the
ex­
organism *
w ith re fe re n c e
way a n a x i s d e v e l o p s a b o u t
organism fs b eh av io r i s o rie n te d *
tem p o rary ,
of
S u c h a x e s may be
e x t e n s i o n o f a p s e u d o p o d iu m by a n a m o e b a ,
o r t h e y may b e p e r m a n e n t * a s i n many o t h e r f o r m s o f l i f e *
W hether p erm an en t o r te m p o ra ry , h o w ev er,
has co n sid erab le
effect
on t h e
th e a x ia te
b e h a v io r of the
organism .
T hree f a c t o r s a r e of p rim ary s i g n i f i c a n c e
ing th e
place
im p lica tio n s
th ey re p re se n t
a sin g le-celled
volved.
itse lf
Thus,
the
p a tte rn s.
the
The s e c o n d f a c t o r
w ith
develop
situ atio n *
Such
is
th at a ll
w ith r e f e r e n c e
to
e x te rn a l as w ell
When t h e
behavior p a tte r n s i t
found i n th e
in ­
of im portance
circu m stan ces*
som e e x t e r n a l
is
d o m i n a t e d b y a p a r t w h i c h may b e s a i d t o
known a s i n t e g r a t i o n .
in a x ia te
w hether
b e h a v io r o f th e m ost a c t i v e r e g i o n .
co o rd in a te d b ehavior i s
as in te rn a l
first
p ro to p lasm a d ju s ts
in any p a r t i c u l a r
p a ttern s
In the
or a m any-celled c r e a tu r e
have assum ed l e a d e r s h i p
ax iate
in c o n sid er­
I t m atters l i t t l e
case, t h e w hole o f i t s
conform t o
w hole i s
th ese a x ia te
in te g ra tio n .
creatu re
In e ith e r
to
of
p a ttern
stim u li*
organism
th ese
o rien ts
itse lf
a lw a y s d o e s so i n c o n n e c t i o n
A sim ple
proof of th is
developm ent of th e a lg a F u c u s ♦
Its
is
to
spore
is
be
43
p o sitiv e ly
p h o t o - t r o p i c and assum es an a x i a t e
t h e h e a d end n e a r e s t t h e
so u rce of l i g h t .
lig h t
d e la y e d and i n t h e
its
developm ent i s
p a t t e r n w ith
In th e absence of
a b s e n c e o f some *
s u b s t i t u t e s t i m u l u s may n o t t a k e p l a c e a t a l l . .
T his i s
ju st
a n o t h e r way o f s a y i n g t h a t g r a d i e n t s do n o t d e v e l o p i n t h e
absence o f e x c ita tio n .
F in a lly ,
th e
th e developm ent of th e n e rv o u s t i s s u e
from
same o r i g i n a l p r o t o p l a s m i c m ass a s o t h e r b o d i l y t i s s u e s
m ust be k e p t i n m ind.
system
in the
In th e zy g o te t h e r e
sp e cia liz ed sense.
i s no n e rv o u s
The n e r v o u s s y s t e m r e s u l t s
from t h e a c t i o n o f h e r e d i t a r y p o t e n t i a l i t i e s
on t h e one h a n d
and e n v ir o n m e n t a l s t i m u l a t i o n on th e
As C h i l d s a y s ,
o th er.
f,The w h o l e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e n e r v o u s s y s t e m i s
a developm ent
o f m echanism s o f e x c i t a t i o n and t r a n s m i s s i o n and o f t h e r e l a t i o n s
b e t w e e n t h e m . * 1^
S ince the nervous t is s u e
m ost s e n s i t i v e p r o to p la s m
i t n a tu ra lly
o th e r b o d ily
t o be more
sy stem s,
d evelopm ent i s
o th e r b o d ily
the
or,
develops from th e
develops p r io r to
ex act,
sy stem s.
B ecause of t h i s
rem ain s fu n d a m e n ta lly
w hich i t
the stage of i t s
a l w a y s s l i g h t l y more a d v a n c e d t h a n t h a t o f
lead ersh ip
w hole p r o c e s s o f o r g a n is m ic d e v e lo p m e n t,
still
th e
lik e
th e r e s t of
c o n tr o ls because o f the n a tu re
26 c h i l d * £ £ •
c i t . , p . 193.
b ut,
it
d om inates
even s o ,
th e organism
of i t s
o rig in ..
it
44
The e m b r y o n i c d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e
d isreg ard ed
or co nsidered as a f i e l d
organism
is
o ften
to o s p e c i a l i z e d t o be
w orthy of c o n s i d e r a t i o n in a s i m p l i f i e d e x p la n a tio n of be­
h av io r*
In an e f f o r t
n e rv o u s sy stem th e
to
sim p lify th e
concept of the
e x p lan atio n s of
r e f l e x a r c was i n v e n t e d *
T his o v e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of th e n a t u r e
to
en v iro n m en tal s tim u li
the
ex p lain ed
of org an ism ic r e a c tio n s
com plex b e h a v i o r i n te rm s
o f a d d i n g m an y a r c s t o g e t h e r a s t h o u g h t h e r e f l e x a r c wa s t h e
b asic u n it u nderlying a ll
w id ely h e ld ,
lab o rato ry
The o u t s t a n d i n g
siv ely
th at
b eh av io r,
the
in
it*
form o f b e h a v i o r *
form o f
H is e x p e rim e n ts
e m b r y o o f t h e A m b l y s t o m a a n d sh o w e d
every phase of
is
still
e v i d e n c e o f C o g h i l l h a s shown c o n c l u ­
but a learn ed
a c tiv ity
view i s
e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n no l o n g e r s u p p o r t s
its
beh av io r,
o f resp o n se proceededany lo c a liz e d
reflex
W hile t h i s
common r e f l e x i s n o t a n o r i g i n a l
were c o n d u c te d on th e
th at,
behavior*
larg e o v er-all
reactio n ,
p a ttern s
in sh o rt,
th at
th e c u lm in a tio n of developm ent, n o t th e
b e g in n in g of developm ent.
I t w ould be c o r r e c t
to say t h a t
th e
re a c tio n s of the
o rg a n ism p r o c e e d from th e g r o s s to t h e r e f i n e d *
In C o g h ill* s
own t e r m s : :
The b e h a v i o r p s / t t e r n fro m t h e b e g i n n i n g
expands th ro u g h o u t th e grow ing norm al an im al
as a p e r f e c t l y i n t e g r a t e d u n i t , w hereas
p a r t i a l p a tte rn s a r i s e w ith in th e t o t a l
p a t t e r n and, by a p ro c e s s o f i n d i v i d u a t i o n ,
a c q u ire se c o n d a rily varying degrees of
45
independence*
A ccording to t h i s p r i n ­
c i p l e such an e n t i t y as a ^sim ple r e ­
f l e x ” never o ccu rs in th e l i f e of th e
in d iv id u a l; com plexity of b eh av io r i s
n o t d e r i v e d by p r o g r e s s i v e i n t e g r a t i o n
o f m ore an d m ore o r i g i n a l l y d i s c r e t e
u n its ; th e co n cep tio n of ch ain r e f le x e s
as u s u a lly p resen te d is n o t in accord w ith
t h e a c t u a l w o rk in g o f th e n e r v o u s system *
On t h e o t h e r h a n d , w i t h i n t h e t o t a l , e v e r
expanding i n t e g r a t e d organism as a w hole,
p a r t i a l p a t t e r n s em erg e more o r l e s s a n d
te n d to w a rd in d e p e n d e n c e and dom inance, b u t
u n d e r norm al c o n d i t i o n s , alw ay s rem a in
u n d e r th e suprem acy of th e i n d i v i d u a l as a
w hole.
An i n a p p r o p r i a t e d e g r e e o f i n d e p e n d ­
en ce o r dom inance o f a p a r t i a l p a t t e r n c o n ­
s t i t u t e s ab n o rm ality or p e rv e rs io n of b e ­
h a v i o r . 27
When t h i s p o s i t i o n
e a rlie r
p rio r
in
to
th is
paper^
s i x m onths, i t
v a l i d i t y n o t only f o r
A m blystom a, b u t a l s o
T his i s ,
in
fact,
is
r e la te d to
th e
evidence p re s e n te d
r e g a r d i n g m ovem ents o f t h e f e t u s
can be seen t h a t
th is
concept has
t h e developm ent o f b e h a v io r i n th e
for
t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f b e h a v i o r i n man.
C o g h ill* s b a sic
th esis.
He a s s e r t s
su m m arizatio n :
. . . 1 am c o n v i n c e d , by a s t u d y o f a l l
a v a i l a b l e r e c o r d s o f movement i n human
f e t u s e s o f th e f i r s t s i x m on th s, t h a t b e ­
h a v i o r d e v e l o p s i n man a s i t d o e s i n t h e
Am blystoma by t h e e x p a n s i o n o f a t o t a l
p a t t e r n t h a t i s i n t e g r a t e d a s a w hole from
Q. E . C o g h i l l ,
ojo. c i t *, p .
S u p r a , pp* 2 8 -2 9 .
532.
in h is
46
t h e b e g i n n i n g a n d by t h e i n d i v i d u a t i o n
of p a r t i a l p a t t e r n s ( r e f l e x e s ) w ith in a
u n i t a r y w hole
The p o s i t i o n
t a k e n by C o g h i l l h a s b e e n ,
in th e m ain,
a c c e p t e d b y m o s t s t u d e n t s o f p s y c h o l o g y a n d s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y , 30
and i n
c o lla b o r a tio n w ith H errick th e
r e a c h e d . T h e
sa m e c o n c l u s i o n s w e r e
s t u d i e s o f K. S . L a s h l e y o n t h e p l a c e o f t h e
c e r e b r u m i n l e a r n i n g 32 a l s o
in d ic ate
th at
developm ent.
I n view o f t h i s
n a tu re of i t s
a c c e p ta n c e by a u t h o r i t i e s , i t
th an the
reflex
th e
^
is
d o m in a t e d by i t s
cereb ral co rtex .
C o g h ill,
o£.
a late
seem s r e a s o n a b l e
th e u n i t of behavior
arc.
I n man t h e n e r v o u s s y s t e m
w hich i n t u r n i s
is
e v id e n c e and th e w id e s p r e a d
to conclude a t o t a l b o d ily p a t t e r n i s
rath er
the r e f l e x
d o m in a te d by th e b r a i n
m ost s e n s i t i v e p o r t i o n ,
The f u n c t i o n o f
c i t .,
p.
th is h ig h ly
sen sitized
549.
30 S e e , f o r e x a m p l e , K i m b a l l Y o u n g , S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y
(New Y o r k : F . S . C r o f t s a n d C o . , 1 9 3 0 ) , p . 4 3 ; R . M. O g d e n a n d
F r a n k S . F r e e m a n , P s y c h o l o g y and. E d u c a t i o n (New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t ,
B r a c e and C o . , 1 9 3 2 ) , p p . 1 9 - 2 1 ; J o n E i s e n s o n , The P s y c h o l o g y
o f S p e e c h (New Y o r k : F . S . C r o f t s a n d C o . , 1 9 3 8 ) , ' p p . 4 6 - 4 7 ;
C. M. C h i l d , £ £ • c i t . , p p . 2 3 3 f .
F o r a co m prehensive s ta te m e n t
o f t h e o r g a n i s m i c p o i n t o f v i e w s e e R . H. W h e e l e r , The S c i e n c e
o f P s y c h o l o g y (New Y o r k : Thomas Y. C r o w e l l C o . , 1 9 2 9 ) , e s p e c i a l l y
C h a p t e r s X V I, X V I I , a n d X V I I I ; a l s o C. J . H e r r i c k , 0 £ ; c i t .
3 1 c . J . H e r r i c k a n d G. E . C o g h i l l , ‘‘The D e v e l o p m e n t
o f R e f l e x M e c h a n i s m i n A m b l y s t o m a , !t J o u r n a l o f C o m p a r a t i v e
N e u r o l o g y , XXV ( J a n u a r y " ! 1 9 1 5 ) , 6 5 - 8 5 .
32 K. S . L a s h l e y , “ B a s i c N e u r a l M e c h a n i s m s i n B e h a v i o r , ”
The P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e v i e w , &XXVII ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 3 0 ) , 1 - 2 4 .
47
reg io n is
to
rem arked,
" It has
behavior*
cen ters
in te g rate
It
or the
the
w hole org an ism *
come t o b e t h e
As T r a v i s h a s
suprem e f a c t o r
has not re p la c e d the s u b c o r tic a l
low er r e f l e x
lev e ls
i n human
c o rre latio n
b u t w orks t h r o u g h them
to
p r e s e r v e a f u n c t i o n a l w h o l e ***33
The c e r e b r a l
is m 's
tren d .
developm ent,
It
is
co rtex is not
but i t
th e r e s u l t
is
S ta te s
T iln ey
th e organ­
the apex of an e v o lu tio n a ry
of th e su c c e ssiv e
o f t h e m ost s e n s i t i v e p o r t i o n s
o b serv atio n s of F.
only th e apex of
sp e cia liz atio n s
of t h e p r o t o p l a s m i c mass*
are i n t e r e s t i n g
in th is
c o n n ectio n *
T iln ey s
The r e a s o n s why t h e b r a i n c o n t a i n s t h e
m ost c o m p re h e n s iv e r e c o r d of t h e e v o l u t i o n ­
ary p ro ce ss a re r e a d ily p erceived*
As a n
o rg a n i t s i n f l u e n c e s p e rv a d e and d o m in ate
a l l o t h e r sy stem s o f th e body . . • I n i t s
d u a l c a p a c i t y o f s e r v a n t and m a s te r th e
b ra in has been p e c u lia r ly s u s c e p tib le to
th e in flu e n c e of t h a t com bination of f a c to r s
d e s c r i b e d by P r o f e s s o r O sborn i n h i s t e t r a p l a s t i c th e o ry of ev o lu tio n *
The c e r e b r u m
h as f e l t m o re , p e r h a p s , th an any o th e r
o r g a n , t h e e f f e c t s o f a c t i o n , r e a c t i o n , and
in teractio n *
I t h a s r e s p o n d e d more e x t e n ­
s i v e l y to i t s in o r g a n ic and v i t a l e n v ir o n ­
ment b e c a u s e i t c o m p rise s th e m ost h i g h l y
d i f f e r e n t i a t e d t i s s u e o f th e organism *
It
has been e q u a lly s e n s i t i v e to th e in f lu e n c e
o f h e r e d i t y • • • and • • • e n v i r o n m e n t . ^
33 T r a v i s ,
The
op* c i t *» p . 251*
3 4 p . T i l n e y , T h e B r a i n F ro m Ape t o Man (New Y o r k :
P a u l B. H o e b e r , I n c . , 1 9 2 8 ) •
Q u o t e d b y J o h n s o n , op* c i t v ,
p p . 333-339*
—
------
48
Of p a r t i c u l a r
th e rem ark,
actio n ,
ju st
r e a c t i o n and i n t e r a c t i o n . n
♦ • • th e e ff e c ts of
T h is view i s
in
com plete
c o n c e p t o f th e developm ent of th e n e rv o u s
from t h e m ost e a s i l y
e x c ita b le p ro to p lasm .
a n o t h e r way o f s a y i n g t h a t t h e
th an o th er b o d ily t i s s u e s .
it
t h e above q u o t a t i o n i s
“ The c e r e b r u m h a s f e l t m o r e
a c c o rd w ith th e
tissu e
im portance i n
T his i s
c e r e b r u m i s more s e n s i t i v e
As a c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h i s
fact
p la y s a la r g e p a r t in th e s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n o f the o rg an ­
ism .
I n te g r a tio n of the
ment i s
made p o s s i b l e
to ta l
organism w ith i t s
by th e p re s e n c e of
a s r e c e p t o r s w hich a r e p r e s e n t i n a l l
These r e c e p t o r s
in f a c t,
in tric a te
are a l l d ir e c tly
d em o n strates.
itse lf,
A ll b eh av io r i s
p i c k e d up by t h e s e r e c e p t o r s .
c e r t a i n o r g a n s known
com plex a n im a l fo rm s .
co n n ected w ith th e b r a in ,
i n the in s ta n c e of th e eye,
p a r t of th e b r a in
en v iro n ­
th ey a re a c tu a lly
an
a s em bryonic dev elo p m en t
i n f l u e n c e d by t h e s t i m u l i
CU H e r r i c k
ex p lain s:
No p a r t o f t h e n e r v o u s s y s t e m h a s a n y
s i g n i f i c a n c e a p a r t from th e p e r i p h e r a l
r e c e p t o r and e f f e c t o r a p p a r a t u s w i t h w hich
i t is fu n ctio n ally re la te d .
T h is i s t r u e
n o t o n ly o f th e n e rv o u s m echanism of a l l
p h y s i o l o g ic a l f u n c t i o n s , b u t even w ith th e
c e n te rs concerned w ith th e h ig h e s t m a n ife s t­
a t i o n s o f t h o u g h t a n d f e e l i n g o f w h i c h we
a r e c a p a b l e , f o r t h e most a b s t r a c t m e n ta l
p ro cesses use as t h e i r n ecessary in stru m en ts
the d ata of se n so ry ex p erien ce d i r e c t l y o r
i n d i r e c t l y , a n d i n many, i f n o t a l l , c a s e s
a r e i n t i m a t e l y b o u n d u p w i t h som e p e r i p h e r a l
49
e x p re s s io n *
35
T h i s same i d e a h a s b een e x p r e s s e d r e c e n t l y ,
in
som ewhat d i f f e r e n t
C o u n c il on E d u c a tio n
to
th e
te rm s ,
b y a c o m m it t e e o f
in v e s tig a tin g
e d u c a tiv e p ro c e s s *
It
th e
re la tio n
a lth o u g h
t h e A m e r ic a n
of
e m o t io n
re p o rts :
A t t i t u d e s , to o ;,, [ r e f e r r i n g t o a p r e ­
c e d i n g p a r a g r a p h on e m o t io n s J r e f e r b a c k
to th e in n a t e b i o l o g i c a l te n d e n c y o f th e
o r g a n is m t o s e e k o p tim u m c o n d i t i o n s f o r
its e lf*
The i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p w h ic h
e x i s t s b e tw e e n a f f e c t i v e b e h a v i o r and t h e
fu n d a m e n ta l p h y s io lo g ic a l e q u i l i b r i a , i n ­
s u re s t h a t th e b a s ic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f
m ost a t t i t u d e s i s t h e i r e x p re s s io n o f
t h e i n d i v i d u a l s c o n c e p t o f h i s own s e l f in te re s t*
B u t . w h ile a t t i t u d e s a re th u s
p h y s io lo g ic a lly ro o te d , th e y re p re s e n t
th e h ig h e s t fo rm o f m e n ta l o r g a n i z a t i o n - g e n e r a l i z a t i o n b a s e d on e x p e r i e n c e *
S p e c ific
a t t i t u d e s o f t e n show t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r e x ­
p e r i e n c e h a s h a d e i t h e r a d e s i r a b l e o r an u n ­
f o r t u n a t e r e s u l t f o r th e i n d i v i d u a l *
T h is c o n c e p t, t h a t s e l f - i n t e r e s t i s th e
d y n a m ic c o r e o f a f f e c t i v e l i f e , g i v e s t h e
k e y t o e f f e c t i v e m e th o d s and m a t e r i a l s t o
be u s e d i n e d u c a t i o n . 36
The b r a i n ,
m ent o f
th e
fro m
th e
t h e r e f o r e , re p re s e n ts
th e h ig h e s t d e v e lo p ­
s p e c ia liz e d n e rv o u s tis s u e s *
It
o r ig in a te s
same p r o t o p l a s m i c mass as th e o t h e r s t r u c t u r e s
them o n l y
in
its
a b ility
to
fro m
and d i f f e r s
t r a n s m i t and r e c e i v e
s tim u li
j 7 H e r r i c k , An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o N e u r o l o g y
( P h i l a d e l p h i a : W. B* S a u n d e r s C o m p a n y , 1 9 3 4 ) , p* 27*
36 D a n i e l A l f r e d P r e s c o t t , c h a i r m a n , E m o t io n and t h e
E d u c a t i v e P r o c e s s ( W a s h in g t o n , D. C * , A m e r ic a n C o u n c i l on
E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 3 8 ) , PP* 5 9 , 6 1 .
5°
w ith a g r e a te r f a c i l i t y .
out in te g ra tio n s
call
the
o f human o r g a n i s m s w h ic h t h e
in stitu tio n s.
now b e c o n s i d e r e d
The p r o c e s s o f s o c i a l
f i n e l y w orked
so e io lo g ists,
in te g ratio n w ill
in g re a te r d e ta il.
Language i s
ment o f s o c i a l
I t makes p o s s i b l e
th e m ost obvious d e v ic e f o r th e a c c o m p lish ­
in te g ratio n .
O ther d e v ic e s ,s u c h as m ech an ical
p r e s s u r e s and o d o rs ,p e rfo rm
s ig n ific a n t fu n ctio n s in th is
co n n ectio n ,
th e m ost im p o r ta n t o f a l l
but language i s
Too m any g r a m m a r i a n s s a y t h a t
w ord#
the
th e b a s is of th e language
A c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f a u t h o r i t i e s ,
b asis
of language
t h e m em ories of p a s t
the
how ever, f in d
ex p erien ces.
experiences.
w ith e x p e rie n c e a re m e a n in g le ss.
Jon E isen so n ,
is
e ls e w h e r e a s w i l l be show n.
W ords a r e m e r e l y s y m b o ls f o r
words a r e
th ese.
B ehind a l l
W ord s u n c o n n e c t e d
The s p e e c h p s y c h o l o g i s t ,
says:
A word t o t h e c h i l d i s n o t t h e d e ­
f i n i t i o n o f an o b j e c t , a p e rs o n , o r an
a c tiv ity , but ra th e r a re c o lle c tio n of
an e x p e rie n c e .
W o rd s r e c a l l n o t o b j e c t s
b u t e x p e r i e n c e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o b j e c t s . 8?
In th is
curs.
the
s o c ia l p sy ch o lo g ist,
K im b all Young,
He s t a t e s :
. . .
a t the o u t s e t the language of
th e c h ild r e s t s upon th e m o to r-p e rc e p tu a l
l e v e l ■. . . • 8 8
J.
E i s e n s o n , _0 £ .
8 8 K. Y o u n g , _0 £ .
c i t «t p.
125*
c i t . t p . 223*.
con­
The g r a m m a ria n , I .
A. R i c h a r d s ,
agrees.
He p o i n t s
out:
A w ord means t h e m is s i n g p a r t o f i t s ,
co n tex t*
A w ord, l i k e any o t h e r s i g n , g e t s w h a t­
e v e r m eaning i t h a s th ro u g h b e lo n g i n g t o a
r e c u r r e n t g r o u p o f e v e n t s , w h i c h may b e
c a lle d i t s co n tex t*
Thus, a w o r d 's c o n t e x t ,
in th is se n se , is a c e rta in rec u rren t p a t­
t e r n o f p a s t g ro u p s o f e v e n ts , and to say
t h a t i t s m eaning d e p e n d s -u p o n i t s c o n t e x t ‘
w ould be t o p o i n t to t h e p r o c e s s by w h ic h
i t h a s a c q u i r e d i t s m eaning.
I n a n o t h e r , t h o u g h a c o n n e c t e d , 1' s e n s e ,
a word*s c o n t e x t i s th e w ords w hich s u r ­
round i t i n th e u t t e r a n c e , and th e o t h e r
c o n te m p o r a n e o u s s i g n s w hich g o v e r n i t s
in te rp re ta tio n .
B oth s e n s e s o f 'c o n t e x t * n e e d t o be
k e p t i n m i n d i f we a r e t o c o n s i d e r c a r e ­
f u l l y how i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s s u c c e e d o r f a i l .
F o r c l a r i t y we may d i s t i n g u i s h t h e s e c o n d
s o r t o f c o n te x t by c a l l i n g i t t h e s e t t i n g . ^ 9
Throughout th e s e
o rig in ates
p erien ces.
in b eh av io r.
C ertain
e x c e r p t s one i d e a d o m in a t e s ,
W ords a r e
th e
c o n n ectio n w ith c e r ta in
ta ils
c o n d itio n in g
of th is
rem em berance o f t h a t a c t i v i t y ,
H arco u rt,
ex p erien ces.
at th is
sym bolic of p h y s i o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t y ,
itse lf
sig n ifican ce
p ro c e ss w ill not be
s in c e th e only p o in t b ein g r a i s e d
language
sym bols o f p a s t
sound groups a t t a i n
recurrence in
language
th at
tim e
its
ex­
thro u g h
The d e ­
exam ined h e r e ,
is
th at
m eaning i s
languag
the
and t h a t th e p r o d u c t i o n o f
is a p h y sio lo g ical a c tiv ity .
It
is
I.
A. R i c h a r d s , I n t e r p r e t a t i o n
B r a c e a n d Company^ 1 9 3 8 ) , pT v i i i .
on t h i s
in T eaching
(New Y
52
account th a t
in th is
p ap er the p o s itio n
b e h a v io r i s m erely a h ig h ly
ratio n .
T h is view h a s
U n i v e r s i t y o f M ichigan*
taken th a t
so cial
com plex form of b i o l o g i c a l
in te g ­
l o n g b e e n h e l d by C. L . H e a d e r a t t h e
I n The P s y c h o l o g y o f L a n g u a g e o n w h i c h
h e c o l l a b o r a t e d w i t h W. B. P i l l s b u r y ,
expressed.
is
a h i n t of t h i s
id ea
is
Say t h e y :
T here i s a l r e a d y s e c u r e l y e s t a b l i s h e d and
w id ely re c o g n iz e d a f i e l d o f p h y s io lo g ic a l
psychology.
F u rth erm o re, the p a r a lle lis m
b e tw e e n t h e s t a t e s o f m ind on t h e one h a n d
and t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s on th e o t h e r
— a p a r a l l e l i s m e x te n d in g som etim es even
i n t o m in u te d e t a i l s — i s so i n t i m a t e , and
o u r p h y s i c a l l i f e so i n s e p e r a b l y bound up
w ith th e ch em ical p ro c e ss e s ta k in g p la c e in
th e p r o to p la s m o f o u r b o d i e s , t h a t one i s
s t r o n g l y tem pted to b e lie v e t h a t th e m en tal
s t a t e s a re the r e s u l t s of th e p h y sic o c h e m ic a l
changes of p ro to p lasm .
Should t h i s assum p­
t io n prove t r u e , th e sc ie n c e of language
w ould become a n a t u r a l s c i e n c e i n t h e f u l l e s t
s e n s e of th e w ord, and th e term b i o l i n g u i s ­
t i c s m ig h t w ith ^ c o m p le te j u s t i f i c a t i o n be
a p p l i e d t o i t . 40
In th is
co n n ectio n th e re a re o th e r c o n s id e ra tio n s .
Is
s o c i a l b e h a v io r so m ething b a s i c a l l y
d i f f e r e n t from
a ll
o th e r behavior?
its
env iro n m en t i n a fu n d a m e n ta lly d i f f e r e n t f a s h i o n th a n
it
did
Does t h e o rg a n is m a f t e r b i r t h
d u r in g em bryonic d e v elo p m e n t?
a p e cu lia rity
o f t h e human s p e c i e s ,
Is
re a c t to
s o c ia l b ehavior
o r do l o w e r f o r m s e x h i b i t
W a l t e r B. P i l l s b u r y a n d C l a r e n c e L . M e a d e r , The
P s y c h o l o g y o f L a n g u a g e (New Y o r k : D* A p p l e t o n a n d C o m pany ,
1928), p . 18.
s o c ia liz e d b ehavior?
se rv e w ell to
An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s e
bind to g e th e r
f a r p r e s e n t e d so t h a t
the b io lo g ic a l
the f u l l
issu es w ill
ev id en ce th u s
i m p l i c a t i o n s of- i t s
m eaning
may b e r e a l i z e d *
E ith e r s o c ia l beh av io r is
sim ilar
a ll
to a l l o th e r b e h a v io r,
o th e r behavior*
acc ep tan c e of the
so cial
b ehavior is
sequence is
the
to
l a t t e r p o sitio n *
resu lt
Is
the
fu n d am en tally l ik e
If
it
is
assum ed t h a t
im m ediate con­
c o n c l u s i o n t h a t human b e h a v i o r h a s a f u n d a ­
If
such a p o s i t i o n i s h e ld one i s
f o r s o c ia l behavior*
cau satio n d i f f e r
organism to
behave?
in su rm o u n tab le s e r i e s
a d ifferen ce
How d o e s i t
cau satio n ?
from t h e
If
o th er
th e
la tte r,
or n early
th e
it
how,
f a c t o r s w hich c au se
T h e se q u e s t i o n s seem t o p r e s e n t a n
of o b stacles
to
t h o s e who w o u l d p o s t u l a t e
b e tw e e n b i o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l b e h a v i o r *
I n d e s c r i b i n g t h e g ro w th and d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n
organism
at
i t s g ro w th and developm ent sp o n ta n e o u s o r th e
o f so m e d e m o n s t r a b l e
does t h i s
is
so m eth in g unique th e n th e
e x p la in the b a s is
arise?
or i t
d is­
The t h e s i s o f t h i s p a p e r d e p e n d s o n t h e
m e n ta lly dual n atu re*
lo ss
som ething e s s e n t i a l l y
was p o i n t e d o u t ^
a ll,
th at
at firs t
a ll
th e
of the
energy,
was em ployed i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n of t i s s u e
carry in g out of rep ro d u c tio n d iv is io n s .
the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f tis s u e s
subsequent to
L ater,
and
fo llo w in g
the p ro c e ss of
54
in v ag in atio n ,
it
was c o n t e n d e d t h a t a n i n c r e a s i n g amount o f
e n e r g y was u s e d t o
and r e p r o d u c tio n ,
carry
but to
f u n c t i o n s w ere c a l l e d
t h e ir use the
w as f u r t h e r
on f u n c t i o n s n o t
sp ecialized a c tiv itie s .
in te g rativ e
shown t h a t t h i s
very
grow th to
early
a ctiv ity
on t h e
in te g ratio n
sy s te m s w hich d e v e lo p a s t h e
rep ro d u ctio n ,
i s m a i n t a i n e d by
sy stem s
the
w hole.
In the
circ u ­
To u n i t e t h e s e v a r i o u s
th e m u scu lar sy ste m ,
Through th e f u n c t i o n i n g
organism
is
en ab led to
of a l l
and th e
th ese
behave a s an i n t e g r a t e d
fu n c tio n in g of th e organism
the b a sic
life
i n d i v i d u a l p ro v id e th e m o tiv e f o r c e f o r b e ­
h a v i o r w hich i s
ment of th e
resp ira tio n ,
These
system s, t h r e e o th e r sy stem s a l s o d e v e lo p ,
g la n d u la r sy stem .
appears th a t
t o t a l b o d ily
body d e v e l o p s .
and e lim in a tio n .
the n e rv o u s sy stem ,
needs of th e
even i n t h e
a t h a n d w i l l now b e u n d e r t a k e n .
life -su p p o rtin g
known a s
Thus,
The b e a r i n g o f t h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s
s y s t e m s a r e known a s t h o s e o f d i g e s t i o n ,
latio n ,
th at as
wa s c o m p l e t e d e n e r g y w a s d i v e r t e d
W ith in th e body th e
v ario u s
It
p r o c e s s was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c n o t
s t a g e s o f em bryonic d e v e lo p m e n t,
issu e
because thro u g h
u n ita ry n atu re.
the use of th a t t i s s u e .
was o b s e r v a b l e .
grow th
These
b u t o f th e organism as a w hole,
th e b u i l d i n g o f any t i s s u e
from t h e
fu n ctio n s,
organism m a in ta in e d i t s
only of e v ery p a r t ,
re la te d to
r e g u l a t e d by t h e n e r v o u s s y s t e m .
W hile i t
th e n e rv o u s system d o es do m in ate th e d e v e lo p ­
organism ,
it
is
su b o rd in ate to
th e w holeness o f
55
th e
organism .
In o t h e r w ords,
am ong t h e p a r t s
ism t h e n e r v o u s s y s te m i s d o m in a n t,
d in ate
but a ll p a rts are
subor­
to t h e w hole#
T h is arrangem ent of
it
of the organ­
w i l l be rem em bered,
In s h o rt,
th e
s y s t e m s came a b o u t ,
b e c a u s e some p a r t s o f
became s e p a r a t e d fro m t h e
food.
sp e cia liz ed
th e organism
so u rce both of s t im u li and o f
s u rfa c e -in te rio r p a tte rn of o rg an izatio n
was r e p l a c e d b y a c o m p l e x a x i a t e f o r m o f o r g a n i z a t i o n .
As
a c o n seq u e n ce food and s t i m u l i had to be t r a n s p o r t e d and
tran sm itte d
to
th e rem ote c e l l s
from t h e
surface c e lls
and
w a s te and r e a c t i o n s h ad to be t r a n s m i t t e d from t h e re m o te
c ells
tow ard th e s u r f a c e .
T h is n e c e s s i t y
n e c t i o n s betw een th e c e l l s
and th e
for
environm ent e x t e r n a l to
th e o rg a n is m a s a w hole d o e s n o t , h o w e v e r,
n a tu re of th e
in te ra c tio n
receiv e
s t i m u l a t i o n from t h e
th eir
situ atio n #
th e w hole o rg a n is m and r e a c t
b asis,
th en ,
n atu re
of
of organism ic
e x citatio n s
in d ir e c t con­
a lte r
A ll c e l ls
the b a s ic
u ltim ately
en v iro n m en t e x t e r n a l to
to th a t
stim u la tio n #
i n t e g r a t i o n .i s
to
The r e a l
be found i n th e
and t h e i r tr a n s m is s io n .
The e x c h a n g e o f g a s e s w h i c h a c c o m p a n i e s r e s p i r a t i o n
is
o b v i o u s l y a n i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e human r e s p i r a t o r y
w ith
ex te rn al fa c to rs .
o n l y by e x c i t a t i o n s
T his
and t h e i r
du ces ch em ical e x c i t a t i o n s ,
e x cita tio n s,
in te g ratio n
a n d s o on#
is
tran sm issio n #
a ir pressure
system
made p o s s i b l e
The o x y g e n p r o ­
produces m echanical
B re a th in g i s m erely a re s p o n s e to
56
s tim u la tio n ,a s i s
a ll
b e h a v io r .
Some s o c i o l o g i s t s
so m ething d i f f e r e n t
actio n s
way.
con ten d t h a t
th an t h i s .
s o c ia l b eh avior is
They h o l d
th at
the
in te r­
o f o n e h u m an a n d a n o t h e r a r e o a r r i e d o n i n some o t h e r
To t h e m l a n g u a g e c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d i n b i o l o g i c a l
term s and s tim u la tio n s
d ifferen t
from a l l
resu ltin g
o th er
from la n g u a g e a r e
e sse n tia lly
stim u li.
Now, n o o n e d e n i e s t h a t
so cial
in terco u rse
i s more
c o m p l e x t h a n a n y o t h e r kno wn i n t e r o r g a n i s m i c r e l a t i o n s ,
the p o s itio n h ere
taken is
th a t the
o f c o m p l e x i t y a n d n o t one o f k i n d .
herence
to t h e t h e o r y
p o sitio n ,
th e n ,le ss
ob serv ab le
in
of ev o lu tio n
T h is
la n g u a g e a r o s e from any e x i s t i n g
but
th at
is not a p e c u lia rity
In d isc u ssin g
o rg an izatio n of
in d iv id u a ls
an o th er.
th is
i s t r u e , and
w ould i n d i c a t e
ad­
such a
d o e s n o t mean t h a t o u r
form of co m m u n icatio n p r e s e n t
c o m m u n ic a tio n by m eans o f s y m b o ls
o f th e human.
tro p h alla x is
in se cts,
in the
If
i s o n ly one
com plex form s o f com m unication s h o u ld be
low er fo rm s.
i n an im al l i f e ,
d ifferen ce
but
as the
b asis
f o r the
so cial
W. M. W h e e l e r h a s p o i n t e d o u t t h a t
in sect
c o l o n i e s do c o m m u n i c a t e w i t h o n e
¥?heeler re m a rk s :
We h a v e s e e n t h a t t h e i n s e c t c o l o n y
o r s o c i e t y may b e r e g a r d e d a s a s u p e r ­
o rg a n is m and h e n c e a s a l i v i n g w hole
b e n t on p r e s e r v i n g i t s m oving e q u i l i b ­
rium and i t s i n t e g r i t y .
The i n d i v i d u a l s
c o m p o sin g t h e c o lo n y m ust t h e r e f o r e be
57
i n c o m m u n i c a ti o n w i t h one a n o t h e r *
The
t r u t h of t h i s sta te m e n t is indeed a p p a re n t
from th e o b s e r v a t i o n o f any i n s e c t s o c i e t y ,
b u t t h e m eth o d s o f c o m m u n ic a tio n em ployed
a r e so d i f f e r e n t from o u r s t h a t t h e i r p r e ­
c i s e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and even t h e i r d e t e c t ­
i o n may b e m a t t e r s o f c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i ­
cu lty *
U n d o u b ted ly the i n d i v i d u a l i n s e c t s
co m m u n icate by means o f s i g n s , i . e . , by
m ovem ents o f t h e body and i t s a p p e n d a g e s ,
e s p e c i a l l y o f th e a n te n n a e , by v i b r a t i o n s ,
o r s t r i d u l a t i o n , o d o rs and t a s t e s *
A ll
th e s e b elon g to th e g e n e ra l b i o l o g i c a l
c ateg o ry of s tim u li and resp o n se • • * ^
A ll language i s
fu n d a m e n ta lly on
c i t a t i o n and t r a n s m i s s i o n ,
h earin g
sounds the
th ere
organism
is
th e le v e l of ex­
i s no m agic
In
v i s i o n and o l f a c t i o n t h e r e
tw een th e
bearin g
d ifferen ce
of the
so cial
organism
is
a d irec t
th ere
from
o rg a n ism and t h a t w hich
Among t h e
fu lly .
co n tact b e­
nearness of
is
no e s s e n t i a l
of com m unication w hich tak es,
tran sm itte d
in te rco u rse.
The
In both case s
the su rfa c e
to
the
tak e s p lace in
so-
the
d e te rm in e d by th e n a t u r e o f i t s
in te g ratio n *
view m ust
are
touch or p r e s ­
s t i m u l a t i o n h a s no e s s e n t i a l
In sh o rt,
in th e process
p l a c e when s t i m u l i
calle d
source of
on t h e q u e s t i o n .
in te rio r
is
of
organism and a p h y s ic a l p r o p e r ty .
rem o ten ess of the
In
only e x h ib i t in g a h ig h ly
developed and s p e c ia liz e d u se of the sen se
sure*
in v o lv ed .
z o o lo g ists,
r e a c tio n of th e
p h y sio lo g ic al
C h ild has
expounded t h i s
I n one p l a c e he s a y s :
^
W i l l i a m M. W h e e l e r , The S o c i a l I n s e c t s , T h e i r O r i g i n
a n d E v o l u t i o n (New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e a n d C o m p a n y , 1 9 2 8 ) 7
pp. 230-231.
58
To t h e b i o l o g i s t s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n
a p p e a rs f i r s t o f a l l as b e h a v io r o f l i v i n g
p r o t o p l a s m s , a n d t h e e v i d e n c e a t h a n d seems
to i n d i c a t e t h a t from th e b e h a v io r w hich i n ­
t e g r a t e s th e i n d i v i d u a l organism i n to an
o r d e r l y and d e f i n i t e w hole t o t h a t w h ic h
i n te g r a t e s a - n a tio n , a church, or o th e r
s o c ia l groups, th e re is e s s e n tia l c o n tin ­
u ity .
The f o u n d a t i o n s o f s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n
se e m t o h i m t o l i e , n o t i n t h e s i m p l e s t
■s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n s a m ong m e n , n o t i n t h e
s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n s among a n i m a l s , b u t i n
th e a b i l i t y of l iv i n g p ro to p lasm s to r e a c t
to e n v iro n m e n t, to tr a n s m it th e e f f e c t s o f
such r e a c t i o n s , and to m a in ta in r e c o r d s o f
p a s t r e a c t i o n w hich i n f l u e n c e p r e s e n t and
f u t u r e b e h a v i o r .4 3
W hile D r.
th is
view i t
out th a t,
part
is
C h ild i s
n o t o r i g i n a l w ith him .
” . . . .
L o n g a g o Mead p o i n t e d
a s o c i a l psychology sh o u ld be th e
of p h y sio lo g ic al
co u n ter­
p s y c h o l o g y . 1144
K i m b a l l Young a l s o
tin u ity
t h e m ost o u t s t a n d i n g e x p o n e n t o f
su p p o rts t h i s
betw een p h y s i o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l
concept of a con­
b eh av io r.
He s t a t e s :
These system s [ r e s p i r a t i o n , r e p r o ­
d u c tio n , e t c . ] a re concerned w ith th e
m a in ta in a n c e of l i f e and i t s p r o p a g a tio n
i n a new g e n e r a t i o n .
In o rd e r to f a c i l ­
i t a t e th e s e b i o l o g i c a l p u rp o se s, how ever,
th e n e u ro - m u s c u la r - g la n d u la r sy stem s have
developed.
The c o o r d i n a t i o n o f a l l t h e s e
f u n c t i o n s i n t o an i n t e g r a t e d w hole t a k e s
p l a c e th ro u g h t h e autonom ic an d c e n t r a l
n erv o u s sy stem s. For our p u rp o ses th e s e
43
r
.
h
# W heeler,
R eadings, p .
568.
4 4 Q.e o rg e p[. M e a d , " S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y a s C o u n t e r p a r t
t o P h y s i o l o g i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , ” The P s . y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , VI
(December 15, 1 9 0 2 ), 4 0 8 .
59
s y s te m s a r e m ost s i g n i f i c a n t .
S till, it
m ust be r e c o g n i z e d a t a l l tim e s t h a t th e y
fu n c tio n la r g e ly to f a c i l i t a t e th e con­
tin u a n c e of th e s e o th e r l i f e - s u p p o r t i n g
o r g a n i s m ; a n d t h i s i n t e g r a t i o n i s made
p o ss ib le through th e n eu ro-m uscularg la n d u ia r sy stem .
The a d j u s t m e n t t o e n ­
v i r o n m e n t w i t h w h i c h we a r e c o n c e r n e d ,
t h e r e f o r e , t a k e s p l a c e th ro u g h th e m edia­
tio n of th e s e sy stem s.
B e h av io r, i n s h o r t , b egins i n p h y s io ­
lo g ic a l re a c tio n s to organic u rg es o r te n ­
s i o n s , b u t becomes o r g a n iz e d th r o u g h l e a r n ­
i n g so a s t o s a t i s f y n o t o n ly t h e s e d i r e c t
demands b u t a l l s o r t s o f i n d i r e c t n e e d s
w hich a r e s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e and w hich
make p o s s i b l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n g r o u p l i f e . 5
The G e r m a n p h i l o s o p h e r ,
as a p a r t
reveal
of h is
O sw ald 3 p e n g l e r , h a s
p e s s i m i s t i c w o r l d - v i e w some r e m a r k s w h i c h
h is b e lie f
o u t im p a rtin g any o f
in th e b io lo g ic a l n a tu re
of language w ith ­
h i s fu n d am e n ta l p essim ism . SaysS p e n g le r:
As t o t h e 1o r i g i n o f hum an s p e e c h , '
t h e v e ry p h r a s e i m p l i e s a wrong enun­
c i a t i o n of th e problem .
V erbal speech
— f o r t h a t i s what i s meant - - n e v e r had
o rig in s a t a l l in the sense here p o stu ­
lated .
I t is
n o t p rim ary , and i t i s n o t
u n ita ry *
The
v a s t im p o rta n c e to w hich i t
has a tta in e d ,
sin c e a c e r ta in stage in
m a n 's h i s t o r y , m ust n o t d e c e iv e us a s t o
i t s p o s itio n in th e h is to r y of free-m oving
e n tity .
An i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o s p e e c h c e r ­
t a i n l y o u g h t n o t t o b e g i n w i t h man.
But t h e i d e a o f a b e g in n in g f o r a n im a l
language, to o , i s erro n eo u s.
S peaking i s
so c l o s e l y bound up w i t h t h e l i v i n g b e i n g
of th e anim al
( in c o n tr a d ic tio n to th e
m ere b e i n g o f
th e p la n t) th a t n o t even
4b Y oung,
in clu d ed
0£ .
c i t ♦. p p . 41,
56.
60
u n i c e l l u l a r c r e a t u r e s dev oid o f a l l s e n s e o rg a n s c a n be c o n c e iv e d o f a s s p e e c h l e s s .
To. b e a m i c r o c o s m i n t h e m a c r o c o s m i s o n e
and t h e same t h i n g a s h a v i n g a p o w e r t o
com m unicate o n e s e l f t o a n o th e r *
To s p e a k
o f a b e g in n in g of speech in anim al h is t o r y ,
is m ea n in g le ss.
For t h a t m icrocosm ic ex­
i s t e n c e s a r e jjn p l u r a l i t y i s a m a t t e r o f
sim p le s e lf - e v id e n c e *
To s p e c u l a t e o n
o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s i s m ere w a s t e o f t i m e .
G ran ted t h a t D arw in ian f a n c i e s ab o u t an
o r i g i n a l g e n e r a t i o n and f i r s t p a i r s o f a n ­
c e s t o r s b elo n g w ith th e V i c to r i a n re a r g u a r d
and s h o u ld be l e f t t h e r e , s t i l l th e f a c t
r e m a i n s t h a t swarms a l s o a r e awake a n d
aw are, in w a rd ly and l i v i n g l y s e n s i b l e , of
a • w e , 1 and r e a c h i n g o u t to one a n o t h e r
fo r lin k a g e s o f w ak in g -co n scio u sn ess.
W aking-being i s a c t i v i t y i n th e e x te n d ­
ed; an d , f u r t h e r , i s w ille d a c t i v i t y .
T his
i s t h e d i s t i n c t i o n b e tw e e n t h e m ovem ents o f
a m icrocosm a n d t h e m e c h a n i c a l m o b i l i t y o f
t h e p l a n t , t h e a n i m a l , o r t h e man i n t h e
p la n t-s ta te - - i . e . , asleep .
C onsider th e
a n i m a l a c t i v i t y o f n u t r i t i o n , p r o c r e a t i o n , de^- .
f e n c e , a t t a c k — one s id e o f i t r e g u l a r l y con­
s i s t s i n g e t t i n g i n t o to u ch w ith th e m acro­
cosm b y m e a n s o f t h e s e n s e s , w h e t h e r i t b e
th e u n d if f e r e n tia te d s e n s i t iv i t y of th e un­
i c e l l u l a r c r e a tu r e or the v is io n of a h ig h ­
l y d e v e lo p e d eye t h a t i s in q u e s t i o n .
H ere
th e r e i s a d e f i n i t e w ill to r e c e iv e im pres­
s i o n ; t h i s we c a l l o r i e n t a t i o n . B u t , b e s i d e s ,
t h e r e e x i s t s from t h e b e g i n n i n g a w i l l t o
p r o d u c e i m p r e s s i o n i n t h e o t h e r — w h a t we
c a l l e x p re s s io n — and w ith t h a t , a t once,
we h a v e s p e a k i n g a s a n a c t i v i t y o f t h e
anim al w a k in g -c o n sc io u sn e ss * S in c e th e n
n o t h i n g f u n d a m e n t a l l y new h a s s u p e r v e n e d .
Th e w o r l d - l a n g u a g e s o f h i g h C i v i l i z a t i o n s
a re n o th in g b u t ex ceed in g ly r e f in e d ex­
p o s i t i o n s o f p o t e n t i a l i t i e s t h a t w ere a l l
i m p l i c i t l y c o n ta in e d in the f a c t of w ille d
im p re ssio n s o f u n i c e l l u l a r c r e a t u r e s upon
one a n o th e r . ^
4b O s w a l d S p e n g l e r , D e c l i n e o f t h e W e s t
A l f r e d A. K n o p f , 1 9 3 4 ) , I I , 1 3 2 - 1 3 3 .
(New Y o r k :
61
The s e n t e n c e ,
is
o n e a n d t h e same t h i n g
o n eself to
life
to
” To b e a m i c r o c o s m
a n o th e r,” is
as hav in g a
th e v i t a l
env iro n m en t.
Mead,
pow er t o com m unicate
sen ten ce.
the
The v i e w o f S p e n g l e r on t h i s
sa me a s t h o s e o f C h i l d ,
It
reading*
In th e
th at
—* r e a c t i o n
p o in t,
is
C o g h i l l , Young,
t u r n u p some p h y s i o l o g i c a l d i s o r d e r *
M o s t common a m ong t h e s e a r e
and h e a r in g ,
Kopel l i s t
but th e re are
research
of co u rse,
others*
fin d in g s
a f f e c t e d by s u c h t h i n g s
b rea th in g co o rd in atio n ,
fu n c tio n s of th e
th a t reading a b ility
im p erfect
speech d e fe c ts of a l l k in d s,
endocrine g lan d s
47 "
P a u l W itty and D avid
a s p o o r m otor c o n t r o l ,
d iseased to n s ils
a n d m any o t h e r s *
d iso rd e rs of v isio n
in d ic atin g
or h y p o th y ro id ism , p e c u l i a r i t i e s
blo o d ,
o f human c o m m u n i c a t i o n
stu d y of th e cau ses f o r poor re a d in g the
a u th o ritie s., in v a ria b ly
of th e
im p lies
H e r r ic k and o th e r s *
One o f t h e m o s t f a m i l i a r f o r m s
is
macrocosm
a n d l a n g u a g e a r e a t b o t to m t h e same t h i n g
e sse n tia lly
is
in th e
lik e
in
p itu itary
the
d eficien cy
chem ical c o m p o sitio n
or te e th ,
The e v i d e n c e i s
dys­
card iac
d istu rb an ces,
becom ing i n c r e a s i n g l y
m ore a b u n d a n t w h ic h shows t h e c o m m u n ic a tiv e p r o c e s s e s
to be
b a s ic a lly p h y sio lo g ic al.
S o c ia l b ehavior can,
c o n seq u en tly ,
be c o n c e iv e d a s t h e
47 P a u l W i t t y a n d D a v i d K o p e l , H e a d i n g a n d t h e
E d u c a t i v e P r o c e s s (New Y o r k : G-inn a n d C o m p a n y , 1 9 3 9 ) , p p .
2 34*
203-
62
cu lm in atin g sta g e
organism .
in the p ro g re ssiv e
As a n i n c r e a s i n g a m o u n t o f
from t h e n e c e s s i t y
from t h e z y g o te t o
a r e m ad e p o s s i b l e
respond to
m erely
the
T his i s
ad u lt.
tru e
A ll
it
is
em ployed i n
is
in te ro rg an ism ic
because of th e a b i l i t y
to
m issio n not e s s e n t i a l l y
S ocial
of b ehavior under th is
only i n
its
behavior is
a ctiv ity
and
term s o f e x c i t a t i o n and t r a n s ­
d ifferen t
o th e r types of b e h a v io r.
rela tio n s
of th e p ro to p lasm
and tr a n s m it e x c i t a t i o n s .
red u cib le
in ­
th ro u g h o u t developm ent
th e m ost com plex ty p e o f i n t e r o r g a n i s m i c
in essence
lev e ls
e n e rg y becomes r e l e a s e d
of b u ild in g tis s u e s
tero rg an ism ic a c t i v i t y .
to
developm ent of th e
from t h o s e
S o cial b eh av io r is
c o n c e p t and i t
d iffers
g r e a t e r com plexity*
in v o lv ed in
ju st
one l e v e l
from t h e
language
is
o th er
phy sio lo ­
g ical •
In o rd er to reduce
terse
n atu re
fo rm ,th e fo llo w in g
th is
e n tire
c h a p t e r t o a more
ob serv atio n s a re
o ffered in th e
o f a sum m ary.
1.
a stru c tu re
L ife
is
and i t s
in v o lv ed in t h i s
2.
consequence o f i n t e r a c t i o n betw een
en v iro n m en t.
in te rac tio n
is
The o r g a n i s m i c a c t i v i t y
c a lle d b eh av io r.
■
V ario us p ro to p la sm s have p e c u l i a r b e h a v io r p a t t e r n s
w hich r e s t r u c t
to s tim u li
the
th eir
effect
th e
resp o n ses to
s tim u li,, but th e responses,
su b se q u e n t developm ent of
the
organism ’s
stru c tu re .
3.
The e n e r g y f l o w e s s e n t i a l t o
life
i s u se d to
63
fu n ction *
or to
the
F u n c t i o n a l a c t i v i t y may b e u s e d t o
put tissu e s
o th er
Fro m t h e
in fan cy ,
th e r e l a t i v e
tio n
fe rtiliz e d
amount o f
organism ic,
in te g ratio n *
ch ild h o o d ,
decreases,
use in
The o n e may b e c a l l e d
in tero rg an ism ic
4*
m ent,
to use*
b u ild tis s u e s
egg th r o u g h em b ry o n ic d e v e lo p ­
ad o lescen ce,
and e a r l y a d u lth o o d
energy needed f o r org an ism ic i n te g r a ­
rele asin g
in te ro rg a n ism ic
i n c r e a s i n g am ounts o f
in te g ratio n *
energy f o r
A fter a p latea u of
some y e a r s a r e v e r s a l o f t h i s p r o c e s s t a k e s p l a c e a n d i n ­
c r e a s i n g am ounts o f e n e r g y a r e n e e d e d t o
tissu es*
The c u l m i n a t i o n
of th is
r e p l a c e b r o k e n down
l a t t e r process is
death*
\
5.
The i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e p r o t o p l a s m a n d i t s
m e n t i s m ade p o s s i b l e
plasm to r e c e i v e
6*
7*
tis s u e s are
These a r e
These n e rv o u s
p r o t o p l a s m i c mass a s th e
o n l y i n vt h e
s p e c ia liz e d to
arise
of' th e i r
from t h e
sa m e o r i g i n a l
and i t
is
co n n ected w ith
t h r o u g h them t h a t t h e o r g a n ­
behave a s a s in g le
9.
responses
to
from them
sp e cia liz atio n .
are d ire c tly
enabled to
organism
receiv e
o th e r .tis s u e s and d i f f e r
The n e r v o u s t i s s u e s
In a l l
the
c a lle d nervous tis s u e s *
tissu e s
com plex n a t u r e
m ost o t h e r body t i s s u e s
ism i s
p ro to ­
I n c o m p l e x a n i m a l o r g a n i s m ? , o f w h i c h man i s
stim u li*
8.
of a l l
and tr a n s m it s tim u li*
m ost com plex, c e r t a i n
certain
b e c a u se of th e a b i l i t y
en v iro n ­
en tity *
en v iro n m en tal s tim u li, th e
r e a c t s a s a w hole and o n ly th r o u g h r e p e a t e d s i m i l a r -
64
reactio n s
is
ab le
to
develop d i s c r e t
C om plexity of b e h a v io r i s
larg e p a tte rn s,
10.
tia lly
not the a d d itio n s
S o cial
of sm all r e a c t i o n u n i t s .
b ehavio r is n ot essen ­
It
w hich i s
in
based,
lik e
a ll
t h e m o s t u s u a l medium o f s o c i a l
is not th e .a b s tr a c t th in g i t
but is
is
ex p erien ces.
Language,
in terco u rse,
reactio n s.
o f th e breakdow n o f
(in tero rg an ism ic)
on s e n s o r y
11.
be,
resu lt
d i f f e r e n t from o t h e r b e h a v io r .
b eh av io r,
to
th e
lo ca liz ed
appears,
e v e ry i n s t a n c e b a s e d on c o n c r e t e
at firs t,
sensory
ex p erien ces.
12.
F rom t h e
first
reactio n
o f t h e ovum t o
the
sperm
to
t h e m ost com plex b e h a v i o r b a s e d on l a n g u a g e sy m b o lism t h e r e
is
a c o n t i n u i t y w hich i s
ex p lain ab le
only in term s of th e
b i o l o g i c a l n a tu r e o f th e organism .
T h eim p licatio n s of th ese fin d in g s
h y p o th esis
of th is
paper have y et
to
th is
d ata
exam ine c u r r e n t
w ill attem p t to
p resen ted
to
p rac tic e.
in the
ch ap ter.
To a p p r e c i a t e
e d u catio n al process, i t
ed u ca tiv e
do t h a t
in th is
the
the u ltim a te
to be e x p lo r e d ,
f u r t h e r backgrounding i s n e c e s s a ry .
l a t i o n of
for
b u t,first,
the r e ­
is
necessary
The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r
lig h t of th e b io lo g ic a l d ata
CHAPTER I I I
TRADITIONAL EDUCATIONAL PRACTICE
E du catio n today i s
d iffic u lt
a t d e s c r i p t i o n m ust be i n g e n e r a l
g en eralized n atu re w ill
tio n al p rac tic es
d escrib e.
term s,
im pair i t s
a re n o t uniform ,
to
and y e t i t s
v a lid ity .
it
is
Any e f f o r t
S ince
alm o st
very
educa­
im p o ssib le
t o m ake a n y s t a t e m e n t t o w h i c h t h e r e w i l l n o t b e f o u n d many
ex cep tio n s.
isio n s
In th is
T his i s
fo rtu n ate.
Through v a r i a t i o n s
become p o s s i b l e a n d from c o m p a r is o n s
way f o r w a r d l o o k i n g
th erefo re,
it
is
p o ssib le
ev alu atio n s a ris e ;
ed u cato rs a re a b le
r o a d w h ic h w i l l b r i n g them im p ro v e d r e s u l t s .
to
say t h a t
com par-
to
select a
In generalj.
e d u c a tio n today i s '
v aried .
Now, t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e c o n c e p t o f v a r i e d
tio n a l
p rac tic e
i m p l i e s a n o r m o f some s o r t .
v a ria tio n s are o ff a sin g le
T h at* in e d u c a tio n a l
cepted is
lary ,
ab u n d an tly
educa­
U nless th e
sta n d a rd th ey a re n o t m easu rab le.
c irc le s,a
te stifie d
E d u catio n al l i t e r a t u r e
s t a n d a r d o f som e s o r t
is
ac­
by t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l v o c a b u ­
abounds in
such term s as
11t r a d i t i o n a l , “ “ c l a s s i c a l , “ “ e x p e r i m e n t a l , ” “ p r o g r e s s i v e , ”
“ c h i l d - c e n t e r e d , ” an d “a c t i v i t y , ”
stra te s
some a g r e e m e n t i n t h e
p rac tic es.
itio n s
Such t e r m i n o l o g y demon­
c la ssific a tio n
I n d i v i d u a l s may d i f f e r a s
to be a p p l i e d
to
th ese
term s,
to t h e
b u t,
of school
p recise d e fin ­
in g e n eral,
th ere
66
is
ag reem en t.
At l e a s t t h e r e
" t r a d i t i o n a l ” a p p ro a c h to
approaches branch o u t.
is
In the d e s c rip tio n of th e
in th is
be t h i s
“t r a d i t i o n a l ” approach.
fu lle r,
ch ap ter th e
ch ap ter th a t
th is
It
th e p a s t.
is
a
ed u cativ e
of re fe re n c e
w ill
h o p e d by t h e c o n c l u ­
term w i l l have ta k e n on a
sig n ific an c e.
e d u catio n al p ra c tic e
d o m in a te d by c o n s i d e r a t i o n s
the
constant p o in t
a n d p e r h a p s m ore o m in o u s,
T rad itio n a l
is
e d u c a tio n from w hich m ost o t h e r
prooecs
sio n of th e
agreem ent t h a t t h e r e
of th e
i n A m erica h a s been
f u t u r e w ith o u t re g a rd to
E d u c a tio n h a s been c o n ceiv ed as p r e p a r a t i o n f o r
fu tu re.
The c h i l d r e n h a v e b e e n v i e w e d a s
o r g a n i s m s who n e e d som e f i n i s h i n g
be p e r m i t t e d
to
tak e p a rt
incom plete
to u ch es b e fo re th e y can
i n th e norm al s o c i a l
life .
John
Dewey h a s o b j e c t e d :
C h ild ren a re n o t reg ard ed as s o c ia l
members i n f u l l a n d r e g u l a r s t a n d i n g .
They a r e lo o k e d u p o n a s c a n d i d a t e s ; t h e y
a r e p l a c e d on t h e w a i t i n g list.-* The v e r y f a c t
to d e s c r ib e th e
d ica tiv e
liv in g
of t h i s
th at
th e term
” c o m m e n c e m e n t 11 i s
co m pletion of an e d u c a tiv e pro cess
p r e p a r a tio n c o n cep t.
b e g in s only a f t e r
ed u catio n i s
It
is
used
in ­
assum es t h a t r e a l
com pleted.
Such a
view d o m in a te s o u r e d u c a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e .
J o h n Dewey, D e m o c r a c y a n d E d u c a t i o n (New Y o r k : The
M a c m i l l a n Company, 1 9 3 7 ) , p . 6 3 .
F o r a com m entary on Dewey*s
c r i t i c i s m f r o m a d i f f e r e n t p o i n t o f v i e w s e e H e r m a n H. H o r n e ,
T h e D e m o c r a t i c P h i l o s o p h y o f E d u c a t i o n (New Y o r k : The M a c m i l l a n
Company, 1 9 3 2 ) , p p . 5 9 - 6 2 .
67
The c u r r i c u l u m
based,
n o t on t h e
of the
e le m e n ta r y sc h o o l w hich p re c e d e d i t ,
on th e c o ll e g e w hich i s
ical
to
fac t,
th e h ig h
th e d e sire
t r a d i t i o n a l high sch o o l is
to fo llo w
it*
s c h o o l ow e s i t s
of th e
As a m a t t e r o f h i s t o r ­
grow th and developm ent
c o lle g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s
en terin g
s t u d e n t s p r o v i d e d w i t h a m ore u n i f o r m
The t e r m
“p r e p a r a t o r y ” w h i c h i s
ondary sc h o o ls i s
illu stra tiv e
s i m i l a r manner th e
elem en tary
its
o fferin g s
the
secondary scho o ls# ^
it,
th is
ap p lied
o rig in *
to have t h e i r
background*^
to
certain
In th is
sec­
I n a somewhat
s c h o o l was f o r c e d t o
so a s t o p r e p a r e i t s
h a v e come t o d o m i n a t e
is
still
of
but
stan d ard ize
p ro d u c t f o r a d m iss io n to
way, a d m i s s i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s
e d u catio n al o ffe rin g s
c o n c e r n e d ,n o t w i t h th e program of t h e
and each school
l e v e l w hich p r e c e d e s
b u t w ith th e program o f th e l e v e l w hich fo llo w s
h a s b e e n o b s e r v e d by H. C. M o r r i s o n .
it*
T his
He r e m a r k s :
The c o l l e g e - p r e p a r a t i o n o b j e c t i v e b e i n g
th e o n ly one o f w hich s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n
i s d e f i n i t e l y aw are, and fo r th e a tta in m e n t
o f w h i c h some d e g r e e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y c a n
d e f i n i t e l y be f i x e d , i t te n d s to d e te rm in e
t h e p o l i c y o f t h e w hole s y s t e m .4
M orriso n goes even f u r t h e r and co n ten d s t h a t
th e
2 F . E n g e l h a r d t a n d A. V. O v e r n , S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n ,
P r i n c i p l e s and. P r a c t i c e s (New Y o r k : D. A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y
C om pany, 1 9 3 7 ) , pp* 1 2 9 -1 6 3 *
5 I b id . , pp.
164-187.
’ H e n r y C. M o r r i s o n ,
of C hicago P r e s s , 1 9 3 0 ), p .
S c h o o l Revenue (C h ica g o :
98*
U n iv ersity
presence
of
such a purpose
be j u s t i f i e d , f o r
c itize n s.
it
in a ta x su p p o rted school cannot
has n o th in g to
do w i t h m a k i n g b e t t e r
Such a p u rp o s e , he s a y s ,
is
p riv ate,
not p u b lic.
He c o n t e n d s :
I f t r a n s i t i o n i n to c o lle g e m eant p a ssa g e
from one s t a g e o f c i t i z e n s h i p t r a i n i n g to
a n o t h e r , t h e p r o c e s s w ould c o m p o rt w i t h t h e
. e s s e n tia l purpose of the S ta te sc h o o l.
It
se ld o m , h o w e v e r, m eans a n y th i n g o f t h e s o r t *
I t means r a t h e r t h e p r i v i l e g e o f p u r s u i n g
a c a d e m i c s u b j e c t s w h i c h , h o w e v e r m uch t h e y
may c o n t r i b u t e t o e n l i g h t e n m e n t i n g e n e r a l ,
n a t u r a l l y and p r o p e r l y h av e no p r im a r y
c itiz e n s h ip purpose.
I n e f f e c t , s c h o o l money i s u s e d t o p a y
f o r th e a tta in m e n t of a p r i v a t e and i n d i ­
v i d u a l i s t i c p u rp o s e and n o t f o r a c i v i c
and s o c i a l p u r p o s e .
The m o t i v e i s t h e
m otive o f th e p r i v a t e s c h o o l .5
F i n a n c i a l c o n s id e r a ti o n s a re n o t , how ever,
concern of t h i s
paper.
M o re i m p o r t a n t a r e
p s y c h o lo g ic a l and b i o l o g i c a l
c ited
in
th e p rev io u s
arrangem ent d is r e g a r d s
In p a rtic u la r,
each a c t i v i t y
the n a tu re
in to
is
in
it
of the
of a ll
account the
tu rn
certain
d isreg ard s
it
o ther
F rom t h e
w i l l be s e e n t h a t
ev id en ce
such an
fun dam ental b i o l o g i c a l f a c t s .
th e
e v i d e n c e w h i c h sh o ? /s t h a t
organism d e te rm in e s ,
subsequent a c t i v i t i e s .
fact
certain
co n sid era tio n s.
ch ap ter,
th e p rim ary
th at a c tiv ity
l i m i t e d by s t r u c t u r e .
in a la rg e m easure,
It
fails
to take
d eterm in es s tr u c tu r e
and
The b e h a v i o r o f t h e g a s t r u l a .
6:9
o r o f t h e more f u l l y
is
d e v e lo p e d em bryo,
o r even of th e in f a n t,
n o t d e te r m i n e d by any r e g a r d f o r a rem o te f u t u r e
by t h e
demands o f t h e
e n v iro n m e n t i n w hich i t
need,
fin d s
but
itse lf
at
a n y g i v e n moment*
F urtherm ore,
have a f a i r l y
th is
c o m p lete know ledge b e f o r e he s h o u ld be p e r m i t t e d
to u s e any know ledge*
know ledge i s
P r o v e r b ia l rem arks such a s ,
”A l i t t l e
a d a n g e r o u s t h i n g , 11 a n d ”C h i l d r e n s h o u l d b e
s e e n and n o t h e a r d , ” a r e
not the
c o n ce p t assum es t h a t a c h i l d m ust
in d ic ativ e
of th is
v iew point*
c o n v e n t i o n a l commencement s p e a k e r i n f o r m h i s
th a t th ey a re
fo rtu n es?
a b o u t t o go o u t i n t o
Are n o t a l l
co m p lete know ledge i s
ap p lied ?
v io u sly
It
th ese
w orld to
liste n ers
seek t h e i r
i n a g r e e m e n t t h a t a.
n e e d e d b e f o r e any k n o w le d g e s h o u l d be
w o u ld seem t h a t
c o n tra d ic to ry
In C h ap ter I I
ideas
the
Does
th ey a r e ,
ev id en ce,
it
in s p ite
o f m uch o b ­
in agreem ent on t h a t p o in t*
was shown t h a t
developm ent a r i s e s
as
a c o n seq u en ce o f b e h a v io r and t h a t b e h a v io r does n o t w a it
f o r co m p lete d developm ent*
out i t s
little
Is
.The h u m a n e m b r y o b e h a v e s t h r o u g h ­
d e v e lo p m e n t an d so d o e s t h e
know ledge i s
th ere
school c h ild .
a dangerous th in g ,
to
w alk n e g l e c t
to
take h is
know ledge o f w a lk in g i s
inco m p lete?
p r o b l e m s i n t h e v/ay o f
such a b e l i e f ,
How
S hould a c h i l d
first
in
ste p because h is
In s p ite
it
a
out of danger?
a n y o n e whose k n o w le d g e i s n o t i n c o m p l e t e ?
m u ch k n o w l e d g e i s m o r e t h a n a l i t t l e ?
learn in g
who i s
If
still
of th e obvious
p e rsists
and
70
h ig h sch o o ls
c o lleg e
of th e
still
reg u la te th e ir o ffe rin g s
en tran ce req u irem e n ts.
school o ffe rin g s
is
field s
o f know ledge*
its
A m ore d e t a i l e d
ex am ination;
now i n o r d e r *
One o f t h e d i s t i n c t i v e
secondary e d u c a tio n i s
on th e b a s i s o f
featu res
of c o lle g ia te
arrangem ent a c c o rd in g to
re s p e c ts.th is has
filte re d
th e e le m e n ta r y s c h o o ls where p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n ,
lite ra tu re ,
m anual tr a in in g ,m u s ic ,
con sidered as s p e c ia l
c la sses.
a sc h o o l system such as
e x ists
T his
sep arately
riv a lrie s
and i n
v ario u s
certain
and j e a l o u s i e s
is
great
and o th e r f i e l d s
p articu larly
em phasis.
the
develop in th e
on th e f i e l d
e f f o r t to keep
ten d en cy i s
m ad e i n
1893.
