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A preprofessional program in physical education for junior college men

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A PEE-PROFESSIONAL PROGRAM IN PHYSICAL
EDUCATION FOR JUNIOR COLLEGE MEN
A Thesis
Presented to
the Faculty of the Graduate School
University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Arts
by
Alvirda Rutherford Davison
June 1940
UMI Number: EP62832
All rights reserved
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Oissertalion Pubi sNrtg
UMI EP62832
Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author.
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789 East Eisenhower Parkway
P.O. Box 1346
Ann Arbor, Ml 48106- 1346
P.£d t-oJZszitS*
T h i s thesis, w r i t t e n by
ALVIRDA RUTHERFORD DAVZSON
)g # o &
u n d e r the d i r e c t i o n o f /t.eJT.. F a c u l t y C o m m i t t e e ,
a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l it s m e m b e r s , has been
presented to a n d accepted by the C o u n c i l on
G r a d u a t e S t u d y a n d Research in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l ­
m e n t o f the r e q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f
,2vIAS.TEE...QF...AHHS.
Dean
Secretary
Date ..jJUHE-r—1-9-40-
Faculty Committee
Chairman
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
PAGE
I. NATURE AND PURPOSE OF THE INVESTIGATION . . . .
1
Tlie problem...........
1
Importance of the problem.................
2
Definition of terms . .....................
7
Related studies...............
8
Method of procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14
Organization of the remainder of the thesis ..
17
II. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE . . . . . .
The four year c o l l e g e s ....................
19
The junior colleges .
22
....................
Deficiencies of transfers ........
Summary . . . . .
III.
19
.....
25
.........................
28
ACADEMIC AND FOUNDATION SCIENCE COURSES
PRESCRIBED AS PREPARATION FOR THE MAJOR . . .
30
The four year c o l l e g e s ...................
30
Adequacy of the academic offerings in the
junior colleges...............
Common deficiencies of transfers
37
. . . . . .
47
Summary...........
IV.
51
PHYSICAL EDUCATION ACTIVITIES REQUIRED OR
RECOMMENDED FOR THE M A J O R ..................
53
The four year c o l l e g e s
53
.
iii
CHAPTER
PAGE
Comparison of junior college activities. . . .
58
Deficiencies of transfers
68
..................
Summary.....................................
V. SPECIAL PHYSICAL EDUCATION COURSES REQUIRED
73
OR
RECOMMENDED AS PREPARATION FOR THEMAJOR
...
Special physical education courses in the
four
year colleges
...............
76
.
76
Special physical education courses in the junior
c o l l e g e s ............*....................
81
Deficiencies of transfers ....................
83
Summary
84
.................
VI. RELATED ACTIVITIES ASSOCIATED WITHPREPARATION
FOR THE M A J O R ...............................
86
Related activities in the four year colleges
.
88
Opportunities for related activities In the
junior colleges ...........................
Deficiencies of transfers .. .
.............
Summary
VII.
90
,
SELECTION OF MAJOR STUDENTS....................
Review of l i t e r a t u r e ..................... . .
91
92
95
95
The four year c o l l e g e s ........................ 101
Implications for the juniorcollege............. 102
Summary........................... .......... 103
VIII.
TEACHING M I N O R S .................................. 105
iv
PAGE
CHAPTER
Necessity for teaching minors . . . . . . .
105
The four year c o l l e g e s ....................
Selection of minors in the junior colleges
111
....................
Summary
IX.
108
Ill
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS.....................
113
Summary.........................
Conclusions • • • • • ....................
X.
RECOMMENDATIONS..............................
118
120
Vocational guidance ...................
Educational guidance
Summary .
..........
120
.....
126
................................
BIB LI OG RA PH Y
A P P E N D I X ....................................
.
129
131
140
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
I.
II.
PAGE
Compiled List of the General Requirements . ..
20
Adequacy of the Junior College Curricula in
Meeting the General Requirements of the
Four Year C o l l e g e s ......................
III*
24
Common Deficiencies of Junior College Trans­
fers in the General Requirements for the
D e g r e e .................................
IV.
27
Year Placement of Academic and Foundation
Science Courses Required for the Major by
the Four Year C o l l e g e s ..................
V.
Humber of Units Required in Academic and
Basic Science Courses....................
VI.
31
32
University of California Lower Division
Academic Requirements for the Major Compared
to Those‘Recommended by the National
Committee on S t a n d a r d s ..................
VII.
40
Standard for Judging Junior College Courses
Used to Meet Lower Division Academic
Requirements for the Major
VIII.
............
42
A Comparison of the Lower Division Academic
Requirements for the Major in Sixteen Four
Year Colleges with Similar Courses in
Twenty-three Junior Colleges
............
44
vi
TABLE
PAGE
IX. Deficiencies of Junior College Transfers in
the Required Academic and Basic Science
Courses .
.............................
48
X. Number of Hours Devoted to Activities
Recommended or Required by Fourteen Four
Year Colleges
XI.
XII.
. . . ....................
-55
Activities Offered by the Junior Colleges . .
60
A Comparison of the Activities Offered in
Fourteen Colleges and Twenty-three Junior
Colleges with those of the National Program
and of the Professional Curriculum
XIII.
....
Activities Four Year Colleges and Junior
Colleges Would Like to A d d ..............
XIV.
. .
..............
70
Special Physical Education Courses Required
or Recommended by the Four Year Colleges
XVI.
69.
Deficiencies of Transfers in Physical
Education Activities
XV.
65
.
77
Activities Included in Special Gymnastic and
Sports Courses for Majors by the Four Year
C o l l e g e s .............
XVII.
79
Special Physical Education Courses Offered by
the Junior Colleges........................... 82
XVIII.
Related Activities Required or Recommended by
the Four Year Colleges
............
88
vii
TABLE
XIX.
PAGE
Teaching Minors Most Frequently Recommended
by the Four Year C o l l e g e s ................
110
CHAPTER I
MATURE AND PURPOSE OF THE INVESTIGATION
Physical education majors transferring from junior
colleges to four year institutions have been handicapped by
the lack of certain subject matter and skills.
As the
number in this pre-teaching group has grown with the devel­
opment of junior colleges, their difficulties have become
increasingly obvious.
I.
THE PROBLEM
Statement of the problem.
The problem was to dis­
cover what subjects and activities should and can be off­
ered to men in junior college which will provide pre-pro­
fessional training in physical education for them equal to
that for the same period in the four year institutions.
Scope of the problem.
The study was limited to the
two year and four year institutions of collegiate rank in
the state of California.
All four year institutions, pub­
lic or private, offering a major course for men were in­
cluded, but only the first two years of the course was
studied.
There were sixteen institutions in this group.
Of the two year institutions, only the twenty-three public
junior colleges with an enrollment of two hundred or more
were considered.
2
The study was further limited to curriculum content,
related activities, and guidance procedures.
Guidance,
that phase particularly which has to do with advising, en­
couraging or discouraging those wishing to enter the field,
and with the developing of professional attitude in those
who have made the decision, received special emphasis as it
was considered a vital part of the pre-professional program.
Sources of information were the 1938-1939 catalogues of all
Institutions included In the study, questionnaire returns
and professional literature hearing on the various phases of
the problem.
Mo consideration was given to organization or
administration as the program resulting from the investiga­
tion must fit into the present set up.
For the same reason
there was no attempt to rate the program in the four year
colleges because junior colleges must offer those subjects
demanded by the higher institutions.
Nature and purpose of the investigation.
The primary
objective was one of utility, to suggest not necessarily an
ideal program, but one which can be administered by the
present set up in the larger junior colleges and which
can be used as a guidance program by the smaller junior
colleges.
II.
IMPORTANCE OF THE PROBLEM
General nature.
That physical education majors are
3
not the only group with transfer difficulties and that the
problem Is widespread became apparent in the early stages
of the investigation.
In a study of replies from one hundred fifteen junior
colleges, Claude'*' found that guidance and four year college
relations made up more than fifty per cent of the problems of
preparatory students.
The major problem of guidance was
the choice of appropriate junior college courses in prepara­
tion for later specialization.
Pertinent to the present
study were such questions raised by the writer concerning
four year college relations as the following:
how can full
transfer of credit without loss be obtained; how can the
junior colleges take care of the lack of uniformity as well
as changes in requirements in four year institutions; what
can the junior colleges do to bring about better adjustment
of their transfers in four year colleges?
Further evidence of the general nature of the problem
appeared in a mimeographed summary of a thesis entitled
“The Status of Physical Education in the California Public
Junior Colleges:w
A program for students planning on continuing with
physical education as a major subject at the University
**■ A. J. Claude^and Harold W. Leuenberger, “Problems
of the Junior College, “The Junior College Journal, 9:4-7,
October, 1939.
Is not found in the California public junior colleges.
Many of the schools offer subjects in this field, but
there is a complete lack of standardization. As the
physical education field grows, it becomes increasingly
necessary for a criterion of preliminary work to be
set up.^
Justification of the problem.
Though their terminol­
ogy may differ, such outstanding men in education as Koos,^
Eells, 4 and others are quite generally agreed as to the
major functions of the junior college.
These may be briefly
stated as (1) preparatory, (2) popularizing, (3) terminal,
and (4) guidance.
Koos divided the preparatory work into
two types:
(a) two year liberal arts curricula and (b) pre5
professional curricula.
In the Carnegie report entitled **State Higher Educa­
tion in California**® the committee listed pre-professional
curricula for junior colleges as one of its five major
Kenneth D. Miller, "Status of Physical Education in
California Public Junior Colleges,** (summary of an unpub­
lished Master*s thesis of the same title, University of
Oregon, Eugene, 1939), p. 4.
3
Leonard V. Koos, The Junior College Movement
(Boston: Ginn and Company, 1925), p. 19.
4
Walter Crosby Eells, The Junior College (Boston:
Houghton Mifflin Gompany, 1931")", p . 318.
® Koos, ojo. cit., p. 319.
6
State Higher Education in' California, Report of the
Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, Recom­
mendations of the Commission of Seven, 1932, p. 53.
dations to the State Board of Education and further stated
that the nature of such courses is legitimately determined
by the professional school requirements of the universities.
In 1923-24 there were ten junior colleges and an en­
rollment of 1,925;17 in 1935-34 there were thirty-one junior
8
colleges and an enrollment of 25,984.
In 1938 the largest
growth in public junior colleges was in California which
had the largest enrollment of any state and contributed
9
forty-seven per cent of the enrollment in the country.
The rapidly increasing enrollment would indicate a growing
demand for pre-professional work in physical education.
The result of a study by Elliott3*0 appear to further
justify the offering of such work in junior colleges.
She
found that in eighteen state universities academic subjects
and foundation sciences were concentrated in the first two
^ Biennial Survey of Education, 1922-23, Bureau of
Education Bulletin, 1926, Mo. 23, (Washington: Government
Printing Office, 192Tn~pp. 609-610.
8
Statistics of Higher Education, Being Chapter IV
of the Biennial Survey or Education in-the United States,
1932-34, Bulletin 1935, Ho. 2, (Washington: U. S. Division
of Statistics, 1937), p. 179.
9
Walter Crosby Eells, f,Junior College Growth,11 The
Junior College Journal, 8:264, February, 1938.
10 Ruth Elliott, The Organization of Professional
Training in Physical Education in State Universities [Teachers College Contributions to Education, Mo. 268. Hew York:
Teachers College, Columbia University, 1927), p. 49.
years, that education and physical education, save for
courses required of all university students, were concen­
trated in the third and fourth years.
Her conclusion from
this evidence was that professional training in physical
education begins for the most part in the junior year
This would appear to make the junior college a legitimate
place for the pre-professional work.
Furthermore, because
there is no evidence in literature of such provision for
the pre-professional physical education course, and because
of its large junior college enrollment, California would
seem to be the logical pioneer to develop such a program.
guidance as a. phase of the problem.
The fourth ma­
jor function of the junior college in addition to those of
popularizing, preparatory, and terminal, is listed as guidance.
12
The leaders in the field are agreed that this in­
stitution isin a unique position in regard to guidance,
that it has an important responsibility in this respect.
The guidance function, unlike the other three, is not con­
sidered a separate and distinct one but is rather the foun13
dation on which all the others rest. The objectives of
11 Elliott, o£. cit., p. 49.
Walter Crosby Eells, The Junior College (Boston:
Houghton Mifflin Co., 1931), p.2l8.
13 Ibid., p. 315.
guidance are given as vocational, educational, social, and
14
physical.
The vocational and educational objectives have
received emphasis in this study since they are considered
an integral part of a comprehensive major program.
Developing a pre-professional physical education
program for the junior college has seemed of sufficient im­
portance to warrant an investigation for these reasons:
(1) it is state wide, (2) its solution is made necessary by
the increase in junior college enrollment, and (3) it is a
legitimate preparatory and guidance function of the junior
college.
III.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
The following explanation of terms is given to
clearify the meanings of certain expressions used frequently
throughout this investigation.
Academic subjects. Academic subjects were those
other than foundation sciences required for the major but
not included in the general requirements for the degree.
Special physical education courses.
Special physical
education courses included those activity courses specif­
ically for major students, and any other courses offered
by physical education departments which incorporated any-
14 Ibid., p. 318.
tiling other than, or in addition to instruction in activity
skills and techniques.
Unit of credit. A unit of credit was defined as one
clock hour weekly of the student1s time for the duration of
one semester in lecture or recitation, with the time neces­
sary for preparation, or a longer time in laboratory or
other exercise for which no outside work was required. 15
General requirements for the degree.
Degree require­
ments were those specified courses or units of work in
certain fields exclusive of the major field which had to be
met before the bachelor degree would be awarded.
Teaching minor.
A teaching minor was approximately
twelve units in a subject field taught in high school.
Half of the units could be completed in lower division.
Related activities.
Related activities were those
experiences which were not usually encountered in the regular
class work but which were considered necessary in the train­
ing of physical education majors.
IV.
BELATED STUDIES
There were no studies directly related to the problem
15
University of California General Catalogue 19381939, Primarily for the Students in the Departments at
Berkeley, Vol. 32, No. 6, p. 38.
of junior college pre-professional training in physical
education.
Those indirectly related were grouped as follows:
(1) investigations of physical education in the junior col­
lege; (2) curriculum studies of the physical education major
in the four year institutions.
Junior college investigations.
Campbell 16 surveyed
seventeen junior colleges in Southern California, and thir­
teen outside the state to determine what should be included
in the physical education program for men, and what was the
best administrative organization for carrying out this pro­
gram.
He concluded:
(1) there is no standarized program
of activities for junior college physical education; (2) in­
dividual and small group activities have a far greater carry
over value than the so-called major sports with swimming and
tennis recognized as leaders; (3) those with the greatest
carry over value are receiving the least amount of time. 17
Jensen
18
made a similar study of the women’s program
investigating the practices in eighteen of the largest junior
*1 c
Harry W. Campbell, nThe Organization and Content
of Required Courses in Physical Education for Men in Junior
College,11 (unpublished Masterfs thesis, University of
Southern California, Los Angeles, 1931), p. 118.
17 Ibid., p. 112.
in
Elizabeth Jensen, ”The Organization and Adminis­
tration of Physical Education for Women in the Public Junior
Colleges of California,11 (unpublished Master’s thesis, Uni­
versity of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1931), 141 pp.
10
colleges in California.
Her evidence gave the aims of
the physical education program as improving the health of
the student, providing a leisure time program, developing
character, and preparing for advanced training. 19 In re­
gard to this last item she recommended:
Every department should include a course in theory
and practice of major sports for women. This course
should consist of the technique, fundamentals, and
rules of the following sports: "basketball, baseball,
speedball, and hockey. Practice should be given in
organizing and conducting the class, originating and
teaching relays in connection with each sport, referee­
ing, umpiring and coaching, and organizing play days.2^
Here Is a definite suggestion of training which
would be valuable to the pre-professional student in
physical education.
In an unpublished Doctor’s dissertation, Taylor2^
analyzed the principal subject matter fields in represen­
tative junior colleges of the United States.
He drew some
uncomplimentary conclusions in respect to physical educa­
tion.
After a study of aims, library facilities, limita­
tions of the curriculum, and instructors* recommendations,
19 Ibid., p. 100
20 Ibid., p. 105
21
Arthur Samuel Taylor, tfA Study of Certain Aspects
of the Junior College Curriculum,11 (unpublished Doctor *s
dissertation, University of Southern California, Los
Angeles, 1933), 800 pp.
11
he concluded;
the careful student . . * will have noted long since
that the whole physical education program lacks defi­
niteness and direction. The principal limitation to
the work in physical education in the junior colleges
today is the lack of a elear-Cut philosophy of educa­
tion by those in charge of instruction. Until the
aims of this important line of educational endeavor
coincides to a considerable degree with the fundamen­
tal purposes of the junior college, one cannot expect
anything but a chaotic condition of affairs. 2
This survey of the few studies of junior college
physical education point out not only the almost complete
lack of any consideration of a program for major students,
but also the lack of standardization of the general pro­
gram.
Curriculum studies of the physical education major
in the four year institutions.
Street23 conducted an
investigation of majors and minors combined with physical
education.
After a survey of data gathered from different
states he stated;
While it is probably not desirable to restrict
majors or minors to be combined with physical education
too closely, students should understand that certain
subjects are more in demand than others.
Since the large majority of inexperienced teachers
must begin work in the smaller schools, all four year
22 Ibid., p. 565.
^ Claude W. Street, 11A Study of Suitable Majors
and Minors that are Used in Combination with Physical
Education,H The Research Quarterly of the American Physical
Association, 6:48-68, October, 1933.
12
teacher-training curricula should require two minors
in addition to the major*
The most satisfactory subject fields for major or
minor combinations with physical education would seem
to be . . * biology-physiology, health-hygiene, historysocial sciences, mathematics, chemistry-physics, and
industrial education, 4
Peik25 studied the major courses in physical educa­
tion for men in twenty-seven colleges and universities.
The semester hour requirements for the major and teaching
minors, the most common teaching combinations, the most
prescribed courses in physical education, and elective
privilege were compared.
The conclusions werei
Only thirty per cent of the institutions prescribed
and controlled preparation in a second or third teach­
ing field.
The most frequent teaching combinations with physi­
cal education were social studies, biological sciences,
English, and mathematics.
The general academic training of men in physical
education was not as extensive and the specialization
in the major was greater than was the training of pros­
pective teachers in academic subjects.
An analysis of permanent record cards showed that
high specialization is usually done at the expense of
the breadth and depth of general education.^®
24 Ibid., p. 50.
25 w. E. Peik and B. B. Fitzgerald, "The Education
of Men Teachers of Physical Education for Public School
Service in Selected Colleges and Universities,” The ReSearch Quarterly of the American Fhysical Education Assoc
iation, 5:18-28, December, 1934.
26 Ibid., p. 27.
13
This is the second study which pointed out the need
for suitable teaching minors.
In addition it indicated the
weakness of general academic training.
One of the most comprehensive studies yet made of
professional curriculum content has been done by the Com­
mittee for the National Study of Professional Education in
07
Health and Physical Education.
The committee began its
work in 1931 and is still functioning.
The last report
appeared in 1935 in which the work to that date was sum­
marized.
The purpose of the study was to formulate a set
of standards to be used in the evaluation of institutions
professing to prepare physical education teachers.
