THE ROLE OF PRECEPTS AND IMAGERY IN VOCAL INSTRUCTION A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the 'School of Music University of Southern California In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master Of Music by George E. Thompson Jr. August 1940 UMI Number: EP61766 All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion. Dissertation BtM shing UMI EP61766 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 4 8 1 0 6 - 1346 This thesis, w ritten by G E g M E : . . E , . „ l H p j ^ S M ............. u n d e r the d i r e c t io n o f h. if! F a c u l t y C o m m it te e , a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l its m e m b e r s , has been presented to a n d accepted by the C o u n c i l on G ra d u a t e S t u d y a n d Research in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the r e q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f / Secretary D a te A u g u s t ,...1 9 .4 0 . F a c u lty Com m ittee C hairm an D ean TABLE OP CONTENTS CHAPTER I. PACE THE P R O B L E M ..................................... imagery............. 1 ............................. 1 The nature of precepts and Definition of terms 1 The purpose of the s t u d y ................... Justification of study Scope of study ........................ Review of previous related studies Method of procedure THE USES OP Origin of 2 . . . . . ................... 4 ............ 4 ............................ 4 Organization of the remainder of the thesis II. 2 . • PRECEPTS IN VOCAL P E D A G O G Y ......... 6 ..................... 6 vocal precepts The function of vocal precepts . . . . . . . . 7 Precepts concerning breath control Precepts concerning registers Precepts concerning the open throat ........ 22 Precepts concerning placing the tone ........ 29 Scientific bases for vocal ........... ................. precepts 8 17 ........... 35 Advantages of the use of p r e c e p t s ............. 37 Misleading terminology and 39 instruction • • • • Chapter summary ........... III. 4 THE USES OP AUDITORY IMAGERY IN Auditory imagery 44 VOICE TRAINING. ............................... . 45 45 iii CHAPTER PAGE The part the ear plays in vocal instruction with regard to teacher and. student activity . . . Building up auditory imagery • . . 46 ......... Preventing the atrophy of auditory imagery 51 • • Tests for auditory i m a g e r y ................. 55 54 S u m m a r y .......................... IV. 56 KINESTHETIC IMAGERY IN VOCAL TRAINING ........... 57 .................. 57 Kinesthetic or motor imagery Relation to sensations ........................ 58 Vocal-motor imagery ............................. 60 Motor imagery and m e m o r y ................... The function of will in guiding motor imagery Formation of correct vocal habit Emotion and interpretation V. 61 • 62 . . . . . . . 65 .................... 66 Self p r o j e c t i o n .............................. 72 Tests for motor i m a g e r y ..................... 75 S u m m a r y ....................................... 76 VISUAL IMAGERY IN VOCAL INSTRUCTION ............. Visual Imagery ................................. Visual Imagery in voice management 77 77 ........... 78 Memorizing and visual imagery .................. 80 Mimicry and visual imagery .................... 80 Cultivating visual imagery .................... 82 CHAPTER PAGE Test for visual i m a g e r y .......................... 85 Summary • • • • ................................. 84 GENERAL SUMMARY AND C O N C L U S I O N S ................... 85 B I B L I O G R A P H Y ............................................ 88 VI. CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM The nature of precepts and Imagery* Vocal training has to do with the control of a mechanism which, for the most part cannot be seen by either the teacher or the student. Therefore the required setting of the vocal organs must be secured through roundabout and subtle ways until a measure of control is gained. Thus in the teaching of voice from the seventeenth century to the present, frequent use has been made of precepts and imagery in the effort to manage the vocal instrument• .Definition of terms. The teachers of the old Italian school made their approach largely through the use of precepts, or rules. Certain of these precepts have been handed down and, as was to be expected, have in some cases, in their tran sition lost their original meaning. Imagery may be defined as the pictures or representations which we form in our minds. Seashore-*- points out that the physical adjustments of the vocal mechanisms may be greatly influenced by the type of imagery used. York: Imagery to be dealt ■*- Seashore, C. E., Psychology of Musical Talent Silver, Burdett, and Co., 1919), p. 211. (Hew 2 with in this thesis is of three types, namely, auditory, visual, and kinesthetic. The purpose of the study. The present thesis is a critical study of precepts and imagery used in the field of voice culture, with an attempt to determine, if possible, their physical or psychological bases. ' The investigation will aim specifically to 'find but 1. Use of precepts. a. What precepts were used by writers in past centuries. b. What precepts are used by writers of the present century. c. What scientific bases, if any, can be found for the uses of such precepts. 2. Types of imagery. a. What types of imagery have been used by writers on vocal pedagogy in past centuries. b. What types are in current usage in voice training. c. What scientific bases, if any, can be found for the uses of such imagery. Jus tification of study. Educators would doubtless agree that if the teaching of singing is to be placed on a scientific basis a careful analysis and definition of its 3 terminology is necessary. Hinman,^ for example, makes the statement that no one is in a more unhappy condition than the singer or teacher who knows not his own terminology, while 'Z French0 claims that if one is to have a complete understanding of his subject, his information must be based on scientific knowledge. He explains that one may know what the terms mean, but may not understand them sufficiently to apply them to certain areas. Starch^ points out that all learning is char acterized by the existence of plateaus. He maintains that the instructor could remove the conditions which bring about the occurrence of plateaus, by providing stimuli at points where they occur, so as to continue the upward swing in the course of learning. If the instructor does not understand the principles underlying the subject with which he is working, he will not be able to provide these stimuli. Myer 5 declares that all true art is based on science, and none more than the F. L. Hinman, Slogans for Singers Schirmer and Co., 1934), p. 59. (New York: G. Will French, "Functions of Secondary Education: Function I." National Education Association, Department of Secondary School Principals, Bulletin 64. (Berwyn, Illinois: National Education Association, Department of Secondary School Principals, 1937), p. 24. 4 Daniel Starch, Educational Psychology (New York: The Macmillan Co., 1928), p.. 166. 5 Edmund J. Myer, Renaissance of the Vocal Art (Boston: Boston Music Co., 1902), p. 14. 4 art of singing. The attempt, therefore, in this study to seek scientific bases for precepts and imagery us8d in voice pedagogy seems justified* Scope of study* This investigation involved a study of seventy published books and articles on voice, from the writings of the so-called 'Old Italian masters to scientific books dealing with problems in speech and voice, published within the present decade. Review of previous related studies, Probably the most recent work considering the general scope of imagery in vocal instruction is that by Bartholomew, cle is "Imagery in Voice Pedagogy."