It
g eo m etry , n a t u r a l
begun e a r l i e r
one
of a n o th e r.
in
th e
of
h a s been s u c c e s s i v e l y pu sh ed .d o w n ­
seco n d ary and elem e n tary s c h o o ls .
of th is
of
Under
o f h i g h e r l e a r n i n g and, u n d e r t h e p r e s s u r e
e n tra n c e req u irem en ts, i t
w ard i n t o
tru e
are
g re a t d epartm ental
T his s u b j e c t - m a t t e r a rr a n g e m e n t o r i g i n a t e d
in stitu tio n s
n atu re
f i e l d s o f know ledge a re t a u g h t
lo c a litie s
d e p a rtm e n t from i n f r i n g i n g
in to
i n D e t r o i t w here th e p l a t o o n
system o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n r e c e i v e s
such an a rran g em en t,
certain :
H igh s c h o o ls a n d c o l l e g e s a r e d e p a r t ­
m e n ta liz e d and i n c e r t a i n
stu d y ,
and
the r e p o r t of
Illu stra tiv e
"The C o m m ittee o f T en”
co n ten d ed t h a t such s u b je c ts a s a lg e b r a ,
scien ce,
. . . .
and f o r e i g n
o r th e
language,
“ s h o u l d be
seco n d a ry -sc h o o l p e rio d should
71
be made t o
b e g i n two y e a r s
sequence, th e
in tro d u c e
tra d itio n a l
the
ch ild
to
e arlie r
6
t h a n n o w * 11
As a c o n ­
sc h o o l sy stem s to d ay e n d e a v o r-to
sp e cia liz ed
su b je c t-m a tte r as
early
as p o ssib le*
A f t e r f i v e o r s i x y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e a s a member o f
so ciety
signed
the
th e
to
c h i l d comes i n t o
a s c h o o l s y s te m w hich i s
p r e p a r e h i m t o b e a m em ber o f s o c i e t y .
school a c t i v i t i e s
are
co n sid erab ly
i n w hich th e c h i l d h as p a r t i c i p a t e d *
great
amount o f freedom
in the n a tu re
ab le
is
p e r m itte d and th e
of o rg an ized p la y .
a v ailab le
for
To b e s u r e , t h e r e
lativ ely
f e w a n d m uch o f t h e
these
lea rn in g
r e s p e c ts the
P ic tu re
of t h is
a c tiv itie s
are
a v ail­
and c o n s i d e r a b l e
activ ity
in cid en tal
c h ild ’s f i r s t
is
to
days a t
days b e fo re
but th ese
co n d itio n in g process, g rea t
are
re­
random a c t i v i t y
th e a c t i v i t i e s .
school are
sch o o lin g
a co n d itio n in g process s e ts
produce w ith in th e
a c tiv itie s
books a re
are r e s tr a in ts ,
v e r y much l i k e h e s p e n t h i s
Soon, how ever,
o th er
th e c h ild r e n to u se as th ey
d esire.
w ith m ost o f t h e
At f i r s t
In th e k in d e rg a rte n a
f o r t h o s e c h i l d r e n who a r e i n t e r e s t e d
equipm ent i s
the
lik e
de­
in .
In
spent
began.
As a r e s u l t
ch an ges a r e w rought w hich
sc h o o l an atm o sp h ere u n l i k e
a n y th in g w hich
c h ild has e x p e rie n c e d befo re..
6 C om m ittee o f Ten, R e p o rt on S e c o n d a ry S c h o o l S t u d i e s
(W ashington: P u b lis h e d f o r th e N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia tio n
by t h e A m e r ic a n Book Company, 1 8 9 4 ) , p . 4 5 .
72
P erh ap s th e m ost c o n sp icu o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
c h ild ren is
t h e i r never ceasin g c u r io s ity .
"Baby S n o o k s"
p e r s i s t e n t "Why?" w h i c h h a s d e l i g h t e d t h o u s a n d s
liste n ers
is
P aren ts are
cap ita liz in g
p l a g u e d by t h e . c o n s t a n t c r o s s
be i r k e d by t h i s
because th ey r e a l i z e
B o istero u sn ess
hood p lay and th e
self,
is
by h i s
is
c h i l d come t o
c h ild ’s life lb e g in
c h i l d b e g i n to
S low ly does t h i s
t o work i t s
fin d s
show m a r k e d p e r s o n a l i t y
wisdom o f t h e
and w hat he i s
p laym ates and c o n ce rn
does th e norm al
new e l e m e n t i n t h e
i n f l u e n c e and s lo w ly d o es th e
Awed b y t h e n o v e l t y o f h i s
in fin ite
who s e e m s c o n t e n t e d b y h i m ­
of b u b b lin g en th u siasm
sch o o l.
changes*
s u r r o u n d in g s and th e seem ing
tea ch er,, th e
c h ild accep ts
what he
t o l d w ith an e v e r i n c r e a s i n g d o c i l i t y .
I f a c h ild does n o t u n d erstan d a f t e r
two o r t h r e e
ex p la n atio n s,
t h e t e a c h e r d i s m i s s e s t h e p o i n t w i t h some s u c h r e m a r k ,
" W e l l , we c a n ’ t s p e n d a n y m o r e t i m e o n t h a t s u b j e c t .
to cover th e
le sso n ."
In t h is
tau g h t g ain ascendance in th e
of the
way d o e s t h e
as,
We h a v e
s u b je c t b eing
t e a c h e r ’ s m ind a t
the
expense
ch ild *
B ecause of
it,
t h e norm al accom panim ent of c h i l d ­
s ile n t c h ild ,
F u ll
th ey t o le r a te
a norm al h e a lth y m a n i f e s ta t io n .
t h e o b j e c t o f s u s p i c i o n by h i s
p aren ts*
q u e s t i o n i n g im­
Though t h e y may, a t
in q u isitiv en e ss,
th at i t
is
of radio
on t h i s w e l l known human t r a i t .
p o s e d on them by t h e i r o f f - s p r i n g .
tim es,
o f young
th e a u r a o f a u t h o r i t y w hich s u p p o s e d ly
surrounds th e
teach er*s
sc h o o l classro o m i s
ch ild
g rad u ally
not
pronouncem ents,
and b e c a u s e th e
c o n d u c iv e to mass r e s i s t e n c e ,
suppresses h is
c u rio sity .
th e
Soon he w i l l be
p r e s e n t e d t o t h e w o r l d o f b o o k s a n d w i l l go a b o u t p a r a d i n g
th e
in fo rm a tio n secu red t h e r e i n w ith th e
tru th .
In e x p lan atio n
been co m p letely s t i f l e d
b o o k .”
G r a d u a lly m ost
to
sp irit
of free
o f proven,
one whose c u r i o s i t y h a s n o t y e t
he w i l l re p ly ,
”Oh,
I read i t
c h i l d r e n w i l l , come t o
an e x p la n a tio n as d e f i n i t e
on t h e i r
fin a lity
a c c e p t such
proof of v a l i d i t y
and from t h e n
i n q u i r y w i l l be b u r i e d
F ro m a b o u t t h e m i d d l e o f t h e
in a
in a lib ra ry .
elem entary y e a rs ,
th e
c h ild fin d s h im s e lf c o n s ta n tly p re s e n te d w ith re a d in g m ater­
ials
and w r i t te n e x e r c i s e s .
from t h e
He, i s
what i s ,
seat h im self.
to him ,
o rien tatio n
is
an u n d e s ira b le
cen tered
on t h e
fello w s.
S ince th e
ita te s
t a l k u n le s s he i s
its
d riv e
q u a lity .
and f o r c e
He i s
w ork w h ic h i s
i n s t e a d o f w here he w ould
lo ca tio n .
graded la r g e ly
F ro m now o n h i s
teach er ra th e r
the
s u r e he i s
and t a k e s
He n o l o n g e r l o o k s
o r blam e.
t e a c h e r knows a l l
only the
a m em ber*
I n t h i s way h e may f i n d h i m s e l f i n
g ro u p a s a w hole f o r p r a i s e
to
iso lated
s o c i a l g r o u p o f w h i c h h e was o r i g i n a l l y
o ften seated a lp h a b e tic a lly
cho.ose t o
to th e
I n m any w a y s h e i s
th a n on h i s
answ ers, he h e s ­
rig h t*
H is v o ic e
o n a m eek a n d s o m e w h a t h e s i t a n t
on th e
b asis
of h is
c o n ce rn of h im s e lf and th e
F ellow c la s s m a te s need n o t
loses
le a rn of h is
w ritte n
teach er.
perform ance u n le s s
74
he chooses to
inform
them .
Hence,
th e
ch ild
f u n c t i o n i n g on a p r e d o m i n a n t l y n o n - s o c i a l ?
p e r s o n many y e a r s h i s
ity
s e n i o r who i s
c ertain
o f h i s ground*
have been w id e ly condemned.
b a s i s w i t h a.
in a p o s itio n of au th o r­
a n d b e f o r e whom h e d o e s n o t f e e l f r e e
s e l f u n le s s he i s
fin d s him self
to
e x p r e s s him ­
These p r a c t i c e s
Such p r a c t i c e s h a v e b e e n c o n ­
d e m n e d b y P a u l W i t t y a n d D a v i d K o p e l who o b s e r v e :
I n m any s c h o o l s t h e d i s r e g a r d o f i n ­
d i v i d u a l n e e d s makes i t im p o s s i b l e f o r
each c h ild to f e e l t h a t he i s a t t a i n i n g
s t a n d i n g a s a n e s t e e m e d m em b er o f h i s
group.
E v e ry c h i l d must a t t a i n t h i s
s t a t u s i f h i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s a r e t o be
a d e q u a t e ; f o r h e i s a lw ay s a member o f
some g r o u p , a l t h o u g h i t may b e v e r y
sm all,®
P re sc o tt* s
p re ssin g th e
com m ittee h a s n o te d t h i s
c h ild * s n a tu r a l tendencies*
process of de­
It
rep o rts:
? I t i s r e a l iz e d , of c o u rse , th a t th e te a c h e r - p u p il
re la tio n s h ip is a s o c ia l one, but i t i s not as s o c ia liz e d
a s a s i t u a t i o n i n v o l v i n g t h e w hole group*
H ere a g a in i t m ust
b e a d m i t t e d t h a t e v e n u n d e r s u c h c i r c u m s t a n c e s s t u d e n t s do
f e e l th e p re s s u re of th e group, b u t th e i n te n t io n of th e
t r a d i t i o n a l p h ilo so p h y o f e d u c a tio n i s to red u c e th e in flu e n c e
o f t h e s e s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s t o a n a b s o l u t e m in im u m a n d make
th e classro o m as d e -e m o tio n a liz e d and o b je c tiv e as p o s s ib l e .
A d e q u a t e t e r m i n o l o g y d o e s n o t se em a v a i l a b l e t o make t h i s d i s ­
t i n c t i o n more p r e c i s e , c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e t e r m " n o n - s o c i a l ” a s
u se d i n t h i s p a p e r w i l l r e f e r to a p o i n t o f view o r s i t u a t i o n
i n w h i c h e f f o r t s a r e made t o d i s r e g a r d t h e e s s e n t i a l l y s o c i a l
n a tu re of a l l sch o o l s itu a tio n s *
Process
® P a u l W itty and D avid K opel, R ead in g and th e E d u c a tiv e
(New Y o r k : G i n n a n d C o m p an y , 1 9 3 9 ) , p . 3 0 1 ,
75
Many p e o p l e h a v e n o t i c e d how r a p i d l y
c h ild re n lo se t h e i r q u estio n in g s p i r i t
a f t e r th ey b eg in sc h o o l.
Perhaps t h i s
d e c re a s e in c u r i o s i t y is a norm al one,
but th ere is a re a l p o s s ib ility th a t i t
a p p e a rs because sc h o o ls check th e norm al
m a t u r i n g o f c o n c e p t s , w hich comes a s e x ­
p e rie n c e s accu m u late.
Indeed, a f f e c t i v e
f a c t o r s may p l a y a l a r g e r o l e d u e t o t h e
u n p l e a s a n t f e e l i n g s a r o u s e d by t h e b l o c k ­
i n g o f s o many i n t e r e s t s a n d b y t h e f r u s ­
t r a t i o n o f s o much n a t u r a l i n q u i s i t i v e n e s s
d u rin g the e a r ly y e a r s in s c h o o l.
So many
c h i l d r e n a n d e v e n a d u l t s seem t o f e e l t h a t
s c h o o ls a re a l l th e o r y , a b s t r a c t i o n , and
u n r e a l i t y and t h a t l i f e o u ts id e i s e s s e n ­
t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t from l i f e a t s c h o o l t h a t
we a r e l e d t o w o n d e r w h e t h e r t h e r e i s
some v a l i d b a s i s f o r t h i s w i d e s p r e a d f e e l ­
in g .
A t l e a s t , we c a n n o t d e n y t h a t many
s c h o o l s d o s h u t c h i l d r e n a w ay f r o m t h e i r
en v iro n m en ts d u rin g r e l a t i v e l y long h o u rs
a n d r e q u i r e o f them a c t i v i t i e s t h a t show
a min im um o f a p p a r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p t o
th e ir e a r l i e r ex p erien ce.
We m u s t c o n t e n d t h a t t h e m o r e o r l e s s
r i g i d d a i l y r o u t i n e s of th e sc h o o l and
th e lim ite d , fo rm al assignm ents and d i s ­
cu ssio n s of c u rr ic u la r m a te ria l i n t e r ­
f e r e w ith norm al m o tiv a tio n and b re a k ­
down i n t e r e s t a n d c u r i o s i t y . . .
W hile
th is is not an o rig in a l c r itic is m , i t is
i n need of r e i t e r a t i o n as long a s t r a d ­
i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e d o m i n a t e s i n s o m any o f
our sch o o ls.
The t r o u b l e , o f c o u r s e ,
a r i s e s from t h e s t r e s s l a i d u p o n t h e i n ­
t e l l e c t u a l a s p e c ts o f sc h o o l l i f e to th e
e x c l u s i o n o f r e l a t i v e n e g l e c t o f t h e emo­
tio n a l o r a f f e c tiv e sid e of ex p erien c e.^
’
y D a n ie l A l f r e d P r e s c o t t , c h a irm a n , Em otion and th e
E d u c a t i v e P r o c e s s ( W a s h in g to n : A m e ric a n C o u n c i l on E d u c a t i o n ,
1933), pp. 236-237.
T h i s sa m e c o n d i t i o n h a s p r o v o k e d H a r o l d R ug g a n d Ann
Shumaker t o
observe th a t:
Speech i s o n ly
m annered, subdued
means m a rc h in g i n
a t th e sig n al, fo r
on p e r m i s s i o n i n w e l l t o n e s ; a n d movement
o r d e r l y r o w s , two a b r e a s t - »
d ism issa l.1 0
The w h o l e m o v e m e n t among t h e
the
so c ializ e d
dom inated,
re c ita tio n
a rtific ia l
R egarding t h i s
so cial
sc ie n c e p eo p le
for
was i n r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e t e a c h e r
atm o sphere o f t h e
ty p ic al
classroom -*'
E . B* W e s l e y s a i d :
P u p i l s m ust l e a r n to c o n s i d e r t h e
c l a s s r a t h e r th a n th e t e a c h e r and to
look to i t f o r a p p r a i s a l and e n c o u ra g e ­
m ent.^-^
Even i f
p rep aratio n i t
process*
have to
If
one a c c e p t s
is
th e .p rin c ip le
d iffic u lt
ed u catio n i s
be d i f f e r e n t
to
ju stify
of ed u catio n as
th is
c o n d itio n in g
p rep aratio n fo r l i f e ,
from l i f e ?
why d o e s i t
Some, y e a r s a g o A l e x a n d e r
M eik lejo h n d e liv e re d a l e c tu r e b e fo re a g ra d u a tio n c la s s
c o lleg e
sen io rs,
12
i n v/hich h e com pared r e a l l i f e
b a l l g am e a n d s c h o o l l i f e
th a t b aseb all
School
to
a ten n is
game*
was a ga m e i n w h i c h o n e t r i e d
of
to a b a s e ­
He p o i n t e d o u t
to
" r i d e 11 t h e
H a r o l d R u g g a n d A n n S h u m a k e r , The C h i l d - C e n t e r e d
(New Y o r k : W o r l d B o o k C o m p an y , 1 9 2 8 ) , p . 3 .
H E dgar B ruce W esley, T each in g th e S o c i a l S t u d i e s
(New Y o r k : D. C. H e a t h , 1 9 3 7 ) , p . 544*.
12 D e l i v e r e d i n J u n e , 1 9 3 2 , b e f o r e
of th e C o lle g e s of th e C ity of D e tro it*
th e
g rad u atin g c la s
77
o p p o s i t i o n and w hich one p la y e d w i t h s p i k e s b a r e d .
on t h e
o th er hand,
w hich t h e
lo ser
h e h e l d t o b e a " g e n t l e m e n * s l! g am e i n
leap ed th e n e t to
co n g ratu late
and b o th p l a y e r s p o se d f o r p i c t u r e s
faces.
In b r ie f ,
he t o ld
th e w inner
w ith sm iles
th ese co lleg e
on t h e i r
sen io rs
t h a t what
t h e y h a d b e e n e x p e r i e n c i n g i n s c h o o l was n o t a t
the
life
I n t h i s h e was n o t o r i g i n a l .
co ld ,
hard w orld.
If
tra d itio n a l
d o c trin e
t o do t h i s
life
ed u ca tio n is
ch ap ter
it
to
was r e c a l l e d t h a t
th e
the
resu lt
o f a n i n t e r a c t i o n betw een
en vironm ent.
re su lt of a c tiv ity ,
In o th e r w ords, d e v e lo p ­
of b eh av io r.
If,
one b u i l t a c o n c e p t o f e d u c a ti o n w i t h o u t r e g a r d
th e
r e s u l t w ould be a s c h o o l system
regard
a ctiv ity
or,
b est,
at
j u s t what th e
th at
the
fin d .
e v i d e n c e showed t h a t e a c h d e v e lo p m e n t o f t h e o r ­
th e organism and i t s
p rin cip le
attem p t
so d i f f e r e n t fro m n o rm a l
The a n s w e r i s n o t d i f f i c u l t
came a b o u t a s
ment i s
be p o s t u l a t e d
of p re p a ra tio n fo r life ,w h y does i t
At th e b eg in n in g of t h i s
b io lo g ic al
to bew are o f
supposed to
i n a n e n v iro n m e n t w hich i s
situ atio n s?
ganism
lik e
C o m m encem en t
o r a t o r s h a v e alw ay s adm onished t h e i r h e a r e r s
on t h e
a ll
t h e y v/ere g o i n g to. e x p e r i e n c e f o l l o w i n g t h e i r
g rad u a tio n .
th e
T en n is,
as h av in g a l e g itim a te
a very lim ite d p lac e in
tra d itio n a l
place
b e tte r
for th is
th a t did n o t
in
ed u catio n .
school d o e s,w ith th e
c o lleg e g rad u ate is
how ever,
ed u catio n ,
T h is i s
consequence
prepared fo r grad u ate
78
stu d y th an f o r any o th e r a c t iv i t y *
life ,
h is
b e c a u s e h e d o e s n o t kn o w how t o u s e t h e
command*
spread
T h is i s u n d o u b te d ly th e
o b serv atio n ,
p re p a re d to
th in g
m aterials a t
o r i g i n of th e w ide­
q u ip w hich d e f i n e s a g r a d u a te s t u d e n t a s
who d o e s n * t knov/ t h e
th is
He i s n o t p r e p a r e d f o r
else#
show i s
T here
is
much p o i n t t o
fo r th e average g rad u ate
is
m uch b e t t e r
co n tin u e
a tten d in g
The r e a s o n i s
school s itu a tio n s ,
over#”
,fA m o r o n
sc h o o l th a n he i s
fo r any­
t h a t he h a s u s e d h i s know ledge i n
b u t he h a s seldom u s e d i t
i n any o th e r
co n n ectio n #
The t r a d i t i o n a l
concept of ed u ca tio n as prep aratio n !
em phasizes th e a c q u i s i t i o n
away f o r f u t u r e u s e #
o f know ledge w hich i s
T h i s makes o f
to
ed u ca tio n a p a ssiv e
c e s s w i t h e v e r y t h i n g f l o ? / in g from t h e
teach er,
to
p h y sio lo g ic al
the
th at
stu d en t#
It
ig n o re s the b a s ic
pro­
o r th e books,
fact
f o r e v e r y s t i m u l u s t h e r e must be a r e a c t i o n i n te r m s
o f the
t o t a l organism #
sym bols,
in the
w hether th e y
case of the
It
fails
to
d e a f and b l i n d ,
d ifferen t
organism r e a c t s .
It
fails
th is
eye,
on th e
th at
to
rea liz e
language
o r on t h e
ta c tile
th an o th e r s tim u li
and r e a c t i o n a r e one and th e
S. Freem an p u t i t
rea liz e
im p in g e on t h e
are not b a s ic a lly
F.
be s t o r e d
to w hich th e
life ,
R . M. O g d e n a n d
way:
The c h a n g e s w r o u g h t i n e d u c a t i o n a r e
changes of b eh av io r.
A so c ial process
or,
recep to rs,
th a t b eh av io r,
same t h i n g #
ear,
79
i s h e re im p lie d , f o r th e term b e h a v io r
s u g g e s t s t h e manner o f c o n d u c t in g o n e s e l f
and th e t r e a t m e n t one a c c o r d s to o th e r s *
E d u c a tio n i s concerned w ith organism s * .
• • • a s th e y b eh av e and c o n d u c t th e m s e lv e s
in accordance w ith the c o n d itio n s of liv in g
and g r o w i n g # ^
I n a s i m i l a r m a n n e r C. H. W o o l b e r t h a s p o i n t e d t o
sa m e t h i n g *
the
He s a y s : :
D e s p i t e th e m odern t e n d e n c i e s t o i n s i s t th a t ed u ca tio n is not a p ro cess of f i l l i n g
up em pty s p a c e s , b u t one o f i n c r e a s i n g
one*s pow ers, th e s e t r a d i t i o n a l d i s c i p l i n e s ,
a s ta u g h t a lm o st anyw here, a r e s t i l l prim ­
a r i l y t a s k s i n a d d i t i o n • • • They aim t o
f i l l th e f u e l b in s r a t h e r th a n tu r n the
m ach in ery .
T h i s t r a d i t i o n a l mood i n e d u c a t i o n h a s
b een s e v e r e l y a t t a c k e d o f l a t e by t h e p s y ­
c h o lo g ic a l d e c l a r a t i o n t h a t t h e r e can be
n o r e a l i m p r e s s i o n w i t h o u t som e f o r m o f
e x p re s s io n ; t h a t i s to say , t h a t n o th in g
i s le a r n e d by a b s o r p t io n a lo n e , t h a t w hat­
e v e r i s g e n u in e ly l e a r n e d becomes a p a r t
o f o n e s a c t i n g n a t u r e i n some f o r m o f e x ­
p r e s s i o n ; n o t h i n g comes i n u n l e s s s o m e th i n g
g o e s o u t . 14
A lm ost
same y e a r
e x a c tly the
(1925)
p sy ch o -b io lo g ical
same c o n t e n t i o n was made i n t h e
b y W* H. B r i d g e who p h r a s e d h i s
term s,
o p in io n in
saying;;
13 R o b e r t M o r r i s O g d e n a n d F r a n k S* F r e e m a n , P s y c h o l o g y
a n d E d u c a t i o n (New .Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e a n d C o m p a n y , 1 9 3 2 ) , p 7 6*
14
C h a r l e s H. W o o l b e r t , ” The P s y c h o l o g i c a l B a s i s o f
S p e e c h T r a i n i n g , ” i n A. M. Drummond, c h a i r m a n , A C o u r s e o f
S tu d y in S peech T r a in in g and P u b l i c S p eaking f o r S econdary
S c h o o l s , (New Y o r k : C e n t u r y C o m p a n y , 1 9 2 5 ) , p p . 3 5 - 3 6 .
80
* . • p h y s i o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e and f i t ­
n e s s go h a n d i n h a n d w i t h p o w e r o f e x ­
p re s sio n ; e f f e c tiv e tr a in in g in th e a r t
o f e x p r e s s io n becomes a t r u l y h y g i e n i c
d i s c i p l i n e th ro u g h w hich th e n e g l e c t e d
m o to r c e n t r e s a r e b ro u g h t i n to p r o p e r
f u n c t i o n . 15
I t m ig h t be s t a t e d ,
p h ilo so p h y ,
in the
in
fu tu re,
its
then,
th at
c u rre n t e d u catio n al
demand f o r k n o w l e d g e t h a t w i l l b e u s a b l e
o verlooks
c e rta in b asic
p h y s i o l o g i c a l phenomena
w h ic h make t h a t p h i l o s o p h y u n t e n a b l e .
itse lf
h a s no v a l u e .
body a g r e e s ,
but the
T his
is
th is
from p h y s i o l o g y .
re p h ra se d P ro v e rb s 24:5
b u t,
s u p p o r t him .
.
the
i n kno?/ledge,
slo g an ,
"K now ledge i s
current
the im p lic a tio n
evidence does n o t
A l f r e d N o rth W h iteh ead h a s s a i d ,
w e l l i n f o r m e d man i s
.* .
in to
B a c o n m e a n t when h e
i f he m ea n t a n y t h i n g more t h a n
of a p o te n tia lity
ed u catio n ,
c o n t e n t i o n w hich ru n s a f o u l
One c a n n o t b e s u r e w h a t F r a n c i s
P o w er,"
th at
every­
w i t h t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f k n o w led g e by
a p a s s iv e p ro c e s s and i t
evid en ce
a p o i n t on w hich n e a r l y
t r a d i t i o n a l view i s
should co n cern i t s e l f
of the b e st
is
K now ledge i n a n d o f
th e m ost u s e l e s s
E d u catio n is
"A m e r e l y
b o re on God’ s e a r t h
n o t m ere a c c u m u l a t i o n ,
• •
bu t accu m u lation
15 Wm. H. B r i d g e , " T h e B t a c e o f P a n t o m i n e i n t h e S c h o o l
C u r r i c u l u m , " Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f S p e e c h E d u c a t i o n , XI
(Novem ber, 1 9 2 5 ) , 3 5 5 .
O ther
15 A l f r e d N o r t h Y j / h i t e h e a d , The A im s o f E d u c a t i o n a n d
E s s a y s (New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n C o m p a n y , 1 9 2 9 ) , p . 1 .
th ro u g h use*
is
or,
th e
A gain W h ite h e a d ’ s p h r a s i n g
a c q u isitio n
of the
art
of th e u t i l i z a t i o n
"K now ledge d o e s n o t k e e p an y b e t t e r
These s ta te m e n ts a l l
refle ct
t i v e p r o c e s s and t h a t th e
lo st
in th e
in
every
phases*
On t h e
learned
or used,
is
an a c ­
n o t new;
in fact,
its.
dim h a z e o f h i s t o r i c a l b e g i n n i n g s .
Q u in tilia n w ill
learn in g
learn in g
put*
Among t h e a n c i e n t e d u c a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s
su p p o rt.
• • • "
r e t e n t i o n of know ledge depends upon
T his p a r t i c u l a r v ie w p o in t i s
is
"E d u catio n
of k n o w led g e,”
th an f i s h
th e view t h a t
th e u s e to w hich t h a t know ledge i s
o rig in
is u sefu l;
su ffice
it
found abu nd ant
a s a n exam ple*
p ro cess, or in every a c t i v i t y ,
He s a w
tw o d i s t i n c t
one h a n d s t o o d t h e m a t e r i a l w h ic h was t o
on the
o t h e r s to o d the
tech n iq u es,
be
sk ills,
or,
a s he c a l l e d them ,
arts
w h ic h w ere t o be em ployed i n t h e
use
of the m a te r ia ls .
To h i m n e i t h e r w a s a d e q u a t e w i t h o u t
the
o th er,
b u t , a s b e t w e e n t h e two, h e f e l t
was t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t *
th at
th e tech n iq u e
He s a i d :
A r t c a n do n o t h i n g w i t h o u t m a t e r i a l ;
M a te ria l has i t s v a lu e even ind ep en d en t
o f a r t ; b u t p e r f e c t i o n o f a r t i s o f m ore,Q
consequence th an p e r f e c tio n of m a te ria l*
T hroughout t h i s
-------------- ^ ' T b i H Y , p .
18 I b i d . ,
p.
c h a p t e r and i n th e r e m a r k s o f t h e
6.
147.
Q u in tilia n ,
by Jo h n S e lb y W atson;
I n s t i t u t i o O r a t o r i a (2 v o l s . , t r a n s l a t e d
L o n d o n : B e l l a n d D a l d y , 1 8 7 3 ) , . p . 163*
a u th o ritie s
q u o ted ,tw o
fo r g ran ted .
on t h e
phases of e d u c a tio n have been tak en
T hese m ig h t be te rm e d c o n t e n t o r k n o w le d g e ,
one hand, and s k i l l
I t now b e c o m e s n e c e s s a r y
o r t e c h n i q u e , on t h e o t h e r h a n d .
to
co n sid er th ese
tw o p h a s e s i n
m ore d e t a i l .
When Q u i n t i l i a n s a i d
th at a rt
m a t e r i a l h e was f o c u s i n g a t t e n t i o n
of ed u catio n ,
is
u c a tio n as w ell,
some i t
but th is
has been in d ic a te d
d irect
call
agree th a t
is not th e
its
b asis
G ram m arians,
sa m e t w o a s p e c t s
case.
c o n te n t of ed­
E lsew here i t
l a n g u a g e d e p e n d s on
p h y sio lo g ists,
th en ,
b u t a s o r t o f index to
a t o o l by w hich e x p e r i e n c e s a r e
the
is
n o t the
co n ten t*
in te rch an g ed .
sy m b o lic f u n c t i o n o f la n g u a g e i s k e p t i n m ind,
it
is p o ssib le
and p sy c h o ­
a s y s te m o f sy m b o ls w hich r e ­
Language i t s e l f ,
harm i n i d e n t i f y i n g
w ithout
The m e d i u m o f e d u c a t i o n
a p p e a rs to be t h e
language is
ex p erien ces.
of ed u catio n ,
is
th at a t
e x p e rie n c e .^
lo g ists
on t h e s e
te c h n iq u e and c o n te n t.
lang uage and to
wa s u s e l e s s
lan g u a g e w ith know ledge.
to
id en tify
language w ith th e
is
obvious t h a t v o c ab u lary
c o n ten t
Language
If
there
In th is
th is
i s no
sense
c o n te n t o f ed­
u c atio n .
Now,
ru les
it
lists
and gram m ar
c o u ld be m em orized m ost t h o r o u g h l y and t h a t t h e r e
w ould be v e r y l i t t l e
a c q u i s i t i o n o f know ledge.
still
In o rd er fo r
83
w o rd s t o h a v e m ea n in g t h e y must b e u s e d ,
use th a t
sk ills
come i n t o
play#
the
in
th at
j u s t as th e re
sk ill
is
of a lan guage#
on th e
th ere
is
in
speech m u sc u la tu re ,
t h e i r m a n i p u l a t i o n would be o f
e x iste n ce
is
th eir
One c o u l d h a v e t h e m o s t
a d e q u a te v o ic e and a v e ry a g i l e
sk ill
and i t
It
is
little
easy to
but
v alu e
see,
w ith o u t
th erefo re,
an i n te r d e p e n d e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p betw een
one h a n d a n d l a n g u a g e s y m b o l s o n t h e
an in te rd e p e n d e n t
o th er,
so
c o n n e c tio n betw een c o n te n t i n
e d u c a tio n and te c h n iq u e #
In C h ap ter I I
th at
the
body,
one of th e
or stru c tu re ,
im portant
o f a n o r g a n i s m was l i f e l e s s
w i t h o u t som e s o r t o f f u n c t i o n i n g
b e i n g made h e r e
co n te n t a re
is
th at
the
reach th e
is
o rg a n is m w hich u s e s
it
is used#
corresponds,
same t h i n g #
a v aila b le
The c o n t e n t i o n
and e d u c a tio n a l
fo o d .^
the
The u s e
in the case
When f o o d
of h is
sk ill
is
beyond h i s
to him , he w i l l
as a s o r t of e x te n sio n
s t i c k h a s become a t o o l #
til
the
cage o f an a n th ro p o id ape j u s t
use th e s tic k
o rd er to
b io lo g ic al s tru c tu re
are
a n d so m e s o r t o f s t i c k
a lly
or a ctiv ity #
e x a c t c o u n te r p a r ts and t h a t p h y s io lo g ic a l
and e d u c a tio n a l s k i l l
o u tsid e
i d e a s p r e s e n t e d was
p laced
reach
eventu­
arm i n
I n s u c h a c a s e we s a y t h a t t h e
The v e r y t e r m
to o l#
of th e
to o l
A ha m m er i s
to o l,
ju st cited ,
W. K o h l e r , The M e n t a l i t y
B r a c e a n d C o m p a n y , 1 9 2 7 7 , pp# 3 I f .
im p lie s an
not a to o l un­
w hich i s
to
a stru c tu re ,
th e u s e o f th e arm ,
o f A p e s (New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t ,
84
w hich i s
a stru c tu re *
H ere i s
the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p
of stru c tu re
In language' th e
is
a to o l,
by i t s e l f ,
so m e o r g a n i s m
ape to
sequence,
to
th e
th at
to use th e
food*
It
is necessary fo r
th e s t i c k
is necessary
e ith e r and th e p h y sio lo g ic a l p ro cesses
s t i c k a re n o t fu n d am en tally d i f f e r e n t
p e c u lia r
to
h a s any
u s e d by
a s a con­
give s ig n if ic a n c e
in v o lv ed
in using
from th o s e u se d i n
Speech i s m erely a p h y s io lo g ic a l a c t i v i t y
type of to o l*
Language
h a s no m eaning
Both a r e t o o l s a n d ,
organism ic a c t i v i t y
speaking*
it
language b e fo re i t
Language i s n o t u n lik e
o b tain h is
ex ists*
Language c a n n o t f u n c t i o n
y e t language h a s s tr u c tu r e *
sig n ific an c e*
th e
same i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p
organism u sin g it*
of
and fu n c tio n *
a s can r e a d i l y be s e e n , i n
a p a r t from th e
for
a cle ar cut illu s tra tio n
w ith a
The same t h i n g m i g h t b e s a i d o f
fen cin g or b aseb all*
A ssum ing t h e v a l i d i t y
once be se e n t h a t
to o ls,
co n ten ts,
in re la tio n
acco u n t,
c all
o b jec tio n is
little
it
sk ills
the
f o r u n d e r such a sy stem
is
tio n a l a c tiv itie s
im possible
to
w ill a t
g a i n m eaning o n ly
o r tech n iq u es*
a g a in v o ice d to
for its
it
physiology, s t r u c t u r e s ,
them w hat y o u w i l l ,
sig n ific an c e,
F o rtu n a te ly ,
p o sitio n ,
ed u catio n , as in
to org an ism ic
as p rep aratio n ,
has
in
of th is
use is
On t h i s
concept of
the
c o n te n t of e d u catio n
r e d u c e d t o a minim um*
co m p letely e lim in a te
from e d u c a ti o n a n d ,
g r e a t d e al of a c c id e n ta l le a rn in g ,
in
ed u catio n
th u s,
th ere has
sp ite
of th e
func­
been a
sy stem .
85
S tru c tu re
changes as i t
be f o r c e d
to
is
is not a s ta tic
used*
If
th in g .
It
is
t h a t w ere n o t th e
dynam ic,
it
c a s e one w ould
e x p l a i n g ro w th i n te rm s o f m agic and m y s tic is m * -
J o h n Dewey h a s n o t e d ;
S t r u c t u r e i s c o n sta n c y o f m eans, o f
th in g s used fo r consequences, n o t of th in g s
t a k e n by t h e m s e l v e s o r a b s o l u t e l y *
S tru c tu re
i s what makes c o n s t r u c t i o n p o s s i b l e and c a n n o t
b e d i s c o v e r e d o r d e f i n e d e x c e p t i n so m e r e ­
a liz e d c o n s tru c tio n , c o n s tru c tio n b ein g , of
c o u r s e , an e v id e n t o r d e r o f changes*
The
i s o l a t i o n o f s t r u c t u r e from t h e c h an g e s
w h o s e s t a b l e o r d e r i n g i t i s , r e n d e r s i t my­
s t e r i o u s — so m ething t h a t i s m e ta p h y s ic a l
i n th e p o p u la r s e n s e o f th e w ord, a k in d
of g h o stly queerness.
T h e re i s no a c t i o n w i t h o u t r e a c t i o n ;
t h e r e i s no e x c l u s i v e one way e x e r c i s e o f
c o n d i t i o n i n g p o w e r , n o mode o f r e g u l a t i o n
t h a t o p e r a t e s w h o lly from a b o v e t o b e lo w
o r from w i t h i n o u tw a rd s o r from w i t h o u t
inw ards.
W hatever i n f l u e n c e s th e changes
of o th e r th in g s is i t s e l f changed.
The
id e a of an a c t i v i t y p ro c e e d in g o n ly i n
o n e d i r e c t i o n , o f a n unmoved m o v e r,
i s a s u r v i v a l o f G reek p h y s i c s .
I t has=
b e en b a n i s h e d from s c i e n c e , b u t r e m a in s
to haunt p h ilo s o p h y * ^
I n e d u c a t i o n we n e g l e c t
stru c tu re
th at
im p o rtan t
to f u n c t i o n by i g n o r in g th e
of c o n te n t and s k i l l .
fact
th is
th in k e r s have
divorcem ent.
T his i s
still
rela tio n
in sep erab le
done i n
sp ite
long com plained of t h i s
of
re la tio n
of th e
u n n atu ral
A bout 1405 L eo n ard o B ru n i w r o t e a l e t t e r
J o h n Dewey, E x p e r i e n c e a n d N a t u r e ( L a S a l l e ,
Open C o u r t P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1 9 2 5 ) , p p . 7 3 - 7 4 .
to
Illin o is;
86
a y o u n g woman o f t h e M o n t e f e l t r o
coursed upon t h i s
fu n c tio n -sk ill•
B runi
fam ily
clo se re la tio n s h ip
i n w hich he d i s ­
of s tru c tu re -c o n te n t
to
H is rem a rk s a r e r e m i n is c e n t o f Q u i n t i l i a n .
co n clu des;
To sum u p w h a t I h a v e e n d e a v o r e d to.
set fo rth .
That h ig h sta n d a rd of ed­
u c a t i o n to w hich I r e f e r r e d a t th e o u t ­
s e t i s o n l y t o b e . r e a c h e d b y o n e who h a s
s e e n m any t h i n g s a n d r e a d m u c h .
F o et,
o r a t o r , h i s t o r i a n , and th e r e s t , a l l m ust
be s t u d i e d , e a c h m u st c o n t r i b u t e a s h a r e .
Our l e a r n i n g t h u s becomes f u l l , r e a d y ,
v a r i e d and e l e g a n t , a v a i l a b l e f o r a c t i o n
or fo r d isco u rse in a ll su b je c ts.
But
t o e n a b l e u s t o make e f f e c t u a l u s e o f
w h a t we k n o w we m u s t a d d t o o u r k n o w ­
led g e th e power of e x p r e s s io n .
T h e s e two
s i d e s of l e a r n i n g , i n d e e d , sh o u ld n o t be
s e p a r a t e d ; th e y a f f o r d m u tual a i d and
d istin c tio n .
P ro ficien cy in lite r a r y
fo rm , n o t a cc o m p a n ie d by b ro a d a c q u a i n ­
ta n c e w ith f a c t s and t r u t h s , i s a b a r r e n
a tta in m e n t; w h ils t in fo rm a tio n , however
v a s t , w hich l a c k s a l l g r a c e o f e x p r e s ­
s i o n , w ou ld seem t o b e p u t u n d e r a b u s h e l
o r p a r t l y throw n away.
I n d e e d , o n e may
f a i r l y a s k what a d v a n ta g e i t i s to p o s ­
s e s s . p ro fo u n d and v a r i e d l e a r n i n g i f
one c a n n o t convey i t i n la n g u a g e w o rth y
of the s u b je c t.
W here, h o w e v e r, t h i s
double c a p a c ity e x i s t s — b re a d th o f l e a r n ­
i n g a n d g r a c e o f s t y l e — we a l l o w t h e
h i g h e s t t i t l e to d i s t i n c t i o n and to a b i d ­
in g fam e.
I f we r e v i e w t h e g r e a t * n a m e s
of a n c ie n t l i t e r a t u r e , P l a t o , D em o critu s,
A r i s t o t l e , T heo p h rastu s, V a rro , C ice ro ,
S eneca, A u g u s tin e , Jerom e, L a c ta n tiu s ,
we s h a l l f i n d i t h a r d t o s a y w h e t h e r we
a d m ir e m ore t h e i r a t t a i n m e n t o r t h e i r
l i t e r a r y pow er.
B u t my l a s t w o r d m u s t b e t h i s .
The
in te llig e n c e th a t a s p ire s to th e b e st
m u st aim a t b o t h .
I n d o i n g so* a l l
87
so u rces of p r o f ita b le le a rn in g w ill in
due p r o p o r t i o n c la im y o u r s t u d y .
None
h a v e more u r g e n t c la im t h a n t h e s u b j e c t s
and a u th o r s w hich t r e a t o f r e l i g i o n and
of our d u t i e s i n th e w orld; and i t i s
b e c a u se th e y a s s i s t and i l l u s t r a t e th e s e
r e l i g i o u s s t u d i e s th a t I p r e s s upon y o u r
a t t e n t i o n a l s o t h e works o f t h e m ost a p ­
proved p o e t s , h i s t o r i a n s , and o r a t o r s of
the p a s t.^ 3
Through th e ag es t h i s
been obvious
to
the s c h o la r s .
Serm on on t h e M o u n t , J e s u s
''B u t h e t h a t h e a r e t h ,
th e
In the
an house
is
of ed u catio n has
conclusion of h is
expounded t h i s
and d o eth n o t,
out a fo u n d atio n b u ilt
a w riter fo r
tw o fo ld n a tu r e
d o c trin e
lik e
• • .
in
say in g ,
a man t h a t
w ith ­
a sim ila r v e in ,
e d it o r ia l page of a la rg e m e tro p o lita n
new spaper r e c e n tly
ex p ressed h im self*
S aid he:
!,K n o w l e d g e i s P o w e r 11 — s o r u n s t h e o l d
adage.
No, k n o w l e d g e i s n o t p o w e r u n l e s s
i t is ap p lied .
K now ledge i s p o w e r l e s s u n ­
le s s acted upon.
One may k n ow a g r e a t d e a l
and accom plish n o th in g of v a lu e .
One may
know a l i t t l e , y e t i f w hat h e knows i s t r u e
and h e a p p l i e s t h a t k n o w le d g e , l a s t i n g good
may b e h i s r e w a r d . 2 5
—
- ■ « > **•—
■
■
■
-
Leonardo B ru n i,
t r a n s l a t e d i n W i l l i a m H.
O th e r H um anist E d u c a to r s
1905), pp. 1 2 3 f., and in
o f I t a l i a n H u m a n is m (New
pp. 72-73.
OA
25
Luke 6 :4 9 ,
De S t u d i i s e t L i t e r i s , a s q u o t e d a n d
W oo d w ard, V i t t o r i n o d a F e l t r e a n d
( C a m b r i d g e : T he U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ,
F e r d i n a n d . S c h e v i 1 1 , The F i r s t C e n t u r y
Y o r k : F . S . C r o f t s a n d Company^ 1 9 2 8 ; ,
K ing Jam es*
V ersio n .
E dg ar D eW itt J o n e s , " S u c c e s s f u l L i v i n g , "
News, December 3 0 , 1 9 3 9 , p . 2 1.
D etro it
88
E a r l i e r , a s i m i l a r o p i n i o n was v o i c e d by M o n ta ig n e
in h is
essay,
On t h e E d u c a t i o n o f C h i l d r e n , One p l a c e we
fin d :
•T is t h e custom o f p ed ag o g u es to be
e te rn a lly th u n d erin g in th e ir p u p i l ’s
e a r s , a s t h e y were p o u r i n g i n t o a f u n • n e l, w h ils t th e b u sin e ss of the p u p il
i s o n ly to r e p e a t what th e o th e r s have
s a i d : now I w o u l d h a v e a t u t o r t o c o r ­
r e c t t h i s e r r o r , and t h a t a t th e v e ry
f i r s t he sh o u ld , a c c o rd in g to th e ca ­
p a c i t y he h a s to d e a l w ith , p u t i t to
the t e s t , p e r m ittin g h i s p u p il h im s e lf
to t a s t e t h in g s , and of h im s e lf to d i s ­
c e r n and c h o o s e th e m , s o m e tim e s o p e n in g
t h e way t o h i m , a n d s o m e t i m e s l e a v i n g
him t o op en i t f o r h i m s e l f ; t h a t i s , I
w ould n o t h a v e him a lo n e t o i n v e n t and
speak, b u t t h a t he should a ls o h e a r h is
p u p il speak in tu r n . °
E lsew here he sa y s:
To know b y r o t e i s n o k n o w l e d g e , a n d
s i g n i f i e s no m ore b u t o n l y t o r e t a i n
w h at one h a s i n t r u s t e d t o o u r memory.
T h a t w h i c h a m an r i g h t l y k n o w s a n d u n ­
d e rs ta n d s , he is the fre e d is p o s e r of
a t h i s own f u l l l i b e r t y , w i t h o u t a n y
r e g a r d to th e a u t h o r from whence he
had i t , or fu m b lin g over th e le a v e s
of h is book.
A m ere b o o k is h l e a r n i n g
i s a p o o r p a l t r y l e a r n i n g ; i t may
se rv e f o r ornam ent, b u t th e r e i s y e t
no f o u n d a t i o n f o r a n y s u p e r s t r u c t u r e
t o be b u i l t u p o n i t , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e
o p i n i o n o f P l a t o , who s a y s t h a t c o n ­
s t a n c y , f a i t h , and s i n c e r i t y a r e th e
tr u e p h ilo s o p h y , and th e o th e r s c ie n c e s
t h a t a r e d i r e c t e d to o t h e r e n d s , m ere
a d u l t e r a t e p a i n t . 27
2 8 M o n t a i g n e , ”Of t h e E d u c a t i o n o f C h i l d r e n , 11 H a r p e r 1s
A n t h o l o g y : P r o s e ( F . A. M a n c h e s t e r a n d W. F . G - i e s e , e d i t o r s ;
New Y o r k : H a r p e r a n d B r o t h e r s , 1 9 2 6 ) , p # 5*
I b i d . , p *8*
89
To e x p r e s s
th is
o f A. N. W h i t e h e a d i s
sa m e i d e a i n a n o t h e r way t h e
ag ain u s e f u l.
language
He e x p l a i n s :
The a n t i t h e s i s b e t w e e n a t e c h n i c a l a n d
a l i b e r a l ed u catio n is f a lla c io u s .
There
can be no a d e q u a t e t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n
w h ic h i s n o t l i b e r a l , and no l i b e r a l e d ­
u c a t i o n w hich i s n o t t e c h n i c a l ; t h a t i s ,
no e d u c a t i o n w h ic h d o e s n o t i m p a r t b o t h
te c h n iq u e and i n t e l l e c t u a l v i s i o n .
In
sim p le r language, e d u c a tio n should t u r n
o u t t h e p u p i l w i t h s o m e t h i n g h e knows
w e l l a n d s o m e t h i n g h e c a n do w e l l . * * ® '
F ro m t h i s
p o w er,"
it
ex am in atio n of th e adage,
can be s e e n t h a t know ledge a lo n e i s
t h a t know ledge i s
th at
it
"K now ledge i s
g ets
its
m erely a s t r u c tu r e
power from u s e .
w a itin g to
In stead
n o t pow er,
be u s e d a n d
of u sin g the
p h r a s i n g o f Bacon r e g a r d i n g k n o w l e d g e , i t seem s b e s t ,
lig h t
of
o p in io n s c it e d ,
to use a p h ra s in g s im ila r to
o f Thomas H o b b e s , w h o , s o m e w h e r e i n h i s
has sa id ,
a ll
to
is
th at
E lem en ts o f P h i l o s o p h y .
"The end o f k n o w le d g e i s p o w e r
sp ecu latio n
in th e
. . .
the
scope of
t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f some a c t i o n ,
or th in g
" PQ
be d o n e .
In
retu rn
the
at th is
d itio n in g
lig h t of th ese
p o i n t to
it
i s w ell to
an ex am in atio n of th e ty p e of con­
p r o c e s s w hich th e
W h iteh ead ,
c o n sid eratio n s
average c h ild undergoes in a
op. c i t .,
p.
74.
29 T h o m a s H o b b e s , The E l e m e n t s o f P h i l o s o p h y , a s
q u o t e d i n I . A. R i c h a r d s , I n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n T e a c h i n g (New
Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e a n d C o m p an y , 1 9 3 8 ) , p . 2 1 .
90
tra d itio n a l
school sy stem .
of p rep arin g
p o rtio n a te
th e
in to
to h i s
th is
school*
f o u r to
th e
d o ctrin e
th e v e ry low est
T his i s
p articu la rly
le a rn in g has been la r g e ly
C h i l d r e n do n o t l e a r n
le a rn to
but
e v id en t
d u rin g th e p re -s c h o o l y e a rs
on an o r a l b a s is *
r a th e r th ey r e a c t
it
in cid en tal
is
and
stim u li
facto rs
in
the
b asis fo r
in te g ra tio n
carried
facts
to
the p h y s io lo g ic a l
As f a r as s o c i a l
a c h il d fs
iso lated
d is c e rn th e d is c r e te
In C h ap ter I I
was p r e s e n t e d .
language
but
s i x y e a r s w hich p r e c e d e
them t o g e t h e r ,
reactio n *
of
reading*
school h is
and g r a d u a l l y
to ta l
the
in flu en ce
know ledge r e c e i v e s a d i s p r o ­
em phasis i n a l l
a c tiv itie s*
then p ie c e
fu tu re,
elem en tary
teach in g of
D uring
e n try
the
share of
g ra d e s o f the
in
for
Under th e
is
on a lm o s t
concerned
en tirely
T hrough th e d is c e r n m e n t o f a c o n s t a n t
f a c to r in su ccessiv e
so cial situ a tio n s
the
ch ild
g r a d u a l l y becom es aw are o f t h e m ean in g o f la n g u a g e sym bols*
These a r e
alm o st w holly a u d ito r y
of grap hic
d esire
to
a u d ito ry
sym bols i s
record fo r fu tu re
sym bols.
Even i n
o f dynam ic p h o n e t i c s
a ll
a later
it
is
th e m ean in g fu l nuances
w ritte n
language i s
ica tiv e
purposes as o ra l
sym bols.
a ctiv ity
reference
The l e a r n i n g
and a r i s e s
the
alread y
out of th e
learn ed
th e m ost a c c u r a t e t r a n s c r i p t i o n s
not p o ssib le ,
of o ra l
how ever,
speech.
not as s a tis fa c to ry
to
record
Because of t h i s ,
f o r n o r m a l commun­
la n g u a g e an d m ust c o n s e q u e n t ly r e ­
m a in a s u b o r d i n a t e means o f c o m m u n ic a tio n .
91
T h is
su b o rd in a tio n o f w r itte n to
rec o g n itio n
in
in th e
ob serv atio n s
1935 h e c o n t e n d e d t h a t
the
e lem en tary
of F . J .
sc h o o ls to w r i t t e n
in o rg an izin g
Vifeersing.
co m p o sitio n ,
such e x e rc is e s
o ra l ex p ressio n .
W ritin g
and he s u g g e s te d
a s w ould be o f
An e x a m p l e o f s u c h
an e x e r c i s e w ould be a w r i t t e n o u t l i n e
panel d iscu ssio n .
e x p ressio n fin d s
t o o much t i m e w a s . b e i n g d e v o t e d i n
t h a t w r i t t e n v /o r k b e l i m i t e d t o
h elp
oral
f o r a speech o r a
He s u g g e s t e d t h a t :
Up t o a n d i n c l u d i n g t h e n i n t h o r t e n t h
g ra d e s m o st, i f n o t a l l , of th e w r i t t e n
work t h a t i s e x p e c te d o f t h e a v e r a g e o r
s u b - a v e r a g e p u p i l m ight w e ll be l i m i t e d to
w h a t h e n e e d s t o w r i t e a s an a i d t o t h o u g h t
and t h e iniprovem ent o f h i s o r a l e x p r e s s i o n
of thought — as i s the case w ith p r a c t i c ­
a lly a ll a d u lts.
F u n c tio n a l language has
l i t t l e e l s e i n common w i t h t h e a r t o f
w r itte n co m p o sitio n . . .
t h e r e s h o u ld be
m ore a t t e n t i o n g i v e n t o t h e im p ro v e m e n t
of speech through w ritte n co m p o sitio n . ^
The p r o c e d u r e
by t h e o r d i n a r y
energy i s
the
s u g g e s t e d by W e e r s i n g i s n o t f o l l o w e d ,
tra d itio n a l
sch o o l.
expended in an e f f o r t to
e a rlie st
p o s s i b l e m oment.
In such sc h o o ls g r e a t
get th e
In fa c t,
c h i l d to re a d a t
th e w hole e d u c a tiv e
p ro cess as reg ard s read in g is
one o f c o n d i t i o n i n g
to
th at
respond
th an to th e
to
silen t
o ral,
stim u li,
or a u d ito ry ,
is,
stim u li.
th e m ost s i g n i f i c a n t p h a se o f th e
v isu al
ch ild
stim u li,
T his i s ,
tra d itio n a l
th e
rath er
perhaps,
e f f o r t to
F r e d e r i c k J * W e e r s i n g , nI n d i v i d u a l P u p i l D e v e l o p m e n t
i n L a n g u a g e U s a g e , *' C a l i f o r n i a J o u r n a l o f S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n .
X (M arch, 1 935), 214.
92
d e e m o ti o n a l i z e
at
th e
and d e s o c i a l i z e
b eg in n in g of t h i s
th e
c l a s s r o o m w h i c h was m e n t i o n e d
ch ap ter.
By t h e
th ird
grade th is
c o n d i t i o n i n g p r o c e s s h a s u s u a l l y g o t t e n w e l l u n d e r way,
t h a t such a r e c o n d itio n in g
seem s to
be g e n e r a l l y
of the
ch ild
and
should tak e p la c e
tak en fo r g ra n te d .
E xam ination o f
some a u t h o r i t a t i v e r e m a r k s r e g a r d i n g t h e
te a c h in g of rea d in g
w i l l m ak e m o r e c l e a r t h e w i d e s p r e a d a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e o r a l to -sile n t
tran sitio n .
W ritin g in C o n t r o ll e d R eading i n
sta te d
1 9 3 7 , E a r l A.
T aylor
th at:
W hile i t i s t r u e , p e r h a p s , t h a t d e f i n i t e
t r a i n in g in o r a l re a d in g should not ex­
tend beyond th e t h i r d o r f o u r th g rad e, i t
has been found very v a lu a b le in c a rry in g
o n v a r i o u s t y p e s o f r e m e d i a l vsrork, e v e n
w ith c o lle g e s t u d e n t s . ^
T his
to
oral
silen t
view ,
train in g ,
it
w i l l be o b se rv e d ,
b u t makes i t
d e fin ite ly
su b o rd in ate
to
r e a d i n g s w h ic h u n d o u b t e d l y m ust be a cc o m p a n ie d by
w ritte n
ex ercises
if
th e
teach er is
to a s c e r t a i n what h a s been g ain ed
view
c o n c e d e s some v a l u e
g o i n g t o m ake a n y e f f o r t
from
th e
read in g .
A sim ilar
h a s b e e n e x p r e s s e d by C la re n c e R. S to n e i n h i s w e ll
known w o rk ,
is
U n iv ersity
S i l e n t and O ra l R e a d in g .
He p o i n t s
out th a t:
Above t h e t h i r d g r a d e , i f o r a l r e a d i n g
overrem p h asized a t th e expense of th e
E a r l A. T a y l o r , C o n t r o l l e d R e a d i n g
o f C h i c a g o P r e s s ’^ 1 9 3 7 ) , p . 1 3 6 .
(C hicago:
93
o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c o n s id e r a b le am ounts o f
e x te n s iv e s i l e n t re a d in g , the norm al
developm ent o f th e s i l e n t r e a d in g r a t e
may b e r e t a r d e d . ^ 2
Most n a t u r a l l y
if
no e f f o r t
view i s
was made t o
not of the
from w hich i t
rate
is
to
i s m ade*
read.
silen t
or,
as p o ssib le
th is
at least,
read in g r a te
No c o n s i d e r a t i o n
to
it.
is
but of th e
is
no o b j e c t i o n
th is p o sitio n
open to
of le a rn in g
what th e r e a l
i m p l i e d by
of t h a t know ledge.
how ever,
throw s
q u estio n .
in
th e ir p o sitio n
be d i s c o v e r e d by t h e m o st c u r s o r y
on r e a d i n g .
sa m e p o s i t i o n .
im p lied ,
s h o r t a tim e
and f u n c t i o n ,
S to n e and T a y lo r a r e n o t a lo n e
lite ra tu re
is necessary,
th e o b je c tiv e
giv en h e re as to
stru c tu re
read in g
th e assu m p tio n i s
th e u t i l i t y
of th is
assu m p tio n
The r e a s o n f o r r e a d i n g
w ith o u t re g a rd to
of
w ould d e c l i n e
T he c r i t i c i s m
a c q u i r e a s m u ch k n o w l e d g e i n a s
The i n t e r r e l a t i o n
can r e a d i ly
rate
S to n e assum es t h a t a r a p i d
pu rp o se of language i s .
S tone i s
in crease
and e v en to
assum es,
th a t a rap id
s i l e n t read in g
d e d u c t i o n made,
d e sirab le,
b u t he a ls o
the
as
review of th e
H a rry G rove W heat h a s t a k e n t h e
He s a y s :
. . .
th e h a b i t s developed in o r a l r e a d ­
ing a r e a p o s i t i v e h in d ra n c e to th e d e v e lo p ­
ment o f th e h a b i t s n e c e s s a r y f o r e f f e c t i v e
C la r e n c e R. S to n e , S i l e n t and O ra l R e a d in g , A
R r a c t i c a l Handbook o f M ethods B ased on t h e Most R e c e n t
S c i e n t i f i c I n v e s t i g a t i o n ( r e v i s e d e d i t i o n ; New Y o r k :
H o u g h to n M i f f l i n Company, 1 9 2 6 ) , p . 2 4 .
rap id
silen t
reading*
33
L ik e w ise ,fro m V ir g in ia C raig
it
can be l e a r n e d t h a t :
T h i s m e th o d [ o r a l r e a d i n g ] s h o u l d n o t be
used re g u la r ly or even f r e q u e n tly .
I t i s s t r a n g e t h a t a f t e r we h a v e l e a r n e d
from m odern p s y c h o lo g y t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f
s i l e n t re a d in g , high school te a c h e rs should
f a i l t o p l a n q u e s t i o n s <pf s u c h a c h a r a c t e r
as to s t i m u la te i n t e l l i g e n t s i l e n t re a d in g * '
P e r h a p s o n e - t e n t h o f t h e c l a s s t i m e may
p r o p e r ly be g iv e n to o r a l r e a d in g c a r e f u l l y
p lanned.
B ut no s t u d e n t s h o u l d be a s k e d to
read a lo u d u n le s s he has p re v io u s ly been
a s s i g n e d th e p a s s a g e f o r p r a c t i c e a t home#3
In
the
rem arks of C r a ig ,
a n d i n m any o t h e r p l a c e s , o n e i s
cept
th at
oral
language
lan g u a g e and even t h a t
lan g u ag e.
T h is
uage h a b its
and i g n o r e s
i s m uch m o r e e f f i c i e n t
s t r u c k by th e
s h o u ld be s u b o r d i n a te
it
ig n o res
as in th e p rev io u s q u o ta tio n ,
should be th e
f o r m aking f i n e
stra te s
co n ten d s
silen t
th e o r i g i n and developm ent of
th e
in
obvious f a c t t h a t o r a l
th e
d istin c tio n s
language
p o ssib ilitie s
i n m eaning th r o u g h th e
and v a r i o u s g e s t u r e s .
th a t p sy c h o lo g ic al
th e w o rth w h ile n e ss of s i l e n t
e v i d e n c e demon­
read in g .
In a sense,
H a r r y G-rove W h e a t , The T e a c h i n g o f R e a d i n g
G i n n a n d C o m p a n y , 1 9 2 3 ) , p . 146*
34
E n g lish
82.
V irg in ia J . C raig ,
(New Y o r k ; L o n g m a n s ,
lan g ­
tra n s m is s io n o f th o u g h t th a n
em ploym ent o f v o c a l i n f l e c t i o n s
C raig
to
outgrow th of s i l e n t
w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e b e c a u s e o f t h e much g r e a t e r
i t has
w idespread con­
(New Y o r k
The T e a c h i n g o f H i g h S c h o o l
G r e e n , and Company, 1 9 3 0 ) , p p .
81
95
th is
ing.
is
so,
It
b u t n o t to
is
obvious
th at
c o m i n g s w h i c h m ake i t
n in eteen th
cen tu ry
th at great lite ra ry
th an v is u a l
th e
e x c lu s io n of o th e r
silen t
form s of r e a d ­
r e a d i n g h a s many s h o r t ­
i n a d e q u a t e f o r many p u r p o s e s .
c ritic ,
F erd in an d B ru n e tic re ,
contended
men w e r e d o m i n a t e d b y a u d i t o r y
c o n cep ts.
The
rath er
Q uoting V augelas he s a y s :
The s p o k e n w o r d , s a i d V a u g e l a s i n t h e
P r e f a c e to Rem arques s u r l a la n g u e f r a n c a i s e , i s th e f i r s t i n o rd e r and d i g n i t y ,
s i n c e th e w r i t t e n w ord i s o n ly i t s im age,
a s i t i t s e l f i s t h e im age o f t h e t h o u g h t ;
and from M alherbe to B u ffo n a t l e a s t , t o
C h a te a u b ria n d and even to G u iz o t, I can
t h i n k o n l y o f a few s t o r y w r i t e r s whose
s ty le of w ritin g does not v e rify th is
p rin cip le .
As we k n o w , t o o , t h e a t t e n t i o n
t h e a u t h o r o f Madame B o v a r y p a i d t o t h e
harm ony o f th e s e n t e n c e .
Vs/hat d o e s t h i s
m ean b u t t h a t f o r two o r t h r e e h u n d r e d
y e a rs our g r e a t e s t w r ite rs have n o t seen
b u t h e a r d t h e m s e l v e s w r i t e . 35
M o re r e c e n t l y , t h i s
expounded a s
eratu re.
form ing th e
In her
o ra l n atu re
of language has been
p ro p e r b a s is f o r th e
c ritic ism
of s ile n t
teach in g
of l i t
e d u catio n al procedures,
G e r a ld in e Runchey c o n te n d s :
S in ce th e in v e n tio n o f p r i n ti n g , w ith
i t s te n d e n c y to s u b s t i t u t e the s i g n f o r
t h e l i v i n g w o r d , n o t much g r e a t ‘ l i t e r a t u r e *
has been c re a te d .
In teach in g
‘E n g li s h *
th is
e r r o r occurs.
b o F e r d i n a n d B r u n e t i e r e , 11An A p o l o g y f o r R h e t o r i c , 11
The Woir-ld *s B e s t E s s a y s , f r o m C o n f u c i u s t o M e n k e n ( T r a n s l a t e d
b y D. N i c h o l S m i t h , F . H. P r i t c h a r d , e d i t o r ; New Y o r k :
A l b e r t and C h a r l e s B o n i, 1 9 3 6 ), p . 4 1 7 .
96
f r o m t h e f i r s t : we t e a c h t h e c h i l d t o i n t e r ­
p re t a sig n , in ste a d of te a ch in g th e c h ild
t o make a s i g n f o r s o m e t h i n g w h i c h h e w i s h e s
to t e l l , so m e th in g w hich he h a s c r e a t e d • . •
'R e a d i n g * f o r t h e s a k e o f r e a d i n g i s o f no
v a l u e * The o n l y ' r e a d i n g * t h a t a m o u n t s t o a n y
t h i n g i s t h e r e a d i n g t h a t we do f o r t h e s a k e
of liv in g *
A ll g r e a t a r t c re a te s a p a tte r n , but a r t
e x p re ss e d in o r a l language has n o t m erely a
p a t t e r n : i t h a s - - im m ediate s o c i a l com pet­
ency*
I t is a s o c ia l p ro d u ct, cre ate d in a
s o c i a l a tm o sp h e re, w ith th e a r t i s t f u n c tio n ­
in g as a s o c i a l u n i t . 3^
More w i l l
ito ry
■essary
be s a i d
l a t e r of th e r e l a t i v e
and v i s u a l c o n c e p ts i n e d u c a tio n ,
to n o te h e re t h a t a l l
co n clu siv ely
have been le d
For the
how ever,
to
silen t
the
so,
it
place of aud­
is
only n e c -
e v id e n c e d o e s n o t p o i n t so
t e c h n i q u e s a s C r a i g a n d som e o t h e r s
to b eliev e*
purposes of t h is
to observe
paper,
as a f a c t t h is
it
oral
is
only n e c e s s a ry ,
to s i l e n t
co n d itio n ­
ing process*
C e r t a i n s t u d i e s h a v e b e e n m ade b r i n g i n g t o
lig h t fu rth er
e v id e n c e to s u p p o r t t h i s
co n te n tio n .
The
C o m m itte e o f t h e N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e on R e s e a r c h i n E n g l i s h
h as rev iew ed th e r e s e a r c h d a ta and r e p o r t s
th at,
" O r a l c o m p o s i t i o n was s t i l l
fin d in g s
in d icatin g
t o o much m i n i m i z e d i n
36 G e r a l d i n e R u n c h e y , “ The O r a l A p p r o a c h t o t h e
S t u d y o f L i t e r a t u r e , " Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a 1 o f S p e e c h , XVII
( F e b r u a r y , 1 9 3 1 ), 89-90*
97
37
1 9 2 4 . 11
m a s te r 's
I n 1925 a n a n a l y s i s
c a n d id a te a t th e U n iv e rs ity
as co n clu d in g
cen trated
th at,
in th e
p a h i e d ’b y / w r i t t e n
fin d in g s
in
o f 88 c o u r s e s o f s t u d y by a
"The o r a l w o rk ,
early
grades,
lan g u a g e."
rep o rted
w h i c h was l a r g e l y
con­
was r a t h e r c o n s i s t e n t l y
rzQ
T he same s o u r c e a l s o
accom-
rep o rts
by J a k o b s a t t h e C o l o r a d o S t a t e C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n
1932 b a s e d on a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f
grade
of In d ian a i s
tex ts.
co m m ittee,
He r e c o m m e n d e d ,
th at,
.
be m ore s t r e s s e d
and t h a t
su p p lem en tin g
tex tb o o k s
certain
se v e n th and e ig h th
i n th e w ords o f t h e
rep o rtin g
. c o n v e r s a t i o n and l i s t e n i n g
teach ers
feel
resp o n sib ility
shou ld
for
so a s t o p r o v i d e m ore s i t u a t i o n s
o f g e n u in e s o c i a l n a t u r e . " 3^
The t e n d e n c y o f t e a c h e r s
to
enforce s ile n c e
c h i l d h a s b e e n d e p l o r e d by s o c i o l o g i s t s
Since p e r s o n a l i t y
later
co n sid era tio n s w ill
of. t h e ' s i l e n t
co n d itio n in g process a t
w orry a b o u t t h e n o i s y ,
b o istero u s
and p s y c h i a t r i s t s .
be th e
c h a p te r o n ly p a s s in g m ention w ill
on t h e
s u b j e c t o f a.
b e m ade o f t h a t p h a s e
th is
c h ild ren ,
tim e.
T eachers
but p sy c h ia trists
3>7 M i l d r e d A . D a w s o n , c h a i r m a n , E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l
L a n g u a g e T e x t b o o k s . A S u r v e y o f t h e i r u s e a n d a Summary o f
R e la te d R esearch S t u d i e s . S ix th Annual R esearch B u l l e t i n
C om m ittee o f th e N a t i o n a l C o n fe re n c e on R e s e a r c h i n E n g l i s h
(New Y o r k : S c o t t , F o r e s m a n a n d C o m p a n y , 1 9 3 8 ) , p . 1 2 .
58 I b i d . .
pp.
14-15.
Ib id .,
pp.
15-16.
98
w orry about th e
q u iet,
G roves and P h y l l i s
d o c ile ones.
B lanchard
On t h i s
p o i n t E . R.
observe t h a t:
To h e r m i n d , [ t h e t e a c h e r f s ] t h e c h i l d
who i s d o c i l e a n d d o e s n o t i n t e r r u p t h e r
w o r k i s w e l l a d j u s t e d , w h i l e t h e ' ' p u p i l who
shows o v e r t c o n d u c t d i s o r d e r s i s f a c i n g
serio u s d i f f i c u l t i e s .
The p s y c h i a t r i c v i e w p o i n t i s r a d i c a l l y
d ifferen t.
The p s y c h i a t r i s t i s d e e p l y c o n ­
c e r n e d a b o u t som e o f t h e s e q u i e t , w e l l b e h a v e d p u p i l s , f o r he knows t h a t w i t h ­
d r a w a l from p l a y m a t e s , t i m i d i t y an d d e ­
p e n d e n c y a r e sym ptom s o f g r a v e p e r s o n ­
a lity d e v ia tio n s.
The s a m e p o i n t i s m a d e b y K a r l M e n n i n g e r .
He s a y s
th at
. . . th e te a c h e rs are c o llo s s a lly
i g n o r a n t o f w hat m e n ta l h e a l t h and m e n t a l
i l l h e a l t h look l i k e .
F o r them t r a n s ­
g re s s io n of r u le s , o ffen ses a g a in s t
a u t h o r i t y , and o r d e r l i n e s s , a r e m ore,
s e r io u s th a n w ithdraw ing r e c e s s iv e p e r ­
s o n a l i t y a n d b e h a v i o r t r a i t s . -*•
The i n t e n t o f t h e l a s t
brin g
to
in to
silen t
th e
fo refro n t of a tte n tio n
learn in g
elem en tary sc h o o l.
ing
the
b asic
s e v e r a l p a ra g ra p h s h a s been to
th is
sh ift
p r o c e d u r e s w hich t a k e s p l a c e
from o r a l
in the e a r ly
Some h i n t h a s a l r e a d y b e e n g i v e n r e g a r d ­
fallacy
of th is
tran sitio n
in
tech n iq u es,
but
^ E a r n e s t R. G roves and P h y l l i s B la n c h a rd , I n t r o d u c t i o n
t o M e n t a l H y g i e n e (New Y o r k : H e n r y H o l t a n d Company"]! 1 9 3 0 ) ,
p . 192.