Of the
several problems to be solved, the one most pertinent to
the present study was the determining of course standards.
A seven year undergraduate and graduate curriculum was out­
lined in detail including a resume of course content.
The
courses required In the first year were biology, hygiene,
chemistry, introduction to physical education, physical
education activities; in the second year anatomy, physi­
ology, hygiene, introduction to education | suggested"] and
physical education activities.
General academic requirements
^ N. P. Neilson, Chairman, "National Study of Pro­
fessional Education in Health and Physical Education,
National Committee Report on Standards,” The Research .
Quarterly of the American Physical Education Association,
6:48-68, December, 1935.
14
were acknowledged Taut not included in the outline.
QQ
A review of related investigations brought out
these facts:
1. There ha3 been no study of pre-professional pro­
grams suitable for either men or women in the junior col­
lege.
The studies of the general physical education pro­
gram showed that it lacks standardization.
2. A pre-teaching physical education program must
take into consideration the need for the selection of
suitable teaching minors and for greater general academic
background.
3. A definite program has been worked out by a
national committee of the American Association of Health,
Physical Education and Recreation.
The first two years of
this program were applicable to this study.
V.
METHOD OF PROCEDURE
The plan of procedure determined upon was, first, to
find out what the pre-professional requirements were in the
four year colleges, second, to discover the extent to which
junior colleges could meet them, and third, to work out a
suitable program for the junior colleges.
This necessitat­
ed the development of a questionnaire for the four year
28 Ibid., p. 64.
*
15
colleges and another for the junior colleges.
Construction of the questionnaire to he sent to the
four year institutions.
From the catalogues of the univer­
sities and colleges in California offering the physical ed­
ucation major for men, a list was made of the requirements
for the freshman and sophomore years.
These were grouped
under the headings of general requirements for the degree
and requirements for the major.
For purposes of the ques­
tionnaire the latter were subdivided into (a) academic
courses, (b) foundation sciences, (c) special physical ed­
ucation courses, and (d) physical education activities.
After the catalogue offerings were all listed under their
appropriate headings, several columns were provided for
checking purposes.
Under general requirements for the de­
gree one column was allowed for recording the number of
semester credit hours, a second for noting the year in which
the requirement should be met, and a third for indicating
the deficiencies of junior college transfers.
Other than
for the addition of a column in which to record course num­
bers the provisions for checking the major requirements were
the same.
With the physical education activities a column
for clock hours was substituted for the one for credit hours
since a number of activities might be included in one course.
From the same catalogue sources and other literature
a second list was made of related activities.
Here space
16
was provided to check those offered and those in which
junior college transfers were deficient.
A third list was made of guidance factors not in­
cluded in either of the preceding lists.
These were grouped
under (1) methods employed in the selection of majors and
(2) department recommendations or practices for the selec­
tion of teaching minors or a second major.
Two questions
were added to secure information which could not be includ­
ed elsewhere in the check sheets.
The questionnaires, with
a letter of explanation, were then mailed to the heads of
the physical education departments in the sixteen four year
schools included in the Investigation.
Seturns were re­
ceived from, fourteen of these institutions.
Construction of the questionnaire for the junior
colleges.
The junior college questionnaire consisted pri­
marily of a check sheet for the list of physical education
activities which had been compiled from the junior college
catalogues.
After each activity space was allowed to Indi­
cate (1) whether inter-school competition was provided,
(2) whether intra-mural competition was provided, (3) wheth­
er it was a part of the physical education class program,
(4) the length of the period, (5) the number of meetings
per week, (6) and the number of weeks devoted to the ac­
tivity.
Information concerning special physical education
courses offered, the number of activities available to a
17
student, and whether or not medical examinations were given,
was requested.
Academic and foundation science courses
were omitted as this information could he obtained from the
junior college catalogues.
This questionnaire with a
letter of explanation was mailed to the twenty-three public
junior colleges included in the study.
Returns were re­
ceived from twenty-one schools.
Tabulation and analysis of data.
In so far as
possible the data for the four schools not returning ques­
tionnaires was obtained from their 1938-1939 catalogues.
Where these were incomplete they were so indicated in the
chapter discussions.
When all the data were obtained from
the four year colleges and from the junior colleges they
were tabulated and analyzed, and certain items were com­
pared.
This information formed the basis for discussion in
the body of the thesis.
Copies of the letter of explanation, of the ques­
tionnaire for the four year institutions, and for the junior
colleges, with a list of the institutions included in the
investigation, appear in the appendix.
VI.
ORGANIZATION OF THE REMAINDER OF THE THESIS
The general plan of organization of the body of the
thesis was the same as that of the questionnaire to the
four year colleges, the main headings of the latter de­
18
termining for the most part the chapter divisions.
Chap­
ters II through VI deal with courses and activities re­
quired for the degree and as preparation for the major.
The procedure in each of these chapters was to consider the
requirements in the four year colleges in order to deter­
mine the extent to which the junior college was able to
meet these requirements, and to examine the deficiencies
of transfers in the light of this information.
Chapters VII and VIII are concerned with guidance.
Chapter VII discusses the selection of major students, the
practices In the four year colleges, and their application
to the junior college.
In the same manner Chapter VIII
considers the selection of teaching minors.
Chapter IX
summarizes and concludes the study while Chapter X gives
recommendations.
CHAPTER II
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE
The purpose of Chapter II is to determine the general
requirements for the bachelor1s degree in the four year in­
stitutions offering the major course in physical education
for men; to determine the extent to which junior colleges
include such courses in their curricula; and to analyze the
deficiencies of junior college transfers in these require­
ment s.
I.
THE FOUR YEAR COLLEGES
After the questionnaire returns from the four year
colleges had been tabulated on a master sheet, a complete
list was made of the general requirements for the degree
commonly completed in the first two years.of college.
There
was so much variation in the nature and the description of
requirements that reducing them to common terms presented a
problem.
Table I, page 20 gives the final result.
While
not all requirements for each institution are specifically
stated, the necessary courses are in every Instance Included
under one heading or another, and the minimum and maximum
number of units required in all sixteen schools for each
subject grouping is given.
Aptitude tests.
Five schools specifically stated that
20
TABLE I
COMPILED LIST OP THE GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
Requirement
Aptitude tests
English
, Entrance examination
Composition
)
Public speaking )
Literature
)
Foreign language
Natural science
Orientation
Social science
Fine arts
Military drill
Physical education
Unit Range
Number of schools
5
10
4-12
16
3-16
8-14
3 -1*
2-18
2- 4
6
2- 4
6
15
8
16
2
2
15
21
aptitude tests were given.
Actually the number may have been
larger because of the possibility of incomplete answers in
the questionnaire returns and the difficulty of finding such
information in the school bulletins.
English.
Ten schools required an entrance examination
in English in the first year.
Sixteen schools, the total
number, required one or more of three types of English,
namely, composition, public speaking, and literature.
Units
to be completed ranged from four to twelve.
Foreign language.
The seven state teachers colleges
recommended but did not require foreign language.
Of the
remaining nine schools six specified a requirement of from
three to sixteen units.
There was a uniform practice of per­
mitting the deduction of three units for every year completed
in high school provided at least two years in the same lan­
guage had been studied.
One of the colleges accepted only
one foreign language, the others, two.
Natural science. Fifteen schools required eight to
fourteen units of natural science but allowed three or six
units deduction for high school chemistry or physics taken
in the eleventh or twelfth grade.
Orientation. Eight institutions required an orienta­
tion course awarding one-half to one full unit of credit.
It was waived, however, for individuals who transferred with
a specified number of units, which would exempt junior col-
22
lege transfers.
Social science.
All sixteen schools gave social sci­
ence as a graduation requirement and expected from two to
eighteen units.
Fine arts.
Two to four units in fine arts were re­
quired in two schools.
Military drill.
Six units of military drill were
found as a requirement in the two major divisions of the
state university.
Phys ic al edu cation.
Fifteen schools required from
two to four units in physical education activities which in
all instances meant participation during the first two years.
Religious education.
One school stated a specific
graduation requirement of two hours in Bible and religion,
which, since it could be completed any time after the fresh­
man year, was omitted from the list.
II.
THE JUNIOR COLLEGES
The 1938-1959 catalogues of the twenty-three junior
colleges included in the study were checked for the adequacy
of their offerings.
These schools specifically stated in
their bulletins which courses gave transfer credit and which
only graduation credit.
The latter courses were eliminated
and the remainder were considered by departments as to total
number of units offered and as to their uniformity with
23
similar courses in other junior colleges and in the four
year institutions.
The results appear in Table II, page 24.
Aptitude tests and English examination.
Mine of the
schools gave aptitude tests according to their catalogue
statements.
As with the four year colleges the number may
have been greater.
In comparison to ten out of sixteen four
year colleges, all twenty-three junior colleges required an
English entrance examination.
Total units offered.
Tabulations showed that in every
junior college the offerings were more than the maximum unit
requirement of any particular college in any specific field
except three, fine arts, military drill, and religion.
Since
the first two were each required by two institutions and the
latter by only one and not necessarily as a lower division
requirement, they were not considered of major importance.
Uniformity of courses.
The similarity of titles and
content stood out in contrast to the non-uniformity in the
four year colleges.
cover.
The reasons were not difficult to dis­
The four year colleges included in this study were
both public and private; the junior colleges were all public.
The private colleges are held by no restrictions but their
own traditions and policies as regards progressiveness.
Consequently we would expect the greatest amount of varia­
tion in requirements among them.
The junior colleges, on
the other hand, follow rather rigidly the certificate
24
TABLE II
ADEQUACY OP THE JUNIOR COLLEGE CURRICULA IN MEETING
THE GENERAL REQUIREMENTS OP THE POUR YEAR COLLEGES
General requirements
of four year colleges
Aptitude tests
English
Entrance examination
Composition
)
Public speaking )
Literature
)
Foreign language
Natural science
Orientation
Social science
Pine arts
Military drill
Physical education
Maximum
units
Junior colleges
meeting requirement
9
23
12
23
16
14
1
18
4
6
4
23
23
13
23
23
NOTE: The four units of physical education should
be read as four semesters. A four year college would inter­
pret this as two or four units according to its procedure.
The University of California allows only two units.
25
requirements of the state university in their preparatory
courses,
This tends to produce conservatism and uniformity
among them.
Though they have other functions than the pre­
paratory one today, this was .their prime hold on life when
they first came into existence.
The University of California
early befriended^ the junior colleges, and consequently it
behooved these two-year schools to attempt to meet the uni­
versity standards.
Standardization is not a particularly good thing.
The junior college, however, has by no means been regimented.
In its development of terminal courses and other fields of
individual and community service, it has had complete free­
dom.
And the policy of the state university in insisting
on high scholastic standards by rating junior colleges on
the basis of the work done by their transfers in the univer­
sity has been of far more help than hindrance.
During the
period when these two year institutions were mushrooming
into existence over the state, this was of inestimable
value in stabilizing them on a sound scholastic basis.
III.
DEFICIENCIES OF TRANSFERS
With Table I as a check sheet, the deficiencies of
-*• Merton E. Hill, wJunior College Development in
C a li fo rn ia, The Junior College Journal, 6:334, April, 1936.
26
transfers indicated in the questionnaire returns from the
four year colleges were tabulated and the results shown in
Table III, page 27.
Since, in spite of the adequacy of
course offerings to meet the general requirements for the
degree, some deficiencies existed, these were considered
individually and an attempt made to explain them.
One college checked aptitude tests as a deficiency.
This probably has no particular significance except to sug­
gest that the discovery of non-college material and appro­
priate guidance might be carried on to a greater extent in
junior college.
Another four year college noted English as a deficiency.
Since all junior colleges had a standard requirement of six
units in English and composition this criticism could indi­
cate either poor instruction or the necessity for additional
preparation in the subject.
Four institutions indicated that deficiencies in
meeting the natural science requirement were common.
Since
all the two-year institutions showed adequate offerings in
both biological and physical science, the weakness could be
attributed to poor educational guidance, poor grades, or a
tardy decision by the student in regard to his educational
plans.
One college checked foreign language as a common lack.
This happened to be one of the state colleges, all seven of
27
TABLE XII
COMMON DEFICIENCIES OF JUNIOR COLLEGE TRANSFERS
IN THE GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE
Deficiency
Aptitude tests
English
Composition
)
Public speaking )
Literature
)
Foreign language
Natural science
Fine arts
Physical education
Cycle course
Number of colleges
indicating deficiency
1
1
1
4
1
1
28
which recommend hut do not require foreign language for a
teaching major.
Fine arts and physical education activities were
checked by one institution.
Fine arts was found in only one
other college, and the physical education deficiency was a
local requirement not found in any other institution.
IV.
SUMMARY
In their general requirements for the degree the
four year colleges were not in uniform agreement in requiring
the English entrance examination and in giving aptitude tests.
They all, however, required from four to twelve units of
some form of English.
Six institutions required foreign
language, the units varying from three to sixteen, and four­
teen required two to fourteen units of natural science.
Orientation, a requirement in,eight institutions, was waived
for transfers.
Social science, two to eighteen units, was
required in all four year colleges; fine arts, two to four
units was required in two; and military drill, six units,'
was required in two colleges.
Physical education activity,
two to four units, was required the first two years in all
institutions but one.
While over half the four year colleges gave aptitude
tests, only slightly over a third of the junior colleges so
indicated; but all junior colleges required English entrance
29
examinations while approximately half of the four year
institutions did so.
Except for fine arts, military drill, and religion,
each required in two or less institutions, the junior col­
lege curricula in every instance offered more than the
number of courses and units necessary to meet the general
requirements of the higher institutions.
Natural science was the only specific item on which
there was some agreement as to a deficiency in the prepara­
tion of transfers.
Since all twenty-three junior colleges
offered more than enough college preparatory courses to
meet the requirement in this field, the weakness probably
lay with the student rather than with the school curriculum.
CHAPTER III
ACADEMIC AND FOUNDATION SCIENCE COURSES PRESCRIBED
AS PREPARATION FOR THE MAJOR
The third chapter is concerned with the basic science
and other academic courses which were specifically required
as preparation for the physical education major and were in
addition to the regular degree requirements.
The data from
the questionnaire are organized under three headings:
(1)
the lower division requirements of the four year colleges;
(2) the offerings In the junior colleges; (3) the deficien­
cies of junior college transfers.
1.
THE FOUR YEAR COLLEGES
In the questionnaire to the higher institutions the
academic courses were grouped In two divisions, those in
other fields than science, and the science courses. The
summary of findings for both these groups appear in Tables
IV and V, pages 31 and 32.
Table IV gives the list of re­
quired courses and the year placement, while Table V gives
the number of units required for each subject.
Required courses other than science.
The academic
courses required, other than those In the field of science,
were few in number.
An elementary course in art was required in one state
31
TABLE IV
YEAR PLACEMENT OF ACADEMIC AND FOUNDATION SCIENCE COURSES
REQUIRED FOE THE MAJOR BY THE FOUR YEAR COLLEGES
Course
Academic Courses
Art
__ Additional English
Homemaking
Music
Public speaking
Sociology
Year placement
1-2 3-4 not
given
1
2
1
1
4
Foundation Science Courses
10
Anatomy
2
Bacteriology
General biology
6
Chemistry
9
Hygiene
15
Nature study
2
Nutrition
3
Physiology
10
Psychology
16
9
Zoology
1
1
1
3
1
1
4
5
1
4
1
Total number
of schools
1
2
1
3
4
1
14
2
11
14
16
2
3
14
16
10
NOTE: This table should be read as follows; of the
fourteen four year colleges requiring anatomy ten placed it
in the first or second year, three in the third or fourth,
and one did not state.
32
TABLE V
NUMBER OP UNITS REQUIRED IN ACADEMIC AND
BASIC SCIENCE COURSES
Course
1
Academic courses
Art
Additional English
Homemaking
Music
Public speaking
Sociology
Foundation science
courses
Anatomy
Bacteriology
General Biology
Chemistrya
Hygiene*5
3
Nature study
Nutrition
Physiology
Psychology
Zoology
2
** 4
Units
5 6 ^
8
9
10
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
11 1
1
1
1
8
1
2
1
3
4
1
1
1
4
1
2
2
2
1
2
3
1
3
2
1
3
2
3
1
1
6 1
11 2
2 2
4
3
3
2
1
Number
of
schools
1
14
2
11
14
14
2
3
14
16
10
NOTE: The table should be read as follows: two
institutions required two unit courses in anatomy, eleven
required three unit courses, and one required a four unit
course, making a total of fourteen schools.
a Three institutions required chemistry only if none
had been taken in high school, one permitted it to be sub­
stituted for zoology, two included it in a group of two or
more subjects of which one must be chosen.
b
One nutrition course, the content of which was
hygiene, is included here and omitted from the courses under
nutrition. ' No units in hygiene were available for two schools
that included it in the comprehensive science course.
33
teachers college.
This particular institution reported that
the number of transfers in physical education had averaged
less than one per cent in the last seven years.
The course
was not considered of sufficient importance to receive fur­
ther attention in this study.
Elementary courses in music were required in two in­
stitutions.
One of them was the state college just referred
to and the other had written that it seldom had a junior
college transfer who was interested in physical education.
A third college required such a course but not until the
third year.
Music, therefore, was not considered of suffi­
cient importance to be included further.
Other courses required were:
by two colleges, two to
six units of English in addition to that prescribed for the
degree; by one college, three units of sociology; by four
colleges, three to six units of public speaking.
This last
subject was permitted as a substitute for freshman English
in four more institutions, while two others included it in
the English course.
There was the possibility, then, of
public speaking being included in the lower division major
program of at least ten colleges.
The foregoing facts indicate that few academic sub­
jects, exclusive of science courses, were required in lower
division preparation for the physical education major, and
that with the possible exception of public speaking, there
34
was little agreement uuncerning the inclusion of any one of
them.
Foundation sciences.
The enumeration of such subjects
as hygiene and psychology in the list of foundation sciences
which appears in Table IV may be open to question, but the
grouping is based on the classification of the Rational
Committee on Standards,^ and is one of convenience rather
than technical accuracy.
In this list of courses it was found that anatomy was
required in fourteen colleges.
In this group of schools two
gave a two unit course, eleven a three unit course, and one
a four unit course.
According to the catalogue descriptions,
ten of the institutions gave laboratory work, two did not,
two others probably did not as no laboratory hours were
specified.
The course was placed in the first or second
year by ten colleges, in the third or fourth year by three,
while one gave no year placement.
Evidently there was not
complete agreement as to the best year placement.
Two schools required bacteriology, one giving a five
unit and one a six unit course.
It was placed in the first
year by both institutions.
Eleven colleges required general biology.
Of this
N. P. Neilson, chairman, "National Study of Profes­
sional Education in Health and Physical Education, National
Committee Report on S t a n d a r d s , The Research Quarterly of The
American Physical Education Association, 6:59, December, 1935.
35
number one waived the requirement if a student had taken
the subject in high school; another enforced the requirement
only if the student was minoring in biology.
from two to eight.
Units ranged
One institution gave only a two unit
course but supplemented it with four units in nature study;
four institutions gave a three unit course, two a four unit
course, three a six, and one anjeight unit course.
Two of
those requiring six units had lower unit requirements in
physiology and anatomy than the other colleges.