^ The subject of his arti Although the article does not pretend to cover the different types of imagery and their various uses, it is valuable in that it gives, as a result of anatomical study, the general uses of imagery in vocal training. Method of procedure, The library research method was necessarily followed, using materials available at the library of the University of Southern California, the Public Library of the city of Los Angeles, and books and articles borrowed ® Wilmer T. Bartholomew, "Imagery in Voice Pe dagogy.» Peabody Bulletin (Baltimore, Maryland: The Peabody Conservatory of Music, December, 1934), pp. 2.0-29* from private libraries. Organization of the remainder of the thesis. The re mainder of the thesis will be an attempt to present in logical sequence an analysis of precepts and different types of imagery used in the field of vocal instruction. The second chapter presents an evaluation of precepts and their uses in voice training; the third deals with audi tory imagery, and the part it plays in teacher and student activities during vocal training; the fourth takes up kines thetic imagery in vocal management; the fifth discusses visual imagery in vocal instruction. The final chapter is devoted to a summary of the results of the investigations, with con clusions based on findings. CHAPTER II THE USE OF PRECEPTS IN VOCAL PEDAGOGY Origin of the vocal precepts. Music historians agree that a high standard of vocal perfection was reached by singers and teachers of the seventeenth century. In support of this statement Tosi,'*' who in 1723 wrote the first book descriptive of the old Italian method, says that the voices of his day 2 did not compare with those heard in times past. Mancini, whose book was first published in 1776, tells about several schools which were flourishing in the century preceding the writing of his book. In view of the fact that Italy was the center of instruction, the system followed by the eminent teachers of the time came to be known as the.Italian method. Both Tosi and Mancini cover practically every phase of vocal instruction in their works--from the management of the voice itself to the acquiring of stage presence. They did not endeavor to make the pupil manage the muscles of the throat and diaphragm directly. The method of instruction was P. F. Tosi, Observations on the F l o r i d ~Song (London: Printed for J. Wilcox, at V i r g i l !s Head in the Strand, 1723. Reprinted from the Second Edition by William Reeves, Bookseller, Ltd., 83 Charing Cross Road, London, W. C. 2, Great Britain,' ■ 1926),- p. ,15. p ^ G. Mancini, Practical Reflections on the Figurat ive Art of Singing (Boston: The Gorham Press, 1912), p . 26. 7 empirical but not mechanical* Rather than compel the phenom-* enon of voice, they permitted it to occur. Mancini says, “Follow the natural instincts, but do not force nature.” They did not attempt to control the voice by giving direct attention to the management of the muscles involved, but on the con~ trary, allowed it to act in response to the guidance of the will, directed along the line of the effects desired. The re- sult was aimed at directly, and control of the vocal apparatus was gained through the instructions given. 4 Tosi says that the purpose of rules or precepts is to p revent the singer from falling into errors. These rules when combined with practice can set the singer right. From the success of these instructions he proceeds to formulate new discoveries into rules and put them into print to further the success of his profession. Mancini, throughout his book, speaks of the rules and precepts of singing. The function of voeial precepts. The fundamental prin ciple of the old Italian school was the “effect” in vocal ut terance er. which was the constant guide for both singer and teach Skill of physical adjustment was obtained as a consequence of mental conception of effects desired. Webster defines precept- 3 Ibid ., p. 60. ^ Ibid., p. 11. 8 as ffa prescribed rule of conduct or action; direction regarding a given course.11 instruction or As Taylor points out, precepts summarize the results of empirical observation. ' The old precepts direct the will towards idealized sound rather than towards'governing the physical process. Tosi For example, claims that the singer should be an individual who, among other things, does not have the fault of singing through the nose or in a constricted throat. ■ The instructor knows whether the p u p i l 1s voice is being correctly or incorrectly produced by the impression that it makes on him from the standpoint of hearing. Tosi 7 says that it is his design to point out the defects and abuses of singers, in order that they may be corrected. He maintains that study is most impor tant, but it is also necessary to know in what manner we must pursue our studies. In short, the precepts were intended to describe ac curately the most striking points between good and bad singing. Probably the best way to arrive at the real meaning of the pre cepts is to examine certain examples. Precepts concerning breath control. In searching out 5 Taylor, The Psychology of Singing (New York: The Mac millan Co.,.1917), p. 76. . 6 P. F. Tosi, Op. Cit., p. 11. Ibid., p. 158. 9 the various precepts on breath control it is found that there are two schools of thought, one embracing unconscious breath ing, which is subordinate to and the result of voice production, and the other stressing conscious breath control. earliest eighteenth century writer, in the middle of a word.” that the master says, Tosip the ffDo not take a breath He explains this precept by s a y i n g ’ can remedy the fault if it be present, by.show ing the pupil where to takehis breath so that he will always have more air' than he has need of in case of emergency. Mancini,^ a later eighteenth century writer, presents explicit instructions or precepts for breath control. He ad monishes the student to "keep the breath with perfect economy,,f and to instruct the bellows of the voice to support the breath, to graduate it, and to take it over again; for upon practicing, this breathing becomes automatic and effortless. The first departure from the old Italian method of teach ing unconscious breathing was made by Manuel Garcia, ^ cribes the diaphragm, who des the most important muscle of breathing, as forming the base of the ,fcageff (i.e. chest cavity); it is convex and holds the act of respiration under its control. ® I b i d ., p. 60. 9 G. Mancini, .Practical Reflections on the Figurative Art of Singing, p. 112. M. Garcia, Hints on Singing (New York: Schuberth and Co., 1894), p. 5. 10 He advocates thoracic or intercostal breathing, in which the lungs have free action from side to side, from front to back, and from top to bottom. He claims that this is the only type of breathing that is complete, and presents the following pre-' cepts for attaining perfection in thoracic breathing: . 1. Draw a breath slowly through a very minute opening of the lips, then exhale freely. 2. Breathe freely and exhale slowly through the same small opening. 3. Breathe freely and retain the breath for ten sec onds or m o r e . H He points out that the glottis is under the direct in fluence of the lungs, and any jerkiness or other irregularity in the action of these organs affects the sound and impairs the continuous flow of air. statement that Garcia 12 ing the act of singing: It is evident from the following meant breath control to continue dur "After taking a breath the pupil should start the phrase with a small amount of pressure, increasing it gradually as the supply of air diminishes." He says that "the even flow of a long phrase, a long passage of agility, _ the stability of a long note, all require a continuous and well managed pressure of the diaphragm." The greatest faults as Garcia sees them are hurried and noisy breathing, ing of the shoulders during inspiration. 11 * P* 8 * Ib id., p. 13. and rais He believes that 11 when the air is inhaled gradually and not by jerks, it has no tendency to rebound and does not fatigue the lungs. Several'other nineteenth century writers agree with Garcia on the subject of breath control. They are of the-opin ion that exercises should be taken independently of the voice to develop the breathing muscles, and that the breath should be controlled consciously. Following are some typical examples of the precepts of this school. Browne and B e h n k e ^ maintain that if the singer takes care of the lungs and learns to control the breath, the voice will take care of itself. Kofler-1-4 states that in nat ural breathing the lungs are relaxed during expiration, but in singing the relaxation of the lungs must be retarded. Howard-*-^ says that voice is made by pushing breath out between the vocal chords when they have been brought close together. He claims that force is necessary to send the breath through and make the chords vibrate or sway up and down to cause voice. He formulates this belief into a precept when he instructs the student to, "Get a strong sending of breath through the nearly 13 Lennox Browne and Emil Behnke, Vo ice, Song, and (New York: G. P. P u t n a m fs Sons, 1883), pp. 101-138. ■14 Leo Ko'fler, The Art of Breathing as the Basis of Tone-Production (New York: Edgar Werner, 1902), p . 66. Speech 15 Francis E. Howard, The Child-Voice in Singing York: H. W. Gray Co., 1895), p. 66. (New 12 closed vocal chords.1' the breathing muscles. This is to be accomplished by training Mills'^ presents very definite pre cepts for the purpose of learning breath control: 1. (a) Inspire slowly with counting. (b) Hold. (c) Expire slowly with counting. 2. The same, but hold longer. 3. The same, with shorter inspiration end longer ex piration.Gradually learn to take shorter inspirations, while at the same time lengthening the expirations. Mackenzie 17 believes that correct breathing should be taught, but when the art of breathing has been thoroughly ac quired, i t •ought to become entirely automatic. He believes that the singer should breathe normally without the protruding abdomen. to, He forms this into precept by instructing the pupil "Breathe with a flat or concave abdomen." He maintains that with this type of. breathing there is much more control over expiration. He asserts that the singer should exercise in a general way by swinging dumb-bells, working with the medi cine ball, and taking long walks. He says that after taking a brisk walk, his own chest expanded a full two inches. Among the twentieth century authors one still finds 16 Wesley Mills, Voice Production in Singing and Speak ing (Philadelphia and London: J. B. Lippincott Co., 1906), pp. 67^73. gans Sir Morell Mackenzie, The .Hygiene of the Vocal Or (New York: E. S. Werner and Co., 1928), pp. 106-121. 