^ K a rl M enninger,
A. K n o p f , 1 9 3 0 ) , p . 6 6 .
T he Human M i n d (New Y o r k : A l f r e d
99
t h a t w i l l now b e c o n s i d e r e d i n g r e a t e r
F irs t of a ll,
the
silen t
e m p h a sis on i m p r e s s i o n r a t h e r
o b se rv e d ,th is
a ttitu d e
d ica tin g
a ll
th at
in te rre la tio n sh ip
th e b io lo g ic a l
the
ch ild
so cial
C. J .
th an ex p ressio n *
beh av io r*
of s tr u c tu r e
ex p lo red in C h ap ter I I
in te g r a tio n d u ring h is
H erric k ,
As h a s b e e n
I t n e g le cts
and f u n c ti o n .
to have an in c r e a s in g
In th is
te c h n iq u e s p u t th e m ajor
o v erlo o k s th e p sy c h o lo g ic al d a ta
le a rn in g is
ev id en ce
d etail* .
It
in ­
th e
slig h ts
w h ic h shows
energy supply a v a ila b le
for
school y e a rs.
c o n n e c tio n th e rem arks o f th e n e u r o l o g i s t ,
are of i n t e r e s t .
It
is h is
o p in io n th a t:
We a r e g r a d u a l l y l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h t h e
k i n d e r g a r t e n t h a t t h e m o s t e c o n o m i c a l way
to le a d a c h i l d i n t o th e realm o f l e a r n ­
in g i s n o t to stam p o u t a l l o f h i s n a t u r a l
i n t e r e s t s an d s h u t him up w i t h h i s f a c e t o
th e w a ll, w h ile he le a r n s by r o t e an a -b -c
l e s s o n w hich i s n e i t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g n o r
u sefu l.
On t h e c o n t r a r y , we a c c e p t a s
g iv e n h i s n a ti v e im p u lse s and a u to m atism s,
h i s s p o n ta n e o u s i n t e r e s t s and h i s o v e r ­
p r o d u c t i o n o f u s e l e s s m o v e m e n t s , a n d we
u s e t h e s e a s t h e c a p i t a l w i t h w h i c h we
s e t th e y o u n g ste r up in th e s e rio u s bus­
in e s s o f th e a c q u i s i t i o n o f c u l t u r e . But
how d o e s . i t h a p p e n t h a t we m ake s o s m a l l
use of th e p r in c ip le s here le a rn e d in th e
l a t e r y ears of th e ch ild ^ s sc h o o lin g ?
ti ta l ic s not in o rig in a lj *
Many a b o y f s b r a i n s a r e c u r d l e d a n d
squeezed in to t r a d i t i o n a l a r t i f i c i a l
m olds b e f o r e he l e a v e s th e g r a d e s a t
sch o o l.
H is e d u c a tio n i s co m p lete and
s e n i l e s c l e r o s i s o f t h e m ind h a s b e g u n
by th e tim e he h a s le a rn e d h i s tra d e *
F o r how many s u c h d i s a s t e r s o u r b r i c k ­
y a r d m ethods i n t h e p u b lic s c h o o ls a r e
100
resp o n sib le
te re st.
is
a q u e stio n of
liv e ly
in ­
We who s e e k t o e n t e r i n t o t h e k i n g ­
dom o f k n o w l e d g e a n d t o c o n t i n u e t o a d ­
v a n c e t h e r e i n m u s t n o t o n l y become a s
l i t t l e c h i l d r e n , b u t we m u s t l e a r n t o
c o n t i n u e so [ i t a l i c s i n o r i g i n a l ] *
The
problem o f s c i e n t i f i c pedagogy, th e n , i s
e s s e n t i a l l y t h i s : to p ro lo n g th e p l a s ­
t i c i t y of c h ild h o o d , o r o th e rw is e ex­
p r e s s e d , to re d u c e th e i n t e r v a l b etw een
th e f i r s t c h ild h o o d and th e seco n d c h i l d ­
h o o d to a s s m a l l d i m e n s io n s a s p o s s i b l e . 4^
K i m b a l l Young c i t e s
about
ing
in
the
tim e th e
tran sitio n ,
the
th e
evidence to
school is
stu d en t
op p o site d ire c tio n *
show t h a t , a t
producing t h i s
silen t
ju st
co n d itio n ­
i s undergoing a p e r s o n a lity
change
He e x p l a i n s :
. . .
h i s [ j . P i a g e t , s]l e v i d e n c e p o i n t s
r a t h e r c o n c lu s iv e ly to th e f a c t t h a t in
th e f i r s t se v en y e a rs or so , language i s
d i r e c t e d by s e l f - e x p r e s s i v e , e g o t i s t i c
i n t e r e s t s and n o t by d e s i r e to p l a c e o n e ­
s e l f in the p o s itio n of th e o th e r person
t o whom o n e i s t a l k i n g . . . I t i s o n l y
a f t e r th e age of sev en th a t g en u in e s o c i a l
c o lla b o r a tio n i n th o u g h t, th ro u g h ’t r u e 1
c o n v e rsa tio n , b eg in s to a p p e a r.^
Even t h e m ost s u p e r f i c i a l
th at
a n a l y s i s w i l l m ake i t
c le ar
t h e u s u a l p r o c e d u r e s o f t h e l a t e r _e l e m e n t a r y a n d s e c o n ­
dary g ra d e s
a re not g e n e ra lly p ro d u ctiv e
of a c tiv ity .
S ilen ce
C. J u d s o n H e r r i c k , An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o N e u r o l o g y
( 5 t h e d i t i o n , r e v i s e d ; P h i l a d e l p h i a : W. B. S a u n d e r s C o m p a n y ,
1 9 3 4 ), p p . 375 and 3 7 7 .
C ro fts
^ K im b a ll Young, S o c i a l P s y c h o lo g y
a n d Company, 1 9 3 0 ) , p . 2 2 4 .
(New Y o r k : F . S..
101
is
synonymons w ith o r d e r an d n o i s e
order*
Except in
c ertain
sp ecial
e d u catio n ,m an u al t r a i n i n g ,
gage .in l i t t l e
a c tiv ity
art,
th at
is
the
synonym f o r d i s ­
s u b je c ts , such as p h y s ic a l
and th e
lik e ,
is not of th e
the p u p ils
silen t,
en­
w ritte n
kind*
The r e m a r k s
same p o i n t .
facto rs
its
of B ertran d R u s s e ll
R u ssell fe e ls
of a good l i f e *
decrease
th at v ita l it y
He o b s e r v e s
in o ld age,
lik ew ise
its
its
in te g rativ e
is
b e a r on t h i s
one o f t h e m a j o r
in crease
d u rin g y o u th ,
fu n ctio n ,
s u p p r e s s i o n by t h e u s u a l e d u c a t i v e p r o c e s s e s *
and i t s
He s a y s :
V i t a l i t y i s r a t h e r a p h y s io lo g ic a l th an
a m en tal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c * • • In v ig o ro u s
c h i l d r e n i t q u i c k l y r i s e s t o a maximum b e ­
f o r e th e y re a c h s c h o o l a g e , and th e n te n d s
to be d i m i n i s h e d by e d u c a t i o n * [ i t a l i c s n o t
in o r i g i n a l J .44
C onsid er a t y p i c a l h ig h school l i t e r a t u r e
one s c h o o l system
co v ering th re e
O dyssey*
th at
th ere
th e 9A grade o f f e r s
c la ssic
books,
The r e q u i r e m e n t s
sh all
a lite ra tu re
Ivanhoe» J u liu s
o f the
c la ss.
course of
In
course
C a e s a r , and th e
study a ls o
sp ecify
be f i v e w r i t t e n c o m p o s i t i o n s and f o u r book
rep o rts.
The u s u a l p r o c e d u r e i s
p o sitio n s
d e l i v e r e d a s an o r a l c o m p o s itio n and to have one
of the
book r e p o r t s
g iv en o r a lly .
to hav e, one of t h e s e
com­
The v e r y n a t u r e o f t h i s
44 B e r t r a n d R u s s e l l , E d u c a t i o n and t h e
(New Y o r k : A l b e r t a n d C h a r l e s B o n i , 1 9 2 6 ) , p .
G o od L i f e
61.
102
r e q u i r e m e n t r e v e a l a n e m p h a s is on w r i t t e n work e v e n t h o u g h
th ey a re d e sig n e d f o r a . . l i t e r a t u r e
In teach in g
th is
course
h a v e a few p a g e s a s s i g n e d
te sts
every
u su ally
seven to
t o m em orize l i n e s
th e
tiv e#
c la ss
T h is
excuse th a t
th eir
ex ce p tio n al,
“ tim e"
th e
f o r t o d a y # 11
for
to
d is u u s s io n w ith
C lass d is c u s s io n s a re ,
S tu d en ts
are
seats,
w hile th e
how ever,
required,
w hich th e y r e c i t e
how ever,
sin ce,
does n o t perm it o r a l
stu d en ts
th irty -fiv e
These a r e
from a
teach er
g lares
T his i s
lin e s
“t a k e
em ploying th e
re c ita tio n
by a l l ,
o u t p e n c i l and p a p e r
o f p o e t r y w hich w ere a s s i g n e d
t h e n c o r r e c t e d a n d s o m uch d e d u c t e d
eac h word m i s s p e l l e d
p u n ctu atio n #
c lass
is
e v e r y o n e w i l l m ak e a show o f b e i n g a t t e n - .
m ost t e a c h e r s h ave th e
and w r i t e
for
from S h a k e s p e a re
so t h a t
is
each .d ay
of re c ita tio n s #
stan d in g p o s itio n n ear
at
the u s u a l p ro ced u re
te n days.
in th e n a tu re
course#
o r o m i t t e d a n d s o much o f f
t h e way t h e
stu d en ts
le a rn to
for
11l o v e 11
Shakespeare#
Such a p ro c e s s
ig n o res
o f most a l l . l i t e r a t u r e ,
m eant to
in
term s
esp ecially
be a c te d and h e a rd ,
lite ra tu re
is
still
of w ritte n
co m p letely th e
tau g h t
a u d ito ry n a tu re
t h e dram a#
n o t read#
P lay s are
Yet a p p r e c i a t i o n o f
by m eth o d s w hich t e s t s
responses*
Perhaps
th is
is
resu lts
what H e r r ic k
m eant by " b r i c k - y a r d m e t h o d s # u
The r e a s o n s
for
such te c h n iq u e s ,
w hile d i f f i c u l t
to
103
accep t,
is
th e
the
are not d i f f i c u l t
d o ctrin e
th at
a b le
are
to w r i t e
req u ired
th eir
is
is
to be s u r e
names c o r r e c t l y .
common o n e x a m i n a t i o n s .
of fa c tu a l m ateria l.
d eterm in in g
b a se d on w r i t t e n
su lt
is
T rain in g in
and be
A thene, P o e se id o n ,
The w h o le v i e w p o i n t
is
be i s s u e d .
a t h i n g to
The r e ­
w hich J o h n M ilto n ,
in
little
G rades a r e
e x clu siv ely .
stren u o u sly o b jected
core
scant
em ployed t h e y c a r r y
e x a m in a tio n s alm ost
a g r e a t book l e a r n e r ,
q u estio n s.
ch aracters
in te rp re ta tio n
th e g ra d e s to
book know ledge,
by w h ic h
r e a d and rem em ber a c e r t a i n
a n d e v e n when d r a m a t i z a t i o n s a r e
w eight i n
The t e s t s
In c o v erin g th e O dyssey,
T elem achus, F a l l a s
th e stu d e n ts
such te c h n iq u e s
m e a s u r e d abound w i t h " f a c t "
t o m em orize a l l ' t h e
su ch names a s Eumaeus,
and C h ary b d is a re
B ehind a l l
”K now ledge i s P o w e r . "
s tu d e n ts 1 progress
S tu d en ts
to f in d .
h im self
th e fo llo w in g
lin e s:
Who r e a d s
And t o h i s r e a d i n g b r i n g s n o t
A s p i r i t o r judgm ent e q u al o r s u p e r i o r
(And w h a t h e b r i n g s w h a t n e e d s h e
elsew h ere seek ?)
U n c e rta in and u n s e t t l e d s t i l l re m a in s,
D e e p -v e rs e d i n books and s h a llo w i n
h im self.
Crude o r i n t o x i c a t e , c o l l e c t i n g t o y s .
"The r e a l l y
Xr
m odern e le m e n t i n M ilto n i s h i s
John M ilto n ,
em phasis
P a r a d i s e R e g a i n e d , IV, 3 2 1 f f .
104
on r e a l i a
th e
A CL
rath er
p resen t-d ay
t h a n on l a n g u a g e s . '1
em phasis
is
aw are t h a t
th e
th ey f in d
d oin g .
o ld er
behave
th em selv e s.
o rig in .
It
is,
of
first
e ffic ie n tly
Know ing i s
T h i s may s o u n d l i k e
ex p erien ces
E d u cato rs a re
fu n ctio n
p r o d u c e g r a d u a t e s who c a n p l a c e
who know how t o
i s m odern i n t h a t
on th e n eed f o r
t h a n on t h e n e e d f o r v o c a b u l a r y .
c reasin g ly
It
becom ing i n ­
ed u catio n i s
n o t to
on a q u i z p ro g ra m ,
in th e
but
s o c i a l o r d e r where
n o t e n o u g h ;,
J o h n Dewey, b u t i t
in p a r t,
rath er
t h e r e must be
is
o f much
t h e m e s s a g e o f Com enius*
tre a tise ,
The G r e a t D i d a c t i c .
P r e s e r v e d Sm ith sum m arizes
C om enius*
t e a c h i n g m ethods i n th e s e w ords;
P s y c h o l o g i c a l l y t h e m ethod was b a s e d on
t h e id e a t h a t th e m ind, h and, and to n g u e
s h o u ld be t r a i n e d c o n c u r r e n t l y ; t h e one to
th in k , th e second to do, and th e t h i r d to
in te rp re t.
Even from th e e a r l i e s t y e a r s
t h e c h i l d s h o u l d b e g i n t o know f a c t s a n d
t o p e rfo rm a c t s a s w e ll as to l e a r n
w ords.
V a r y a s i t m ay f r o m p l a c e
may b e b y g a l a x y
o f nam es,
tra d itio n a l
b o o k -learn in g ,
approach
th at
m ust
is
it
th e
to p la c e ,
d esig n ated
e sse n tia l featu re
know ledge,
co n ten t,
assum es t h a t know ledge
of
asi t
th is
and " p r e p a r a t i o n ”
of a ll
th e elem en ts
precede th e ir use in a t o ta l beh av io r p a tte r n .
In
p r e s e r v e d S m i t h , A H i s t o r y o f M odern C u l t u r e , V o l .
_I, T h e G r e a t R e n e w a l 1 5 4 5 - 1 6 8 7 (New Y o r k ; H e n r y H o l t a n d
Company, 1 9 3 0 ) , p . 3 4 8 .
47 r b D d . ,
p.
349.
105
re a d in g n o v els o r p la y s
sectio n s
m ust be a b le
to
It
is
perhaps tru e
approach in a l l
its
ch ild
o f know ledge a r e
is
is
sc h o o l sy stem .
trad itio n a l
lists
su c h means i t
the
S enten ces,
it
th e
of paragraphs
the
the
are
to m em orize.
may m e a n t h e
songs,
ted io u s
en lig h ten ed p la c e s ,
poems,
o r gam es.
same.
c h ild w ill acq u ire
to u se
In
By
a larg e
i n .ex p re ssin g h im s e lf.
composed of w ords and t h e r e f o r e
the
stu d y of se n te n c e s
an d so o n .
req u ired
The
on v o c a b u l a r y b u i l d i n g .
s tu d y o f w ords s h o u ld p re c e d e
and l i k e w i s e
th is
I n m ore
be a b l e
reasoned.,
is
o f 'th e
In th e
m ethod.
esse n ce rem ain s th e
em phasis i s
i s hoped th a t
is
yet it
fac t.
t a u g h t by t h i s
o f w ords.
v o c a b u la r y w hich he w i l l
fo llo w
p h ilo so p h y o f th e
am ple p r o o f o n . t h i s
W hatever t h e t r a p p i n g s ,
c alle d
of e d u catio n .
few t e a c h e r s
p r e s e n t e d w ith words w hich he
such c a s e s
one c an
c o u r s e s by r e p e a t e d d i v i s i o n s
is
one
v e ry d e p a r t m e n t a liz a t i o n and
t h i s may b e m o t i v a t e d b y j i n g l e s ,
th e
p h ilo so p h y
the b a s ic
Its
sy stem E n g lis h
m em o rizatio n of
sp eaking,
in a play b e fo re
th at
I n th e m ost c o n v e n tio n a l s c h o o ls ,
a ll
g en erally
extrem e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s ,
th is
tendency to m u ltip ly
field
an aly ze
T h is approach h a s been v a r i o u s l y
c an n o t be d e n ie d t h a t
the
every lin e
dr p a rt-to -th e -w h o le
W hile i t
tra d itio n a l
assum es t h a t ,
ex p lain
the p la y .
the a to m is tic
th is
to
a t a tim e and g r a d u a l l y b u i l d up to a com plete a n a l y s i s
o f th e w hole t h i n g .
ex p lain
the u s u a l p ro c e d u re i s
stu d y of se n te n c e s,
should
p reced e the
A ctual w ritin g of o r ig in a l
study
com p o sitio n s
106
is
to
be t h e
c o n c l u s i o n o f grammar s t u d y .
H aving l e a r n e d
how t o d i a g r a m a c o m p o u n d - c o m p l e x s e n t e n c e ,
co n sid ered ready in h is
in
fin al
sem ester to
the p u p il i s
s p e n d more t i m e
c r e a t i v e w o r k t h a n h e d o e s i n m em ory w o r k .
up o f p a r t s
becom es th e m ethod o f
become so u s e d t o
lo o k in g a t the
The b u i l d i n g
e d u c a tio n and th e
p arts
stu d en ts
th a t th ey cannot see
th e w hole.
C e rta in asp ects of
fau lty
th at
to le ra te d
it
is
at
th e p ic tu re
rela tiv e
in c re d ib le
o r condoned,
w orking a jig - s a w
is
rate.
necessary
of the
p arts.
In
one f i n d s
v ario u s
p ictu re
it
th ey a re
co lo rs
In
to
look
By t h i s m e a n s t h e
in
th e p ic tu r e
p o ssib le
o f th e
still
ad v o cated .
a g re a t h elp
box.
is
so o b v io u s ly
th at
alo n e a c t i v e l y
i n m ind i t
The t o t a l
to
to r e a l i s e
cover of the
be n o te d and w ith t h i s
a faster
let
puzzle
on th e
p o sitio n s
th is process are
can
to p ro c e e d a t
com pleted p r o d u c t
any com plete u n d e rs ta n d in g of
th e p a r t - t o - t h e - w h o l e m ethod t h i s
the
c o n stitu en t
p rin cip le
is
ig n o red .
M isu n d erstan d in g of th e n a tu re
a c t i v i t y may,
in p a rt,
tin u a n ce of
th ese
co n tin u e
the b e lie f
in
s u l t of the
b een noted^®
^
th at
have been re sp o n sib le
tra d itio n a l
a d d itio n
th e
S u p ra, pp.
of r e f l e x nervous
tech n iq u es.
fo r th e
Many p e r s o n s
th a t t o t a l b o d ily b eh av io r is
of a l l
so rts
ex p erim en ts
con­
of nervous a r c s .
the
still
re­
I t has
o f G. E . C o g h i l l a n d o t h e r s
28-29 and 4 4 -4 6 .
107
■have s h o w n t h i s
reflex es
to
be f a l s e .
It
is
a re m erely v e ry d i s c r e t e
once a la r g e and v e ry
ic a l p rin cip le
a very h ig h ly
is
p a ttern s.
refin em en ts
s p e c i a li z e d type
to
speak
O bserving a la r g e
e d u c a tio n , w hich i s ,
red b a ll
w i t h some s u c h r e m a r k
th is has
happened s e v e r a l hundred tim es th e
proudly
e n te rs
Several y ears
the
the
it
c r i b he
in h is
a s , ” B a b y w a n t b a l l ? 11
babyfs reco rd as h is
c h i l d w ould r e q u e s t t h e
im p re s s io n s m ight
com plete s e n te n c e
sin g le
w ord,
In th is
sense th e
in d eed ,
it
In any
know ledge,
an aly sis
crude
of the
is
th e
early
first
b a ll
p o ssib le
to
case.
in to
a c tiv ity
red b a ll?"
the
is
later
f i r s t u tte red
The s e n t e n c e
It
to
is
sk ills
th at a c tiv ity
and t h a t
the
a
th e r e s u l t of
its d iscrete
sep arate
w ord.
i n so m e
elem en ts.
p re c e d e d the know ledge,
situ atio n
say,
th at
th an th e
req u est.
response
learn in g
th at
not
a c tiv ity has
at a ll
b eliev e
a larg er p a tte rn
do w n a l a r g e
is
l e a d one to
but such i s
refin e m e n t of th e
break in g
is
A fter
b a b y one day
s u c h s e n t e n c e a s , " D a d w i l l y o u p l e a s e h a n d me t h a t
F irst
crib ,
b e h a v io r p a t t e r n and th e m other
event in
later
train in g .
o u tsid e h is
pro b ab ly
to h is
ind eed ,
c h ild b eg in s w ith very crude
g u r g l e s a n d g e s t i c u l a t e s u n t i l som eone p l a c e s
a d d s t h e word " b a l l "
T his p h y s io lo g ­
of p h y sio lo g ic a l
the
th at
o f w h a t was
crude b e h av io r p a tt e r n .
e q u ally v a lid fo r
In le a rn in g
now w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d
if,
tw o.
g e n e tic a lly precede,
itse lf
precedes
the
th e a n a l y s i s m ust f o l l o w
10 8
the a c tiv ity ,
language
is
n o t conversely*
th e
In b r i e f ,
a c q u is itio n of lab e ls
the
each a n a l y s i s
i n t u r n may d e t e r m i n e t h e
a c tiv ity ,
each a c t i v i t y
T his p o i n t h a s been a b ly
Freem an*
It
is
is,
for
alw ays f o llo w
but
experien ce*
th e a c q u is itio n of
of
e x p e r ie n c e and m ust
course,
n atu re
tru e
th at
of subsequent
an teced en t t o . i t s
own a n a l y s i s *
e x p r e s s e d b y R* M. O g d e n a n d F* S .
They s t a t e :
L e a r n in g i s t h e im provem ent o f b e h a v io r
by i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d r e f i n e m e n t *
In
o r d e r t o l e a r n a t h i n g we m u s t f i r s t p e r ­
c e iv e i t ; and • • ♦ p e r c e p tio n i s i n ­
d i c a t e d b y t h e way a b e h a v i o r i s f e l t o r
known.
T hus t h e r e a r e two k i n d s o f l e a r n ­
in g : f o r one t h e c r i t e r i o n i s f e e l i n g , and
f o r th e o t h e r i t i s know ing.
The f i r s t o f
th e se is th e a c q u is itio n of ski 11, • • In
i t a discern m en t of sp e c ia l f e a tu re s or a
k n o w l e d g e o f d e t a i l s may b e a n a c t u a l d i s ­
s e r v i c e t o t h e l e a r n e r . The s e c o n d , w h i c h i s
th e a c q u i s i t i o n o f know ledge, r e q u i r e s d i s ­
cernm ent and le a d s to th e a b s t r a c t p ro c e s s e s
of th in k in g [ a ll i t a l i c s in o r i g in a l] .
G e n e t i c a l l y , s k i l l p re c e d e s know ledge,
and hence th e le a r n in g of young c h il d r e n ,
and o f a l l o t h e r a n im a ls , i s and re m a in s
l a r g e l y a t t h e l e v e l o f a m ore o r l e s s s k i l l ­
f u l p e r f o r m a n c e . 49
If
th e
th is
a to m istic
a b le
b asis
to
is
so,
b asis
is
t h e n t h e p e d a g o g y w h ic h p r o c e e d s on
f o u n d e d on q u i c k s a n d and w i l l be u n ­
b u i l d a sound f o u n d a tio n
for
e v ery th in g
lea rn in g
is
ex p erien ce
t o m ak e s c h o o l l i f e
Ogden a n d F re e m a n ,
as
f o r f u t u r e use*
and th e
sc h o o ls should
life -lik e
o_p. c i t . , p .
The o n l y
as p o ssib le*
227.
do
109
Many e d u c a t o r s h a v e s e e n t h i s
need and have v o ic e d t h e i r
o b jec tio n s
system *
to
the
to th e
tra d itio n a l
sig n ific a n t
trad itio n a l
As t h e
m ethod of t e a c h i n g
are
f a c t s w i l l become o b v i o u s .
alm o st a l l
the
c ritic s
a c tiv ity .
In th e
w i l l ad v o cate
second p la c e ,
exam ined,
alm ost a l l
th e
cases
t e c h n iq u e s w ould,
n o ted ,
of o ral
be im m easurab ly
lev ied a t
a ll
to
the
c r i t i c s -w ill
situ atio n .
as
In both
sh all
be
in te g rato r,
it
enhanced.
S in ce language i s
may b e w e l l
p lace,
a g r e a t e r amount o f
classro o m
fu n ctio n
two
In th e f i r s t
a d v o c a t e a more s o c i a l i z e d
the
o b jec tio n s
the g re a t s o c ia l
c o n s id e r m a in ly what c r i t i c i s m s have b een
teach in g of E n g lish .
be sum m arized i n t h e
terse
These c r i t i c i s m s
can
o b serv atio n of F ran k lin
B o b b i t t who h a s s a i d :
not
T h e r e h a s b e e n too:much E n g l i s h t e a c h i n g ; .
enough E n g l i s h l i v i n g .
T his
is
n o t a new o b s e r v a t i o n .
books long i n u se
fo llo w in g
of
A series
i n t h e D e t r o i t s c h o o l system c a r r i e d
q u o t a t i o n fro m M acau lay on t h e
c o n te n ts
of co m p o sitio n
reverse
of th e
page;
Grammars o f r h e t o r i c an d gram m ars o f
l o g i c a r e am ong t h e m o s t u s e l e s s f u r n i t u r e
on a s h e l f .
G ive a boy R o b in s o n C r u s o e .
T hat i s w o rth a l l th e gram m ars o f r h e t o r i c
bO F r a n k l i n B o b b i t t , The C u r r i c u l u m
H o u g h to n M i f f l i n Company, 1 9 1 8 ) , p . 2 5 0 .
(New Y o r k :
th e
tab le
110
a n d l o g i c i n t h e w o r l d . . • Who e v e r
re a so n e d b e t t e r f o r h av in g been ta u g h t
th e d i f f e r e n c e betw een a s y llo g is m and
a n enthym em e?
Who e v e r c o m p o s e d w i t h
g r e a t e r s p i r i t and e le g a n c e b e c a u s e he
c o u ld d e f i n e a n oxym oron o r an a p o s i o ‘ p esis?
-Thomas B a b i n g t o n M a c a u l a y
T re v e ly a n * s L i f e of L ord M a ca u lay ,C h . V I.
U n fo rtu n a te ly th e
d id n o t ap p ly
th is
id ea.
a rra n g em e n t o f E. L. M ille r * s
These c o m p o s itio n books d id n o t
p ro v id e fo r th e
o rg an iz atio n of a c t i v i t i e s ,
p r e s e n ta tio n of
su b je ct-m a tte r.
but fo r th e
T heir very n a tu re
te a c h e r d o m in a tio n and th e ascendance of w r itte n
J o h n Dewey*s p o s i t i o n ,
th a t th e only tru e
w hich r e s u l t s
so cial
from t h e
in itia l
p u b licatio n
w ith us today a s a c r i t i c i s m
In
1938 P r e s c o t t ' s
tec h n iq u e s.
stim u la tio n a c h ild
P e d a g o g ic C r e e d t i n w hich h e f i r s t
in
52
but the
of c u rre n t
is
th at
re c e iv e s as
Dewey’ s
expressed th is
1896,
im plied
e d u catio n
a m em b er o f a g r o u p , h a s a l r e a d y b e e n n o t e d .
had i t s
tex ts
o p in io n ,
id ea is s t i l l
school p ra c tic e .
com m ittee a s s e r t e d :
School p e o p le a re p reo c cu p ie d , alm o st
o b se ssed , w ith th e d e s i r a b i l i t y of te a c h ­
in g c h i l d r e n to r e a d , w r i t e , s p e l l and
sp e ak la n g u a g e a c c u r a t e l y and to m an ip u ­
la te fig u re s in the fash io n t r a d i t i o n a l l y
o r d a i n e d by a r i t h m e t i c and a l g a b r a .
These
a r e l a r g e l y 11s k i l l ” o r h a b i t s u b j e c t s a n d
D1 E d w i n L . M i l l e r , P r a c t i c a l E n g l i s h C o m p o s i t i o n ;
B o o k I I I (New Y o r k : H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n C o m p a n y , 1 9 1 6 J, p . v i .
^
S upra, p.
66.
I ll
t h e a t t e m p t i s made t o i m p a r t them by
d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n , d r i l l , and p r a c t i c e
w ith o u t ta k in g i n t o a c c o u n t to any g r e a t
e x te n t th e p resen ce o r absence of m o tiv a­
tio n *
The r e s i s t e n c e m et a l l t o o f r e ­
q u e n t l y h a s n o t l e d o f t e n enough to a t ­
tem p ts to f i n d out w hether p e r s o n a l i ty
needs, a r e b e in g n e g l e c t e d o r f r u s t r a t e d
by t h i s g r e a t e m p h a s is on a c q u i r i n g
s k i l l s ; n o r h a s i t le d o f t e n enough to
a t t e m p t s t o f i n d o t h e r a n d m o r e e f f e c t i v e __
means o f i n c u l c a t i n g th e n e c e s s a r y s k i l l s .
The m o t i v a t i o n o f w h i c h P r e s c o t t
d o u b ted ly th e
Dewey s p o k e i n
who p o i n t s
so c iatio n
release
and to
"demands o f th e
1898.
T his
is
so cial
spoke i n
situ atio n "
and
in d iv id u als
fa c ilita te
the
o f whifch
R A
s u p p o r t e d by K i m b a l l Y oung^^
out th a t p leasan t a ffe c t u su ally
to g eth er,
1938 i s u n ­
acco m p an ies a s ­
e f f e c t of th e a s s o c ia tio n
is
to
from i n h i b i t i o n s an d s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s
c o n stru ctiv e
a c tiv ity .
E lsew h ere P r e s c o t t * s
com m ittee a g a in e m p h asizes t h i s p o i n t by s t a t i n g
th at:
A s c h o o l s h o u ld s t a n d r e a d y t o m odify
th e c u rric u lu m to w hatever e x te n t i t i s
n e c e s s a ry to in s u r e a c h ild * s e x p e r i e n c ­
in g a f a i r b a la n c e betw een s u c c e s s and
f a i l u r e _in t h e e y e s o f h i s c l a s s m a t e s
[ i t a l i c s not in o rig in a l]
J
The o n l y way a c h i l d
su c c e ss and f a i l u r e
" in th e
c a n ,e x p e r i e n c e a b a l a n c e b e tw een
eyes of h i s .c la ssm a te s"
P re s c o tt, op. c i t .,
54 Young,
RR
o jd
P re sc o tt,
.
c i t ,,
pp.
p. 213.
2 03-393..
ojD. c i t . , p p .
216-217.
is
in a
112
s o c ia l and,
th erefo re,
B o b b itt p o in ts
out
p redom inantly o ra l
t h a t we c a n a c q u i r e
p ro d u ct of a s o c ia l
situ atio n
to
for
seg reg ate
sk ills
except as a c o rre c tiv e
the
sk ills
and t h a t
purpose
procedure.
situ atio n .
it
is
as a by­
not necessary
of s p e c ia liz e d
He s a y s :
I t i s p o s s ib l e to .a n a ly z e o n e ’s language
a c t i v i t i e s and f i n d a l l of th e t h i n g s one
m u s t do i n e f f e c t i v e l y a n d c o r r e c t l y u s i n g
it.
Each o f t h e s e t h i n g s t h e n becom es an
o b je c tiv e of t r a i n in g .
But i t i s n o t n e c ­
e ssa ry c o n s c io u s ly to t r a i n f o r each of
them .
L e t a n i n d i v i d u a l grow u p i n a c u l ­
t i v a t e d lan g u ag e a tm o sp h ere, and he w i l l
l e a r n to do, and be s u f f i c i e n t l y p r a c t i c e d
i n d o in g , m ost o f them , w ith o u t any d i r e c t ­
ed t r a i n i n g . . .
Each m is ta k e i s a c a l l
f o r d i r e c t e d training® ^® 1
B o b b i t t ’ s view a s
feels
th at
the
sk ills
so
expressed h ere
d e fin ite ly
sy stem s can be a c q u ir e d as
T h is
is
say,
because the
so cial
p o ssib le,
situ atio n
co n ten d s,
in d iv id u a l
Young,
learn er
i s sim p ly t h a t he
is
of a s o c i a l
situ atio n
situ atio n .
a n d Dewey w o u l d a l l
m ore m o t i v a t e d i n a
t h a n i n a. n o n - s o c i a l o n e ,
in an a u d ito ry
*
em phasized i n our sc h o o l
in cid en ta ls
as P re sc o tt,
train in g ,
and,
as
th is
paper
ra th e r th an in a s i le n t
one.
S h a ttu c k and B a rn es
when t h e y
p re s e n t the
same g e n e r a l
say:
C h ild re n of elem en tary sch o o l age r a r e ly
u s e l a n g u a g e b y i t s e l f a n d f o r i t s own s a k e ;
56 B o b b i t t ,
oj3.
c i t .,
pp.
44-45
th o u g h t
113
th e language i s
to ta l situ atio n
an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f th e
or co n fig u ra tio n .
. . .
lan g u ag e ef f ectiv en ess„ depends
u p o n o n e 1s p e r s o n a l a n d s o c i a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s ,
upon h i s r e c o g n i t i o n of th e d i s t i n c t i v e f e a ­
t u r e s and o b j e c t i v e s of s i t u a t i o n s , and upon
h i s a d j u s t m e n t t o t h e o c c a s i o n a n d t o h i's
com panions..
Most o f t h e s e t y p e s o f l a n g u a g e a c t i v i t y
a re n o n -co m p o sitio n al in t h e i r n a tu r e .
They
a r e n o t d i s c o u r s e , t h e y do n o t c o n s i s t o f
th e t h i n k i n g , p l a n n i n g , and th e s p e a k i n g and
w r i t i n g o f one p e r s o n .
They a r e n o t s o l o
p e rfo rm a n c e s, b u t group a c t i v i t i e s ; and th e
r h e t o r i c to be le a r n e d i s n o t th e r h e t o r i c
of a rc h ite c tu re d d isco u rse, but of s o c ia l
gro u p in g s.
for
M ost of t h e s e l a n g u a g e s i t u a t i o n s
speaking r a t h e r th an w r itin g .
c all
I t seem s u n l i k e l y t h a t th e s c h o o l c a n
e d u c a te f o r th e language n e ed s o f l i f e ex­
c e p t by p l a c i n g p u p i l s i n s i t u a t i o n s w hich
a p p e a l s tr o n g ly to language m o tiv e s and
d riv es•
T h is demand f o r
itie s
for a c tiv ity
so cial
situ atio n s
can be se e n a l s o
to
in th e
p ro v id e o p portun­
co n te n tio n s
C h a r l e s R u s s e l l , *w h o , i n a r e c e n t b o o k o n t e a c h i n g
of
tech n iq u es
says:
The f i r s t s t e p i n t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e s e
i n t e r e s t s i s through in s u rin g t h a t p u p ils
have e x p e r ie n c e s , n o t m erely g a in a s u p e r ­
f i c i a l know ledge of f a c t s .
I t i s f a r m ore
M a r q u is E. S h a t t u c k and W a l t e r B a r n e s , "The
S i t u a t i o n a s R e g a r d s E n g l i s h , " The D e v e l o p m e n t o f ct M o d e r n
P r o g r a m i n E n g l i s h , N i n t h Y e a r b o o k , The D e p a r t m e n t o f S u p e r ­
v i s o r s and D i r e c t o r s o f I n s t r u c t i o n (W ashington: N a tio n a l
E d u catio n A s s o c ia tio n , 1936), pp. 4 -7 .
114
im p o rtan t th a t a p u p il have an ex p erien ce
w i t h a f a c t t h a n i t i s t h a t h e s h a l l “know ”
a fac t.
I f he h a s an e x p e rie n c e w ith a
f a c t , h e m u s t k no w i t ; b u t t o b e a b l e t o
r e p e a t the f a c t o r d isg o rg e i t upon re q u e s t
i s no c r i t e r i o n t h a t h e h a s h a d a n y e x ­
p e rie n c e w ith i t w h atso ev er,
l& erein l ie s
the d iffe re n c e ?
Sim ply t h a t to h ave an ex­
p e r i e n c e i m p l i e s som e f o r m o f a c t i v i t y i n ­
v o lv in g th e i n d i v i d u a l and th e f a c t .
There
i s a p e rs o n a l r e la ti o n s h ip in v o lv ed th a t i n ­
s u re s th e a c t i v i t y of th e in d iv id u a l w ith
th e f a c t .
I f t h e r e i s no m e a n i n g a t t a c h e d
to the f a c t th ro u g h th e agency of e x p e rie n c e ,
t h e r e has been no p e rs o n a l a c t i v i t y in v o lv e d ,
a n d t h e r e c a n b e n o m o re t h a n a s e n s o r i a l i n ­
t e r e s t i f th e re is any.
A c h i l d may kn o w a
lo n g s e r i e s o f f a c t s i n h i s t o r y , f o r exam ple
t h a t Colum bus s a i l e d a c r o s s a n unknown o c e a n
a n d l a n d e d i n 1492 a t a b e a c h o n a n i s l a n d
i n th e C a rib b e a n Sea and th e r e b y d is c o v e r e d
a l a n d t h a t was t h e n unknown i n E u ro p e*
Un­
l e s s , how ever, th e s e f a c t s a re r e l a t e d in
h i s e x p e r i e n c e so t h a t h i s f i n a l e x p e r i e n c e
fr o m them s h a l l h a v e i n v o l v e d h i s u s i n g
them a l l i n o r d e r t o g a i n t h e r i g h t m e a n in g
f r o m t h e m , t h e y w i l l r e m a i n a s s o many u n ­
r e l a t e d and u n e x p e r ie n c e d f a c t s , d e v o id o f
p a r t i c u l a r i z e d m e a n i n g s a n d 11f o r g o t t e n " a s
so o n a s l e a r n e d , b ro u g h t from n o t h in g and
le a d in g now here.
To h a v e a n e x p e r i e n c e
w i t h f a c t s means t o l i v e t h r o u g h u s i n g t h e
f a c t s , n o t m erely to r e c e iv e th e f a c t s as
s o m uch g r u e l . ^
On t h i s
p o i n t P a u l W itty and D avid K opel a r e o f a
s im ila r o p in io n .
Bay t h e y :
Each c h i l d * s v o c a b u la r y i s view ed a s
a p p ro p ria te , th en , i f i t is acq u ired be­
c a u se i t s e rv e s h i s p e rs o n a l and s o c i a l
needs.
S l a v i s h d e v o t i o n to word l i s t s
C h a r l e s R u s s e l l , T e a c h i n g f o r Tomorrow
P r e n t i c e - H a l 1, I n c . , 1 9 3 7 ) , . p p . 2 8 - 2 9 .
(New Y o r k :
115
o r to any s e t of sta n d a rd s, r e s t r i c t s
developm ent and b lo c k s g r o w t h . ^
The f a l l a c y
of th e
tra d itio n a l
approach to
the te a c h ­
i n g o f g r a m m a r b e c o m e s m o r e o b v i o u s when o n e e x a m i n e s t h e
an th ro p o lo g ical
ev id e n ce.
C e r ta in ly language
grammar a s an e l e m e n t o f o u r c u l t u r e .
t h a t we n o r m a l l y
fo r th e
preceded
form al
A. L . K r o e b e r a s s e r t s
em ploy l a n g u a g e u n c o n s c i o u s l y w i t h o u t c o n c e r n
fo rm a litie s
of gram m ar.
He s a y s :
. . . . i t c a n e a s i l y be shown t h a t t h e
g r e a t b u lk of any language as i t i s • •
• • i s e m p l o y e d u n c o n s c i o u s l y . An i l l i t e r ­
a t e p e rs o n w i l l u se such form s a s c h i I d ,
c h i l d 1s , c h i l d r e n , c h i l d r e n 1s w i t h t h e s a m e
'C o r r e c tn e s s " a s a p h i l o l o g i s t , y e t w ith o u t
b ein g a b le to g iv e an e x p la n a tio n of th e
gram m atical id e a s o f s i n g u l a r i t y and p l u r a l ­
i t y , a b s o l u t e n e s s and p o s s e s s i o n , o r to la y
down t h e r u l e a s t o t h e m a n n e r o f e x p r e s s i o n
o f t h e s e i d e a s i n E n g l i s h , Grammar, i n s h o r t ,
e x i s t s b e f o r e g r a m m a r ia n s , whose l e g i t i m a t e
b u s in e s s i t i s to u n co v er such r u l e s a s a re
alread y th e r e .
I t i s an o b v io u s ly h a s t y
th o u g h t t h a t b e c a u s e gram m ar.h a p p e n s t o be
tau g h t i n s c h o o ls , speech can be gram m atical
o n l y t h r o u g h s u c h f o r m a l t e a c h i n g . ^0
The k n o w l e d g e t h a t
and n o t
-
effo rt
the
is
grammar f o l l o w s
language u sag e,
o t h e r way a b o u t , i s now common p r o p e r t y ,
made t o p u t i t
in to
p rac tic e.
If
c u r a c y c a n be a c h i e v e d w i t h o u t knov/ledge o f
59 W i t t y a n d K o p e l ,
op. c i t . , p.
A. L . K r o e b e r , A n t h r o p o l o g y
B r a c e a n d Company, 1 9 2 3 ) , p . 1 2 6 .
but l i t t l e
gram m atical a c ­
the
"laws*1 o f
299.
(New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t ,
116
gram m ar,
what p la c e
The s i m p l e
rem ain s f o r th e
teach in g
of
th ese
law s?
s o l u t i o n w o u ld seem t o h e t h e p r o v i s i o n o f o p ­
p o rtu n ities
in stru ctio n .
for
r ic h e r language
ex p erien ces
Such lan g u a g e l i v i n g
r a t h e r th an form al
in ev itab ly
req u ires
more
o r a l w ork.
Some c h a n g e s a r e a c t u a l l y
In
1936, Page fo u n d t h a t
what,*. ‘ H e r e v i d e n c e
had been a tre n d
later
grades
b e i n g made a l o n g t h e s e
lin e s.
t h e s e n e e d s w ere b e i n g met som e­
in d ic ate d th a t
from
1926 t o
1936 t h e r e
to w a rd a l a r g e r u s e o f o r a l w ork i n t h e
" i n th e m eetin g o f in fo rm a l
everyday speech
n e e d s , 11
The n e e d f o r s a t i s f y i n g
"real needs” is
p h a s i z e d b y P a u l McKee who c o n t e n d e d i n
fu rth er,
1934 t h a t :
T here m ust be t r a i n i n g i n such r e a l n eed s
as c o n v e rsa tio n , w ritin g l e t t e r s , c re a tiv e
w ritin g , t e l l i n g s to r ie s , r e la tin g ex p erien ces,
and th e l i k e • • , th e t r a d i t i o n a l c o m p o s itio n
in v o lv in g such item s as n a r r a t i o n , e x p o s itio n ,
fo r m a l them e w r i t i n g , d e c l a m a t i o n , and o r a t o r y
rep resen t re la tiv e ly u seless in stru c tio n a l
u n i t s f o r th e elem en tary sc h o o l.
• . . i t i s m ore i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e p u p i l
t o l e a r n t o e x p r e s s h i m s e l f w e l l i n o r a l form
th a n i n w r i t te n form .
U n t i l d a t a a r e made
a v a i l a b l e on t h e r e l a t i v e l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t y
of o r a l and w r i t t e n c o m p o s itio n i t i s w ise to
assum e t h a t t h e s c h o o l m ust sp en d m ost of th e
a v a i l a b l e tim e and e n e rg y on o r a l c o m p o s i t i o n
6 1 M i l d r e n A. D a w s o n ,
op.
c i t .,
p.
. 6 2
11*
62 p a u l M cK ee, L a n g u a g e i n t h e E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l
(New Y o r k : H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n C o m p a n y , 1 9 3 4 ) , p p . 1 6 5 - 1 6 6 .
em­
117
T his
w ritte n
J.
same v i e w t h a t
work i s
found in
M. C l a p p , 6 4 E l i z a b e t h
can be w e l l
one a n o th e r ,
in
and,
o rg an izatio n of
is
second,
s ta te m e n ts by J .
B
a
su b sta n tia ted ,
cu rren t tren d s
there
o r a l w o rk s h o u l d b e more u s e d
k
r
,
and R. J .
th e n ,th a t
e d u catio n ,
a ll
e
th ere
o f w hich c h a l l e n g e
in stru ctio n al
m aterials
demand h a s b e e n l a r g e l y
a more s o c i a l i z e d
demand on t h e
c u rricu lu m ,
the
and t h i r d ,
later
It
a r e tw o o r t h r e e
the
w ith
trad itio n a l
and te c h n iq u e s .
F irst,
type o f ed u catio n ,
expressed in a c a ll fo r
p a r t o f an in c r e a s in g l y
f o r more o r a l work i n
^
Jo h n so n .* ^
w h i c h i n n o way c o n f l i c t
a demand f o r a m ore f u n c t i o n a l
th is
W. S e a r s o n ,
th an
th ere
is
a sp ecific
l a r g e number o f s c h o l a r s
e le m e n ta ry and se co n d a ry
sch o o ls•
I t has been p o in ted
out th a t
so c ia liz a tio n
w o r k go h a n d i n h a n d b e c a u s e t h e v e r y n a t u r e
so c ial.
It
o f o r a l work i s
r e m a i n s now o n l y t o e x a m i n e so m e r e l a t i o n s
tw eel o r a l
work and c e r t a i n
fu n ctio n al
type
If
and o r a l
sp ecific
su g g estio n s
be-
f o r a m ore
of cu rricu lu m .
one c o n s id e r s v a rio u s
su g g estio n s of
so cial
scien ce
6 3 J . w7 S e a r s o n , " M e e t i n g t h e P u b l i c D e m a n d , 1* E n g l i s h
J o u r n a l , X (J u n e , 1 9 2 1 ), 3 2 7 -3 3 1 , and ”D e te rm in in g a L anguage
P r o g r a m , 1* E n g l i s h J o u r n a l , X I I I ( F e b r u a r y , 1 9 2 4 ) , 9 9 - 1 1 4 .
64
J . M. C l a p p , ” T h e P l a c e a n d F u n c t i o n o f E n g l i s h i n
A m erican L i f e , ” S c h o o l and S o c i e t y , X X III ( A p r i l 3 , 1 9 2 6 ),
424-425.6 6 E . B a k e r , ”A S o c i a l B a s i s f o r t h e T e a c h i n g o f E l e m ­
e n t a r y E n g l i s h L a n g u a g e ,” E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l Jo u rnal,X X X
(S p p tem b er, 1929), 2 7 -3 3 .
P ublic
66 r . j . J o h n s o n , E n g l i s h E x p r e s s i o n ,
S c h o o l P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1 9 2 6 ) •
(B loom ington:
118
stu d en ts
to
upon the
su g g ested d ev ice of th e
th is
to
v ita liz e
c o n n ectio n J .
th eir
J.
and,
m ore l a r g e l y
ized r e c i ta t io n .
comes i m m e d i a t e l y
so c ializ e d
re c ita .tio n .
In
S t o r m z a n d a n d R . H. L e w i s c a l l a t t e n t i o n
t h e m ore l i f e - l i k e ,
statem en t,
su b je c t,o n e
oral
a s can be s e e n i n tiie f o l l o w i n g
situ atio n s
c r e a t e d by t h e
so cial­
They s a y :
T h i s C.the p u r p o s e o f s o c i a l i z e d r e ­
c i t a t i o n ] , i s t o g i v e s t u d e n t s c e r t a i n im­
p o r ta n t s o c ia liz in g ex p erien ces th a t a re
ra re ly acq u ired as purposeful tra in in g in
s c h o o l and c a n be a t t a i n e d i n r e a l l i f e
o n l y b y t h o s e who h a v e t h e g o o d f o r t u n e
o f an e x c e p tio n a l s o c ia l environm ent a t
home.
T h is i s th e t r a i n i n g i n th e a r t o f
c o n v e r s a t i o n i n a g r o u p o f som e s i z e , w h e r e
c o u r t e o u s l i s t e n i n g and g e n e r o u s b u t p e r ­
tin e n t p a rtic ip a tio n are e s s e n tia l s k i l ls
i n a w o rth y s o c i a l developm ent . . .
The
a v e ra g e c l a s s group i s as s u i t a b l e f o r t h i s
as i t is fo r th e ex p erien ce of a d d re ss in g
an a u d ie n c e .
The s t u d e n t i s e n t i t l e d t o
have both th e s e s o c ia l e x p re s s io n ex p er­
ie n c e s in h is high school years*67
In a s p i r i t
b asic
v alu e o f th e
re c ita tio n ,
not
so f a v o r a b l e ,
so c ializ in g
A. C. B i n i n g
but s t i l l
in flu en ce
a n d D. H.
of th e
a d m ittin g
th e
so cialized
B in in g d e c l a r e t h a t :
One o f t h e d e c i d e d d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f t h e
e x c l u s i v e u s e o f t h e m ethod s o c i a l i z e d r e ­
c i t a t i o n re s id e s in th e f a c t th a t i t is not
c o n d u c tiv e to an a d e q u a te m a ste ry o f th e
su b je ct-m a tte r.
V iewed s o l e l y fro m t h e
p o i n t of view of e f f i c i e n t l e a r n in g o f su b ­
j e c t - m a t t e r , t h e u s e o f t h i s m ethod can
in the
p. 90.
67 M. j 7 S t o r m z a n d a n d R o b e r t H. L e w i s , New M e t h o d s
S o c i a l S t u d i e s (New Y o r k : F a r r a r a n d R i n e h a r t , 1 9 3 5 ) ,
119
receiv e l i t t l e ju s t if i c a t io n . • . •
The s o c i a l i z e d r e c i t a t i o n i s w a s t e f u l o f
t i m e • • • The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s m e t h o d
l i e s i n t h e s o c i a l v a l u e s i n v o l v e d . 68
W hile f i n i n g
and B in in g a g re e
c ita tio n has d e fin ite
s o c ia l v alu e,
' • w a s t e f u l o f t i m e 11 a n d w i t h
th at
th ey
re g a rd to
th e
so c ializ e d
denounce i t
learn in g
as
of su b je c t-
m a tte r th ey
d eclare
fica tio n .* *
T h is w o u ld seem t o be a som ew hat c o n f u s e d
p o sitio n ,
for
o n *'s o c i a l
" t h i s m ethod can r e c e i v e
i t h ard ly
values.**
seem s p o s s i b l e
The c o n t e n t i o n
to
co n ten t
It
little
reg ard in g
the
in th e
a c q u i r e d by t h e
c h ild b e fo re he
e d u c a ti o n and t h a t m ost o f t h i s
of h is
play
in -
o f 1 e a r n in>g
way o f s u b j e c t -
e v e r h a s any fo rm a l
was a c q u i r e d a s a b y - p r o d u c t
a c tiv itie s.
Not a l l
so cial
B in in g and B in in g .
re c ita tio n
of
c o u rse of s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s .
n e e d o n l y be r e m a r k e d h e r e t h a t much i n t h e
m atter is
lea rn in g
The i s s u e s
in a t p o s i t i o n c o n c e r n t h e p o s s i b i l i t y
in cid en ta lly
ju sti­
b e ’' w a s t e f u l time**
s u b j e c t - m a t t e r d e s e r v e s more c o n s i d e r a t i o n .
Yoive ci i n
re­
s c ie n c e p eo p le h o ld th e p o s i t i o n of
E . B. W e s le y b e l i e v e s
makes l e a r n i n g
learn in g p ro c e ss.
It
easier,
is h is
th at
co n ten tio n
it
th at
the
so cialized
fa c ilita te s
th e
th at:
The s o c i a l i z e d r e c i t a t i o n . . .
has had
g r e a t in f lu e n c e i n p ro m o tin g b e t t e r r e l a t i o n ­
s h i p s a m on g p u p i l s a n d b e t w e e n t e a c h e r s a n d
A r t h u r C . B i n i n g a n d D a v i d H. B i n i n g , T e a c h i n g t h e
S o c i a l S t u d i e s i n S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s (New Y o r k : McG-raw H i l l ,
1935), p . 160.
120
p u p ils*
I t was d e s i g n e d t o e l i m i n a t e t h e
fo rm a l and s t i l t e d a i r t h a t seem s t o p e r ­
v a d e m any c l a s s r o o m a n d t o s u b s t i t u t e a
sen se o f freedom and n a tu r a ln e s s *
Under
t h e s e new c o n d i t i o n s p u p i l s c a n a c h i e v e
b e t t e r r e s u l t s w ith le s s d r a in upon t h e i r
e n e r g y * 69
I n W esley*s p o s i t i o n
m o tiv a tin g fo rc e o f the
so cial
a t i o n w a s made e a r l i e r *
situ atio n
are
very
the
learn in g
lik e ly
referred
to
can be s e e n a r e c o g n i t i o n o f th e
situ atio n ,
When t h e r e
process
is
is
of w hich c o n s i d e r ­
no l i f e - l i k e ,
i n h i b i t e d and th e
be u n s a t i s f a c t o r y *
or so c ial,
re su lts
S u c h a c i r c u m s t a n c e was
t o b y W* H* P y l e w h e n h e s t a t e d
th at:
Poor le a r n in g in such sch o o l s u b je c ts
a s h i s t o r y , g e o g ra p h y , c i v i c s , and elem en ­
t a r y f o r m s o f s c i e n c e s i s i n a l a r g e num­
b e r o f c a s e s c a u s e d by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e
m a t t e r h a s no m eaning o r l i t t l e m ean in g
to th e le a r n e r *
Of c o u r s e , t h i s s i t u a t i o n
i s c a u s e d , i n p a r t , by th e f a c t t h a t i d e a ­
t i o n a l l e a r n i n g h a s b e c o m e s o m uch a m a t t e r
o f l e a r n i n g from books an d th e w ords o f
th e books too o f t e n a r e m erely w o r d s . ^
In th e rem arks o f P y le ,
th e
b asic
perhaps
from
It
idea th a t
it
is not v ita lly
even in a d v is a b le ,
th e
to ta l
so c ial
W esley,
to
and o t h e r s
necessary,
a tte m p t to d i s e c t
situ atio n
and t r a i n
can be seen
in
th e
fact,
sk ills
them i n d i v i d u a l l y *
h a s b e e n s h o w n how t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e p e o p l e h a v e b e e n
ad v o catin g th e
in fu sio n of
69 E . B . W e s l e y ,
ojd*
o ra l tech n iq u es
fo r th e
purpose
c i t *, p* 5 4 3 .
. P y l e , ’’F a c t o r s o f L e a r n i n g - - B a s i c P r i n c i p l e s , ”
F a c to r s of L e a rn in g and T eaching T ech n iq u es in B u sin e ss
E d u c a tio n S u b j e c t s , F o u rth Y earbook, (C hicago: N a tio n a l
C o m m e r c i a l T e a c h e r s F e d e r a t i o n , 1 9 3 8 ) , p* 72*
h
121
o f m aking t h e i r
n a tu re .
phase of
The s a m e t h i n g
e d u c a t i o n m ore f u n c t i o n a l i n
is
b e in g a d v o c a t e d by t e a c h e r s
Speech and E n g lis h a s w e ll as
D uring th e
of
e d u c a to rs i n g en eral..
t w e n t i e s W oolbert w r o te :
W herever sp eech i s ta u g h t as a v e n tu r e
i n s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t i t comes c l o s e t o
ro u n d in g o u t th e m aking a f f e c t i v e a l l o t h e r
school d is c ip lin e s .
L i k e w i s e A. T. W eav er h e l d t h e
to o l
s u b j e c t w hich p r o v i d e s
view t h a t
a means u s a b l e
speech i s
by a l l
in
a
ed u catio n
when he s a i d ;
. . .
teach ers . . .
s h o u ld be u s i n g t h e
d i s c i p l i n e o f s p e e c h t r a i n i n g a s a means i n
e d u c a t i o n a n d n o t a s a n end i n i t s e l f ^
In
1923 t h e N a t i o n a l C o u n c il o f T e a c h e rs o f E n g lis h
p a s s e d a s one o f t h e i r
reso lu tio n s:
That t r a i n i n g i n th e e lem en tary m a tters,
of te c h n iq u e o f th e sp eak in g v o ic e sh o u ld
be a p a r t o f th e p r e p a r a t i o n o f e v e ry d e ­
p artm en tal t e a c h e r .'*
I n a m ore p o s i t i v e
p eated
of
in
same t h o u g h t was r e ­
1936 i n A R e p o r t of th e C o m m itte e on C o r r e l a t i o n
th e N a tio n a l C o u n cil
sta te d
fa sh io n the
of T eachers
o f E n g li s h w here i t
was
that::
W o o lb ert, o p . c i t . ,
p.
39.
Andrew Thomas W e a v e r, “E n d s
S p e e c h E d u c a t i o n , 11 i n A. M. Drummond,
^
Q u o t e d b y D ru m m o n d , _0 £ .
and
op.
c i t . , p.
Means i n E l e m e n t a r y
c i t . , p. 43.
5.
122
The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t r a i n i n g t o t h i s
end [ e f f e c t i v e s p e e c h ] c a n n o t be l e f t to t h e
s o - c a lle d speech te a c h e rs alo n e • . . ♦ •
No p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h o t h e r i s s u e s s h o u l d
p erm it slo v e n ly and raucous speech in an E n g lish
c la ss ro o m * Nor i n any o t h e r c la ssro o m .1
. . .
p r a c tic e in o ra l re a d in g of every
s o r t sh o u ld s u r e ly be i n c i d e n t a l to every
s u b je c t in the c u rric u lu m .7 4
It
to
th e
speech
only n a tu r a l f o r E n g lish
slogan,
to
do t h e
It
same f o r
sp e ec h te a c h e r on t h i s
In ev itab le tr u th
ren.
is
c id e n ta l to
to
su b scrib e
th at
speech,
b u t t h e r e was n o t
com m ittee*
every te a c h e r
and fo r
B ehind t h i s
is
lie s
a teach er of c h ild ­
n o t a q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r s p e e c h s h o u l d be i n ­
c o n te n t or co n ten t in c id e n ta l
im p o rtan t th in g
is
to
rea liz e
s u b j e c t - m a t t e r m ust be l e a r n e d
not e ffic ie n t
th ere
teach ers
"E very T eacher a T eacher of E n g lis h ,"
teach ers
a sin g le
th e
is
seem s to
t h a t both
in
to
speech*
The
language s k i l l s
t h e sa m e s i t u a t i o n .
t o h a v e tw o s e p a r a t e
lea rn in g
b e n o r e a s o n why b o t h t h e
and
It
is
situ a tio n s, for
sk ills
and th e
con­
t e n t c an n o t be a c q u ir e d s im u lta n e o u s ly .
Modern e d u c a t o r s a r e
W rinkle h a s p o in te d o u t,
the m o tiv a tio n fo r
aw are o f t h i s
th at in
the
problem .
W. L*
speech dourses p ro p er
th e w ork a t hand i s
a rtific ia l
w h ile:
R u t h M. W e e k s , c h a i r m a n , A C o r r e l a t e d C u r r i c u l u m .
A R e p o r t o f th e C om m ittee on C o r r e l a t i o n of t h e N a t i o n a l
C o u n c i l o f T e a c h e r s o f E n g l i s h (New Y o r k : D* A p p l e t o n C e n t u r y Company, 1 9 3 6 ) , p p . 2 7 6 -2 7 7 *
123
A t t h e same t i m e t h e s e s t u d e n t s a r e
sp e a k in g and w r i t i n g i n o t h e r c o u r s e s and
a c t i v i t i e s b e c a u s e ,th e y have so m eth in g to
s p e a k a n d w r i t e , a b o u t • • . The d e p a r t m e n t ­
a l i z a t i o n of t h i s essen ti-al fu n c tio n has
r e s u l t e d i n a s i t u a t i o n w hich i s h i g h l y
u n e c o n o m i c a l a n d i n m an y r e s p e c t s n e g a t i v e
in i t s o p eratio n .
U n til speech ed u ca tio n i s d e lib e r a te ly
aim ed a t t h r o u g h o u t th e e n t i r e p ro g ra m , to o
m uch s h o u l d n o t b e e x p e c t e d a s a r e s u l t o f a
c o m p a r t m e n t a l i z e d p r o g r a m , no m a t t e r how w e l l
i t may b e d i r e c t e d . 7 5
F.
J.
W eersing*s o p in io n t h a t a s t u d e n t * s
m ig h t w e l l be l i m i t e d
thought
and th e
th o u g h t,
t o w hat he n e ed s to w r i t e
im provem ent o f h i s
has alread y been n o t e d * I n
o f F i f t e e n v a g u e ly re c o g n iz e d the
lan g u ag e.
oral
One r e c e n t
a s an a i d to
ex p ressio n
of
1895 t h e C om m ittee
in te g rativ e
s tu d e n t of the
“w r i t t e n w ork
n a tu re
of
c o m m itte e * s work e x p l a i n s :
The C o m m i t t e e b e l i e v e d t h a t e v e r y r e ­
c i t a t i o n i s , i n one a s p e c t , an a tte m p t to
e x p r e s s th e t h o u g h t s and i n f o r m a t i o n o f th e
l e s s o n i n t h e p u p i l ’ s own w o r d s , a n d t h u s
a n i n i t i a l e x e r c i s e i n c o m p o s i t i o n . 77
W hile s p e e c h ,
th e
im p lica tio n
<m
M aking
is
as such,
c le ar.
is not
P u p ils
sp e c ific a lly
do n o t r e c i t e
m entioned,
by p a s s i n g
75 W i l l i a m L . W r i n k l e , The New H i g h S c h o o l i n t h e
(New Y o r k : A m e r i c a n B o o k C o m p a n y , 1 9 3 8 ) , p p . 1 2 3 - 1 2 4 .
^
Supra, p.
91.
77 Wm. M o r r i s o n M c C a l l , "A C r i t i c a l R e v i e w o f V a r i o u s
C o n c e p t i o n s U n d e r l y i n g C u r r i c u l u m Making S i n c e 1 8 9 0 , ” ( u n ­
p u b l i s h e d D o c t o r ' s d i s s e r t a t i o n , C olum bia', M i s s o u r i : U n i v e r s i t y
of M is s o u ri, 1930), p . 21.
124
no tes
to
th e
teach er*
but i t
is
of l i t t l e
u n less
it
is
m o n o sy llab ic
q u estio n
R ecitatio n
v a lu e as an a id
carried
a tru e
to
speech s i t u a t i o n ,
la n g u a g e developm ent
on i n o t h e r t e r m s t h a n c a t e g o r i c a l a n d
rep lies*
and answ er to
re a l assistan ce
is
R e cita tio n s
need to
co n v ersatio n
if
be b ro a d e n e d from
th ey a re to
be o f
i n f u r t h e r i n g la n g u a g e g row th and developm ent
in p u p ils*
The w h o l e s i t u a t i o n r e g a r d i n g
k illin g
two b i r d s
w ith
one s t o n e
te c h n iq u e s w ith s u b je c t- m a tte r ,
the
p o ssib ilitie s
of
through a f u s io n of o r a l
c o n t e n t dom inated
h a s b e e n v e r y w e l l s u m m a r iz e d by P r e s c o t t .
courses
He o b s e r v e s :
No r e a s o n a b l e p e r s o n w i l l d e n y t h e h i g h
d e s i r a b i l i t y of t r a i n i n g our c h il d r e n to u se
language a c c u r a t e l y and e f f e c t i v e l y , to
u n d e rs ta n d q u a n t i t a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and
to m a n ip u la te f i g u r e s s p e e d ily and a c c u r a t e ­
ly .
But a good d e a l of e v id e n c e e x i s t s t h a t
t h e s e s k i l l s can be a c q u i r e d m ost e a s i l y an d
r a p id ly as b y -p ro d u cts of o th er a c t i v i t i e s
a n d e x p e r i e n c e s * When c h i l d r e n a r e e a g e r
t o f i n d o u t a n d e x p r e s s s o m e th i n g w h ic h seem s
v i t a l l y i m p o r t a n t t o t h e i r own l i v e s , b e ­
c a u s e i t t o u c h e s one o r a n o t h e r of t h e i r
p e r s o n a lity n eed s, th ey a re q uick to a c ­
q u i r e t h e number and la n g u a g e s k i l l s t h a t
w i l l h e l p them l e a r n an d a s s i m i l a t e e x p e r ­
ien c es [ i t a l i c s n o t in o rig in a l]*
I t a p p e a r s t h a t by c h a n g i n g t h e o r i e n ­
t a t i o n of th e e x p e rie n c e s of the e a r ly
y e a r s i n s c h o o l t o make t h e m c o n t r i b u t e m o r e
d i r e c t l y to m eetin g th e p e r s o n a l i t y needs
o f c h i l d r e n , we c a n a l s o a c c o m p l i s h m o r e
e f f e c t i v e l y th e t r a i n i n g of o u r p u p ils i n
t h e f u n d a m e n t a l s k i l l s w h i c h now c o n s u m e
such a g r e a t amount of tim e and e n e r g y .
125
I n t h e s a m e m a n n e r , we c a n f r e e t h e s e c o n ­
d a ry s c h o o ls from th e n e c e s s i t y f o r d o in g
t h e same j o b o v e r a g a i n , a f f o r d i n g t i m e a t
th ese h ig h e r le v e ls fo r g r e a tly enrich ed
. e x p e r i e n c e .and f o r m ore a t t e n t i o n t o t h e
o r g a n i z a t i o n o f know ledge i n t o c o n c e p ts
> 'and a t t i t u d e s * . 7 s
C are m ust be t a k e n ,
th at
the
presence of
o r a l n a tu re
is
how ever,
o r a l w ork m eans t h a t
ta k in g p lace*
There i s
c i d e n t a l o r a l work i n o u r s c h o o l s
o f t e n h a v e one s i d e
r e a d i n g 11 w h i l e
the
o th er a c tiv ity *
of
the
too
o ften
G rade t e a c h e r s
does a rith m e tic
th eir
"oral
p r o b l e m s o r some
teach er has
r e a d s u c c e s s i v e p a r a g r a p h s w h ile she a s s i s t s
w ith
o f an
a g re a t d e al of ac­
today*
the
co n clu sio n
train in g
room d o i n g s o - c a l l e d
o th er sid e
A ll
to a v o id th e
stu d en ts
o th er p u p ils
arith m etic*
In such a s i t u a t i o n
speech tra in in g
is
b ein g
com plished i s
a cc id e n ta l
ev en be bad*
P ra ctice,
n o t make p e r f e c t ,
M ost o r a l
it
w orthw hile p e r s o n a l i ty
acco m p lish ed .
W h at i s
and n o t i n t e n t i o n a l
c o n tr a r y to
s itu a tio n s are
or
b ein g a c ­
and i t
may
t h e fam ous s l o g a n ,
makes perm anent*
reading
o f w hich C o lin S c o t t
little
does
,
as u n re a l as th o se
c o m p l a i n s when h e . s a y s :
I t i s o b v io u s t h a t i n m ost c la s s ro o m s
c h i l d r e n do n o t . r e a d a l o u d b e c a u s e t h e y
a r e i n p o s s e s s i o n o f som e i d e a w h i c h t h e y
h a v e d e r i v e d f r o m a b o o k a n d w i s h t o com­
m u n ic a te i t t o someone e l s e .
T his i s ,
how ever, th e p r i n c i p a l s o c i a l b a s i s f o r
7 8 p r e s c o t t , _o£* c i t *, pp* 2 1 3 - 2 1 4
126
r e a d i n g a l o u d . . « I n s c h o o l , on t h e
c o n tr a r y , th e r e s t of the c h ild r e n a re
p r o v id e d w ith b o o k s, and h a v e o f t e n p r e ­
p a r e d t h e l e s s o n a t home*. . . . T h e re i s
no o n e t o c o m m u n ic a te a n y i d e a s t o , a n d ^ g
a s p i r i t u a l vacuum n e c e s s a r i l y r e s u l t s *
Even th e a r d e n t
S tone,
adm its
ad v o cate of s i l e n t r e a d in g ,
C larence
th at:
O ral re a d in g i s used in l i f e o u ts id e
the sc h o o l m ainly f o r th e purpose of r e a d ­
in g s o m e th in g to som ebody; • • • U n f o r t u n a t e ­
ly , the t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c tic e in te a c h in g re a d ­
in g has e n t i r e l y overlooked t h is im p o rtan t
f a c t in th e e x c lu s iv e use of a non -au d ien ce
t y p e o f o r a l r e a d i n g ......................
"The i n d i v i d u a l
sense
only th ro u g h p a r t i c i p a t i o n
au d ien ce
situ atio n s
an e n t e r p r i s e
h eld th a t
in c id e n ta lly , but
so c ializ a tio n .
sk ills,
en te rp riz e *
th e b e s t
U nless r e a l
w ork d o e s n o t become
When t h e p o s i t i o n
is
are b e st acq u ired as
o b ,ject o f a t t e n t i o n
th e
m ust be t a k e n
on th e p a r t
of
Speech sh o u ld d ev elo p
c e rta in ly not a cc id e n ta lly .
^
C o lin S c o tt,
Company, 1 9 0 8 ) , p . 215*
S o c i a l E d u c a t i o n , (New Y o r k :
S t o n e , jDjD. c i t . , p .