This higher
biology requirement tended to offset what might otherwise
have appeared to be weak preparation.
The one eight unit
biology course noted was a comprehensive course, and a gen­
eral graduation requirement.
Only one institution placed
biology in upper division.
Fourteen of the four year colleges required general
chemistry.
There were variations, however:
three omitted
the requirement if the subject had been taken in high school;
one permitted it to be substituted for zoology; two allowed
choices from among three subjects of which chemistry was
one; eight required college work regardless of high school,
chemistry but permitted a more advanced course and reduced
the number of units.
The total number of required units in
this field ranged from two to ten with not more than three
institutions requiring the same number.
The higher numbers
of units were usually required of those individuals who had
56
not taken the subject in high school.
No institution listed
chemistry as an upper division requirement.
Hygiene in one form or another was required in all
sixteen colleges studied.
Two of the institutions included
the subject in comprehensive biology courses, one called it
nutrition, one permitted biology to be used as a substitute;
another required a three unit course in epidemiology.
Aside
from the last instance, the content appeared to be personal
and community hygiene regardless of the form in which the
course was given.
In two instances the content was given in
two separate courses but both were required.
Units ranged
from one to four and all but one course was placed in the
first or second year.
Two of the state teachers colleges specified a four
unit course in nature study as a lower division requirement.
Nutrition was listed in four schools.
A fifth gave
some nutrition work in a required course in homemaking.
In
one institution this course content was that of hygiene, and
no hygiene course was found.
This was listed in Table IV,
page 31, as hygiene and omitted from nutrition.
The three
remaining courses were lectures, all were two units and all
were required in lower division.
Physiology was a requirement in fourteen colleges.
One was four units; four were five units, and three were six
units.
Ten schools placed It in the first or second year,
four in the junior or senior year.
Zoology was required in ten institutions, one of which
gave a two unit course, two a three unit, two a four unit,
three a five unit, one a six unit, and one a ten unit course.
Only one college placed it in upper dividion.
All the four year colleges studied required general
psychology.
Of this number one gave a two unit course, ele­
ven a three unit course, two a four unit, and two a six unit
course.
All were given in the lower division and twelve of
the sixteen schools specified the sophomore year.
Of the basis sciences considered necessary in the
preparation for the major in physical education, anatomy,
general biology, chemistry, hygiene, physiology, psychology,
and zoology were the ones most frequently required.
Others
listed less frequently were bacteriology, nutrition, homemaking, and nature study.
Units offered for the same course
in different institutions varied as much as from two to ten
units.
II.
ADEQUACY OF THE ACADEMIC OFFERINGS
IN THE JUNIOR COLLEGES
Developing a standard of comparison.
To compare the
course offerings of twenty-three junior colleges to the
courses required in the sixteen four year colleges involved
certain complications.
First, a credit hour is defined by
38
the School Code^ of the State of California as approxima­
tely three hours of recitation, study, and laboratory work
carried on throughout one-half year.
Since all four year
and junior colleges studied complied with this regulation
it was considered the best method of comparison.
Second,
there were certain complications in regard to the science
courses.
In several of the four year colleges, the science
requirements for the major were adjusted to other science
courses of the local institution.
For example, certain
anatomy courses appeared to be meager, falling far below
the unit requirement recommended by the National Committee
on Standards,s but when seen in their relation to an inten­
sive biology or zoology course, they were not as deficient
as would have first appeared.
Third, there was the problem
of the integrated science courses.
Since they were usually
required for graduation, the customary basic science courses
for the major requirement were either incorporated in them
or postponed until the junior year.
Consequently, ascertain­
ing the exact number of units for specific courses required
in the major was impossible.
^ School Code of the State of California, -1935,
Together with extracts from the Constitution, Extracts from
other Codes, and Extracts from the General Laws, Section ,
3.355, p. 158.
^ Neilson, op. cit., p. 59.
39
This whole picture showed not only that direct cora■ parisons were impossible between science courses, but also
that the establishment of any kind of a measuring standard
based on these courses was impracticable.
It was necessary
then, to seek elsewhere for a standard of measurement.
The
academic courses exclusive of the sciences presented no par­
ticular problem but it was decided to include them in what­
ever standard was established.
National Committee^
The recommendation of the
was considered as a possible guide but
put aside for one closer home.
Reference has already been
made to the influence of the University of California on the
curriculum of the junior colleges. 5 If Its requirements for
preparation for the major were sufficiently high, this
would seem to be the logical standard to use.
There were some minor differences in the requirements
at the University of California at Berkeley and at Los
Angeles which are shown in Table VI.
The requirements In
anatomy, chemistry, biology or zoology, and physiology were
nearly the same, but that for hygiene differed.
This dis­
crepancy was due to the fact that Los Angeles offered a ma­
jor In physical education while Berkeley offered a group major
in physical education-hygiene.
^ loo*clt»
5
Cf. ante., p. 25.
The former school required
TABLE VI
40
UNIVERSITY OP CALIFORNIA LOWER DIVISION
ACADEMIC REQUIREMENTS FOR THE MAJOR COMPARED TO THOSE
RECOMMENDED BY THE NATIONAL COMMITTEE ON STANDARDS
University Of California
Course
Anatomy*3Chemistry
Biology
or zoology
Hygiene
Epidemiology
Hygiene and
sanitation
Physiology
Psychology®
Berkeley**
Los Angeles®
Units
Units
3
5-8
3
4
3
5-8
3
5
National
Standarda
Units
3
6
6
6
3
5
3
1
5
6
6
3
a N. P. Neilson, "National Study of Professional Edu
cation in Health and Physical Education, National Committee
Report on Standards," The Research Quarterly of the Ameri­
can Physical Education Association, 6:5§-64, December, 1935
^ University of California Bulletin, General
logue, 1938-39, Vol. 32, No. 6, September, 1938, p.
c
University of California Bulletin, General
logue, Departments at Los Angeles, September^ 1938,
No. 9, p. 100.
Cata­
75.
Cata­
Vol. 32
Listed by the Berkeley Catalogue as an upper
division course but placed in the second year on its
questionnaire returns.
e
Placed in the third year in the National Standard,
(Neilson, op. cit., p. 59) but in the second year by
Neilson in"""A Curriculum for the Professional Preparation
of Physical Education Teachers for Secondary Schools,"
Bulletin E-l, California State Department of Education,
1930, pY To7
41
a one .unit course in hygiene and sanitation while the latter
required a three unit course in epidemiology and recommended
an additional five units in personal and public hygiene.
There were other slight differences.
Berkeley re­
quired three units in general psychology but recommended
six; Los Angeles required six units.
Berkeley also recom­
mended three units of bacteriology and six of public speak­
ing.
Los Angeles made no statement concerning these subjects.
If a junior college were to meet the requirements for
both institutions, it would have to offer not less than
three credits in human anatomy, three units in general biologyor five in general zoology, eight units in chemistry,
five units in physiology, six units in psychology, three in
epidemiology, and at least one in personal hygiene and sani­
tation.
With the exception of hygiene for which the two
unit requirement of the State Board of Education6 in per­
sonal and community hygiene was substituted, this was the.
program of courses accepted as the standard of measurement.
This appears in Table VII.
To be sure that the University of California require­
ments were academically acceptable, its requirements were
compared to those of the National Committee on Standards'?
6 Rules and Regulations of the State Board of Education,*1 Department of Education Bulletin No. T7 CSacremento,
1937), p. 13.
^ Neilson, op. cit., p . 59.
42
TABLE VII
STANDARD FOR JUDGING JUNIOR COLLEGE COURSES
USED TO MEET LOWER DIVISION ACADEMIC REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE MAJORa
Cours e
Anatomy
Biology or zoology
Chemistry
Hygiene, personal
and community&
Physiology
Psychology
Units
3
3 or 5
8
2
5
6
a The standard is based on the University of Califor­
nia requirements at Berkeley and Los Angeles, and those given
in the National Committee Report on Standards, all of which
are listed in Table VI, page 40,
b
A requirement of the State Board of Education.
See Rules and Regulations of the State Board of Education,
Department of Education BulTelin No. T, (Sacremento, 1057),
p • li5»
43
and of the other four year colleges included in the study.
In both instances the comparisons which can be seen in
Tables VI and VIII, pages 40 and 44, were favorable.
The
conclusion was that the University of California require­
ments appeared to be both practical and adequate as a stan­
dard for measuring the junior college science courses.
Method of comparison.
evaluating the
The first consideration in
junior college was to determine the extent
to which they met the unit requirements in the specific sub­
jects included
in the University of California standard;
the second was
tofind out to what extent they were able to
meet additional Unit requirements in these same or other
subjects specified by the other four year colleges.
This
information appears in tabulated form in Table VIII.
Academic courses.
The standard list included no
required academic subjects other than the foundation scien­
ces.
However, there were several courses listed by other
higher institutions.
ing.
The first of these was public speak­
It was required by four colleges and recommended by
the state university.
The highest requirement was six units
which was met by all twenty-three junior colleges included
in the study.
Additional English beyond that included for
the degree was a requirement in two colleges.
colleges were able to meet the requirement.
required in one institution.
All junior .
Sociology was
Hineteen junior colleges
4-4
TABLE VIII
A COMPARISON OF THE LOWER DIVISION AC'-DEMIC RBOUXRBMEHTS
FOR THE MAJOR IB SIXTEEN FOUR YEAR COLLEGES WITS
SIMILAR COOKSES IN TWENTY-THREE JUNIOR COLLEGES
Required
course
1 '2
5* 4" 5
1
Additional
English
?uTB'Xic
speaking
1
f
g
Four year Junior
9' '10' colleges colleges
1
23
1
23
2
2
23
'"1 .. .
i J.
in
'1
1 2
t
2 11
1 13
Sociology
Ariatomy a
Bacteriol­
ogy
General
biology
1
I 4
13
J' 1 1
Chemistry
3
Hygiene
Nature
study
Nutrition
Physiology6
8
2
2
2
14
21
1
1
8
1
" 1 11
" r
21
1
2
1
3
3 12
1
1
2
3
19
11
3
j£
23
™
20
14
-T4t>..
2
23
22
'2
1
6
19
1
3
7
£
23
■ "14
TT 2 li
Psychology
Zoology
2
1
5
i
2' 1
2
3
3
1
1
I '4 3
3 15 2
'2
2
23
a 3 1
'
15
14
■ X6
1■
22
23
111 1 11
10
’•
23
MOTE: Figures for the four year colleges are in
black and those for the junior colleges are in red.
B In the junior colleges one two unit and one eight
unit course was combined anatomy and physiology.
k Humber of units were not available in two of the
four year colleges as the subject was Included in a compre­
hensive science^course*
45
offered this course, eighteen of which met or bettered the
three unit requirement.
Foundation science courses.
A comparison of the jun­
ior college science courses with those required in. the stan­
dard program was on the whole, favorable.
Twenty junior
colleges met the three unit human anatomy requirement of the
standard program.
Seventeen of this number indicated some
type of mammalian laboratory dissection accompanied by demon­
strations and study of prepared human dissections.
The other
three indicated demonstrations but did not specifically state
laboratory dissection, although it may have been included.
As to the other four year colleges, only one required more
than three units.
This could be met by only seven junior
colleges.
A three unit bacteriology course was recommended but
not required in the standard program.
Of nineteen schools
offering the subject, all met the three unit recommendation,
and eighteen gave more than three units of credit.
Only ten
junior colleges were able to meet the five unit requirement
of one four year college, and only two junior colleges were
able to meet the six unit requirement of another.
Twenty junior colleges offered biology and all but
one gave at least a three unit course; twenty-three junior
colleges gave zoology courses of eight or more units.
All
the junior colleges were able to meet the biology or alter-
46
nate zoology requirement of the state university.
Six of
the four year colleges required more than three units of
biology which could be met by only seven institutions.
Inhere
acceptable to the higher colleges, this requirement could be
met in zoology by all of the two-year schools.
The chemistry requirement was met by all junior col­
leges.
The requirements of all other colleges than the state
univers ity were also met.
The two unit hygiene requirement was met by all but
one junior college.
Nature study was not included in the standard program
but was required in two of the four year colleges.
It was
offered under that title in only three junior colleges.
Nutrition, another subject not on the standard program,
was required in four colleges.
Fifteen junior colleges met
the requirement.
Eighteen junior colleges met or bettered the state
university requirement of five units in physiology.
One
school offered a four unit course in anatomy and another in
physiology.
Because of the extra unit in anatomy, this four
unit course in physiology was probably acceptable.
The data
warrant the conclusion that nineteen junior colleges met the
standard requirement.
Three four year colleges had a six
unit requirement which was met by only four junior colleges.
The six unit requirement in psychology was met
47
twenty-three junior colleges.
This also took care of all the
other four year colleges.
III.
COMMON DEFICIENCIES OF TRANSFERS
Table IX shows the extent to which junior college
transfers were considered deficient in the science and other
academic subjects by the four year institutions.
Music was
checked by two schools, public speaking by one, human ana­
tomy by five, mammalian anatomy by one, chemistry by three,
hygiene by one, nutrition by one, physiology by three, psy­
chology by two, and zoology by one.
Music.
Of the schools which checked music, one had
stated that junior college transfers were few, and the other
required it in the junior year for the elementary credential.
Music did not appear to be a serious weakness.
Public speaking.
Since all twenty-three junior col­
leges offered adequate courses in public speaking this lack
mentioned by one school was apparently not a result of cur­
riculum deficiency.
More probably it was the result of
ignorance on the part of the student as to the requirements
in the higher institutions.
Anatomy.
The fact that three junior colleges failed
to meet the three unit anatomy requirement only partially
explains why this subject was marked as a deficiency by five
institutions.
There is another possible explanation.
The
48
TABLE IX
DEFICIENCIES OF JUNIOR COLLEGE TRANSFERS IN THE
REQUIRED ACADEMIC AND BASIC SCIENCE COURSES
Requirement
Music
Public speaking
Human anatomy
Mammal! an anatomy
Chemistry
Hygiene
Nutrition
Physiology
Psychology
Eoology
Number of schools
indicating deficiency
2
1
5
1
3
1
1
3
2
1
University of California states in its General Catalogue
what science courses are acceptable to meet the twelve unit
requirement for the junior certificate.^ * Anatomy is the only
one of the sciences required for the physical education major
which is not included in this list.
The .course was probably
established in the junior colleges primarily to provide prenursing training.
It is possible that the laboratory ma­
terials and teaching content may not have been equal to
those of the other laboratory sciences.
Criticisms from the
four year colleges seem to bear out this last point.
One
writer indicated that Ha boratory..dissection of the cadaver
was deficient.
Another wrote that he,did not recommend
anatomy and physiology for the junior colleges as these
courses were sketchy, with no dissection on the human cadaver.
Still a third made a similar criticism.
It is of further
interest to note that both branches of the state university
checked anatomy as a common deficiency of transfer.
Mammalian anatomy.
anatomy as a deficiency.
One institution checked mammalian
This particular school required the
subject in lower division and human anatomy in upper division.
Perhaps additional units in,zoology could have been used to
meet this requirement.
8
University of California General Catalogue 19381939 Primarily I'or tEe students In the Departments at Berke­
ley, ¥ol. 32, No. 6 (Berkeley; Univers ity”of California,
1938), pp. 58-59.
50
Chemistry.
Chemistry was considered a common weak­
ness by three colleges.
All junior colleges offered adequate
courses in this subject, courses which met the state univer­
sity Requirement.
This deficiency was probably a result of
student ignorance as to required courses, or of poor grades.
Nutrition. Nutrition was checked by one school. It
was required by four major departments, and six junior col­
leges failed to offer the course, a large enough number to
account in part for the deficiency.
Ignorance of require­
ments may have been an additional explanation.
Physiology.
Physiology appeared on the list three
times as a deficiency.
Prom the standpoint of units offered,
nineteen schools gave adequate courses.
One university de­
partment chairman, however, gave an opinion that laboratory
work was apt to be sketchy.
The deficiency is probably
accounted for by poor teaching facilities in a few instances,
by failure of at least four institutions to offer adequate
courses, or -by the omission of the subject from the student*s
program.
Psychology.
ficient.
Two colleges checked psychology as de­
Since all twenty-three junior colleges offered
adequate courses and since there was no criticism of the
course, the fault would appear to have been with the student.
Zoology.
One school listed zoology as a deficiency.
All junior colleges met the state requirement of five units,
51
but only eleven offered a ten unit course required by this
particular institution.
IV.
SUMMARY
j&n analysis ,of the tabulated data concerning the
academic requirements revealed a wide range in subject mat­
ter and in units among the four year colleges.
Since the University of California was a dominating
influence in early junior college development and since its
lower division requirements for the physical education major,
when compared with those of other institutions, were satis­
factory^ its requirements were taken as a standard of com­
parison for junior college courses.
In addition to this
the extent to which junior college courses met special sub­
ject and unit requirements of the other four year colleges
was also considered.
The state university had no academic requirement other
than basic sciences.
Those of the other four year institu­
tions were few and for the most part were adequately met.
The subjects listed in other fields than science were English,
public speaking, and sociology.
Of those sciences included in the standard program,
all junior colleges were able to meet the requirements in
biology or zoology, in chemistry, and psychology.
Twenty-
two met the hygiene requirement, twenty the anatomy, and
52
nineteen the physiology requirement*
As to the science requirements of the other four year
colleges, twenty-one junior colleges met the anatomy require­
ment of all but one four year institution; all junior colleges
met the biology or zoology requirement and the chemistry
requirement of all.
Twenty-two junior colleges met the
hygiene requirements of all but two four year colleges.
Nine­
teen met physiology requirements of all but three; fifteen
junior colleges met the nutrition requirement o f all four
year colleges, twenty-three junior colleges met the psychol­
ogy requirement in all.
The nature study requirement in
two institutions was met by only-three junior colleges.
Deficiencies.
Common deficiencies and the number of
schools indicating them were as follows;
music, two; public
speaking one; human anatomy, five; mammalian anatomy, one;
chemistry, three; hygiene, one; nutrition, one; physiology,
three; psychology, two; and zoology, two.
The deficiencies appeared to result as frequently
from student ignorance of requirements or lack of decision
as to major field as from failure of the junior colleges to
offer the course or to provide adequate instruction facili­
ties.
CHAPTER IV
PHYSICAL EDUCATION ACTIVITIES REQUIRED
OR RECOMMENDED FOR THE MAJOR
The present chapter will consider those physical edu­
cation activities required or recommended by the four year
colleges for lower division major students, the extent to
which these activities are offered in the junior colleges,
and the deficiencies of transfers as pointed out by the four
year colleges.
I.
THE FOUR YEAR COLLEGES
The questionnaire.
A list of physical education ac­
tivities was compiled from the catalogues of the four year
colleges and included in the questionnaire.
Department
chairmen were asked to indicate the number of hours devoted
to each activity required in the lower division major program.
Clock hours were used rather than semester units since the
amount of time devoted to different activities varied greatly
from one institution to another.
Department heads were also
asked to designate whether the activity was given in a single
or double period of instruction, and to state year placement.
In the questionnal re the activities required were
specifically asked for in the hope that the returns would
indicate which ones should be completed before the junior year.
Such a list would have been of value in determining whether
the junior colleges were including the most important activi­
ties in their programs.