13 disagreement on the subject of breath control. Following are some typical precepts taken from the writings of those who believe in direct or conscious breath control. and Beyer 18 Fucito suggest that the singer "master breath control by learning control of -the diaphragm." S h a k e s p e a r e ^ believes that in order to prepare the breath for tone production the singer must "take a full breath so-that great expansion is felt at the soft place beneath the breast bone." Lickey 20 Dodds and point out that the singer must-gain confidence by "controlling the breath and the muscles of expiration." Lehmann 21 states that to control the breath the student must "learn to control the activity of the diaphragm.” Fillebrowne^ maintains that "firmness of tone depends upon steadiness of breath pressure. the breath." Steadiness of tone depends upon control of Buzzi-Peccia*^ says to "hold and control expi ration of air with the diaphragm." Fucito and Beyer, Caruso and the Art of Singing (New York: Frederick Stokes Co., 1922), pp. 115, 116. William Shakespeare, The Art of Singing (Boston: The Oliver Ditson Co., 1921), p. 54. 2 ® George Dodds and James Lickey, Control of the Breath (London: Oxford University Press, 1925), p. 29. 21 Lilli Lehmann, How to Sing (New York: The Macmillan C o ., 1910), p . 39. ?? Thomas Fillebrowne, Resonance in Singing and 'Speak ing ' (Boston: Oliver Ditson CoT^ 1911), p. 26. 23 Buzzi-Peccia, How to Succeed in Singing (Phila delphia: Theodore Presser Co., 1925), p. 30. 14 Of the authors who believe in indirect management of the breath, some sp e a k positively against conscious control. 24 Shaw, for example, declares that involuntary breath control is one of N a t u r e ’s inviolable lav/s as applied to speech snd song, and those who defy that law will be violently dealt with. He asks the question, and answers, "What causes so-called breath control?” ”The spontaneous action of the air-current mech anism in response to a desired tone.” He maintains that the term breath control should never be used to indicate something which must be done Dy the student. Shaw 25 presents precepts to bring about the desired effect. 1. Sustain phrases evenly at any degree of power within the natural range. 2. Go from crescendo to diminuendo and back. 3. Color the tones at will. 4. Stand erect while singing. This is all to be done without attempting to govern the muscles involved. Henderson states that chest labor has no part in singing. He says to ”let the demands of the voice govern breathing.”26 He emphasizes 24 delphia: tion the fact that "there should be no holding,' no " / Wm. Warren Shaw, Authentic Voice Production (Phila J. B. Lipp.incott Co., 19307, pp» 126-7. 26 Wm. Warren Shaw, The Lost Vocal Art and Its Restora (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott '"Ob., 191477 P* 99. 26 Wm. J. Henderson, The Early History of Singing (New York: Longmans, Green and Co., 1921), pp. 36,42. 15 tightness anywhere.” Witherspoon 27 maintains that "as the breathing of the singer is purely natural and the same as the breathing used, by man for any unusual physical exertion, can be easily and naturally induced; it and as it is a part of a coordination, it should not be introduced too locally, but should be spontaneously excited, through practice, to fit the result desired vocally.” Stanley very emphatically states that, ”the student must never be given any direction pertaining to a narrow group of muscles, provided that such a group is used in the act of phonation.” Therefore, all directions given must be rather broad and general unless they refer to muscles which are not used in the act of phonation. If directions are given which indi cate control over a narrow group of muscles, Stanley maintains that there will be a false tensing and Improper coordinating 28 of the group. Seashore writes that thought should precede automatism, and that after a thing is learned correctly it oq should become automatic. Stanley claims that this is exactly what will happen when the singer is taught breath control. He says that the student must be taught to Inspire properly 27 . Herbert Witherspoon, Inc., 1925), p. 59. . (New York: po -i Singing (New York: G. Schirmer ' . Carl E. Seashore, The Psychology of Musical Talent ^ilver, Burdett and CoT, 1919), pp. 59 Douglas Stanley, The Science of Voice Carl Fischer, 1929), pp. 38, 39, 104. (New York: 16 and then forget all about the breath. He directs the student to "stand erect," and, when singing energetically, to "brace the bo dy. " After having thoroughly examined both methods of breathing, Russell 30 gives the following precepts of Dr. Vorhees which were presented to the Hew York State Music Te ach ers1 Association convention, June 1915, by the Committee on Standards: perfect control of breath means: (a) Ability to fill the lungs to their capacity either quickly or slowly: (b) Ability to breathe out quickly or slowly as oc casion demands: * (c) Ability to suspend inspiration. . . and to resume the process at will without having lost any of the already inspired breath; (d) Ability to exhale under the same restrictions; (e) Ability to sing and sustain the voice on an ordinary breath; (f) Ability to breathe quietly as often as text and phrase permit; (g) Ability to breathe so that the fullest inspiration brings no fatigue; (h) Ability so to economize the breath that the reserve is never exhausted; (i) Ability to breathe so naturally, so unobtrusively, that neither breath nor lack of breath is suggested to the listener; ^ G. Oscar Russell, Speech and Voice Macmillan Co., 1931), p. 197. (New York: The 17 (j) Ability so to breathe as not to interfere with the muscular processes Involved in artistic phonation, but oh the contrary, so as to aid these processes where possible. Russell leaves the decision of the method to be used to the reader. He explains that known facts have been cited in order to aid students in reaching an Intelligent decision, without being forced to accept blindly someone e l s e ’s theory. Christensen, 31 upon classifying the twentieth century, authors as to their advocacy of the teaching of indirect or direct breath control, found that out of forty-eight who ex pressed themselves on the subject, twenty-nine were in favor of indirect or unconscious breathing, and nineteen authors hold that the breath must be directly or consciously controlled. Little can be said about the types of breathing which should be advocated. This is not because one is better than 32 the other; but, as Russell states, there are no scientific facts to offer by way of contribution to settle the issue. The question is a moot one which is still debated as it has been for generations. Precepts concerning registers. Since the beginning of voice teaching there has been a controversy about the.- A. H. Christensen, Certain Trends in Vocal Music Teaching Methods (unpublished master's thesis--University o f ■Southern California, 1937), p. 16.' ^ G. 0. Russell, Speech and Voice, p. 195. 18 registers of the voice. Tosi,®® of the eighteenth century* speaks of three registers, namely, di petto , di testa, and falsetto. The voice di petto is the full voice and comes from the breast. Di testa comes more from the throat and is capa ble of more volubility.. He says that falsetto is almost en tirely formed in the throat, has more volubility than any, but no substance. He points out that the teacher should leave no means untried to blend these different voices so that they all sound the same. -r 4 Mancini, two registers: of the same century, declares that there are the chest and the head. If the student has strong chest tones and weak head tones, he should develop the head tones until they equal those of the chest. If his chest tones are weak and head tones strong, the process should be reversed. Mancini says that when the two registers become even in strength, they will be blended. 35 Garcia,, an early nineteenth century writer, agrees w ith Tosi when he states that there are three registers, namely the chest, medium, and the head. He explains that a register is a set of homogeneous sounds produced by one mechanism, that each register has its own mechanism. and The chest register ®® P. P. T osi, Observations on the Florid Son g, p. 22. G.= Mancini, Practical Reflections on the Figurative Art of Singing, p. 109. M. Garcia, Hints on Singing, pp. 7, 8. 