Q1
s o c i e t y . 11^**-
d iscu ssio n p e rio d s,c a re
the
d ire c tin g
in
p rovided o r a l
such as speech
v ita l
a d d Yf t h e y a r e
whoever i s
are
in g re a te r
sk ills,
b y -p ro d u cts of
to
becomes an i n d i v i d u a l i n
G inn an d
33*
Guy M o n t r o s e W h i p p l e , . e d i t o r , The F o u n d a t i o n s a n d
T e c h n i q u e o f C u r r i c u l u m C o n s t r u c t i o n t The T w e n t y - s i x t h Y e a r ­
book of t h e N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r th e S t u d y . o f E d u c a t i o n ,
P a r t I I , u The F o u n d a t i o n s o f C u r r i c u l u m M a k i n g ( B l o o m i n g t o n :
P u b l i c S c h o o l P u b l i s h i n g C o m p a n y , 1 9 3 0 ) , p . 13*
127
In d ev elo p in g
our e d u c a tio n a l sy ste m s,th ro u g h o v e r­
s p e c i a l i z a t i o n we h a v e
no c o u n t e r p a r t
One o f t h e s e
and s k i l l
in
created a r t i f i c i a l
rea lity ,
d iv isio n s
b e i n g m ere v e r b a l n o n e n t i t i e s .
d iv is io n s h as been the s e p a r a t io n
or,
in b io lo g ic al
term s,
stru c tu re
S tu d en ts a re g iv en w o rd -v o cab u laries r a th e r
v o cab u laries
and a r e
th en
train ed
o f gram m ar r a t h e r t h a n t h e
are
founded on a f a l s e
re a lly
is.
uage i s
esse n tia lly
ab stru se
fo rm u lae
m erely p r e j u d i c e s .
ru les
th e
th an ex p erien ce-
i n t h e i r u s e by t h e r u l e s
of liv in g .
very e s s e n t i a l
an th ro p m o rp h ic
of th e
of co n ten t
and f u n c ti o n .
Such p ro c e d u re s
i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of what
They n e g l e c t
th a t have
sc ie n tists
and t h a t
a re ,in
language
fact
th at
lan g ­
ev en th e m ost
a larg e
sense,
The p h i l o s o p h e r S p e n g l e r h a s s a i d :
The t h i n k e r , i n i m a g i n i n g t h a t h e c a n
count out the f a c to r of L ife , fo rg e ts t h a t
k n o w in g i s r e l a t e d t o t h e known a s d i r e c t ­
io n i s to e x te n s io n and t h a t i t i s only
th ro u g h th e l i v i n g q u a l i t y of d i r e c t i o n
t h a t what i s f e l t e x te n d s i n t o d i s t a n c e
and d e p th and becomes s p a c e .
The c o g ­
n iz e d s t r u c t u r e o f th e exten d ed i s a p ro ­
j e c t i o n o f th e c o g n iz in g being
‘To c o n s i d e r
in
t e r m s o f man i s
im p erso n al,
fa c ility
language
to
ig n o re
b u t w ords a r e
w ith
language
i n t e r m s o f gram m ar r a t h e r t h a n
is
^ O sw ald S p e n g l e r ,
A l f r e d A. K n o p f , 1 9 3 4 ) , I ,
its
w hole p u r p o s e .
p erso n al.
not
T h e way t o
G ra m m a r i s
acq u ire
th rough m astery of r u l e s ,
The P e e l i n e
p. 387.
of
t h e W est
but
(New Y o r k :
through a c t i v i t y
in s o c ia l
situ atio n s*
guage a p a r t
from c o n s i d e r a t i o n s
fru itle ss*
"No f i e l d
of
C o n sid eratio n s
o f an a c t i v e
of
lan ­
organism a re
e d u c a t i o n d e a l s more d i r e c t l y w i t h
0*2
th e
of
organism
th is
tie s
in a c tio n
p o in t lead s
are
a c tiv ity
the
S peaking i s
to
capstone
rep laces
of sp eech * ”
consequences.
"Speech a c t i v i ­
on th e
p a r t of the
i n w hich
QA
stu d en t* "
and
c a n n o t be
itse lf.
s i t u a t i o n h a s b e e n summed u p b y O s w a l d
of lan g u a g e,th e
effort
N eglect
e d u catio n al e x p erien c es
life
so m e l e n g t h *
w ere d i s c u s s e d
of th e
of
field
a m a n i f e s ta t io n o f an im al l i v i n g
The w h o l e
gen esis
serio u s
p a ssiv ity
c o n s i d e r e d a p a r t from
S p en g ler a t
th an the
F o llo w in g a d is c u s s io n
b io lo g ical
im p lica tio n s
i n C h a p te r X I, he comes to
to d iv o rce
language
of th e
o f w hich
a c o n sid era tio n
from l i v i n g *
S p en g ler sa y s:
In th e c o u rs e of t h i s long e v o lu tio n
t h e r e comes a b o u t a t l a s t t h e d e t a c h m e n t
o f s p e a k i n g f r o m s p e e c h * Of a l l p r o c e s s e s
in th e h is to r y of lan g u ag e, none h a s a
w ider b e a rin g th an t h i s .
O rig in ally a ll
m o tiv e s and s ig n s a r e u n q u e s t io n a b ly th e
p r o d u c t o f t h e moment a n d m e a n t o n l y f o r
a s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l a c t of th e a c t i v e
w ak in g -co n scio u sn ess.
T h eir a c t u a l and *
t h e i r f e l t and w i l l e d s i g n i f i c a n c e s a r e
one and t h e sam e.
But t h i s i s no lo n g e r
------------------------------------------ t t t t ---------------------—
■ -
° C h a r l e s W* L o m a s , " T h e P s y c h o l o g y o f S t a g e F r i g h t , "
Q u a r te r ly J o u r n a l o f S p e e c h ,'X X III (F e b ru a ry , 1937), 35.
8 4 J a m e s M* 0 * N e i l l , " S p e e c h i n t h e C h a n g i n g C u r r i c u l u m ,
Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f . S p e e c h . - X X II ( A p r i l , 1 9 3 6 ) , 1 8 3 .
so when a d e f i n i t e s t o c k o f s i g n s o f f e r s
i t s e l f f o r t h e 1 1v i n g a c t o f g i v i n g t h e
s ig n , f o r w ith t h a t n o t only i s th e
a c t i v i t y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from i t s m ean s,
b u t t h e m eans a r e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from
th e ir sig n ific an c e*
The u n i t y o f t h e
tw o n o t o n l y c e a s e s t o b e a m a t t e r o f
s e l f - e v i d e n c e , i t c e a se s even to be a
p o ssib ility .
The f e e l i n g o f s i g n i f i c a n c e
is a liv in g f e e lin g and, lik e ev ery th in g
e l s e b e l o n g i n g w i t h T im e a n d D e s t i n y , i t
i s u n i q u e l y o c c u r r i n g and n o n - r e c u r r i n g *
No s i g n , h o w e v e r w e l l k n o w n a n d h a b i t ­
u a lly u sed , i s ever re p e a te d w ith e x a c tly
t h e sa m e c o n n o t a t i o n ; a n d h e n c e i t i s t h a t
o r i g i n a l l y no s i g n e v e r r e c u r r e d i n t h e
same f o r m .
The d o m a i n o f t h e r i g i d s i g n
i s u n c o n d i t i o n a l l y one o f th e t h i n g s become o f t h e p u r e e x t e n d e d ; i t i s n o t a n
o r g a n i s m , b u t -a s y s t e m , w h i c h p o s s e s s e s
i t s own c a u s a l l o g i c a n d b r i n g s t h e i r ­
r e c o n c ila b le o p p o s itio n of space and tim e ,
i n t e l l e c t a n d mood, a l s o i n t o t h e w a k in g
c o n n e c t i o n s o f tw o b e i n g s *
M e tap h y sic ally the s ig n ific a n c e of t h i s
s e p a r a t i n g - o f f of a s e t language can h a rd ly
be o v e r - e s t i m a t e d .
The d a i l y p r a c t i c e o f
i n t e r c o u r s e i n s e t t l e d f o r m s , a n d t h e com­
mand o f t h e e n t i r e w a k i n g - c o n s c i o u s n e s s
t h r o u g h s u c h fo rm s — o f w h ic h t h e r e i s no
lo n g er a se n se d p ro ce ss of fo rm a tio n ad h o c ,
b u t w hich a r e j u s t sim p ly t h e r e , and r e q u i r e
u n d e rs ta n d in g in the s t r i c t e s t sen se o f th e
w ord — l e a d t o a n e v e r - s h a r p e r d i s t i n c t i o n
b e tw e e n u n d e r s t a n d i n g and f e e l i n g w i t h i n th e
w ak in g -co n sciou sn ess.
An i n c i p i e n t l a n g u a g e
i s f e l t u n d e rs ta n d in g ly ; th e p r a c tic e of
sp eak in g r e q u i r e one, f i r s t , to f e e l th e
known s p e e c h -m e d iu m a n d , s e c o n d l y , t o u n d e r ­
s t a n d th e i n t e n t i o n p u t i n t o i t on t h i s
o ccasio n .
C o n se q u e n tly the k e r n e l o f a l l
s c h o o lin g l i e s i n th e a c q u i s i t i o n of elem en ts
o f k n o w l e d g e , . . U n d e r s t a n d i n g 11 i s k n o w ­
ledge co n ceiv ed of as a b e in g .
I t is th at
w hich i s c o m p le te ly a l i e n to b lo o d , r a c e ,
tim e ; from t h e o p p o s i t i o n o f r i g i d s p e e c h
to c o u r s in g b lo o d and d e v e lo p in g h i s t o r y
130
come t h e n e g a t i v e i d e a l s o f t h e a b s o l u t e ,
the e t e r n a l , th e u n i v e r s a l l y v a li d - - th e
i d e a l s of G hurch and School*
But j u s t t h i s , i n th e l a s t a n a l y s i s ,
makes la n g u a g e s i n c o m p le te and l e a d s to
th e e t e r n a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n betw een what i s
i n f a c t s p o k e n a n d w h a t was w i l l e d o r
m e a n t by t h e s p e a k i n g .
We m i g h t i n d e e d
- s a y t h a t ' l i e s cam e i n t o t h e w o r l d w i t h
t h e s e p a r a t i o n of s p e e c h from s p e a k i n g .
The s i g n s a r e f i x e d , b u t n o t so t h e i r
m eaning
• # • •
It
w o u ld seem t h a t
org an ism ic
ing th e
resu lt
a ctiv ity .
b io lo g ic a l asp ects
of ex p erien ces.
of 0 .
S pen g ler.
is
an e s s e n tia l p a rt of
T h i s f a c t was b r o u g h t o u t i n c o n s i d e r ­
of th is
To t h e
Young a n d I . A. R i c h a r d s
th at
language
W o rd s a r e
testim o n y of J .
p resen ted
"T here
problem .
is
th e
E isen so n ,.K .
in C h ap ter I I
can be added
n o t one s e n s e - p e r c e p t i o n t h a t
w ould be w h o lly i r r e l e v a n t to an a d e q u a te h i s t o r y o f t h e u s e
Qg
o f w o rd s."
Language i s e s s e n t i a l l y an i n t e g r a t i v e t o o l
of an a c tiv e
organism and any e f f o r t
th e organism
p assiv e
im p o ssib le.
T h a t s o m u ch l a n g u a g e
no f a u l t o f
th e
is
system ;;
"D em o critu s sa y s
a c tio n .It
is
n o t saying
30 S p e n g l e r ,
0£ .
86 I b i d . , p .
138.
to
teach
doomed t o f a i l u r e .
it
is
th at
in
is
sp ite
In f a c t ,
learn ed
of
c it. , II,
in sch oo ls
shadow
Speech i s an a sp e c t
134-136.
it
is
is
th e sy stem .
ex p ressio n i s th e
enough.
language w ith
of
of a c t i o n
131
87
and a c t i o n can seldom d i s p e n s e w ith
and a t t i t u d e
c a n n o t be t a u g h t ;
b y -p ro d u c t of
sen ted
ex p erien ce.
i t * 11
th ey - a r is e
".
.
• sp irit
in c id e n ta lly
Mere v e r b a l k n o w l e d g e
as a
can be p r e ­
to
c h i l d r e n a n d m e m o ris e d by th e m , b u t s u c h m e m o r i z a t i o n
88
does n o t y i e l d p o w er."
"The d e v i l t o b e a v o i d e d i s t h e
cram m ing o f g e n e r a l
s t a t e m e n t s w hich h a v e no r e f e r e n c e
i n d i v i d u a l p ers.o n al e x p e r i e n c e s ."
reco g n ize
89
"The t i m e h a s
t h a t a c e r t a i n m in im u m b o d y o f
m ust p r e c e d e
learn in g
th at
"T hings once l e a r n e d a r e
is
co n crete
come t o
ex p erien ce
o rg a n iz e d around v e rb a l
soon f o r g o tte n u n le s s
to
lo g ic ." ^
th ey a re
used.
In re c a p itu la tio n
it
m ig h t be s a i d
comes to
school f u l l
of
t o do i s
to
e n e r g y to w ork,
him down.
the
In
ch ild
He r e a d s
put th at
is
th e
energy.
in te re st
rap id ly
b u t the
of "order"
S ch u ster,
E r n e s t D im net,
1932), p . 249.
c h ild
f o r him
system h o ld s
and o f book l e a r n i n g
a ns il e n t "
s e n te n c e s i n b ooks and a n a ly z e s
co m p o sitio n s;
the
The n a t u r a l t h i n g
c o n d itio n e d to
He w r i t e s
th at
en v iro n m en t.
them i n
he w rite s e x a m in a tio n s.
w ritin g .
When h e
W h at We L i v e By (New Y o r k :
88
Sim on a n d
S . A. C o u r t i s , c h a i r m a n , T e a c h e r s a n d C o o p e r a t i o n
I s s u e d by C o m m ittee i n c h a r g e of t h e Y e arb o o k on C o o p e r a t i o n ,
( D e t r o i t , 1 9 3 7 ) , p . 4..
89
90
91
W h itehead,
P re sc o tt,
W rinkle,
o jd
o jd
op.
.
.
c i t . , p.
97.
c i t . , p. 240.
c i t . , p.
177*
132,
re c ite s
he
h is
rem arks a re d ir e c te d
read s alo u d ,
p o ssessio n
read in g
th e
re a l d esire
stu d e n ts.
"au d ien ce” is
com m unicate
may b e o t h e r p e o p l e
it
in
does n o t fo llo w t h a t
Such a s i t u a t i o n
in te re st
teach er.
he d o e s so from a book w h ic h i s
of o t h e r
to
tow ard th e
e x ists
in u sin g
the
If
a lso
in.
In b o th r e c i t a t i o n and o r a l
the
te a c h e r and in both
can be g e n e r a t e d .
room ,
W hile t h e r e
a n d t h e w o r k may b e o r a l ,
a w orthw hile
speech s itu a tio n
o n l y when t h e
language to
c a s e s no
achieve
e x ists.
organism h as a v i t a l
in te g r a tio n w ith
th e
so c ia l group.
S i l e n t and u n d e s ir a b le
c h ild ’s d esire
to u se h i s
oral s itu a tio n s
is
e sse n tia lly
p rovide
an o u t l e t f o r such e n e rg y .
it
m ust t h e r e f o r e
is
b o d ily
sets
—
m em ories - -
the r e c a ll
of
be le a r n e d
r e q u ire s m ore s p e e c h - -
p revious
speaking
The c o m p l a i n t s o f e d u c a t o r s
ag ain st
alize d
th e
th e
form al,
Speech
is
sym bols h a v e
of e a rlie r
organism ic a c t i v i t i e s .
a c tiv itie s
necessar­
so c ia liz in g .
and co m m ittees d i r e c t e d
e sse n tia lly n o n -so cial,
c u r r i c u la have been n o te d .
V ital
by t h e m u s c l e s .
th e r e c o l l e c t i o n
Any p r o g r a m p r o v i d i n g f o r m o r e s o c i a l i z e d
ily
th e
predom inantly n eu ro ­
I n a l a r g e m ea su re th e m eanings w hich la n g u a g e
are k in a e sth e tic
repress
abundant su pply of energy.
p h y sio lo g ic al;
m u sc u la r and i t
speech s i t u a t i o n s
and d e p a rtm e n t­
A lm ost w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n ,
c r y o f e d u c a t o r s h a s b e en f o r m ore a c t i v i t i e s
and l e s s
133
em phasis
on c o n t e n t *
C h ild re n ,
do,
b u t l e a r n by d o in g .
til
put in to
K now ledge i s
sym bols each o f w hich i s
phrases,
u tility
In sh o rt,
sen ten ces,
is
n o th in g
- - a so cial
"k no w ledg e* *
and the
itie s
is
lik e .
as fo r
it
language;
of
language
it
is w ords,
o f no
com m unicate*
s i t u a t i o n m ust e x i s t *
speaking*
o rgan ism ic
T hese w ords a r e
effectiv ely ,
To u s e
b u t to use i t
T his
is
as tru e
A l o n e man c a n n o t c o m m u n i c a t e —
p e r h a p s he c a n n o t e v e n commune.
m issio n .
to
th o u g h t pow erless un­
but a host
e x c e p t f o r one p u rp o s e — to
fo r w ritin g
learn
a s y m b o l o f som e p r e v i o u s
language - - n o t o n ly to u se
at a ll
need n o t
use*
Now, " k n o w l e d g e "
ex p erien ce.
th ey sa y ,
C om m unication im p lie s
tran s­
S c h o o ls m ust t h e r e f o r e p r o v id e a d e q u a te o p p o r tu n ­
for so cial
situ atio n s*
These w i l l
in ev itab ly
be p r e ­
do m in an tly o r a l .
S i l e n t t e c h n i q u e s h a v e lon g b een condoned on th e
b asis
is
t h a t they
save tim e.
T his i s
ta u g h t in d iv id u a lly under the
a g ia n t hoax.
s i l e n t m ethod.
Language
Each s t u d e n t
h a s a book o r a p a p e r and h e w orks i n d e p e n d e n t l y .
The o n l y
r e a l u se he h a s f o r
d u rin g
"b ell
tim e ."
language he f in d s
Then he h a s
se v era l years under th is
in to
the
sch o o l,
w orld.
he
a real d esire
"silen t"
lo st.
th e h a l l s
to
com m unicate*
system , th e
S in c e h i s w hole l i f e
is n o t w holly
in
ch ild
is
A fter
throw n
has n o t been sp e n t in
I n s o c i a l g a t h e r i n g s h e now
134
uses
language
ex te n siv ely
and f in d s
n o t h e l p e d h i m much i n t h e
view s f o r
job s,
of h im self
he
fin d s
th at h is
la n g u a g e arts.*
the
telep h o n e
in s o c ia l g ath erin g s*
izin g
in a d u lt
classes#
ex tra -c u rric u la r
ad ap ted ,
for h is
but, i f
If
case,
e x p e rie n c e s,it
he w i l l have
be d o in g what h e
process
is
is
sure
t h i s he g o es
reg u lar
to
sp e cia l­
clu b or
w ell
classroom
alm o st a c e r t a i n t y
command o f
to
language*
le a r n to u se h i s
Such
language*
co u ld have done i n school*
T his
a w aste of t im e ,n o t a tim e s a v e r .
B ehind th e w hole s i l e n t
th e bogey o f
tran sfer
know ledge i s
sto red
in th e
not
speaking te a c h e r
he h a s d e p e n d e d on t h e
He w i l l
he i s
i n s c h o o l , h e may be. f a i r l y
th a t he w i l l n o t have a f a c i l e
b ein g th e
tric k y ,
he h as had e x te n s iv e
exp erience
so c ia liz in g
He f u m b l e s i n t e r ­
To c o r r e c t
a D a l e C a r n e g i e o r som e o t h e r p u b l i c
sch o o lin g has
fu tu re
of
c o n d itio n in g process
train in g .
W hat e l s e
is
it
resid es
when
up t o d a y by s i l e n t p r o c e d u r e s f o r u s e
in o ral
situ atio n ?
t h i n g .and v e r b a l u t t e r a n c e
q u ite
V erbal u n d erstan d in g
a n o th e r.
is
one
The v o c a b u l a r y w h i c h
can be com prehended i s alw ay s g r e a t e r th a n th e v o c a b u la r y u se d
92
to in f lu e n c e o t h e r s .
I f t h e r e was d i r e c t t r a n s f e r w o u ld
th e y n o t b o t h be t h e
same?
d e v e lo p e d by p a r t i c i p a t i o n
^ E ise n so n ,
The u s e o f l a n g u a g e
in a c t i v i t i e s
op* c it *, p.
122.
can o n ly be
w hich n e c e s s i t a t e
its
135
use.
is
The t r a n s f e r
w hich i s
one from v i s i o n , o n
one o f a r t i c u l a t i o n .
th eir
id en tica l
the
one h a n d ,
elem en ts a r e
to u se h i s
classro o m .
in s p ite
is
due t o
saves
of the
the
situ atio n
b est h earin g ,
o b v io u sly ,
The r e a s o n
in
to
but
the sch o o l
term s of i n t r o v e r t e d
fact th at
every sc h o o l c h ild has
situ atio n s
w hich i s
th e
real
everyw here b u t in
th e
co n seq u en tly achieved
tim e s a v e r
is
th e
c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s .
tim e b e c a u se r e - e d u c a t i o n a f t e r
stu d e n ts
a t once of th e
them i n l a t e r
^ s i l e n t ” m ethods
system n o t b e c a u se o f i t *
t h e m inim um .
life .
a changed s i t u a t i o n
It
It
sa v es tim e f o r i t
req u ires
little
a fte r sc h o o l,fo r
school s itu a tio n as
is
it
p o ssib le .
ed u catio n a re
a c t i v i t i e s , em ploying d i s c u s s i o n s ,
and o t h e r o r a l
leav in g
tech n iq u es
It
re­
teach es a l l
the
tran sfer
is
func­
school is
k in d o f s i t u a t i o n s w hich w i l l
c u r r e n t r e f o r m movements i n
tio n s
or a t
S u c c e s s fu l lan g u ag e usage i s
duced to
a fte r
few..
resu lts
lan g u ag e i n o r a l
The s y s t e m
tio n a l
by o u r
The t w o a r e r e l a t e d ,
does n o t cause d is a s te r o u s
p e rso n a litie s
req u ired
confront
because of
as near
For th e s e
lik e
the
re a so n s,th e
fav o rin g s o c ia l
d eb ates,
p an els,
ex ten siv ely .
93
d ram atiza-
K now ledge t o
H a r r i s o n M. K a r r , "An I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e S p e e c h
A c t i v i t i e s i n t h e H ig h S c h o o l s o f Los A n g e le s C o u n ty , w ith
S p e c i a l A t t e n t i o n to th e E f f e c t s of an I n t e g r a t e d Program
U po n t h e A i m s , M e t h o d s a n d R e s u l t s o f S p e e c h T r a i n i n g , 11 ( u n ­
p u b l i s h e d D o c t o r ^ d i s s e r t a t i o n , Los A n g e le s , C a l i f o r n i a ;
U n iv e rs ity of S o uthern C a lif o r n ia , 1938).
136
be e f f e c t i v e m ust be a p p l i e d ;
use
lan g u ag e;
to u se
so cial s itu a tio n s
in g know ledge.
sp e a k in g ,o r
1*
the
ch ild
3,
self
a re pred o m in an tly o r a l .
a ll
doing i s
The t r a d i t i o n a l
to
S p eak in g
m anual t r a i n i n g *
is
ap p ly ­
l e a r n by
The c e n t r a l
c h a p t e r m ig h t be e n u m e ra te d a s f o l l o w s :
a silen t
On l e a v i n g
to an o r a l
3,
la n g u a g e one m ust h a v e a s o c i a l , s i t u a t i o n ;
To l e a r n b y d o i n g , l a r g e l y m e a n s t o
e lse
id eas of th is
to a p p l y k n o w le d g e one m ust
sch o o l very
early
c o n d itio n s
atm o sp h ere,
school th e
c h i l d m ust r e c o n d i t i o n him ­
atm o sp h ere*
The s i l e n t
tech n iq u es are
th erefo re
w astefu l of
The s i l e n t
tech n iq u es a re
lik e ly
be h a rm f u l
train in g ,
4,
because th ey r e s t r i c t
p erio d of l i f e
tio n
is
when h i s
a c tiv ity
of th e
c h ild
supply of energy f o r
ju st at
so cial
the
in te g ra ­
g rea test.
5,
because
th e
to
The s i l e n t
tech n iq u es are
lik e ly
to
be i n e f f e c t i v e
they d i v o r c e know ing from d o in g a n d a t t e m p t t o a b ­
s t r a c t kno w led g e from
ex p erien ce.
To b e e f f e c t i v e ,
k no v trle d g e
m u st be u se d *
6,
G en etically , s k i l l s
th e re fo re ,a c tiv ity
fo llo w
e ffo rts
7*
sh o u ld ,
if
m ust p r e c e d e kn ow led ge and,
a n y th in g ,
rath er
th an
a t verbal an aly sis,
The p r i n c i p a l a c t i v i t i e s
do in g a s p e c ts
precede
of
i n w hich t h e know ing a n d
e d u c a t i o n a r e com bined a r e
speech a c t i v i t i e s *
137
8.
th is
P resent
c ritic ism s
of ed u catio n are d ir e c te d
at
d iv o r c e m e n t o f kn o w led g e from a c t i v i t y .
9*
The p r o p o s e d r e f o r m s
e x c e p t i o n r e q u i r e .a g r e a t e r
in
e d u c a tio n alm o st w ith o u t
em phasis
on s o c i a l ,
and t h e r e f o r e
s p e e c h 'a c tiv itie s .
10.
tio n are
At the
c ertain
w hich i n d i c a t e
b asis
of n early
p h y sio lo g ic al
th at
every c r it ic i s m
d ata r e l a ti v e
e d u catio n i s
to
of educa­
learn in g
b a s ic a lly a b io lo g ic a l pro­
cess.
11.
C o n seq u en tly , i t
c a n be t e n t a t i v e l y
b io lo g ic al
ev id en ce
procedures
t o b e t h o s e w h i c h m ake t h e . g r e a t e s t u s e o f s p e e c h ,
(o ral,
so cial)
T his
shows t h e most
ch ap ter h as n o t been in te n d ed as a d e s c r ip tio n
I t has been in ten d ed
th e d e s c r ip tio n of a v iew p o in t,
th a t the
ed u ca tio n al
tec h n iq u e s.
any p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l system *
v iew p o in t,
effectiv e
stated th a t
i n w ide u s e
to d ay .
c h a n g e s w hich a r e
w h ic h r e q u i r e more s p e e c h
c a lle d here
I t has
to d ay a re
e d u catio n al te c h n iq u e s.
m o s t p a r t , e d u c a t o r s h a v e n o t made a p o i n t o f t h i s
w ould p r o b a b l y ,
so c ializ a tio n
because
p u b lic
th ey
a s a' m a t t e r o f f a c t ,
deny th a t
r e q u i r e s m ore sp e e c h t e c h n i q u e s .
see
speaking
in
speech
c la ss,
ed u catio n
only the
r a th e r as
trad itio n a l
endeavored to
b ein g su g g e ste d
in
th e
of
show
changes
For the
fac t.
th eir
T hey
su g g ested
T h e y do t h i s
tra d itio n a l
b e c a u s e th e y c o n c e iv e o f s p e e c h work
138
in
term s of
vious
a rtic u la tio n ,
d efects
g estu re,
such as s t u t t e r i n g
t h e y do n o t k n o w w h a t s p e e c h
th is
n o tio n and w h e rein i t
o f C h a p te r IV .
is
and th e
or lis p in g ,
train in g
in
c o rre c tio n of ob­
re a lly
erro r w ill
because,
is.
be th e
a ctu ally ,
How t h e y g o t
su b ject
CHAPTER IV
NATURE AND SCOPE OF THE FIELD OF SPEECH
Among t h e
u c atio n is
one,
ren aissan ce
in
little
known a u t h o r s
of t r e a t i s e s
Aeneas S i l v i u s P ic c o lo m in i,
Italy
in
1405*
The y e a r s
who w a s b o r n i n
from 1458 t o h i s
1 4 6 4 h e s p e n t r e i g n i n g a s t h e Rom an P o n t i f f ,
As a p a r t o f h i s h u m a n i s t
a tre a tise
on e d u c a tio n ,
o c c u r s a seldom n o t i c e d ,
and speech
ed u catio n *
in te re sts,
on ed­
death
P iu s II*
P ic c o lo m in i produced
De L i b e r o r u m E d u c a t i o n e « i n w h i c h
but sig n ific a n t,re m a rk
about speech
S a id th e Pope:
N atu re and c irc u m s ta n c e s th u s p ro v id e
us w ith th e g e n e ra l m a te ria l o f speech,
i t s t o p ic s , and b ro a d e r c o n d itio n s of
th e ir treatm en t.
W hen, h o w e v e r , s p e e c h
i s c o n s i d e r e d a s a n a r t , we f i n d t h a t i t
i s t h e f u n c t i o n o f gram m ar t o o r d e r i t s
e x p re s s io n ; of d i a l e c t i c to g iv e i t p o in t;
of r h e to r ic to i l l u s t r a t e i t ; of p h ilo s ­
ophy to p e r f e c t i t . 1
A c o n sid e ra tio n of th e
aissan ce
sch o lar
in th e
id eas
—
------------ j
ren­
a b o v e e x c e r p t m ay w e l l s e r v e a s
p o in t o f d e p a rtu re f o r an e f f o r t
b ig u ity
e x p r e s s e d by t h i s
to
d is p e l the
w hich to d a y h a s u n f o r t u n a t e l y
the
f o g o f am­
enveloped th e
term
;-----------
A e n e a s S i l v i u s P i c c o l o m i n i , De L i b e r o r u m E d u c a t i o n e ,
a s q u o t e d i n Wm. H . W o o d w a r d , V i t t o r i n o d a F e l t r e a n d O t h e r
H um anist E d u c a to r s (C a m b rid g e , a t th e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 0 5 ),
p . 1 3 6 f f . , a n d r e p r i n t e d i n F e r d i n a n d S c h e v i l l , The F i r s t
C e n t u r y o f I t a l i a n H u m a n i s m (New Y o r k : F . S . C r o f t s a n d
C o m p a n y , 1 9 2 8 ) , p . 77*
140
"speech” as i t
is
u s e d by e d u c a t o r s .
E x am in atio n o f th e
P icco lo m in i
q u o tatio n w ill
saw two a s p e c t s
T hese m ig h t be c a l l e d
the
th e
one f in d s
These a r e
the
t h e m acrocosm " o f w h ic h 0 .
hand,
one f i n d s
in th e
He c a l l s
it
or sk ill
phase of th e
w ere,
o th er,
"speech
on t h e
th e
th e
asp ects.
"w hat" o f s p e a k i n g .
environm ent;
second sen ten ce
. . .
as an a r t ."
speech p roblem .
one h a n d ,
th e
the m a te r ia ls
th e
T h is
is
crow bar and th e
th e
rock,
To P i c c o l o m i n i t h e r e
for
b lo c k one h a s th e
speaking and,
on th e
somewhat c l e a r e r .
re su lts
are
to
th e
I n m oving t h e
but i t
elem en ts
be o b ta in e d .
o th ers a re
They m u st be
The o n e s a r e
if
c alle d
c a lle d tech n iq u es
r o c k t h e d e two a r e m e r g e d i n t o
is
p erfectly
In
f o r m oving
i n an y way, b u t i n a c e r t a i n way,
co n ten t or m a te ria ls ,
process,
problem o f
m ateria ls
b u t th e s e a lo n e a re n o t enough.
n o t how ever,
d istin c t
the te c h n iq u e
r o c k by means o f a c r o w b a r a n d a b l o c k .
the
sin g le
o th er
t e c h n i q u e s _qf s p e a k i n g .
m oving a l a r g e
m ethods.
On t h e
"how" o f s p e a k i n g .
Suppose one found h i m s e l f c o n fr o n te d w i t h th e
effectiv e
for
"m icrocosm
S p en g ler sp o k e.
An a n a l o g y may s e r v e t o m a k e t h i s
used,
In
s o c i a l m elange p ro d u c in g th e n e c e s s i t y
com m unication .
in
to th e problem o f sp eak in g *
" w h a t " a n d "ho w "
" n a tu re and c irc u m sta n c e s"
These a r e
rev eal th at
c le ar th a t
th ere
each cap ab le o f in d iv id u a liz e d
or
a
are
tw o
treatm en t
141
for a n a ly tic al
stru c tu re
of
the
th is
purposes#
H ere,
ag ain ,
and f u n c t i o n w hich seem s t o
p ap er a t alm o st ev ery p o in t#
rock,
th e
c ro w b a r and b l o c k ,
an a r t"
the
phase o f h i s
T h is
in
th e
tw en tieth
to
tak en th e
crop in to
th e
The m a t e r i a l s
d iscu ssio n s
f o r m oving
th e
"n atu re
w h ile th e m ethods s t u d i e d
p a r a l l e l th e
11s p e e c h
♦ • • • as
ex p ressio n #
o p in io n from t h e
in tro d u c tio n
has
needed r e s u l t
th e problem o f
a r e a n a la g o u s to
a n d c i r c u m s t a n c e s 11 o f F i c c o l o m i n i ,
to a ch iev e
is
century#
Ita lia n
ren aissan ce fin d s
P r e s t o n H. S c o t t , w r i t i n g i n
some s u g g e s t i v e
o u tlin e s for
same b a s i c p o s i t i o n #
echoes
an
speech co u rses,
He c o n t e n d s :
Speech i n a l l of i t s p h ases -~ fundam ent­
a l s , p u b l ic s p e a k in g , d i s c u s s i o n and argum en­
ta tio n , in te r p r e ta tio n , d ram atics, sc ien c e,
and speech c o r r e c t i o n , h as a s p e c i f i c con­
t e n t a l l o f i t s own#
But t h i s c o n te n t i s n o t
t h e same a s t h e t e r m c o n t e n t i s u n d e r s t o o d i n
o th e r f i e l d s , such as h i s t o r y , p o l i t i c a l
s c i e n c e , p s y c h o l o g y , c h e m i s t r y , e t c . , The c o n ­
t e n t of th e f i e l d of speech i s th e te c h n iq u e
o f co m m unicating [ s t i m u l a t i n g th e r e c e p t i o n
o f] the c o n te n t of a l l th e s e o th e r f i e l d s # ^
B oth P ic c o lo r a in i and S c o t t a s s i g n
broad f i e l d
a ll
w hich c u t s a c r o s s a l l
in
speech a v ery
su b ject-m atter
e d u c a tio n in v o lv e s com m u nicatio n,
speech a p lace
to
th is
ev ery phase o f ed u catio n #
^ P r e s t o n H. S c o t t , " I n t r o d u c t i o n , "
in Speech f o r th e E le m e n ta ry , I n te r m e d ia te ,
S c h o o l s , (m im eographed^ [ D e t r o i t ] , M ic h ig a n
T ea ch e rs of Speech), p . i i .
In an in te rv ie w
D r. S c o t t s u g g e s te d th e b r a c k e t e d p h r a s e a s
b e tte r sta te m en t of h is p o s itio n .
lin es#
S ince
v iew w ould g i v e t o
C e rta in ly
in a ll
S ug g estiv e O u tlin e s
and Secondary
A sso c ia tio n of
F eb ru ary 4, 1940,
p ro d u ctiv e of a
e d u catio n th ere
over*
need to d evelop s k i l l
in p u ttin g
id eas
T h e s e c o n c e p t s make s p e e c h t h e a g e n t o f e d u c a t i o n a l
in te g ratio n *
gram m ar,
T his
is
is
P i c c o l o m i n i h a s s p e c i f i c a l l y made r h e t o r i c ,
d ia le c tic ,
and p h ilo s o p h y s u b o r d in a te
v e r y much l i k e
s u b o r d i n a t i n g know ledge to
It
does n o t p e rm it gram m ar, r h e t o r i c ,
to
become s e l f - c o n t a i n e d
latio n
to
self*
K now ledge i s
ends,
d ia lec tic ,
speech*
ex p ressin n *
or p h ilo so p h y
b u t v ie w s them o n l y w i t h r e ­
t h e i r u l t i m a t e u s e by t h e o r g a n is m
ex p ressio n #
to
ex p ressin g
it­
m e re ly m a t e r i a l w hich g a i n s power th ro u g h
How ever,
t h e r e a r e o th e r view s th a n t h e s e
current
today*
The m o s t n a r r o w o f t h e s e v i e w s c o n s i d e r
as b ein g p r im a r ily ,
train in g *
if
not e n tire ly ,
T y p ical of t h i s
group a re
s p e e c h work
concerned w ith v o ice
two g r e a t
exponents o f
s i l e n t r e a d i n g , C l a r e n c e S t o n e an d H a r r y W heat*
th e g e n e s is
of w ritin g and sees
p r o d u c t i o n o f sounds*
n eg ativ e
silen t-read in g
callin g * "
3
n atu re
th at,
i n a m ore o r l e s s
"U nlike
em phasizes t h o u g h t- g e ttin g
B eh ind t h i s
w hich s t r e s s e s
i n s p e e c h work m e r e ly t h e
He e x p r e s s e d t h i s
f a s h i o n when h e s t a t e d
"g ettin g "
of such l i t e r a r y
th an "d o in g ."
fo rm s a s poems,
o ral-read in g ,
rath er
sta te m e n t can be f e l t
rath er
S tone ig n o re s
th a n w ord-
a p h ilo so p h y
The a u d i t o r y
o ratio n s,
p lay s,
3 C la r e n c e S to n e , S i l e n t and O ra l R ead in g ( r e v i s e d
e d i t i o n , * New Y o r k : H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n C o m p a n y , 1 9 2 6 ) , p* 3 5 *
and-
143
songs
i s n o t c o n s id e re d u n d er such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n *
H a r r y G rove Wheat i s
S tone
in assig n in g
to
ev en m ore e x tre m e t h a n C l a r e n c e
o r a l w ork a v e r y n a r r o w f i e l d *
He c o n ­
ten d s:
The p u r p o s e o f s i l e n t - r e a d i n g i s t o
s e c u r e m eaning; t h e p u rp o s e o f o r a l r e a d i n g
i s a r t i c u l a t i o n - p r o n u n c i a t i o n of w ords
w ith p ro p er ex p re ssio n * ^
In th is
rem ark,
of ex p ressio n is
How i s
the
w riter
in ten d ed ?
What i s
a tu re ,
e sse n tia lly
th e
one,
th e r e a l n a tu re
“p ro p er e x p ressio n ?"
become a w are o f t h e n u a n c e w h ic h t h e
in n a tu re ?
c ritic s
view o f th e
p revious
Are n o t su c h p o e t i c
among t h e
is
in the
overlooked*
read er to
rhyme a u d i t o r y
as
There i s
th at lite ra tu re ,
au d ito ry
c o n c e p ts a s rhythm and
c o n s id e ra b le agreem ent
esp ecially
in i t s
a p p eal*
p o e tic
lite r­
T his i s
th e
Scotchm an,
H ugh B l a i r ,
o f th e con tem p o rary
Q
E n g l i s h c r i t i c , I * A* R i c h a r d s ,
and of th e e a r l i e r E n g lish
7
r h e t o r i c i a n , G eorge C am pbell*
R ecen tly a d o c to ra l d i s s e r t a t i o n
^ H a r r y G r o v e W h e a t , T he T e a c h i n g o f R e a d i n g
G i n n a n d C o m p a n y , 1 9 8 3 ) , p* 44 *
(New Y o r k :
® Hugh B l a i r , L e c t u r e s o n R h e t o r i c a n d B e l l e s L e t t r e s
( P h i l a d e l p h i a : T. E llw o o d Z e l l , 1 8 6 1 ), p . 4 2 1 ff*
® I * A* R i c h a r d s , P r i n c i p l e s o f L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m
( N e w Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e a n d Company, 1 9 3 4 ) , p * 2 7 3 f f *
7
G e o r g e C a m p b e l l , The P h i l o s o p h y o f R h e t o r i c
Y ork: H a rp e r and B r o t h e r s , 1 8 4 9 ), p . 1 8 ff*
(New
144
at
th e U n iv e rs ity of S o u th ern C a lifo rn ia
Q
th e s is a t c o n sid e ra b le len g th *
N a tu ra lly ,
read in g is
tig e
c e p t come i n t o
id ea p e r s is ts
to
speech tra in in g *
of an organism
to
in te g rate
w ould te n d to a t t a i n
cu rricu lu m *
In
the
itse lf
e x p ressio n th e
so c ially ,
to th e narrow
r o l e w hich i s
p u r p o s e w h ich was a l l o t e d
th ese
becomes n e c e s s a r y
two o p p o s e d p o s i t i o n s
it
p ro p erly
in
to
ev alu ate
to a t t a i n
p e rsp ec tiv e .
The f i e l d
of
s p e e c h was f o r t h e
bu t of in ex act scope.
b rin g fo rth
in
s t a t e m e n t s o f P i c c o l o m i n i a n d p:* H*
In o rd e r to
to
th en
a c e n tra l p o sitio n
o r a l work by S to n e an d W h e a t.
an h is to r ic a l
no p r e s ­
Should a b ro a d e r con­
S c o t t , s p e e c h was a s i g n e d a b r o a d i n t e g r a t i v e
m arked c o n t r a s t
same
th at oral
perform ance,
vogue w hich w ould s e e i n o r a l
speech tr a in in g
th e
long a s th e
n o th in g but a p a r r o t- lik e
w ill a ttac h
effo rts
as
expounded t h i s
It
w as, how ever,
e x te n siv e treatm en ts
an cien ts
a broad one,
su ffic ie n tly
by P l a t o ,
9
im p o rtan t
A risto tle ,
in
a H e l e n L . O g g , "A C r i t i q u e o f t h e O r a l a n d S i l e n t
R e a d i n g o f P o e t i c L i t e r a t u r e , 11 ( u n p u b l i s h e d D o c t o r * s d i s s e r ­
t a t i o n , Los A n g e le s , C a l i f o r n i a : U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e rn C a l i f ­
o r n i a , 1938) •
9
P l a t o , F i v e D i a l o g u e s o f P l a t o B e a r i n g on P o e t i c
I n s p i r a t i o n ( N o . 4 5 6 , E v e r y m a n * s L i b r a r y , New Y o r k : E . P .
D u t t o n and Company, 1 9 2 9 ) . N o te e s p e c i a l l y t h e I o n a n d t h e
P haedrus.
A r i s t o t l e , R h e t o r i c a ( t r a n s l a t e d b y W. R h y s R o b e r t s ,
V o l . X I , W. D . R o s s , e d i t o r , T h e W o r k s o f A r i s t o t l e , O x f o r d :
C larendon P r e s s , 1 924).
145
C icero ,
v aried
11
Q u in tilian ,
12
i n so m e r e s p e c t s ,
h a d no f i e l d
of its
and o th ers*
th ey a l l
W hile t h e s e t r e a t m e n t s
tended
own i n t h e o r d i n a r y
to h o ld
sense,
w a s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t e c h n i q u e s common t o
a ll
th at
speech
but th a t
field s*
it
A risto tle
said :
B u t r h e t o r i c we l o o k u p o n a s t h e p o w e r
o f o b s e r v i n g t h e means o f p e r s u a s i o n on
a lm o st any s u b j e c t p r e s e n te d to u s; and
t h a t i s why we s a y t h a t , i n i t s t e c h n i c a l
c h a r a c t e r , i t i s n o t c o n c e rn e d w ith any
s p e c ia l o r d e f i n i t e c la s s of s u b je c ts* ^
Q u in tilia n w ith c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
•
* n o th in g i s u n n ecessary
L ater
in the
as to
e l i c i t a fo o tn o te
lato r*
to
z eal h eld th a t,
the a r t of o r a to r y
same w ork h e e x p a n d s
th is
id ea in
.
H♦
•
•
such a fa sh io n
from J o h n S e lb y W atso n , h i s
tran s­
B o th Q u i n t i l i a n ’ s r e m a r k a n d W a t s o n ’ s comment t h e r e o n
fo llo w ;;
F o r a b o u t t h e same a g e t h e s t u d y o f
o t h e r a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s m u st b e commenced;
c o n ce rn in g w hich, as th ey a re th e m se lv e s
a r t s , and c a n n o t b e c o m p le te w i t h o u t t h e
a r t of o ra to ry ,# b u t are n e v e rth e le ss in 11 C i c e r o , C i c e r o On O r a t o r y . a n d O r a t o r s ( t r a n s l a t e d
b y J * S* f t f a t s o n ; P h i l a d e l p h i a : D a v i d Mc Ka y, 1 8 9 ? ) *
TO
Q u in tilia n , I n s t i t u t e s of O rato ry
J * S* W a t s o n ; L o n d o n : H e n r y G* B o h n , 1 8 5 6 ) *
13
A risto tle ,
Q u in tilia n ,
ojd.
c i t *,
p*
oja* c i t * * I ,
(tran sla te d
1335b l i n e s 3 2 -3 5 *
p* 3*
by
146
s u f f i c i e n t o f th e m s e lv e s t o form a n o r a t o r ,
i t i s made a q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r t h e y a r e n e c ­
e s s a ry to t h i s a rt*
# [ F o o t n o t e b y J o h n S e l b y W a t s o n ] What Q u in ­
t i l i a n sa y s, i s t h a t th o se a r t s o r sc ie n c e s
can n o t be p e r f e c t w ith o u t th e a r t o f o r a to r y ,
t h a t i s , th a t th e a r t of o ra to ry i s n ecessa ry
to th em , and t h a t i t i s t h e n t o be i n q u i r e d
w h eth er th e y a r e n e c e s s a ry to th e a r t o f
* r
Jh e r of Q u i n t il i a n 's
t h a t so m e knowle d g e o f la n g u a g e , o r the a r t o f o r a t o r y , i s
n e c e ssa ry to th e u n d e rsta n d in g and te a c h in g
of th e a r t s ; m ath em atics, f o r in s ta n c e , can­
n o t be c l e a r l y a n d e f f i c i e n t l y t a u g h t o r
s t u d i e d w ith o u t t h e a id of c o r r e c t language*
The s t a n d t a k e n b y A r i s t o t l e a n d Q u i n t i l i a n a n d a s
e x p la in e d by t h e t r a n s l a t o r s
F ic co lo m in i and S c o tt*
is
fu n d am en tally l ik e
th at of
The p o s i t i o n o f C i c e r o w as much t h e
same*
Q u in tilia n 's
a b le
w orks on e d u c a t i o n e x e r c i s e d an im m easur
i n f l u e n c e o n e d u c a t i o n f r o m Roman d a y s t o
One h i s t o r i a n
d escrib es h is
in flu en ce
in
the R en aissan ce*
th e s e w ords:
H i s i n f l u e n c e was e n o rm o u s o n e d u c a t o r s
l i k e V i t t o r i n o da F e l t r e , Aeneas S y lv iu s
P ic c o lo m in i (F iu s I I ) , G u arin o , A g ric o la ,
B e b e l, V ives and M elanchthon.
Nowhere d i d
i t work m ore c l e a r l y t h a n on E rasm u s h i m s e l f . 16
At l e a s t a s f a r a s sp e e c h e d u c a ti o n i s
a v e ra g e A m erican sp e ec h t e a c h e r i s
i b i d T* ( 1 8 7 3 e d i t i o n ,
concerned,
i n d e b t e d m ore t o
th e
th e
B e ll and D aldy, L ondon),
I * 72 *
15 j # W i g h t D u f f , A L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y o f Rome i n t h e
S i l v e r A g e (New Y o r k : C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s S o n s , 1 9 3 5 ) , p* 3 8 7 *
147
E n g lish R en aissan ce th an to
b e liefs*
It
is
th e
Ita lia n
R enaissance
as a consequence of t h i s
fact
th at
for h is
tw o s u c h
o p p o s i t e v i e w s a s t h o s e o f P* H* S c o t t a n d C* S t o n e h a v e
developed in
th e U n ited S ta te s *
In
in flu e n ce
Q u i n t i l i a n was l e s s
i m p o r t a n t a n d more i n d i r e c t
than in
of
th e I ta lia n *
the E n g lish w ritin g s
J* W ight D u ff
the
ex p lain s:
A p a rt from i n e v i t a b l e r e f e r e n c e s i n t h e
c o m p a r a tiv e ly m odern t r e a t i s e s on r h e t o r i c
by B l a i r , C a m p b e ll a n d T & iately, i t m u st be
reco g n ized th a t Q u in tilia n has s c a rc e ly a t ­
t r a c t e d i n B r i t a i n h i s due s h a r e o f a t t e n ­
t i o n - b u t t h e n we a r e n o t a r h e t o r i c a l
n a tio n . '
There w a s ,in th e
p o sitio n
to
a p p lied to
the
th e
sch o larsh ip
field
of
speech,
sch o lars
cu ltu re,
stag n ated
was a n e g l e c t o f
th e problem .
of th e C ic e r o n ia n s t y l e ,
product*,
i n h o w men l i k e
th e ir o ratio n s
C i c e r o was t h a t
w ere l i k e *
17 D u f f ,
t h o s e who w i s h e d t o
of the
stu d y of m odels.
lo c* c i t *
They
C i c e r o became o r a t o r s ,
T his r e s u l t e d i n
an o v erp ro d u ctio n of tre a tm e n ts of s t y l e .
was r e c o m m e n d e d f o r
super­
o f t h e R om an
n o t t h e m e th o d s by w h ic h i t w as a c h i e v e d *
i n what
When h u m a n ­
th e developm ent o f th e L a t i n V u lg a te
s a w i n Rome o n l y t h e
w ere i n t e r e s t e d , n o t
but
but th ere
approach to
and b ro u g h t a b o u t a w o rsh ip
ficial
op­
d e f i n i t i o n s w hich th e c l a s s i c a l s c h o l a r s h ad
th e i r b a sic p h ilo so p h ic
ist
E n g lish R e n aissan c e,n o a c tiv e
The m e th o d w h ic h
be o r a t o r s
lik e
In ste ad of try in g
148
to
liv e
as C icero
speech w ith th e
liv e d ,
resu lt
th ey t r i e d
A T rea tise
and sh a llo w
p r o d u c tio n s 'o f
about the u se of f ig u r e s
p u b lish ed h is
The A r t e
of
th is
of speech#
in th e E n g lish
is
d isc ip lin e#
p erio d
w ere e x p o s i t i o n s
I n 1 5 2 4 L e o n a r d Co x
o r C ra fte o f R h eto ry k e#
I n 1550
o f S c h e m e s a n d T r o p e s came f r o m t h e p e n o f
R ichard Sherry#
B oth t h e s e works w ere l a c k i n g
and w ere
in ten d ed to
fig u res
fig u res
t h a t speech t r a i n i n g
R e n a i s s a n c e was a p e r v e r t e d
Most o f t h e
t o m im ic h i s
larg e ly
of sp eech ,
in o rig in a lity
be handm aids to C ic e ro #
th ey p a r t i c u l a r l y
Of t h e
s tre s s e d am p lificatio n #
Co x w a s d e e p l y i n d e b t e d t o M e l a n c h t h o n * s I n s t i t u t i o n e s
R h e to rica e
S ch em alib u s
(1521)
and S h e r r y to M o s e l l a n u s 1 T ab u lae de
e t T ro p ics
(1529)#
B o t h men c l a i m e d t o f o l l o w
19
Q u i n t i l i a n and b o t h q u o te d p r o f u s e l y from C ic e r o #
A b o u t , 1 5 5 3 T h o m a s W i l s o n p r o d u c e d The A r t e o f
R h e t o r i q u e w h ic h was d e s t i n e d t o b e t h e m o st o r i g i n a l
a ll
the
la rg e ly
rh eto rica l
tre a tise s
a c o m p i l a t i o n from
esp ecially
it
show ed t h e
of the
easily
century#
reco g n ized
of
I t was a l s o
so u rces and
i n f l u e n c e o f C a s t i g l i o n e 1s I I
lo f o r a th o ro u g h d i s c u s s i o n of t h e p e r v e r s io n of th e
c l a s s i c a l c o n c e p ts of r h e t o r i c in th e E n g lis h R en aissan ce.,
s e e , D o n a l d L em en C l a r k , R h e t o r i c a n d P o e t r y i n t h e
R e n a i s s a n c e (New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 2 2 ) #
19
F or an a n a l y s i s o f th e o r i g in s and in f lu e n c e s o f
t h e s e a n d s u b s e q u e n t w o r k s o f t h i s p e r i o d s e e , Wnw G-# C r a n e ,
W i t a n d R h e t o r i c i n t h e R e n a i s s a n c e (New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a
U n iv e rs ity P r e s s , 19377.
149
C o rtig lian o ♦
A lth o u g h th e
been f e l t ,
th e
th at
c am e t o
later
In
sty le
in flu e n ce
o f L yly h a d n o t y e t
o f W i l s o n ' s w r i t i n g was o f t h a t
sort
b e known a s e u p h u i s t i c .
1 5 7 7 H e n r y P e a c h a m i s s u e d The G a r d e n o f E l o q u e n c e ,
C onte.yning t h e F i g u r e s
o f Gra m m a r a n d R h e t o r i c k w h i c h a d ­
v o cated
w ritin g .
co p iousness
in flu e n ce
in
P e a c h a m s o o n came u n d e r t h e
o f J o h n L y l y who i n 1 5 7 9 p r e s e n t e d
p u b lic h is
These w ere t h e
sty le
a d d itio n to
and r e s u l t e d
of
th e a d je c t i v e
in
1593 r e v i s e d h i s
in
the
"e u p h u istic ."
Most t r e a t m e n t s
the
or d ia le c tic .
tre a tise s
w orks.
d id
fo llo w ers
o f L y ly .
fro m Cox t o L y l y , w h i l e
in clu d e c o n sid era b le m a te ria l
began to
a n d from th e n on l i t t l e
In th e
i n f l u e n c e , Peacham
A b o u t 1580 o r t h e r e a b o u t s ,
of d ia le c tic
o f more t h a n t h e
th e E n g lish language
Under t h i s
of rh eto ric
o rn am en tatio n ,
elem en ts
ep ito m e of f lo w e ry
G a rd e n o f E lo q u e n c e and t h i s new e d i t i o n
b eca m e v e r y p o p u l a r among t h e
on l o g ic
the E n g lis h
E u p h u e s . t h e Anatom y o f W it an d a y e a r l a t e r
Euphues and H is E n g la n d .
stressin g
to
su p e rfic ia litie s
how ever,
be d ro p p e d from r h e t o r i c a l
e f f o r t was made t o t r e a t
of language
anonym ous The A r t e s
w hich a p p e a re d a b o u t 1584 one f i n d s
in rh e to ric a l,
o f L o g ik e and R h e to r ik e
rh eto ric
d efin ed as:
• • • an a r t of speaking f i n e l i e .
I t h a t h tw o p a r t s , g a r n i s h i n g o f s p e e c h ,
c a lle d E lo q u tio n , and g a rn ish in g of th e
m anner o f u t t e r a n c e , c a l l e d P r o n u n c i a t i o n .
^
The " A r t e s o f L o g i k e a n d R h e t o r i k e . ( 1 5 8 4 j n . T r • ,
q u o t e d i n D. L . C l a r k ,
ci t . , p . 59.
150
A lm ost th e
Faunce i n
id en tical
w o rd in g was u s e d b y A braham
The A r c a d i a n R h e t o r i k e w h e re h e
R h eto rik e is
h a t h two p a r t s ,
c ia tio n * ^
sta te s:
a n A r t of Speaking*
It
E lo q u tio n and Pronun­
E l o c u t i o n a n d p r o n u n c i a t i o n - - how f a r
t h e R om an a n d G-reek v i e w o f
ing i
th e o ra to r as
Under such tre a tm e n t i t
in g b ra s s
or a tin k lin g
a g o o d man s p e a k ­
w ould b e e a s y t o
cym bal*M
rem oved from
be “a s
T h in g s c o n tin u e d
sound­
th u s,
u n til
by 163 4 J o h n B a r t o n c o u l d s a y w i t h o u t a n y q u a lm s t h a t , “R h e to rie k
is
d e liv erie
th e
sk ill
o f u s i n g d a i n t i e r w o r d s , a n d com ely
p?
• • • ♦J1*'*'
sch o larsh ip
T h is s o r t o f p e r v e r s io n of c l a s s i c a l
abandoned in v e n tio
le a v in g n o th in g of the
p ro n u n tia tio ,
as
“r h e to r ic
to
as
lo g ic
o r i g i n a l to
rh eto ric
but elo c u tio
“ T his p e r v e r s i o n of
rh eto ric
w hich c o n s id e r e d i t
concerned o n ly w ith s t y l e ,
re stric te d
and d i s p o s i t i o . to
the
or au reate
s c h o o l b o o k s . n2^
synonym ous w i t h
lan g u ag e,
was n o t
P o p u lar usage co n sid ered
’ f i n e h o n e y e d s p e e c h * 1“
The E n g l i s h R e n a i s s a n c e b r e d an d f o s t e r e d
concept of rh e to ric ,
and
t h i s narrow
o r s p e e c h , w h i c h a p p e a r s ‘t o d a y
in
th e
e x p r e s s i o n s o f s u c h men a s C . S t o n e a n d H. W heat w h i c h h a v e
quoted
2T A b r a h a m F a u n c e , T h e A r c a d i a n R h e t o r i k e , ( 1 5 8 8 ) n .y ;* ,
i n D* L* C l a r k , l o c * c i t *
2 2 ^ J o h n B a r t o n , The A r t o f R h e t o r i c k c o n c i s e l y a n d
c o m p l e t e l y h a n d l e d , e x e m p l i f i e d o u t o f H o ly W ri t , e t c * ,
( L o n d o n : 1 6 3 4 , ) n * ; v . / , q u o t e d i n D. L* C l a r k , o p * c i t * , p* 60*
23
l.
C lark ,
2 4 I b i d * , p* 6 1 .
ojo.
c i t * , p p . 60-61*
151
b e e n exam ined#
in n in eteen th
The e l o c u t i o n s c h o o l s
c e n t u r y A m erica t r a c e
men o f t h e E n g l i s h R e n a i s s a n c e #
tio n
w ith s ty le , i t
b o th e r to
th in k
more t h a n f i r s t
is
th eir
lin eag e
d iffic u lt
to
fin d
ed u cato rs
enough a b o u t sp e ec h p ro b lem s to
a p p e a rs on th e
stu d y had re c e iv e d
to
th ese
B ecause of t h e i r p reoccupa­
surface#
s c h o l a r s who w e r e n o t m i s l e d b y t h e
rh eto rical
w h ic h were p r e v a l e n t
t o d a y who
see a n y th in g
There w e re ,h o w e v e r,
false
im p e tu s w hich
f r o m m en l i k e
Cox, S h e r r y ,
and
L yly#
G eorge C a m p b e ll,
speech
th is
r e l y i n g on Q u i n t i l i a n ,
d efin ed
way:
The w o r d e l o q u e n c e i n i t s g r e a t e s t
l a t i t u d e , d e n o t e s , 1t h a t a r t o r t a l e n t
by w h ic h t h e d i s c o u r s e i s a d a p t e d t o
i t s en d j^ S
In th e
statem en t
an end beyond i t s e l f
tity .
S peak in g i n
speech t r a i n in g
in
sh o u ld be n o te d
and t h a t i t
th is
view #
c ritic ,
book b a se d on h i s
speech h as
leaat
great
one
en­
purpose o f
g e ttin g
back to
in flu e n ce
on
w e l l known m o d e rn
has seen f i t
concept of th e m e ta p h o r ,^
G eorge C a m p b e ll,
^
H arco u rt,
n o t th e
B ecause of h i s
I# A. R i c h a r d s ,
th at
not a self-co n tain ed
C am pbell i s
c o n te m p o ra rie s and b ecause a t
lite ra ry
is
"honeyed w ords” i s
the c l a s s i c a l p o sitio n #
h is
it
to
it
p u b l i s h a.
m ig h t be
o p # c i t # , p# 23#
I * A# R i c h a r d s , I n t e r p r e t a t i o n
B r a c e a n d C o m pany^ 1 9 3 8 ) #
in T eaching
(New Y o r k :
152
w ell, t o
in clu d e
a m ore e x t e n d e d s t a t e m e n t by C a m p b e ll ,
He b e l i e v e d
b e u s e d by a l l
th e
th at
speech w as.a tech n iq u e
w hich c o u ld
v a r i o u s academ ic d i s c i p l i n e s *
He s a i d :
But t h e r e i s no a r t w h a te v e r t h a t h a s
so c l o s e a c o n n e c t i o n w ith a l l t h e f a c u l t ­
i e s a n d p o w e r s o f t h e m ind a s e l o q u e n c e ,
o r th e a r t of sp e ak in g , in th e e x te n siv e
s e n s e i n w h ich I em ploy th e term *
F or,
i n th e f i r s t p l a c e , t h a t i t o u g h t to be
r a n k e d a m o ng t h e p o l i t e o r f i n e a r t s , i s
m a n if e s t from t h i s , t h a t i n a l l i t s e x e r ­
t i o n s , w i t h l i t t l e o r no e x c e p t i o n ( a s
w ill appear a fte rw a rd ), i t re q u ire s th e
a id of th e im ag in atio n .
T hereby i t n o t
o n l y p l e a s e s , b u t b y p l e a s i n g c om m and s
a t t e n t i o n , ro u s e s th e p a s s io n s , and o f t e n
a t l a s t su b d u e s th e m ost s t u b b o r n r e s o l u ­
tio n *
I t is also a u sefu l a r t .
T h is i s
c e r t a i n l y th e c a s e , i f th e power o f sp e e c h
be a u s e f u l f a c u l t y , -as i t p r o f e s s e d l y
t e a c h e s u s h ow t o e m p l o y t h a t f a c u l t y w i t h
the g r e a te s t p ro b a b ility of su c c e ss.
Far­
t h e r , i f th e lo g ic a l a r t and th e e th i c a l
be u s e f u l , e lo q u e n c e i s u s e f u l , a s i t i n ­
s t r u c t s u s how t h e s e a r t s m u s t b e a p p l i e d
f o r th e c o n v ic tio n and p e rs u a s io n of o th e r s .
I t i s , i n d e e d , t h e g r a n d a r t o f com m unica­
tio n , not of id e a s o n ly , but of se n tim e n ts,
p a s s i o n s , d i s p o s i t i o n s , and p u r p o s e s .
Nay,
w ith o u t t h i s , th e g r e a t e s t t a l e n t s , even
w i s d o m i t s e l f , l o s e m uch o f t h e i r l u s t r e ,
and s t i l l m ore o f t h e i r u s e f u l n e s s .
The
w is e i n h e a r t * s a i t h Solom on, s h a l l be
c a l l e d p r u d e n t* b u t th e sw eetn ess o f th e
l i p s in c r e a s e th le a rn in g L P ro v . 1 6 :2 1 ]•
By t h e f o r m e r , a m a n ’ s own c o n d u c t may
be w e ll r e g u l a te d , b u t th e l a t t e r i s ab­
s o lu te ly n e c e ssa ry fo r d iffu s in g v alu ab le
know ledge, and e n fo r c in g r i g h t r u l e s o f
a c t i o n u p o n o t h e r s . 8?
In th e phrase
8? C am p b ell,
"it
op.
in stru cts
c i t . , p.
u s ho w t h e s e
18.
a r t s m ust be
ap p lied
for
the
seen th e r e a l
it
c o n v ic tio n and p e rs u a s io n of
core of C a m p b e ll^
m ig h t be s a i d
use in
and of
cam e u s e f u l
and t h a t
each
in d iv id u a l
W hile t h e
w ere n o t a t
th is
p o sitio n
e sse n tia lly
is
in
became o f v a l u e a s i t
in h is
term in o lo g y and b i o l o g i c a l
th at
was e x p o u n d i n g t h e
“W h a te v e r t h e n t h e
elo q u en ce;in h is to r y
seq u en tly
fu rth er,
it
of th e
h is
in flu e n cin g
an a r t
p r e a c h e r and r h e t o r
same p h i l o s o p h y .
su b ject be,
th ere
o r even i n p h ilo s o p h y ,
To B l a i r
is
still,
in teg ratio n *
H ug h B l a i r ,
su a sio n , o r the
ev id en ce
of C h ild on th e u s e of lan g u a g e
same e r a t h e S c o t t i s h
o ra tio n s.”
be­
r e l a t i o n s w ith h is
D uring t h i s
h is w ords,
for
it
tim e a v a i l a b l e t o C am pbell,
fo r in te r-o rg an ism ic
ician ,
Sim ply s t a t e d f
c o n te n d ed t h a t know ledge h ad l i t t l e
itse lf
to
f e l l o w men*
th a t he
p o sitio n *
o t h e r s ” can be
t h e aim o f a l l
of th e
[isl
In
room
as w ell as
speak in g i s
per­
conduct of o th e rs ,a n d con­
w hich h a s a c t i o n
for its
end.
o p in io n th a t:
A ll th a t re g a rd s th e stu d y o f elo q u en ce
and c o m p o s itio n , m e r i ts th e h i g h e r a t t e n t i o n
upon t h i s a c c o u n t, t h a t i t i s i n t i m a t e l y con­
n e c t e d w ith t h e im provem ent o f o u r i n t e l l e c t ­
u a l pow ers.
F o r I m u st be a l l o w e d t o s a y ,
t h a t w h e n we a r e e m p l o y e d , a f t e r a p r o p e r
m a n n e r , i n t h e s t u d y o f c o m p o s i t i o n , we a r e
c u ltiv a tin g reason i t s e l f .
True r h e t o r i c and
sound l o g i c a r e v e ry n e a r l y a l l i e d .
The s t u d y
of a rr a n g in g and e x p re ss in g our th o u g h ts w ith
He i s ,
154
p r o p r ie ty , te a c h e s to th in k as w e ll as to
speak a c c u ra te ly .
By p u t t i n g o u r s e n t i m e n t s
i n t o w o r d s , we a l v / a y s c o n c e i v e t h e m m o r e
d istin c tly .
E v e r y o n e who h a s t h e s l i g h t e s t
a c q u a in ta n c e w ith c o m p o sitio n knows, t h a t
when h e e x p r e s s e s h i m s e l f i l l on a n y s u b ­
j e c t , when h i s a r r a n g e m e n t i s l o o s e , a n d h i s
s e n t e n c e s become f e e b l e , t h e d e f e c t s o f h i s
s t y l e c a n , a lm o st on e v ery o c c a s i o n , be
tr a c e d back to h i s i n d i s t i n c t c o n c e p tio n of
t h e s u b j e c t : so c l o s e i s t h e c o n n e x i o n b e ­
tw een th o u g h ts and th e words i n w hich th e y
a re c lo th e d .^ 9
The s e n t e n c e ,
” By p u t t i n g
our
sen tim en ts
we a l w a y s c o n c e i v e t h e m m o r e d i s t i n c t l y , 11 i s
a tte n tio n .
In i t
c a n be s e e n t h e germ o f t h e
in to w ords,
w orthy o f
sp ecial
p resen t-d ay
p sy ch o lo g ical d o c trin e
of
I n s o m e way B l a i r f e l t
t h a t , w ords g a in e d m eaning t h r o u g h u s e -
a fact
now g e n e r a l l y
th e r e l a ti o n
su fficien t
of
tio n
It
who
accep ted .
stru c tu re
is
cap ab le
an a s p e c t o f
M ere r u l e s
in lan g u ag e.
depend upon p r iv a te
o r i g i n a l ! and s t u d y ,
th at
H ere a g a i n i s
to fu n c tio n .
to produce f a c i l i t y
a g re a t deal w ill
not in
”n o i m p r e s s i o n w i t h o u t e x p r e s s i o n . ”
are not
11 • • ., m o r e by
a p p lica tio n
[ita lic s
th a n upon any sy stem o f i n s t r u c ­
of b ein g p u b lic ly
c o m m u n ica te d .”^
c o u l d h a v e b e e n Hugh B l a i r a s w e l l a s F r a n k l i n B o b b i t t
s a i d , “ T h e r e h a s b e e n t o o much
in o rig in a l]
E n g lish te a c h in g ;
[ita lic s
n o t e n o u g h E n g l i s h l i v i n g . ” 33.
29
Ib id .. p.
12.
30
i b i d .., p .
11.
3 1 F r a n k l i n B o b b i t t , The C u r r i c u l u m
M i f f l i n Company, 1 9 1 8 ) , p . 2 5 0 .
(New Y o r k : H o u g h t o n
155
M ost o f t h e s e p r e - t w e n t i e t h
ad eq u ately
cen tu ry
summed u p b y t h e n i n e t e e n t h
R ich a rd W hately.
He h o l d s
id e a s a r e m ost
cen tu ry
rh eto rician ,
th at:
L o g ic a n d R h e t o r i c h a v i n g no p r o p e r s u b ­
j e c t - m a t t e r o f t h e i r ow n , i t w a s n e c e s s a r y t o
r e s o r t to o t h e r d e p a rtm e n ts o f know ledge f o r
e x e m p l i f i c a t i o n s o f p r i n c i p l e s l a i d down • •
The e r r o r [ o f p r e v i o u s w r i t e r s i n c o n f u s i n g
t e r m s ] i s p r e c i s e l y t h e same i n r e s p e c t o f
R h e t o r i c and o f L o g ic ; b o th b e i n g i n s t r u m e n t a l
a r t s ; an d , a s su c h , a p p l i c a b l e to v a r io u s k in d s
o f s u b j e c t - m a t t e r , w h i c h d o n o t p r o p e r l y come
u n d e r t h e m . **
W hately*s d e s i g n a t io n o f r h e t o r i c
as an ” in stru m e n ta 1 M
at
T his
art
is
once b o t h a n c i e n t and m o d ern .
the
same a s
Q u in tilian * s
be co m p lete w ith o u t th e
o p in io n
th at,
p o sitio n th a t
art
of
fie ld s.”