It would also have served as a guide
in working out the recommended pre-professional program.
The
lack of any such specific requirements, however, was evident
in the following comments in the questionnaire returns:
None of them 1activities I are specifically required
of the men but are included in the program as the indi­
vidual schedule permits.
All majors are expected to take in four years all the
activities we offer, and if possible to take more than
one semester.
Six hours activity credit are required. No activi­
ties are specifically required. As much variety is pro­
vided as the student’s program permits.
We have no specifications as to what students should
do in physical education activities at any time. We are
glad to have a variety of participation, and we are will­
ing to recognize the participation in high school and
junior college and do not insist that this participation
shall be in a variety of sports while in the university.
Because of the nature of the returns, tabulations were
made on the basis of courses checked by the institution, and
whether they were recommended or required was ignored.
When
tabulation of data was completed the items of single and
double period and year placement were eliminated as they
proved to have no significance in the study.
Corrective
gymnastics was omitted from the list of activities because
in four instances out of five it was upper division work.
The tabulated data appear in final form in Table X.
TABLE X.
NUMBER OP HOURS DEVOTED TO ACTIVITIES RECOMMENDED
OR REQUIRED BY FOURTEEN FOUR YEAR COLLEGESa
Activities
Aquatics
Diving
Life saving
Swimming
Dancing
Clog, tap
Elementary
rhythms
Folk
Social
Games, relays
Gymnastics
Apparatus
Free exercise
Marching
Pyramids and
tumbling
Stunts
Clock Hours
not
19-24
7-12
13-18
25-30
1«6
31-36 37-72 73-210 given
*
1
2
2
2
1
1
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
•
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
3
1
5
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
Number of
schools
14
6
6
10
7
5
3
4
4
5
4
4'
5
11
8
8
8
4
3
11
6
1
Two of the fourteen college questionnaires gave incomplete data on activ­
ities which could not be used; the data for the two not returning a questionnaire
was taken from the recommended program for majors printed in their respective
catalogues.
Cn
Oi
TABLE X (continued)
NUMBER OF HOURS DEVOTED TO ACTIVITIES RECOMMENDED
OR REQUIRED BY-FOURTEEN FOUR YEAR COLLEGES
1-6 7-12 13-18
Individual sports
Archery
Badminton
Bowling
Boxing
Fencing
Golf
Handball
Squash
Tennis
Track and field
Wrestling
Team sports
Baseball
Basketball
Football
Rugby
Soccer
Softball
Speedball
Touch football
Volleyball
Water polo
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
5
1
1
1
1
2
2
4
2
1
1
5
1
1
I
1
2
1
1
1
1
5
4
1
6
6
4
1
2
1
2>
2
2
1
2
1
1
3
2
2
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
> 1
f
1
1
3
4
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
Clock Hours
not
25-30 31-36 37-72 73-210 given
CO
1
to
Activities
1
1
1
1
2
6
5
6
1
5
5
3
1
1
2
lumber of
schools
14
6
8
1
12
2
10
8
3
13
15
12
14
14
14
14
1
9
11
7
1
2
4
Two of the fourteen colleges returning questionnaires gave
incomplete data on activities. * Information for the two which
did not return questionnaires was taken from the recommended
program for majors In their catalogues.
In all, the activi­
ties of fourteen four year colleges were included.
The wide range of time devoted by different schools
to the same activity, which is obvious in Table X, pages 55
and 56, was partly explained by the fact that clock hours
appeared to be given for three types of organized instruction
for activity courses open to all students to meet the lower
division physical education requirement, for varsity team
practice, and for required freshman classes or required lower
division major classes in which brief experience was given
in several activities.
The time allotment in the first ine
stance varied from thirty to thirty-six hours, or the
equivalent of one semester; in the second from one hundred
fifty to two hundred ten hours for a given sport; and in the
third from one to four hours.
The totals appearing in Table X, page 55, represent
the number of schools which required or recommended a par­
ticular activity, and the number of hours indicate that it
was given In one of the three ways explained above.
There appears to be a discrepancy in some of the
totals.
For example, one would expect all colleges to give
training to majors in the different types of gymnastic work
58
such as apparatus, free exercise, marching, pyramids, tumb­
ling and stunts.
But the tabulation showed only eight giving
apparatus, marching, and free exercise, eleven giving pyra­
mids and tumbling, and six stunts.
There is the possibility
that other colleges gave this work in the upper division,
but only one so indicated.
Consequently, Table X should be
interpreted as being indicative of practices in general,
rather than as giving an accurate picture.
As would be expected, those activities most frequently
recommended or required of major students, were the major
team sports of baseball, basketball, football, with track
the leader in the individual sports.
Other team sports
listed in order of frequency were softball, soccer, speedball,
and water polo.
Only slightly below the major team sports
in number of times reported were the individual sports of
tennis, boxing, wrestling, golf, swimming, badminton, and
handball.
II.
COMPARISON OP JUNIOR COLLEGE ACTIVITIES
The Junior college questionnaire.
The* questionnaire
to junior colleges contained a list of physical education
activities offered in the four year colleges.
Each department
head was asked to indicate in the column provided for the pur­
pose whether an activity was offered for inter-school compe­
tition, for intramuraljcompetition, or for class instruction.
59
Where they were conducted in regular class instruction peri­
ods, information on the following items was requested: length
of period, number of meetings per week, and number of weeks
devoted to an activity.
This was done in an attempt to make
the returns as uniform asjpossible for comparison with those
of the four year colleges.
Tabulation of data.
leges were used.
Data from twenty-two junior col­
They were obtained from twenty-one ques­
tionnaire returns and one catalogue study.
One junior col­
lege was omitted as its catalogue did not supply the neces­
sary information.
The results appear in Table XI.
The same
comment should be made here that was made for Table X; namely,
that Table XI should be considered as an indication of ten­
dencies rather than as an accurate picture.
Interpretation of data, ,4s with the four year colleges,
those activities which appear most frequently in Table XI
are the major sports of football, basketball, baseball, and
track, with tennis equally popular.
4mong the minor team
sports it was of interest to note that nineteen junior col­
leges offered softball, and sixteen volleyball.
Soccer and
speedball were offered by only slightly more than one third
of the institutions.
The aquatic activities indicated a lack
of facilities which can only be remedied with time.
But even
so, fifteen of the twenty-two schools were able to offer
swimming.
TABLE XI
ACTIVITIES OFFERED BY THE JUNIOR COLLEGES8
Activities
Aquatics
Diving
Life saving
Swimming
Dancing
Clog, tap
Elementary
rhythms
Folk
Social
Games, relays
Gymnastics
Apparatus
Free exercise
Marching
pyramids,
tumbling
Stunts,
decathlon
Corrective
Individual sports
Archery
Badminton
Boxing
Fencing
Golf
Clock Hours
not
1-6 7-12 13-18 19-24 25-30 31-36’
'37-72 73-210 given
2
1
1
•
1
1
1
1
2
4
2
6
1
1
4
1
5
2
3
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
•7
1
1
1
1
2
1
4
5
3
i
7
1
1
3
1
2
1
3
1
3
1
5
7
21
14
12
1
5
1
1
2
1
2
4
7
5
1
3
3
1
1
4
2
1
3
1
15
10
8
15
8
2
13
1
1
Number of
schools
1
a Activities of twenty-two institutions were included.
2
2
2
2
11
22
9
14
17
3
20
TABLE XI (continued)
ACTIVITIES OFFERED BY THE JUNIOR COLLEGES
Handball
Tennis
Track, field
Weaponless
defense
Wrestling
Team sports
Baseball
Basketball
Football
Rugby
Soccer
Softball
Speedball
Touch football
Volleyball
Water polo
2
2
1
2
1
6
1
2
2
1
1
1
3
4
2
1
5
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
4
1
1
3
5
5
6
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
2
<3
CO
2
Clock Hours
13-18 19-24 25-30 31-36
OJ
<3
1
CO
1-6
i
—i1
Activities
1
4
1
1
1
1
3
7
4
1
3
2
not
73-210 given
3
4
2
4
6
10
21
21
10
5
13
1
14
22
21
22
22
3
2
3
19
2
1
1
1
3
2
2
4
2
2
1
1
3
Number of
schools
8
8
1
1
7
16
6
H
62
Twenty schools provided participation in golf,
seventeen in boxing, and fourteen in badminton.
The show­
ing in these two sports was much better than that made
by the four year colleges.
The frequency of rhythmic ac­
tivities was low in both the lower and the higher institu­
tions.
Six four year colleges required some type of
rhythmical activity, and eight junior colleges offered such
courses.
Eleven four year colleges required some form of
gymnastic activity, while twenty-one junior colleges offered
similar activity.
The clock hours were about as broadly scattered for
the junior colleges as for the four year colleges.
From
the data it was impossible to estimate what activities
should be completed by the junior year or what amount of
time should be devoted to each.
Establishment of a measuring standard.
The establish­
ment of any kind of a standard list for evaluating the junior
college program was impossible.
The questionnaire returns
from the University of California at Berkeley and at Los
Angeles were searched in the hopes that from them might be
established some kind of a guide.
There was too much varia­
tion in the requirements and the time allotments of the two
schools to work out a single usable standard as was done for
the foundation sciences.
The alternative remaining was to
63
discover what activities physical education majors would
probably have to teach in the public schools and to use that
as a guide.
Such a study had been made on a national scale
by the Committee on Curriculum Research.
In order to use these results for comparative purposes,
this procedure was adopted.
A master list, which appears in
Table XII was made of all activities found in the four year
colleges, in the junior colleges, and in this national study.
Included in the latter were the content of both the core and
elective program for the elementary, junior, and senior high
school.
The items of the national program were indicated by
marking a wcrl or an ”©** after those activities which were a
part of the core or elective curriculum.
The content of the
four year college program was shown by recording after a
given activity the number of institutions offering it.
To determine what the activity content of the junior
college programs should be was now possible.
But there were
still two other questions to be solved before proceeding;
namely, during what particular semester or year should these
courses be given, and how much time should be allotted to
each.
The questions were quickly disposed of.
Neilson,
William Ralph La Porte, chairman, The Physical Edu­
cation Curriculum, A National Program,(The CasIon Printing
Company, 1937), p. 61.
64
TABLE XII
A COMPARISON OF THE ACTIVITIES OFFERED IN FOURTEEN
COLLEGES AND TWENTY-THREE JUNIOR COLLEGES WITH
THOSE OF THE NATIONAL PROGRAM AND THE
PROFESSIONAL CURRICULUM
Activities
Content or
national
Program
Aquatics
Diving
Canoeing
Life saving
Rowing
Swimming
Dancing
Clog, tap
Elementary
rhythms
Folk
Social
Games, relays
Gymnastics
Apparatus
Free exercise
Marching, pyra­
mids, tumb ling
Stunts, decathlon
Individual sports
Archery
Badminton
Bowling
Boxing
Equitation
Fencing
Golf
Handball
Tennis
Squash
Track, field
Weaponless
defense
Wrestling
Content of
Professional Number
Number of
Curriculum in
of
junior
terms of units colleges colleges
14
6
14
10
6
8
10
6
5
15
8
2
14
4
4
5
11
8
8
3
1
4
7
21
14
12
11
6
14
6
8
13
5
23
9
14
X
1
12
17
Z
±
%
2
10
8
13
3
14
3
20
10
21
.
c
c
c
JL
X
¥i
?
S
JL
2
c
e
c
1
5
a
i
■§■
c
c
£
c
c
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
c
e
1|
s'
1
2
*
1
2
1
£
X
12
21
1
14
65
TABLE XII (continued)
A COMPARISON OF THE ACTIVITIES OFFERED IN FOURTEEN
COLLEGES AND TWENTY-THREE JUNIOR COLLEGES WITH
THOSE OF THE NATIONAL PROGRAM AND THE
PROFESSIONAL CURRICUHJM
Content of
National
Program
Team sports
Baseball
Basketball
Football
Rugby
Soccer
Softball
Speedball
Touch football
Volleyball
Water polo
e
e
c
c
c
c
c
e
Content of
Professional Number
Number of
of
junior
Curriculum in
terms of units Colleges Colleges
i
f
i
3
JL
3
14
14
14
14
1
9
11
7
11
2
4
23
21
22
22
8
19
8
..7
16
6
66
while Chief of the Division of Health and Physical Education
for California, developed a curriculum for the preparation
o
of physical education teachers for secondary schools.
In this report he made one statement concerning the
year placement of activities.
Except in cases where the activity and technique of
teaching the activity are given in the same course, ac­
tivity courses should precede during the first, second,
and third years, with the technique of teaching courses
coming during the third, fourth, and fifth.3
It can he assumed that year placement is of no importance in
the major program, that any physical education activity is
suitable any time.
Concerning credit value, Meilson advised, ” The credit
value suggested for the activity courses is to be considered a
minimum rather than the desirable amount.t?^
By prsing Neilsonfs
list of assigned credit values and interpreting It on the
basis of a State Board ruling^ requiring two fifty minute
periods per week for one semester for each half unit of credit,
an authoritative time standard was established.
These values
were tabulated under the heading of professional program in
Table XII, page 69.
Finally, to complete the picture for
^ ^
for the Professional Preparation of
Physical Education feachers for Secondary Schools, (CaliTornia
State Department of Education, Bulletin 1, 1930}, p. 109.
3 Ibid., p. 11.
^ Ibid., p. 8.
5
and Regulations of the State Board of Education,
Department of Education Bulletin Ho. l” U3acremento, 1957)p. 13.
67
comparative purposes, tiie content of the junior college
program was shown by listing, under that heading, the number
of schools offering each activity.
Making the comparison.
A cross scanning of the table
brought out some interesting facts.
First, the college list
contained all the activities of the national program except
those requiring special, local geographical or climatic con­
ditions, such as boating and snow sports.
The national
program, however, did not include American football,
This
is explained by the fact that the study was concerned with
the instruction rather than the extra-curricular program.
Second, every activity of the national program except
bowling was offered by one or more of the four year colleges
and junior colleges.
If canoeing, rowing, and equitation
were included, the same was true of the professional program
recommended by Meilson.^
Third, rhythmical activities were offered by a fewer
number of institutions in both groups under consideration
than was any other type of activity.
Next in order of increas­
ing popularity for the colleges and junior colleges were
aquatics and gymnastics.
Fourth, football, basketball, track and field, base­
ball > and tennis were the most popular activities and were
State Board of Education, Bulletin E l , op. cit.,
pp. 11-13.
very nearly unanimous offerings of both the four year col­
lege and the junior college groups*
Boxing, golf, wrestling,
softball, and touch football were offered by approximately
two-thirds of the four year colleges.
Badminton, boxing,
golf, wrestling, softball, and volleyball were given by the
same number of junior colleges.
Fifth, while on the whole the junior colleges were as
well represented as the four year colleges in the activities
offered, the figures indicated that some junior colleges
could well afford to expand their activity programs.
Expan­
sion was particularly needed in rhythmical and gymnastic
activities•
Activities junior collegeswould add.
Both colleges
and junior colleges were asked to indicate in the question­
naire what activities they hoped to add in the near future.
As seen in fable XIII, only one school wished to add a rhyth­
mical activity and one, gymnastics.
The desire was for a
greater variety in individual and team sports.
III.
DEFICIENCIES OF TRANSFERS
The activities reported as common deficiencies of
transfers, and the number of institutions reporting them
appear in Table XIV, page 70.
Aquatics * Five different colleges indicated that difficiencies in aquatic activities were common.
While fifteen
69
TABLE XIII
ACTIVITIES POUR YEAR COLLEGES AND
JUNIOR COLLEGES WOULD LIKE TO ADD
Activities
Archery
Boxing
Crew
Fencing
Free exercise
Golf
Handball
Bugby
Soccer
Squash
Social dancing
Wrestling
Pour year colleges
Junior Colleges
2
11
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
3
70
TABLE XIV
DEFICIENCIES OF TRANSFERS IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION ACTIVITIES
Activity
Number of
schools
reporting
deficiencies
Aquatics
Diving
Life s aving
Swimming
Dancing
Clog, tap
Elementary
rhythm
Folk
Gymnastics
Apparatus
Free exercise
Marching
Pyramids and
tumbling
Stunt s
Corrective
Games and relays
5
3
3
3
3
1
2
3
6
4
1
2
4
2
4
2
Activity
Individual sports
Archery
Badminton
Boxing
Golf
Handball
Squash
Tennis
Track and field
Wrestling
Team sports
Soccer
Speedball
Number of
schools
reporting
deficienci es
1
3
3
2
2
2
3
1
3
1
2
7flb
junior colleges reported swimming, only eleven or half the
entire number, gave swimming instruction.
Even if all fif­
teen had given such instruction, the deficiency could still
have existed because of this lack in the remaining seven
institutions.
This is a deficiency which may continue to
exist for a time because of the financial investment required.
Dancing.
Three four year colleges reported dancing
as a deficiency.
Six higher institutions required some form
of rhythmical work, while only eight junior colleges offered
it.
When one considers the time allotted to this type of
activity in the national program, and the fact that the pro­
fessional program recommended one and one-half units as a
minimum, he realizes that the colleges and the junior colleges
of California are yet unconvinced as to its place in the
physical education program.
Gymnastics.
Six separate colleges reported weakness
in preparation in the various gymnastic activities, and yet,
the returns showed that twenty-one junior colleges offered
some type of gymnastics.
One is forced to conclude either
that not enoughjdifferent types of gymnastic activities were
insufficient.
However, a comparison of clock hours shows a
greater time allotment in the junior colleges than in the four
year colleges.
Corrective gymnastics.
Remedial excercise was indica­
ted as a deficiency by four schools.
Since this was normally
72
an upper division course, one infers that the four year
college chairmen felt that majors needed certain corrective
work such as posture.
While not intending to dodge respon­
sibility, one wonders if this is not one for high schools.
Sports.
Few comments need be made about the indi­
vidual and team sports for which deficiencies were reported.
4 comparison- of the activity with the number of junior col­
leges offering it explains the deficiency in most instances.
Since track and tennis were offered by all but one school,
one would not expect them to be mentioned as deficiencies.
However, it would be quite possible for a student who was
interested in only one or two sports, such as football or
basketball to avoid taking them.
The activities which men
are called upon to coach for intermural competition were with
one exception those in which no deficiencies were found.
General comments.
There were some interesting com­
ments from college heads concerning junior college activity
courses in general.
One writer felt that transfers usually
have courses with indefinite content; that, instead, they
should have specific courses in such activities as baseball,
wrestling and tumbling which would lessen the number of these
special courses they now have to carry in the two upper divi­
sion years,
toother stated his experience with transfers
indicated that they had been given straight play activity in
one or two sports with no study of history or rules.
He
7SS
believed that all physical education work in junior college
has been too general, with most of the work simply carrying
out the high school routine.
Mid he finally stated as a
matter of opinion that the majority of junior colleges have
high powered football coaches proselyting for their alma
maters, and in the meantime posing as instructors of physical
education.
The deficiencies were not extensive enough to support
anyjconclusions except in the instance of the gymnastic acti­
vities where instruction appeared to be insufficient.
One
is led to infer from the comments of college instructors that
there may have been other instances in which instruction
was inadequate.