19 is obtained when the whole length and breadth of the artenoid cartilage combined with the vocal cords are engaged in vibration. As the sounds of this register rise, the vibrating surface of the artenoid cartilage decreases. The medium register is the; result of the artenoid cartilage vibrating only at the edges, combined with vibration.of the vocal cords. The head register is obtained by the vibration'.of the vocal cords alone. The vibrating length of the artenoid cartilage is shortened by adding tension. Three registers are common to all voices, the women having the longer range of tones in the head register, and the men the longer range of. tones in the chest register. Garcia, 36 in presenting an exercise for blending the registers, says pupils should pass repeatedly from one register to the other. Some notes, he says, are common to both registers and should be preserved to facilitate easy transit, being sung slowly at first and being speeded up in accordance with the p u p i l !s advancement. The nineteenth century writers recognize from one to five registers, but, discarding Lamperti’s theory that there is only one register, they all agree that the primary object ive is the blending and the equalizing of the registers until there is no recognizable break between them. Kofler 37 may be 36 .Ibid. , p* 2 1 . 37 Leo Kofler, The Art of Breathing as the Basis of Tone-Production, pp. 184^5. 20 quoted as typical of the nineteenth century school when he directs the student to develop the upper register, bringing it down as far as a good tone can be obtained, then to go into the lovirer register. The break in t h e .voice between the registers is to be smoothed out by equalizing the two regis ters until they both have as near the same quality as it is possible to obtain. Kof’ ler forms this into precept by in structing the pupil to sing in the upper register, from a pitch which is higher than the pitch where the change takes place, down to the pitch where the change takes place, and back to the original pitch. In other words, practice the upper register separately, going as low as possible, but keep ing a pure tone. procedure, In the low register, the pupil reverses the singing from a low pitch, up to the pitch where the change occurs, keeping a pure tone.- As a consequence, says Kofler, the pupil will find that the registers will overlap each other by three or four tones, and as they be come equalized, the change from one to the other will become easy for the singer, and unnoticeable to the listener. Browne and B e h n k e ^ point out that voices differ as much as faces and that the break in the voice between the registers will occur on different pitches in different voices. Consequently the successful teacher must study each voice individually. 38 Browne and Behnke, Voice, Song, and Speech, p. 185. 21 There has been disagreement among the teachers of voice in the past centuries, and there^ is still disagreement among the modern theorists as to the number of registers 'ZQ present in the voice. Christensen found the greater major ity favor the idea of two or three registers, being about evenly divided. They are, however, with few exceptions uni formly agreed as to the development and treatment of the reg isters. Following are some typical examples of precepts, taken from the works of the twentieth century authors. Taylor‘S says each register of the voice is to be trained separately; when the correct vocal action has been established in each register, then unite the registers, and correct the "break," if there is one. M u r p h y ^ l cautions the student always to keep the tone pure; avoiding a mixture of lower and upperregister tone quality. H e n d e r s o n ^ points out that the chief object to be kept in mind is to make the transition without introducing any feeling of constriction In the throat; through the throat and not with the throat. singing Stanley"^ maintains -ZQ A. ing Methods, p. 33. ^ Christensen, Certain Trends in Vocal Music Tea Taylor, The Psychology of Singing, p. 38. 41 G.A. Murphy, The Voice and Singing (Grand Rapids, M ich ig an :.A.P. Johnson Co., 129), p. 47. 4? W. J. Henderson, The Art of the Singer (Few York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1920), p. 99. 43 Douglas Stanley, The Science of Voice, pp. 12, 15, 48*, 22 that the main point underlying this idea is that a pure reg ister must he used vigorously so that the muscles governing it will become fully developed. He says that exercise in the development of one register assists in the correct production of the other. He enlarges upon this when he directs students to sing in loud tones so that the muscles governing the pro duction will become better developed. The register- which is the weaker should be worked with more than the register which is strong, Stanley points out that' the chief factors in co ordinating the registers are the resonance conditions, which should not vary during the change. He emphasizes the fact that the registers should be coordinated, not blended, Stanley declares that the ultimate aim is reached when the registers become so perfectly developed and coordinated that the entire voice becomes one continuous whole. Precepts concerning the open throat. Desirable tone production has long been associated with the open throat, and undesirable tone production has likewise been associated with closed throat. In this latter case "the sin ger 1s throat seems to be tightened and narrowed so that the sound has not suffi cient opening to come out properly, choked in the throat. and seems to be caught or On the other hand the perfectly pro duced voice comes out freely without hindrance or interference at any point in the s in ge r1s throat. 23 Among eighteenth century writers, Tosi44 merely cautions the singer against singing in the throat. Throaty singing, 45 according to Mancini, •is caused when the singer does not draw and sustain the voice by natural strength of the chest, but tries to obtain satisfactory results by tightening the fauces ■'(lower part of the throat). This causes the voice to seem heavy and ponderous, and 'it sounds as if it were smothered and choked in the throat. Mancini endeavors to secure an open throat by using the precept nopen the m o u t h . " He emphasizes the fact that the throat must unfold the voice with a light movement, clarifying each vowel; not only enunciating it, but preparing it for the next passage. According to G a r c i a , ^ of the nineteenth century, one must be able to change the size of the throat opening to change the timbre or the color of the tones. His precepts concerning the open throat instruct the pupil to "relax the muscles of the throat," and when ascending the scale, the higher the tone the more the bottom of the throat must be open. Browne and B e h n k e , ^ also nineteenth century authors, ^ P.P. Tosi, Observations on the Plorid S o n g , p. 11. 45 G. Mancini, Practical Reflect ions on the Pigurat i Art of Singing, p. 153, 154. ^ M. Garcia, Hints on Singing, pp. 11, 12. ^ Browne and Behnke, Voi ce, Song and Speech, pp. 161,2. 24 maintain that throaty singing is caused by the tongue not being kept under control, thereby closing the vocal passage and causing rigidity of the surrounding parts. They present precepts in the form of exercises for the purpose of securing the open throat through the medium of controlling the tongue and soft palate. 1. Open mouth widely. Put tongue out as far as possible. Draw It back smartly and try to let it lie flat and low, but touching the lower teeth all around. Repeat several times. 2. Put the tip of the tongue against the lower front teeth and roll it forward as far as possible, drawing back smartly. Repeat several times. 3. Keep the root of the tongue as flat as possible, raise the tip and. push it perpendicularly and quite slowly towards the roof of the mouth. Then lower it gradually to Its original position. Repeat several times. 4. Raise the tongue as in exercise three, and move it gradually from one side to the other describing a semi circle. Repeat several times. H o w a r d , 48 another nineteenth century writer who believes in controlling the muscles, agrees with Browne and Behnke on this point when he advises learning control of the tongue, and presents similar precepts. The following may be quoted as typical of the nineteenth century authors who do not believe in the practice of muscular control in securing an open throat. 48 Kofler 49 says .that the Howard, The ChiId-Voice in Si ngin g, pp. 56,7. ^ Kofler, The Art of Breathing as the Basis of Tone Production, pp. 45; 46. 25 throat and neck, and all parts surrounding the resonance cavities of the mouth and pharynx should he kept perfectly elastic without the least strain* He instructs the student to "direct the will-power action out of the throat altogether*" Myer claims that direct effort in ascending must never go with the tone, but always go away from it. precept, "sing up and think down." He presents the In support of this state ment he says that in singing up, one is not to follow the tone with the thought or effort and thus compel local throateffort, but think the effort or action down on the body, and bring the body Into "position and action" In support of the tone. Thus, in placing all support upon the body, one frees the tone and opens the throat. He emphasizes the point of singing through the throat and not with the throat, and says that if the mouth is opened well the throat will be open. The twentieth century authors who mention.the throat agree that it should be open, although they outline different ways and means of accomplishing this feat. The following statements are taken from twentieth century authors. radical viewpoint is taken by Dodds. 