In W hately,
fo llo w -u p
on Cox, F a u n c e ,
to
th e
of
speech th e
firm h o ld .
c u rric u la
in
th e
com m unicating th e
B lair,
c la ssic a l p o sitio n .
e sse n tia lly
o th e r su b jects
field
of speech is
co n ten t of a l l
th ese
th e
o th er
and C am pbell one f i n d s , n o t
L y ly and t h a t
sch o o l,
Among t w e n t i e t h
co n cep ts o f th e
cla ssic al
has,
a
but a retu rn
cen tu ry
teach ers
school have tak en a
W i t h t h o s e who a r e c h a r g e d w i t h d e v e l o p i n g
th is
’’c a n n o t
o f o r a t o r y , ” a n d a s S c o t t ’ s,
’’T h e c o n t e n t o f t h e
tech n iq u e
is
how ever, n o t been th e
the
c a s e , a s was s e e n
r e m a r k s o f W heat and S t o n e .
3L R i c h a r d W h a t e l y , E l e m e n t s o f R h e t o r i c ; C o m p r i s i n g
a n A n a l y s i s o f t h e L aw s o f M o r a l E v i d e n c e a n d o f P e r s u a s i o n
w ith R u le s f o r A rg u m e n ta tiv e C om p o sitio n and E lo c u tio n ( r e ­
v i s e d e d i t i o n ; B o s t o n : J a m e s M o n r o e a n d C o . , 1 8 5 5 ) , pp*. 1 1 - 1 2
a n d 20*
156
Perhaps th e
first
In
q u a r te r of the
1916 h e p u b l i s h e d
S neak in g an a r t i c l e
speech^
p r e s e n t c e n t u r y w a s C h a r l e s H* W o o l b e r t *
in th e
Q u arterly Jo u rn a l
d efin in g
th e scope of
i n w hich he expounded t h e
speech tech n iq u es*
the
o u tsta n d in g speech te a c h e r du rin g th e
the
m ore s u c c i n c t l y
of
n atu re of
w hich i s
same a s t h a t o f Q u i n t i l i a n a n d l h a t e l y ,
prose*
field
in te g rativ e
H is w hole c o n c e p t ,
a c h a r t w hich e x p re s s e s i t
of P u b lic
b a sica lly
he condensed in to
th an o rd in ary
T his c h a r t h a s b een re p ro d u c e d on th e
fo llo w in g page.
V ery s i m i l a r to W o o lb e r t’s e x p r e s s i o n s h av e b een t h o s e
o f W* A r t h u r C a b l e .
In
1935 h e e x p l a i n e d ; :
By s p e e c h t r a i n i n g
ag g reg ate;
I mean t h e
fo llo w in g in
Speech C o rre c tio n - . • •
P e r s o n a l i t y A d ju stm e n t and D evelopm ent - - * •
The N a t u r e o f S p e e c h - - ♦ . * •
E m o tio n a l D evelopm ent and C o n t r o l - - . * . .
The T h o u g h t P r o c e s s e s - - • • • • •
B reath in g - - * • • •
P h y sical P a rtic ip a tio n - - • • • •
The S p e a k i n g V o ic e — . * * .
L a n g u a g e H a b i t s —- * • • •
t
I n o t h e r w o r d s , by s p e e c h t r a i n i n g I mean t h e
d evelopm ent o f p u p i ls in sc h o o ls and c o lle g e s
t o a maximum e f f i c i e n c y a s s p e a k i n g p e r s o n a l ­
i t i e s , c o n v in c in g and p e rs u a s iv e in t h e i r
c o n ta c ts* ^
C h a r l e s H e n r y W o o l b e r t , '’O r g a n i z a t i o n o f D e p a r t m e n t
o f Speech S c ie n c e i n U n i v e r s i t i e s , n Q u a r te r ly J o u r n a l of P u b lic
S p e a k in g , I I ( J a n u a r y , 19 1 6 ), 64-77*
34
W. A r t h u r C a b l e , '‘S p e e c h , A B a s i c T r a i n i n g i n t h e
E d u c a t i o n a l S y s t e m , 11 Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f S p e e c h , XXI ( N o v e m b e r ,
1935), 512.
15 7
CHART 1
THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE FIELD OF SPEECH TO OTHER COURSES35
L i t e r a t u r e o f P u b lic A ddress
1.
2.
R h eto ric
C riticism
3.
4.
P honology
The P h y s i c s o f S o u n d
5.
E lo c u tio n
6.
7.
Use o f V o c a l A p p a r a t u s
8 * H ygiene
9 . ‘E x p r e s s i o n
T h o u g h t-P ro ce ss es
10.
35 W o o l b e r t ,
ojd.
c it . , p.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
72*
P ersu asio n
A rg u m en tatio n
D ebating
A esth etics
Speech A rts
S tage A rts
S tage C r a ft
Speech M a te ria l
E vid en ce
S o c i a l A djustm ents^
a n d Human B e h a v i o r
158
C ab le* s
w ith p r o f i t ,
list
of
item s c o u ld ,
no d o u b t ,
b u t t h a t w ould n o t e f f e c t h i s
I n C ab le a n d W o o lb e rt s p e e c h i s
ram ific atio n s
run in to
be re -a rra n g e d
b a sic p h ilo so p h y .
se e n a s a b r o a d s tu d y whose
e v ery d e p artm e n t of know ledge.
Speech,
✓
for
them, i s
f o r th em ,as
u c atio n a l
on th e
n o t m erely e lo c u tio n and p ro n u n c ia tio n .
for J .
M. 0 * N e i l l ,
ex p erien ces
p a rt of th e
fied
(1)
the
ex p ressio n s
D ram atics,
co n ten d ed
fo llo w in g needs
(2)
on t h i s
ed­
problem a p p e a re d .
were g ro w in g a n d
in O ral I n te r p r e ta tio n ,
D isc u ssio n ,
was f u r t h e r
M ental H ygiene,
capstone of
rep laces p a ssiv ity
speech c u r r i c u l a
a d d i t i o n s w ere l a r g e l y
liam en tary P r a c tic e ,
It
• th e
is
student.**
p reciatio n of L itera tu re,
tic s.
.
i n w hich a c t i v i t y
D u r i n g 1937. s e v e r a l
37
I t was p o i n t e d o u t
1 th at
th a t th e
11 .
It
rzp.
B u sin e ss S peak in g ,
Speech C o rre c tio n ,
life
o f th e
E x p re ssiv e B o d ily A c tio n ,
Par­
and Phone-
th a t speech tr a in in g
i n .the m a t u r i n g
Ap­
sa tis­
ch ild ;
(3 ) V oice
J a m e s M i l t o n 0 #N e i l l , “ S p e e c h i n t h e C h a n g i n g
C u r r ic u lu m ,* * Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f S p e e c h , XXII ( A p r i l , 1 9 3 6 ) ,
183.
^ Thomas E . C o u l t o n , “R e c e n t T r e n d s i n C o l l e g e S p e e c h
C u r r i c u l a , ” Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f S p e e c h , X X III (D ecem ber, 1 9 3 7 ),
603-613♦
H o r a c e G. R a h s k o p f , “P r i n c i p l e s o f t h e S p e e c h
C u r r i c u l u m , ” Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f S p e e c h , X X III ( O c to b e r ,
1937 ), 452-456.
------
159
A rticu latio n ,
E ffectiv e
(4) Language,
S o cial In flu en ce,
F o llo w in g th e
recen tly
d efin ed
(5) R em edial I n s t r u c t i o n ,
and ( 7 ) E s t h e t i c
tra d itio n
th e realm
of W o o lb ert,
(6)
S a tisfac tio n *
F r a n k l i n Knower
o f speech i n t h e s e w ords:
Th e p r o v i n c e o f s p e e c h i s t h e s t u d y o f
t h o s e dynam ic p a t t e r n s i n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s
i n w hich a p e r s o n a l i t y u s e s sy m b o lic p ro ­
cesses w ith co n v en tio n al v alu e to s tim u la te
an im m ediate s o c i a l en v iro n m en t
T u rn in g from t h e p e r i o d i c a l s
sam e g e n e r a l
co n ce p tio n of
E lw ood M urray i n h i s
the
to
th e te x t-b o o k s
scope of speech i s
th is
found*
preface say s;
• * • speech i s a t th e c e n te r o f e f f e c tiv e
liv in g *
I t s tru e fu n c tio n i s to se rv e as a
s o c i a l i n t e g r a t o r * * • Speech developm ent
p a r a l l e l s p e r s o n a l i t y d e v e l o p m e n t * 4^
E lsew h ere i t
is n o ted th a t t
The s u b j e c t o f s p e e c h d i s o r d e r s a n d t h e i r
r e h a b i l i t a t i o n d i f f e r s from m o st s p e c i a l i z e d
su b je c ts, in th a t i t is not a n a tu ra lly se­
p a r a t e body o f k n o w led g e, * • • b u t a n i n ­
t e g r a t i o n i n t o one sy stem o f a num ber o f
f a c t s and p r i n c i p l e s borrow ed from a r t s and
s c ie n c e s q u ite u n r e la te d to each o th e r * 4 ^
I n a n e v e n more r e c e n t book E i s e n s o n h a s n o t e d t h a t : .
• • • any d is c u s s io n of th e
s h ip b etw een sp eech and a l l i e d
in te rrelatio n ­
su b jects in -
^
F r a n k l i n H* K n o w e r , MSome P r e s e n t P r o b l e m s a n d N e x t
S t e p s i n G r a d u a t e W ork i n S p e e c h , ” Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f S p e e c h ,
X X III ( O c to b e r , 1 9 3 7 ), 456-458*
40 E lw ood
J* B. L i p p i n c o t t
41
R obert
R e h a b ilita tio n of
M u r r a y , The S p e e c h P e r s o n a l i t y
C o m p a n y , 1 9 3 7 ; , P* v i i *
(New Y o r k :
W e s t , Lou K e n n e d y , a n d Anna C a r r , The
S p e e c h (New Y o r k : H a r p e r a n d B r o s . ^ T 9 3 7 ) , p *
xi*
160
e v ita b ly le a d s in to th e f i e l d s of th e
chology of la n g u a g e , t h e p a t h o l o g i c a l
p e c t s of sp e e c h , and th e developm ent
p e rs o n a lity * A ll of th ese a re a s p e c ts
s p e e c h * • *^ 2
psy­
as­
of
of
The e n l a r g i n g s c o p e o f s p e e c h e d u c a t i o n i n
few y e a r s
is
reflected
A sso c ia tio n
of
Speech*
first
It
in
teachers
the
of
appeared
o fficial
speech,
organ o f
fin a lly
in January
1916 u n d e r t h e t i t l e
not su p e rfic ia l
1928 to
changes,
still
co n cep tio n o f the
"speech"
means p u b l i c
to
o th ers,sp ee ch
speech
to
be j u s t
s till, ju st
of
present title *
but th e r e s u l t s
title
wa s
T hese w ere
of p ressu re
o f new
In a la rg e
sp eak in g ,
co rrectio n *
It
To m an y,
o t h e r s , i t means e l o c u t i o n ,
T his c o n c e p tio n h o ld s
perh ap s very v i t a l ,
th in k s
of
h a s been due to
bu t,
" s p e e c h 11 i n t e r m s
the
in teg ratio n *
tendency to
Grlenn F r a n k h a s b e e n m o s t v i g o r o u s
tendency*
^
F. S. C ro fts
to
th a n i n term s o f s o c i a l
m easure t h i s
sp ecialize*
who a r e u n ­
com m unicative p r o c e s s e s *
a n o th e r s u b je c t,
rath er
how ever,
i m p l i c a t i o n s w hich c e n t e r a ro u n d
a n o th e r s u b je c t.
"a speech"
th is
its
m an y p e r s o n s ,
aw are o f th e p h i lo s o p h ic
still
1918 t h e
th e A sso ciatio n *
There a r e
ones
In
The Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f S p e e c h E d u c a t i o n * a n d
in February
forces in
th e N a tio n a l
The Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f
Q u a rte rly J o u rn a l of P u b lic S p eak in g *
changed to
th e past,
in denouncing
To h i m : .
E i s e n s o n , The P s y c h o l o g y o f S p e e c h
a n d Company, 1 9 3 8 ; , p . v i i *
(New Y o r k :
161
S p e c ia liz atio n is
ends w ith d ig g in g .
a spade*
Its
fu n ctio n
The u n p a r d o n a b l e s i n o f W e s t e r n l e a d e r s h i p
.
* .
was c o m m itte d when W e s t e r n e d u c a t i o n
was p e r m i t t e d t o becom e a s e r i e s o f r e l a t i v e l y
u n re la te d sp ecialism s . •
The e f f e c t
of th is
sp e cia liz in g
te n d e n c y on sp e ec h
e d u c a t i o n h a s b e e n r e p o r t e d b y W. L . W r i n k l e who c o n c l u d e s :
U n t i l s o m e t h i n g i s done a b o u t t h e comp a rtm e n ta liz a tio n of fu n c tio n s, th e s p e c ia l­
i z a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s , and th e m echanics of
sc h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , th e
developm ent o f such t o o l a b i l i t i e s a s sp e ak ­
in g w i l l c o n tin u e to be i n e f f e c t i v e .
U n til speech e d u c a tio n i s d e li b e r a t e l y
aim ed a t t h r o u g h o u t t h e e n t i r e p ro g ra m , to o
much s h o u l d n o t b e e x p e c t e d a s a r e s u l t o f
a c o m p a r t m e n t a l i z e d p r o g r a m , n o m a t t e r ho w
w e l l i t may b e d i r e c t e d . 44
In recen t years
accorded to
to
o r a l w ork.
any s p e c i a l
ap p ly
class
T h is o r a l work h a s n o t b e e n c o n f i n e d
o r group of s u b je c ts .
As e d u c a t o r s
th e m s e lv e s w ith g r e a t e r and g r e a t e r i n d u s t r y
problem of
to
the
e d u c a t i n g y o u t h t h e y a r e m ore a n d more i n c l i n e d
to abandon s p e c i a li z e d
and i n c r e a s in g l y
rath er
t h e r e h a s b e e n m ore an d m ore e m p h a sis
courses,
breakdow n s u b j e c t - m a t t e r
concern th em se lv e s w ith
th an c o n te n t and m a t e r i a ls .
lin e s,
th e d ev elo p in g -o ^ g an ism
The a t t i t u d e
of F. J .
4 5 G l e n n F r a n k , T h u n d e r a n d Dawn (New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n
Company, 1 9 3 2 ) , p . 2 1 0 .
4 4 yjfrn. l . W r i n k l e , The New H i g h S c h o o l i n t h e M a k i n g
(New Y o r k : A m e r i c a n B o o k C o m p a n y , 1 9 3 8 ) , p p . 1 2 3 - 1 2 4 .
162
W eersing t h a t ,
in fle c tio n ]
11T h e
[ita lic s
im p lie d by th e
fu n d am en tal pu rp o se of a l l
is- th e s o c i a l i z a t i o n of th e
s p e a k e r 1s
secondary ed u ca tio n
p u p i l , l|4 5 i s
e v e r b ecom ing m ore
pop u lar*
T his h i s t o r i c a l b a ck g ro u n d p r o v id e s th e
only in th e
sta n d the
ing is
lig h t
o f w hich i t
r e a l n a tu re
p o ssib le
of th e f i e l d
a man b e h a v i n g i n p r e c i s e l y
a s a man h e w i n g t i m b e r *
th e
is
p articu lar
Any s i t u a t i o n s
to o ls,
A speaker is
b ein g ,
i n w hich i t
m ig h t be p r o p e r l y
c a lle d
is
a d eq u a te ly to u n d e r­
of speech.
the
p ersp ectiv e
A man s p e a k ­
same b i o l o g i c a l
sense
an organism u s in g
of c o u rs e ,
to o ls,
la n g u a g e sym bols*
n ecessary to use
speech s itu a tio n s *
th ese
to o ls
At once i t
be­
comes o b v i o u s t h a t
speech s i t u a t i o n s
a re n o t co n fin e d to
th e speech c la ss*
Speech s i t u a t i o n s
o ccu r w henever organism s
endeavor to
in te g rate
w ith t h e i r
In speech c la s s e s
b eh av io r
c ip le s
in speech
c o n stitu te
are
common t o
a ll^
In o th e r
field
of
These p r i n ­
speech.
Under
ed u catio n such of th e s e p r i n c i p le s
or n early a l l ,
w ould be t h e p r o p e r c o n t e n t of t h e
course.
p r i n c i p l e s w hich g o v e rn
c a n be ex am ined.
co n ten t of th e
one p h ilo s o p h y , o f . s p e e c h
th at
th e g en eral
situ atio n s
the
su rro u n d in g s.
speech s itu a tio n s
b asic
co u rses th e p a r t i c u l a r
o r fu n d am en tal
p rin cip le s
4b F r e d e r i c k J . W e e r s i n g , i n a l e c t u r e
250 a t th e U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a ,
speech
p e cu lia r
in E d u catio n
August 1939.
163
to
sp ecial
a speech
to
speech s i t u a t i o n s
c u rricu lu m
be av o id ed
in such an u n d e rta k in g ,
dev elo p a te c h n iq u e
of
speech
o b v io u s t h a t
pro b ab ly , a re
in speech
dangers
is
im p o ssib le to
c o m m u n i c a t i o n a p a r t f r o m so m e c o n ­
H ere a g a i n i s
th e
The a r t i f i c i a l i t i e s
s itu a tio n s need to
speech s itu a tio n s
o u tsid e
in
th an in
to be found n e a r ly as o f te n
courses.
S in ce
p u p ils , and sin c e
th is
th e tea ch e r
on h e r p a r t
fo llo w s
th at
in v o lv ed .
fo llo w s
In
sh o rt,
sk ills
asp ects
sin ce th e
the
the
to
the
in
speech te a c h e r
one c a n n o t sp e a k w ith o u t u s i n g
the
lea rn in g pro­
i n co m m u n icatio n w ith o u t so m e th in g to
th at
as
w ithout s k i l l
train in g
cesses
it
They,
a n d on t h e p a r t o f
l a n g u a g e t e c h n i q u e s would f a c i l i t a t e
C o n v ersely ,
do
o f a n academ ic c o n t e n t
com m unicate h e r s u b j e c t
i t n e ce ssa rily
It
in o th er courses
use of
sk ill
them .
c a n n o t be done e f f e c t i v e l y
th e u se of la n g u a g e,b o th
stu d e n ts,
be en co u rag ed *
of a g en u in e n a tu re
speech c la s s e s
c o u rs e m ust u se la n g u a g e to
teach
way
c l a s s e s , of w hich W rinkle co m p lain s, m ust be av o id ed *
h a p p e n m ore o f t e n
the
There a re
be f o r g o t t e n t h a t i t
and fu n c tio n *
To do t h i s , r e a l s o c i a l
in
In th is
however*.
i n g e n u in e n e ed o f com m unication*
problem o f s t r u c t u r e
is
exam ined*
co u ld be c o n s tru c te d *
Never sh o u ld i t
cep ts
c o u ld be
cannot
co m m unicate,
"co n ten t* ”
im p a rtin g o f " c o n te n t” and th e developm ent o f
m ust o ccu r a t
one and t h e same t i m e ,
sin ce
b o th a re
of every speech s itu a tio n *
The e r r o r
in
the p a s t h as been a f a i l u r e
to reco g n ize
164
t h a t n eg lig en ce
i n d ev elo p in g lan g u ag e
m ust im p a ir th e
a c q u i s i t i o n o f know ledge*
m any o t h e r s ,
lead s
to
sk ills
n e ce ssa rily
T his f a c t ,
lik e
th e c o n c lu s io n t h a t t h e m ost e f f i c i e n t
e d u c a t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s w o u l d b e t h o s e w h i c h m ak e t h e m o s t
use of
speech tech n iq u es*
In
th is
1*
ch ap ter
There a r e
One v i e w h o l d s t h a t
g estu re,
field
covering
th e
speech i s m erely t r a i n i n g
an aly sis
of a l l
of speech.
in v o ice
and
speech h as a broad
com m unicative s i t u a t i o n s *
The m ore n a r r o w o f t h e s e v i e w s
p erv ersio n of c la s s ic a l
c ip a lly
th at:
t o d a y two o p p o s i n g c o n c e p t s
th e o t h e r view c o n te n d s t h a t
2*
the
i t h as been n o ted
is
th e r e s u l t o f
c o n c e p ts w hich to o k p la c e p r i n ­
in th e E n g lish R en aissan ce.
3.
The b r o a d e r c o n c e p t
d e r i v e d from t h e
of th e p la c e
c la s s ic a l p o sitio n s
of speech has
of A ris to tle
and
Q u in tilia n .
4*
The c l a s s i c a l
e d u catio n is
ho ld s
th e
n iq u es
the
of
co n cep tio n of
w ell expressed in
co n ten t
of the
stim u la tin g
th e
field
th e
ro le
of speech
in
th e view s
of
P . H . S c o t t who
of speech
to
be t h e
recep tio n
of
the
tech ­
c o n ten t of a l l
o th er field s*
5*
seen in
The m o d e rn r e t u r n
th e
and W hately.
to
the
c la ssic a l
w orks o f su c h r h e t o r i c i a n s
p o sitio n
a s C am pbell,
can be
B lair,
165
6#
If
th e b r o a d v ie w p o in t c o n t i n u i n g from A r i s t o t l e
and Q u i n t i l i a n
W hately,
t o men l i k e
accep ted as
th a t
thro u g h p ic c o lo m in i,
S c o tt,
lo g ic ally
th e b e st
W oolbert,
sound,
e d u catio n al
C am p b ell,
B lair,
and 0 * N e ill
th en th e
and
is
co n clu sio n is
to
be
in ev itab le
t e c h n i q u e s w o u l d b e t h o s e w h i c h m ake
th e g r e a t e s t use of sp eech tech n iq u es#
A lone, th e h i s t o r i c a l
have l i t t l e
m aterial
of th is
ch ap ter
co u ld
m ore t h a n a c a d e m ic s i g n i f i c a n c e , b u t when t h a t
m a t e r i a l m atch es p e r f e c t l y w ith th e m ost r e c e n t b i o l o g i c a l
ev id en ce as w ell as w ith
g a in s w eig h t*
To f i n d
in
s p e e c h s u c h men a s t h e
th e
c ritic s
C oraenius,
current tren d s
and W o o lb ert,
the
th e
th eir
Q u in tilian ,
T ra v is and E isen so n ,
and C h ild ,
th e
so c io lo g ists
th e p s y c h i a t r i s t M enninger,
a n t h r o p o l o g i s t K ro e b e r l e a d s one t o
stand#
The n a m e s o f e d u c a t o r s
lik e
a n d L y ly seem r a t h e r m e a g e r a g a i n s t
such an a rra y #
th is
m ajor l i n e s
of th o u g h t fo rm in g th e
There a re
c ertain
a re needed to
th e
p e d ag o g ical,
round o u t t h i s
S herry,
core of
T hese m ig h t be
and th e r h e t o r i c a l#
c o n s id e r a tio n s rem a in in g , how ever,
fu lly
th ere
lik e
Cox, F a u n c e ,
d i s s e r t a t i o n h a v e now b e e n o u t l i n e d #
term ed th e b i o l o g i c a l ,
and th e
b e lie v e th a t perhaps
S to n e and W heat an d o f r h e t o r i c i a n s
The t h r e e
of
and S p e n g le r ,
teach ers
p sy ch o lo g ists
Jen n in g s,
Mead, Y oung, a n d G r o v e s ,
th en i t
b a s i c a g re e m e n t on t h e n a t u r e
M ilto n and R ic h a rd s,
so m eth in g to
ed u catio n
p h ilo so p h ers A r is to tle
the b io lo g is ts H e rric k ,
is
in
approach to
w hich
a p h ilo so p h y
166
of speech ed u catio n *
d ev o ted to
th eir
The n e x t t h r e e
treatm en t*
ch ap ters
w ill
be
CHAPTER V
SOME VISUAL AND AUDITORY CONSIDERATIONS
RELATED TO THE LEARNING PROCESS
It
w ould be p r e s u m p tu o u s t o a t t e m p t any e x h a u s t i v e
treatm en t
of th e
h earin g .
Such a t r e a t m e n t w ould r e q u i r e
a tio n s
d a ta p h y s i c i s t s hav e g a t h e r e d on v i s i o n
of m a te ria l h av in g l i t t l e
blem a t h a n d a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y
it
d irec t
is
s e c t i o n a n e n d e a v o r w i l l b e made t o
co n clu sio n s
len g th y c o n sid e r­
b e a r i n g on t h e p r o ­
o m itted h e re .
in d ic ate
t h a t h a v e b e e n made on t h i s
o u tset i t
so m e c o n f u s i o n ,
or,
at
re la tiv e
effectiv en ess
lea rn in g
process.
d ifferen c e
sh all
th at
Some s p e e c h t e a c h e r s , l i k e
two s e n s e s *
be show n d i r e c t l y .
feel
th ere
of o p in io n ,
of a u d ito r y and v is u a l
C . M. W i s e , * 1' a n d E l w o o d M u r r a y ,
do m inant o f th e
w h a t som e o f t h e
them .
s h o u l d b e m ad e c l e a r
lea st,
In th is
problem a r e and w here
a d d i t i o n a l d a t a may b e s e c u r e d c o n c e r n i n g
At the
th at
cases,
e x ists
as to
stim u li
in th e
th e
v isu al
how ever,
is
t h e M ore
view , a s
th ere
is
1 G i l e s W il k e s o n G ra y an d C la u d e M e rto n W is e , The
B a s e s o f S p e e c h (New Y o r k : ; H a r p e r a n d B r o t h e r s , 1 9 3 4 ) , p .
320.
J.
th e
G. W. G r a y a n d
O th ers h o ld an o p p o site
In a ll
and
^ E l w o o d M u r r a y , The S p e e c h P e r s o n a l i t y
B. L ip p in c o tt^ C o m p a n y , 1 9 3 7 ), p . 157.
(New Y o r k :
agree-
168
m ent t h a t i n
e ffectiv e
ch aracteristics
com m unication t h e
v is u a l and a u d ito r y
m ust be w e ll sy n c h ro n iz e d *
The W h it e H o u s e C o n f e r e n c e o n C h i l d H e a l t h a n d P r o t e c t ­
i o n o f 1930 e s t i m a t e d
“th ere are
48 d e a f f o r
H arvey F l e t c h e r
the
on th e b a s is
of census re p o rts
each 100,000*
e stim ated th a t,
E* P* F o w l e r a n d ^
“ 14 p e r
c e n t i s n o t f a r from
p ercen tag e of p u p iIs-h a v in g a h e arin g d e fe c t* ”
v isu al d if f ic u ltie s
of the
form
E* A . T a y l o r s t a t e s
sc h o o l p o p u la tio n com plains o f
* .
th at,
R egarding
“A lm ost h a l f
eye d i s c o m f o r t i n
d ata i t
w o u ld seem t h a t
num ber o f p e o p le w ith v i s u a l d i f f i c u l t i e s
d iffic u ltie s*
clear*
aLg r e a t e r
W h at t h e
im p licatio n s
They m ig h t i n d i c a t e
stra in
co n seq u e n tly
th ere
some
is
d ata a re
is
is not
th at our c iv iliz a tio n
on th e o r g a n s o f v i s i o n t h a n on th o s e
t h e more f u l l y
is
the
developed f u n c tio n
tru e
th en i t
w ould be n e c e s s a r y
p u ts
of
o l d e r and
from th e
s ta n d p o in t o f t h e b i o l o g i c a l developm ent o f th e
later
a larg er
th an w ith h e a rin g
of such
h e a r i n g a n d t h e y m ig h t mean t h a t h e a r i n g
th is
4
• ”5
From t h e s e
q u ite
th at,
to
race*
If
conclude
3 W hite H ouse C o n f e re n c e on C h i l d H e a l t h and P r o ­
t e c t i o n , uS £ e c i ^ M u c a j t i o n , R e p o r t o f t h e C o m m i t t e e o n S p e c i a l
C l a s s e s , (New Y o r k : D . A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y C o * , I n c * , 1 9 3 1 } *
See
t h e c h a p t e r o n “ T he C h i l d D e f e c t i v e i n S p e e c h * 11
4 E* P . F o w l e r a n d H a r v e y F l e t c h e r , “ T h r e e M i l l i o n
D eafened School C h ild r e n , T h e ir D e te c tio n and T r e a tm e n t,“ J o u r n a l
o f t h e A m e r i c a n M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , JLXXXVII ( 1 9 2 6 ) , 1 8 7 7 *
® E a r l A. T a y l o r , C o n t r o l l e d R e a d i n g , ( C h i c a g o :
U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 3 7 ) , p* 3 2 3 *
169
th a t,
at
l e a s t up t o now, t h e
e r b io lo g ic a l v alu e
lead to
th e
sense
of h earin g h as been a g r e a t­
of v is io n .
T his m ig h t
c o n c l u s i o n t h a t m o t i v a t i o n by a u d i t o r y m eans
w ould be l i k e l y
v isu al
th a n the
sense
t o b e more e f f e c t i v e
th an i f
p r o d u c e d by
stim u li.
E x p e r i e n c e w i t h g r o w in g c h i l d r e n w o uld seem t o i n ­
d ica te
th at
au d ito ry a c u ity
c h ild ren are
pro v id ed w ith
ten d s to
ra ttle s
c o n te n tm e n t long b e fo r e th e y a r e
them am used*
develop f i r s t .
a s a means o f p r o d u c in g
g iv en p ic tu re
A ll norm al c h ild r e n
th is
books to
speak and resp o n d to
co m m an d s l o n g b e f o r e t h e y w r i t e o r l e a r n
a d u lts
L ittle
to
same c o n d i t i o n m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f
read*
in
keep
oral
Even among
th at
t h e w hole
o f o u r p o p u l a t i o n e q u i p p e d w i t h n o r m a l h e a r i n g do s p e a k w i t h a
fa ir
degree o f a b i l i t y ,
w h e re a s g r e a t num bers o f
c a n n o t r e a d a n d so m e c a n n o t e v e n w r i t e *
on l i t e r a c y
are
m easuring re s p o n s e s
i n a much l a r g e r
W hatever th e
is
su rely
sense th an th ey
ex p lan atio n fo r t h is
obvious
th a t refin em en ts
m o r e w i d e ] y rd e v e l o p e d
T h is seem s t o
learn ed
be
tru e
A ll our s t a t i s t i c s
to v i s u a l
are
our pop u latio n
stim u la tio n
to a u d ito ry
stim u la tio n *
c i r c u m s t a n c e may b e ,
of a u d ito ry
th an re fin e m e n ts
it
p ercep tio n are
of v is u a l p ercep tio n *
e v e n among t h e m o st i n t e l l i g e n t
s e c t i o n of o u r p o p u l a t i o n w here i t
seem s s a f e
and
to
a ssu m e i n v e s t i g a t i o n w ould d i s c l o s e a m ore w i d e s p r e a d a p ­
p r e c i a t i o n of m usic th a n o f
th e g rap h ic
a rts*
170
R e aliz a tio n
m u ch l a t e r
is
reached a t a
tim e th a n a u d i t o r y m a tu r ity h a s
l e d many i n ­
v estig a to rs
to
in g m a te r ia ls
th a t v isu a l m atu rity
q u e stio n the a d v is a b ility
in the
early
of the use of
elem en tary g rad es*
read­
D# A* P r e s c o t t
says:
We k n o w t h a t i t i s o f d o u b t f u l a d v i s ­
a b i l i t y to t r y to teach a c h ild to le a rn
to re a d u n t i l he h as th e m e n ta l, p h y s ic a l,
and s o c i a l m a t u r it y norm al to a c h i l d o f
s i x y e a r s a n d s i x m onths*
B asing h is
co n clu sio n s
on t h i s
ty p e
W ashburne s u g g e s t s
th a t th e
ferred
th e beg in n in g o f th e
to a t
least
l a r g e number o f f a i l u r e s
b e e n due to
In b rie f,
in
th e organism a t
the
early
ab le
to
The
of read in g in
the
cu rricu lu m *
s tim u li have been p re s e n te d to
a t im e when t h e o r g a n is m ! s v i s u a l m ech an ism
th at p ra c tic a l
in te rp r e t a u d ito ry
It
second grade*^
e l e m e n t a r y g r a d e s hass
h a s n o t reached a s u f f i c i e n t m a tu rity to
H e r e we s e e
C*
i n tr o d u c ti o n of re a d in g be de­
th e m is a llo e a tio n
com plex v i s u a l
of ev id en ce,
experience
stim u li
c o m p r e h e n d them*
show s t h e o r g a n i s m more
th an v is u a l stim u li*
s h o u l d be k e p t i n m ind, h o w e v e r,
th a t th e
v isu al
^ D a n i e l A l f r e d P r e s c o t t , c h a i r m a n , B rnotion and t h e
E d u c a t i v e P r o c e s s ( W a s h in g to n : A m e ric a n C o u n c i l on E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 3 8 ,
p* 2 3 0 *
S e e i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n R u t h S t r e i t z , "When S h o u l d
R e a d i n g E x p e r i e n c e B e g i n ? ” P r o g r e s s i v e E d u c a t i o n , X I I I (May,
1936), 325-332.
^ C. W a s h b u r n e , " R i p e n e s s , ” P r o g r e s s i v e E d u c a t i o n , X III.
( F e b r u a r y , 1 9 3 6 ), 127-128*
171
stim u li
of w hich m e n tio n i s
p recise
stim u li
tended th a t
th e
of w ritte n
th e re are
ific atio n *
n o t more g r o s s v i s u a l
so rts
respond*.
w ould f a l l
T hese, how ever,
so cial
in terco u rse
h eritag e
of our
p a st cu ltu res*
H aving se e n t h a t
c h ild ,
h earin g
th e
F a c ia l
in to
or for
the h e arin g
th e
is
c o n n ec tio n can,
In
w hich
ex p ressio n s
th is
latte r
c la ss­
e ith er for
f u n c ti o n s m ature so o n e r
r e v i e w o f som e o f
th erefo re,
to
tra n sm issio n of th e
c o n c l u s i o n m ost l o g i c a l
A b rief
n o t con­
stim u li
to draw i s
w o u l d b e t h e m o r e a c u t e a n d m o r e *e f f e c t i v e
tw o s e n s e s *
is
very re fin e d
are not s u f f ic ie n t
a d eq u ate
in th e
the
com m unication and i t
organism h a s le a rn e d to
and g e s tu r e s of a l l
m ade h e r e a r e
th e fin d in g s
th at
of the
in th is
be w e l l c o n s i d e r e d a t t h i s
tim e*
1 9 0 2 , H. J .
P e a rc e observed th a t," a u d ito ry su g g e stio n
e>
s tro n g e r th an v isu a l*
I n 1908 F . K uhlm ann p o i n t e d o u t
t h a t v i s i o n was
m ore e f f e c t i v e w i t h n o n s e n s e m a t e r i a l s
h e a r in g w ith m ean in g fu l m a te r ia ls *
and
He s t a t e d :
V isu a l p r e s e n t a ti o n of m ean in g less
v e r b a l m a t e r i a l i s alw ays b e t t e r t h a n a u d i t o r y
p resen ta tio n *
But a u d ito r y p r e s e n ta tio n o f
m ean in g fu l v e rb a l m a te r ia l i s b e t t e r th a n
v is u a l w ith * * * * *
school .c h ild re n *
^ H a y w o o d J , P e a r c e , “ E x p e r i m e n t a l O b s e r v a t i o n s Upo n
N orm al M o to r S u g g e s t i b i l i t y , w P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e v ie w , IX ( J u l y ,
1902), 329-356.
9
F . K u h l m a n n , “ T h e P r e s e n t S t a t u s o f Memory I n v e s ­
t i g a t i o n , " P s y c h o lo g ic a l B u l l e t i n . V (Septem ber 15, 190 8),
285-293.
i7 a
J.
C* B e l l
in th e
same y e a r f o u n d t h a t :
♦ * • we may c o n c l u d e t h a t * • • t h e
a u d i t o r y s u g g e s t i o n i s m ore e f f e c t i v e t h a n
th e v is u a l • . • 0
E v e n more c o n c l u s i v e
Hentnon i n a r e s u l t
of h is
a re th e
f i n d i n g s o f V* A* C*
in v e stig a tio n s
in
1912*
He h e l d
th a t:
A u d ito ry p re s e n ta tio n i s c le a r ly su p er­
i o r to v i s u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n i n im m ediate
m em or y o f a d u l t s *
T his s u p e r i o r i t y o f
a u d ito ry over v is u a l p re s e n ta tio n h o ld s fo r
a l l m a te r ia ls (nouns, n o n s e n s e -s y lla b le s ,
num bers), f o r a l l s u b je c ts i r r e s p e c t i v e of
i m a g e t y p e , a n d f o r o n e , tw o a n d t h r e e p r e ­
s e n t a t i o n s * 11
I n 1925 t h e r e l a t i v e
v isu a l p resen ta tio n s
e ffectiv en ess
rela tiv e
of au d ito ry
and
t o m em o ry w a s e x a m i n e d b y
D. A. W o r c e s t e r who c o n c l u d e d t h a t :
I n g e n e r a l , i t w ould a p p e a r t h a t t h e r e
i s an i n t r i n s i c s u p e r i o r it y f o r r e t e n t i o n
i n t h e a u d i t o r y m ethod o f p r e s e n t a t i o n * ^
The same y e a r t h e
s a m e c o n c l u s i o n was r e a c h e d b y tw o
10 C a r l e t o n J * B e l l , " T h e E f f e c t o f S u g g e s t i o n U po n
t h e R e p r o d u c tio n o f . T r i a n g l e s and of P o i n t D i s t a n c e s , ”
A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y , XIX ( O c t o b e r , 1 9 0 8 ) , 5 0 4 - 5 1 8 *
H V* A* C* H e n m o n , 11.The R e l a t i o n b e t w e e n Mode o f
p r e s e n t a t i o n a n d R e t e n t i o n , " P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e v i e w , XIX
(M arch, 1 9 1 2 ), 88-94*
12 d . A. W o r c e s t e r , "Memory b y V i s u a l a n d A u d i t o r y
P r e s e n t a t i o n , ” J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , XVI ( J a n u a r y ,
1925), 18-27.
173
o th er
i n v e s t i a g o r s , H . E . B u r t t a n d M i s s E . M. D o b e l l .
R egarding th e
lea rn in g
process,
H e len Reed i n
13
1931 s t a t e d :
. . .
in a co m p arisio n of th e le a r n in g
s c o r e s u n d e r two c o n d i t i o n s • • . • t h e
a u d i t o r y m ethod i s shown t o be d e c i d e d l y
t h e b e t t e r . 14
L ik ew ise,
G. W. H a r t m a n n i n
1 9 3 2 ,^
H . N. D e W ic k i n
c am e t o
very
sim ilar
1 9 3 3 ,^
1 9 3 1 ,^
M. E . G r a n t i n
a n d F . N. S t a n t o n i n
1 9 3 4 1®
co n clu sio n s.
Among t h e m o s t e x t e n s i v e
of a l l
in v estig atio n s
on
t h e s e p ro b le m s a r e t h o s e r e p o r t e d by H a d le y C a n t r i l and G orden
A l l p o r t 1^ a t H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y a n d p r e s e n t e d i n t h e b o o k , The
^ H . E . B u r t t a n d E . M. D o b e l l , 11 T h e C u r v e o f F o r ­
g e t t i n g f o r A d v e r tis in g M a t e r i a l , ” J o u rn a l of A pplied P sy ­
c h o l o g y , IX ( M a r c h , 1 9 2 5 ) , 5 - 2 1 .
14
H e l e n J . R eed, “The I n f l u e n c e o f a Change o f
C o n d i t i o n s U p o n t h e A m o u n t R e c a l l e d , 11 J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l
P s y c h o l o g y , XIV ( D e c e m b e r , 1 9 3 1 ) , 6 3 2 - 6 4 9 .
15 G e o r g e W. H a r t m a n n , “ The R e l a t i v e I n f l u e n c e o f V i s u a l
and A u d ito ry F a c to r s i n S p e l li n g A b i l i t y , ” J o u r n a l of E d u c a tio n ­
a l P s y c h o l o g y , XXII (D e c e m b e r, 1 9 3 1 ) , 6 9 1 - 6 9 9 .
16
M a r i o n E . G r a n t , “ Some T h e o r i e s a n d E x p e r i m e n t s i n
t h e F i e l d o f M em ory,” J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , X X III
(S eptem ber, 1 9 3 2 ), 511-527.
^ H e n r y N. D eW ick, “ The R e l a t i v e R e c a l l E f f e c t i v e n e s s
of V is u a l and A u d ito ry P r e s e n t a t i o n of A d v e r tis in g M a t e r i a l , ”
J o u r n a 1 o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y , XIX ( J u n e , 1 9 3 5 ) , 2 4 5 - 2 6 4 .
F r a n k N . S t a n t o n , “ Memory f o r A d v e r t i s i n g Copy
P r e s e n te d V is u a lly V s. O r a l l y , ” J o u rn a l of A pplied P sychology
X V III, (F e b ru a ry , 1934), 4 5 -6 4 .
^ H a d l e y C a n t r i l a n d G o r d e n W. A l l p o r t ,
o f R a d i o (New Y o r k : H a r p e r a n d B r o t h e r s , 1 9 3 5 ) .
The P s y c h o l o g y
174
P sychology o f R a d io ,
W ritin g
in th is
rep o rted sev eral
fin d in g s.
n ected m a te ria ls
p resen ted v is u a lly
book,
R egarding th e
M erton E. C a rv e r
r e c a ll of d isco n ­
and a u r a l l y he h e l d ,
in
p art;:
W ords,
V isu al p re s e n ta tio n is c o n s is ­
t e n t l y s u p e r i o r t o b o th form s o f • , • *
a u d i t o r y p r e s e n t a t i o n when d i f f i c u l t w ord
l i s t s are p resen ted .
On t h e o t h e r h a n d ,
b o th form s o f a u d it o r y p r e s e n t a t i o n a r e
m ore e f f e c t i v e ( t o a b o u t t h e same d e g r e e )
t h a n v i s u a l when l i s t s o f e a s y w ords a r e
g iv en .
S en ten ces,
R eg ard less of th e ty p e o f
s e n te n c e s p r e s e n t e d , a c c u ra c y i n im m ed iate
r e c a l l i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r f o r aud­
ito r y p re s e n ta tio n th an f o r v is u a l.
W hether t h e s e n t e n c e s w ere lo n g o r s h o r t ,
g e n e r a l o r s p e c i f i c , a p p e a r e d t o make
l i t t l e d ifferen ce
The a m o u n t o f v e r b i a g e i n d i c a t e d i n t h e
t a b l e i s t h e r e l a t i o n o f t h e number o f
w o rd s u s e d by t h e s u b j e c t s i n r e p r o d u c i n g
t h e s e n t e n c e s to t h e number o f w ords
a c tu a lly c o n ta in e d in th e se n te n c e s .
It
is apparent th a t th ere is a d is tin c t te n ­
d en cy t o u s e more w ords f o l l o w i n g a n a u r a l
th an a v is u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n # ^
S p ecial n o tic e
" .
•
• th ere
is
s h o u ld be ta k e n o f
a d istin c t
th e
statem en t*
t e n d e n c y t o u s e m ore w ords f o l l o w ­
i n g a n a u r a l t h a n a v i s u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n . '*
If
w ould i t
aural
n o t seem l o g i c a l
to
conclude t h a t
th is
is
th e case
situ atio n s
20 M e r to n E , C a r v e r , " L i s t e n i n g V e r s u s R e a d i n g , ”
C h a p te r X of C a n t r i l and A l l p o r t t op. c i t , , p . 165,
175
w ould be m ost d e s i r a b l e
fa c ility
w ith
l o s t by t h i s
whenever th e
la n g u a g e sym bols?
aim was t o
in crease
C e rta in ly n o th in g
process*
Some o f C a r v e r * s o t h e r f i n d i n g s
are
R egarding ex p erim en ts
rec o g n itio n
p re se n te d to
c o u ld be
the
in v o lv in g
of in te re s t*
of m a te ria l
eye a n d e a r he n o t e s :
E x p e r i m e n t e r s se e m t o a g r e e t h a t m a t e r i a l
o n c e h e a r d i s o r d i n a r i l y r e c o g n i z e d more
s w i f t l y and a c c u r a te ly th a n m a te r ia l once s e e n .
T h is f i n d in g s q u a re s w ith everyd ay experience*.
We may o f t e n r e - r e a d p a g e s o f p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l
w ith o u t a c l e a r sen se of r e c o g n itio n , w hereas
we u s u a l l y h a v e a n u n m i s t a k a b l e f e e l i n g o f
f a m i l i a r i t y when a c o ra m u n ic a tio n i s h e a r d
tw ice. 1
Not a l l
of m a te ria l.
h is
fin d in g s
In th e
fa v o r the a u d ito r y p r e s e n t a ti o n
c ase of long
in v o lv ed sen ten ces he
fo u n d c o m p r e h e n s io n b e t t e r on v i s u a l t h a n on a u d i t o r y p r e s e n 22
tatio n .
P o e t r y , s t r a n g e l y enough, he found to f a v o r n e i t h e r
m ethod o f p r e s e n t a t i o n .
how ever,
23
S h o r t p r o s e p a s s a g e s a n d j o k e s w ere
OA
preferred
when p r e s e n t e d a u r a l l y ♦ ^
N a tu ra lly fa l l
only a p a r t of t h a t
I b i d .", p p .
th e
e v id e n c e h a s n o t been ex am in ed and
exam ined h a s b e e n p r e s e n t e d h e r e ,
65-169.
22 I b i d . . p p .
171-172.
23 I b i d . ,
173.
.p.
24 I b i d . , p p .
173-174..
b u t from
176
th is
sam p lin g i t
v estig a to rs
th at
a ll
a u d ito ry
is
of
th at
o v e r th e c o u n try a re
stim u li
in c e rta in v ita l
te re stin g
s u r e l y obvious
rep o rts
com ing t o
a r e more e f f e c t i v e
phases of the le a rn in g
by e d u c a t o r s
a g r e a t body o f i n ­
th e b e lie f
th an v is u a l
process#
Some i n ­
s h o w w h a t so m e i m p l i c a t i o n s ,
such a c o n c lu sio n a re f o r ed u catio n #
Guy L ; B o nd h a s p o i n t e d o u t t h a t d e f i c i e n c i e s
ing
stim u li
seem t o h a v e a d e f i n i t e
silen t
readers
reading#
effect
in h e ar­
even on such a p r o c e s s a s
He c o m p a r e d m a t c h e d g r o u p s o f g o o d a n d p o o r
in a u d ito ry and speech c h a r a c te r is tic s
and co n clu d ed
th a t:
1# A s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e
was fo u n d i n a u d i t o r y d i s c r i m i n a t i o n f a v o r ­
in g th e good r e a d e r s #
2# A s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e
was f o u n d i n a u d i t o r y d i s c r i m i n a t i o n f a v o r ­
i n g t h e good r e a d e r s on t h e b l e n d i n g t e s t #
3# No s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e
was f o u n d i n s p e e c h d e f e c t s .
4#
W here a p h o n e t i c m e t h o d o f t e a c h i n g r e a d ­
ing p redo m inated, s i x t y th r e e p e r c e n t of
the poor re a d e rs had a d e f i n i t e lo s s i n aud­
ito r y a c u ity w h ile only fo u r p e r cen t of th e
good r e a d e r s h ad a s i m i l a r l o s s # ^
^ Guy L# B o n d , "A S t u d y o f A u d i t o r y a n d S p e e c h
C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f P o o r R e a d e r s , 11 ( u n p u b l i s h e d D o c t o r ^
d i s s e r t a t i o n , New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 3 5 ) #
C ited
i n C* C# C e r t a i n , e d i t o r , R e a d i n g D i s a b i l i t i e s a n d T h e i r
C o r r e c t i o n s , T h i r d A n n u a l R e s e a r c h B u l l e t i n , The N a t i o n a l
C o n fe re n c e on R e s e a r c h I n E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l E n g l i s h , ( n # p # :
J u n e , 1 9 3 5 ) , p # 3#
177
Such e v id e n c e
the
fact
th at
b e m ore l i k e l y
is
am azin g and m ig h t be e x p l a i n e d by
p e rso n s w ith g r e a t e r a u d ito r y
in v estig atio n .
so m e c a s e s ,
at
reflect
w ould
to have d ev elo p ed a l a r g e r v o c a b u la ry by th e
tim e o f th e
in d ic ativ e
se n sitiv ity
lea st,
A nother p o s s i b i l i t y
d e fic ie n cie s
is
th at,
in
i n h e a r i n g m ight be m e re ly
o f a g e n e r a l l y r e t a r d e d m a t u r a t i o n w h ich w ould
itse lf
in
th e
fin d in g s
of
th is
On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e f i n d i n g s
in v e stig a tio n .
p r e s e n t e d b y E . A.
T a y lo r i n C o n t r o l l e d R ead in g w ould i n d i c a t e
d e f i c i e n c i e s h a v e no m arked e f f e c t
th a t v isu al
on r e a d i n g a b i l i t y .
He
sta te s:
I n t e r m s o f t h e t e s t s i s s u e d t h e r e seem s
to be l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p b etw een v i s u a l
a c u i t y as a n . i s o l a t e d f a c t o r , and r e a d in g
e f f i c i ency.
In co n sid erin g
t h a t m ore p e o p l e
in g
are
th ese
eye i t s e l f
to c o r r e c t d e f ic ie n c ie s
th an th e
be any e v id e n c e
a c u ity h as any e f f e c t
a n d much l o g i c , t o
it
m u s t b e k e p t i n m ind
eq uipped w ith v i s u a l
a i d s and t h a t t h e
d o e s n o t seem t o
fin d in g s,
is
more c a p a b l e o f a d j u s t i n g
ear..
to
on s p e a k i n g ,
s u p p o r t th e view
aid s th an w ith h e a r­
At any r a t e ,
sh ow t h a t
but
th at
lo ss
th ere is
t h e w ords o f
^
T ay lo r,
T aylor:
op>. c i t . , p .
183.
of v isu al
some e v i d e n c e ,
lo ss of au d ito ry
a c u i t y h a s a d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t on re a d in g a b i l i t y .
In
th ere
178
* . . o u r w hole e d u c a t i o n a l schem e d e ­
pends p rim a rily upon th e fu n c tio n of v i s ion*^»
T h is
as early
situ atio n
as
p e rsists
in s p ite
1 9 0 2 , show ing a s u p e r i o r i t y
v isu a l stim u li*
The d a t a i n t h i s
of
e v id e n c e ,d a tin g
of au d ito ry
over
c o n n e c tio n concerns, n o t
o n ly c h i l d r e n , -b u t a d u l t s ,a n d h a s trem enduous im p lic a tio n s ,
n o t only fo r
v e rtisers*
th e
e d u c a to rs,b u t a lso
On e v e r y h a n d o n e i s
ed u ca to rs a re
se n te d to
fin d in g
th e stu d e n ts
of fo rg etfu ln ess
e d u cated *
The f a l l a c y
Beyond t h i s
tec h n ic ian s r e s ts
of facto rs*
too
w e l l to exam ine o u r
stim u li
of th e p u p ils
perhaps,
Supra,
p . 133.
be
of lab o rato ry
l a b o r a t o r y m any v a r i a b l e s
i f any com plete p i c t u r e
p. 323.
to
m ore i m p o r t a n t g r o u p
in life *
su rro u n d in g s w ith re g a rd
Ib id . .
tim e,
tim e - s a v in g argum ent h a s a l -
a re n o t e lim in a te d
be had*
tak es
th at
d a ta has been p re ­
ta k e n from th e r e p o r t
a n o th e r and,
th at
it
fact
an age and in a s p i r i t
s o c ia l n a tu re
of th e
pg
d a ta
e arly
by t h e
th at
th at v isu al
In th e p s y c h o lo g is ts
elim in ated
au d ito ry
at
of th e
ready been co n sid ered *
to
stru ck
o n l y c h a r g e a g a i n s t o r a l work i s
w h ile
are
f o r b u s i n e s s men a n d a d ­
It
seem s
t o v i s u a l and
o fth e problem
is
179
The p r o b l e m s a n d i s s u e s
of the
c o n tro v e rsies
oyer
h e r e d i t y an d e n v iro n m e n t w i l l n o t be c o n s i d e r e d h e r e .
im p o rtan ce of h e r e d ity
fo llo w
its
co n cern in g
im portance.
v ironm ent i s
the
is
g r a n te d and th e
rem arks w hich
en v iro n m en t a r e n o t in te n d e d to
It
is
assum ed t h a t ,
of the
b e little
two f a c t o r s ,
t h e m ore c h a n g e a b le and s h o u ld t h e r e f o r e
o b j e c t o f m ore c o n t i n u o u s a t t e n t i o n
T he
en­
be
by c u r r i c u l u m m a k e rs,
than h e re d ity .
K im b a ll Young h a s s t a t e d
v iro n m e n ta l
c o n d itio n in g
th e
im portance of t h i s
in h is S o c ia l P sychology.
ten d s :
In our p sy ch o lo g ical a n a ly s is of s o c ia l
b e h a v i o r we s h a l l s e e a g a i n a n d a g a i n t h a t
no o n e - d im e n s io n a l, p a r t i c u l a r i s t i c ex­
p lan a tio n is s u f f ic ie n t.
In tr a c in g the
developm ent o f th e b i o l o g i c a l organism i n to
a m o r e o r l e s s s o c i a l i z e d p e r s o n a l i t y , we
m ust a t a l l tim e s ta k e i n t o a c c o u n t b o th
h e r e d i t a r y and e n v ir o n m e n ta l f a c t o r s ; and
t h e . l a t t e r , a s we n o t e d , m u s t i n c l u d e n o t
only o th e r p e rso n s or s o c ia l e x p e rie n c e ,
but th o se p r e c ip ita te s of s o c ia l liv in g t o g e t h e r i n t h e p a s t w h i c h we d e n o t e a s
c u ltu re .
Much o f t h e a r g u m e n t o v e r i n ­
t e l l i g e n c e m easu rem en t, o v e r r a c i a l d i f ­
fe re n c e s , over th e e f f e c tiv e n e s s o f ed­
u c a t i o n i n c h a n g i n g human n a t u r e , w o u ld
d is a p p e a r i f the p a r t i c i p a n t s in th e de­
b a t e w e re o n l y m ore c o n s c i o u s o f t h e tw o­
fo ld r a th e r th a n the o n e -s id e d n a tu re of
th e f a c t o r s w hich p ro d u ce v a r i a t i o n s .
A p p aren tly h e r e d ita r y in flu e n c e s put de­
f i n i t e lim its upon th e i n t e l l e c t u a l de­
v elo p m en t and th e h a b it - f o r m i n g c a p a c i ty
o f m o s t o f u s , b u t w h a t we d o i n o u r
w orld o f s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n depends
en­
He c o n ­
also
If
effect
is
to
co n d itio n in g *
be a c c e p t e d ,
of th e
seem l i k e l y
it
fu n c tio n in g of th e
becomes i m p o r t a n t t o
to
occur in th e n e a r
m u n ic a tio n sy stem s i n
of
speech^
in d iv id u a l,
c o n s id e r th e
p r e s e n t en v iro n m en t t o g e t h e r w ith
G ray an d W ise h a v e n o t e d
fican ce
29
t h e p o s i t i o n o f Young r e g a r d i n g t h e m o d if y in g
o f e n v iro n m e n t on th e
n a tu re
as
upon en v iro n m en tal
such changes
fu tu re*
t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f o u r com­
c o n n e c tio n w ith
th e p re s e n t day s i g n i ­
They sa y ::
The d e v e l o p m e n t o f o u r v a s t n e t w o r k of
com m u n icatio n sy ste m s h a s b e e n , f o r th e
m ost p a r t , i n th e d i r e c t i o n of p e r f e c t i n g
m eans o f t r a n s m i t t i n g s p e e c h , t h e human
v o i c e , a n d w i t h i t , s i n c e t h e same s y s t e m
w ill tr a n s m it b o th w ith eq u al e f f i c ie n c y ,
m usic#
O u r t e l e p h o n e s y s t e m , by w h i c h o n e
m ay s p e a k t o p e r s o n s t h o u s a n d s o f m i l e s
aw ay, i s an o u t s t a n d i n g exam ple*
One i s
w ith in reach of n in ety -tw o p e r cen t of
t h e w o r l d * s t e l e p h o n e s f r o m h i s own i n s t r u ­
m ent*
The r a d i o , t h r o u g h w h i c h o n e m an
s p e a k s t o o n e - f o u r t h o r m ore o f t h e p o p u l a ­
t i o n o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d t o a g r e a t num­
b e r of p eo p le i n f o r e ig n c o u n tr i e s , h a s e n o r­
m ously b ro a d e n e d th e scope of s o c i a l c o n t r o l
t h r o u g h s p e e c h #'50
The d e v e l o p m e n t o f r a d i o ,
p ic tu re s has re a lly
b een phenom enal.
W o rld A lm an a c show t h a t
3 9 ,2 4 5 ,0 6 9 ; te le p h o n e s
C ro fts
telep h o n e,
in
on J a n u a r y
1,
and t a l k i n g
S ta tistic s
f r o m The
1938, t h e r e w ere
th e w o rld o f w hich 1 9 ,4 5 3 ,4 0 1 w ere
K im ball Young, S o c ia l P s y c h o lo g y
a n d C o m p a n y , 1 9 3 0 ) , p . 40 *
(New Y o r k :
F. S.
181
in th e U n ited S ta te s *
v io u s
record y ear of
d istan ce
th e
31
T h is was a n i n c r e a s e
1931*
co n v ersa tio n s
As r a t e s
the
g lo b e,a n ever
to
come i n t o u s e .
H ere i s
a re re d u c e d on long
and t r a n s o c e a n ic m essag es,
te le p h o n e n etw o rk s p e n e tr a te
of
over th e p re ­
in to
and as
th e m ost rem ote re a c h e s
l a r g e r n u m b e r o f p h o n e s may b e e x p e c t e d
a p u r e l y a u d i t o r y m echanism w hich i s
alm o st
h o u r l y b e c o m in g m ore a n d more i n d i s p e n s a b l e t o m o d ern l i f e .
Is
it
n o t l o g i c a l to
phone w ill
ten d to
assum e t h a t p e r s i s t e n t u s e of th e
d evelop a u d ito r y a c u ity
tele ­
in in d iv id u a ls?
K r o e b e r h a s m e n t i o n e d i n a som ewhat a n a l a g o u s c o n n e c t i o n
•zP
t h a t a u d i t o r y a c u i t y i s l a r g e l y a m a t t e r o f t r a i n i n g . ^ He
c ites
th e
case of th e
was a t t r a c t e d
by t h e
woodsman on a c ro w d e d c i t y
ch irp in g
w hich w e n t u n h e a r d by t h e
a ll
stopped a t
n o ticed
the
of a c r i c k e t i n a s to r e
fo lk s,
w hile th e c ity
c e lla r
d w e lle rs
t h e so u n d o f a d ro p p e d c o i n w hich w e n t u n ­
by t h e w oodsm an.
phone i s h e re
train in g
c ity
s t r e e t who
for i t s
to
seem s t o
s ta y ,th u s p ro v id in g
users.
to an in c re a s e d a u d ito ry
E.
a n d Book o f F a c t s f o r
1 9 4 0 7 7 ”p* 5 4 4 .
A ll sig n s
in d ic ate
co n sid era b le
Such a c ir c u m s ta n c e
th at
ear
should c o n tr ib u te
a cu ity .
E a s t m a n I r v i n e , e d i t o r , The W o r l d A l m a n a c a n d
1 9 4 0 (New Y o r k : New Y o r k W o r l d - T e l e g r a m .
^ A. L . K r o e b e r , A n t h r o p o l o g y
B r a c e a n d Company, 1 9 2 3 ) , p . 7 5 .
(New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t ,
182;
The o p p o r t u n i t i e s
are not
lim ite d
to
the
for
sin g le
ever.
The W o r l d A l m a n a c a l s o
of
fam ilie s
a ll
d e v ic e of th e
shows t h a t
eig h ty -tw o
one f o r
T h is was an i n c r e a s e
The t o t a l n u m b e r o f s e t s
co n su m p tio n began i n
of seven teen per
1938#
recent
th at
re g u la r b ro ad casts
1920 a n d t h a t
hapsi t
is
in i t s
to be
made t o
d e te rm in e what i t s
d ito ry
a cu ity ,
but i t
se n sitiv ity .
was 4 0 , 8 0 0 ,
c e n t over 1936.
th is
e n tire
e x p re s s io n h a s developed w ith in th e p a s t
be p o s s i b l e , i t
per cent
every t h ir d p e rso n in th e p o p u la tio n .
a f a c t w e l l known t o a l l
au d ito ry
in
how-
o f t h a t y e a r t h e r e w ere 2 7 ,5 0 0 ,0 0 0 f a m i l i e s
w ith r a d io . equipm ent*
too
a cu ity
telep h o n e,
in th e U nited S ta te s had ra d io s
On J a n u a r y f i r s t
00 0 , o r alm o st
developm ent o f a u d i t o r y
is
It
rz ' z
^
is
fo r p u b lic
medium o f
tw en ty y e a r s .
P er­
d ev elo p m en t f o r any m easu rem en ts
h ard ly
e f f e c t h a s b een on o u r a u ­
lik e ly
th at
i t has reduced
W h i l e e x a c t m e a s u r e m e n t may n e v e r
c a n be c o n f i d e n t l y a ssu m e d t h a t t h e human
h e a r i n g m ech an ism c a n n o t r e m a in u n a f f e c t e d by t h i s a l t e r ­
a tio n
in i t s
en v iro n m en t.
C a n t r i l and A l l p o r t p r e s e n t an i n t e r e s t i n g
o f the
e ffe c t of rad io
on p r e s e n t - d a y
liv in g .
c o n sid eratio n
They s a y :
The e a s e o f t u n i n g i n , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e
lack of o b lig a tio n to l i s t e n , has c re a te d a
new t y p e o f a u d i t o r y b a c k g r o u n d f o r l i f e
w i t h i n th e home.
The h o u s e w i f e p e r f o r m s h e r
h o u s e h o ld d u t i e s to t h e accom panim ent o f
m u sic , a d v ic e and a d v e r t i s i n g : i n th e a f t e r n o o n
g . E astm an I r v i n e ,
op.
c i t . , p.
284.
183
s h e may s e w , r e a d o r p l a y b r i d g e w i t h
t h e same b a c k g r o u n d o f s o u n d ; i n t h e
ev en in g , i f she i s n o t e x h a u ste d , th e
r a d i o may p r o v i d e a s e t t i n g a g a i n s t w h i c h
d in n e r i s s e rv e d and g u e s ts a r e e n t e r t a i n e d .
The s a m e a u d i t o r y g r o u n d may b e f o u n d i n r e ­
s t a u r a n t s , barbershops^,, s t o r e s , h o s p i t a l s ,
h o t e l s , p r is o n s , and d o rm ito rie s .
S tu d en ts
o f t e n p r e p a r e t h e i r a s s i g n m e n t s t o t h e m uted
tune o f a j a z z o r c h e s t r a .
The q u e s t i o n
n a t u r a l l y a r i s e s w hether such p e r s i s t e n t
u se of th e r a d io i s h a v in g an e f f e c t upon our
pow ers o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n , upon o u r h a b i t s o f
l i s t e n i n g , and upon o u r nerves#
R adio i s p ro b a b ly im p ro v in g t h e c a p a c i t y
o f t h e a v e r a g e man t o l i s t e n i n t e l l i g e n t l y t o
what he h e a rs#
In th e ex p erim en ts r e p o rte d
i n C h a p t e r IX i t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e c o l ­
leg e s t u d e n t, w ith h i s long t r a i n i n g i n l i s t e n ­
ing to l e c t u r e s , is f a r b e t t e r a b le th an th e
u n t r a i n e d l i s t e n e r to u n d e rs ta n d and to r e c a l l
what he h e a r s .
H is a d v a n ta g e , f u r t h e r m o r e , i s
d is c o v e re d to be g r e a t e r f o r a u d ito r y th a n f o r
v is u a l m ateria l#
I t appears, th e re fo re , th a t
• i n te l li g e n t l i s t e n i n g i s p a r e x c e lle n c e the
m ark o f t h e e d u c a te d m an.
A lthough th e r e i s
a p r e v a i li n g tendency to u se th e ra d io a s a
b a c k g r o u n d f o r o t h e r t a s k s , when t h e d i a l i s
t u r n e d t o a s p e c i f i c p r o g r a m a n d when a t t e n ­
t i o n i s d i r e c t e d f u l l y to i t s m essa g e, an
a u d ito ry tr a i n in g i s pro v id ed f o r m illio n s of
p e o p l e a n d i t s l o n g - r a n g e e f f e c t s m ay b e e x ­
ceed in g ly im p o rtan t.
For in c re a s in g the
w o r l d 's p o p u l a t i o n o f *good l i s t e n e r s '* r a d i o
d e se rv e s an e x tr a s t a r in i t s c r o w n .^
In a d d itio n to
in creasin g
th e
pow ers o f a u d i t o r y d i s ­
c r i m i n a t i o n , i t h a s b e e n d e m o n s tra te d t h a t m usic a s a b ack g ro u n d
is actu ally b e n eficial
in f a c ilita tin g
54 H ad ley C a n t r i l ,
2 5 ^2 6 .
c e r t a i n m anual h o u se h o ld
and G orden A l l p o r t ,
o p . c i t ♦, p p .
184
Not n e a r ly a s o p to ra is tic a b o u t th e c o n seq u e n ce s,
obvio u sly reco g n izin g the
.of a u d i t o r y
B eard,
stim u la tio n ,
but
p rese n c e o f an in c re a s e d amount
are
t h e r e m a r k s o f C h a r l e s a n d Mary
They o b s e r v e :
As t o t h e e f f e c t o f a l l t h i s u p r o a r
upon the m u ltitu d e o f l i s t e n e r s , e s tim a te s
w ere m ore d i f f i c u l t t o f o r m u l a t e t h a n i n
t h e c a s e o f t h e m oving p i c t u r e s , a n d t h e
b e s t o f c a l c u l a t i o n s r e m a in e d l i t t l e more
th an g u esses.
Amid a l l t h e d i n , h o w e v e r ,
one t h i n g c o u ld n o t be r e f u t e d : c o n te m p la ­
t i o n , m e d i t a t i o n , and q u i e t r e a d i n g w ere
m a d e i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t f o r m en a n d
women t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y # I f a
f a t h e r o r m o t h e r w i s h e d t o do a l i t t l e
th in k in g or to read a book, th e c h ild re n
m ight i n s i s t on h a v in g n o i s e .
C h ild ren
h a d , i t i s t r u e , alw ay s in d u lg e d i n
c l a t t e r o f t h e i r own m a k i n g , l i m i t e d s o m e ­
w h a t b y t h e i r p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h , b u t now
c an n e d ru m b le s , thum ps, and r a t t l e s p o u red
out of ra d io s e t s , u n re m ittin g ly and cea selessly .
Even a d u l t s , f o r m e r ly accu sto m ed to
r e a d i n s i l e n t room s, a c q u i r e d th e h a b i t o f
s i t t i n g w ith books open on t h e i r k n e e s , i f
open a t a l l , w h ile th e ra d io b la r e d o r
crooned i t s r i v a l a tt r a c t io n s #
A t home o r
a b ro a d , i n h o t e l s and s t r e e t s , a t b a rs and
on r a i l w a y t r a i n s , and i n t a x i c a b s , th e
e v e r l a s t i n g c a c o p h o n y w e n t o n d a y a.nd n i g h t .
I t was n o t s u r p r i s i n g , t h e n , t h a t Jam es
Row land A n g e l l , f o r m e r p r e s i d e n t o f Y a le
U n iv e r s ity , a f t e r s e rv in g as an a d v is e r to
a n a tio n a l b ro a d c a stin g concern, co n fessed
som ew hat d i s c o n s o l a t e l y t h a t e d u c a t i o n ,
e v e n i n t h e m o st d i l u t e d f o r m , was a k i n d
(P rin ceto n :
C. M. D i s e r e n s , T h e I n f l u e n c e o f M u s i c o n B e h a v i o r .
P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1926)#
185
36 r
of a w aif in the rad io
not in o rig in a l].
storm
Even t h i s
T elev isio n s ta tio n s
is
not a ll#
L italies
a re b ein g
d e v e l o p e d a n d o v e r e i g h t e e n a r e now i n r e g u l a r o p e r a t i o n .
T h i s d e v e l o p m e n t w i l l m ak e f u t u r e u s e o f r a d i o - t e l e v i s i o n
more c e r t a i n
vice
itse lf
and m ore w i d e s p r e a d .
adds a v is u a l
to developm ent of
th e
W hile th e
f a c t o r and w i l l
v isu al
fa c u ltie s
c o n ju n c tio n w ith a u d ito r y a s p e c ts w ith
o th er not
in f a c t,
co m p etin g w ith
m ost s a t i s f a c t o r y
As g r e a t a s
it
is
p lace
th e
am on g t h e
borhood t h e a t e r
Sunday, th e
the
is,
is
is p o ssib le
th ese
th ea te rs,
th a t th e
th ree
th at
th e
ag en c ie s.
o p eratin g ,
and w ith a s e a t i n g
rea liz ed
for f ir s t
sh a p in g man’ s en­
th e g r e a te s t of
sound f a c i l i t i e s ,
When i t
each su p p o rtin g
t a l k i n g m otion p i c t u r e
1939 t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s h a d 1 7 ,8 2 9
1 0 , 8 2 3 , 7 4 0 #37
so o n l y i n
of t h e t e l e p h o n e and r a d i o ,
As a c u l t u r a l f o r c e , i t
equ ip p ed w ith
of
in flu e n ce
is
does
sim ila rly
Such a c o m b in a tio n
co m m unicative a g e n c ie s
t a l k i n g m otion p i c t u r e
c o n trib u te
de­
fo r learn in g #
c l o s e l y p r e s s e d by t h e
v iro n m en t.
In
each o th e r .
it
telev isio n
cap acity
average n eig h ­
r u n s two sh o w s on week d a y s a n d a b o u t f i v e
tu rn -o v e r cap acity
on
reaches sta g g e rin g p ro p o rtio n s.