It must be said in defense of coaches, how­
ever, that as long as coaching and physical education are a
double job given to a single man, the former jwill dominate
by the very nature of things, and the latter will take second
place.
iv.
smrnmY
A study of the data on physical education activities
recommended or required by the four year colleges and offered
by the junior colleges brought out the following points:
1.
There was no uniformity in the amount of time de­
voted to the same activity either among the four year colleges
or the junior colleges.
74
2. The four year colleges gave no Indication as to
what activities a physical education major should have mas­
tered by the end of his sophomore year.
3. Among the group of junior colleges were found all
the activities of any importance recommended or required by
the four year colleges.
This list of activities was found
to include nearly all those in the core or elective program
recommended by the Committee oh Curriculum Research of the
College Physical Education Association;^ as well as those
listed by Neilson® in the Curriculum for the Professional
Preparation of Physical Education Teachers for Secondary
Schools•
4. Only in the most popular sports of football,
basketball, baseball, track and field, and tennis, were both
groups studied nearly unanimous in their offerings.
5. Rhythmical and gymnastic activities were offered
by a fewer number of colleges and junior colleges than were
aquatics and sports.
6 . No deficiencies of transfers in basketball, foot­
ball, and baseball were indicated.
Deficiencies in track and
tennis were probably due to the fact that students were Inter­
ested in the other major sports and had not learned the Im7
LaPorte, oj>. clt., p. 61
8 State Board of -Education, Bulletin E-l, loc. cit.
portance of obtaining a variety of skills.
The activity
reported as a deficiency the greatest number of times was
gymnastics.
Since twenty-one of the twenty-two colleges
offered some form of this work, one is lead to conclude that
either not enough of the various gymnastic activities were
offered, or that they were inadequately taught.
7. A particular trend in college opinion as to the
quality and extent of instruction and the nature of the defi­
ciencies indicated, suggested that the press of coaching
duties may have caused class instruction to be inadequate in
certain respects.
CHAPTER V
SPECIAL PHYSICAL EDUCATION COURSES REQUIRED OR
RECOMMENDED AS PREPARATION FOR THE MAJOR
Special physical education courses were defined as
those courses offered by physical education departments
which included anything other than or in addition to physi­
cal education activities and their techniques, or those ac­
tivity courses specifically for major students.
Chapter V
is concerned with examining these courses as they appeared
in the curricula of the four year colleges, as they appeared
in the curricula of the junior colleges, and with discussing
the deficiencies of transfers in these particular courses as
pointed out b3^ the heads of the physical education depart­
ments in the four year colleges.
I.
SPECIAL PHYSICAL EDUCATION COURSES
IN THE FOUR YEAR COLLEGES
The special physical education courses and the par­
ticular four year college which included them in the lower
division major program appear in Table XV.
little uniformity either as to types
That there was
of courses or number
of units awarded is indicated by the table and the follow­
ing discussion.
Gymnastic activities.
Courses with various types of
7E
TABLE XV
SPECIAL PHYSICAL EDUCATION COURSES REQUIRED
OR RECOMMENDED BY THE POUR YEAR COLLEGES
Course
1/2 " 2/3
Community recreation
First aida
Fundamentals of
scouting*5
Gymnastics for
majors
Elementary school
phys ic al educ at ion
Methods in games
and rhythms
1
Physical education
in the elementary
school
Leadership organi­
zation
Principles of class
organization
Principles of physi­
cal education
Recreational crafts
Recreational
leadership
Technique of sports
or coaching methods
for majors
Units
1 2 3
2
4
5
Number of
schools
1
4
1
6
1
1
1
2
1
4
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
3
a Two of these courses were recommended.
k Recommended course •
6
1
6
78
gymnastic activities as content were required under various
names in four institutions, the credit value ranging from
one to six units and representing in most cases two semesters
of work.
The number of credits indicated that attendance
was required more than twice a week.
were as follows:
The names of the courses
"Gymnastic Activities,11 and "Gymnastics
and Mass Athletics," both described as training in the teach­
ing of activities in large groups; "Gymnastic Techniques and
Practice," "Methods in Tumbling and Apparatus."
The particu­
lar activities included in these courses are listed in Table
XVI.
Courses in coaching techniques.
Special courses in
coaching techniques or teaching methods were required in
seven four year colleges and units earned for the courses
varied from one to six.
The course titles were; "Technique
of Sports," "Playing Rules of Modern Games," "Coaching
Methods," "Sports Technique and Practice," "The Technique of
Teaching Swimming and Life Saving," and "Technique and Prac­
tice of Physical Activity."
The number of schools giving
these courses in lower division is rather surprising in view*
of the fact that such training is considered as professional
rather than pre-professional.
The activities included in
these courses also appear in Table XVI.
First aid.
First aid was required in four institutions
and recommended in two others.
Two were one unit and four
79
TABLE XVI
ACTIVITIES INCLUDED IN SPECIAL GYMNASTIC AND SPORTS
COURSES FOR MAJORS BY THE FOUR YEAR COLLEGES
Gymnastic courses
Apparatus
Badminton
Boxing
Deck Tennis
Formal gymnastics
Games of low organization
Handball
Marching
Pyramids
Stunts
Tumbling
Wrestling
Sports courses
Swimming
Life s aving
Baseball
Basketball
Football
Golf
Group games
Soccer
Softball
Speedball
Tennis
Track and field
Volleyball
80
were two unit courses.
Additional courses.
There were other courses which
did not fall in any of the three preceding groups.
"Community
Recreation," "Recreational Crafts," and "Recreational Leader­
ship" were required by one college, "Principles of Class
Organization" and "Leadership of Physical Education Activities"
by another.
"Fundamentals of Scouting" was recommended but
not required by still a third, and a fourth college listed
"Physical Education in the Elementary S c h o o l . T w o institu­
tions gave a course in "Caines and Rhythms for the Elementary
School” and four others, one in "Principles of Physical Edu­
cation, all of which were required.
In this last instance,
two of the courses were called "introduction to Physical
Education," and the other two "Principles of Physical Educa­
tion. "
Among the group of four year colleges included in the
investigation, eight required from two to six special courses
in physical education amounting to a total of from five to
ten and one-half units of credit.
Gymnastic techniques,
coaching methods, and first aid were the courses most fre­
quently required.
Half the institutions had special required
physical education courses for majors, some of which included
instruction in teaching techniques as a part of the course
content.
81
II.
SPECIAL PHYSICAL EDUCATION COURSES
IN THE JUNIOR COLLEGES
That junior colleges have felt a need for special
courses either for local purposes, dr for the preparation of
majors is evidenced by the fact that eleven of the twentythree schools studied offered such courses.
Some of these
did not give certificate or transfer credit but were includ­
ed because of the nature of their content.
While there was
little uniformity amont the junior colleges as to the type
of courses offered, the titles were not unsimilar to those
in the four year colleges.
They appear In Table XVII, and
all which did not give transfer credit were so Indicated.
Gymnastic activities.
There were no special gym­
nastic courses offered and no gymnastic activities included
in any of the courses other than boxing and wrestling.
First aid. First aid appeared in the tabulation
nine times.
Eight schools gave one or two unitccourses and
one did not state the number of units.
Coaching methods, theory, and technique of sports.
Special courses in sports techniques were next in frequency.
Seven junior colleges offered such courses and of these two
gave no transfer credit.
The sports included were seven in
number as compared to thirteen for the four year colleges.
Officiating.
Officiating did not appear on the col­
lege list of special courses but was offered in four junior
82
TABLE XVII
SPECIAL PHYSICAL EDUCATION COURSES OFFERED
BY THE JUNIOR COLLEGES
1
Course
Community recreation
First aid
5
Fundamentals of
scouting
Games of low organi­
zation
Social and recreation­
lb
al games
Leadership in recrea­
tion or playground
activities
Theory, technique, or
coaching methods in
sports^Officiating
2
Units
-3
c~ 6
not Number of
8 stated schools
2a
3
1
2
9
1
1
1
1
1
2
4c
Xb
2
3b
1
5
3
lb
IP
7
4
a
* One was non-certificate credit.
■u
Non-certificate credit.
e Two gave no certificate credit.
(•j
Activities included were: football by six junior
colleges, soccer by two, track and field by six, basketball
by five, tennis by three, swimming by one, boxing by two,
wrestling by two, and baseball by two .
83
colleges, one of which gave certificate credit.
The junior
colleges, in their proximity to high schools and junior high
schools are in a favorable position to provide such training
and to assist those schools by supplying officials for intra­
mural and in some cases inter-school competition.
Recreation courses.
Because of the state certificate
offered to prospective recreation leaders on the completion
of two* years of college, at least four junior colleges offered
such courses.
"Community Recreation," "Social and Recrea­
tional Games,11 "Leadership in Recreation," and "Playground
Activities," were the customary titles.
There were nine such
courses and of these only four gave transfer credit.
They
were included here because their content included activities
which were found in the college major program, and which,
with some adaptation, could be made to meet the needs of
major students.
Eleven junior colleges offered thirty-one special
physical education courses, twenty-one of which gave no
transfer credit.
were offered.
No special courses in gymnastic activities
First aid, theory courses in sports, offici­
ating, and recreation training were the ones most frequently
given.
III.
DEFICIENCIES OF TRANSFERS
One of the higher institutions gave first aid as a
84
deficiency of transfers, and another indicated games and
rhythms.
These were the only two mentioned.
There is appar­
ently a greater awareness of deficiencies in particular ac­
tivities than in specific special courses.
Prom the decided
lack of uniformity among the four year colleges in regard
to special courses and their content, this is what might
have been expected.
IV.
SUMMARY
Half the four year institutions included in this
study had special required physical education courses for
majors.
Grymnastic techniques, coaching methods, and first
aid were the ones most frequently required.
Some of them
included instruction in teaching techniques as a part of the
course content.
From two to six special courses amounting
to a total of from five to ten and one-half units of credit
were found in eight colleges.
The most outstanding fact
about these courses was their lack of uniformity.
Eleven junior colleges offered thirty-one special
physical education courses, twenty-one of which gave no
.transfer credit.
were given.
No gymnastic courses specifically for majors
First aid, theory and technique in sports,
officiating, and courses in recreation were the most fre­
quently offered.
Only two colleges mentioned any deficiencies of junior
85
college transfers.
and rhythms.
One gave first aid, and the other games
CHAPTER VI
RELATED ACTIVITIES ASSOCIATED WITH
PREPARATION FOR THE MAJOR
Some of the most effective training of major students
is done outside the formal classroom and the required activity
classes.
This particular training may involve a variety of
activities and vary from one institution to another.
In the
questionnaire to the four year colleges, these activities
were grouped under three headings.
The first was participa­
tion in special activities such as inter-collegiate athletics,
various types of programs or demonstrations, and in co-edu­
cational activities.
The second was leadership experience
gained from organizing tournaments, acting as club, play­
ground, or church recreation leaders or working in summer
camps.
The third was the development of professional atti­
tudes from special lectures or discussions, from attendance
at skilled performances of gymnastics, swimming, diving or
rhythmical activities, and from contact with professional
literature.
Chapter VI will discuss first, the practices of the
four year colleges concerning these related activities,
second, opportunities for them in the junior colleges and third,
the deficiencies of transfers.
I* RELATED ACTIVITIES IN THE FOUR YEAR COLLEGES
Tii© data on related activities from the questionnaires
appear in Table XVIII.
Participation.
Of the fourteen questionnaires re­
turned from the colleges, eight stated that participation
was required in inter-collegiate athletics and two that it
was recommended in the lower division major course.
This did
not necessarily mean that a student must have made the varsi­
ty team.
One catalogue stated*
Majors must sho¥/ evidence of having been a member of
inter-collegiate teams in any three different sports.
(This does not mean that the candidate must be an expert
in the activity; membership in the squad is sufficient).^There was no requirement for participation in any types
of programs in any of the schools.
division requirement.
Two gave this as an upper
Only one institution required partici­
pation in demonstrations, while one other placed such a re­
quirement in upper division.
Seven institutions required or recommended participa­
tion in co-educational activities.
In some instances these
were major courses, such as a methods class, recreational
games, and folk dancing.
Other activities included were
archery, badminton, clog dancing, horseshoes, golf, life
saving, riding, soccer, and tennis.
I
San Francisco State College General Catalogue, 19381939, p. 119.
88
• TABLE XVIII
RELATED ACTIVITIES REQUIRED OR RECOMMENDED
BY THE FOUR YEAR COLLEGES
Activity
Participation
Collegiate athletics
Programs
Demonstrations
Co-educational
activities
Outdoor recreation
Leadership
Organization of
tournaments
Club activities
PI ayground
Church recreation
Camp experience
Development of profes­
sional attitudes
Lectures
Gymnastic exhibitions
Aquatic exhibitions
Dance recitals
Professional
.literature
Year Placement
Lower
Upper
Hot
Division Division Stated
10
2
2
10
1
Total
Humber
of
Colleges
2
1
7
7
1
6
4
4
4
2
2
3
3
3
3
8
7
7
7
5
1
1
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
4
4
5
3
3
1
7
1
1
1
One institution added outdoor activities to the ques­
tionnaire as a lower division requirement.
Leadership experience.
Practical experience in lead­
ing and organizing activities was restricted almost entirely
to upper division,
Organization of tournaments was an upper
division requirement in six institutions and was recommended
"by two others hut given no specific year placement.
Experience in club activities such as Boy Scouts was
required in upper division in four institutions and recommen­
ded in three othersjwith no year placement given.
Playground work was an upper division requirement in
four colleges, two recommended it but gave no year placement,
and one indicated its majorsreceived such experience only
when they were able to secure paid positions.
Two colleges required camp experience during upper
division, three others recommended or required it but gave no
year placement.
Of these, one required one summer1s experi­
ence and another stated that its students got such experience
only if they were able to secure paid positions.
Development of professional attitudes.
Special lec­
tures, as means of developing professional attitudes were a
lower division requirement in one school.
Another school
made such recommendation but gave no year placement,
Attendance at gymnastic exhibitions was a lower divi­
sion one in another, and two recommended the activity but
gave no year placement.
Attendance at aquatic exhibitions
was listed by four schools.
Two placed it in the upper divi­
sion, the the other two did not state.
The same was expected
for dance
recitals by five institutions, only one of which
placed it
in lower division.
Contact with professional literature was a part of the
lower division course work in three institutions; three re­
served it
for upper division; one required it
but did not
give the year.
Participation in athletics, special lectures, and
acquaintance with professional literature were the items
most frequently placed in the lower division program.
I.
OPPORTUNITIES FOR RELATED ACTIVITIES
IN THE UUNIOR COLLEGES
Except for one question on co-educational activities
information on related activities was not included in the
junior college questionnaire as the meager literature on the
pre-professional program indicated that little if anything
was being done.
However, in other parts of the questionnaire
the junior colleges gave evidence of providing certain types
of participation.
P art icip ation.
Taking part in inter-collegiate ath­
letics was the item of most significance in the data from
the four year colleges on kinds of participation.
That there
91
was ample opportunity for this in the junior colleges was
p
shown in the discussion in Chapter IV.
Seven four year institutions required or recommended
participation In co-education activities.
colleges had such offerings.
Fourteen junior
The most popular ones were
archery, badminton, and social dancing, each offered by six
institutions.
Other co-education activities were folk danc­
ing, fencing, golf, group games, horseback riding, tennis,
and volleyball.
III. DEFICIENCIES OF TRANSFERS
Participation in activities.
No deficiencies of any
kind were noted by the four year college chairmen as a result
of failure to participate In inter-collegiate athletics, in
programs, demonstrations, or co-educational activities.
Leadership training.
In spite of tha fact that not a
single college placed any of the leadership activities in
lower division, six institutions indicated a lack of one kind
or another in the training of lower division transfers.- While
this appears illogical, it probably indicates either that four
year colleges do more leadership training in lower division
than the returns indicated, so that the transfer suffers by
comparison, or that there is a feeling that more should be
^ 5f.# ante., p. 59.
done •
Development of profesalonal attitudes. Five colleges
found weaknesses in the development of professional attitudes.
One deficiency was indicated by an institution whose require­
ment was an upper division one.
Since four of the five items
were placed in lower division by from one to four institu­
tions, the four criticisms were justifiable.
The indication
was, then, that there could be a place in the junior college
program for the development of professional attitudes.
IV.
SUMMARY
Related activities were those not usually found in
the classroom situation, but which were nevertheless a part
of the physical education training program.
They were
classified as special types, of participation, leadership ex­
perience, and the development of professional attitudes.
The questionnaire returns from the four year colleges
indicated that the type of participation listed most fre­
quently was inter-collegiate sports.
It was a requirement
in eight institutions and was recommended by two others.
Participation in co-education activities was next in popu­
larity, with opportunity provided in seven institutions.
Other types of participation mentioned were programs and dem­
onstrations.
Each was noted by two institutions.
Activities giving opportunity for leadership experience
93
were relegated entirely to the upper division years by the
four year colleges.
Only two methods of developing profes­
sional attitudes were given any appreciable mention.
These
were special lectures and becoming acquainted with profes­
sional literature.
Information on related activities was not requested
from the junior colleges but their questionnaire returns
showed that they provided opportunity for the two kinds of
participation listed most frequently by the four year col­
leges, namely, inter-collegiate sports, and co-educational
activities.
All twenty-three junior colleges provided the
former, and fourteen provided one or more of the latter.
Ho deficiencies of any kind were noted by the four
year college chairmen as a result of failure to participate
in Inter-collegiate athletics, in programs, demonstrations,
or co-educational activities.
Hot one four year college
placed any of the leanership activities in the lower division
and yet six indicated such a lack in junior college transfers.
Pour of the five items suggested in the questionnaire as
methods of developing professional attitudes were checked
by from one to four institutions.
Five four year colleges
found weaknesses in the development of professional attitudes.
CHAPTER VII
SELECTION OF MAJOR STUDENTS
It is true that one of the most important functions
of a professional school is to prepare for the profession
concerned only those who give reasonable promise of suc­
cess. The problem of selection devolves primarily upon
the institution giving the pre-professional preparation.
Here then is the opportunity for those junior colleges
><
accepting young people who are prospective students for
professional schools.
Selection of major students is definitely a responsi­
bility of the junior college.
The aim of the present chapter
is to discuss the more important phases of this problem of
selection.
The material is divided into a review of litera­
ture, a survey of practices in the four year colleges, and
a discussion of their application to the junior colleges.
I.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
A survey of literature on the selection of major stu­
dents shows some definite^opinions and important facts which
have resulted from scientific investigation.
Better selection of students.
Authoritative state­
ments from several sources indicate that theres should be a
more careful selection of those who plan to enter training
to teach physical education.
One point stressed was that
^ John H. Minnick, ^Junior Colleges and Professional
Preparation,” Junior College Journal, 8:446, May, 1938.
there are those engaged in teaching who.do not have the best
interests of physical education at heart.2
This writer feels the program for boys, particularly,
is handicapped by instructors whose interest is only in
coaching and who care nothing about health and physical edu­
cation for the average student.3
With the same problem in.
mind Seott^ suggests a professional code of ethics for physi­
cal education as one method of making individuals feel some
sense of responsibility for building up the standards of
their own profession.
iiepeated evidence of poor academic background is
another indication of the need for more careful selection of
students.