51 A rather He recognizes the yawn as a symbol of complete relaxation and maintains that if the 50 Edmund J. Myer, Pos ition and Act ion in Singing (Boston: The Boston Music Co., 1897), p p . 73, 92. 51 Dodds and Lickey, Control of the Breath (London: H. Milford, Oxford University Press, 1925), p. 42. 26 singer can simulate a yawn before starting a tone and later practice witli the idea of the yawn in mind, the sensation of "open throat” tone production will have been experienced, and from the knowledge•gained further improvement without the yawn can be achieved. He directs the student to "experience the.same feeling of easy throat expansion in the expiratory act of tone production which is felt in the inspiratory act of yawning.” S h a w ^ directs the student to "choose an open vowel such as aw. Pronounce naw." There will result the natural opening due to correct pronunciation. He says the other vowels should be pronounced keeping the aw formation in mind. Taylor P)rzi observes that a throaty tone seems to be caught or choked in the throat. He merely instructs the stu dent to "open the throat.” Shakespeare 54 presents an exercise to help the student to compare the different sensations involved in singing with an open throat and a closed throat. Whisper the sounds caw, caw, caw. This should be done in two ways: first, quietly, with the throat open, and then in a rigid manner so that the throat is felt to be distorted. Repeat in a similar manner, og, og, og. In the first way one perceives the natural action of the k and g sensations as in good singing; in the second the * W.W. Shaw, The Lost Vocal Art and Its Restoration, p. 105. ^ B.C. Taylor, The Psychology of Singing, p. 191. 54 Wm. Shakespeare, The Art of Singing;,p. 22. 27 throaty contraction. Again whisper in two ways er, er, er, (as in kernel); when quietly done the throat feels open; in a rigid way a clicking sound is perceived and the throat assumes a rigidity as in retching. On whispering quietly ang, ang, ang, the throat and soft palate remain unconscious, hut with the least rigidity of the throat the soft palate is influenced and the disagreeable nasal quality is produced. Lastly whisper quietly at, at, at, first with a loose throat; then on repeating this and stiffening the throat and tongue, a white or colorless tone is produced. Bartholomew0^ says a certain setting of the throat re gion tends to produce and permit all the attributes of good voice quality. This setting, explains .Bartholomew, consists of the relaxation of the tongue and jaw, and the enlargement of the pharynx, either through lowering the larynx, or widen ing the sides of the throat, or both. This setting inhibits one of the most powerful, automatic, and constantly used re flexes, that of the swallowing muscles, which are normally in a state of tension in most individuals. more efficient reinforcement of the tone. This form permits It gives free egress to the mouth, eliminating some types of breathiness. Bartholomew notes that almost all of the devices used by teachers further to improve voice quality are directly or in directly schemes for enlarging the throat. This author pays particular attention to the following precepts: notably, one W. T. Bartholomew, ffImagery In Voice Pedagogy.flr Peabody Bulletin, (Baltimore, Maryland: The Peabody Conserva tory of Music, December, 1954), pp. 34, 85, 86, 90, 91. 28 should imagine the stream of air passing through the nasal resonance cavities, as this will relax the muscles involved and lead.to the enlargement of the throat; grooving the tongue strengthens an important member of the throat enlarging set of muscles, although t h e ■attempt must not be made to keep the tongue grooved while singing. Russell and closed, says that when the throat is too relaxed the high partials of the tone are mellowed, and the resonant qualities of the tone are deadened by the flabby walls of the-throat. He claims the student should ’'strive for a tense open throat” so that the high partials of the. tone will be accentuated, bright, and the sound issuing forth will be clear, resonant, Stanley^ and ringing. claims that the laryngeal pharynx is by far the most important of resonance cavities, and that the mouth should be eliminated as an important resonance cavity. He maintains that in correct tone production the throat should be kept open by holding the extensor or opening muscles firm, thus inhibiting the action of the antagonistic constrictor muscles. A firm throat allows the neck muscles to remain re laxed, while tension of the neck or constrictor muscles results in relaxation of the extensor muscles and closing of G. 0. Russell, Speech and Voi ce, .p. 158. 5,7 D. Stanley, The Science of V oice, pp. 22, 62,§3,68. the throat. This author directs the student to sing loud high tones to get the correct throat feeling. He points out that the high tones must be resonated in the throat only, since they cannot be prod.uced at all if the resonance con ditions are not approximately correct. The high, bright tone resonated with a short widely opened throat column, is easier to produce properly than a low tone which requires a longer resonance cavity. Stanley declares that it is useless to tell the student to open the throat, since such localized control is physiologically impossible. He says such pre cepts as the following will, with constant repetition, have quite a definite psychological effect: 11Go for the throat 1” "Balance the work done in the production of the tone with the firmness of the throat '!" "Hold the throat f i r m!” "Form the vowel further back!" "Work with the throat!" "Start the tone with the throat!" "Don Tt let the throat collapse as you ascend the scale!" "Tense the throat at the moment of attacking the tone!" Precepts concerning placing the t o n e . Placing is a term that is used very loosely and unscientifically. It has not been clearly defined and has come to have various‘m e a n i n g s • It was used by some early writers to mean placing the voices on the various parts. Others attempted to aim the voice at various spots on the roof of the mouth. The more modern idea so is to shape the resonators. This statement is horne out by a review of the following precepts. Tosi^S refers to placing the tone .when he instructs the vocal student to "learn to hold notes out and thereby fix the voice so that it will not be subject to fluttering.1* Mancini 59 asserts that the student must **produce the voice with moderation and graduate each tone with a light breath," in order to place the tone. He suggests that the vocalist practice this exercise on sustained tones rendered with repose and taken one by one with due graduation. After learning to place the tone in this way,' the reinforcement of the voice must follow in proportion to the age and strength of the pupil. Many voice theorists, when testing the singer for tone placement and breath control, hold a lighted candle before Garcia, 60 who is one of these, mentions the s i ngerTs mouth. veiled and ringing tones and their connection with voice placement. He instructs the student to "start the tone and then close the glottis immediately.” This causes the tone to impinge sharply on the tympanic membrane and the sound is sues forth bright, clear, and ringing. On the other hand, if the glottis is imperfectly closed, and there is a slight 58 P.F. Tosi, Observations on the Florid Song, p. 27. RO G. Mancini, Practical Heflections on the Figurativ Art of Singing, p. 105. M. Garcia, Hints on Singing, p. 7. 31 escape of air, the impressions upon the tympanum are blunted, and the sound issuing forth is veiled. The influence of the use of the laryngoscope, which Garcia invented in 1855, can be seen here. Following.are typical examples of precepts taken from other nineteenth century writers. placing is due to correct thought. Myer 61 says that correct He directs the student to "think of the roof of the mouth as a hollow arch concave in form, and think of the tone as coming from the body, through the throat against the forward part of this form." He also emphasizes "low resonance." To get this high forward placement he instructs the student to sing ee which has the highest resonance and most forward placement. Then sing oo which has the lowest resonance and most natural backward place ment. The other vowels, a y e , a h , and oh, fall naturally bet- ween e^e and ,oo. Then again sing ee_ keeping the forward place ment, but adding to it the low resonance of oo. oo, Then practice adding in the same manner the forward placement of e e . Practice the other vowels 'in like manner. Howard PQ instructs the student to let the lower jaw hang by its own weight, thus relaxing the muscles of the throat. The tongue should be placed with tip on the lower front teeth and its sides upon E. J. Myer, Position and Action in Singing, pp. 99, 100. 