3 b C h a r l e s A . B e a r d a n d M a ry R . B e a r d , A m e r i c a I n
M i d p a s s a g e (New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n C o m p a n y , 1 9 3 9 ) , p p . 6 4 9 650#
37 £♦ E a s t m a n I r v i n e ,
a ll
op.
e x t.,
p.
287#
It
w ould be e a s i l y
c h ild
p o ssib le
in th e U n ited S ta te s
to
in
s e a t e v e r y man,
a th e a te r
woman a n d
for th e d u ra tio n of
a norm al d o u b le f e a t u r e program w i t h i n s i x d ay s and t h i s
w ith o u t h a v in g a s in g le
sch ed u le.
th e a te r d ev iate
The p o s s i b i l i t i e s
in h eren t in
from i t s
reg u lar
such an in d u s tr y
are u n p red ictab le.
W hile th e
m o tio n p i c t u r e
eye a l s o
it
th eir
th e
enable
the
th e
in flu en ce
of th e
i n a r o l e w hich i s
co n sid eratio n s.
T ogether th e s e
com­
tw o
a u d i e n c e t o m u ch m o r e t h a n m e r e l y d o u b l e
ap p reciatio n
of the p ic tu r e .
c o m b i n i n g o f two s e n s e s
resu lts
to
d o e s so once a g a i n
plem en tary to a c o u s tic
senses
reacts
g e o m e tric ally
I t m ig h t be s a i d
in a sin g le
p ro ce ss produces
ra th e r than a rith m e tic a lly .
t o G ra y a n d W ise s p e e c h i s
the
only a c t i v i t y
s e n s e s of v i s i o n and h e a r in g a re
th at
A ccording
i n w hich th e
c o m p letely fu se d .
They
rem ark:.
S p eech i s th e o n ly form o f com m unication
i n w h i c h t h e s e t w o s e n s e s may b e c o m p l e t e l y
c o m b i n e d a n d s y n c h r o n i z e d i n a u n i t y .^ 8
In the
t a l k i n g m otion p i c t u r e
dous f o r c e w hich h a s
e x is ts a n o th e r
great p o s s ib ilitie s
trem en­
f.or i n c r e a s i n g
au d ito ry a c u ity .
T here
fa m ilia r
to
is h ard ly
a ll,
any need to
but fo r the
l a b o r a p o i n t w hich i s
sake of co m p leten ess i t
seem s
so
187
w e ll to m ention t h a t th e
sale
phonographs h a s in c re a s e d
same i s
tru e
of
the
of records
sin ce
th e a d v e n t of radio#,
s a le o f m u sical
i n o r c a 3e th e number o f a u d i t o r y
In b u sin ess
d ictatin g
v isu al
l e t t e r s h a s alm ost
elem en ts
e lim in ate d
th e n e c e s s ity
suggest here
th a t courses
i n l i s t e n i n g w ould n o t be
te sts
for g irls
w ill
in te n d in g to
fo r th e
sten o g rap h ic
p o sitio n s
and em ployees#
to
cars
work*
Perhaps
of th e
on
fu tu re#
b u ild in g s a r e b e in g equ ip p ed in
p u b lic
address
w hich t e a c h e r s a n d e x e c u t i v e s h o p e
co u rtesy
m ig h t be
become p a r t o f p e r s o n n e l p r o c e d u r e
i n c r e a s i n g num bers w ith
stu d en ts
do o f f i c e
It
for
a p p lican ts#
S ch o o ls and p u b lic
ad v ice
i n our en v iro n m en t
sten o g rap h ic
a p p lica tio n s
has
These b o th
in
out of p lace
h earin g
in stru m en ts#
The
t h e u s e o f r e c o r d i n g m a c h i n e s by e x e c u t i v e s f o r
p ro p erties
w ell to
f o r h om e u s e w i t h
to rea ch th e e a r s
In D e tro it
eq u ip p ed w ith
fo rg e tfu l m o to rists
s y s t e m s by means o f
th e p o lic e
loud s p e a k e rs
an d ,d u rin g
of
d epartm ent
to d ole o u t
th e C hristm as ru sh
on dow ntow n s t r e e t s , l o u d s p e a k e r s a r e u s e d by o f f i c e r s
c au tio n p e d e stria n s about t r a f f i c
pockets*
E v en a i r p l a n e s h a v e b e e n known t o
co n g ested a re a s
m u ltitu d e
reg u latio n s
a n d hawk t h e m e r i t s
of
to
and p i c k ­
c irc le
about
some p r o d u c t t o
the
b e lo w by m eans o f p o w e r f u l l o u d s p e a k e r s #
So i t
can be s e e n t h a t
sound and sound d e v ic e s
c o m i n g e v e r m o r e common e l e m e n t s
in
o u r environm ent#
are be­
The
188
presence of th ese
through th e
c o m p a ra tiv e ly r e c e n t developm ents w i l l ,
com ing y e a r s ,
c ertain ly
c o n trib u te
c r e a s e d u s e o f o u r h e a r i n g m echanism s and
resu lt
are
to
in
th eir
If
our schools
prepare
in creased
in
d en ts
to u se ,
th ese
d ev ices fo r
use.
C o lleg es
p ictu re
should th e re fo re ,
a re to
be m ore l i f e
lik e ,
if
s t u d e n t s f o r more e f f i c i e n t s o c i a l
facto rs
b o th
are
the
our l i v e s .
risin g
but th is
is
ju st
stu ­
consum ers,
in tro d u cin g courses in rad io
It
fu n ctio n in g ,
The s c h o o l s m u s t t r a i n
sound t r a n s m i s s i o n w hich a r e
on an o ld s t r u c t u r e .
our schools
im p o rtan ce of th e
i n a p r o d u c t i v e way a n d a s
ap p re cia tio n ,
an in ­
e ffic ie n cy *
th e y m ust ta k e c o g n iz a n c e of
a u d ito ry
to
a ll
com ing i n t o
and m o tio n
.
t a c k i n g a new e l e m e n t
assum es t h a t sound i s
cap ab le
of
d ep artm en talizatio n .
S in c e sound h a s
life ,
so s o u n d t r a i n i n g
sim iltan eo u sly )
c u rric u lu m .
is
d a ily
On t h i s
a u d ito ry
in to
added th e
a ll
a ll
I t h a s b e e n sh o w n t h a t t h e r e
e f f ic ie n t fo r lea rn in g
is
in to
( u s i n g t h e w ord i n b o t h
m ust i n f u s e i t s e l f
s u p p o r t th e view t h a t
th is
in fu sed i t s e l f
is
phases
its
senses;
asp ects
of th e
ev id en ce to
t h e human a u d i t o r y m ech an ism i s
th an th e
v i s u a l m echanism ,
c o n sid era tio n th a t
fac u ltie s
d o e s n o t seem r a s h
are
lik e ly
to
more
and to
t h e human e n v ir o n m e n t
becom ing c h a r a c t e r i z e d hy a n i n c r e a s e d u s e
account i t
of
to
of sound.
p red ict th a t
the
m aintain or in c re a s e t h e i r
189
su p e rio rity
case,
over the v is u a l f a c u l t i e s .
e d u c a to r s m ust e x p lo r e
th e
f o r e d u c a t i o n i n t h e many o r a l
su g g ested .
C e rta in ly ,if
a d v ertisin g
it
is
Such b e in g th e
p o ssib ilitie s
in h eren t
t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s now b e i n g
so u n d i s m ore e f f e c t i v e
s h o u ld be i n
in
e d u c a t i o n w here " s a l e s
com m ercial
r e s i s t a n c e 11
n o t so g r e a t .
I n sum m ary, t h e
1.
of v isu al
2.
v isu al
too
3.
d a ta
M astery o f a u d ito r y
sym bolism p r e c e d e s m a s te r y
Many a u t h o r i t i e s ' a r e
in
(ie,
read in g )
tra d itio n a l
T here
in d ic atin g
i n m any a s p e c t s
4.
o b s e r v a t i o n s may b e i t e m i z e d :
sym bolism .
stim u li
early
fo llo w in g
is
of th e o p in io n th a t
are p resen ted
co n sid erab le
the
p sy ch o lo g ical
The n o r m a l e v e r y d a y
stim u li
5.
in d ic a te
v isu al
lab o rato ry
over v is u a l
stim u li
learn in g p ro ce ss.
env iro nm ent i s
m ore c ro w d e d w i t h a u d i t o r y s t i m u l i ,
v isu al
ch ild ren
sch o o ls.
a s u p e rio rity of a u d ito ry
of
to th e
com plex
(tak in g p ic tu re s;
A lthough th e
d ata
is
becom ing e v e r
o r w ith com bined a u d i t o r y -
telev isio n ).
v ery in co m p lete a l l
t h a t few er persons have a u d ito ry
d efects
sig n s
th an have
d efects.
6.
tro v erts
None o f t h e
th e
th esis
ev id en ce
th at
exam ined i n t h i s
th e m ost .e f f i c i e n t
t e c h n i q u e s w o u l d b e t h o s e w h i c h make t h e
speech tec h n iq u e s.
chapter con­
ed u catio n al
g r e a te s t use of
CHAPTER V I
SPEECH AND PERSONALITY
D uring the p a s t s e v e r a l y e a r s ,t h e
schools
o f A m erica
have in c re a s in g ly
c o n c e r n e d t h e m s e l v e s w i t h many e x t r a - c u r r i c ­
u lar a ctiv itie s*
C lubs,
a th le tic
co n te sts,
have been added to
school dances,
m u sicals,
and a h o s t
d ram atic p ro d u c tio n s,
of o th er a c t iv i t ie s
t h e p ro g ram o f m ost s c h o o ls *
T h ese were
a d d e d b e c a u s e o f a g r o w i n g f e e l i n g a m ong e d u c a t o r s
th at
th e
sc h o o ls needed to be concerned w ith th e
em otional and s o c i a l
life
in te lle c tu a l.
of th e
s tu d e n t as w e ll as w ith th e
U su ally
in
th ese
a c tiv itie s
are tru ly
t h a t th e y o f f e r no c r e d i t s and a r e
so -c alled
th ere
"c u rric u la r” su b jects.
seem s t o be a te n d e n c y t o
e x tra -c u rric u la r
su b o rd in ated
I n m an y p l a c e s ,
do a w a y w i t h t h e
to
how ever,
d istin c tio n
betw een c u r r i c u l a r and e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s *
th is
is
b ein g done, i t
tru e
o b je c t o f p u b lic ed u catio n *
p e rso n ality
in g
is
f e lt
t h a t t h e w hole c h i l d
but a so c ially
L arg ely re s p o n s ib le
e ffic ie n t
for th is
tren d
th r e w new l i g h t
tra its*
th at
develop
in ed u catio n has
c a s e s w hich h a d b e e n r e h a b i l i t a t e d
th e p s y c h ia tr is ts
th e
in d iv id u al.*
S tu d ies
e v id e n t to
is
school, n o t a w alk­
b e e n t h e m e n ta l h y g i e n e m ovem ent.
developm ent of p e r s o n a l i t y
Where
Such s c h o o l s aim t o
a n d t o m ake t h e p r o d u c t o f t h e
en cy clo p ed ia,
th e
of ex trem e.m en tal
on t h e
More a n d m ore i t
became
em o tio n al s t a b i l i t y
w as,
191
perhaps,
m ore i m p o r t a n t
ing s o c i a l
ad ju stm en t.
come f o r t h e
th an i n t e l l e c t u a l
In fa c t,
so cial
c ap a city
in
ach iev ­
ad ju stm en t h as be­
m en tal h y g i e n i s t th e m easure p e r s o n a l i t y .
t h e m , t h e m ost w holesom e p e r s o n a l i t y
is
th e
To
best s o c ia lly
ad­
ju s te d p e rso n ality *
T hroughout t h i s
p l a c e d on th e
alm o st
fact
ex clu siv ely
clo sely
made t o
has
em phasis h a s been
t h a t s o c ia l ad ju stm en t i s
through th e u se
u s a g e and p e r s o n a l i t y
q u ite
w o rk ,p a rtic u la r
rela te d .
of la n g u a g e .
to u c h e d on t h i s
d e v e l o p m e n t w o u l d se em , t h e r e f o r e , t o
In th is
c h a p te r an e f f o r t w i l l
To s o m e p e r s o n a l i t y
suasio n ;
to
be
w hich
ages th e c lo se
c o n n e c tio n b etw een
but in v ario u s
ways.
h as been c o n sid e re d as a to o l f o r p e r ­
o th e rs ,s p e e c h h as been c o n sid e re d as an index
p e rso n ality
d iso rd ers;
to
still
o th e rs ,s p e e c h and p erso n ­
have been c o n sid ere d as c a u s a lly
c o u n te rp arts of
of A risto tle
be
re la tio n sh ip .
sp e e c h and p e r s o n a l i t y h a s b een o b s e r v e d ,
a lity
Language
e x a m in e some o f t h e m ore r e c e n t l i t e r a t u r e
T hroughout th e
to
accom plished
th e
th e
same t h i n g .
first
In the
in te rrelate d
fo llo w in g
of th ese p o s itio n s
is
--
as
rem arks,
t a k e n * He s a y s :
Of t h e m odes o f p e r s u a s i o n f u r n i s h e d
by t h e s p o k e n w o rd t h e r e a r e t h r e e k i n d s *
The f i r s t k i n d d e p e n d s o n t h e p e r s o n a l
c h a r a c t e r o f t h e s p e a k e r ; t h e s e c o n d on
p u t t i n g th e a u d ie n c e i n t o a c e r t a i n fram e
o f m ind; th e t h i r d oh t h e p r o o f , o r a p ­
p a r e n t p r o o f , p r o v i d e d by t h e w o rd s o f
the speech i t s e l f *
P e rsu a sio n i s achieved
19E
by t h e s p e a k e r * s p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r when
t h e s p e e c h i s s o s p o k e n a s t o m ak e u s
t h i n k him c r e d i b l e .
We b e l i e v e g o o d men
m ore f u l l y a n d m ore r e a d i l y t h a n o t h e r s : ,
t h i s i s t r u e g e n e r a lly w hatever th e q u e s­
t i o n i s , and a b s o l u t e l y t r u e w here e x a c t
c e r t a i n t y i s im p o ssib le and o p in io n s a re
d iv id ed .
T his k in d o f p e r s u a s io n , l i k e
t h e o t h e r s , s h o u ld be a c h ie v e d by w hat
th e s p e a k e r s a y s , n o t by what p e o p le
th in k o f h i s c h a r a c te r b e fo re he b e g in s
to speak.
I t i s n o t t r u e , a s so m e w r i t e r s
assum e i n t h e i r t r e a t i s e s on r h e t o r i c ,
t h a t th e p e rs o n a l goodness re v e a le d by th e
s p e a k e r c o n t r i b u t e s n o th in g to h i s power
o f p e r s u a s i o n ; on t h e c o n t r a r y , h i s c h a r ­
a c t e r may a l m o s t b e c a l l e d t h e m o s t e f f e c ­
t i v e m eans o f p e r s u a s i o n h e possesses.-**
‘• C h a r a c t e r "
same a s
a s u se d by A r i s t o t l e
"p erso n ality "
n ific an t
saw i n
"ch aracter"
or,
and c o n se q u e n tly
co n sid ered
It
is
"ch aracter"
in c u rre n t term s,
a means o f s o c i a l
The s c o p e o f t h i s
ex am in atio n o f a l l
very n e a rly
i n th e contem porary s e n s e .
to n o te th a t A r is to tle
"m eans o f p e r s u a s i o n "
is
the
sig ­
as a
he u n d o u b ted ly
in te g ratio n .
paper does n o t p e rm it a c h ro n o lo g ic a l
the w r it e r s
from A r i s t o t l e
to
the p re s e n t
e m p h a s is w i l l b e p l a c e d on t h e m o re i m p o r t a n t
r e c e n t p ronouncem ents.
In
1 8 9 3 , W. R . A l g e r c o n t e n d e d t h a t :
E x p r e s s i o n . . • i s t h e e x t e r n a l man­
i f e s t a ti o n of th e in n er form s, . q u a l i t i e s ,
and s t a t e s of co n scio u s b ein g s f o r
£ A r i s t o t l e , B h e t o r i c a ( t r a n s l a t e d b y W. R h y s R o b e r t s ,
V o l . X I , W. D. R o s s , e d i t o r , The W o rk s o f A r i s t o t l e , O x f o r d :
C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 2 4 ) , p . 13665a.
193
c o g n i t i o n an d a p p r o p r i a t i o n by o t h e r co n ­
scio u s b e in g s.^
T hroughout h i s
speech,
a fac to r
in
seem s t o
be no d iv e r g e n c e
p ressio n
of F.
A lger c o n s id e r s p e r s o n a l i ty
p e rs u a s io n a f t e r th e m anner o f A r i s t o t l e .
from t h i s
B. R o b i n s o n i n
v iew p o in t u n t i l
1913.
N a tio n a l Speech A rts A s s o c ia tio n ,
as
T here
th e
ex­
S p eak in g b e fo re th e
he s t a t e d :
. . .
s p e e c h work t o b e e f f e c t i v e m u st
weave t h e s p e e c h i n t o th e v e r y l i f e and
thought of th e stu d e n t • . •
• • • such speech s u b j e c t s a s C o n v e rsa tio n
L esso n s, S to ry R ep ro d u ctio n , D ra m a tiz atio n
a n d Memory S e l e c t i o n s . . .
do n o t c o n s t i t u t e
ends in th em selv es.
They a r e m e r e l y t h e
means o f g i v i n g t h e c h i l d la n g u a g e p r a c t i c e
s o t h a t h i s own t h o u g h t s c a n b e b e t t e r o r d e r ­
e d i n s i d e h i s own h e a d a n d b e t t e r e x p r e s s e d
f o r t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f o t h e r s • . * T he
g r e a t th in g i s to b u i ld up t h a t i n n e r , po­
t e n t i a l , o r m en tal sp eech and e s t a b l i s h
c o r r e c t m otor h a b i t s f o r i t s o u tw a rd e x p r e s ­
sio n * ^
In R obinson*s
concept th a t
later
rem arks can be se e n v e ry c l e a r l y
e x p ressio n
i s an a id
to
c am e S m i l e y B l a n t o n w i t h h i s
u sed as b aro m eter o f p e rs o n a lity
im p ressio n .
N o t m u ch
view t h a t sp e e c h
ad ju stm en t.
th e
could be
S a i d B lanton.:
^ W illia m R o u n s e v i l l e A l g e r , " P l a c e an d Power o f
P e r s o n a lity in E x p re s s io n ,” P ro ceed in g s of the N a tio n a l
A sso c ia tio n of E lo q u tio n is ts t ,(1 8 9 3 )> 1 1 , 27.
*2
^ F r e d e r i c k B. R o b i n s o n , " T h e P l a c e o f S p e e c h T r a i n ­
in g in G eneral E d u c a tio n ,” P ro c e e d in g s » N a tio n a l Speech
A r t s A s s o c i a t i o n , ( 1 9 1 3 ) , X X II, 33-3 4 *
194
Speech • • • i s a therm om eter o f th e
p ro g re s s and s t a b i l i t y o f the p e rs o n a l
.
a d ju s tm e n t and grow th of t h e i n d iv i d u a l*
As l o n g a s
was s t i l l
th e
t h e r m o m e t e r c o n c e p t was h e l d , s p e e c h
d o n sid e re d as a p a ssiv e f a c t o r w ith
re la tio n
to
p e rso n ality *
Soon th e c o n c e p t began to
a p p e a r w hich a s s i g n e d
a more a c t i v e
ro le
From t h e
d ia g n o s tic ia n 's
a id
to
speech tra in in g *
to
one o f p o s i t i v e
th erap eu tic
was t h e n e x t a d v a n c e i n
th in k in g along t h i s
h in te d a t
b u t W oolbert f u l l y
such an id e a ,
1920 h e was s u g g e s t i n g
sta tu s
of a
v alu e
lin e*
R obinson
rea liz ed
it*
In
th at:
. • * tr a in in g is speech fo r a d o le sc e n ts
o u g h t t o m a k e m u ch o f r e l i e v i n g t h e e m o t i o n ­
a l s t r a i n o f t a l k i n g and r e a d i n g . . * *
The a w k w a r d b o y a f r a i d t o o p e n h i s m o u t h
l e s t he p ro v e h im s e lf a b o re and a l o u t can
be f r e e d • « • and c au se d to f e e l t h a t he
h a s a s g r e a t a r i g h t a s any one t o m in g le i n
g o o d s o c i e t y a n d t o do t h e t h i n g s t h a t o t h e r s
do * . • H e n c e a p a r t o f s p e e c h t r e a t m e n t f o r a d o l e s c e n t s i s * * . rem oving th e e m o tio n a l
com plexes t h a t r e s t r a i n and c o n s t r i c t s p e e c h .
To W o o l b e r t , t r a i n i n g
in
speech i s
train in g
in
so cial-
s
iza tio n ,
is
or th e
necessary
o t h e r way a b o u t .
W hether s o c i a l
b e fo r e good sp e a k in g can ta k e p la c e ;
a d ju stm en t
w h e th e r good
£ S m i l e y a n d M a r g a r e t G ra y B l a n t o n , "The B r o a d e r A s p e c t s
o f S p e e c h T r a i n i n g , 11 Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f S p e e c h E d u c a t i o n , IV •
( J a n u a r y , 1 9 1 8 ) , 4 8*
5
C h a r le s H enry W o o lb e rt, "S peech and t h e L e a rn in g
P r o c e s s , " Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f S p e e c h E d u c a t i o n , VI ( F e b r u a r y .
1 9 2 0 ), 71-72*
195
sp eak in g is n e c e ssa ry
before s o c ia liz a tio n
w h e th e r good s p e a k in g and s o c i a l i z i n g
and develop to g e th e r ;
th ese a re
s p e a k in g and p e r s o n a l i t y
are
one t h e r e f o r e m eans t r a i n i n g
W# J .
T his v ie w i s
Farm a#
I n 1926 i t
th e
im m a te ria l to
c au sa lly
in the
w id ely used speech te c h n iq u e s a re
ju stm en t.
are
can ta k e
related *
p lace;
sa m e t h i n g
th e
fact
th at
T rain in g
in
o th e r, and e f f i c i e n t and
e sse n tia l
to be se e n i n
was a s s e r t e d
th e
fo r s o c ia l ad­
ex p ressio n s o f
by him t h a t :
• • • one m u st assum e t h a t t h e u l t i m a t e
aim o f t h e s p e e c h t e a c h e r i s t o t r a i n t h e
s tu d e n t in s o c i a l a d a p t a b i l i t y th ro u g h th e
medium o f s p e e c h #
Too m u ch s t r e s s h a s b e e n p u t o n t h e i m ­
p r e s s i o n a n d r e t e n t i o n of f a c t s and f i g u r e s
and n o t enough on e x p r e s s i o n and com m unica­
t i o n o f them #
Em phasis h a s been l a r g e l y on
th e s i d e o f t r a i n i n g t h e i n t e l l e c t and a s a
r e s u l t th e r e i s a decided need f o r t r a i n i n g
o f t h e e m o t i o n s #6
O ther le a d e rs
the
sa me v i e w p o i n t #
the sta te m e n t
in
th e
The y e a r
speech f i e l d h o ld
1928 b r o u g h t
su b sta n tia lly
fro m Bryng B r y n g e ls o n
th at:
The d e v e l o p m e n t o f s p e e c h i s b o u n d up
w ith th e developm ent o f i n t e l l i g e n c e and
th e e m o tio n s; c o n s e q u e n tly i t i s bound up
w ith b e h a v io r and p e r s o n a lity # ^
6 W illiam J* Farm a, "Speech D i s o r d e r s and th e T each in g
o f S p e e ch ," Q u a r te r ly J o u rn a l o f Speech E d u c a tio n , X II (Ju n e ,
1926), 161.
7
Journal
Bryng B ry n g e ls o n , " P e r s o n a l i t y C h a n g e s,"
o f S p e e c h , XIV ( A p r i l , 1 9 2 8 ) , 2 0 8 .
Q u arterly
196
T h i s same a t t i t u d e
later
in
th e
was e x p r e s s e d e v e n more p o s i t i v e l y
s a m e y e a r b y W. L . M o r s e .
S aid he:
X f e e l t h a t th e speech c l a s s o f f e r s the
b est lab o ra to ry fo r th e in v e s tig a tio n , d is ­
s e c t i o n , and a n a l y s i s o f p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s
t h a t e x i s t s in our e d u c a tio n a l sy stem .
The m e n t a l - h y g i e n e a p p r o a c h t o s p e e c h
m akes u s e of t h e s p e e c h a r t s n o t a s a n end
i n t h e m s e l v e s , b u t a s i n s t r u m e n t a l i t i e s by
t h e u s e o f w hich th e s t u d e n t c a n b e t t e r
u n d e r s t a n d a n d c h a n g e h i s own p e r s o n a l i t y .
L ate in
addressed
tio n
the
1929 C h a r l e s L i n d s l e y
of O ccid en tal C o lleg e
f i r s t Annual C o n v e n tio n of th e W estern A s s o c ia ­
of T e a c h e rs o f S p eech on “S p e e c h E d u c a tio n a s p e r s o n a l i t y
T r a in in g and A d ju s tm e n t,” sa y in g
in
p art:
I u n d e rs ta n d speech e d u c a tio n to be th e
p ro c e s s of d e v e lo p in g and t r a i n i n g i n to
f u n c tio n a l a c t i v i t y the p h y s ic a l, i n t e l l ­
e c t u a l , and e m o tio n a l f a c t o r s of an e x p r e s ­
siv e l i f e .
O r, i n o t h e r w o rd s, sp e e c h ed­
u c a tio n i s th e p ro ce ss o f d ev elo p in g de­
f i n i t e o v e rt h a b its of b eh av io r th a t fun­
c tio n in e f f e c tiv e s o c ia l a d ju stm en t.
S i n c e s p e e c h i s t h e p r i n c i p a l m e d iu m
t h r o u g h w hich one a d j u s t s h i m s e l f to a
s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n , o u rs i s the ta s k of p ro ­
d u c i n g a m o r e s o c i a l i z e d i n d i v i d u a l : we
a re d e alin g w ith th e q u a lity of h i s ada­
p t a t io n to the s o c ia l f e a t u r e s of h i s
en v iro n m en t.
T h is i s t h e aim o f a l l e d ­
u c a tio n , of c o u rs e , but i t is th e speech
t e a c h e r ’s p a r t i c u l a r p r o v in c e .^
8 W a y n e ' l . M o r s e , “The M e n t a l - H y g i e n e A p p r o a c h i n a Be­
g i n n i n g S p e e c h C o u r s e , ” Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f S p e e c h , XIV
(N ovem ber, 1 9 2 8 ), 5 4 3 -5 4 5 .
9 C h a r le s F . L in d s le y , “S peech E d u c a tio n a s P e r s o n a l i t y
T r a i n i n g a n d A d j u s t m e n t , ” i n W. A r t h u r C a b l e , e d i t o r , C u l t u r a l
and S c i e n t i f i c S p e e ch E d u c a ti o n Today ( B o s t o n : E x p r e s s i o n C o .,
1 930), pp. 161-163.
197
A year
e arlie r
v alu e o f d ra m a tic s f o r
sp ecial
th e
a t t e n t i o n was c a l l e d
to
enhancem ent o f p e r s o n a l i t y
th e
by
M a r g a r e t F l e m i n g who s a i d :
The g r e a t e s t b o a s t t h a t d r a m a t i c s c a n
m ak e i s t h a t i n i t may b e f o u n d t h e g r e a t ­
e s t o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c h a r a c t e r developm ent
o f f e r e d in any f i e l d o f e d u c a tio n . • • i n
h i g h - s c h o o l d r a m a t i c s we h a v e l o n g s i n c e
g iv e n up th e id e a t h a t th e p la y i s th e th in g
a n d h a v e come t o r e a l i z e t h a t , f o r u s , } t h e
p la y e r i s th e th in g .
I t i s w ith th e d e v e l­
o p m e n t o f h i s c h a r a c t e r t h a t we a r e p r i m ­
a r i l y concerned; th e su c c e ss of th e perfo rm ­
a n c e , a s s u c h , i s o f s e c o n d a r y i m p o r t a n c e . 1°
T h i s s a m e i d e a w a s e x p r e s s e d b y E l o i s e From me when
she s a i d :
No b e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e b u i l d i n g
o f r i g h t a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d l i f e m ay b e f o u n d
th an d u rin g th e p ro c e ss o f d ra m a tiz in g s t o r i e s .
For tra in in g
no p e e r .
in
team w ork,
d ram atics has
More r e c e n t l y D o n a l d N y l e n h a s c o n s i d e r e d t h e r e l a t i o n ­
sh ip of
speech
to g u id a n c e .
It
is h is
o p in io n th a t:
G u id a n ce and t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f a m odern
p o i n t o f v iew i n s p e e c h w ork h a v e b e e n o f
co n tem p o ran eo u s grow th . . .
B oth f i e l d s
endeavor to h e lp th e in d iv id u a l to an ex­
p r e s s io n of h im s e lf in term s of h i s a b i l ­
i t i e s , h i s i n t e r e s t s , and h i s n e e d s .
They
1 ^ M a r g u e r i t e F l e m i n g , ’‘C h a r a c t e r T r a i n i n g T h r o u g h
D r a m a t i c s , ” The O hio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t . y B u l l e t i n , XXXIII ( S e p t ­
em ber, 1928), 2 2 4 .
11 E l o i s e F r o m m e , “ D r a m a t i c s a n d t h e A r t o f L i v i n g , ”
The O h i o S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y B u l l e t i n , X X X I I I ( S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 2 8 ) ,
225.
198
co n te m p la te a r e c o g n itio n o f p h y s ic a l and
p e rs o n a l p a tt e r n s a s w ell as o f the e n v ir ­
onm ent i n w hich t h e i n d i v i d u a l l i v e s *
Each
f i e l d i s m o s t e f f e c t i v e wh en i n t e g r a t e d w i t h
th e e n t i r e s c h o o l program . * • G uid an ce and
sp e e c h w ork, t h e r e f o r e , p ro c e e d from a p o s t i v e p o i n t o f view , a tte m p tin g to s t i m u l a te
th e developm ent o f th e i n d i v i d u a l to d e s ir e d
grow th and to p ro v id e re m e d ia l m easu res o n ly
when t h e o r i g i n a l p a t t e r n o f d e v e l o p m e n t h a s
n o t been s a t is f a c to r y .
W h en , h o w e v e r , l i m ­
i t a t i o n s in th e in d iv id u a l o r en v iro n m en tal
d e fic ie n c ie s have prev en ted a s a tis f a c to r y
u n fo ld in g of th e p e r s o n a lity , rem ed ial
m easures are i n o r d e r .
I n b o t h s p e e c h work
and g u id a n c e t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s s e e n a s a
w hole p e r s o n a l i t y .1 2
From s o c i o l o g y com es t h e
o p in io n o f E r n e s t G roves t h a t :
. . .
c h i l d t r a i n i n g h a s come t o t h e
p o i n t w h e r e we u n d e r s t a n d t h a t t h e g o a l o f
s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n i s th e m ost im p o rta n t o f a l l
th e problem s o f e d u c a t i o n . 3
T h is view r e c e i v e s
ah e d u ca to r
lik e
support in
W. I». W r i n k l e .
t h e v e r y r e c e n t work o f
He c o m p l a i n s :
S u b j e c t - m a t t e r t e a c h e r s a r e more c o n ­
c e rn e d w ith th e t r u t h of s ta te m e n ts and
c o r r e c t answ ers th a n th ey a re w ith th e
q u a lity of e x p re ssio n .
H aving so m e th in g
to e x p re s s and th e a b i l i t y to e x p re s s i t
e f f e c tiv e ly a re c e r ta in ly as im p o rtan t as
c o r r e c t n e s s o f e x p r e s s i o n . 14
1^ D o n a l d N y l e n , ”G u i d a n c e a n d S p e e c h i n t h e S c h o o l
P r o g r a m , " Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f S p e e c h , XXIV ( D e c e m b e r , 1 9 3 8 ) ,
603.
15 E r n e s t R . G r o v e s , P e r s o n a l i t y a n d S o c i a l A d j u s t m e n t
( r e v i s e d , New Y o r k : L o n g m a n s , G r e e n a n d C o • , 1 9 3 1 ) , p . 2 6 5 .
14 w i l l i a m L . W r i n k l e ,
(New Y o r k : A m e r i c a n B o o k C o . ,
T h e New H i g h S c h o o l i n
1 9 3 8 ^ pp. 113-114.
t h e M aking
199
In a d d itio n
ev alu atio n s
of
the
to
a ll
t h e s e m ore o r l e s s
speech p e rs o n a lity
h a v e b e e n s o m e e f f o r t s m ad e t o
of th is
su b jectiv e
rela tio n sh ip ,
e x a c tl y m easure th e
th ere
ex ten t
in te rrelatio n sh ip .
Among t h e
e a rlie st
th eses
d e a lin g w ith
liste d
th e
by F r a n k l i n Know er,
sp eech -p erso n ality
15
th e
rela tio n sh ip
seem s t o b e t h e M a s t e r * s t h e s i s o f W il l ia m J . Farm a from
16
W isco n sin in 1927.
S u b s e q u e n t l y , E l i z a b e t h M cDowell a t
17
"J Q
C olum bia,
E v e l y n L a b a d i e a t S o u t h e r n C a l i f o m i a , AO
R u t h H a m i l t o n a t W i s c o n s i n , ^ W ard B u r g e s s J e n k s a t C h i c a g o , 2 0
i o F r a n k l i n H. K n o w e r , " G r a d u a t e T h e s e s - An I n d e x o f
G r a d u a t e W ork i n t h e F i e l d o f S p e e c h , " S p e e c h M o n o g r a p h s , I I V ( 1 9 3 4 -1 9 3 8 ), p u b l i s h e d a n n u a l ly by th e Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l
of Speech.
16
W i l l i a m J.. F a r m a , "T h e I n f l u e n c e o f S p e e c h T r a i n i n g
on t h e E m o tio n a l R e a c t i o n o f th e H igh S c h o o l and C o l l e g e
S tudent.** ( u n p u b l i s h e d M aster* s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f W is c o n s in ,
1927).
^ E l i z a b e t h D. M cD ow ell, " E d u c a t i o n a l a n d E m o t i o n a l
A d j u s t m e n t s o f S t u t t e r i n g C h i l d r e n , 11 ( u n p u b l i s h e d D o c t o r ' s
d i s s e r t a t i o n , C olum bia U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 2 8 ).
18 E v e l y n L a b a d i e , "An E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e C o n t r i b u t i o n
m ad e b y t h e S t u d y o f S p e e c h A r t s t o t h e D e v e l o p m e n t o f a S o c i a l l y
E f f e c t i v e P e r s o n a l i t y ," (U npublished M aster*s t h e s i s , U n iv e rs ity
o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , 1929).
19
R u th A. H a m i l t o n , " E m o t i o n a l D i s t u r b a n c e s a n d S p e e c h
D e f e c ts , A S tu d y of th e A lle g e d C o r r e l a t i o n betw een P e r s o n a l i t y
P ro b lem s and D is o rd e r s of S p e e ch ," (u n p u b lis h e d M aster* s t h e s i s ,
U n iv e r s ity o f W isco n sin , 19 3 2 ).
on
W ard B u r g e s s J e n k s , " S p e e c h T r a i n i n g a s a M e a n s o f
T re a tin g M aladjustm ents of P e r s o n a l ! t y ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s te r's
t h e s i s , U n iv e r s ity of C hicago, 1 9 3 2 ).
zoo
D iana Evans a t
M ary L o u g h ,
M o o r e a t
QA
Iow a,
ZX
J a n i c e W aggener,
Jam es T racy ,
D enver,
25
2 2
B e th R udoloph,
23
26
A r ia D a n ie l H u n te r w and G lenn
a n d F l o r e n c e Hi 1 1 ^
a t N o rth w estern have
2 1 D i n a i R e e s e E v a n s , MC h a n g e i n S o c i a l B e h a v i o r a n d
E m o tio n a l A t t i t u d e s o f H igh S c h o o l S t u d e n t s P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n
D r a m a t i c A r t s i n t h e H i g h S c h o o l i n C l e v e l a n d H e i g h t s , O h i o , 11
(u n p u b lis h e d M a ste r* s ' t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f Iow a, 1 9 3 2 ).
22
J a n i c e 0# W a g g e n e r , "A C o m p a r a t i v e G a l v a n o m e t r i c
Study o f th e B ehavior o f I n f e r i o r S p e a k e rs and S u p e rio r
S p e a k e r s , 11 ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r * s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f D e n v e r ,
1934).
2 3 B e t h R u d o l p h , "A S t u d y o f t h e E f f e c t s Upon P e r s o n a l i t y
o f P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n S h a k e s p e a re S c e n es i n t h e F undam entals o f
Speech C o u r s e s ,” (u n p u b lish ed M aster*s t h e s i s , U n iv e rs ity o f
D enver, 1 9 3 5 ).
24.
M a ry L o u g h , " E f f e c t s U p o n H i g h S c h o o l S t u d e n t s o f
a S p e e c h A p p ro ach a s Com pared w i t h t h e C o n v e n t i o n a l A p p ro a c h
i n T eaching L i t e r a t u r e , " (u n p u b lis h e d M a ste r* s t h e s i s , U n iv e r s ity
of D enver, 1935).
25
J a m e s A . T r a c y , **A S t u d y o f P e r s o n a l i t y T r a i t s o f
M ature A c to rs and M ature P u b lic S p e a k e r s ," i n " P e r s o n a l i t y
S t u d i e s i n S p e e c h , " N o. I I , e d i t e d by E lw o o d M u r r a y , S p e e c h
M onographs, I I (O c to b e r, 1935), 5 3 -5 6 .
2 3 A r i a D a n i e l H u n t e r , "A C o m p a r i s o n o f I n t r o v e r t e d
and E x t r o v e r t e d H igh S c h o o l S p e a k e r s ," i n " P e r s o n a l i t y S t u d i e s
i n S p e e c h , " No. 1, e d i t e d by E lw ood M u r r a y , S p e e c h M o n o g ra p h s
I I , ^O ctober, 1935), 50-53.
27
~ G le n n E . M oore, "M e n tal H y g ie n e D e v e lo p m e n t.i n a
C la s s i n Speech F u n d am en tal," (p u b lis h e d t h e s i s , U n iv e r s ity o f
D enver, 1 932).
A lso u n d e r t i t l e " P e r s o n a l i t y Changes R e s u l t i n g
from T r a i n i n g i n S p eech F u n d a m e n t a l s ," No. I l l o f " P e r s o n a l i t y
S t u d i e s i n S p e e c h , " E lw ood M u r r a y , e d i t o r , S p e e c h M o n o g r a p h s I I (O cto b er, 1 935), 5 6-59.
28
F lo r e n c e H i l l , "E x p e rim e n ts w ith th e O ra l and W r i t te n
M ethod o f T e a c h in g M e d ie v a l H i s t o r y , E u r o p e a n H i s t o r y , and
A m erican L i t e r a t u r e , " ( u n p u b lis h e d M a ste r* s t h e s i s , N o rth w e s te rn
U n iv e rs ity , 1936).
201
been g ran ted advanced degrees fo r
These t h i r t e e n
th eses
in th is
s tu d ie s have s i g n i f i c a n t l y
a ll
field .
occurred
sin ce
1927.
The f i n d i n g s
general
o p in io n s
T y p ical of th e
th o se
o f every
one o f t h e s e
th eses
w hich w ere p r e s e n t e d e a r l i e r
co n clu sio n s
r e p o r t e d by t h e
o f E l w o o d M u r r a y who o b s e r v e d
in
support th e
th is
ch ap ter.
ex p erim en ters are
in!. 1 9 3 4 t h a t :
From t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f t h e t h e r a p y o f
m ental h y g ie n e , or m e n ta l h e a l t h , speech
t r a i n i n g h a s two v e r y g r e a t v a l u e s ; f i r s t ,
i t a f f o r d s means and o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r
changing th e f a u l t y h a b i t s o f th in k in g and
f e e l i n g and a t t i t u d e s w hich u n d e r l i e m alad ­
ju stm e n t; and s e c o n d , i t a id s the s tu d e n t
to o b t a i n th e a l l n e c e s s a ry o b je c tiv e and
c r i t i c a l view o f h i m s e l f .
I t is th e cra v in g fo r re c o g n itio n , ap­
p r o v a l and a d m i r a t i o n w h ic h A d l e r h a s so
w e l l p r e s e n t e d a s t h e m ain d e t e r m i n a n t o f
human b e h a v i o r a n d p e r s o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t ,
and w hich i s one o f th e c h i e f b a s e s o f t h e
work i n m o d e rn p s y c h i a t r y . . .
T herefore,
m ost im p o rta n t f o r good o r i l l i s th e sp e e c h s i t u a t i o n i n i t s p o s s i b i l i t i e s from th e
s ta n d p o in t of m ental h y g i e n e . 2 9
and in
1936 t h a t :
( 2 ) The a t t i t u d e s a n d h a b i t s o f . t h i n k i n g
and f e e l i n g c h a r a c t e r i z i n g a p e r s o n 's a d ­
ju s tm e n t to speech s i t u a t i o n s a r e d i r e c t ­
ly th e outgrow th of th e s o c i a l , e m o tio n a l,
and speech, e x p e r ie n c e s and in f lu e n c e s he
had undergone i n h i s ’ p a s t h i s t o r y .
29 E l w o o d M u r r a y , " S p e e c h T r a i n i n g As a M e n t a l H y g i e n e
M e t h o d , " Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f S p e e c h , XX ( F e b r u a r y , 1 9 3 4 ) ,
40-41. .
203
(4) A p r im a r y c o n c e rn f o r th e a t t a i n m e n t o f
speech p r o f ic ie n c y i s th e c o n tr o l of the
en v iron m ent o f th e m a tu rin g i n d i v i d u a l w ith ­
in l i m i t s o f co n cern to h is m en tal h y g ien e
and a d ju s tm e n t • . • .
( 5 ) The c o n c e p t o f A d l e r t h a t r e c o g n i t i o n
and a p p r o v a l i s a m ain d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r
i n th e developm ent of th e p e r s o n a l i t y . •
ap p ears e s p e c ia lly a p p lic a b le to speech
b e h a v i o r • «. •
As a r e s u l t
a tex t,
of
such r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s ,
M urray p ro d u c e d
T he S p e e c h P e r s o n a l i t y , w h i c h a p p r o a c h e s t h e w h o l e
problem of sp e ec h t r a i n i n g
p o i n t o f view *
Among h i s
ex clu siv ely
o b serv atio n s
from th e m e n ta l h y g i e n e
is
found th e
fo llo w in g :
Speech and p e r s o n a l i t y g r o w ,. d e v e lo p ,
d i f f e r e n t i a t e , an d become r e f i n e d t o ­
g e th e r.
Speech is a phase' of p e r s o n a lity .
I n m any r e s p e c t s s p e e c h a n d p e r s o n a l i t y a r e
one a n d t h e same t h i n g .
G e n u i n e s p e e c h im­
provem ent depends upon p e r s o n a l i ty d e v e lo p ­
m ent.
M oreover, p e r s o n a l i t y i s th e r e s u l t
of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n ; any l i m i t a t i o n in th e
means o f e x p r e s s i o n and c o m m u n ic a tio n c o r ­
re s p o n d in g ly s t i f l e s and d i s t o r t s p e r s o n a l i t y .
And s p e e c h i s t h e c h i e f m e a n s o f e x p r e s s i o n * .
Not o n l y d o e s p e r s o n a l i t y d e p e n d u p o n
sp e e c h a s i t s c h i e f means o f s o c i a l i n t e r ­
a c tio n , w h ile speech depends upon the w e llin te g rate d p e rso n a lity for i t s e ffe c tiv e n e ss,
b u t s p e e c h t r a i n i n g i n i t s e l f m ay s e r v e a s
e x c e lle n t p e rs o n a lity th erap y .
I t comes a s
n e a r d e a lin g w ith the p e r s o n a l i ty o f th e
stu d en t as a su b je c t p o ssib ly can.
In ach ie­
v ing th e s k i l l s n e c e s s a ry f o r a r t i s t i c
" im
"SJQ '
11
°
E l w o o d M u r r a y , 11A S t u d y o f F a c t o r s C o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e
M al-D ev elo p m en t o f t h e S p eech P e r s o n a l i t y , “ Speech M onographs
I I I (D ecem ber, 1 9 3 6 ), 95-108*
203
p r e s e n ta tio n of a l i t e r a r y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ,
p la y , speaking c h o ir, or speech, th e s t u ­
d e n t m ust w ork w ith h i m s e l f a n a l y t i c a l l y
and im p e rso n a lly *
He m u s t l o o k a t h i m ­
s e l f a s he i s , i f he i s to a c q u i r e th e
n e c e ssa ry refin em en ts*
In thus le a rn in g
m ore a b o u t h i m s e l f , h e i s e n a b l e d to
m ain tain a tr u e r p e rsp e c tiv e of h im self
and of h i s r e l a t i o n s w ith o th e rs*
T his
g r a d u a l a c q u ire m e n t o f o b j e c t i v i t y tow ard
o n e s e lf i s an in d ex of th e m a tu rin g and
h e a l t h y p e r s o n a l i t y *31
In h is
course
in tr o d u c tio n to a c o m p ila tio n of h ig h
o u tlin e s
f o r th e M ichigan A s s o c i a t i o n o f
S p e e c h , P . H. S c o t t a l s o
p ressin g
tary
th e b e li e f
em phasized t h i s
t h a t the
o b jec tiv e
school
T eachers
p o i n t of v iew ,
o f sp eech on t h e
of
ex­
elem en­
l e v e l s h o u l d be::
T h e a c q u i s i t i o n a n d maximum d e v e l o p m e n t
of a l l of th e te c h n iq u e s , s k i l l s , and h a b i t s
in v o lv e d i n th e p r o c e s s e s of speech w hich a r e
e s s e n t i a l to th e f u l l developm ent of th e p e rs o n ­
a l i t y o f t h e c h i l d s o t h a t h e may n o t o n l y c o n ­
t r i b u t e m ore a c t i v e l y a n d c r e a t i v e l y to t h e s o ­
c i a l g r o u p o f w h ic h h e i s a member, b u t a l s o
more e f f e c t i v e l y i n f l u e n c e t h e b e h a v i o r o f o t h ­
e r s f o r t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f h i s own n e e d s * ^
The v i t a l
s o c ia l n atu re
of sp e e c h can be s e e n i n
m arks o f a n o th e r s t u d e n t of th e p ro b lem ,
th e
re­
V* H* S u t t o n , who h o l d s :
S p eech im pro v em en t, i f i t i s r e a l , i n ­
v o l v e s im p ro v e m e n t i n t h e u s e one makes o f
l i f e i t s e l f • • Speech in v o lv e s a p o in t
of
view a b o u t o n e s e l f ; f o r i t i s th e i n t e -
J * B.
E l w o o d M u r r a y , The S p e e c h P e r s o n a l i t y
L i p i n c o t t C o m p a n y , 1 9 3 7 T , pip* 8 - 9 *
(New Y o r k ; :
3 2 p r e s t o n H* S c o t t , MI n t r o d u c t i o n , 11 S u g g e s t i v e O u t l i n e s
i n Spe e c h f o r ~t h e E l e m e n t a r y . I n t e r m e d i a t e , a n d S e c o n d a r y
S c h o o l s , (m im eographed, ( D e t r o i t J : M ich ig an A s s o c ia t io n o f
T e a c h e r s o f S p e e c h ) , p* i *
804
g r a t i o n o f a l l t h e i n d i v i d u a l 1s e x p erien ces [ i t a l i c s not in o r ig in a l] •
The p h r a s e w h ic h h a s b e e n i t a l i c i z e d
q u o tatio n is
the
e n tire
sp eak s he
a- h a p p y o n e *
th esis
is
of th is
In a c e r ta in
b u t h i s know ledge a s w ell*
He i s
lim ite d p o s s ib i l i ti e s
and th e l i k e ,
th e
c lo se
rela tio n sh ip
In s p ite
and o b je c tiv e
u sin g h is
p a s t experiences:
sym bols*
in h eren t in f a c ia l
speech*
Except fo r
ex p ressio n s
becom es known t o
C e rta in ly
th ere
of a l l
th e a u th o r ita tiv e
a
o p in io n s ex p ressed
th e r e l a t i o n
it
is
n o t c o r r e c t to assum e t h a t
ped ag o g ic p r a c t i c e
is
b e i n g m u ch a l t e r e d
S ince
is
b e tw e e n sp e ec h and p e r s o n a l i t y *
s t u d i e s made r e g a r d i n g
to p e r s o n a lity ,
When a n i n d i v i d u a l
in d iv id u a l p e rso n a lity
th e group on ly th ro u g h h i s
co n tain s
p h y s i o l o g i c a l m echanism ,
by means o f c o n v e n t i o n a l i z e d l a n g u a g e
the
th e S u tto n
sense i t
d isse rta tio n *
i n t e g r a t i n g ,n o t only h is
in
e m p h a sis on p e r s o n a l i t y
strik es
at
of speech
current
a s a consequence*
th e very ro o t of the
system of d e p a r tm e n ta liz e d s u b j e c t - m a t t e r ,
little
can be e x p e c te d a s
cu rricu la
lo n g as the
tra d itio n a l
progress
p e rsist*
Even sp eech
teach ers are not y e t fu lly
aw are o f t h i s
p e rso n ality
tie -u p *
th e aim s f o r s p e e c h
ed u catio n as s ta te d
I n an a n a l y s i s
in
th e
courses
of
of
speech-
stu d y f o r the h ig h
V i d a R a v e n s c r o f t S u t t o n , The M a g ic o f S p e e c h ,
(New Y o r k : P i t m a n P u b l i s h i n g C o r p . , 1 9 3 6 ) , p . i i i #
205
sch o o ls of th irty -s e v e n d if fe re n t
found o n ly
one t h a t
in
f o r th e
s t u d y i n 1930 and t h e r e h a v e
situ atio n
to
change,
still
A* E . C r a i g
T he S p e e c h A r t s , o n e o f t h e m o s t w i d e l y u s e d o f a l l
tex ts,
a lth o u g h she r e v i s e d
it
in 1937,
A ctu ally
thou gh i t
phase of th e
w ere a t r a d i t i o n a l
c u rricu lu m #
she t r e a t s
th e m en tal-h y g ien e
them i n
fee lin g s,
th e
a sp e c ts of
th at
b o o k .^
in
th is
v alu e
b u t p ro m p tly
In h is
in fe rio r­
from th e n e g a t i v e
w ith speaking#
in
P u rp o siv e
ch ap ter to
b u t c o n s i d e r e d them s o l e l y
th ey i n t e r f e r e
text* r e c o g n iz e s
s p e e c h w ork,
body o f h i s
reco g n ize a th e ra p e u tic
p o sitio n
su b je ct-m a tte r
of h is
S p e a k i n g , R o b e r t W est d e v o te d an e n t i r e
a ttitu d e
speech as
35
D. E . W a t k i n s , i n t h e p r e f a c e
ig n o res
speech
does n o t to u ch upon
th e problem o f p e r s o n a lity #
ity
M# L . A n d e r s o n
-34
developm ent#.
in clu d ed p e rs o n a lity
W h ile A n d e r s o n made h e r
been te n y e ars
c itie s,
He d i d n o t
sp eech w ork.
reg a rd h as sin c e changed,
37
W est*s
as sh a ll
be
M abel L. A n d e r s o n , "The O r g a n i z a t i o n a n d A d m in is ­
t r a t i o n o f O ra l E n g l i s h i n S e n i o r H igh S c h o o l s ," ( u n p u b l is h e d
M aster.*s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , J u n e ,
1930), p . 33.
3 3 A l i c e E . C r a i g , The S p e e c h A r t s
The M a c m i l l a n C om pany, 1 9 3 7 ) .
(New Y o r k :
rev ised ,
3 6 D w i g h t E v e r e t t W a t k i n s , An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e A r t
o f S p e e c h , ( N e w Y o r k ; W. W. N o r t o n a n d C o # , I n c # , 1 9 3 9 p# v i i i #
3^ R o b e r t W e s t , P u r p o s i v e S p e a k i n g
M a c m i l l a n Company, 1 9 2 5 ) , C h . H I *
(New Y o r k ; : T h e
206
im m ed iately in d ic a te d #
The g r o u p m o s t r e s p o n s i b l e
f o r ad v an cin g th e m en tal
h y g ie n e p o i n t o f view in- sp e e c h h a s b een th e
o lo g ists#
tra its
The c l o s e
speech p a th ­
c o n n e c tio n betw een sp e ec h and p e r s o n a l i t y
can be s e e n i n th e
fo llo w in g
e x c e r p t from a r e c e n t
t e x t by R o b e r t W e st, Lou K e n n e d y , a n d Anna C a r r #
They s a y ;
O r d i n a r i l y , any norm al h e a l t h y c h il d
i s c a p a b l e o f m aking h i m s e l f h e a r d i n
f r e e , happy play#
yiftien i n t h e s c h o o l
room o r a t t i m e s o f s o c i a l s t r e s s t h e
voiG e i s i n a d e q u a t e i n s t r e n g t h , t h i s
w eakness i n d i c a t e s an em otional d i s t u r ­
bance r e v e a lin g a f e a r f u l , tim id , s e l f co n scio u s o r r e p r e s s e d ch ild #
In t h i s
c a s e , i n a d d i t i o n to e s t a b l i s h i n g h a b i t s
of r e la x a t io n and b e t t e r b r e a th in g ,th e
e f f o r t m u s t b e m ad e t o i n d u c e s e l f - c o n ­
f i d e n c e i n t h e c h i l d by e m o t i o n a l r e t r a i n ­
in g , and to rem ove, a s f a r a s p o s s i b l e ,
t h o s e f a c t o r s i n t h e home a n d e l s e w h e r e ,
t h a t t e n d to p r o d u c e h i s t i m i d i t y , by
reed u ca tin g th o se re sp o n sib le fo r h is
fe e lin g of in s e c u rity *
A lthough a c h ild * s p i t c h l e v e l i s n a t u r ­
a l l y h i g h , t h e r e a r e c a s e s i n w h i c h i t seems
i n o r d i n a t e l y h i g h , when i n f a c t , t h e d i f ­
f i c u l t y i s in q u a lity or fo rc e r a th e r th an
in p itch *
I f t h e v o i c e i s t o o l o u d i t may
b e , a s i n t h e c a s e o f t h e weak v o i c e , t h a t
so m e p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t n e e d s o b s e r v a t i o n #
S t u d y may r e v e a l t h a t t h e l o u d v o i c e i s
t h a t of th e b u lly , of th e c h ild se ek in g to
b e n o t i c e d , o f t h e c h i l d who t o o f r e q u e n t l y
occupies the c e n te r of th e s ta g e , of th e
c h ild c o n tin u a lly under high em otional
stra in .
A loud v o ice a ls o i n d i c a t e s a
p o s s ib ility of a d eficien cy in h earin g ,
f o r , i f th e c h i l d c a n n o t h e a r h i m s e l f , he
m ust ’ra is e * h i s voice*
He may h a v e d e ­
v elo p ed th e h a b i t because he l i v e s in such
a c o n tin u a l u p ro a r t h a t he h a s t o sh o u t to
207
m a k e h i m s e l f h e a r d , o r t h e r e may b e a h a r d o f - h e a r i n g a d u l t i n h i s hom e.^® .
The o p i n i o n s o f S m i l e y B l a n t o n a n d Elw ood M u r r a y ,
both speech c l i n i c i a n s ,
ch ap ter*
Perhaps th e
o rd ers have
w ere c o n s i d e r e d
reason th ese
led in s tr e s s in g
^nd r e f e r r i n g
It
is
are
sp eech d i f f i c u l t i e s , w hereas
of course,
th at
speech p a th o lo g is ts
t o w a r d i m p r o v i n g a c h i l d 1s s p e e c h i f
is
is
to be found i n th e
o fte n the
case.
If
c la s s ro o m m ust c h a n g e .
a tte n tio n has been c a lle d
se rv a tio n h ard ly
trad itio n a l
th e
cause
school
wholesom e p e r s o n a l i t i e s
to be p ro d u c e d by o u r s c h o o l s , t h e
trad itio n a l
them
them to a s p e c i a l i s t .
d iffic u lty
c la ssro o m ,a s
fa c to rs has been
c o n te n te d w ith m erely d is c o v e r in g
ob v io u s,
c a n do l i t t l e
of h is
are
in th is
e x p e rts in speech d i s ­
p e rso n ality
b ecau se th ey m ust d iag n o se th e
o th er teach ers
e a rlie r
atm osphere of th e
T his
tim e and a g a i n ,
seem s o u t o f p l a c e .
is
a p o i n t t o ¥/hich
b u t one f u r t h e r ob­
In t h e i r e x c e lle n t r e ­
p o r t on E m otion and th e E d u c a tiv e P r o c e s s . D a n ie l A l f r e d
P r e s c o t t and h i s
com m ittee d e c l a r e
th at:
The b e s t m e th o d o f m a t u r i n g c h i l d r e n
i s t o p r o v i d e them w i t h s i t u a t i o n s i n w h ich
th e y c a n work o u t b e h a v i o r t h a t w i l l s a t ­
i s f y t h e i r p e r s o n a lity needs as the l a t t e r
appear.
T h is d o e s n o t mean s t r e s s i n g d r i l l
R o b e r t W e s t, Lou K e n n ed y ,
R e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f S p e e c h (New Y o r k :
p. 336.
a n d A n n a C a r r , The
H arp er and B r o th e r s ,
1937),
f o r m a s te ry o f *fu n d a m e n ta l p r o c e s s e s ; * i t
d o e s n o t mean r o t e l e a r n i n g and r e c i t a t i o n ;
i t does n o t im ply th e u s e of r e g i m e n t a t i o n
to te a c h good h a b i t s and c o n fo rm ity ; i t
does n o t p erm it i n d o c t r in a t in g a l l c h il d ­
re n w ith a r b i t r a r i l y chosen e m o tio n a liz e d
co n cep ts; i t does n o t su g g est th a t te a c h —
e r s s h o u ld h a v e a bag o f t r i c k s f o r m ot­
iv atin g p u p ils.
These m ethods p ro d u ce
p s y c h o lo g ic a l im m atu rity *
I n s t e a d , t h i s m eans g i v i n g c h i l d r e n a
chanee f o r th e p ro g re s s iv e accu m u latio n
of m eaningful e x p e rie n c e s t h a t w i l l r e v e a l
th e w orld a s i t i s .
I t means o f f e r i n g e x ­
p erien ces th a t w ill o rie n t c h ild ren in th e
p h y s ic a l w o rld , i n th e s o c ia l w o rld , in
tim e, and in a e s t h e t i c , e t h i c a l and s p i r i t ­
u a l r e a l i t i e s a s f a r a s we h a v e d i s c o v e r e d
them .
I t means h e l p i n g c h i l d r e n t o o r g a n i z e
t h e ir experiences in to g e n e ra liz a tio n s , a t ­
t i t u d e s , and v a lu e c o n c e p ts .
I t im p lies
g r a n t i n g them o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s i g n i f i c a n t
a c tio n in r e la tio n to t h e i r needs, a ttitu d e s
and em erging p u r p o s e s .
I t means g r a n t i n g
them i n c r e a s i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o d i r e c t
t h e i r own b e h a v i o r , a n d i t i m p l i e s c h a l l e n ­
g i n g them w i t h t h e w o r l d * s u n s o l v e d p r o ­
blem s a s a means o f e v o k in g p u rp o se *
A ll
o f t h i s m ust be e x p e r i e n c e d by e a c h c h i l d
i n t h e company o f a n d w i t h t h e c o o p e r a t i o n
or o p p o sitio n of o th er c h ild re n .
W ise a n d s y m p a t h e t i c a d u l t s m u s t b e p r e ­
s e n t in th e s c h o o l to s e t th e s ta g e f o r ex­
p e r i e n c e s , and to g iv e c o u n sel and encourage
ment b a sed upon i n s i g h t i n to th e n e ed s o f
c h i l d r e n a n d t h e p r o c e s s e s o f s o c i e t y . Im ­
p l i e d to o , i s th e encouragem ent of c h ild r e n
to a t t e m p t c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s by w h ic h t e n ­
s i o n may b e - r e l i e v e d a n d a t t i t u d e s c r y s t a l ­
lized *
I n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s must b e r e ­
c o g n iz e d a n d p r o v i d e d f o r by o f f e r i n g o p ­
p o r t u n i t i e s a p p r o p r i a t e to n e e d s and w i t h i n
th e c a p a c i t i e s of th e c h i l d r e n to com prehend
F in a lly , the e v a lu a tio n o f.p u p il p ro g ress
m ust be i n term s o f p e r s o n a l i t y d e v e lo p m e n t,
r a th e r th a n i n term s l im i te d to th e
209
d e s c rip tio n of in crease
know ledges and s k i l l s *
If
e v a lu a tio n of
p e rso n ality
sp ecific
th e p u p ils
is
to be in term s of
developm ent, th e n c la ss ro o m s i t u a t i o n s
come m o r e s o c i a l i z e d *
b o o k work*
in
must b e ­
T h is means m ore s p e e c h w o r k , n o t m ore
H. C a n t r i l a n d G. A l l p o r t h a v e d e v e l o p e d a c h a r t
w hich i l l u s t r a t e s
th is p o in t.
T h is h a s b e e n r e p r o d u c e d on
th e fo llo w in g page.
The m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t t h i n g
v e a l e d by C h a r t 2 i s
th at
for
th is
th e e i g h t form s of
course p ro v id in g th e g r e a te s t d eg rees of
are
a ll
o ra l speech tec h n iq u e s.
course o f f e r in g
p atio n a re
offer
the
the
the
least
the
fo r so cial
becom es a p p a r e n t .
school g rad u ates
Books,
tru e
It
d ifferen ce
th ey sa y ,
In
betw een a c l a s s ­
and one b a s e d on te x t b o o k
is
no w onder t h a t h ig h
f e d on book l e a r n i n g a r e
Throughout t h i s
p a rtici­
f o r such p a r t i c i p a t i o n .
room b a s e d o n s p e e c h s i t u a t i o n s
situ atio n s
in te r­
so cial p a rticip a tio n
p u re ly v is u a l tech n iq u es*
p resen ta tio n
so cial
The s e v e n fo rm s o f i n t e r ­
o p p o rtu n ities
le a s t o p p o rtu n ities
th e g rap h ic
in v e stig atio n re ­
larg e ly
in a rtic u late*
chapter, a t t e n t i o n has been c a lle d
to
/
the
of
c u rre n t e d u catio n al
su b je ct-m a tte r.
It
tren d
is
to
stress
obvious t h a t
p e rso n ality
p e rso n ality
d e v e l o p and m a tu r e a p a r t from a s o c i a l i z e d
in p lace
cannot
en vironm ent*
D a n ie l A l f r e d P r e s c o t t , c h a irm a n , E m otion and t h e
E d u c a t i v e P r o c e s s ( W a s h i n g t o n : A m e ric a n C o u n c i l on E d u c a t i o n ,
1 9 3 8 ), p p . 194-195*
210
CHART 2
DEGREES OF PARTICIPATION PERMITTED BY
VARIOUS FORMS OF SOCIAL INTERCOURSE 40
(M ost p a r t i c i p a t i o n )
- P erso n a l c o n v ersa tio n
- D is c u s s io n group
- In fo rm a l c o n g re g a te a ssem b ly
- T elephone
- Form al c o n g re g a te assem b ly
- T alk in g p i c t u r e
-
T elev isio n
RADIO
T elegraph
p e rso n a l correspondence
- Form l e t t e r
- Newspaper
- B illb o ard s
- M agazines
(L east p a rtic ip a tio n )
^
o f R adio
- Booka
H a d l e y C a n t r i l a n d G o r d e n W. A l l p o r t , The P s y c h o l o g y
(New Y o r k : H a r p e r a n d B r o t h e r s , 1 9 3 5 ) , p . £ 6 6 *
211
It
th erefo re
g reater
the
fo llo w s
th at
th is
tren d
in ed u catio n w ill
em phasis on com m unicative te c h n iq u e s
case h ereto fo re*
e ffic ie n t
The t h e s i s
e d u ca tio n al
th e g r e a te s t use
of
of t h i s
put a
th a n h a s been
paper, t h a t
t h e m ost
t e c h n i q u e s w o u ld b e t h o s e w h ic h make
speech tec h n iq u e s,c o n se q u e n tly
receiv es
added support*
In th is
1*
so n a lity
ch ap ter i t
was o b s e r v e d t h a t :
Speech and p e r s o n a l i t y
is
2*
a facto r
in
sp eaking
are
Speech and p e r s o n a l i t y a r e r e l a t e d b e c a u se sp e ec h
3*
Speech and p e r s o n a lity a re
speech th e ra p ie s
th era p ie s
effect
4*
o ld e st,
because p e r­
effectiv en ess*
s e rv e s as a th erm om eter o f p e r s o n a l i ty
th at
re la te d
rela te d
e ffe c t p erso n ality
cau sa lly
in
and m e n ta l-h y g ie n e
speech*
Of t h e t h r e e
d a tin g
ad ju stm en t*
foreg o in g p o s itio n s ,th e
back to A r i s t o t l e ,
th e
th ird
is
first
is
th e
th e m ost r e c e n t
and p ro b a b ly b e g in s w ith th e pronouncem ents o f S m iley B la n to n
a b o u t 1918*
5*
al
These view s
stan d
in
c o n f l i c t w ith
s u b je c t- m a tte r arrangem ent of the
th e
tra d itio n ­
cu rricu lu m *
i
6*
p rin cip le s,
7*
g reatest
As y e t ,
not a ll
speech p eo p le a re
except in
th e p a th o lo g y c lin ic s *
The fo r m s
of
o p p o rtu n ities
so cial
for
in te rco u rse
so cial
ap p ly in g
o fferin g
p a rtic ip a tio n
are
th ese
th e
oral
212
tec h n iq u e s;
8.
b asis
th o se
o f f e r i n g th e
T herefore,
fo r fu tu re
if
p erso n ality
ed u catio n al
th e m ost e f f i c i e n t
least
are v isu al
ad ju stm en t
ev alu atio n s,
e d u catio n al
it
tech n iq u es*
is
appears
to
he t h e
th at
te c h n iq u e s w i l l be th o s e
w h i c h make t h e f u l l e s t u s e o f s p e e c h t e c h n i q u e s *
A m idst a l l
feel
th e
th at
In co n sid erin g s tru c tu re
ex ists
th e fo llo w in g
th is
b u t t h a t has n o t been
and fu n c tio n i t
t h a t b o th m ust d e v e lo p t o g e t h e r .
m ost l i k e l y
certain
e m p h a s i s o n e x p r e s s i o n , s o m e may
c o n te n t h as been s lig h te d ,
in te n tio n *
stressed
th is
as
to w hether t h i s
is
was
S i n c e so m e d o u b t
at a ll
p o ssib le ,
c h a p te r w i l l be d ev o ted to a c o n s id e r a tio n
e x p e r im e n ts w hich h av e b een c o n d u c te d r e l a t i v e
p a r t i c u l a r point*.
to
of
CHAPTER V II
REVIEW OF EXPERIMENTATION COMPARING ORAL
AND TRADITIONAL TEACHING PROCEDURES
Most o f t h e
n iq u es in to
lie f
o p p o s itio n to
th e
How s e r i o u s
such an o b je c tio n i s
p h ilo so p h y of
is
to a lo s s
a se rio u s o b jec tio n .
If
T h o s e who h o l d t h e
ex p erien ce.
co n ten t in
o b j e c t i o n i s n o t so
th at
n e v e r comes a s a b y ­
effo rt
th at,w h ile
fac to r in
a n d who b e l i e v e
th eir
T here e x i s t s ,
o f m i d d l e - g r o u n d e r s who b e l i e v e
e d u catio n ,
th at stre ssin g
m e n t d o e s n o t n e e d t o mean d i s r e g a r d
of m id d le -g ro u n d e rs
it
ed u catio n al
c o n te n t p h ilo so p h y b e lie v e
w holesom e m e n ta l d e v e lo p m e n t.
se n tia l,
one m easures
The p e r s o n a l i t y g r o u p a r e v e r y l i k e l y
co m p letely d is r e g a r d
n o t be th e d e te r m in in g
If
one m easures
l e a r n i n g m ust be h a r d work and t h a t i t
to
p articu lar
term s o f c o n te n t le a r n e d th e n
outcom es i n te rm s o f p e r s o n a l i t y , t h e
p ro d u c t of
o f content*.
depends on th e
e d u c a tio n one h ap p en s to h o l d .
e d u c a t i o n a l outcom es i n
g reat.
tech ­
s u b j e c t - m a t t e r c o u r s e s h a s b e e n b a s e d on t h e be­
t h a t su c h p r a c t i c e s w ould l e a d
certain ly
in fu sio n of o ral
co n ten d s t h a t
to
secure
how ever,
a group
c o n te n t should
co n te n t i s
p e rso n ality
of c o n te n t.
es­
d ev elo p ­
T his group
c o n te n t can be a c q u ir e d a s
an in c i d e n t a l p ro d u c t of an a c t i v i t y
program .
tending
be. e x a m i n e d i n t h i s
ch ap ter»
to u p h o ld t h i s
p o sitio n w ill
Four experim ents
214
The p u r p o s e f o r w h i c h a l l
ic a tiv e
one and, a t
C h a rt 2 in the
the r e a d in g
w hile th e
th erefo re,
its
base, co m m unication i s
fo reg o in g ch ap ter c le a rly
tech n iq u es
in v o lv e
sp eak in g tech n iq u es
does not a v a il th e
the l e a s t
is
is used.
effort
b asic
so -called
In
in d iv id u a l
It
illu stra te s
so cial
c o n ta cts.
seem s,
read in g is
th at
p a rticip a tio n ,
R eading,
K now ledge
th ere fo re ,
to
to a d j u s t h im s e lf to
n a t u r e of language i s
th at
be fo u n d i n t h e
so ciety .