Peik^ in a nation wide survey, found that physi­
cal education majors stood lowest in comparison with all
other teaching fields studied in the range and depth of their
2
E. Allen Bateman, wHow Teacher Training May Be
Improved,n The Journal of Health and Physical Education,
9:346, June, 19377
3 Ibid., p. 394.
4 Harry A. Scott, "Essentials of Teacher Training,"
The Journal of Health and Physical Educationr 1:11, April,
1930.
5 W. E. Peik, and G. B. Fitzgerald, "The Education ofMen Teachers of Physical Education for Public School Service
in Selected Colleges and Universi ties.11 The Research
Quarterly of the American Physical Education Association,
5:25, December, 1§39.
96
general academic training.
Walke® quotes from the Carnegie
Report of 1936 a statement which substantiates Peikfs data
as follows:
Prospective teachers of Health and Physical Education
are hopeless from the point of view of their general
academic knowledge. In tests given in 1928 and 1932,
the scores of this group were incredibly low and reveal
at once the hollowness of any serious pretensions of
these candidates to an understanding of what education
is about.
Walke's own conclusions bear out this statement.
After
comparing physical education majors with majors in academic
fields, his results showed that with regard to intelligence,
and to scholastic records, the physical education group was
markedly inferior to the other groups.^
This same investi­
gator. ifelt, however, that a study which was limited to intel­
ligence testing did not give a fair picture, and that there
were perhaps other phases of an individuals makeup that were
of equal importance.®
He pointed this out as a weakness of
the Carnegie Report and in his own study went further.
He
found that inaall other traits studied, with the additional
v
exception of socio-economic status, the physical education
group ranked high.
The most marked traits were leadership,
~ Kelson Sumter Walke, Traits Charcteristic of Men
Majoring in Physical Education at €Ke Pennsylvania SlTafce '
College, Teachers College Contributions to Education, Ho. 734,
(New York; Teachers College, Columbia University), 1921, p. 7.
7
» P« 47•
8 Ibid., p. 8 .
97
health status, and Interest in physical education; while
the ranking in emotional stability and dominance was superiQ
or.
In other words, physical education majors rated high in
those qualities which are moro and more being taken Into con­
sideration as possible determiners of teaching success.^0
Different selection standards.
The survey of litera­
ture indicated not only that better selection of students
was necessary, but that there should be a different standard
of selection.
Brownell felt that standards used to choose
students for academic subjects were not applicable to physical education. 11
ip
Ashbrook4
-^ suggested that interest in
physical education activities should be taken into considera­
tion inasmuch as a variety of such Interests have been the
rule in the case of the foremost leaders in the physical edu­
cation field.
Present practices.
In surveying the status of the
professional preparation of teachers for physical education
in 1932, Brownell summed up the practices in the selection
9 Ibid., p. 50-51.
10 Ibid., p. 47.
11
G. L. Brownell, ^The Present Status of Professional
Preparation of Teachers In Physical Education,M The Research
Quarterly of the American Physical Education Association,
3:113, May, 1932.
12 Willard P. Ashbrook, WA Selective Student Examina­
tion Prior to Training in Physical Education,11 The Journal
of Health and Physical Education, 3:18, February, 1932.
98
of students as follows:
At present the chief basis for selecting students is
academic achievement in college preparatory course,
i. e. graduation from an approved secondary school. A
few universities report that consultation with the head
of the department is required, although information about
the nature of these conferences is extremely vague.
Some departments require a health examination, others
state that the candidate shall possess a pleasing person­
ality and voice; a few accept only the upper third of
the college sophomore class (when specialization begins
in the junior year).
To anyone seriously interested in the physical educa­
tion profession, these standards of selection would appear
to be entirely inadequate.
Neilson,^ Cottrell,Cassidy,
Jackson, ^ and B r o w n e l l , h a v e written concerning practices
in specific institutions or have made recommendations of
Brownell, o]D. clt., p. 113.
14 U. P. Weilson, chairman, »A Report on the Com­
mittee on Teacher Training in Physical Education in the
United States,” The Research Quarterly of the American Phy­
sical Education Association, 4:51-77, March, 1933.
15
Elmer Bert Cottrell, ”Standards for the Selection
of Persons to be Trained for Placement in Health and Physi­
cal Education,” The Research Quarterly of the American
Physical Education Association, 8:63-72, May, 1938.
^ Rosalind Cassidy, ”Selection and Guidance of Stu
dents Who Wish to Undertake Professional Training in the
Field of Physical Education,” The Research Quarterly of the
American Fhysical Education Association, 1:86-89, May, 1930.
^ C. 0. Jackson, ”Recent Changes in Student Teaching
Curricula and Major Problems in Teacher Training at Fortythree Institutions of Higher Learning,” The Research Quarterly of the American Physical Education Association,
7:108-119, May, 1936.
Brownell, ojq. cit., pp. 107-117.
99
their own.
All five writers are agreed on one point:
that
freedom from organic or functional defects is necessary.
Other qualities or abilities on which there was agreement by
not less than three writers were;
evidence of moral charac­
ter, engaging personality, superior motor capacity, better
than average motor skill, possible pre-professional course
in high school, and relative high intelligence.
This gives
an idea as to what the best accepted practices are, but
accurate measurement of certain of the traits suggested is
difficult.
Traits essential to teaching success.
In an attempt
to approach the problem of selection scientifically, several
valuable studies have been made of the characteristics of
successful physical education teachers as well as of those
in training.
xt will be pertinent to our present discussion
to consider briefly what some of these were.
Since the purpose of selection is to train only those
who will become successful teachers, Palmer^ attacked the
problem by comparing the traits of successful teachers with
those of less successful teachers.
She found the former
held a greater number of and more important positions of
Irene Palmer, ’’Personal Qualities of Women Teachers
of Physical Education; their Relation to the Problem of the
Guidance of the Prospective Teacher,” The Research Quarterly
of the American Physical Education Association, 4:51-48,
December7 I933T
100
leadership in secondary school, had greater emotional stabil­
ity, appeared to be more self-sufficient, possessed a greater
degree of extroversion, and were more dominant.^
McKinstry^- made a comparison of the records of
women
majors at Russell Sage College with the opinions of their
employers after they were teaching in order to check up on
the success of the selection and training program in the
college.
Ragsdale^ and
Duggan^S
college majors and nonmajors.
studied personal traits of
These studies all showed among
both graduates and undergraduate physical education teachers
a surprising uniformity in respect to the possession to a
high degree of such traits as emotional stability, extrover­
sion,
initiative, leadership, and motor ability.
Prediction of teaching success.
In contrast to the
discussion thus far there is another body of thinking which
says that we do not yet know enough about the factors involv­
20 Ibid., p. 45.
21
Helen McKinstry, Evaluation, of Qualities and Capa­
cities Essential to Teaching Success1
*11 The Research Quarterly
of the American Physical Education Association, 4:5-25,
December^ 19337
C. E. Ragsdale, ’
'’Personal Traits of College Majors
in Physical Education,” The Research Quarterly of the .Ameri­
can Physical Education Association, 3;243, May, 1932.
23
Anne Schley Duggan, ”A Comparative Study of Under
Graduate Women Majors and Non-majors in Physical Education
with Respect to Certain Personal Traits,” The Research Quar­
terly of the American Physical Education Asso.clation. .
S:3&-45, October,' 1937.
101
ed in teaching success to be able to predict it with regard
to the general field of education.
It should be at present impossible for any conscien­
tious individual to advise students whether or not they
should continue training for teaching. Despite our con­
victions, the critical thinker will realize that, beyond
some obvious physical handicap such as blindness, deaf­
ness, or some extreme speech defect, we have no sound
evidence to justify our teaching success.24
In the selection of major students, it would appear
that we are faced with two mutually contradictory problems.
On the one hand, a more careful selection of students must
be made to raise the standards of the profession, while on
the other hand we have no right to say who shall train and
who shall not, because at the present time there is no
method of accurately predicting teaching success.
II.
THE POUR YEAR COLLEGES
In the questionnaire, the four year colleges were
asked to indicate which of a list of four items they used in
the selection of major students.
Those items included spe­
cial medical examinations, physical ability and skill tests,
and judgment of department staff.
The returns showed that
all institutions made provisions for medieal examinations,
and eight gave special examinations to major students.
Stephen M. Corey, ”The Present State of Ignorance
about Factors Effecting Teaching Success,” Educational
Administration and Supervision, 18:490, October, 1932.
102
Physical ability tests were given in four schools and skill
tests in three.
Judgment of the staff was utilized in nine
institutions.
One school stated that practice teaching records were
taken into consideration, which, since this is an upper divi­
sion requirement, would seem rather late.
Another stated
that the department was not permitted to make selections.
The tendency in the teachers colleges, according to their
catalogues, was to make selections at the beginning of the
junior year of all individuals who wished to enter teacher
training, physical education included.
The selection was
usually based on a medical examination at this time, comple­
tion of lower division requirements, scholastic record, and
faculty opinion as to general fitness for teaching.
There
was no distinction made, and no special qualifications ex­
pected of physical education people in contract to other
teaching fields, except as the teacher training department
might accept recommendations from the physical education de­
partment.
III.
IMPLICATIONS FOR THE JUNIOR COLLEGE
Application of four year college selection methods to
the junior college.
In the four year colleges, the use of
medical examinations, and faculty judgment were the most com­
mon methods indicated for w e selection of physical education
103
majors.
lege.
These methods were both possible in the junior col­
Returns from twenty-one schools showed that sixteen
gave medical examinations to all their students, five to
members of varsity athletic teams only.
One of the latter
gave the examination only to football participants.
Since
the physical education majors would usually be found on the
athletic teams, twenty-one institutions out of twenty-three
could give medical examinations.
The other common item of the use of faculty judgment
in the selection of students could certainly be available.
Its value would, of course, depend on the professional stan­
dards and physical education interests of the individuals
passing judgment, as well as on their knowledge of the stu­
dents* abilities.
At least there is evidence that the two
methods of selection most commonly used in the four year col­
leges were possible in the junior colleges.
IV.
SUMMARY
A review of literature dealing with the selection of
students to major in physical education revealed the follow­
ing major points:
(1) there is a demand for a better type
of student; (2) prospective physical education majors should
be selected on a somewhat different basis than individuals
planning to major in other teaching fields; (3) the most com­
mon standards for the selection of students throughout the
104
sountry in 1932 were academic achievement in a college pre­
paratory course and graduation from an;;approved secondary
school; (4) recommended standards for selection by leaders
in the field included evidenoe of desirable personality and
character traits, evidence of physical fitness, better than
average intelligence and motor capacity, and a satisfactory
preparatory course and scholastic record from high school;
(5) scientific investigations of successful teachers and of
undergraduate majors showed they possessed emotional stabili­
ty, extroversion, dominance, leadership ability, and motor
ability to a higher degree than other groups with whom they
were compared; (6) as yet, there are no reliable measures
for accurately determining teaching success, and, therefore,
a department or institution could not justly prohibit indivi­
duals from majoring in physical education or any other field.
According to the questionnaire returns the four year
colleges used medical examinations and faculty judgment as
the most common methods of determining teaching fitness.
Physical ability and skill tests were utilized to some extent.
The teachers colleges appeared to make noddistinction between
the requirements for physical education and other teaching
fields.
CHAPTER VIII
TEACHING- MINORS
The selection of teaching minors would appear at
first hand to he an upper division problem, but an investi­
gation of catalogues of the four year institutions revealed
that in many of them, half of the units toward the minor
could be completed during the lower division years.
In the
junior college this would necessitate only the proper selec­
tion of courses while completing the sixty-four units ac­
cepted for transfer credit by the higher institutions.
The
present chapter will be concerned with (1) the necessity
for preparation in other teaching fields than physical edu­
cation, (2) regulations and recommendations of the four year
colleges in regard to such minors, (3) opportunities for
preparation in the junior colleges.
I.
NECESSITY FOR TEACHING- MINORS
Demand for academic subjects.
There is much evidence
to indicate that only a small per cent of the physical edu­
cation people engaged in teaching devote all their time to
physical education subjects.
Peikfs^ findings showed that
1 W. E. Peik and G. B. Fitzgerald, ttThe Education of
Men Teachers of Physical Education for Public School Service
in Selected Colleges and Universities,11 The Research Quar­
terly of the American Physical Education Association, 5:19,
December, 1934.
106
two-thirds of all teachers teach in two or more fields while
p
Bristow discovered that approximately two-thirds of the
high schools in the United States are not sufficiently large
to support a full-time physical education instructor.
The
findings disclosed that only where the enrollment was more
than six hundred was a full time teacher of physical educa­
tion found.
One writer noted, rt0ne thing that the depression
has shown is that physical education teachers must be certi­
fied to teach, either as a major or a minor, an academic
subject
Improving professional attitudes.
There is a feeling
in some quarters that specialization can be carried to a
point where it is a disadvantage.
Peik4 pointed out that
superintendents often complain of the inability of special
subject teachers to teach other subjects and suggested this
as a possible reason why the introduction of physical educa­
tion may have lagged in many instances.
One writer believed
that the experience of specializing in an additional subject
2 William Bristow, **The Training of Teachers from the
Viewpoint of the School Administrator, The'Research Quarterlv of the American Physical Education Association, 3:104,
May, 1932.
~~ ~
~ ~
^ James Edward Rogers, 11How has the Depression in Edu­
cation Affected Physical Education?11 The Journal of Health
and Physical Education, 5:58, January, 1934.
4 Peii,
0 £.
cit., p. 19.
107
would give a better sense of proportion, a better understand­
ing of the philosophy and principles of present day education. 5
Another raised the question:
Would not physical educators as members of the faculty
teaching academic subjects, have a much better oppor­
tunity to cultivate personal relationships with members
of the faculty, with students, and with boards of educa­
tion, and thus help to establish their beliefs, than
those, so to speak,, outside the fold?^
Selection of suitable minors.
Several investigations
have been carried on to find out what teaching combinations
with physical education were most in demand.
The most
common ones for men were science, social studies, mathemat­
ics, and industrial arts.
Less frequently mentioned were
agriculture, business education, and health-hygiene. 7
The subjects most commonly in demand, however, may
not necessarily be the best combinations.
Rugen^ recom-
A. W. Thompson, ^Guiding Principles in Teacher
Training from the Viewpoint of a State Director,w The Re­
search Quarterly of the American Physical Education
Association, 3:93-98, May, 1932.
6 Lewis P. Andreas, 11Double Major Programs in Teacher
Training in Physical Education,11 The Research Quarterly of
the American Physical Education Association, 4:83, March,
r§33.
”
^ Claude W. Street, f,A Study of Suitable Majors or
Minors that are Used in Combination with Physical Education,w
The Research Quarterly of the American Physical Education
Association, 4:38-50, October, 1933.
® Mabel Rugen, 11Curriculum Content and Suitable
Minors,11 The Research Quarterly of the American Physical
Education Association, 5:98, December, 1934.
108
nended that the trend in the gield of general teacher educa­
tion to develop teaching combinations around related subjects
within the secondary school curriculum be applied to physi­
cal education*
The two relatod subjects most in demand were
science, preferably the biological, and social science.
Street^ did not feel restriction of minors to related fields
was entirely desirable, and his list included in addition to
those mentioned by Rugen, chemistry-physics, industrial edu­
cation, and mathematics.
Both recommended that allowance
be made for the special interests.of individual students,
provided they were in subjects which were included in the
high school curriculum.
II*
THE POUR YEAR COLLEGES
The department chairmen in the four year colleges
were asked to state the number of minors recommended or
required and the subjects most frequently recommended for
this purpose.
Number of minors.
Of the fourteen colleges replying
to the questionnaire, four failed to answer this question,
but information for three of them was secured from their
catalogues.
lows:
The thirteen replies were distributed as fol­
eleven requested two minors and two of this group
^ Street,
. cit.,
ojd
p. 50.
108
permitted the substitution of a second major; two schools
required only one minor.
The number of units required for
a minor subject was not included in the questionnaire, but
the catalogues revealed a minimum of twelve as the require­
ment.
The seven state teachers colleges permitted the com­
pletion of six of these units in lower division courses.
Ho
statement was found in other catalogues except in reference
to the upper division minor in education.
Courses, require­
ments, and recommended programs for the major were evident,
but minors seemed to go unmentioned.
This bears out a
comment by Street:
Subjects making up the minors should be selected
under careful guidance • . . My experience has been
that less attention is given to the planning of minor
than to major programs, whereas the reverse should
probably be the general rule.3-0
The information available seems to suggest that a
year course of six units in lower division could probably
be counted toward the minor.
Subjects frequently recommended as minors.
possible minors was included in the questionnaire.
A list of
The
respondents were asked to check those subjects which were
most frequently recommended.
XXX.
The results appear in Table
Fields most frequently recommended were social science
and biological science, the former by thirteen institutions,
and the latter by twelve.
10 Ibid,, p. 49.
Next in frequency were public
110
TABLE XIX
TEACHING MINORS MOST FREQUENTLY RECOMMENDED BY
THE FOUR YEAR COLLEGES
Teaching subject or field
Number
of
Colleges
Biological science
Dramatics
English
Foreign language
Manual or industrial arts
Mathematics
Physical science
Public speaking
Social science
Hygiene
12
1
6
1
2
2
3
7
13
1
Ill
speaking and English, checked by seven and six schools re­
spectively.
The remaining subjects of physical science,
hygiene, manual arts, mathematics, dramatics, and foreign
language, appeared three or less times.
III.
SELECTION OF MINORS IN THE JUNIOR COLLEGES
From the study of catalogues of the four year colleges
the conclusion was drawn that the maximum number of lower
division units which could be counted toward a minor field
would be six.
Opportunities for the selection of subjects for the
minor.
The junior college catalogues were searched for
courses offered in those subject fields appearing in Table
XIX, page 110.
The tabulation revealed that twenty-three
institutions offered sufficient courses and units in all
subject fields recommended by the four year colleges except
manual or industrial arts.
Only eleven offered these courses.
On the whole the junior colleges appeared to offer adequate
work in all those fields which the four year colleges
recommended as most desirable for the teaching minors.
IV. 'SUMMARY 1
Literature relating to the selection of teaching
minors revealed that a student should be prepared in one and
preferably two teaching fields in addition to his major, that
112
minors should be selected from among those subject fields
most in demand, and preferably from those related to physical
education.
It was suggested that preparation in a classroom
subject would improve the attitude of the physical education
teacher toward education as a whole, should help him see
physical education as a part of education, a nd should
thereby gain him the cooperation and respect of his fellow
faculty members.
The returns from the questionnaire to the four year
colleges disclosed that two of these four year institutions
required two minors, or a second major, seven required two
minors, and two required one minor.
The subjects most fre­
quently recommended- by the schools were social science,
biological science, public speaking, and English.
Six units
were the maximum number of lower division units that would
be accepted toward completion of the requirements in a minor
field.
All twenty-three junior colleges offered the necessary
courses in all the subjects recommended as minors by the
foun year colleges with one exception.
This was industrial
arts which was offered in eleven Institutions.
CHAPTER IX
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
The purpose of the investigation was to discover what
subjects and activities should and can be offered In junior
college which will provide pre-professional training for
men in physical education equal to that offered the first
two years in the four year colleges..
I.
SUMMARY
The data are here summarized from the standpoint of
the four year college requirements, the extent to which
junior colleges were able to meet them, and the deficiencies
of junior college transfers.