62 F. E. Howard, The Child-Voice in Singing, pp. 92-3. 32 the molars. With these soft parts offering no obstruction, the tone may be placed well forward in the mouth. Browne' ' and B e h n k e ^ give practically the same exercise as M y e r !s for forward placement of the tone. They caution the student against stiffening of the root of the tongue and throat m usc l e s . The following precepts concerning placement of the voice are taken from twentieth century authors. Lamperti 64 instructs the student to tTdirect the voice to the hard palate behind the upper front teeth." Henderson 65 also says to "direct the tone to the hard palate," but adds that "one c a n ft actually place the tone there; one thinks i t !s there.” M i l l e r ^ agrees with these statements and says that "the student who has a voice, brilliant to the point of hardness, can mellow it by a middle or backward production.”' Fillebrowne?? gives an exercise for forward placement. He says that the sound hung will place the voice properly. Sing hung and hold the ng sound for at least four counts. To 66 Browne and Behnke, Voice, Song, and Speech, p. 162. 64 Lamperti, Vocal Wisdom, (Hew York: Wm. E. Brown, 1931) p. 73. ; 66 w.J. Henderson, The Art of the Singer, p. 84. 66 p.E. Miller, The V o i c e ; Its Production, Care, and Preservation, pp. 101, 102. T. Fillebrowne, Resonance in Singing and Speaking, p.85 33 insure the proper course of the vowel sounds, follow hung with the vowel ee, any other; as this vowel is more easily placed than then sing the exercises using the vowels. Begin the-tone quietly on an easy pitch and continue it softly to the end. When these exercises have been mastered on one pitch, use other pitches within easy compass of the voice. Bartholomew®® notes that the universal plea of the voice teachers is to get the tone "up" or "forward.” He claims that these instructions help to secure the- ideal throat setting. In a negative manner, the direction to "sing the tone forward" tends to relax the powerful, upward-pulling muscles of the swallowing group which are so often reflexly controlled, by directing attention away from them; he claims it is better to direct the attention above the swallowing group rather than below them where an undesirable tension of the breathing muscles might result. He maintains that the tone cannot help being in a*forward position if the throat is open and relaxed, and the tongue is in the proper place with the tip against the lower teeth. R u s s e l l ® ^ says the throat should be tensed, not tight ened, with the velar opening closed, glottis sloping well forward. ®® W.T. Bartholomew, and the tip of the epi He claims that the tone will Imagery in Voice Pedagogy, p. 85. ®^ G-.O. Russell, Speech and Voice, pp. 213, 214. 34 be flung forcibly against the hard palate without being en meshed in the deadening soft back surfaces. In this way the high partials of the tone will be accentuated, and the quality of the tone will be brilliant. Stanley,who claims scientific grounds for his state ment, says that the voice is not something which can be "placed1' or "focused." He maintains that if the resonators are cor rectly tuned (i.e. the tongue, soft palate, the tone will be correctly produced. and the larynx) This setting is a psycho logical process which acts reflexly in response to the singer's concept of pitch, quality, and intensity. He warns the student against trying to learn direct control of these members. Redfield*^ points out that the chief element in deter mining the tone quality of the human voice is the shape of the resonating air cavities above the vocal chords, and that any slightest change in the position of the mobile walls of those air cavities produces a corresponding change in the quality of the tone p r o d u c e d . . According to this author, the shaping of the upper air passages is referred to as "voice placement," and the business of the teacher is to train the *7? D. Stanley, The V o i c e , Its Production and Reproduction pp. 133, 183. ^ J. Redfield, Music, A Science and an A r t ,(New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., *19287, p. 268. 35 student so to shape the upper air passages for each note within his compass that the best possible quality of tone shall be produced for each of those notes. When this shaping becomes automatic and can be secured by the pupil without conscious thought or effort, then the p u p i l ’s voice is properly ’’pl ace d.” Scientific bases for vocal prec epts . The old masters did not explain the various faults of voice production from a physiological or scientific standpoint, but they did explain 7p them from experience in hearing and feeling. Shaw shows that psychology is really the science on which the old Italian school was based and on which any successful school of voice culture must stand. Shaw^^ states in another book that the old masters knew from experience the things of fundamental importance to singers which have since become proven facts of science. The value of the old school lay in doing the kind of teaching that brought about the correct adjustment of the parts involved. Scientific investigation has since made clear the why and wherefore of many of the rules used by the old 74 masters. Lunn voices this when'he says that every advance which science has made, which in one way or another relates W.W. Shaw, The host Vocal Art and Its Hestoration, pp. 7, 52. *73 w.W. Shaw, Authentic Voice Product ion, p. 86. *74 chas . Lunn, The Philosophy of Vo ice, (London: Brilliere Co., 1906), p. 204. 36 to the use of the vocal organs, has only shown and proved the truth of the precepts of the old maestri. Analysis shows that the precepts of the .old masters resulted in bringing ' ■ about the almost instinctive realization of correct physical conditions in the vocal organs. Consciously or unconsciously, according to Taylor, 75 the teaching of the old masters was based upon sound physio logical and psychological principles. The old system of teaching relied on the initiative and Instinctive processes for imparting the correct vocal action. effort school, The newer, local seeks to accomplish the same result through mechanical management of the vocal organs. Undoubtedly the voice teacher should have an understand ing of both the physiological a n d ’empirical principles In order to teach singing Intelligently. Bartholomew 76 outlines an idealized plan of procedure for the purpose of establishing the old precepts on a scientific basis. There is, fortunately, enough agreement among musicians as to what constitutes good vocal quality to enable us to speak of a typical good quality. If we can find signif icant differences between carefully secured sound-wave records of good voices and poor ones, and can avoid the pitfalls of drawing wrong conclusions concerning something so transitory and subtle as the voice, we can perhaps B.C. Taylor, Psychology of Sin ging, p. 307, 318. # W.T. Bartholomew, Imagery in Voice Pedagogy, p. 80. 37 work backward and deduce the physiological structure responsible for various qualities. Those results would then be checked by anatomical study. With that basis, we could suggest methods of proceeding most intelli gently in the psychological process of voice control established by the old masters. Advantages of method the use of pre cep ts. The old Italian is a flexible method, training the voice but keeping its individuality. Shaw 77 points out that each voice was exercised with particular reference to its natural charac teristic, known as its rfgenre.11 The method was adapted to the voice instead of the voice being molded to the method. The greatness of the old school lies in the simpli city of its means and the naturalness of its concepts. Its teachings have endured because of the directness and soundness 17 O of its precepts. Buzzi-Peccia' claims that the old masters in using the precepts aimed at results; sequence rather than direct cause. they dwelt upon con L u n n , ^ an ardent advo cate of the method handed down by the old Italian school, testifies, ”1 had considerable injury done to my voice at one time by a teacher with a modern method, and subsequently had it restored by a disciple of the old school.” A fine description of perfect singing was found to be ^ W.W. Shaw, The Lost Vocal Art and Its Restoration, p. 134. A. Buzzi-Peccia, How to Succeed in Singing, p. 12. cha s. Lunn, The Philosophy of Voice, p. 205. 