T his
s l i g h t e d b y m an y o f t h e
e x p e r t s on r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n *
1937,
P a u l McKee a s s e r t e d
r e a d i n g w ere so v a s t l y
to
so cial
purpose b eh in d a l l
of the
so cial
it
a commun­
i n d i v i d u a l m uch,"unless h e c a n
in h is
w o rth less u n le ss
is
a s o c ia l process*
in v o lv e th e m o st.
a p p ly what he h as re a d
the u ltim a te
lan g u ag e e x i s t s
com bine t h e
tra in in g
d ifferen t
of th e
th at o ral
and s i l e n t
t h a t no e f f o r t
tw o.
s h o u l d b e made
H is w ords a r e :
. . .
th e need fo r d i r e c t t r a i n i n g in
b o th o r a l and w r i t t e n c o m p o sitio n i s ap ­
p aren t.
W h i l e t h e tw o p o s s e s s so m e r e q u i r e ­
m e n t s i n common t h e y a r e v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t i n
many r e s p e c t s .
C o n se q u e n tly t h e r e s h o u ld be
no a t t e m p t t o make t h e t r a i n i n g o f f e r e d i n
a n y o ne o f them s u p p l y t h e i n s t r u c t i o n n e e d e d
in th e o th e r .
L u e l la C ole h a s
to s i l e n t
and o r a l
taken t h i s
same p o s i t i o n .
W ith r e g a r d
r e a d i n g she c o n te n d s :
Th e t w o p r o c e s s e s a r e
th erefo re
th e
^ P a u l M c K e e , L a n g u a g e i n t h e E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l (New.
Y o r k : H o u g h to n M i f f l i n Company, 1 9 3 4 ) , p . 1 6 6 .
£15
p r e c i s e r e v e r s e o f each o t h e r .
As a
means o f t e a c h i n g e f f i c i e n t s i l e n t r e a d ­
in g no w o rse m ethod c o u ld be d e v i s e d t h a n
to t r a i n c h i l d r e n to be e f f i c i e n t o r a l
readers . . .
T rain in g in o ra l rea d in g
produces good o r a l re a d e rs - - and n o th in g
else.^
I n the. n a r r o w e s t s e n s e t h i s
That
is,
if
the
of a c e rta in
train in g
are not
a ll
read in g ra te
in oral
read in g ,
o r th e
it
ju st
language
e ffic ie n c y
ends o f language
ed u catio n i s
can a r i s e
so cial
attain m en t of a proper
the
o th er,
end o f
e ffic ie n cy .
Increased
so cial
o n ly from i n c r e a s e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f
T h is can n o t be m easured
term s of r e a d in g r a t e
in
term s of adequacy o f c o n tr o l o v e r lan g u ag e i n
or a rtic u la to ry
th at is
term s o f
i c a t i o n w ith an a u d ien ce h as l i t t l e , i f
w hich th e
s i l e n t read in g
goal of so c ial
th ere
th is
ceases to
e ffic ie n cy
a b ilitie s,
e v a lu a te d m erely in
v o ic e and p r o n u n c i a ti o n and n o t i n
U n fo rtu n ately ,
b u t th ese
The j u s t
in
O ral re a d in g
th at
e d u catio n .
th e m eanings o f la n g u a g e sy m b o ls.
tio n s.
v a lid .
w ould p r o b a b ly be t r u e
i n one w ould n o t t r a n s f e r t o
th e
is
end o f la n g u a g e e d u c a t i o n w ere t h e a t t a i n m e n t
silen t
p ro n u n ciatio n
p o s it io n pro b ab ly
is u su ally
any,
th e
so cial
effectiv e
p lace
in
be such a g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e
commun­
e d u catio n *
type of o ra l
co n stan tly
situ a ­
term s of
e n t h u s i a s t s h a v e i n m ind.
i s borne
b u t only
If
i n m ind,
reading
th e
th en
betw een s i l e n t
^ L u e l l a C o l e , The I m p r o v e m e n t o f R e a d i n g
F a r r a r and R i n e h a r t , I n c . , 1 9 3 8 ), p p . 6 1 -6 £ .
(New Y o r k :
216
and o r a l
rath er
read ing
f o r b o t h w ould be s t r i v i n g
th a n m astery of m ean in g less
seem l o g i c a l
tr a n s fe r to
sym bols.
to assum e t h a t t r a i n i n g
sile n t situ atio n s.
m ost g ra p h ic
sym bols r e s t
Then i t
of an o ra l
A fter a l l ,
in the
f o r m eanings
w ould
type
co u ld
th e m ean in g s o f
a u d i t o r y m em ories w h ic h th e y
rec all•
F o llow ing
th is
expressed b e lie f s
ent
to
oral
occasion
lin e
is
to an a i d
a tte n tio n has been c a lle d
th a t language
sk ills
o th er a c t iv i t ie s
however e x p e r t,
m en tal d a ta
to
p o ssib le .
th a t F. J.
should be lim ite d
so m e e d u c a t o r s h a v e
t h a t a t r a n s f e r from o r a l
situ atio n s
to n o t e
of reaso n in g ,
to
silen t
or s i l ­
T here h a s a lr e a d y
W eersing f e l t
to o ra l
t h a t w r i t t e n work
ex p ressio n #
to th e b e lie f
been
S im ila rly ,
of P re sc o tt* s
com m ittee
c o u ld be a c q u ire d as b y -p ro d u c ts of
and
ex p erien ces.
so i t
4
These a re
becom es n e c e s s a r y
r e a c h a m ore d e c i s i v e
to
o n ly o p in io n s ,
tu rn to e x p e ri­
c o n c l u s i o n on t h i s
pro­
blem .
F o r so m e u n k n o w n r e a s o n ,
th is
careful
s u b je c t h as been very s c a n t.
A p p aren tly only fo u r
s tu d ie s have been re p o rte d th u s f a r .
O u trig h t
co n ducted an experim ent
e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n on
I n 1934 P ru d e n c e
i n th e M in n eap o lis
sch o o ls;
5
5 S u p r a T pp* 9 1 a n d 1 2 3 .
^ S u p ra , pp.
124-125.
^ P r u d e n c e O u t r i g h t , “A C o m p a r i s o n o f M e t h o d s o f S e c u r i n g
C o r r e c t L a n g u a g e U s a g e , " E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l J o u r n a l , XXXIV
(May, 1 9 3 4 ) , 6 8 1 - 9 0 #
218
6 -A g r a d e
grade
lev e l,
lev e l,
e ig h te e n ex p erim en tal
w ere
s e t up i n v o l v i n g
groups,
1576 s t u d e n t s .
in g p r o c e d u r e s w ere u s e d i n a d d i t i o n
to th e
c e d u r e u s e d a s a c o n t r o l group#
th e
in
th e
th e
A ll
e x p e r i m e n t w e r e w i t h i n 10 p o i n t s
I#Q# t e s t #
A p r e t e s t was a d m i n i s t e r e d ,
S ix te a c h ­
trad itio n a l
stu d en ts
c lo se
o f each o t h e r
on th e
a t e s t was g i v e n a t
re la tiv e
secu rin g c o rre ct u sag e.
e x p e rim e n ta l groups w ere:
An a p p l i c a t i o n
tw o
of th e experim ent#
The p r o b l e m w a s t o d e t e r m i n e
o f e a c h m ethod i n
pro­
in v o lv ed
end o f s i x w eek s and a n o t h e r t e s t was a d m i n i s t e r e d
weeks a f t e r th e
the
s ix on each
effectiv en ess
The m e t h o d s o f
( 1 ) Use o f gram m ar gam es;
o f D u n la p 's B eta h y p o t h e s is ;
(3)
(2)
The p r o o f ­
r e a d in g o f p re p a re d p a ra g ra p h s ; (4) C hoice of c o n s t r u c t io n s
/
on w r i t t e n fo rm ja n d w r i t t e n d r i l l ; (5 ) A ll-m e th o d s , u s i n g a
d i f f e r e n t m ethod e a c h week;
on a w r i t t e n
and
(6)
C hoice of
c o n stru ctio n s
form p l u s o r a l d r i l l #
The f i n d i n g s a r e o f i n t e r e s t *
The m e t h o d u s i n g c h o i c e o f c o n s t r u c t i o n
w i t h b o t h w r i t t e n an d o r a l r e s p o n s e s showed
tw en ty -th ree r e lia b le p o s itiv e d iffe re n c e s ,
th e l a r g e s t number o f s u p e r i o r d i f f e r e n c e s
o b t a i n e d by an y m ethod#
T he a l l - m e t h o d s
group had f o u r t e e n r e l i a b l e and p o s i t i v e
d i f f e r e n c e s , w h ile th e B eta g roup had
th irtee n # ^
S ince t e s t s
w ere u s e d m e a s u rin g b o t h o r a l
9 O u t r i g h t , ££#
c i t # , p • 689#
and w r i t t e n
217
in
1 9 3 5 C . C. C r a w f o r d a n d M. M* R o y e r r e p o r t e d
conducted
i n t h e E m erson J u n i o r H igh S c h o o l a t Pomona,
C a lifo rn ia ;
in
1 9 3 8 H om er S t r o n g w r o t e u p a s t u d y w h i c h h e
h a d c o n d u c te d i n C ooley H igh S c h o o l,
and th e
on a s tu d y
D etro it,
M ich ig an ;
7
same y e a r H a r r i e t C a r m i c h a e l r e p o r t e d o n a n e x p e r i m e n t
w h ic h s h e c o n d u c t e d a t Bush H ig h S c h o o l ,
C en ter L in e,
T h e r e may b e o t h e r s t u d i e s w h i c h h a v e b e e n r e p o r t e d ,
M ichigan*
b u t no
r e f e r e n c e s h a v e b e e n u n c o v e re d w hich w ould so i n d i c a t e .
Even th e
t w o 1 9 3 8 s t u d i e s make n o r e f e r e n c e s
s t u d i e s and C raw fo rd and R oyer i n
O u trig h t stu d y
on t h i s
problem
i n 1934#
is
scan t,
T his
for
the o pposite
scan t.
o n ly fo u r, i t m ig h t be w e ll to
in th e ir
is
of
the
lite ra tu re
tru e,
S ince th e
b u t only
stu d ies
c o n s i d e r th em i n some d e t a i l
ch ro n o lo g ical o rd e r.
O u trig h t* s
number o f
1935 t a k e no n o t i c e
d o e s n o t mean t h a t
t h a t m easured e x p e rim e n ta tio n i s
are
to any p rev io u s
stu d e n ts
W ith 279 p u p i l s
ex p erim en t in
1934 in v o lv e d t h e
g reatest
o f any o f th e s t u d i e s b e in g h e re
in th ree
c o n t r o l g ro u p s on t h e 4-A ,
ex am ined.
5-A a n d
6 C . C . C r a w f o r d a n d M a d i e M. R o y e r , " O r a l D r i l l V e r s u s
G r a m m a r S t u d y , ” E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l J o u r n a l , XXXVI ( O c t o b e r ,
1935), 116-19.
7
H o m e r D e n n i s S t r o n g , 11A C o m p a r a t i v e S t u d y o f R e l a t i v e
P r o g r e s s i n P u n c t u a t i o n , Grammar, a n d S p e e c h i n C e r t a i n C o u r s e s
T au g h t i n C o o ley H igh S c h o o l d u r i n g t h e S c h o o l Y e a r 1 9 3 7 -1 9 3 8 ,"
( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r * s t h e s i s , W ayne U n i v e r s i t y , D e t r o i t , 1 9 3 8 ) .
® H a r r i e t E. C a rm ic h a e l, “A C o m p ara tiv e E v a l u a t i o n o f
O r a l a n d W r i t t e n M e t h o d s o f T e a c h i n g T e n t h G r a d e E n g l i s h , 11
( u n p u b l i s h e d r M a s t e r * s t h e s i s , Wayne U n i v e r s i t y , D e t r o i t , 1 9 3 8 ) .
8
219
usage*som e i n t e r e s t i n g
th is,
co m p ariso n s
c a n b e made*
S p eak in g o f
O u trig h t says:
The d i f f e r e n c e s shown o n t h e o r a l t e s t i n
G r a d e 4 -A w e r e , i n g e n e r a l , t h e same a s t h o s e
on th e w r i t t e n t e s t *
The c h i e f d i f f e r e n c e
seem s t o be t h a t t h e m ethod o f c h o ic e o f c o n ­
s t r u c t i o n s w ith w r i t te n re s p o n s e s w as- l e s s
e f f e c t i v e in s e c u rin g o r a l im p ro v em en t.th a n
i t was i n s e c u r i n g w r i t t e n im p ro v e m e n t.
T his
r e s u l t m ig h t be e x p e c t e d when a m e th o d b a s e d
on w r i t t e n r e s p o n s e i s m ea su re d i n term s o f
i t s o ral effect* ^
In order to
c o n s i d e r the
fu ll
im p lica tio n s of
s t a t e m e n t s , i t m ig h t be w e ll to i n c l u d e h e r e
in a very
th e
th ese
t a b l e , show ing
c o n d e n s e d f o r m , w h a t som e o f M i s s O u t r i g h t * s
fin d in g s
w ere:
DECREASE IN MEAN NUMBER OF ERRORS 11
GROUP
4-A. W r i t t e n
O ral
5-A- W r i t t e n
O ral
6- A W ritte n
O ral
C lose
ALL­
PROOF­
WRITTEN
CONTROL GAMES BETA READING WRITTEN METHODS AND ORAL
1*58
1.0 6
.9 4
1 .1 8
.92
1 .5 5
3 .5 4
3 .8 2
3 .1 6
3 .7 9
3*14
3 .2 4
6 .9 3
5 .3 6
6 .0 9
5 .8 2
6 .0 4
5 .7 1
ex am in atio n o f
th is
7 .0 8
5 .1 5
6 .7 1
3 .9 8
4 .2 7
4 .7 5
tab le
7 .7 4
4 .2 6
6 .5 0
5 .2 1
5 .5 3
4 .5 3
makes I t
8 .3 0
6 .3 9
7 .8 4
7 .8 9
5 .77
5.82
8 .4 3
6 .6 8
8 .7 3
9 .2 1
6 .7 9
7 .7 6
a t once .
e v i d e n t t h a t t h e o n l y g r o u p w h i c h a t no t i m e made a b e t t e r
o ral record
th an a w r itte n
10 I b i d . ,
p.
11 I b i d . ,
pp.
one was t h e
687.
684-685.
p u rely w ritte n response
220
group*
niq u e
One w o u l d e x p e c t t h a t m e a s u r e m e n t o f
by an o r a l
is not the
case*
h ig h er w ritte n
did*
test
in stan ce
sc o re .th an th e
on th e
made a h i g h e r w r i t t e n
real
w ould p r o d u c e a low s c o r e ,
In every
F u rth erm o re,
cause of t h i s
a w ritte n
but th at
o r a l m e t h o d made a
w r i t t e n , o r a n y o t h e r m ethod,
4-A l e v e l
score
the
th an i t
phenomenon i s
th e
o r a l m ethod a c t u a l l y
d id an o r a l
score.
effectiv en ess
d ica te d
by t h e d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r V o f t h i s
it
The
p r o b a b l y e x p l a i n e d by t h e
g reater
From t h e s e d a t a
tech ­
of a u d ito ry
over v isu a l
w ou ld seem t h a t
rela tiv e ly
stim u li
as
in ­
paper.
little
im p ro v e­
m ent i n o r a l w ork c a n be e x p e c te d from a w r i t t e n m ethodology*
Even th e
resu lt
p r o o f - r e a d i n g m ethod t w i c e
showed a s u p e r i o r o r a l
th a n th e w r i t t e n re s p o n se m ethod.
o r a l work seem ed t o
show p o s i t i v e
resu lts
On t h e
o th er hand,
on w r i t t e n r e s p o n s e s .
A s t u d y show ing s i m i l a r , b u t n o t so d e c i d e d l y p o s i t i v e ,
re su lts
is
the
eig h t sp e c ific
o ne r e p o r t e d by C r a w f o r d a n d R o y e r .
E n g lish
and ex p erim en tal
errors
U sing
w ith a c o n t r o l g ro u p o f 30 and
group of a l i k e
num ber o f p u p i l s
in
t h e Pomona,
C a l i f o r n i a , H i g h S c h o o l , a n e i g h t w e e k s ' e x p e r i m e n t was r u n d u r i n g
w h ich 480 i n i t i a l
tro l
the
and 480 f i n a l
t e s t s w ere g iv e n .
In th e con­
g r o u p , e r r o r s w ere c o r r e c t e d by w r i t t e n d r i l l s , w h ile
ex p erim en tal g ro u p ,o ra l d r i l l s
and w r i t t e n m ethods w ere r o t a t e d
end o f
w ere em ployed*
betw een th e
in
The o r a l
groups a t
th e
e a c h week so t h a t , a c t u a l l y , e a c h g r o u p h a d f o u r w eeks
221
of th e
o r a l and f o u r weeks o f th e w r i t t e n m eth o d s.
w ere a d m i n i s t e r e d ,
T ests
h o w e v e r , a t t h e - end o f e a c h week so t h e
d a ta c o u ld be com piled s e p a r a t e l y .
In p a rt
t h e y fo v in d t h a t ;
• . . eac h m ethod p ro d u c e d r e s u l t s w hich
w ere o f h i g h s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . . .
T hus, E n g l i s h e r r o r s can be c o r r e c t e d , a c ­
cording to th e c r i t e r i a used in t h i s stu d y ,
by e i t h e r m e th o d .
The o r a l d r i l l a p p r o a c h p r o v e d t o b e f u l l y
a s e f f e c t i v e a s t h e gram m ar a p p r o a c h , a l t h o u g h
t h e f o r m e r i s r e l a t i v e l y new a n d i n t h e e x ­
p e r im e n ta l s t a g e . T his f i n d i n g s u g g e s ts t h a t
o r a l d r i l l m ig h t im prove c o n s i d e r a b l y i n
m e rit a f t e r th e tech n iq u e of u sin g i t had been
t r i e d out and re v is e d in the l i g h t o f e x p e r­
i e n c e . 1^
S ince t h i s
re su lts,
the
d icatio n
is
p a r t i c u l a r stu d y only m easured th e w r i t t e n
c h e c k w as on t h e
o r a l m ethod o n ly and no i n ­
g iv en reg a rd in g th e
a p p r o a c h on t h e
stu d en ts*
effectiv en ess
o ra l b eh av io r.
W i t h tw o g r o u p s o f 2 8 ,
v e ry s i m i l a r r e s u l t s w ere re a c h e d
by H a r r i e t E . C a r m ic h a e l i n Bush H igh S c h o o l ,
M ich ig an .
sta te s
of the w r itte n
C en ter L in e,
W h i l e b o t h g r o u p s m ade s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s ,
th at;
. . . th e e x p e rim e n ta l group fo llo w in g th e
o r a l m e t h o d i n s t r u c t i o n m ade a g a i n [ 1 1 . 4 ]
1 .1 tim es t h a t o f th e c o n t r o l g ro u p , [4 .5 ]
f o llo w in g th e w r i t t e n m ethod.
C raw ford and R oyer,
13 C a r m i c h a e l ,
ojd.
ojs. c i t . ,
p.
c it
.,
23.
pp.
118,
119.
C arm ichael
222
and,
♦ • • th e o r a l m ethod o f i n s t r u c t i o n
p ro d u ced a w ider m a ste ry of fu n d am e n ta ls
o f gram m ar a n d p u n c t u a t i o n t h a n d i d t h e
w r i t t e n m ethod*
The p u p i l s o f l o w i n ­
t e l l i g e n c e r a n k i n g were a b l e to d e c r e a s e
gram m ar f a u l t s m ore r e a d i l y u n d e r t h e
o r a l m ethod « • • th e p u p i l s o f h i g h i n ­
t e l l i g e n c e r a n k i n g d i d n o t sh o w a s i g ­
n i f i c a n t g a i n i n gram m ar u n d e r e i t h e r
m ethod • • • ho w ev er, g a i n s o f th e pu­
p i l s f o l l o w i n g t h e o r a l m eth o d w ere
alw ay s g r e a t e r th a n t h o s e f o l lo w in g th e
w r i t t e n m e t h o d * 14
A g a in no d a t a m e a s u r in g t h e
work i s
offered,
th e a b i l i t y
tech n iq u es
but su sta in in g
of o ra l
tech n iq u es
oral
d ata are
to
re s u lt of w ritte n
p r e s e n te d to
exceed th e
on p u r e l y w r i t t e n t e s t s
scores
a tte st
of w ritte n
co n cern in g n o rm ally w r i t t e n
procedures•
There e x i s t s
one o t h e r s tu d y b e a r i n g on t h i s
w hich d id m easure t h e
In h is
stu d y
oral
e ff e c t of
a t C o o ley H igh S c h o o l,
u sin g an o r a l approach
in h is
th e w ritte n
D etro it,
exp erim en tal g ro u p s,
The g a i n o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p i n
p u n c t u a t i o n was 2*01 p o i n t s g r e a t e r th a n .
th e c o n tr o l group*
14 I b i d .
of th e
30.
procedures*
Homer S t r o n g ,
The g a i n o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p i n
gram m ar was 2 * 2 4 p o i n t s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e
c o n t r o l group*
The g a i n
ex p erim en tal group
problem
in
found t h a t :
223
s p e e c h was 2 . 7 5 p o i n t s g r e a t e r
c o n t r o l group#
th an th e
The g a i n o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p i n
s p e l l i n g was 6 . 7 4 p o i n t s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e
c o n t r o l group#
The g a i n o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p i n
r e a d i n g a g e w a s #05 m o n t h s g r e a t e r t h a n
the. g a in i n th e c o n t r o l group
H ere i t
th e
can be se e n t h a t
th e o r a l m ethods s u r p a s s e d
w r i t t e n m ethods a g a in and t h a t
w r i t t e n m e t h o d s made a r e l a t i v e l y
on th e sp e e c h t e s t
poorer score
th e
t h a n on an y
of th e o th e r t e s t s .
W hile s u b j e c t i v e
rela tio n sh ip
the
statem en ts re g a rd in g
a re num erous,
o n ly o n es w hich h a v e
the w r i t te n - o r a l
t h e s e f o u r e x p e r i m e n t s se e m
endeavored to
to be
secure o b je c tiv e d a ta
on th e problem #
W hat d o e s t h i s
is
are
necessary to
p o in t out th a t none of th e s e
co n clu siv e.
Non e o f
shadow o f a d o u b t ,
w eig h t.
e x p e r i m e n t a l e v i d e n c e mean?
them p r o v e t h e i r
w ith o u t any c o l l a b o r a t i o n ,
b e in g done e ls e w h e re ,
ia lly
th e
to be t h a t
^
S tro n g ,
th e sis
is
lo c a litie s,
beyond th e
th ey g a in
and a p p a r e n tly
o r e v e n k n o w led g e of th e work,
th ese
sa m e f i n d i n g s .
th ere
ex p erim en ts
bu t co n sid ered c o lle c tiv e ly
In th re e w id ely se p a ra te
F irst, i t
four stu d ie s a rriv e d
T heir c o ll e c t iv e
no l o s s o f
a t su b sta n t­
c o n c l u s i o n seems
c o n te n t fo llo w in g an o ra l
ojD. c i t . , pp# 1 5 - 1 7 .
224
m ethod o f
in stru ctio n
and p o s s ib ly
th e m astery of c o n te n t
m ig h t even be im proved.
In th ese
of
the
error.
s tu d ie s th e re w e re ,.o f course,
S tro n g used th e o p in io n s
speech
im provem ent of h i s
of ex p erts
m any s o u r c e s
to
ev alu ate
s u b j e c t s , b u t he co u ld n o t g e t
en o u g h o p i n i o n s o r h a v e them make a s u f f i c i e n t num ber o f o b ­
serv atio n s
m ore, h i s
to
a lso
ach iev e c o n clu siv e v a l i d i t y .
tru e
c la sse s,
estim ates r e lia b le .
F u rth er­
s t u d y c o v e r e d t o o few p u p i l s and to o b r i e f
o f tim e to
is
r e a l l y m ak e t h e i r
of
th e C arm ichael s tu d y .
T his l a s t
A lso,
a span
c ritic ism
she t a u g h t b o th
and w h ile' no one w ould s u g g e s t a b i a s on h e r p a r t ,
s t i l l , the f a c t
r e m a i n s t h a t t h e same t e a c h e r t a u g h t b o t h
g ro u p s and th e
f i n d i n g s m ust be d i s c o u n t e d a c c o r d i n g l y .
A ll
th ese
errors
O u trig h t* s
a b rief
are
r e a d i l y a d m i t t e d by t h e
s t u d y was t h e b r o a d e s t ,
span o f tim e ..
p a r t s w e ig h t to
dency to
a ll
agree w ith
The one a l l
th ese stu d ie s
o f C h ap ter V h e ld a u d ito ry
icu larly
the
^
learn in g
th e fin d in g s
of au d ito ry
acu ity
S upra, p.
c o v e re d only
i m p o r t a n t f a c t w h ic h im ­
is
th eir
in d isp u ta b le
th a t th e m a jo rity
stim u li
process
to
to
th e
ten ­
ev id en ce
stim u li.
stu d ies
ju st
o f Guy L . B o n d s h o w i n g t h e
to re a d in g a b i l i t y .
176.
o f the
be m ore e f f e c t i v e
th an v is u a l
im p o rtan t w ith re fe re n c e
am ined a r e
to o ,
each o th e r and w ith e x p e r t o p in io n .
I t m ust be r e c a l l e d
fu rth erin g
but it,
in v estig ato rs.
IS
in
P art­
ex­
rela tio n
225
A ll o f t h is
a b ility
d a t a seem s to
to u s e know ledge i n
d o m in an tly o r a l ,
w ell as o f
is
the
jib e
so cial
to g e th e r in agreem ent t h a t
situ atio n s,
w hich a r e
pre­
r e a l t e s t of m a ste ry of know ledge,
so c ializ a tio n *
as
Some m i g h t e v e n s a y t h e t w o a r e
one •
E n g lis h c a n n o t be ta u g h t i n w a t e r t i g h t co m partm ents —
one f o r s i l e n t - -
one f o r o r a l #
tea ch in g of E n g lish ,
As t h e
P e r c i v a l Chubb,
a u th o rity
on t h e
says:
• . • E n g l i s h means f u n d a m e n t a l l y work
f o r goo d s p e e c h , an d • . . t h i s work i s a
fu n d am en tal, in s e p e ra b le , and i n t e g r a l p a r t
of th e c o u rse in E n g lish #
I t cannot stan d
apart#
Any t e n d e n c y t o w a r d s i s o l a t i o n i s
had . ^
T his m ust be th e
the
E n g lish te a c h in g
to
come t o g r i p s
so
c l o s e l y bound-up w ith a u d ito r y c o n c e p ts .
sta te d
w ith
case i f
by K im b a ll Y oung.
ever hopes
r e a l m eaning o f l a n g u a g e ,
w hich i s
T his h a s been
He s a y s :
. • • i n human c o m m u n ic a tio n t h e s e s t r i c t l y
non -lang uage v o cal f e a tu r e s a r e o f te n as s i g n i f ­
i c a n t a s a r e th e s t e r e o t y p e d w ords w hich a r e
e m p lo y e d , i f n o t more s o .
That i s to sa y ,
a t t i t u d e s and i d e a s a r e com m unicated, n o t a lo n e
i n w o r d s , b u t i n w h a t may b e c a l l e d v o c a l t e n ­
sio n s •
Why t h e
stan d
s h o u l d b e t a k e n b y so m e t h a t m a s t e r y
of
l v^ P e r c i v a l C h u b b , The T e a c h i n g o f E n g l i s h » (New Y o r k :
The M a c m i l l a n C o m p a n y , 1 9 2 9 ) , p . 3 8 0 .
18
K im b a ll Young, S o c i a l P s y c h o lo g y
C r o f t s an d Company, 1 9 3 0 ), p . 2 2 6 .
(New Y o r k :
F.
S.
226
oral
la n g u a g e c o u ld be d e t r i m e n t a l
Such a p o s i t i o n n e c e s s a r i l y
a fu ll
It
is
fe e lin g
easy to
for
s e e how s u c h a f u l l
sup p o rtin g
the
id ea th a t
a h in d eran ce*
a p p r e c i a t i o n of m eaning
speed of re a d in g ,
s l o w o n e down i n
th in g s b ein g
e n ta ils
th e m eaning o f a w ord i s
w o u l d s l o w o n e d ow n i n
co u ld n o t
seem s i n c o m p r e h e n s ib le *
but i t
certain ly
speed of com p reh en sio n ,
a ll
o th er
equal*
Boyd Bode h a s s i g n i f i c a n t l y
rem arked:
* • • th e problem o f h u m a n iz in g th e c u r ­
ric u lu m i s a problem o f o r g a n iz in g s u b j e c t
m a t t e r i n s u c h a w ay a s t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e
p r o g r e s s i v e r e l e a s e o f human c a p a c i t y * ^
There a r e
so c ia liz a tio n - -
two ways o f r e l e a s i n g human c a p a c i t i e s
for
silen t
tech ­
and o ra l*
n iq u es a re
concerned th ey a re th e
the
r e s p o n s e w hich th e y
so cial
layed*
O ral te c h n iq u e s
t e a c h e r and f e llo w
so cial pressure
create
ju st
The s t u d e n t m o s t k e e n l y
more i n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n
e lic it
i s n o t im m ediate,
oral a c tiv itie s
is
great
but de­
current
such a s o c i a l
in te reste d
th a n s i l e n t ones*
ed u catio n al
fee lin g
in
th e
reform s
c lassro o m *
i n and aw are o f h i s
i s m o s t c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e i r o p i n i o n o f him*
fo r p restig e
th at
I t m ight be s a i d t h a t g r e a t e r
I n C h a p t e r I I I n o t e w a s made o f
d e s ig n e d to
silen t
evoke im m ed iate r e a c t i o n s from b o th
stu d e n ts*
a tten d s
As f a r a s t h e
S ince
th e d e s ire
in a l l h u m an s,th e s o c i a l p re s s u r e
Boyd H• B o d e , M odern E d u c a t i o n a l
The M a c m i l l a n C o m p a n y , 1 9 2 7 ) , p . 3 6 *
T heories
fello w s
of the
(New Y o r k :
zm
group i s very l i k e l y
th e
so cial
atm osphere i s
ex p erim en tal s tu d ie s
re su lts
in term s
teach in g
to f a c i l i t a t e
w holesom e,
exam ined i n
tea ch e rs not tra in e d
in th e u se of
th is
as w ell as s o c ia l
is
when
why t h e
c h a p t e r showed s u p e r i o r
a lso
the u se of o r a l
e x p l a i n s why s o many
s p e e c h t e c h n iq u e s , and t e a c h ­
such s u b je c ts a s m anual t r a i n i n g ,
a rt,
a n d home e c o n o m i c s ,
s t u d i e s and l i t e r a t u r e , e x p r e s s a d e s i r e
speech te c h n iq u e s
th e ir p articu lar
at lea st
of c o n te n t m astery fo llo w in g
Perhaps t h i s
use
perhaps
th is
tec h n iq u e s.
in g
lea rn in g ,
in f a c i l i t a t i n g
f i e l d s , a s D. J .
to
m astery of c o n te n t i n
I r w i n h a s shown*
20
Y ears
ago F r a n k l i n B o b b itt c o n te n d e d :
The p r o b l e m o f m a k in g a b o y w a n t t o u s e
good E n g li s h i s , t h e r e f o r e , a p roblem o f
m aking h i s f e l l o w s e x p e c t him t o u s e good
E n g lish • .
A stu d en t h ard ly
c a re s what h i s
fello w s
e x p e c t when
h e h a n d s i n w r i t t e n work w hich i s a c o n f i d e n c e b e tw e e n h i m s e l f
and th e
b rin g
teach er.
th e p r e s s u r e
It
of
is
the
l a r g e l y o r a l p r o c e d u r e s w hich
the group
to
bear in
encouraging th e
m a ste ry of b o th la n g u a g e and th e c o n te n t c a r r i e d
lan g u ag e.
The f i n d i n g s
of th e ex p erim en ts h e r e in
by t h a t
exam ined
2 0 D o r o t h y J . I r w i q . , "A T e c h n i q u e f o r S u r v e y i n g S p e e c h
O p p o r t u n i t i e s i n t h e E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l , *' ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ’ s
t h e s i s , Wayne U n i v e r s i t y j D e t r o i t , 1 9 3 8 ) .
^
F r a n k l i n B o b b i t t , The C u r r i c u l u m
M i f f l i n C o m p a n y , 1 9 1 8 ) , p . 253*.
(New Y o r k : H o u g h t o n
228
seem t o
in d ic ate
pressed
th at
th e
t h e m ost
t h o s e w h ic h make t h e
In th is
1*
is
effectiv e
teach in g
ex­
t e c h n i q u e s w ould be
show t h a t j
d iv is io n of o p in io n re g a rd in g the a b i l i t y
The s c a n t
th ere
th e sis h ereto fo re
f u l l e s t u se of speech tech n iq u es#
of o r a l te c h n iq u e s to
th at
of th e
c h a p t e r a n e f f o r t h a s b e e n m ad e t o
There
2#
co rrectn ess
i s no l o s s
im p art,
form al' s u b je c t- m a tte r #
ex p erim en tal
ev id en ce su p p o rts
of c o n te n t m astery
th e
th ro u g h use
view
of o ral
tech n iq u es#
3#
Among o t h e r r e a s o n s
th e p resence of g r e a te r
e x p lain in g
so cial p ressu res
s i l e n t s i t u a t i o n s , w h ich w o u ld seem t o
form ances
in groups using la r g e ly
W ith t h i s
su p p o rt of
The f i n a l
the
th ese
in o ral
of th is
oral
as a g a in st
tech n iq u es#
of ev id en ce
d isse rta tio n
c h a p te r w ill endeavor to
comes t o
in
a clo se#
sum m arize th e v a r i o u s
o f reaso n in g p u rsu ed throughout t h i s
is
encourage s u p e rio r p e r­
c h a p te r th e p r e s e n ta tio n
th esis
fin d in g s
paper#
lin es
CHAPTER V I I I
RETROSPECT AND PROSPECT
There a re
one i s
th at
o f what i s
two e l e m e n t s I n v o l v e d i n
phase of le a rn in g
tra d itio n a lly
situ atio n s
sch o o ls
th a t p e rta in s
o rd in arily
effort
is
d irec te d
c o n te n t and s k i l l s
ta in p rin cip le s
o f gram m ar a r e
/
andat
a tte n tio n
the
to
It
—- t h e o t h e r i s ,
to
as s k i l l s ,
In th e
to w ard t r e a t i n g
o ften in cu lcated
th ese
Thus,
cer­
in a b stra c t
so cial
sit­
Many e d u c a t o r s h a v e s e e n
p r o g r e s s h a s b e e n made t o w a r d i t s
part
of th e purpose of t h is
tech n iq u es p ro v id e a lo g ic a l
m ethod o f i n t e g r a t i n g
The r e a l
th e sc h o o ls.
— sep arately .
t o gram m ar i s n i l .
h a s been a la r g e
show t h a t o r a l
to
learn in g
sa m e t i m e , i n o t h e r a n d v i t a l
t h i s problem and c e r t a i n
so lu tio n .
th e a q cu m u latio n
referred
and a re I n no se n se p e c u l i a r
two e l e m e n t s - -
u a tio n s
to
These elem en ts a r e p r e s e n t i n a l l
co n sid erab le
situ atio n s
e d u ca tiv e p r o c e s s -
th o u g h t of as c o n te n t
th e a c q u i s i t i o n of what i s
o r tech n iq u es.
th e
paper
and e f f i c i e n t
co n ten t w ith s k i l l s .
p u rp o s e o f a l l know ledge i s
to
sa tisfy
c ertain
w a n t s o r n e e d s w h i c h becom e m a n i f e s t t o human o r g a n i s m s .
One
f
of the
sire
m ost im m e d ia te ly o b v io u s o f a l l
for
d esire
so c ia liz a tio n .
th e s e w ants i s
th e
F o r t h e m ost p a r t , humans s a t i s f y
b y m e a n s o f s p e e c h o f so m e s o r t .
Now,
it
becomes
e v i d e n t t h a t t h e m ere p o s s e s s i o n o f know ledge w i t h o u t t h e
de­
th is
230
command o f o r a l ,
ach iev e
o r speech,
sa tisfa c to ry
tech n iq u es i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t
so c ia liz a tio n .
In a d d i t i o n t o know ledge,
one m ust have a c e r t a i n
command o f t h e
speech p ro ce sse s
achieve
C onversely,
is
so c ializ a tio n .
achieve e f f i c i e n t
so m e k n o w l e d g e ,
for
exam ple,
sk ills.
th e
alth o u g h
som etim es h a p p e n s , a s
and i n t e l l i g e n t l y
an alm o st p e r f e c t i n te g r a t i o n
o v erlo o k ed .
to
we l e a r n ,
The
rep re se n ts,
o f know ledge w ith
Such an i n d i v i d u a l i s u s i n g know ledge to
accom plish
o f a b a s i c b i o l o g i c a l urg e..
o rg a n is m s and t h a t
th e
Once t h i s
p lain fa c t th a t
classroom
is
fu lly
is
t h e s t u d e n t s a r e human
a so cial
situ atio n
is
o ften
r e a l i z e d , i t m ust become e v i d e n t
g r e a t e r u s e w i l l n e e d t o b e made o f o r a l t e c h n i q u e s ,
sim p ly b ecau se th e y
o rg an ism ’s a b i l i t y
is
th is
e ffic ie n tly
In sch o o ls th e
It
h ard ly p o ssib le
from P l a t o ’ s c r i t i c i s m s o f t h e S o p h i s t s .
sa tisfac tio n
th at
it
to
s o c i a l i z a t i o n w ith o u t th e p o ss e s sio n of
human b e i n g s p e a k i n g
th ere fo re ,
to
e q u ally
courses
cle ar
p ro v id e a m ost e f f i c i e n t m easure of th e
to
a p p ly know ledge i n a s i g n i f i c a n t
th at
t h i s d o e s n o t mean t h a t m ore s p e e c h
sh o u ld be added to
th e
cu rricu lu m , b u t th a t
train in g
should' ta k e p la c e in v i t a l
th ere
a real
is
m u n icate.
It
tra d itio n a l
so cial
language
situ atio n s
among t h e m e m b e r s o f t h e g r o u p
w here
t o com­
d o e s mean t h a t p r e s e n t t e a c h i n g m e th o d s i n
co n ten t
an o ra l fo o tin g
tu n itie s
d esire
way.
the
c o u r s e s s h o u l d be p l a c e d m ore l a r g e l y on
in o rd e r to p ro v id e th e
for a p p lic a tio n
s tu d e n ts w ith oppor­
of th a t c o n te n t in
so c ia liz a tio n .
231
T h is,
ro u g h ly ,
In
th esis
c o n stitu tes
endeavoring to
certain
i n o r d e r to
n a tu re of
language*
w ell
it
e sta b lish
psych ology ,
e sta b lish
W hile t h i s
or b io lo g y ,
e s t a b l i s h e d am on g t h e
is
made c l e a r t h a t
of b io lo g ic al
organism s
th esis
of
th is
the v a l i d i t y
th e
e sse n tia lly
it
has,
so c ia liz a tio n
as y e t,
th a t th e
the
a field
m ust f o llo w th e
and th e s e
b asic
th ese reaso n s,
fo r the
sk ills*
in te rre la tio n s
Once
o f two
same m a n n e r a s t h e
ru les
reaso n in g .
th en l i n g u i s t i c
If
train in g
o f p h y s io lo g ic a l b eh av io r,
o n ly n eed be exam ined to p r o v i d e
p rin c ip le s
so ci­
e stab lish m en t of subsequent
of b io lin g u istic s,
e stab lish ed
b io lo g ic al
i s m erely th e f i n a l sta g e ,
tak e p la c e i n fu n d am en tally th e
tw o o r g a n s ,
T h i s was
n o t become
of language
p o i n t s becom es l a r g e l y a m a t t e r o f l o g i c a l
is
of th is
i s n o t a new c o n c e p t i n
teachers
in te g ra tio n ,a n d
in te g ra tio n of
th ere
d isse rta tio n *
p h y s i o l o g i c a l d a t a w ere re v ie w e d *
necessary
o logy,
th e
e d u c a to rs w ith th e
te a c h in g o f lan g u ag e s k i l l s *
e f f o r t w as made i n C h a p t e r I I
For
t o make c l e a r
s o c i a l b e h a v io r and p h y s i o l o g i c a l b e h a v io r a r e
one and th e
th at
same
th in g *
From t h i s
sta rtin g
ena w ere c o n s id e r e d
p o i n t , c e r t a i n p h y s i o l o g i c a l phenom­
in o rd er to
d e te rm in e what p ro c e d u re s
lan g u ag e e d u c a tio n sh o u ld fo llo w .
tissu e
tic u la r
of th e
It
was shown t h a t
body f u n c t i o n e d and grew a t th e
p o i n t was made o f t h e
co m p lete grow th b e fo re
it
f a c t th a t th e
began fu n c tio n in g *
each
same t i m e .
P ar­
organism d id n o t
K e e p i n g i n m ind
232
th at
it
l a n g u a g e h a s b e e n shown to b e e s s e n t i a l l y b i o l o g i c a l ,
becomes c l e a r
th a t p e rf e c tio n of language
n o t be e x p e o te d on th e
sh o u ld be a ch iev e d
achieved
first
th ro u g h usage#
th ro u g h f u n c tio n in g ,
c ep t of ed u catio n
is
ab le
t h o s e who,
to
perform ance,
c ritic iz e
p h ilo so p h y ,
teach
was n e c e s s a r y
to
ill
If
p erfectio n
fo llo w in g
th at
d e v elo p , and d i f f e r e n t i a t e
but th a t p e rfe c tio n
In o rd er,
and s k i l l s
e sta b lish
should
is
to be
th e n th e w hole p r e p a r a t i o n
founded#
c o n ten t
sk ills
th e
th erefo re,
con­
to
be
p rep aratio n
a p a r t from each o t h e r i t
stru c tu re
and f u n c tio n grow ,
t o g e t h e r , each i n f l u e n c i n g and
i n t u r n b e in g i n f l u e n c e d by th e o t h e r *
C o n tin u in g
shown t h a t a t
th e
the
ex am in atio n of b io lo g ic a l
in ce p tio n of
o f e n e rg y w hich i s
released
In
th e c o u rs e of
to
two m a j o r f u n c t i o n s .
life
in the
t h e human l i f e
It
of th at
b o th th e
it
reference
to
z o o lo g is t and th e
a v aila b le
soon, how ever,
th is
is
t h e ovum#
energy i s
d ev o ted
to b u ild
tissu e s
em ployed i n t h e u s e o f
its
su rro u n d in g
a t re a c h in g a d ju stm en t w ith th e
environm ent#
env iro n m en t,
s o c io lo g ist d esig n ate as in te g ratio n #
As l o n g a s n e e d f o r new t i s s u e s
of th e
present a fie ld
p ro to p lasm o f
cy cle
was
By “ t h e u s e o f t i s s u e ” i s m e a n t t h e b e h a v i o r
tis s u e w ith
These e f f o r t s
is
is used p rim a rily
and, h av in g acco m p lish ed t h a t ,
th o se t i s s u e s .
th ere
d a ta ,it
is
dom inant th e g r e a t e r d e g re e
e n e rg y w i l l be d e v o te d t o
a s t h e n e e d f o r new t i s s u e s
th a t purpose.
decreases,
th e
/
energy n o t th u s used w ill
be d e v o te d to
th e,
so -called ,
As
£33
in te g rativ e
th e
fu n ctio n s*
tra d itio n a l
lo g ic a l n a tu re
to
e stab lish
used
th e
T his a n a l y s i s
show s c l e a r l y
s i l e n t tech n iq u es a re
of th e le a rn in g
th a t th e
su c cessiv ely fo r
d isreg ard in g
situ atio n
c h aracteristic
th e b io ­
a n d made i t
necessary
energy flow of l i f e
tis s u e b u ild in g
p r o p o r tio n d ev o ted to
th at
and i n t e g r a t i v e
is
purposes *
each b e in g d e p e n d e n t upon t h e n e ed
f o r new b o d y t i s s u e s *
From t h e
s t u d i e s o f G* E . C o g h i l l a n d o t h e r s
was p r e s e n t e d t o
even in
th at
th e
the
show t h a t t h e
em bryonic s ta g e s *
first
exam ple,
the
it
observed to
V ario u s o b se rv a tio n s
but rath er
was shown t h a t
e a rlie st
organism behaves a s i t
re s p o n se s of th e d e v elo p in g
d i s c r e t e m ovem ents,
oral
reflex es.
to ta l
b o d ily
b e in g a m ost h ig h ly
refin ed
a t i o n o f a w hole s e r i e s o f
term ed th e b a s ic
to
the
is
be e s t a b l i s h e d
of
For
At l a t e r
r e a c t i o n s w ere se en to
was c o n c l u d e d t h a t r e f l e x a c t i v i t y ,
type of b e h a v io r,
was t h e
cu lm in ­
r e s p o n s e s an d c o u l d i n no s e n s e be
u n i t o f b e h a v io r f o r e d u c a tio n a l purposes*
of teach in g
a t v a ria n c e w ith t h i s
type
language
d a ta and thus i t
th a t o rig in a l p a tte rn s
g ro ss, u n d ifferen tiated
p a tte rn s
responses*
L i k e w i s e , a r m m ovem ents w e re
The p r e v a l e n t e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e
a to m istic ally
in d ic ate d
embryo w ere n o t
t a k e p l a c e b e f o r e f i n g e r m ovem ents*
On s u c h g r o u n d i t
grow s,
l e g m ovem ents i n v a r i b l y a c c o m p a n ie d
s t a g e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t t h e more r e f i n e d
em erge*
ev id en ce
of
had
response are of
fro m w h ic h t h e m ore d i s c r e t e
r e s p o n s e , such as r e f 1 e x e s » e v e n tu a l ly d e v e lo p *
234
These f o u r c o n c lu s io n s
for
the
an aly sis
from b i o l o g y p r o v i d e d t h e
and c r i t i c i s m
of c u rre n t e d u c a tio n a l p ra c tic e s
w h ic h was t o
fo llo w *
E x am in atio n of a l l
im p e lle d 'th e
co n clu sio n th a t fu tu re
w ould be m ore l a r g e l y
oral
p o r t a n t of the p r a c t i c e s
g en erally
It
th e
b io lo g ic al
the
first
a b s tra c t e n tity
v io la te s
the
sen ted
for learn in g .
before
it
the
in
th at i t
It
to
th e
th ird
It
procedures.
v io la tes
a ll
en u n ciated .
fo u r of
It
a p a r t from e x p e r i e n c e .
in th a t
trie s
it
releg ates
language
p rin cip le
to
som e
sym bols b e in g p r e ­
it
the p u p il a t j u s t
th at
tim e when h e h a s a
the
ten d s
stru c tu re .
th at
in te g ra tio n
fo u rth p rin c ip le
t o g e t h e r t o p r o d u c e a w hole, r a t h e r
in
to
th an
th at
it
co u n terp arts
of th e
p h y s i o l o g y . T h is means t h a t
of th e
iso late
ever
endeavors
a n d t h e p i e c i n g o f them
th an th e o th e r
way a b o u t .
was t h e n show n t h a t c o n t e n t a n d s k i 1 1s a r e
or p ro jec tio n s
It
to b u i ld a com plete s t r u c t u r e
t e a c h l a n g u a g e by r e f i n i n g p a r t s
ed u catio n al
v io la tes
in
v io la tes
are
c o n c e iv e s language to be an
supp ly of energy fo r s o c ia l
It
si le n t
w i l l p e rm it any c o n sid e ra b le u se of th a t
v io la tes
before.
Among t h e m o r e i m ­
th is p ra c tic e
o r a l u se o f the
and d e - s o c i a l i z e
to
e arly
second p r in c ip le
d ate
g reater
in n atu re.
h a v in g r e a l i t y
fu tu re
It
e d u c a tio n a l tech n iq u es
p r in c ip le s p rev io u sly
p rin cip le
of th ese p ra c tic e s
o b s e r v e d wa s t h a t s c h o o l s t u d e n t s
c o n d itio n ed very
wa s s h o w n t h a t
b asis
stru c tu re
th e
and f u n c tio n
of
la n g u a g e sym bols a re m e re ly t o o l s —
body i n one s e n s e - -
and g a in
sig n ific an c e
235
o nly
th r o u g h em ploym ent by t h e o rg a n is m *
c o n s i s t e n t w ith
th e
four b io lo g ic a l
T h i s was shown t o be
p rin cip le s*
It
recognizes
t h a t l a n g u a g e m e a n i n g i s m e r e l y m em o ry o f a p h y s i o l o g i c a l
and t h e r e f o r e
e sse n tia lly
b i o l o g i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l
d ifferen t*
guage develops only
b ein g p o s s ib le
u tiliz e s
the
If
so cial
th is
language b e fo re
A th ird
poses a t
functio n s*
a n o p p o r t u n e m om ent i n
It
tow ard
was shown t h a t s u c h
energy f o r
th e c h ild * s
These te c h n iq u e s
t h a n dem anding p e r f e c t i o n
They p e r m i t u s i n g t h e
of le a rn in g the
tren d s are
in te g rativ e
life .
th at
pur­
W ider u s e
le a rn in g can
se n so ry e x p e rie n c e and t h a t a b s t r a c t i o n s
te n d to be m ean in g less*
rath er
school c h ild ren
use*.
t e c h n i q u e s means r e c o g n i t i o n
come o n l y f r o m d i r e c t
form ance.
in
p rin cip le
e x p e c t one to p e r f e c t
situ atio n s*
of
lan ­
L a n g u a g e .u s a g e
th is
o b s e r v a t i o n was t h a t p r e s e n t
classro o m
th at
Know ing t h a t r e f i n e m e n t
c o n c e p t does n o t
perm it th e r e le a s e
of so c ia liz e d
a ctiv ity ,
situ atio n s,
engaging in i t s
more s o c i a l i z e d
situ atio n s
reco g n izes
energy supply a v a ila b le
fo r use in in te g r a tiv e
fo llo w s u se,
th is
beh av io r a re n o t
th ro u g h o rg a n is m ic use*
on ly i n
larg e
a p p lied ,
set
language
p e r m i t m uch r a n d o m
o n the, f i r s t
per­
t o be t h e m ethod
lan g u ag e a n d ,th u s ,d o n o t d iv o rc e
stru ctu re
i
from f u n c tio n *
F in ally ,
it
was o b s e r v e d t h a t p r e s e n t frnends a r e
w ard abandonm ent of o l d s u b j e c t - m a t t e r d i s t i n c t i o n s *
to ­
236
T h i s was show n t o h e b i o l o g i c a l l y
so u n d ,fo r
be c o m p artm en talized ,an d le a rn in g
comes o n l y t h r o u g h
It
w a s sh o w n t h a t t h i s
stru c tu re
p h ilo so p h y a v o id s
from f u n c t i o n ,
or,
in o th er
ex p erien ce
cannot
ex p erien ce.
the d iv o rcem en t of
w ords,
o f c o n t e n t from
sk ills*
It
to rs
in
to
speech
the n a tu re
je c tio n ,
a b asis
th e
n e x t became n e c e s s a r y
ed u catio n proper,
to
see
ju d g em en t.
The l i n e
of
i n w hich th e
becom es obv io u s
and i t s
em ploym ent a r e
effo rts
at
th ere
re­
as
th at
c o n d itio n s
language
the
is
to
stru c tu re
W hile t h i s
is
presupposesbe u s e d .
of language
a lso
i n any o r a l
tru e
of w ritin g
i s no im m e d ia te check o r r e s p o n s e from t h e p a r t i e s w ith
in
m ediate check,
com m unication.
a n d one i s
language w hether i t
the o r a l
situ atio n s
e n e rg y by t h e
to
the
of le a rn in g ,
is
O ral s itu a tio n s
en ab led to
in
o f f e r a n im ­
observe as h e u ses
b ein g used e f f e c t i v e l y .
p r o v i d e t h e ’o p p o r t u n i t i e s
organism
The p r i n c i p l e
gross
and o b s e r v a tio n s
in v o lv ed sim u lta n e o u s ly
com m unication.
whom o n e i s
the
its
d i s s e r t a t i o n was so m e w h at a s f o l l o w s .
situ atio n
it
t h e r e was a n y t h i n g
reaso n in g fo llo w ed in
O r a l work done u n d e r n a t u r a l
Hence,
if
th e foreg o in g p r in c ip le s
body of th e
a so cial
th ese v ario u s fa c ­
o f s p e e c h work w hich w ould n e c e s s i t a t e
u sin g
for
to r e l a t e
so cial
fo r use of
in te g ra tio n .
th a t lea rn in g
r e f in e d a p p lie s w ith
A lso,
s h o u l d p ro c e e d from
eq u al fo rc e to
w r itte n as w ell as o r a l .
It
a ll
the
ty p es
should be n o te d
237
h ere
th at
it
is
p o ssib le
to
fash io n in v io la tio n of a l l
but here
th e problem s of
p rim a ry concern*
If
c o u r s e s , t h a t m eans,
are
speech in a v ery a to m is tic
the b e s t
p rin c ip le s
of le a r n in g ,
re g u la r speech c la s s e s a re n o t the
speech tech n iq u es a re
above e v e ry th in g
in fu sed in to
e lse,
th at
th e
g o i n g to be g i v e n more c h a n c e t o u s e s p e e c h *
speech
th e y w i l l p ro c e e d from t h e g r o s s
w i l l be s t r i v i n g
lea rn in g
to
A voidance o f
language i s
became p o s s i b l e ,
o r a l tech n iq u es a re
the a to m is tic
o th er
stu d e n ts
As t h e y u s e
th e refined*
to co m m u n icate,an d h e n c e , t h e i r
n o t be a t o m i s t i c .
It
teach
They
language can­
process of
in h e re n t in u n in h ib ite d c o n v ersatio n *
th erefo re,
to draw th e
co n clu sio n th a t
i n fund am en tal a cc o rd w ith
th e b io lo g ic a l
d a ta h e re in p re s e n te d *
A t t e n t i o n was t h e n a g a i n d i r e c t e d
and th e
fp llo w in g -lin e
If
teach in g ,
the b e s t
th at o ra l
to
ed u catio n al tren d s
of re a s o n in g pursued*
such p r a c t i c e s
as s i l e n t
vocabulary d r i l l s ,
read in g ,
f o r m a l gram m ar
an d so on a r e n o t
b io lo g ic a l e v id e n ce ,o n e i s
n a tu ra lly
te c h n iq u e s m ight a v o id th e p i t f a l l s
niques*
Such n e g a t i v e
how ever,
and one s h o u ld n o t r e s t
When o n e c o m p a r e s t h e
in acco rd w ith
le d to b e lie v e
of s i l e n t
tech ­
ty p e s o f r e a s o n i n g a r e alw ay s d a n g e r o u s ,
c o n te n t w ith
two t e c h n i q u e s ,
th e
such a c o n c lu s io n .
con clu sion fin d s
.
m ore s u p p o r t*
S ile n t tech n iq u es
n i q u e s do n o t ,
ten d * to
and th e p r e s e n t
iso late
p u p ils,
ed u catio n al tre n d s
oral
tech ­
are
tow ard
238
so c ializ e d
stu d e n t* s
classro o m
c la ssm a te s
creasin g h is
d itio n s.
to
re la te d
to
pressure
enable
o n him, t h u s
th e
d a te and t h e r e b y f a i l
to
tak e
in ­
use of
in to
f a c t t h a t la n g u a g e and lan g u ag e u sa g e a r e
each o th e r a s s t r u c t u r e
is
to
f u n c t i o n and t h a t
one c a n n o t d e v elo p w ith o u t the o th e r, o r w ith o u t b e in g
flu e n c e d by th e o th e r .
In o ral
u se d a s n eeded and t h e r e
c e p t such
the
im p ro v e m e n t u n d e r w holesom e c o n ­
tec h n iq u e s g e n e r a lly d elay l i f e - l i k e
so m e f u t u r e
c o n sid era tio n
O ral tech n iq u es
to p u t s o c i a l
chances fo r
S ilen t
language
situ atio n s.
situ atio n s
i s no s t o r i n g
th e
in ­
language
is
fo r fu tu re u se ,e x ­
s t o r i n g a s a lw a y s t a k e s p l a c e when one a c q u i r e s
a new e x p e r i e n c e .
F u rtherm ore,
silen t
guage a s an a b s t r a c t
tech n iq u es
ten d to
co n sid er
e n t i t y h a v in g a r e a l i t y a p a r t from th e
e x p e r ie n c e s f o r w hich i t s
sym bols a r e n am es.
It
d iv o rce
th in g s
stan d s *
language
p resen t tren d in
from t h e
ru n n in g c o u n te r to
tic a l
them b o t h i n
sen ten ce
an e f f o r t to
ment and, w h ile he i s
is
The
su b ject-
fin d th em selv es
o r a l m ethods te n d
the
know ledge o f c o n t e n t and o f la n g u a g e .
uses
to
In c o n t r a s t w ith th e a n a ly ­
s i l e n t m ethods,
W ith a s i n g l e
trie s
b r e a k down t h e
such s i l e n t p ro c e d u re s
the c u rre n t.
ten d en cies of
sy n th esize.
f o r w hich i t
e d u c a tio n bein g to
m atter d is tin c tio n s ,
lan ­
speaker rev eals h is
A t t h e s a m e m o m e nt h e
in te g ra te
w ith h i s
so do in g , t h e o t h e r p e r s o n s
s p e a k i n g make r e a c t i o n s w h i c h r e v e a l
to
en v iro n ­
t o whom h e
t o him w h e th e r t h i s
239
effort
is
a success o r a f a ilu r e .
i s no w a i t i n g
re su lts.
K arr,
fo r a paper to
That i s
be r e t u r n e d
As w a s s h o w n w h e n r e f e r r i n g
t h e y h a v e t e n d e d t o u s e more s p e e c h .
concluded t h a t
o ra l tech n iq u es a re
p resen t tren d s
in e d u catio n al
In a d d itio n to b eing
d a ta and c u r r e n t
e d u catio n al
in
to
w h en ev er s c h o o l s h a v e gone on th e
in te g ra tio n .
in re la tio n
was c a l l e d t o
th e
lik e A risto tle
i n t e g r a t e d program
Thus,
a tim e,
men l i k e
co n sisten t
tren d s,
w orthy of
the
ro le
of
subsequent rh e to ric a l
oral
o th er
su b ject
te c h n iq u e s w ere
p lo y ed to
itio n
in te g ra to r of the
cu rricu lu m ,
a u t h o r i t i e s , l i k e W hately,
in the c u rric u lu m .
field
for
s p e c i a l i z e d t y p e o f work n o t
th e c la s s ic a l
B lair,
C am pbell,
re a so n in g and
i n c i d e n t a l to
sin ce
sp eak in g
c o n te n t of any o t h e r f i e l d .
of speech in
but th a t
every
In the o r d in a r y s e n s e ,
te c h n iq u e s w hich c h a r a c t e r i z e
of the
a tten tio n
and L yly c o n s i d e r e d sp e e c h
sp e e c h a s a s u b j e c t w hich i s
tra n s m it the
ty p es of ev id en ce.
I t was shown t h a t ,
s p e e c h was shown t o h a v e no s u b j e c t - m a t t e r ,
m u n icativ e
th e b i o lo g ic a l
s p e e c h was a c c o r d e d t h e
R ich a rd s,a n d W o o lb e rt,re a s s e rte d
now c o n s i d e r
w ith th e
am o ng t h e a n c i e n t a u t h o r i t i e s ,
S herry,
a s a v ery narrow and h ig h ly
was f u r t h e r
in te g r a t e d program ,
cu rricu lu m .
Faunce,
it
c o n s i s t e n t w ith both
and Q u in tilia n ,
c e n tr a l p o s itio n in the
stu d y of H a rriso n
th o u g h t and p r a c t i c e .
to th e
fact th at
o rd e r to m easure
the
shown t o b e s u p p o r t e d b y o t h e r m i s c e l l a n e o u s
F o r ex am p le,
There
the
com­
c a n b e em­
A d efin ­
s u b s t a n t i a l agreem ent w ith a l l
240
th e
foreg o in g p rin c ip le s
h eld
th at
the
c o n ten t
of stim u la tin g
field s
the
and o b s e r v a t i o n s was p r e s e n t e d w h ic h
of the f i e l d
of
re c e p tio n of th e
speech is
c o n ten t
th e
of a ll
tech n iq u e
the
of know ledge»
T he d a t a , o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s
and v i s u a l s t im u li
fo r th e
au d ito ry
was c o n c l u s i v e
stim u li
in
in
com paring a u d i t o r y
show ing a s u p e r i o r i t y
s u c h t h i n g s a s memory a n d p e r ­
c e p tio n of m ean in g fu l m a t e r i a l .
I t was f u r t h e r
such a r e l a ti o n s h i p
co n tin u e,in asm u ch as
d aily
is
en v iro n m en t i s
stim u li.
of. t h i s
show
o th er
From t h i s
lik e ly
to
b eco m in g e v e r more cro w d ed w i t h
d a ta
two c o n c l u s i o n s s u s t a i n i n g
d i s s e r t a t i o n w ere draw n, nam ely,
su p erio r!ty
sh o w n t h a t
over v isu al
le a rn in g , p a rtic u la rly
stim u li
the
au d ito ry
th e
th a t au d ito ry
i n m an y f a c t o r s
th esis
stim u li
of
t h e m em ory a n d p e r c e p t i o n o f m e a n i n g ­
f u l v e r b a l m a t e r i a l t and t h a t a l l
sig n s
in d ic a te
th at
the
human e n v i r o n m e n t w i l l b e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a n i n c r e a s i n g
q u a n tity of a u d ito ry
stim u li
in the
I n m aking an a n a l y s i s
d isco v ered th a t
the
of
fu tu re.
t h e n e e d s o f p u p i l s , i t was
sch o o ls have been g u i lt y
n e g le c t of p e rs o n a lity c o n sid eratio n s*
show t h a t
ren
t o o m an y t e a c h e r s p r e f e r
t h a n t h e more t a l k a t i v e
T h i s was s h o w n t o
v iew w hich r e g a r d s
of a c o n s id e ra b le
E v id e n c e was o f f e r e d
to have d o c ile ,
q u iet c h ild ­
and a g g r e s s i v e p e r s o n a l i t i e s .
be opposed to t h e m en ta1 -h y g ie n e p o in t o f
the
q u iet,
re tirin g
to
ch ild as a d e fin ite
241
p e rso n ality
problem *
p e rso n ality
i n a c t i o n and t h a t a c lo s e
rela tio n sh ip
train in g *
e x ists
I t was shown t h a t
is
the
c a u s a l and r e c i p r o c a l
b e tw e e n sp e ec h t r a i n i n g and m e n ta l- h y g ie n e
Such t r a i n i n g
was shown t o b e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h p r e ­
se n t e d u c a tio n a l tren d s*
th at
speaking
Hence, i t
became p o s s i b l e
to
no te
speech and p e r s o n a l i t y g row , d ev elo p and d i f f e r e n t i a t e
to g eth er
each in
tu rn
i n f l u e n c i n g and beinff i n f l u e n c e d by th e
o th er*
The d a t a
exam ined i n th e
w i t h some e x p e r i m e n t a l
p a re o r a l and w r i t t e n
te a c h in g tech n iq u es*
o ral as
a g reater
com pared w ith t h e
a ll
of con­
as a consequence of u sin g o r a l p ro ­
was a c t u a l l y
W hile t h e s e s t u d i e s
g ain in
trad itio n a l
tak e
place*
c o n te n t m astery
procedures*
h a d many s o u r c e s o f e r r o r a n d d i d n o t
i n v o lv e any g r e a t num bers o f s t u d e n t s ,
ab le
s t u d i e s w ere
I n no e x p e r i m e n t e x am in ed d i d su c h a l o s s
I n so m e t h e r e
th e
These
to d e te rm in e w hether any l o s s
t e n t m a s t e r y w ould a r i s e
by t h e
c h a p t e r w ere c o n c e rn e d
s t u d i e s c o n d u c t e d i n a n e f f o r t t o com­
c o n d u c te d i n an e f f o r t
cedures*
sev en th
s t i l l , th ey a l l
reached
s a m e g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s w h i c h i-n e v e r y c a s e w h e r e f a v o r ­
to
oral
tech n iq u es*
C o n seq u en tly ,
t h a t some e x p e r i m e n t s i n d i c a t e
em ployed i n s t r i c t l y
oral
tech n iq u es
su b .je ct-m a tte r co u rses w ith o u t
c o n t e n t m a s te ry and, i n
m astery *
th at
i t was f u r t h e r
concluded
can be
lo ss
of
some c a s e s , e v e n w i t h _a g a i n i n s u c h
242
L ik e a l l
stu d ies
w hich each c r i t i c
th is
one i s
b a se d on a ssu m p tio n s
w i l l n e e d to w eigh and e v a l u a t e f o r h im s e lf *
S ince
t h e a s s u m p t i o n s a r e n o t new a n d a r e w e l l a c c e p t e d i n
o th er
field s, i t
did n o t
c o n n ec tio n w ith t h i s
grow th,
se em o u t o f p l a c e
w ork.
and b e h a v io r a r e
in C h ap ter I I I .
c u rre n t e d u catio n al
p r o c e d u r e s was i n
of
th e
I t h as been assum ed t h a t
E f f o r t was made t o
tendency to
stress
th e,
To r e c t i f y
th is
the c o n s tr u c tiv e
so -called ,
the
silen t
b io lo g ic a l n atu re
circ u m sta n ce , i t
core of th is
la rg e ly
show t h a t
r e a s o n e d t h a t o r a l t e c h n i q u e s w ould be n e c e s s a r y .
resid es
in
ed u catio n al p r a c tic e s are
c o n f l i c t w ith th e b a s ic
in d iv id u a l.
life ,
as th ey have b een d e s c r ib e d ,
C h a p te r I I , and t h a t c u r r e n t
as p ictu red
t o make t h e m i n
w ork.
was
H erein
O thers have ex­
am ined th e b i o l o g i c a l n a t u r e o f th e i n d i v i d u a l and s u g g e s te d
ed u catio n al changes.
exam ined.
vo cated
th ese
O thers have observed the
reform s.
These,
in p a rt,
been
e d u c a tiv e p ro c e s s and ad­
t o o , have b een exam ined.
In a ll
e x a m i n a t i o n s a n d r e - e x a m i n a t i o n s , f e w h a v e m ad e m e n t i o n
o f the r o le
effort
cip les.
to
These su g g e stio n s h av e,
to
s p e e c h t e c h n i q u e s w ould n e c e s s a r i l y p l a y
reform
e d u catio n al p ra c tic e s
on b i o l o g i c a l
i n any
p rin ­
T h o s e who h a v e s e e n t h e p r o b l e m h a v e n o t s e e n f i t
expound i t
a t any le n g t h .
T his h a s been th e
e ffo rt of th is
e x p o sitio n .
O ral te c h n iq u e s,
ev id en ce and c u rr e n t
b e in g in agreem ent w ith th e b i o l o g i c a l
e d u c a tio n a l re fo rm s,a n d h av in g a s u b je c t-
243
m a t t e r w hich c u t s a c r o s s a l l
c a n be e x p e c t e d to
p rac tic es.
are
T his
su p erio r
m o r t a l s * . To t h e
developm ent,
so n a lities
and the
is
play a la r g e r r o le
is
esp ecially
to v i s u a l
because of t h e i r
reg u lar su b je ct-m a tte r lin e s ,
stim u li
preponderance
tru e
in the
lik e lih o o d
lik e ly
to re m a in so
of a l l
of speech and p e r s o n a l i t y
th at
speech tech n iq u es
stim u li
everyday l i f e
effo rts
c a n b e m ad e w i t h o u t a n y l o s s
case fo r
ed u catio n al
sin ce a u d ito ry
and a re
c lo se re la tio n s h ip
add th e
in fu tu re
to dev elo p
per­
o f c o n te n t m astery,
in the
ed u cativ e p ro cess
summed u p .
If
t h e a s s u m p tio n s on w h ich t h i s
a c c e p te d and th e
sound,
study
is
based a re
r e a s o n in g fo llo w e d th ro u g h o u t found to
t h e n , i t becomes n e c e s s a r y
i n expounded a s a b a s ic
th a t in m o st,
to
be
c o n sid er th e th e s is h e re ­
ed u catio n al p rin c ip le
and conclude
a l l , e d u catio n al teach in g s itu a tio n s
t h e m o s t e f f i c i e n t p r o c e d u r e s w i l l b e t h o s e w h i c h m ak e t h e
f u lle s t use
of o ra l
In th is
e x p ressio n .
way, a d e q u a te o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s o c i a l i z a t i o n
w i l l be p ro v id e d a n d , a t th e
sk ills
way.
same t i m e , t h e k n o w l e d g e a n d
a c q u ir e d w i l l be im m e d ia te ly a p p li e d
In th is
way,
in p sitta c ism s,
know ledge.
m aking th e
In
sch o o ls
p a rtic ip a tio n
la n g u a g e m a s te r y w i l l no l o n g e r r e s u l t
but w ill
th is
in a s ig n ific a n t
be in te g r a te d w ith
way, a n o t h e r s t e p
less
in l i f e .
c o n ten t,
or
w i l l be t a k e n t o w a r d
a p rep aratio n fo r l i f e
a n d m ore a
BIBLIOGRAPHY
SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY OF CITED VifORKS
INTRODUCTION
T his, b i b l i o g r a p h y
siv e.
th is
O thers p u rsu in g a t h e s is
s im ila r to
d i s s e r t a t i o n w ould be l i k e l y
elsew h ere.
in g
i s n e i t h e r e x c l u s i v e n o r com prehen­
list
to
th a t o u tlin e d in
f i n d much v a l u a b l e d a t a
O nly t h o s e w orks have b e e n i n c l u d e d i n t h e f o l l o w ­
w hich-have had a d e f i n i t e
c lu s io n s of t h i s p a p e r.
e f f e c t i n fo rm ing th e
The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s
con­
i n t o w hich th e
v a r i o u s w orks h av e b een s e g r e g a t e d a r e m e re ly s u g g e s t i v e .