General requirements for the degree.
The four year
colleges showed little uniformity in their general require­
ments for graduation.
There was not only variation in the
subjects required, but a wide difference in the number of
units in the same subject.
The junior colleges, with the .
exception of three courses, offered more than the number of
courses and units necessary to meet the general require­
ments of all the higher institutions.
The three exceptions
were fine arts, military drill, and religion, no one of
which was required in more than two four year colleges.
Academic requirements for the major.
The course
114
requirements for the physical education major consisted for
the most part or foundation sciences.
When the University
of California requirements were taken as a standard of com­
parison, the data showed that all twentypthree junior col­
leges were able to meet the biology-zoology, chemistry, and
psychology requirements; twenty-two were able to meet the
hygiene requirement; twenty were able to meet the anatomy
and nineteen the physiology requirements.
The junior
colleges also met the science requirements in all the other
four year colleges to a surprising degree.
Biology, zoology,
chemistry, and psychology were adequately taken care of,
but the offerings in anatomy, hygiene, physiology, and
nutrition failed to meet higher unit requirements in cer­
tain instances.
Where there were requirements in other academic
fields they, were satisfactorily met by the junior college
curricula.
Little uniformity in the deficiencies of transfers
was shown, and there was little data to substantiate them.
With the exception of anatomy and physiology, which were
listed by five institutions as deficiencies and which were
shown to be inadequate in certain instances, such weaknesses
appeared to be a result of student ignorance of major
requirements rather than of omissions in the junior college
curricula.
115
Academic requirements for the major.
The course
requirements for the physical education major consisted
for the most part of foundation sciences.
When the Uni­
versity of California requirements were taken as a standard
of comparison, the data showed that all twenty-three junior
colleges were able to meet the biology-zoology, chemistry, a
and psychology requirements; twenty-two were able to meet
the hygiene requirement, twenty the anatomy requirement,
and nineteen the physiology requirement.
The junior colleges also met the science requirements
in all the other four year colleges to a surprising degree.
Biology, zoology, chemistry, and psychology were adequately
taken care of, but the offerings in anatomy, hygiene, phy­
siology, and nutrition failed to meet higher unit require­
ments in certain instances.
Where there were requirements in other academic
fields, they were satisfactorily met by the junior college
curricula.
Little uniformity in the deficiencies of transfers
was shown, and there was little data to substantiate them.
With the exception of anatomy and physiology, which were
listed by five institutions as deficiencies and which were
shown to be inadequate in certain instances, such weak­
nesses appeared to be a result of student ignorance of
major requirements rather than of omissions in the junior
116
college curricula.
Physical education activities.
There was a wide
range in the physical education activities required and in
the time allotment among the four year colleges.
There was
so much variation, in fact, that the establishment of any
kind of a standard list with time specifications was im­
possible.
The number of activities offered by the junior
colleges compared favorably with the number offered by the
four year colleges.
The former group of schools gave all
of the more important activities recommended or required
by the latter.
Only in the popular sports of football,
basketball, track and field, and tennis, however, did both
groups approach unanimity in their offerings.
Rhythmical
and gymnastic activities were found in a smaller number of
colleges and junior colleges than were aquatics and sports.
Gymnastics was reported as a deficiency of transfers
the
greatest number of times, although it w$s offered by all
but two of the junior colleges.
Special physical education courses.
Half the number
of four year institutions studied required from two to six
special physical education courses for majors in the fresh­
man and sophomore year.
standing characteristic.
Lack of uniformity was their out­
Half the junior colleges gave
one or more such courses which were equally lacking in uni­
formity and two-thirds of which gave no transfer credit.
117
Belated activities.
Of those phases of the physical
education training program not usually found in the regular
class situation, participation in inter-collegiate sports
was the most common and co-education activities was next in
frequency among the four year colleges.
All junior colleges
provided inter-collegiate sports participation and well over
half offered co-educational activities.
The higher institutions postponed leadership experi­
ence until the last two years but there appeared to be
justification in literature and in the nature of the physi­
cal set up of the junior college to justify such training
in the latter institution.
There was little evidence from
the four year colleges to indicate any attempt to develop
professional attitudes in the first two years.
This too
was strongly urged in professional literature.
Selection of major students.
The most common prac­
tices in the higher institutions for the selection of major
students were medical examinations and faculty judgment.
Tests of physical ability and skills were found to a limited
extent.
There appeared to be little distinction between
requirements for physical education and other teaching
fields.
Professional writings indicated, on the other hand,
the need for a more careful selection.
The data showed
that twenty-one junior colleges could provide medical ex­
aminations for their students.
118
Teaching minors.
The common practice in the four
year colleges was to require one or two minors in addition
to the major and to permit the completion of half the num­
ber of units in the lower division.
All junior colleges
offered satisfactory courses and enough units in all the
subjects- recommended as minors by the four year colleges
except one.
This was industrial arts which was found in
only eleven junior colleges.
II.
CONCLUSIONS
Prom the foregoing data the following conclusions
were drawn:
1 . The student in a California junior college with
an enrollment of two hundred fifty and above was able to
complete without difficulty the lower division general
graduation requirements of all four year colleges in the
state which offer the physical education major for men.
In
transferring to certain institutions, he might be short one
or two special subjectrrequirement3 which were minor in
nature.
The student was also able to complete the pre-pro­
fessional science requirements of a large number of the in­
stitutions .
2. The deficiencies of junior college transfers in
academic subjects were more frequently traceable to poor
selection of courses on the part of the student than to
119
failure of the junior college to offer the course.
3. Deficiencies reported and certain opinions noted
in the four year college questionnaires concerning the
quality and extent of instruction in junior college ac­
tivity courses suggested that the press of coaching duties
or lack of interest in physical education may have caused
class instruction to be inadequate in certain respects.
4. Special physical education courses seemed
justi­
fied as a part of the pre-professional program because of
the number of such courses found in the lower division
major programs of the four year colleges and because of
the opportunities and need for similar courses in the junior
colleges.
5. Though not a practice in the four year colleges,
the development of professional attitudes in the freshman
and sophomore years appeared desirable.
CHAPTER X
RECOMMENDATIONS
The recommendations of this study are in the form
of a pre-professional physical education program for the
junior college.
On the basis of the material introduced
in the preceding chapters, such a program would appear to
involve not only a stated course of study but a program
of educational and vocational guidance as well.
These two
phases of guidance are both inter-related and to some ex­
tent simultaneous but are separately designated in the
present chapter for purposes of discussion.
Once the voca­
tional choice is definitely made or the correctness of the
student*s choice proved, vocational guidance should give
way to professional guidance.
The purpose of Chapter X will
be to formulate the materials of the preceding chapters into
a recommended pre-professional physical education program
for men In junior college.
I.
VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE
Vocational guidance involves gathering together such
information, or providing such experiences as may enable
the student to select his occupation wisely, or to verify
a selection already made.
The junior college appears to be
a highly desirable place for this type of activity.
Knowledge about the profession.
General knowledge
about any profession would seem to be essential to a wise
vocational choice.
In physical education it would probably
need to be given to two groups of students, those who have
not made any vocational choice, and those who have already
sleeted this particular field.
In the first group are
many capable people who would do well In physical education
but probably are not interested because to them physical
education Is coaching.
A more thorough understanding of
what the teaching phases involve, the preparation required,
and the job opportunities, might draw from this group in
greater numbers a sorely needed type of individual.
bn the
junior college campus such information might be spread by
means of newspaper articles, talks In physical education
classes, in clubs, and by personal discussions with indi­
viduals who show evidence of the desired abilities.
In the second group are the many who expect to be
the outstanding coaches of their generation and the few
who are seriously interested in physical education as a
teaching field.
They are probably as much in need of in­
formation about physical education, and coaching as well,
as Is the first group, but have usually already learned
122
one fact, namely, that the only way to become a coach in
the State of California is to major in physical education.
Consequently they are already concerned about correct se­
lection of courses*
The acquisition of such knowledge
frequently proves of value in guiding vocational selection.
Information regarding the specific requirements in science,
foreign language, and social science frequently acts as an
effective deterrent to the students who may not be college
caliber.
A second fact which they probably have not learned
and which needs to be emphasized from the beginning is the
necessity for acquiring at least better than average ability
in a variety of skills.
Vfith the coaching goal paramount
and the ever-present over-emphasis on inter-scholastic
sports competition, this will probably bear much repeating.
Then there are certain facts about the job and the
field of which the student should also be fully aware.
He
should realize the necessity for a fifth year, what the
cost of his education will be, and the possibilities for
jobs when that is completed.
H© needs to. know what activi­
ties physical education instructors perform, in what phases
of the work there are opportunities for specialization,
what the future trends in the field are likely to be, what
wages he can expect, what security, and what opportunities
for advancement.
123
This material could he covered in one or two sessions
of a class composed of pre-major students and might be sup­
plemented with mimeographed information concerning the var­
ious higher institutions offering such training.
In addition, there should be provided, preferably
in the first part of the freshman year, an opportunity for
first hand experience in assisting with physical education
activities.
It is suggested that the student be given an
opportunity to assist in the organization of squads or teams,
be permitted to officiate in games, and to assist with rou­
tine procedures.
Such activity would serve two purposes:
it
would help the pre-major find out If he enjoys and can suc­
cessfully organize groups, and it would give the instructor
an opportunity to discover his capabilities.
This exper­
ience might be organized as a course consisting of one hour
a week devoted to discussion of rules and techniques of of­
ficiating and with two or more hours devoted to laboratory
work of assisting with classes.
Such a plan might be partic­
ularly feasible in the four year junior college where the
high school classes could be utilized for laboratory work.
Knowledge about the type of person needed in the
profession.
Thus far the discussion has been limited to
information about the training necessary and about the job.
Another important phase of vocational guidance is that of
providing information as to the kind of person the job
124
demands.
The particularly desirable physical and person­
ality traits should be pointed out, and the student urged
to analyze and rate himself.
Health is one of the first points that needs to be
stressed.
This should involve a thorough medical examina­
tion which would reveal whether there is freedom from
organic or functional defects.
Since physical education
teaching demands a better than average attainment in physi­
cal skills, it would be highly advisable to follow the
medical examination with tests of motor ability.
A fair
picture of the individual’s capacities from the physical
standpoint would then be possible.
Desirable personality traits should be emphasized.
That the possession of certain personal qualities will resuit in teaching success cannot be proved,
p
but there are
probably certain personality traits which every physical
education instructor should possess.
Some of the most
important ones of these are good moral character, pleasing
personality, superior social ability, and emotional sta­
bility.
These should be discusses, emphasized, and re­
emphasized.
Development of professional attitudes.
There is
probably no definite point where vocational guidance ends
and the development of professional attitudes begins.
^
ante, p. 101
125
For the purposes of tills paper, professional attitudes are
defined as giving evidence by speech and action of the
following things:
(1) desirable character and personality
for working with immature human beings; (2) active interest
in the mental, social, and moral betterment of these same
individuals; (3) cooperation with fellow teachers and re­
spect for their rights; (4) interest in improvement of
one’s own field of work and of the profession as a whole.
If a student is planning to enter the professional
field of physical education, the sooner he begins to think
professionally, the better.
Since five colleges found de­
ficiencies in the development of professional attitudes,
and several suggested it as a necessary part of the lower
division training course, its placement in the junior col­
lege program seems justified.^
The man who -is active in his profession will be able
to provide many opportunities for this professional growth
in his students.
Through his professional organization
he will know of occasional meetings which the new major can
be encouraged to attend.
He can provide opportunities for
meeting and hearing leaders in the field.
He can recommend
an occasional professional article which may be pertinent
3 Cf. ante, p. 92.
126
to a particular discussion or situation.
H© can also pro­
vide opportunities for leadership in physical education and
other campus activities.
But most important, by his own
actions and outlook, the physical education instructor can
set a standard which is by far the most influential factor
in developing the desired standards in the student.
II.
EDUCATIONAL GUIDANCE
Under educational guidance is included all matters
relating to the correct selection of courses on the basis
of the needs of the student and the demands of the four
year institutions to which he plans to transfer.
General considerations. Accurate educational gui­
dance is impossible if the student has not yet made his
choice of a four year college.
Since entrance requirements
vary, there may or may not be high school deficiencies to
be removed.
The first thing the student needs to know is
where he is going.
Second, he should be fully informed as
to the high school deficiencies, if any, to be made up, and
whether an additional semester or summer session will be re­
quired.
Third, the student should knbw the general require­
ments of the four year university or college which he
should complete during his first two years, and whether
this means he will work toward the diploma or certificate
as regards junior college graduation.
Fourth, he should
127
know the requirements for graduation from junior college.
Meeting the major requirements.
In addition to the
foregoing items the student needs to be concerned also with
planning his program so as to include those lower division
courses pre-requisite to his major field.
What courses the
individual should take are of course determined by his
choice of college.
In Chapters III, IV, and V, the extant
of variation among the higher institutions was discussed.
While the larger junior colleges can meet most of the re­
quirements, there may be situations where a student should
be advised to transfer at the close of the first or second
semester of the freshman year.
When the junior college is
deficient in the basic sciences, or the higher institution
has lower division requirements of a special nature which
cannot be met, early transfer would seem the logical pro­
cedure.
The data of this study Indicated that the larger
junior colleges are able to offer a program which meets
the program of the state university in nearly all respects
and to a large measure those of other institutions.
While
that program should probably Include the following items,
the fact should always be kept in mind that actual selec­
tion of courses must always be determined by the require­
ments of the higher institution to which the student plans
to transfer*
128
1. Basic sciences:
anatomy, three units; general
biology, three units, or zoology, five units; chemistry,
five or eight units; physiology, five units; psychology,
six units; hygiene, two units.
2. Electives:
art, dramatics, handcfaft, music,
pageantry, bacteriology, botany, nutrition, physics, pub­
lic speaking, history, and additional psychology.
The
foregoing were suggested by the four year colleges to pro­
vide additional general background for the major field.
The number of units would have to be determined by the
individual program, the particular selection by the inter­
est and needs of each student.
3. Physical education activities:
as wide a variety
as time and curriculum offerings will permit.
Comments
and deficiencies noted in the questionnaire returns lead
to an assumption that a fair degree of skill should be
attained in as many of the following as possible by the
close of the sophomore year:
baseball, basketball, foot­
ball, track, tennis, gymnastics, swimming, elementary
rhythms, wrestling, and boxing.
It is probably equally
important that certain minor or individual sports should
also be mastered.
Table IV, page 31, gives a recommended
list from which selection can be made.
4. Special physical education courses:
because
of lack of uniformity among the four year colleges these
129
cannot be specifically recommended.
It has already been
suggested that a course giving opportunity for leadership
experience in physical education activities, primarily
sports, coupled with rules discussion, has a place in the
pre-professional program.^ Courses in gymnastics, rhythms
and games, are also suggested.
It is desirable, however,
that such courses be acceptable for transfer credit to
those Institutions to which majors transfer.
5* ‘Pke selection of minors or a second major.
The
selection of minors must also be determined by the regula­
tions of the college to which transfer is to be made.
The
practical necessity for such selection and the number of
units permitted should be emphasized.
The most desirable
minors, not forgetting to make allowance for special indi­
vidual Interest, should be considered.
Biological and
social science are probably the best, while other recom­
mended ones are public speaking, physical science, mathe­
matics, industrial education, and health-hygiene.
III.
SUMMARY
The pre-professional program for the junior college
involves a plan of vocational and educational guidance.
Vocational guidance includes giving the prospective major
knowledge about the profession, including the nature of the
4 Of. ante., p. 123.
130
college course, the extent of the training, the cost, and
possible future openings.
It also includes providing first
hand experience by allowing the student to assist with
classes, and finally it involves giving the prospective
major information as to the type of individual needed in
the profession and the special abilities desired.
Educational guidance Is primarily concerned with the
correct selection of courses to meet the general require­
ments of the four year college to which transfer is to be
made, and the correct selection of courses to meet the
major and minor requirements of the same institution.
Major requirements are grouped into the foundation sciences
of anatomy, biology or zoology, chemistry, physiology, psy­
chology, and hygiene; into electives selected to provide
additional background of a special or general nature to be
determined by the needs and interests of the student; into
physical education activities chosen on the basis of indi­
vidual needs; into one or more special physical education
courses to provide practical training and leadership ex­
perience.
Minor requirements involve the selection of at
least six units in one or more teaching fields other than
physical education.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BOOKS
Eells, Walter Crosby, The Junior College.
Mifflin Company, 1931. 833 pp.
Boston: Houghton
A thorough and comprehensive discussion of the growth of
the junior college movement in the United States.
Koos, Leonard V., The Junior College Movement.
and Company, 1925. 436 pp.
Boston: Ginn
An analysis of the purposes of the junior college and a
discussion of the extent to which they are being ful­
filled.
La Porte, William Ralph, The Physical Education Curriculum,
a national Program. Los Angeles: The University of
"Southern Qall! ornla Press, 1937. 86 pp.
A recommended curriculum based on nine years of research
by the Committee on Curriculum Research of the College
Physical Education Association.
Proctor, William Martin, editor, The Junior College, Its
Organization and Administration. Stanford University
Press, 1927. 226 pp.
Chapters on different phases of the junior college are
written by outstanding leaders of this movement in
California.
School Code of the State of California, 1935, Together with
“^tracts from the Constitution, Extracts from other
Codes, from the General Laws. Sacramento: State Print­
ing Office", TU35-: B6T~pp.
PERIODICAL ARTICLES
Andreas, Lev/is P., lfDouble-Major Programs in Teacher Train­
ing in Physical Education,” The Research Quarterly of
the American Physical Education Association, 4:78-90,
March, 1933.
A discussion of the University of Syracuse plan of
offering five double major programs.
133
Bateman, E. Alien, f,How Teacher Training may be Improved
from the Standpoint of the School Administrator,n The
Journal of Health and Physical Education, 9s346, 394-5,
June, 1938.
A better selection of people to be trained is heeded as
well as more emphasis on the desirable education ob­
jectives.
Bristow, William H., “The Training of Teachers from the
Viewpoint of a School Administrator,11 The Research
Quarterly of the American Physical Education Associa­
tion, 3:100-106, May, 1932.
A discussion of the type of person who should be made
responsible for the direction and organization of the
health and physical education program.
Brownell, C. L., “The Present Status of Professional Prepa­
ration of Teachers in Physical Education,” The Research
Quarterly of the American Physical Education Associa­
tion, 3:107-117, May, 1932.
A survey of teacher training and a discussion of some of
the problems involved.
Cassidy, Rosalind, “Selection and Guidance of Students who
wish to Undertake Professional Training in the Field of
Physical Education,*1 The Research Quarterly of the
American Physical Education Association, 1^86-89, May,
1930.
Claude, A. J., and Harold W. Leuenberger, “Problems of the
Junior College,1* The Junior College Journal, 9:4-7,
October, 1939.
Problems of articulation with the four year colleges are
examined on the basis of returns from one hundred fifteen
junior colleges throughout the country.
Corey, Stephen M., “The Present State of Ignorance About
Factors Effecting Teaching Success,” Educational
Administration and Supervision, 18:481-490, October, 1932.
Teaching success cannot be satisfactorily measured at
the present time.