38 embodied in the traditional precepts. Such a description of correctly produced tone is of great value In training the on ear. Taylor confirms this statement when he says: The student derives a double advantage from listening to artistic singing when he knows what to listen for. Telling the student that In perfect singing, the throat seems to be open makes him keenly attentive in observing this characteristic sound of correctly produced tone. This seems to be the most effective manner of utilizing the traditional precepts. In pointing out to the student his own faults of production the judicious use of pre cepts might also be of considerable value. It is claimed that the old masters knew their object ive, and never lost sight of it in seeking out methods to obtain it nor in working out theories to capture it. believes that, more Murphy® "They 'kept their eye on the ball* and were concerned v/ith the what than the why of the matter." The problem, says Murphy, throat, tongue, is hot how must I manipulate my lips, etc., in order to produce this tone, but, how was that done; under what conditions was that cor rect tone made. Let us recall that good singing is a matter of analysis, not of synthesis. Bartholomew 82 maintains that the precepts should be used' to suggest indirectly, their psychological effects, through a certain muscular setting, which may be awkward for the beginner. D.'C. Taylor, The Psychology of Singing;, pp. 318-9. 81 Murphy, The Voice and Singing, p. 4, 48. op W.T. Bartholomew, Imagery In Voice Pedagogy, pp. 79, 80. 39 Misleading terminology ana Instruction. A very great need of the voice teaching profession today is the standard ization of terms. If every term has a specific meaning, the moment a term-is heard the same idea or meaning will occur to the minds of both speaker and listener. If voice termin ology is standardized one will' be able to discriminate between the competent voice teacher and. the charlatan. opinion It is Stanley!s that when a method of vocal instruction has no surer basis .than the fanciful imaginings of an individual, the re sults are bound to be dangerous. Witherspoon 84 lists several fads and fancies in the teaching^of singing, which represent precepts of doubtful value: 1. Trumpet lips, no matter what the vowel, or word, ruinous to correct pronunciation. consonant, 2. Ab dom in al.breathing, which inhibits rib breathing and ruins correct coordination. 3. Take a deep breath; perceive that the larynx rises; sing without letting the larynx fall. This gives the cor rect "pinch11 of the glottis. 4. Approximate the vocal chords two or three times, then sing, (an impossibility) 5. Distend the nostrils as much as possible. 6 . Peel tired so as to get relaxation. Stanley and Maxfield, The Voice, Its Production and Reproduction, p. 180. 84 H. Witherspoon, Si nging, pp. 51, 52. 40 7. Open the mouth as wide as possihle--the larger the mouth opening the larger the resonance and volume of tone. 8 . The fancy to sing very loudly before singing softly, because it takes more breath to sing softly. 9. The grinning smile--this tightens the throat, • whitens the voice, and makes "color11- impossible. 10. The collapsing of the chest so as to free the throat' from tension. The idea of controlling the breath directly is erroneous. Shaw o5 says one should control t h e .character, quality, and intensity of the tone, and let this govern the breath. If you try to do the reverse, you will get the cart before the horse. This is one of the Another fallacy common blunders of many singing methods. of certain methods, according toShaw, is the attempt to open and close the throat to produce certain vowel effects. good; He says, "If the vowel is closed, well and if it is open, equally well and good, but let the throat alone." The direct attempt to control the registers is still another major fallacy of some vocal methods, asserts Shaw.®^ To compel the'phenomena is to interfere with..the workings of nature. He says, "Operation of the registers depends upon pitch and character of expression." He emphasizes that "The registers should respond to the character of the idea to be ® 5 W.vV. Shaw, The Lost Vocal Art and Its Restoration, p. 104. 86 I b i d . p. 105. 87 Ibid. p. 107. 41 expressed." This is doubtless true.in cases where the registers are properly coordinated. Voice has-been defined as "vocalized breath" breath," etc. "vibrated Muckey®® explains that voice is air-waves, which, like those of any other sound, travel at the rate of 1,100 feet per second or about 750 miles per hour. Breath is an air current, and air currents traveling at 750 miles per hour would destroy everything in their path. In studying certain methods one finds that the student is instructed to do all his practicing in full voice, on the ground that one cannot develop his voice without using it. OQ Later on, the student may sing softly. Murphy points out that many good voices have been ruined in carrying out this instruction. ation." He condemns the instruction for "perfect relax He says that he has not heard that athletes condition themselves by relaxing. The athlete works no harder than the singer who is concentrating on what he is doing. The principle of "forward emission" is erroneous when, not used properly. interpret T a y l o r ^ points out that some teachers "forward emission" to mean that the tone, on issuing from, the vocal chords, Is directed in a curved path around the Ployd Muckey, The Natural Method of Voice Product i o n , p. 111. G.A. Murphy, The Voice and Singing, pp. 16, 34. D.C. Taylor, The Psycholog:/ of Singing, p. 125. back of the tongue, where the tone is straightened out and made to impinge on the roof of the mouth git a precisely de fined point. forward, Prom this point the tone is supposedly reflected out of the mouth, necessarily taking a curved path to avoid striking the front teeth. Other teachers, says Shaw, assume that the voice can be. directed as one would direct a stream of water. T a y l o r ^ also condemns the chest resonance theory. He points out that in an acoustic sense the thorax is no cavity at all. The thorax, says Taylor, is filled with the spongy tissue of the lungs, not to mention the heart. Fletcher, Stanley and others, however, have found that the trachea and bronchi act as resonators for the lowest tones and account thus for the probable origin of the term "chest resonance." The teacher who starts instruction in the middle of the range on a soft tone and endeavors to train the voice up and down from the middle, instructing the pupil to "spin" the tones out, will eventually ruin the voice. S t a n l e y ^ shows that . if this instruction is carried out the throatiness of the improperly produced soft tone will characterize every tone of the voice at every intensity. This method (if it can be called a method) is typical of radio technic, according to him. 91 Ibi d., p. 127. 9? D. Stanley, The Voice, Its Production and Reproduc tion, p. 185. 43 O'* Stanley"0 quotes Charles Santley as saying that "Immed lately below the vocal chords there exists a. valve; the breath should -be raised -to this valve, ready before the sound .is required.” It is hardly necessary to point out that no such valvular system exists, says Stanley. Furthermore, the statement that the breath should be raised is a fallacy. The following statements by Lehmann 94 are criticized by Stanley as being unscientific: The whirling currents of tone, circling around their focal point (the attack), find a cup shaped resonating cavity, when they reach the front of the mouth and the lips, ’which, through their extremely potent auxiliary movements, infuse life and color into the tone and the word. OR Stanley"0 points out that the tone does not consist of "whirling currents,” and it does not circle around a focal point. He condemns all of these statements because they have no scientific basis. 96 Stanley'"' also quote's Proschowski as saying: represents the body of the violin, and the breath the b o w . ” a resonator. ”The skull the vocal chords the string Proschowski says the skull acts as Stanley points out.the obvious truth that the 93 Ibid., p. 190. 94 L. Lehmann, How to Sing, Chapter III. 93 P. Stanley, The Voice, Its Production and Reproduction, p. 111. 96 I bi d., p. XS3. 44 skull contains the brains, and even if it were hollow it is n o t .open to receive vibrations initiated at the larynx. Chapter summary. The objective of this chapter was to follow vocal precepts from their origin to the present day, showing their original meanings and different meanings which they have 'acquired, their uses and misuses and what precepts of present-day vocal instruction sprang from them. It was found that if the point of view of the old masters is kept in mind, each precept expresses some characteristic of perfectly produced vocal tone. The precepts of the old masters were based on common sense and psychology, rather than on knowledge of acoustics, physiology or anatomy. The studies of modern scientific writers, and Bartholomew, such as Russell, Stanley, Fletcher, show that the precepts of the old masters in many cases have a sounder scientific basis than do the writings of certain psuedo-scientists of the nineteenth century. The following chapter will take up the role of auditory imagery "in vocal instruction. CHAPTER III THE USES OF AUDITORY IMAGERY IN VOICE TRAINING. In putting precepts into practice, the ear plays one of the most important roles. In singing one has to be able - to hear correctly in order to do correctly. If the singer cannot hear a tone, he will not be able to match it, and if he cannot hear his own tone while singing, he will not be able to sing true to pitch or with good quality. Auditory imagery. If