In
m an y c a s e s i t e m s c o u l d h a v e b e e n c l a s s i f i e d u n d e r s e v e r a l
head in g s,
b u t su ch r e p e t i t i o n s have n o t b e e n made.
fere n ce has been e n te red
o n ly once i n th e
w orks h a v e b e e n c l a s s i f i e d
Each r e ­
b ib lio g rap h y .
A few
as G eneral R e fe re n c e s, not because
o f t h e i r g e n e r a l s c o p e , b u t b e c a u se o f t h e i r g e n e r a l and f a r
reach in g
in flu e n ce
docum ent.
e ig h t
The l i s t
e n tries
ica l a rtic le s,
p h lets,
in shaping th e
th in k in g
w hich p ro d u c e d t h i s
w hich f o llo w s
c o n ta in s
one h u n d red f i f t y -
o f w hich e ig h t y - o n e a r e b o o k s,
f if ty - f o u r p erio d ­
e i g h t e e n t h e s e s and d i s s e r t a t i o n s ,
f o u r pam­
and one n e w s p a p e r a r t i c l e .
I.
GENERAL REFERENCES:
A. Books
C a n t r i p H a d l e y a n d G o r d e n W. A l l p o r t , The' P s y c h o l o g y o f
R ad io .
New Y o r k : H a r p e r a n d B r o t h e r s , 1935*. 2 7 6 p p .
246
P r o b a b l y t h e b e s t s c i e n t i f i c s t u d y i n book form d e a l i n g
w ith th e e f f e c tiv e n e s s o f ra d io a d v e r tis in g *
V aluable
in t h i s p ap er f o r d a ta re v e a lin g a s u p e r i o r i t y of a u d ito r y
over v isu a l stim u li*
C h i l d , C h a r l e s M anning, S e n e s c e n c e and R e ju v e n e s c e n c e *
C h i c a g o ; C h ic a g o U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1916*
481 pp*
B r i l l i a n t account of th e n atu re of l i f e .
C ontains d a ta
b a s i c to t h i s s tu d y on th e r e l a t i o n o f e n e rg y , s t r u c t u r e ,
and f u n c tio n to th e v a rio u s p h ases of th e l i f e cy cle*
_________ , P h y s i o l o g i c a l F o u n d a t i o n s o f B e h a v i o r *
H e n ry H o l t a n d Company, 1924*
330 p p .
New Y o rk::
An e n l a r g e m e n t a n d r e f i n e m e n t o f t h e b a s i c t h e s i s o f
Senescence and R eju v en escen ce* E s p e c ia lly v a lu a b le to
t h i s s t u d y a r e t h e f i n a l tw o c h a p t e r s w h i c h s h o w t h e
c o n t i n u i t y o f b i o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l b e h a v io r*
P r e s c o t t , D a n ie l A l f r e d , c h a irm a n , E m otion and t h e E d u c a tiv e
P r o c e s s * A r e p o r t o f t h e C om m ittee on t h e R e l a t i o n o f
E m otion to th e E d u c a tiv e P r o c e s s .
W ashington: A m erican
C o u n c i l on E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 3 8 .
323 p p .
A summary o f t h e b e s t c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h o n e m o t i o n s .
B asic th e s is in v o lv e s a c r i tic is m of t r a d i t i o n a l
p r a c tic e of reg ard in g th e stu d en t as a p assiv e e n tity .
A d v o c a t e s m o r e e x c i t e m e n t i n t h e c l a s s r o o m a s a n a i d to.
lea rn in g .
V a lu a b le to t h i s s tu d y f o r i t s em phasis on
th e v a lu e s of s o c i a l i z i n g te c h n iq u e s i n ed u catio n *
W h i t e h e a d , A l f r e d N o r t h , T he A im s o f E d u c a t i o n a n d O t h e r
E ssays.
New Y o r k : : M a c m i l l a n C o m p a n y , 1 9 2 9 .
247 p p .
P h i l o s o p h i c d e n u n c i a t i o n s by a f i r s t r a n k m a th e m a ti c ia n
o f t h e d o c t r i n e "K now ledge i s P o w e r . "
V aluable to t h i s
study f o r i t s d e m o n stra tio n of th e n e c e s s ity of elim ­
i n a t i n g v e r b a l g y m n a s ti c s from o u r s c h o o l s .
Young, K im b a ll, S o c ia l P s y c h o lo g y .
an d Company, 1 9 3 0 .
674 pp.
New Y o r k : : F .
S* C r o f t s ^
Thorough t r e a t m e n t o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s e s p e c i a l l y
v a lu a b le to th is stu d y because of i t s b io lo g ic a l ex­
p l a n a t i o n of s o c i a l behavior*.
B. P e r i o d i c a l A r t i c l e s
247
C o g h i l l , G. E . , ” T h e E a r l y D e v e l o p m e n t o f B e h a v i o r i n
A m blystom a a n d i n M an ,” A r c h i v e s o f N e u r o lo g y and P s y ­
c h i a t r y , XXI ( 1 9 2 9 ) , 9 8 9 - 1 0 0 9 .
A r e s e a r c h r e p o r t show ing t h a t b e h a v i o r b e g in s i n o v e r ­
a l l r e s p o n s e s and i s s u b s e q u e n tly c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a
p rocess of re fin e m e n t.
O u t r i g h t , P r u d e n c e , f,A C o m p a r i s o n o f M e t h o d s o f S e c u r i n g
C o r r e c t Language U s a g e ,'1 E le m e n ta ry S chool J o u r n a l ,
XXXIV (M ay, 1 9 3 4 ) , 6 8 1 - 9 0 . ,
One o f tw o r e p o r t s i n p e r i o d i c a l l i t e r a t u r e c o v e r i n g
e x p e r i m e n t a t io n on o r a l and o t h e r t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s .
H e r r i c k , C . J . , a n d G. E . C o g h i l l , " T h e D e v e l o p m e n t o f R e ­
f l e x M echanism s i n A m b ly sto m a, ” J o u r n a l o f C o m p a ra tiv e
N e u r o l o g y , XXV ( 1 9 1 5 ) , 6 5 - 8 5 . _
R eport of experim ents re v e a lin g th e r e f l e x as th e c u l­
m in atio n of d e v e lo p in g b eh av io r p a t t e r n s .
The s c i e n ­
t i f i c r e f u t a t i o n o f th e a to m is tic approach to t r a i n i n g
of b eh av io r.
W o o l b e r t , C h a r l e s H e n r y , "The O r g a n i z a t i o n o f D e p a rtm e n ts ,
o f Speech S cien ce in U n i v e r s i t i e s , ” Q u a rte rly Jo u rn a l
of P u b lic S p e a k in g , I I (Ja n u ary , 1916), 64-77.
The m o s t s o u n d a n d c l e a r a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e l a t i o n o f t h e
f i e l d of speech to o th e r ed u cativ e a re a s .
D em onstrates
g ra p h ic a lly th e in te g r a tiv e n a tu re of th e f i e l d of
speech.
C.
T h esis
C a r m i c h a e l , H a r r i e t E . , ”A C o m p a r a t i v e E v a l u a t i o n o f O r a l
and W r i t t e n M ethods o f T e a c h in g T e n th G rade E n g l i s h , ”
U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , Wayne U n i v e r s i t y , D e t r o i t
M ich ig an , 1938.
The b e t t e r o f t h e o n l y two a v a i l a b l e t h e s e s r e p o r t i n g
c o n tr o lle d e x p e rim e n ta tio n of o r a l and t r a d i t i o n a l
teach in g tech n iq u e s.
I I . BIOLOGICAL REFERENCES
A. Books
248
C h i l d , C h a r l e s M a n n i n g a n d o t h e r s , T he U n c o n s c i o u s , A
S y m p o s i u m . New Y o r k : A l f r e d A* K n o p f , 1 9 2 9 *
260 p p .
A s y m p o s i u m o r g a n i z e d h y W. I . T h o m a s .
C h ild 's con­
t r i b u t i o n i s a summary o f h i s v i e w t h a t t h e r e i s a
c o n t i n u i t y betw een s o c i a l and p h y s i o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t y .
C o g h i l l , G. E . , A n a t o m y a n d t h e P r o b l e m o f B e h a v i o r .
London: C am bridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1928.
113 p p .
Anatomy c o n s i d e r e d f r o m a f u n c t i o n a l r a t h e r
s t a t i c .v ie w p o in t.
E i s e n s o n , J o n , The P s y c h o l o g y o f S p e e c h .
C r o f t s an d Company, 1 9 3 8 .
280 p p .
th an a
New Y o r k :: F .
S.
O nly work d e v o t e d e x c l u s i v e l y t o t h e p s y c h o lo g y o f
speech.
S k e tc h y and i n a d e q u a t e .
L arg ely a d e s c r ip tio n
o f t h e anatom y o f sp e e c h w ith o u t s u f f i c i e n t em p h asis
on i t s f u n c t i o n a l n a t u r e *
The v i e w o f a t r a d i t i o n a l
la b o r a to r y p s y c h o lo g is t r a th e r th an a s o c ia l psych­
o lo g ist.
N eg lects b io lo g ic a l ap p ro ach , but h as a f a i r
t h e o r e t i c a l a n a ly s is of th e n a tu r e of lan g u ag e.
H e r r i c k , C. J . , N e u r o l o g i c a l F o u n d a t i o n s , o f A n i m a l B e h a v i o r .
New Y o r k ; H e n r y H o l t a n d C o m p a n y , 1 9 2 4 .
334 p p .
_________ , An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o N e u r o l o g y .
S a u n d e r s Company, 1 9 3 4 .
417 p p .
P h ilad e lp h ia :
W. B.
B oth w orks p r o v i d e a c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s o f t h e a b i l i t y
of a l l p ro to p la sm to re c e iv e and tr a n s m it s t i m u l i .
The s e c o n d w ork i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t a s i t r e l a t e s
th e f i n d in g s o f n e u ro lo g y to e d u c a tio n a l p r a c t i c e and
c o n c l u d e s by d e n o u n c i n g o u r c u r r e n t " b r i c k y a r d m e th o d s
in e d u ca tio n ."
H u x le y , J* S , , P ro b le m s o f R e l a t i v e G ro w th .
P r e s s , 1931.
276 p p .
A n o th e r work u p h o l d i n g t h e c o n t i n u i t y
b i o l o g i c a l behavior*.
Johnson, John C ., E d u ca tio n a l B io lo g y .
M a c m i l l a n Company, 1 9 3 0 .
360 p p .
of
New Y o r k : D i a l
s o c i a l and
New Y o r k : . T h e
One o f t h e f e w t r e a t i s e s o n a n i m p o r t a n t s u b j e c t .
F a i l s t o l i v e up to t h e p rom ise of i t s p r e f a c e and d e ­
g e n e r a t e s i n t o a n o th e r b io lo g y manual f o r t e a c h e r s
249
r a t h e r t h a n sh ow ing t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s
fin d in g s f o r e d u c a tio n a l tech n iq u es*
of b io lo g ic a l
K o h l e r , W . , T h e M e n t a l i t y o f A p e s * New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t
B r a c e a n d C o m p a n y , 19 2 5 *
342 pp*
I m p o r t a n t h e r e i n show ing t h a t t o o l s h a v e no s i g n i f i c a n c e
a p a r t from t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s em ploying t h e
to o ls*
M e t c h n i k o f f , E . , T he P r o l o n g a t i o n o f L i f e *
G-. P . . P u t n a m * s S o n s , 1 9 1 0 *
3 4 3 pp*
New Y o r k :
H o ld s d e a th to r e s u l t from i n t o x i c a t i o n o f o rg a n s
r a t h e r th a n from a d i f f e r e n t i a l i n r a t e s o f p r o d u c t i o n
and b reak -d o w n o f t i s s u e s *
T h is view i s c o n tr a r y to
t h a t h e ld i n t h i s paper*
Ogden, R o b e rt M o rris and F ra n k S . F reem an, P s y c h o lo g y and
E d u c a t i o n * New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e a n d C o m p a n y , 1 9 3 2 *
3 5 0 pp*
An e x c e l l e n t a c c o u n t o f t h e r e l a t i o n o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l
and b i o l o g i c a l d a t a t o t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s .
E sp ecially
good i n d i s p a r a g i n g t h e a t o m i s t i c a p p ro a c h .
O ’ N e i l l , J a m e s M . , a n d J a m e s H. M c B u r n e y ,
The W o r k i n g
P r i n c i p l e s o f A r g u m e n t * New Y o r k : T h e M a c m i l l a n C o m p a n y ,
1932*
441 pp*
C ontain s b r i e f
speech*
reference
to th e b io lo g ic a l n a tu r e
of
F i l l s b u r y , W a l t e r B . , a n d C l a r e n c e L . M e a d e r , The P s y c h o l o g y
o f L a n g u a g e * New Y o r k : D. A p p l e t o n a n d C o . , 1 9 2 8 .
306 p p •
An e x c e l l e n t a c c o u n t o f t h e n a t u r e o f l a n g u a g e r e v e a l i n g
a te n d e n c y t o c o n s i d e r t h e w hole p ro b le m u n d e r t h e h e a d ­
in g of b i o l i n g u i s t i c s .
R i t t e r , W i l l i a m E m e r s o n , The U n i t y o f t h e O r g a n is m .
R i c h a r d G-. B o d g e r , 1 9 1 9 .
408 p p .
The p h y s i o l o g i c a l
approach of t h i s
B oston:
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S p e n g l e r , O sw ald, D e c lin e of t h e W est.
New Y o r k : A l f r e d A.
Knopf, 1 9 3 4 .
V o l . I , 428 p p . , V o l . I I , 507 p p .
250
Profound*
V a lu ab le to t h i s stu d y becau se of i t s
s c h o la rly e x p la n a tio n of th e b io lo g ic a l b a sis of
language*.
T i l n e y , F . , T h e B r a i n f r o m Ape t o M a n *
B* H o e b e r , I n c * , 1 9 2 8 .
1 2 0 pp*
New Y o r k : P a u l
Sho w s n e r v o u s s y s t e m t o b e t h e c u l m i n a t i o n o f a n e v o ­
l u t i o n from u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d p r o to p la s m .
T r a v i s , Lee Edw ard, S peech P a t h o l o g y .
a n d Company, 1 9 3 1 .
3 3 1 pp*
New Y o r k ; - D. A p p l e t o n
N e u ro lo g ical e x p la n a tio n of s t u t t e r i n g
on C h ild * s c o n c e p t o f g r a d i e n t s .
w hich i s
founded
W h e e l e r , R* H * , T h e S c i e n c e o f P s y c h o l o g y .
New Y o rk:;
Thomas Y. C r o w e l l Company, 1 9 2 9 .
556 p p .
_________ , R e a d i n g s i n P s y c h o l o g y .
New Y o r k :
C r o w e l l Company, 1 9 3 0 .
59? p p .
Thomas Y.
F i r s t work e x p o u n d s an o r g a n i s m i c r a t h e r t h a n a n a t ­
o m istic approach.
R eadings i n p sy c h o lo g y c o n ta in s
p a p e r s by C o g h i ll and C h ild .
W h e e l e r , W i l l i a m M . , The S o c i a l I n s e c t s , T h e i r O r i g i n a n d
E v o lu tio n .
New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e a n d C o m p a n y ,
1928.
378 p p .
V a lu a b le i n show ing t h a t a b s t r a c t
n o t p e c u l i a r to hum ans.
la n g u a g e sym bols a r e
B. P e r i o d i c a l A r t i c l e s
C o n k l i n , E . G-. , " C e l l S i z e a n d N u c l e a r S i z e , 11 J o u r n a l o f
E x p e r im e n ta l Z o o lo g y , X II ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 1 2 ), 1 -9 8 .
_________ , “ The S i z e o f O r g a n i s m s a n d o f T h e i r C o n s t i t u e n t
P a r t s i n R e l a t i o n to L o n g e v ity , S e n e sc e n c e and R e ju v e n e s c e n c e , " P o p u l a r S c i e n c e M o n t h l y , L X X X II I ( A u g u s t ,
1 9 1 3 ), 178-98.
S u b s t a n t i a t i o n of t h e view h e l d by C h ild and E n r iq u e s
t h a t d e a t h r e s u l t s from a d e c r e a s e i n t h e amount o f
c h e m ic a lly a c t i v e p ro to p la sm w ith o u t com pensatory r e ­
ju v en escen ce. *
351
E n riq u es, P .,
106-126.
"La m o r t e , n R i v i s t a
di S cien za, II
(1907),
, "W achstum u n d s e i n e a n a l y t i s c h e D u r s t e l l u n g , H
B i o l o g i s c h e Z e n t r a l b l a t t . XXIX ( 1 9 0 9 ) , 3 3 1 - 3 5 2 .
S u b s t a n t i a t i o n o f t h e v i e w h e l d by C o n k l i n a n d C h i l d
reg ard in g th e cause of d e a th .
A ll these th e o rie s are
im p o rtan t to t h i s stu d y in t h a t th ey d e a l w ith th e
p la c e o f th e energ y d r iv e i n t i s s u e b u i ld i n g and i n ­
te g r a tiv e a c t i v i t i e s as re la te d to th e l i f e c y c le .
J e n n i n g s , H. S . , flA g e , D e a t h , a n d C o n j u g a t i o n i n t h e L i g h t
o f work on Low er O rg a n ism s,* 1 P o p u l a r S c i e n c e M o n t h l y ,
LXXX ( J u n e , 1 9 1 2 ) , 5 6 3 - 7 7 .
_________ , ‘'T h e E f f e c t o f C o n j u g a t i o n i n P a r a m e c i u m , " J o u r n a l
o f E x p e r i m e n t a l Z o o l o g y , XIV ( 1 9 1 3 ) , 2 7 9 - 3 9 1 .
P r e s e n t th e view t h a t a g ein g i s th e consequence o f
i n c r e a s e d c o m p l e x i t y o r d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n w i t h o u t a com­
p en sato ry pro cess of d e d if f e re n tia tio n .
_________ , " H e r e d i t y a n d E n v i r o n m e n t , 11 S c i e n t i f i c
XIX ( S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 2 4 ) , 2 2 5 - 3 8 .
M onthly,
An e x c e l l e n t a c c o u n t o f t h e p l a c e o f e a c h i n d e v e l o p i n g
b e h a v io r p a t t e r n s . . H olds t h e v iew t h a t a l l p ro to p la s m
h a s t h e p o t e n t i a l i t y o f b e in g germ p la sm and t h a t t h e r e
a r e n o t two t y p e s o f p l a s m .
D evelopm ent d e p en d s on
"c o n d itio n s."
L a s h l e y , K. S . , " B a s i c N e u r a l M e c h a n i s m s i n B e h a v i o r , " The
P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e v i e w , XXXVTI ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 3 0 ) , 1-24 * .
P r e s e n t s s t u d i e s show ing th e r e f l e x
velo p m en t i n b e h a v i o r .
to be a l a t e
de­
Mead, G e o r g e H . , " S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y a s C o u n t e r p a r t t o
P h y s i o l o g i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , " The P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n ,
VI ( D e c e m b e r , 1 9 0 2 ) , 4 0 1 - 4 0 8 .
One o f t h e e a r l i e s t a t t a c h e s o n t h e s o c i o l o g i s t s f o r
f a i l i n g t o make u s e o f b i o l o g i c a l d a t a i n t h e i r e x p l a n ­
a tio n s of s o c ia l i n s t i t u t i o n s .
M in k o w sk i, M ., "R e f l e x e s e t m ouvem ents de l a t e t e , du t r o n c
e t d es e x t r e m i t e s due f o e t u s hum ain p e n d a n t l a p r e m ie r e
m o e t i e de l a g r o s s e s s e ," C om ptes r e n d u s h e b d o m a d a i r e s
352
des sean ces
m
m
n i w
e t m em oires,
S o c i e t e de b i o l o g i e , P a r i s ,
, " " i s o s - o t . ------------------------ --------------
R eport of o b se rv a tio n s of f e t a l b eh av io r p a tte r n s r e ­
v e a l i n g a developm ent from g r o s s to r e f i n e d re s p o n se s*
Y a n a s e , J * , HB e i t r a g e z u r P h y s i o l o g i e d e r p e r i s t a l t i s c h e n
B eiv egungen des em bryonalen D arm es, M A rc h iv f u r d i e
e s a m m t e p h y s i o l o g i e d e s m e n c h e n u n d d e r t h i e r e , CXVII
1 9 0 7 ),3 4 5 -3 5 3 .
f
E x t e n s i v e r e p o r t s by a J a p a n e s e s c h o l a r on m ovem ents i n
f e t u s e s u n d e r s i x m o n th s s h o w i n g f i n d i n g s s u p p o r t e d by
M inkow ski an d a c c e p t e d by C o g h i l l *
I I I . PEDAGOGICAL REFERENCES
A* B o o k s
B i n i n g , A r t h u r C . , a n d D a v i d H. B i n i n g , T e a c h i n g t h e S o c i a l
S t u d i e s i n S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s *. New Y o r k : McGraw H i l l ,
1935.
417 p p .
Not p e n e t r a t i n g .
Used in t h i s s tu d y a s i l l u s t r a t i v e
t h e v i e w t h a t o r a l t e c h n i q u e s l!w a s t e t i m e . 11
B o b b i t t , F r a n k l i n , The C u r r i c u l u m .
M i f f l i n Company, 1 9 1 8 .
295 p p .
of
New Y o r k : H o u g h t o n ,
A c la ss ic in i t s day.
Used h e r e a s i l l u s t r a t i v e o f t h e
dem ands f o r r e f o r m s i n E n g l i s h t e a c h i n g b a s e d on m ore
fu n c tio n a l tech n iq u es.
B o d e , B oy d S . , M o d e r n E d u c a t i o n a l T h e o r i e s .
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351 p p .
New Y o r k : : T h e
P r e s e n t s th e t h e s i s t h a t s u b j e c t - m a t t e r m ust be o r g a n iz e d
t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e p r o g r e s s i v e r e l e a s e o f human c a p a ­
c itie s.
B r u n i L e o n a r d o , De S t u d i i s e t L i t e r i s , a s q u o t e d a n d t r a n s ­
l a t e d i n W i l l i a m H. W o o d w a r d , V i t t o r i n o d a F e l t r e a n d
O th e r H u m anist E d u c a t o r s .
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P r e s s , 1905.
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sig n ific an c e.
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M a c m illa n Company, 1 9 2 9 .
5 9 4 pp*
New Y o r k :
The
A sta n d a rd re fe re n c e f o r E n g lish te a c h e r s .
Show s t h e
n e e d f o r g r e a t e r e m p h a sis on o r a l te c h n iq u e s ;.
C o l e , L u e l l a , The Im p ro v em en t o f R e a d i n g .
and R i n e h a r t , I n c . , 1938.
338 p p .
New Y o r k :
Farrer
. T h is work c o n te n d s t h a t o r a l and s i l e n t l a n g u a g e s p r o ­
c e s s e s a r e so u n r e l a t e d t h a t n e i t h e r c a n be o f any v a lu e
in t r a i n i n g f o r th e use of the o th e r.
A s i m i l a r view
t o t h a t h e l d b y McKee.
C om m ittee o f T en, R e p o r t on S e c o n d a ry S c h o o l S t u d i e s .
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249 p p .
H i s t o r y m aking r e p o r t .
U s e d i n t h i s s t u d y t o sh ow t h e
t r a d i t i o n a l ten d e n cy to in tro d u c e fo rm a liz e d s u b je c tm a tter e a r l i e r and e a r l i e r in th e cu rricu lu m .
Dewey, J o h n , E x p e r i e n c e a n d N a t u r e .
L aS alle , I l l i n o i s :
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443 p p .
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r e l a t i o n ,of s t r u c t u r e t o f u n c t i o n .
_________ , D e m o c r a c y a n d E d u c a t i o n .
Company, 1 9 3 7 .
434 p p .
New Y o r k :
The M a c m i l l a n
A c la ssic .
The p h i l o s o p h y o f a c t i v i t y h e r e i n e x po un ded
i s p a r t and p a r c e l o f th e p h ilo s o p h y o f t h i s p a p e r .
Dewey d o e s n o t , h o w e v e r , sh o w t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e
r o l e of sp e ec h t r a i n i n g i n h i s e d u c a ti o n a l program and
l a y s l i t t l e e m p h a s is on t h e b i o l o g i c a l b a s i s o f s o c i a l ­
iz a tio n .
E n g e l h a r d t , F . , a n d A . V. O v e r n , S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n P r i n ­
c i p l e s and P r a c t i c e s .
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623 p p .
R u n -o f-th e-m in e t e x t used i n t h i s study o n ly to sub­
s t a n t i a t e th e view t h a t c u r r i c u l a have been c o n t r o l l e d
by c o l l e g e e n t r a n c e r e q u ir e m e n ts r a t h e r th a n p u p i l n e e d s .
254
F r a n k , G l e n n , T h u n d e r a n d Da wn.
1932.
4 0 4 pp *
New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n C o m p a n y ,
An o u t s p o k e n c r i t i c i s m o f t h e t e n d e n c y o f c u r r i c u l u m
m akers to s p e c i a l i z e and a to m iz e e d u c a tio n a l o f f e r i n g s *
G r a y , G i l e s W i l k e s o n , The B a s e s o f S p e e c h *
H a r p e r a n d B r o t h e r s , 1 9 34*
4 39 p p *
New Y o r k : :
One o f t h e b e t t e r t e x t s o f i t s t y p e *
Used i n t h i s
s tu d y to s u b s t a n t i a t e th e view t h a t sp e ec h i s th e o n ly
f u n c t i o n w hich c o m p le te ly f u s e s a u d i t o r y and v i s u a l s tim ­
u li*
G r o v e s , E r n e s t R. , P e r s o n a l i t y a n d S o c i a l A d j u s t m e n t *
R e v i s e d e d i t i o n ; New Y o r k ; L o n g m a n s , G r e e n a n d C o m p a n y ,
1 93 1 *
35 3 pp*
_________ , a n d P h y l l i s B l a n c h a r d , I n t r o d u c t i o n t o M e n t a l
H y g i e n e * New Y o r k : H e n r y H o l t a n d C o m p a n y , 1 9 3 0 *
467 pp*
B oth w orks c o n t a i n e x c e l l e n t a n a l y s e s o f th e e f f e c t o f
t e a c h e r - p u p i l r e l a t i o n s h i p s on t h e m e n t a l h e a l t h o f
th e p u p ils*
H o r n e , Herman H . , The D e m o c r a t i c P h i l o s o p h y o f E d u c a t i o n *
New Y o r k : T h e M a c m i l l a n C o m p a n y , 1 9 3 2 *
547 p p *
A p a r a g r a p h by p a r a g r a p h c o m m e n ta ry on Dewey*s
Dem ocracy and E d u c a t i o n w hich u p h o l d s a m ore c o n s e r ­
v a t i v e a n d som ewhat m ore " m y s t i c a l w p h i l o s o p h y o f
e d u catio n .
Of v a l u e t o t h i s s t u d y s i m p l y a s b a c k g r o u n d
m a te ria l.
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a n d Company, 1923*
5 2 3 pp*
Brace
An o u t s t a n d i n g o n e v o l u m e w o r k i n t h e f i e l d *
P ro v id es
d a t a t o show t h a t p r e c i s i o n i n l a n g u a g e u s a g e p r e c e d e s
r a t h e r t h a n f o l l o w s t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f f o r m a l gram m ar
ru les*
L i n d s l e y , C h a r l e s F . , ’‘S p e e c h E d u c a t i o n a s P e r s o n a l i t y
T r a i n i n g a n d A d j u s t m e n t , " i n W. A r t h u r C a b l e , e d i t o r ,
C u l t u r a l and S c i e n t i f i c Speech E d u c a tio n Today*
B o s t o n : E x p r e s s i o n Company, 1930*
206 pp*
255
L in d sley * s t i t l e
is
se lf-ex p lan ato ry *
M c K ee, P a u l , L a n g u a g e i n t h e E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l ♦
H o u g h t o n - M i f f l i n Company, 1934*
481 pp*
P r o p o u n d i n g a v i e w v e r y much l i k e
M e n n i n g e r , K a r l A . , T h e Human M i n d *
K n o p f, 1930*
447 pp*
New Y o r k :
th a t of C o le,
New Y o r k :
A l f r e d A*
P o p u l a r i z e d , b u t s c h o l a r l y work on m e n t a l h y g ie n e *
Co n­
t a i n s v a l u a b l e o b s e r v a t i o n s on t h e t e a c h e r - p u p i l r e ­
latio n sh ip .
M i l l e r , E d w i n L . , P r a c t i c a l E n g l i s h C o m p o s i t i o n ; Book I I I .
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121 pp*
E xem plary of t e x t s h o l d i n g a f u n c t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y , b u t
w ith an o rg a n iz a tio n of c o n te n t n o t f a c i l i t a t i n g i t s
a p p licatio n *
* M o n t a i g n e , Of t h e E d u c a t i o n o f C h i l d r e n , a s q u o t e d i n
F r e d e r ic k M a n c h e ste r and W illiam G ie s e , e d i t o r s ,
H a r p e r f s A u t h o l o g . y - P r o s e * New Y o r k : H a r p e r a n d
B r o t h e r s , 1926. 894 p p .
P r e s e n t s th e v iew t h a t r o t e l e a r n i n g i s u s e l e s s and
t h a t n o word i s l e a r n e d u n t i l one i s a b l e t o u s e i t i n
speech w ith o th e r persons*
M u r r a y , E lw o o d , The S p e e c h P e r s o n a l i t y *
L i p p i n c o t t Company, 1937*
517 p p .
New Y o r k : J .
B.
T h e o n l y b o o k o n a m uch n e e d e d a s p e c t o f e d u c a t i o n
w h ich , how ever, o n ly s c r a t c h e s th e s u r f a c e and f a i l s
t o make u s e o f t h e b e s t a v a i l a b l e r e s e a r c h o f n e u r o l o g i s t s
and b i o l o g i s t s .
V aluable to t h i s study because o f i t s
p o i n t of view r a t h e r t h a n f o r any s p e c i f i c d a t a .
Q u in tilian ,
W atson;
I n s t i t u t e s of O ra to ry * T r a n s l a te d by J .
L o n d o n : H e n r y G. B o h n , 1 8 5 6 .
2 v o l.
8.
Of c l a s s i c i m p o r t a n c e t o b o t h s p e e c h a n d e d u c a t i o n .
Used i n t h i s s tu d y f o r i t s o b s e r v a t i o n on th e r e l a t i o n
of s t r u c t u r e to f u n c t i o n i n e d u c a tio n and f o r i t s p h i l ­
o so p h y w hich - p l a c e s s p e e c h a t t h e i n t e g r a t i v e c e n t e r
of th e e n tir e cu rricu lu m .
25®
R u g g , H a r o l d , a n d Ann S h u m a k e r , T h e C h i l d - C e n t e r e d S c h o o l ,
New Y o r k : W o r l d Book Company"; 1 9 2 6 # 1559 pp*
A l e f t w ing d e n u n c i a t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l s c h o o l
p ra c tic e s ; used h ere because of i t s te r s e o b se rv a tio n s
r e g a r d i n g th e s i l e n t - c o n d i t i o n i n g p r o c e s s w hich p u p i l s
undergo i n m ost s c h o o ls .
B u s s e l l , B e r t r a n d , E d u c a t i o n a n d t h e Good L i f e .
A lb e rt and C h a rle s B o n i, 1926.
319 p p .
New Y o r k :
C o n ta in s b r i e f o b s e r v a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e w axing and
w aning o f e n e rg y w it h r e l a t i o n to s c h o o l r o u t i n e s .
R e b e l s . a g a i n s t t h e s u p p r e s s i o n w hich c h i l d r e n a r e
fo rc e d to undergo in sc h o o l.
B u s s e l l , C h a r l e s , T e a c h i n g f o r Tomorrow.
F r e n t is e - H a l l, I n c . , 1937.
477 p p .
New Y o r k :
A book on t e a c h i n g m ethod w hich e x p r e s s e s t h e v iew t h a t
'‘k n o w i n g 11 a r i s e s o n l y f r o m " e x p e r i e n c i n g . "
S h a t t u c k , M a r q u is E . , a n d W a l t e r B a r n e s , "The S i t u a t i o n
a s R e g a r d s E n g l i s h , " i n T h e D e v e l o p m e n t o f a_ M o d e r n
P r o g r a m i n E n g l i s h , N i n t h Y e a r b o o k , The D e p a r t m e n t o f
S u p e rv is o rs and D ir e c to r s o f I n s t r u c t i o n .
W ashington:
N a tio n a l E d u ca tio n A s s o c ia tio n , 1936.
193 p p .
S t a t e m e n t by t h e l a n g u a g e s u p e r v i s o r o f t h e D e t r o i t
P u b l i c S c h o o l s t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l f o r m a l gram m ar h a s no
p l a c e i n m odern e d u c a t i o n a l p ro g ra m s .
S m i t h , P r e s e r v e d , A H i s t o r y o f M o d e r n C u l t u r e V o l . . 1 , The
G re a t Renewal 1 5 4 3 -1 6 8 7 .
New Y o r k : H e n r y H o l t a n d
Company, 1 9 3 0 .
67 2 pp*
E x c e lle n t h i s t o r i c a l account of th e i n t e l l e c t u a l back­
ground of th e p e rio d co v ered .
V aluable h ere fo r i t s
o b s e r v a t i o n s on M i lto n and C om enius.
S to n e , C lare n ce R . , S i l e n t and O ral R e ad in g . A P r a c t i c a l
H andbook o f M ethods B a se d on t h e M ost R e c e n t S c i e n t i f i c
In v e stig a tio n s.
R e v i s e d e d i t i o n ; New Y o r k : H o u g h t o n
M i f f l i n Company, 1 9 2 6 .
306 p p .
The f o u n t a i n h e a d o f t h e s i l e n t - r e a d i n g c r a z e o f t h e
e a rly T w enties.
G rudgingly a d m its the v a lu e o f s o c i a l ­
i z a t i o n i n one lo n e c h a p t e r and ig n o r e s i t c o m p le te ly
257
elsew h ere*
c a l l i n g * 11
C o n sid ers o ra l
re a d in g as m erely
“w ord-
S t o r m z a n d , M. J . , a n d R o b e r t H. L e w i s , New M e t h o d s i n t h e
S o c i a l S t u d i e s * New Y o r k : : F o r r a r a n d R i n e h a r t , 1 9 3 5 .
223 p p .
A dvocates g r e a t e r u se of th e
so c ializ e d re c ita tio n .
T a y lo r, E a r l A ., C o n tr o lle d R e a d in g *
of C hicago P r e s s , 1937.
367 p p .
C hicago: U n iv e r s ity
I l l u s t r a t i v e of the s i l e n t c o n d itio n in g , p r o c e s s .
Ad­
v o c a t e s ab andonm ent o f o r a l work b ey o n d t h e t h i r d g r a d e .
W eeks, R u th M ., A C o r r e l a t e d C u r r i c u l u m .
A R eport of the
C om m ittee on C o r r e l a t i o n o f th e N a t i o n a l C o u n c il o f
T eachers of E n g lis h .
New Y o r k : D. A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y C o . ,
1936*
326 p p .
A c u r r ic u lu m b a se d on th e p h ilo s o p h y t h a t t h e sp eech
f i e l d h a s no l i m i t s i n t h e o r d i n a r y s e n s e , b u t i n t e g r a t e s
w ith a l l th e c o n te n t f i e l d s .
W esley, E dgara B ru ce, T eaching th e S o c ia l S t u d i e s .
Y o r k : D. C. H e a t h , 1 9 3 7 .
635 p p .
A dvocates w id e r u se o f th e
so c ializ e d
New
re c ita tio n .
W e s t , R o b e r t , L o u K e n n e d y a n d Anna C a r r , T h e R e h a b i l i t a t i o n
of Speech.
New Y o r k : H a r p e r a n d B r o t h e r s * 1 9 3 7 . 4 7 5 p p .
S u p e rb t e x t on g e n e r a l sp e e c h p a t h o l o g y .
Lays p a r ­
t i c u l a r s t r e s s on th e r o l e o f e m o tio n s i n s p e e c h b e ­
h av io r.
L ik e m ost p a th o lo g y t e x t s i t c l o s e l y fo llo w s,
t h e b i o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h t o s p e e c h p r o b l e m s s o m uch
n e g le c te d o u ts id e th e c l i n i c .
W heat, H a rr y G ro v e .
The T e a c h i n g o f R e a d i n g .
G in n a n d Company, 1 9 2 3 .
346 p p .
New Y o r k :
Expounds t h e m e r i ts of r a p i d s i l e n t r e a d in g a s h a v in g
i n t r i n s i c w o rth .
The c o n c e p t s o f r h e t o r i c p r e s e n t e d
h e r e d e r i v e from th e p e r v e r s i o n s o f th e E n g li s h
R en aissan ce.
W h i p p l e , Guy M o n t r o s e , e d i t o r , T h e F o u n d a t i o n s a n d T e c h n i q u e
o f C u r r i c u l u m C o n s t r u c t i o n , The T w e n t y - S i x t h Y e a rb o o k
of th e N a tio n a l S o c ie ty f o r th e S tudy o f E d u c a tio n ,
258
F art II.
'’The F o u n d a t i o n s o f C u r r i c u l u m M a k i n g . ”
B loom ington, I l l i n o i s : P u b lic School P u b lis h in g
Company, 1 9 3 0 .
238 p p .
Shows t h a t t h e f o u n d a t i o n s o f c u r r i c u l u m m a k in g a r e
to be found i n th e s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s of i n d i v i d u a l s .
W hite House C o n fe re n c e on C h i ld H e a lt h and P r o t e c t i o n ,
S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t o f t h e C o m m itte e on S p e c i a l
C lasses.
New Y o r k : D . A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y C o m p a n y , I n c . ,
1931.
C o n t a i n s v a l u a b l e d a t a on p a t h o l o g i c a l .c a s e s i n t h e
U nited S ta te s..
U s e d i n t h i s r e p o r t f o r d a t a on i n ­
cid en ce of d e a fn e s s.
W it t y , P a u l , and D avid K o p e l, R ead in g and t h e E d u c a tiv e
P r o c e s s , New Y o r k : G-inn a n d C o m p a n y , 1 9 3 9 .
374 p p .
V ery t h o r o u g h i n t e g r a t i o n o f l a t e s t r e s e a r c h d a t a on
read in g .
B ased on a b r o a d a c t i v i t y p h i l o s o p h y o f
e d u ca tio n .
C onceives re a d in g a s a p h y s io lo g ic a l
a c t i v i t y n e c e s s a r i l y d e p en d a n t on t h e b i o l o g i c a l n e e d s
and d e s i r e s of th e o rg an ism .
P r o v o c a t i v e and s c h o l a r l y .
W o o l b e r t , C h a r l e s H e n r y , ’’The P s y c h o l o g i c a l B a s i s o f S p e e c h , ”
A . M. Drum m ond, c h a i r m a n , A C o u r s e o f S t u d y i n S p e e c h
T r a i n i n g and P u b l i c S p e a k in g f o r S e c o n d ary S c h o o ls .
New Y o r k ; C e n t u r y C o m p a n y , 1 9 2 5 .
291 p p .
A s t a t e m e n t o f W o o l b e r t ’ s b a s i c p h i l o s o p h y o f ’’l e a r n i n g
fey d o i n g ” a s a p p l i e d t o s p e e c h .
B ecause of W o o lb ert’s
g r e a t i n f l u e n c e on h i s c o l l e a g u e s i n t h e f i e l d o f sp eech ,
t h i s a n d o t h e r a r t i c l e s by him a r e e s s e n t i a l t o a n y
f u l l a p p r e c i a t i o n o f th e dom inant p h i lo s o p h y o f s p e e c h
c u rre n t to d ay .
W r i n k l e , W i l l i a m L . , The New H i g h S c h o o l i n t h e M a k i n g .
New Y o r k : A m e r i c a n Boo k C o m p a n y , 1 9 3 8 .
318 p p .
An e x c e l l e n t s t a t e m e n t o f t h e s h o r t c o m i n g s o f t h e
t r a d i t i o n a l s u b je c t- m a tte r arrangem ent of th e h ig h
school c u rricu lu m .
The c h a p t e r o n l i t e r a t u r e c o n t a i n s
one o f t h e b e s t a n a l y s e s t o be fo u n d i n e d u c a t i o n a l
books on t h e n e c e s s a r i l y i n t e g r a t i v e n a t u r e o f sp e e c h
w ork.
B. P e r i o d i c a l A r t i c l e s
259
B a k e r , E l i z a b e t h , 11A S o c i a l B a s i s f o r t h e T e a c h i n g o f
E l e m e n t a r y E n g l i s h L a n g u a g e , 11 E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l
J o u r n a l , XXX ( S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 2 9 ) , 2 7 - 3 3 *
B r i e f a r t i c l e o u t l i n i n g th e n e e d f o r m ore o r a l
i n t h e e le m e n ta r y E n g li s h program *
work
B l a n t o n , S m ile y and M a r g a r e t G ra y , "The B r o a d e r A s p e c ts o f
S p e e c h T r a i n i n g , 11 Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f S p e e c h E d u c a t i o n ,
IV ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 1 8 ) , 4 7 -5 2 *
One o f t h e e a r l i e s t s t a t e m e n t s h o l d i n g s p e e c h t o
th erm o m eter of p e r s o n a l i t y developm ent*
be a
B r i d g e , W illia m H *, "The P l a c e o f F a n t o m i n e i n t h e S c h o o l
C u rricu lu m ," Q u a rte rly J o u rn a l of Speech E d u c a tio n ,
XI ( N o v e m b e r , 1 9 2 5 ) , 3 5 0 - 5 9 *
O u tlin e s the v a lu e of p h y sic a l a c t i v i t y in speech
train in g *
C o n s titu te s a p r a c tic a l a p p lic a tio n of th e
b i o l o g i c a l b a s i s of speech*
B ry n g e ls o n B ryng, " P e r s o n a l i t y C h an g es," Q u a r te r ly J o u r n a l
o f S p e e c h , XIV ( A p r i l , 1 9 2 8 ) , 2 0 7 - 1 8 *
H o ld s t h a t t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f s p e e c h i s bound up
w ith
th e d ev elo p m en t o f i n t e l l i g e n c e and em otions and c o n ­
se q u e n tly w ith p e rs o n a lity *
C a b l e , A r t h u r W*, " S p e e c h , A B a s i c T r a i n i n g i n t h e
E d u c a tio n a l S y stem ," Q u a rte rly J o u r n a l of S peech,
XXI ( N o v e m b e r , 1 9 3 5 ) , 5 1 0 - 5 2 4 *
Shows s p e e c h t o h a v e a n i n t e g r a t i v e f u n c t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n *
P r e s e n t s an i n t e r e s t i n g a n a l y s i s show ing t h e r e l a t i o n
of speech t r a i n i n g to each of th e seven c a r d in a l p r i n ­
c i p l e s of e d u catio n *
C l a p p , J * M*, " T h e p l a c e a n d F u n c t i o n o f E n g l i s h i n A m e r i c a n
L i f e , " S c h o o l and S o c i e t y , X X III ( A p r i l , 3 , 1 9 2 6 ),
424-425*
Sh o w s t h a t m o s t l i f e - l i k e E n g l i s h s i t u a t i o n s a r e o r a l
situ atio n s*
M a t e r i a l s i m i l a r to t h a t p r e s e n t e d by
Baker*
C r a w f o r d C* C * , a n d M a d i e M* R o y e r , " O r a l D r i l l V e r s u s
G ram m ar S t u d y , " E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l J o u r n a l , XXXVI
( O c to b e r , 1 9 3 6 ) , 116-19*
260
One o f t h e tw o s t u d i e s r e p o r t e d i n p e r i o d i c a l l i t e r s
a tu r e d e a lin g w ith c o n tr o l le d com parisons o f s i l e n t
and o r a l te c h n iq u e s*
C o n c lu s io n s f a v o r o r a l m ethods#
Farm a, W illia m J * , "Speech D is o r d e r s and th e T eaching o f
S p e e c h ," Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f S p eech E d u c a ti o n , XII
( J u n e , 1 9 2 6 ), 156-67#
An a r g u m e n t f o r t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f
"no i m p r e s s i o n w i t h o u t e x p r e s s i o n # "
H u n t e r , A r i a D a n i e l , "A C o m p a r i s o n o f I n t r o v e r t e d a n d Ex­
t r o v e r t e d H igh S c h o o l S p e a k e r s , " i n " P e r s o n a l i t y
S t u d i e s i n S p e e c h , " No# I , e d i t e d b y E l w o o d M u r r a y ,
S peech M onog rap h s, I I ( O c to b e r , 1 9 3 5 ), 50-53#
R e p o r t o f a t h e s i s s t u d y show ing a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p
b etw een e x t r o v e r s i o n and sp e ec h e f f e c t i v e n e s s #
L o m a s , C h a r l e s W# , " T h e P s y c h o l o g y o f S t a g e F r i g h t , "
Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f S p e e c h , XX III ( F e b r u a r y , 1 9 3 7 ) ,
35-44#
Shows c l o s e c o n n e c t i o n b e tw e e n p h y s i o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s
and s t a g e f r i g h t #
M e n d e n h a ll, L aw rence C#, "Speech M ethods — A C o n s e r v a t i o n
o f N a t u r a l I l l u s i o n , " E d u c a t i o n , LV ( M a r c h , 1 9 3 5 ) ,
440-42.
An a r t i c l e c a l l i n g a t t e n t i o n t o t h e l a c k o f a n y a d e q u a t e
c o n s id e ra tio n of speech in c u rr e n t c u r r i c u l a r c o n sid e r­
atio n s#
M o o r e , G-lenn E# , " M e n t a l H y g i e n e D e v e l o p m e n t i n a C l a s s i n
Speech F u n d a m e n ta ls ," P u b lis h e d M a ste r* s t h e s i s , U niv­
e r s i t y of D enver, 1932.
A lso u n d e r t i t l e , " P e r s o n a l i t y
C hanges R e s u l t i n g from T r a in in g i n Speech' F u n d a m e n ta ls ,"
No# I I I o f " P e r s o n a l i t y S t u d i e s i n S p e e c h , " ' e d i t e d b y
E lw ood M u r r a y , S p e e c h M o n o g r a p h s , I I ( O c t o b e r , 1 9 3 5 ) ,
56-59#
R e p o r t o f a t h e s i s s t u d y show ing t h e c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p
b e tw e e n s p e e c h t r a i n i n g and p e r s o n a l i t y d e v e lo p m e n t#
M o r s e , Wayne L # , " T h e M e n t a l H y g i e n e A p p r o a c h i n a B e g i n n i n g
S p e e c h C o u r s e , " Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f S p e e c h , XIV
(N ovem ber, 1 9 2 8 ) , 543-53#
261
The t i t l e
is
se lf-e x p lan a to ry ,
M u r r a y , E l w o o d , “ S p e e c h T r a i n i n g As a M e n t a l H y g i e n e
M e t h o d , * ' Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f S p e e c h . XX ( F e b r u a r y ,
1934), 37-47.
A r e p o r t o f t h e p r e l i m i n a r y work fro m w h ic h t h e a u t h o r
p r o d u c e d h i s The S p e e c h P e r s o n a l i t y .
_________ , “A S t u d y o f F a c t o r s C o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e M a l D evelopm ent o f th e Speech P e r s o n a l i t y , ” S peech
M o n o g rap h s. I l l (D ecem ber, 1 9 3 6 ), 9 5 -1 0 8 .
S t r e s s e s th e s t u d e n t 's need f o r r e c o g n i ti o n and a p p ro v a l
i n o r d e r t o h a v e go o d m e n t a l h e a l t h , a n d shows t h e w o rth
of speech to w ard a c h ie v in g t h i s .
N y len , D o n ald , "G uidance and Speech i n th e S ch o o l P ro g ra m ,”
Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f S p e e c h , XXIV ( D e c e m b e r , 1 9 3 8 ) ,
603-09.
D isc u sse s th e v alu e of speech a s a c r i t e r i o n of p e r ­
s o n a l i t y developm ent.
C o n s id e r s g u id a n c e and sp e e c h
as contem poraneous d ev elo p m en ts i n a tte m p tin g to a s ­
s i s t th e p u p ils to ex p ress th em selv es a d e q u a te ly .
O ' N e i l l , Jam es M ., "Speech i n t h e C hanging C u r r i c u l u m , ”
Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f S p e e c h , XXII ( A p r i l , 1 9 3 6 ) ,
183-186.
H o ld s s p e e c h t o be t h e c o r e o f any c u r r i c u l u m i n w hich
a c t i v i t y r e p l a c e s p a s s i v i t y on th e p a r t o f th e s t u d e n t .
R u n c h e y , G e r a l d i n e , "The O ra l A p p ro a c h t o t h e S tu d y o f
L i t e r a t u r e , ” Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f S p e e c h . XVII
(F e b ru ary , 1931), 89-95.
P o i n t s o u t t h a t m ost l i t e r a t u r e i s f u n d a m e n ta lly o r a l
o r a u d i t o r y i n n a t u r e and t h a t w r i t t e n sym bols a r e
m erely a se co n d a ry a s p e c t.
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J o u r n a l t X III (F eb ru ary , 1924), 99-114.
Both a r t i c l e s p r e s e n t a n a l y s e s o f a d u l t la n g u a g e u s a g e
t o show n e e d f o r m ore o r a l w o rk i n o u r s c h o o l s .
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T r a c y , J a m e s A. , 11A S t u d y o f P e r s o n a l i t y T r a i t s o f M a t u r e
A c t o r s a n d M a t u r e P u b l i c S p e a k e r s , 11 i n " P e r s o n a l i t y
S t u d i e s i n S p e e c h , ” No. I I e d i t e d . b y Elw ood M u r r a y ,
Speech M onographs, I I (O c to b e r, 1935), 5 3 -5 6 .
A nother Denver p e r s o n a l i t y s tu d y .
Show s m a t u r e p u b l i c
s p e a k e r s t o h a v e more p o i s e t h a n m a t u r e a c t o r s and
b o t h t o h a v e m ore p o i s e t h a n t h e a v e r a g e a d u l t .
W ashburne, C .,
(February,
"R ip e n e ss, ” P ro g re ss iv e E d u c a tio n , X III
1936), 127-128.
A c r i t i q u e on m a t u r a t i o n w hich d e p l o r e s t h e te n d e n c y
to in tro d u c e re a d in g in th e v ery lo w e st elem en tary
le v e ls.
W e e rs in g , F r e d e r i c k J , , " I n d i v i d u a l P u p i l D evelopm ent i n
Language U s a g e ,” C a l i f o r n i a J o u r n a l o f Secondary
E d u c a ti o n , X (M arch, 1 9 3 5 ), 2 1 3 -1 7 .
T h is a r t i c l e e x p o u n d s t h e v ie w t h a t w r i t t e n work
s h o u l d b e u s e d o n l y a s a n a i d t o o r a l e x p r e s s i o n am ong
our p u p ils .
W o o lb ert, C h a rle s H enry, "Speech and th e L e a rn in g P r o c e s s , ”
Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f S p e e c h E d u c a t i o n , VI ( F e b r u a r y ,
1920), 55-75.
The b a s i s
of speech tr a in in g
f o r W o olbert i s
a c tiv ity .
C • T h es es^ jsuad ; Di s s e r t a t i o n s
A n d e r s o n , M a b e l L . , ” The O r g a n i z a t i o n a n d A d m i n i s t r a t i o n
o f O r a l E n g l i s h i n S e n i o r H igh S c h o o l s , ” U n p u b lis h e d
M aster*s t h e s i s , U n iv e rs ity of S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a ,
Los A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 0 .
A s u r v e y s t r e s s i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e s c h o o l s o f Los
A ngeles c o u n ty .
Not p a r t i c u l a r l y s c h o l a r l y and i n ­
d i c a ti v e of th e a u th o r* s s c a n t a cq u a in tan c e w ith b a s ic
l i t e r a t u r e in the speech f i e l d .
E v a n s , D in a - R e e s , "Change i n S o c i a l B e h a v io r and E m o tio n a l
A t t i t u d e s o f H igh S c h o o l S t u d e n t s P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n
D r a m a tic A r t s i n t h e High S c h o o l i n C l e v e l a n d H e i g h t s ,
O hio, " U n p u b lis h e d M a ste r* s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f
Io w a , Iowa C i t y , Io w a , 1 9 3 2 .
Shows t h e b e n e f i c i a l
effects
o f d ram atic
train in g
on
263
p e rso n ality
in te g ratio n *
F a r r a a , W* J . , " T h e I n f l u e n c e o f S p e e c h T r a i n i n g o n t h e
E m o tio n al R e a c t i o n o f t h e H igh S ch o o l and C o lle g e
S t u d e n t.” U npublished M aster*s t h e s i s , U n iv e rs ity of
W i s c o n s i n , M a d i s o n , W i s c o n s i n , 1927*
The f i r s t g r a d u a t e
a s p e c ts of speech.
t h e s i s anyw here on th e m en tal hygioae
H a m ilto n R u th , A ., "E m o tio n a l D i s t u r b a n c e s and S p e e ch
D e f e c ts , A S tu d y o f th e A lle g e d C o r r e l a t i o n betw een
P e r s o n a l i t y p r o b l e m s a n d D i s o r d e r s o f S p e e c h , ” Un­
p u b lis h e d M aster* s t h e s i s , U n iv e r s ity o f W isco n sin ,
M a d isio n , W is c o n s in , 1932.
T itle
self-ex p lan ato ry .
H i l l , F lo re n c e , "E xperim ents w ith th e O ral and W ritte n
M ethod o f T e a c h in g M e d ie v a l; H i s t o r y , E u ro p e a n H i s t o r y ,
and A m erican L i t e r a t u r e . ” U n p u b lish e d M a ste r* s t h e s i s ,
N o rth w e ste rn U n iv e r s ity , E v an sto n , I l l i n o i s , 1936.
T h is t h e s i s was n o t r e a d a n d i s i n c l u d e d m e r e ly to
m ake t h e l i s t o f p e r t i n e n t d i s s e r t a t i o n s c o m p l e t e .
I r w i n , D o r o t h y , J , ”A T e c h n i q u e f o r S u r v e y i n g S p e e c h
O p p o r tu n itie s in th e E lem en tary S c h o o ls ." U n p u b lish ed
M a s t e r * s t h e s i s , Wayne U n i v e r s i t y , D e t r o i t , M i c h i g a n ,
1938.
C o n t a i n s m uch i n t e r e s t i n g d a t a s h o w i n g a w i d e u s e o f
speech tec h n iq u e s in t r a d i t i o n a l c o n te n t-c o u rs e s .
J e n k s , W ard B u r g e s s , " S p e e c h T r a i n i n g a s a M e an s o f T r e a t ­
in g M alad ju stm en ts of P e r s o n a l i t y , ” U n p u b lish ed M aster*s
t h e s i s , U n iv e r s ity of C hicago, C hicag o, I l l i n o i s , 1932.
An a n a l y s i s
of the th e ra p e u tic -v a lu e s
o f work i n s p e e c h .
K a r r , H a r r i s o n M . , "An I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e S p e e c h A c t i v i t i e s
i n t h e H ig h S c h o o l s o f Los A n g e l e s C o u n t y , w i t h S p e c i a l
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U n p u b lish ed D octor*s d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n iv e r s ity of
S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 8 .
Among o t h e r t h i n g s , t h i s s u r v e y s h o w s t h a t t h e i n t e ­
g ra te d program s o f th e s o - c a l l e d p ro g re s s iv e secondary
264
s c h o o l s make a w i d e r u s e o f s p e e c h t e c h n i q u e s t h a n
th e t r a d i t i o n a l program s.
L a b a d i e , E v e l y n , "An E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e C o n t r i b u t i o n made
by t h e S tu d y of S p eech A r ts t o t h e D evelopm ent o f a
S o c i a l E f f e c t i v e P e r s o n a l i t y . 11 U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r 1s
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C a l i f o r n i a , 1929*
S u g g e stiv e ,b u t, not p a rtic u la rly en lig h ten in g .
F irst
s ix ty pages d ev o ted to a d e f i n i t i o n of p e rs o n a lity
w i t h o u t com ing t o an y d e f i n i t e c o n c l u s i o n *
L o u g h , M ary, " E f f e c t s Upon H ig h S c h o o l S t u d e n t s o f a S p e e c h
A p p ro a ch a s Com pared w ith t h e C o n v e n t i o n a l A p p ro a ch
i n T eaching L i t e r a t u r e . "
U npublished M aster*s t h e s i s ,
U n i v e r s i t y o f D e n v e r , D e n v e r , C o l o r a d o , 1935*
Shows a s u p e r i o r i t y
f o r the
speech approach.
M c C a l l , ‘W i l l i a m M o r r i s o n , "A C r i t i c a l R e v i e w o f V a r i o u s
C o n c e p t i o n s U n d e r l y i n g .C u r r i c u l u m M aking S i n c e 1890*"
P u b lish ed D o cto r’s d is s e r ta tio n , U n iv ersity of
M i s s o u r i , C o l u m b i a , M i s s o u r i , 19 3 0 *
B r i e f , b u t s c h o l a r ly rev iew o f m ajor tr e n d s
r ic u la r p h ilo so p h ie s.
in
cur­
M cD ow ell, E l i z a b e t h D . , " E d u c a t i o n a l an d E m o tio n a l A d j u s t ­
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d i s s e r t a t i o n , C olum bia U n i v e r s i t y , Dubuque, Iow a, 1928.
Shows t h e c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p h y s i o l o g y a n d
speech p a th o lo g y .
O g g , H e l e n L . , "A C r i t i q u e o f t h e O r a l a n d S i l e n t R e a d i n g
of P o etic L ite ra tu re ."
U npublished D o c to r’s d i s s e r t a t i o n ,
U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e l e s , C a l i f * ,
1938*.
A c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f l i t e r a t u r e w ith a view t o ex­
pounding i t s o r a l n a t u r e .
P r im a r ily concerned w ith
i n te r p r e t a t i o n , but have v i t a l im p lic a tio n s f o r a l l
p h ases of lan g u ag e e d u c a tio n .
W ell done*
R u d o l p h , B e t h , "A S t u d y o f t h e E f f e c t s Upon P e r s o n a l i t y
o f P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n S h a k e s p e a r e S c e n e s i n .the Fundam en­
t a l s of Speech C o u rs e s ," U n p u b lish ed M a s te r ’s t h e s i s ,
U n i v e r s i ty o f D enver, D enver, C o lo ra d o , 1935.
265
An a n a l y s i s o f t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s
tow ard m a tu rin g p e r s o n a l i t i e s *
o f dram atic t r a i n i n g
S t r o n g , Hom er D e n n i s , 11A C o m p a r a t i v e S t u d y o f R e l a t i v e
P r o g r e s s i n P u n c t u a t i o n , Grammar, a n d S p e e c h i n C e r t a i n
C o u rs e s T au g h t i n C o o ley H igh S c h o o l d u r i n g t h e S c h o o l
Y e a r 1 9 3 7 « 1 9 3 8 * M U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r f s t h e s i s , Wayne
U n i v e r s i t y , D e t r o i t , M i c h ig a n , 1938*
The i n f e r i o r t o t h e tw o a v a i l a b l e t h e s e s
w ith t r a d i t i o n a l te a c h in g tech n iq u es*
com paring o r a l
W a g g e n e r , J a n i c e 0* f,A C o m p a r a t i v e G a l v a n o m s t r i c S t u d y o f
th e B ehavior of I n f e r i o r S p eak ers and S u p e rio r
S p e a k e r s * 11 U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y
o f D e n v e r , D e n v e r , C o l o r a d o , 1934*.
D em onstrates th e ten d en cy f o r po o r sp e a k e rs to have
g r e a t e r i n n e r b o d i l y d i s t u r b a n c e s th a n good s p e a k e rs *
D* P a m p h l e t s a n d N e w s p a p e r A r t i c l e
C o u r t i s , S* A . , c h a i r m a n , T e a c h e r s a n d C o o p e r a t i o n , I s s u e d
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D e t r o i t , 1 9 3 7 , 84 pp*
A s e r i e s of s u g g e s te d classro o m e x p erim e n ts d e sig n e d
to p ro v id e f o r g r e a te r p u p il co n tro l*
A p ra c tic a l a t­
te m p t to b a n i s h s t u d e n t p a s s i v i t y from t h e c la s s ro o m *
Dawson, M i l d r e d A . , c h a i r m a n , E le m e n t a r y S c h o o l L anguage
T e x t b o o k s , A S u r v e y o f T h e i r U s e a n d a. Summary o f
R e la te d R e s e a rc h S t u d i e s , S i x t h Annual R e se a rc h
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R esearch in E n g lish *
New Y o r k : S c o t t , F o r e s m a n a n d
Company, 1938*
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th e f i e l d
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F l a n a g a n Company,
One o f D e w e y ’ s e a r l i e s t s t a t e m e n t s o f h i s p h i l o s o p h y
of ed u catio n *
In i t are d isc e rn a b le th e fo reru n n ers
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a l y s i s o f t h e Law s o f M o r a l E v i d e n c e a n d o f P e r s u a s i o n
w ith R u les f o r A rg um en tative C om position and E lo c u ti o n .
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1855.
545 p p .
E m phasizes th e
ulum .
cen tral
place of speech in
the c u r r i c ­
B. P e r i o d i c a l a n d M i m e o g r a p h e d a r t i c l e s
. C o u l t o n , T ho m a s E . , “ R e c e n t T r e n d s i n C o l l e g e S p e e c h
C u r r i c u l a , tf Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f S p e e c h , X X I I I
(D ecem ber, 1 9 3 7 ), 6 0 3 -6 1 3 .
T itle
self-ex p lan ato ry .
K n o w e r , F r a n k l i n H. , “ Some P r e s e n t P r o b l e m s a n d N e x t S t e p s
i n G r a d u a t e Work i n S p e e c h , ” Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f
S p e e c h . X X III ( O c to b e r , 1 9 3 7 ), 4 5 6 -4 6 8 .
P o in ts
out th e b a s ic .s o c ia l n a tu re
of a l l
speech w ork.
R a h s k o p f , H o r a c e G. , “ P r i n c i p l e s o f t h e S p e e c h C u r r i c u l u m , ”
Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f S p e e c h , X X III ( O c to b e r , 1 9 3 7 ),
452-456.
Among o t h e r t h i n g s , s h o w s t h e m e n t a l - h y g i e n e a n d
e s t h e t ic v a lu e s of speech tr a in in g .
S c o tt, P re sto n H ., “I n tr o d u c tio n ,” S u g g estiv e O u tlin e s in
Speech f o r th e E le m e n ta r y , I n t e r m e d i a t e , and S eco n d ary
S c h o o l s . D e t r o i t : M ichigan A s s o c i a t i o n o f T e a c h e rs of
S p e e c h , 1 9 3 6 , m i m e o g r a p h e d . - 69 p p .
E x cellen t
statem en t of th e
scope of t h e f i e l d
of speech.
V. REFERENCES ON AUDITORY AND VISUAL FACTORSA. B o o k s
B e a r d , C h a r l e s A . , a n d Mary H. B e a r d , A m e r i c a ’ I n M i d p a s s a g e , New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n C o m p a n y , 1 9 3 9 .
977 p p .
E x c e l l e n t h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s o f m odern A m e ric a.
V a lu ab le to t h i s stu d y f o r i t s o b s e r v a tio n s on th e
i n c r e a s i n g amount o f a u d i t o r y s t i m u l i in our en­
v iro n m en t.
269
I r v i n e , E . E a s t m a n , e d i t o r , The W o r l d A l m a n a c a n d B o o k
o f F a c t s f o r 1 9 4 0 * New Y o r k : New Y o r k W o r I d - T e 1 e g r a m ,
1940*
9 5 9 pp *
S o u r c e o f d a t a on q u a n t i t i e s o f m e c h a n ic a l d e v i c e s co n ­
t r i b u t i n g to an i n c r e a s e d amount o f a u d it o r y s t i m u l a ­
tio n *
B. P e r i o d i c a l A r t i c l e s
and D i s s e r t a t i o n
B e l l , C a r l e t o n J * , “ T h e E f f e c t o f S u g g e s t i o n Upon t h e R e ­
p r o d u c t i o n o f T r i a n g l e s a n d . o f P o i n t D i s t a n c e s * 11
A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y , XIX ( O c t o b e r , 1 9 0 8 ) ,
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E x p e r im e n ts show ing a u d i t o r y
e f f e c t i v e th an v i s u a l.
s u g g e s t i o n t o b e more-
B o n d , Guy L * , “A S t u d y o f A u d i t o r y a n d S p e e c h C h a r a c t e r ­
i s t i c s o f Poor R e ad e rs* ” U npublished D o c to r’s d i s s e r ­
t a t i o n ; New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 3 5 * C i t e d i n
C . C* C e r t a i n , e d i t o r , R e a d i n g D i s a b i l i t i e s a n d T h e i r
C o r r e c t i o n s , T h i r d A n n u a l R e s e a r c h B u l l e t i n , The
N a t i o n a l C o n fe re n c e on R e s e a rc h i n E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l
E n g li s h ( J u n e , 1935)*
E x p e r im e n ts show ing t h a t p o o r r e a d e r s t end t o h a v e
h earin g d if f ic u ltie s *
B u r t t , H* E * , a n d E* M* D o b e l l , " T h e C u r v e o f F o r g e t t i n g
f o r A d v e r t i s i n g M a t e r i a l , 11 J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y ,
IX ( M a r c h , 1 9 2 5 ) , 5 - 2 1 *
E x p e r im e n ts show ing p e r i o d o f r e t e n t i o n
fo llo w in g a u d ito ry p r e s e n ta tio n .
to be g r e a t e r
D e W i c k , H e n r y N . , “ The R e l a t i v e R e c a l l E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f
V i s u a l a n d A u d i t o r y P r e s e n t a t i o n o f A d v e r t i s i n g M a t e r i a l . 11
J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y , XIX ( J u n e , 1 9 3 5 ) , 2 4 5 264.
Found t h a t a u d i t o r y
process*
stim u li
fa c ilita te d
th e le a rn in g
F o w l e r , E* P * , a n d H a r v e y F l e t c h e r , “ T h r e e M i l l i o n D e a f e n e d
S c h o o l C h i l d r e n , T h e i r D e t e c t i o n a n d T r e a t m e n t , 11 J o u r n a l
o f t h e A m e r i c a n M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , LXXXVII ( D e c e m b e r ,
1926), 1877-1882,
270
P r e s e n t s an e s t i m a t e o f th e number o f h a r d - o f - h e a r i n g
p u p ils in th e U n ited S ta te s *
G r a n t , M a r i o n E . , “Some T h e o r i e s a n d E x p e r i m e n t s i n t h e
F i e l d o f M em ory,"
Jo u rn a l of E d u c a tio n a l P sy ch o lo g y ,
X X III (S e p te m b e r, 1 9 3 2 ) , 5 1 1-527•
F in d in g s
sim ila r
to
t h o s e o f D eW ick.
H a r tm a n n , G e o r g e , “ The R e l a t i v e I n f l u e n c e o f V i s u a l a n d
A uditory F a c to rs in S p e llin g A b i lity ," Jo u rn a l of
E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , X X II ( D e c e m b e r , 1 9 3 1 ) , 6 9 1 699.
F in d in g s
s im ila r to
t h o s e o f DeWick a n d G r a n t .
H e n m o n , V. A. C . , “ T h e R e l a t i o n B e t w e e n Mode o f P r e s e n t a ­
t i o n a n d R e t e n t i o n , " P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e v i e w , XIX ( M a r c h ,
1912), 88-94.
R e p o r t s o f e x p e r i m e n t s show ing a u d i t o r y p r e s e n t a t i o n
to be s u p e r i o r to v i s u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n i n im m ediate
m em o ry o f a d u l t s .
K u h l m a n , F . , “ The P r e s e n t S t a t u s o f Memory I n v e s t i g a t i o n , "
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E x p e rim e n ts show ing t h a t w h ile v i s u a l m ethods o f p r e ­
s e n t a t i o n w ere s u p e r i o r to a u d i t o r y m ethods f o r no n ­
s e n s e m a t e r i a l s , t h e a u d i t o r y m e th o d s were s u p e r i o r
f o r m ean in g fu l m a t e r i a ls .
P e a r c e , H a ywood J . , “E x p e r i m e n t a l O b s e r v a t i o n Upon N o r m a l
M o to r S u g g e s t i b i l i t y , " P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e v i e w , IX ( J u l y ,
1902), 329-356.
One o f t h e e a r l i e s t o b s e r v a t i o n s s h o w i n g a u d i t o r y
g e s t io n to be s t r o n g e r th an v i s u a l .
sug­
R e e d , H e l e n J . , “ The I n f l u e n c e o f a C h a n g e o f C o n d i t i o n s
U p o n t h e A m ount R e c a l l e d , " J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l
P s y c h o l o g y , XIV ( D e c e m b e r , 1 9 3 1 ) , 6 3 2 - 6 4 9 .
F indings
sim ila r to
t h o s e o f D eW ick, G r a n t ,
and H artm an n .
S t a n t o n , F r a n k N . , "Memory f o r A d v e r t i s i n g Copy P r e s e n t e d
V i s u a l l y Vs. O r a l l y , " J o u r n a l o f A p p lie d P sy c h o lo g y ,
X V III ( F e b r u a r y , 1 9 3 4 ), 4 5 -6 4 .
271
F in d in g s i n a c c o rd w ith
H artm ann, a n d R e e d .
th o se
o f DeW ick, G r a n t ,
W o r c e s t e r , D. A . , "Memory b y V i s u a l a n d A u d i t o r y P r e s e n t a t i o n , ' * J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , XVI
( J a n u a r y , 1 9 2 5 ) , 18-27#
E x p e rim e n ts show ing t h a t a u d i t o r y m ethods o f p r e s e n t a ­
t i o n have an i n t r i n s i c s u p e r i o r i t y o v er v is u a l#
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