134
[)uggan, Anne Schley, “A Comparative Study of Undergraduate
Women Majors and Non-Majors in Physical Education with
Respect to Certain Personal Traits,” The Research Quar­
terly of the American Physical Education Association,
8:38-45, October, 1937.
The majors as a group were shown to be le33 neurotic,
more extro-verted and more dominant than the non-majors.
Eells, Walter. Crosby, “Junior College Growth,” The Junior
College Journal, 8:264-267, February, 1938.
Hill, Merton E., “Junior College Development in California,”
The Junior College Journal, 6:333-538, April, 1936.
The director of admissions at the University of Cali­
fornia considers the relationship between the state
university and the junior colleges.
Horton, Clifford E., “A Report on Teaching Combinations in
Physical Education in the High Schools of Illinois,”
The Research Quarterly of the American Physical Educa­
tion As soci a tion, 4:51-61, October, 1933.
Snphasis on the need for one or more teaching fidlds in
combination with physical education.
Jackson, C. 0., “Recent Changes in Student Teaching Cur­
ricula and the Major Problems in Teacher Training at
Forty-Three Institutions of Higher Learning,” The Re­
search Quarterly of the American Physical Education
Association, 7:108-119, May, 1936.
A survey to discover what new requirements had been
added, what new teaching situations had been provided
for student teachers.
McKinstry, Helen, “Evaluation of Qualities and Capacities
Essential to Teaching Success,” The Research Quarterly
the American Physical Education Association, 4:5-25,
December, 1933.
An attempt to ascertain the amount of success in the
selection and training of women majors. A detailed
bibliography is included.
Minnick, John H., “The Junior Colleges and Professional
Preparation,” The Junior College Journal, 8:444-447,
May, 1938.
135
An excellent discussion of the preparatory function of
the junior college with particular reference to pre-pro­
fessional preparation.
Neilson, N. P., “A Curriculum for the Professional Prepara­
tion of Physical Education Teachers for Secondary
Schools,3 The Research Quarterly of the American Physi­
cal Education Association, 2:217-TJ26, March-, 1931.
A five year curriculum for the professional preparation
of physical education teachers prepared by selected
committees in the state of California.
, 3A Report on the National Study of Professional
Education in Health and Physical Education,3 The Journal
of Health and Physical Education, 5:19-23, 40-41, Septem­
ber, 1934.
A brief history of the project with a detailed analysis
of the general problem.
_______ , and others, “National Study of Professional Educa­
tion in Health and Physical Education, National Commit­
tee on Standards,3 The Research Quarterly of the American Physical Education Association, 6:48-68, December,
-WZBZ
---------------------
A summary of the committeeTs work to date.
, ftReport of the Committee on Teacher Training in
Physical Education in the United States,” The Research
Quarterly of the American Physical Education Association,
4:51-77, March, IWSSZ
Specific recommendations are made as to subijects and
units.
Palmer, Irene, “Personal Qualities of Women Teachers of
Physical Education, Their Relation to the Problem of
Guidance of the Prospective Teacher,” The Research Quar­
terly of the American Physical Education As so ciation,
4:31-48, December, 1938.
A study to determine certain factors affecting teaching
success.
136
Peik, W. B., and G-. B. Fitzgerald, "The Education of Men
Teachers of Physical Education for Public School Service
in Selected Colleges and Universities," The Research
Quarterly of the American Pir/sical Education Association,
5:18-28, December, 1934.
The comprehensiveness of the study gives weight to its
conclusions.
Ragsdale, C. E., "Personality Traits of College Majors in
Physical Education," The Research Quarterly of the
American Physical Education Association, 3^243-248,
May, 1932.
Physical education majors showed certain personality
traits in common.
Rogers, James Edward, "How Has the Depression in Education
Affected Physical Educationf11 The Journal of Health and
Physical Education, 5:12-13, 57, January, 1934.
Evidence is given to show the importance of careful
selection of academic teaching minors.
Rugen, Mabel E., Curriculum Content and Suitable Minors,"
The Research Quarterly of the American Physical Educa­
tion Association, 5:89-100"J December, 1934.
A discussion of teaching combinations demanded in con­
nection with physical education and a consideration of
the most logical combinations.
Scott, Harry A., "Essentials of Teacher Training," The Jour­
nal of Health arid Physical Education, 1:10-11, 54,
Ipril, 1930.
A plea for a more careful selection of students.
_______, "A Unit Plan of Instruction as Employed in the Pro­
fessional Preparation of Teachers in Health and Physical
Education at the Rice Institute," The Research Quarterly
of the American Physical Education Association, 6:98-103,
December, 1935.
~
Subject matter is covered in units of varying length
rather than by semesters.
137
Street, Claude W., nA Study of Suitable Majors or Minors
that are Used in Combination with Physical Education,”
The Research Quarterly of the American Physical Educa­
tion Association, 4:38-50, October, 1933.
The importance of correct selection is stressed.
Thompson, A. W., liG-uiding Principles in Teacher Training
from the Viewpoint of a State Director,” The Research
Quarterly of the American Physical Education Associa­
tion, 3:93-98, May, 1932.
The physical education teacher needs a better under­
standing of his job in relation to his field and a
better understanding of his relationship to education
and to the whole school in which he is employed.
BULLETINS
A Curriculum for the Professional Preparation of Physical
Education Teachers for Secondary Schools. State Department of Education Bulletin E 1. Sacramento: Department
of Education, 1930. 109 pp.
A comprehensive list of courses for the major program
with a detailed content outline of many of them.
Biennial Survey of Education 1922-1924, Bureau of Education
Bulletin, 1926, No. 23. Washington, D. C.: Bureau of
Education, 1927. 886 pp.
A nation-wide survey of all levels of education in the
United States.
Occidental College Annual Catalogue 1938-1939.
Occidental College. 147 pp.
Los Angeles:
Professional Training in Physical Education. Report of the
Committee on Entrance Requirements, Physical Education
Series No. 9. Washington, D. C.: Office of Education,
1927. 45 pp.
A four year curriculum for the training of physical edcation teachers was recommended.
Rules and Regulations of the State Board of Education, De­
partment of Education Bulletin No. 1. Sacramento:
Department of Education, 1937. 26 pp.
P
138
San Francisco State College, General Catalogue, 1938-1939.
170 pp.
Statistics .or Higher Education 1933-1934, Being Chapter IV
of*the Biennial Survey of Education in the United States
1932-34, Bulletin 1935, No. 2. Washington, D. C: Divi­
sion of Statistics. 492 pp.
University of California General Catalogue 1938-1939 Primarily lor the Students in the Pepartments at Berkeley,
Voll 327 $oT 6 . BerlEeley: University oT~California,
1938. 405 pp.
University of California General Catalogue for the Academic
Y ear 193^-1939 Primarily for Students in the Departments
at Los Angeles, University of California Bulletin, VoII
32, No. 9. Berkeley; University of California, 1938.
253 pp.
PUBLICATIONS OF LEARNED ORGANIZATIONS
Elliott, Ruth, The Organization of Professional Training
in Physical~~lducation in Sta'te Universities. Teachers
College Contributions to” Education No. SB8 . New York;
Teachers College, Columbia University, 1927. 69 pp.
One general curriculum is serving to prepare teachers
for many phases of physical education.
State Higher Education in California. Report of the Carne­
gie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching,
Recommendations of the Commission of Seven, 1932.
120 pp.
The report contains some pertinent recommendations con­
cerning the junior colleges.
Walke, Nelson Sumter, Traits Characteristic of Men Majoring
in Physical Education at the Pennsylvania State College.
Teachers College Contributions to Education, No. 735.
New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1937.
62 pp.
A study in which the characteristic traits of physical
education majors were ascertained and compared with the
traits of education majors.
139
UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS
Campbell, Harry W., "The Organization and Content of Re­
quired Courses in Physical Education for Men in Junior
Colleges*” Unpublished Master’s thesis, University of
Southern Californi a, Los.Angeles, California, 1931*
118 pp.
Seventeen Southern California junior colleges were
studied.
Jensen, Elizabeth, "The Organization and Administration of
Physical Education for Women in Public Junior Colleges
of California." Unpublished Master’s thesis, Univer­
sity of Southern California, Los Angeles, California,
1930. 141 pp.
A survey of practices in eighteen of the larger accredit­
ed junior colleges.
Miller, Kenneth D., "Status of Physical Education in Cali­
fornia Public Junior Colleges." Abstract of an unpub­
lished Master’s thesis, University of Oregon, Eugene,
Oregon, 1938. 8 pp.
A recent study of existing conditions.
Taylor, Arthur Samuel, "A Study of Certain Aspects of the
Junior College Curriculum.
Unpublished Doctor’s
dissertation, University of Southern California, Los
Angeles, California, 1933. 800 pp.
Chapter XII discusses aims and limitations and makes
recommendations relative to courses in physical education.
APPENDIX
141
FOUR YEAR COLLEGES INCLUDED IN THE STUDY
Chico State College
College of the Pacific
Fresno State College
Humboldt State College
Occidental College
Pomona College
Redlands University
San Diego State College
San Francisco State College
San Jose State College
Santa Barbara State College
Stanford University
University of California
University of California at Los Angeles
University of Southern California
Whittier College
142
LETTER TO THE FOUR YEAR COLLEGES
Dear Sirs
The purpose of this letter is to request your assis­
tance in securing information relative to the solution of a
problem for a Master*s thesis.
First, I frankly wish to apologize for imposing on
your time with a questionnaire. A limited experience in
attempting to answer their numberless questions, frequently
requiring a minute search of one’s academic history with no
apparent bearing on the problem, made me vow some time back
never to use such a method in developing a thesis. But here
it is. My only excuse for its existence is that I need your
help in attempting to solve what appears to be a practical
problem in pre-professional teacher training.
Through recent experience in counseling and through
several years teaching in a junior college physical educa­
tion department I have become forcibly aware that physical
education majors transferring from the junior colleges to
the higher institutions have encountered difficulties. These
seem to be chiefly of two types: those resulting from in­
sufficient or incorrect academic background, and those re­
sulting from lack of experience in many of the more common
physical education activities.
Briefly stated, the problem here represented is to
attempt to work out a pre-professional program for men which
can be given in the junior colleges and which will meet the
physical education major requirements for the first two years
in the four year colleges and universities.
The method of procedure will be as follows: (1) to
ascertain the rqquirements of the first two years in all the
four year institutions of the state offering the major pro­
gram to men. The term 11requirement11 is here taken to include
anything, in or out of class, expected of the physical edu­
cation major. (2 ) To check those requirements with the pres­
ent offerings in the public junior colleges of California
with an enrollment of two hundred and above. (3) To work out
if possible, on the basis of information obtained in (1) and
(2 ) an acceptable program which can be offered in the junior
143
colleges.
After recording the requirements listed in the re­
spective four year catalogues, the enclosed questionnaire
was worked out and made as objective as possible. The ma­
terial is grouped under the following headings:
1 . general academic requirements for the degree.
2. Requirements for the major.
a. Academic subjects.
b. Foundation sciences.
c. Special physical education courses.
d. Physical education activities.
3. Related activities, i. b., inter-collegiate sports,
leadership and other types of experiences not
usually included in regular classes.
4. Methods used in the selection of major students.
5. Teaching minors.
6 . Subjects commonly recommended for additional back­
ground .
7. Miscellaneous items.
In those divisions of the questionnaire relating to
subject matter the course numbers and semester units have
already been recorded from your catalogue. Will you kindly
check the accuracy of these.
In the matter of physical education activities, hours
have been substituted for units since a semester course may
include several activities. The amount of emphasis is of
importance in determining the necessary time allotment for
specific activities in the junior college program.
As a graduate student I will sincerely appreciate
your response and the addition of suggestions or criticisms;
as a teacher and counselor I will deeply appreciate your
assistance in securing information which will be put to good
use.
Very sincerely yours,
144
QUESTIONNAIRE
INSTRUCTIONS: On this and the following pages is a
compiled list of the general requirements for the degree and
of the lower division required courses for the physical edu­
cation major for men found In the 1958-1939 catalogues of
the four year institutions in the state of California.
General Academic Requirements for the Degree: In
column is recorded the number of semester units necessary to
meet these requirements at your institution. Kindly check
this column for accuracy. In column 2 will you write in the
year (1, 2, 3, 4) in which the requirement should be met; and
in column 3 the requirements in which you find junior college
transfers most commonly deficient.
Requirements for the Major: In the space to the left
of column 1 the course numbers have been inserted. Kindly
check the accuracy of these as well as the units in column 2.
Columns 2 and 3 are identical with the above.
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GENERAL REQUIRE­
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Aptitude tests
English
MAJOR
REQUIREMENTS
Academic Subjects
Art
Entrance exam­
ination
Composition
Literature
Foreign
Language
Natural Science
Integrated Course;
Musi c
Public Speaking
Foundation
F Sciences
Anatomy
Gener al
Biology
Chemistry
Orientation
Nuitrition
Year Courses
Physiology
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GENERAL REQUIRE­
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MENTS FOR DEGREE rn
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Social Science
Integrated
course
American Institu­
tions
MAJOR
REQUIREMENTS
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Psychology
Zoology
Special Physical
Education
Courses
First Aid
Fine Arts
Military Drill
Physical Education
Activity Courses
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Course
Number
Semester
Units
Year
Required
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Deficiencies
Transfers
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3
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of
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2
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Hygi ene
Subjects commonly recommended to lower division majors,
(to fulfill partially, at least, their elective requirements,
and at the same time to give additional background for teach­
ing physical education)* Please check or make additions.
Art________ __________
Dramatics
________
Handcraft
__________
Music
__________
Bacteriology
Botany
Nutrition
Physics
___________
___________
___________
146
-3-
Aquatics
Diving
Badminton
Swimming
Boxing
Ballroom
Elementary
Rhythm.
Folk
Gymnastics
Apparatus
Free exercise
Marching
Pyramids and
Tumbling
Stunts
Corrective
exercise
Group games and
Relays
03
^
Clock Hours
per Semester
Single- Period
D&uble Period
Year
Required
Deficiencies
of Transfers
Individual Sports
Archery
Life Saving
Dancing
Clog and tap
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H
^
03
»
Clock hours
per Semester
Single Period
Double Period
Year
Required
Deficiencies
of Transfers
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INSTRUCTIONS: Phys1cal Education Activities. In
column 1 indicate the number of clock hours per semester
devoted to each activity. In column 2 Indicate whether the
activity is conducted in a single or double period, marking
nStf for single period and ^D11 for double period. In column
5 note the year or years the activity is required; and In
column 4 check the activities in which transfers are most
commonly deficient.___________________ ___________________
Golf
Handball
Squash
Tennis
Track and
Field
Team Sports
Baseball
Basketball
Football
Soccer
Soft ball
Speed ball
Water Polo
147
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Year
Required
Deficiencies
of Transfers
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INSTRUCTIONS: Related Activities. In column i check
activities required of lower division majors; in column 2
record the year (1, 2, 3, 4) in which the activity is re­
quired; in column 3 check activities in which junior college
transfers are most commonly deficient.
Selection of Majors, Teaching Minors. Kindly check
or make additions in~theTpacq provided.
1SELECTION OF MAJOR STUDENTS
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RELATED ACTIVITIES P^!
Special Medical Examination
Skill Tests
Activities tested—
(please list)
Participation
Inter-collegiate
Athletics
Programs
Demonstrations
Leadership Exper­
ience
Organization of
Tournment s
Club Activities
Boy Scouts, etc »
Playground
Church
Recreation
Camp Experience
Development of Pro­
fessional Atti­
tudes
Special Lectures
Gymnastic Exhibi­
tions
Swimming, Diving
Exhibitions
Dance Recitals,
Concerts
Contact with
Professional
Literature
Judgment of Depart­
ment Staff
Other Methods
Number of Minors
Recommended or
Required
Minor Subjects
mos t Fr equently
Recommended __
Biological
Science
__
Dramatics
__
■English
__
Foreign
Language
__
Manual Arts
__
Mathmatics
__
Physical Science
Public Speaking
Social Sciences
What is the total minimum number of units (upper and
lower division required for the pre-teaching major in physi­
cal education?
major?
What is the maximum number of units permitted for the
________________ ________________________________
If there are any co-recreational activities in which
the men are required to participate in their lower division
major work will you kindly list them.______________________
Do you find men who major in physical education defi­
cient in general academic background as compared to those
who major in other pre-teaching fields?
Do junior college transfers have any other difficul­
ties or adjustments not covered in any of the preceding
lists? We would appreciate additional comments.
149
JUNIOR COLLEGES INCLUDED IN THE STUDY
Bakersfield
Riverside
Chaffee
Sacramento
Compton
Salinas
Fullerton
San Bernardino
Glendale
San Francisco
Long Beach
San Mateo
Los Angeles
Santa Ana
Marin,
Santa Monica
Modesto
Santa Rosa
Pasadena
Taft
Pomona
Ventura
Visalia
150
LITTER TO THE JUNIOR COLLEGES
Bear Sir:
In an effort to find out tlie most common activities
offered by menfs physical education departments in larger
junior colleges in this state we are sending you the en­
closed questionnaire. It can be answered in a few minutes
and we would very much appreciate your response.
Sometimes the criticism is made that physical educa­
tion majors who transfer from junior college lack experi­
ence in a sufficient number of physical education activi­
ties. They may know football and basketball exceedingly
well, for example, but when thrown with the third year
university students who have already had apparatus work,
gymnastics, boxing, tumbling, and some of the minor sports
such as handball and tennis, they are greatly handicapped.
Considering this opinion and the fact that the num­
ber of men majoring in physical education has substantially
increased at this Institution as well as at many others,
we thought it advisable to find out the activities offered
in other junior colleges. Since our facilities are some­
what limited we should like to offer to. these people at
least those activities which are most commonly in demand.
We thought that perhaps you too might be interested in and
have use for this information wo we plan to send you a
summary of results as soon as our returns are in and com­
piled.
Very truly yours,
JUNIOR COLLEGE QUESTIONNAIRE
Diving
Life Saving
Swimming
Clog and tap
Ballroom
Elementary Rhythm
Polk
Apparatus
Free Exercise
Marching, Pyramids
and Tumbling
Stunts
Group games & relays
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^
Class
Activity
Length of
iPeriod
Inter­
school
H
Competition
Intra­
mural
CO
Competition
INSTRUCTIONS:
Column 1. Indicate by a check if there is Interschool
competition In any particular activity listed.
Column 2. Check if there is intra-mural competition
in any activity.
Column 3. Check here if the activity isoffered
in
the physical education class period.
If you check Column 3, please place this desire in­
formation in the following columns:
Column 4. Length of gym period.
Column J5. . Number of meetings per week.
Column _6. Number of weeks devoted to thisactivity.
If given the entire semester, simply mark MSW; otherwise
indicate the approximate number of weeks devoted to each.
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152
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Archery
Badminton
Boxing
Golf
Handball
Squash
Tennis
Track and field
Wrestling
Baseball
Basketball
Football
Soccer
Softball
‘
Speedball
Water polo
Volleyball
1. What activities do you anticipate adding inthe future?
2. Please list anyco~educational activities.
3. Kindly list anyspecial department courses.
4. How many different sports is it possible fora student
take if he desires a wide range of experience?
5. Are your students given a medical examination?
to
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