one possesses good auditory imagery he has the ability to relive, recall, and rearrange, is/tic imagination, auditory experiences. that music is subjective, in real- Seashore'*' explains and if it were merely hearing and performing, we should fail to carry its aesthetic value with us; it would be a momentary affair. But, continues Seashore, musical minds live in a world of musical tones in which there is creation, rehearsing, storing, and enjoyment of music quite apart from the- presence of actual sounds. Some of us, when we have heard a tune, have the powrer to hear it over again; it comes back to us; it may even haunt us. It is heard in imag- ination--more than imagination ih fact, for it is the actual hearing in the absence of outward sound. This is called **■ Carl E. Seashore, The Psychology of Musical Talent , pp. 211, 212. (New York: Silver, Burdett and Co., 1919J1 '46 auditory imagery. In this auditory imagery, Seashore lies one of the most precious gifts of mu slc-“the live in a world of mental tones. claims, ability, t.o He finds also that In this capacity nature has bestowed her gifts unevenly. One reason the radical difference among individuals is not -well known, Is that those 'who are not blessed with this gift do not know7 what they lack or miss. Seashore asserts, "Regard, the ability to image music as an essential mark of musical capacity and of., progress In the appreciation of music." The part the ear plays in vocal instruction with regard to teacher and student act ivi ty. If. the muscular operations of singing are subject to the general laws of psychological control, the vocal organs must be. furnished guidance by the sense which notes the results of the movements Involved. This controlling factor is the sense of hearing. In outlining a vocal method, Mancini^ mentions the fact that the teacher must be able to reproduce the faults student’. of the The teacher ’ w ould give the student the evidence of his error by reproducing his error and allowing him to hear how the defect sounds. Mancini explains that the teacher, being able to reproduce the defects of the student, in could be sure of the fault, because he would have to image In his own p G. Mancini, Practical Ref lections on the Pigurat ive Art of Singing, (Boston: The Gorham Press, 1912), p. 97. 47 mind the imagery used by the student in producing the faulty tone. Mancini3 calls attention to a practice of the masters Fedi, the. most famous school in Italy at the end of the seven teenth century. Those valiant, singers used to take their pupils very often for a stroll where there was the famous echo in the Valley of St. Paul. There they exercised their pupils to sing in a loud voice--the echo being nothing else than the repetition of the voice, which exposed every defect of the voice of the one singing, thus the students, convinced by such evidence of their faults, could correct them more easily. It is a somewhat debated question whether or not the singer hears his own voice to the best advantage, having in 4 view the correction of his own faults. Lunn claims that the singer trained in hearing his own voice hears it better than anyone else, for he hears it both'subjectively and objectively; the listener only hears it objectively. The student beautifies his tone in exact proportion to the degree and way in which he hears himself. It has been pointed out that the teacher should have a knowledge of the physiological workings of the vocal organs so that he will better be able to use imagery. Miller 0 asserts 3 Ibid ., p . 27. ^ C. Lunn, The Philosophy of Voice , (London: Brilliere Co., 1906), p. 207. g F.E. Miller, The Voi ce, Its Production, Care and Preservation (New York: G. Schirmer and Co., 1S31), p . 71. 48 that if the ear is not properly trained, it will not be able to demand the correct physiological, setup, and the tone will be poor.' He avers that teaching with the use of correct imagery merges all the complex separate acts of tone formation into one single act. If the teacher does not have an under standing of anatomy and physiology, he has nothing which his imagery can be related to, and therefore nothing tangible to give to the student. The responsibilities of the voice teacher are grave because he has such an influence upon the careers of his pupils. Shaw maintains that the teacher must be a singer of experience. The teacher's ear must be educated to the sound of perfect and Imperfect tones in the voices of others, and he must possess the knowledge of means and devices to correct the faults of others. The teacher must know from the sound of the voice the specific cause of the peculiar defects encountered'. Attentively listening to one's own voice, declares Shaw, promotes the development of the correct muscles for the production of the sounds which agree with the mental con ception of what is correct in effect. In forming this judg ment, the singer is. in a large degree dependent upon the W .h . Shaw, The Lost Vocal Art and Its Restoration, (.Philadelphia: J.P. Lippincott Co., 1914), p. 176. 7 Ibid., pp. 67, 197. 49 musical judgment of some other person or persons, the reason being that the sing er’s voice does not sound to him as it does to others. Shaw asserts that the individual cannot at first be the sole judge of the comparative beauty, quality, or intensity of his own tones. However, after the s i n g e r ’s ear becomes acquainted with good tones, he will be able to hear and judge his own voice-. mechanism," warns Shaw, f,Do not try to manage the vocal !’Learn to manage the voice with the e a r ." Just as the eye guides the hand in writing, so the ear o guides the voice in singing, declares Taylor. Muscular sense may under certain conditions supplement the sense of hearing, but under no circumstances can it take full command. Taylor emphasizes the fact that knowledge of the precise workings of the vocal organs does not directly help the singer to make them act properly, although Garcia 9 claims that knowledge of the physiological processes would be beneficial to the student, and very helpful to the teacher in diagnosing the various . faults. 'Bryant-^ says, "To hearing is bound its sister vocal 8 David C. Taylor, The Psychology of Singing (New York: The Macmillan Co., 1928), p. 144. C Manuel Garcia, Hints on Singing (New York: and Co., 1894), preface. Schuberth H.G. Bryant, The Voice Instrument (Hamilton, N . Y . : Pub. by the Hamilton Republican, 1913), p*I 12. 50 sound.n Taylor agrees that in a practical vocal method the ear and the voice are trained together. progress, voice. In the s t u d e n t s the ear always keeps slightly in advance of the The voice needs practice in order to meet the demands of the ever progressive ear; as this practice goes on the ear becomes keener and more exacting in its demands on the voice. Taylor emphasizes the fact that the student must hear and recognize his own faults or there is no possibility of his correcting them. Rogers-*-^ agrees with Taylor when she says: If your ear fails to acquaint you with those subtle differences in tone-quality on which the development and the perfection of your voice depends, must you give up hope? No, train your ear to perceive those different qualities of tone by listening with conscious intent to detect those differences. Acquire the habit of listening to voices instead of simply hearing them. If you would succeed in any branch of art, you must develop your powers of observation until they become keen and true. Some teachers have the student imitate their quality as well as their method of tone production. According to Witherspoon'*-3 the student may imitate the method of the teacher but not the quality. A voice may sing with the various tonal colors characteristic of the different emotions, but these colors will always be of necessity superimposed upon the David C. Taylor, _0p. C i t . , p. 357. 12 C.K. Rogers, Your Voice and You Ditson Co., 1925), p. 12. -*-3 H. Witherspoon, 1925), p. 36. (Boston: Singing (New York: Oliver Schirmer Inc., natural quality of the.voice that is singing, which quality will always remain the permanent characteristic of the voice. It has been pointed out that the singing teacher should, have a knowledge of physiology as well as a perfectly trained ear. B a r t h o l o m e w ^ maintains that the teacher should have both of these qualities so that he will be able to recognize the difference in the t y p e 'of tones produced, and from the conclusions reached regarding the formation of these tones, perhaps work backward and deduce the physiological or struc tural set-up responsible for the various qualities. Building up auditory imagery. It is a generally ac cepted fact that a thing which is repeated time after time becomes easier with each repetition. Seashore-^ points out that developing imagery does not necessarily result in stronger, imagery but rather that "The things imaged are more familiar, of richer variety, and of far keener differentiation than befo r e •” No special exercises can be given for training the ear. The sense of hearing is developed only by attentive listening. 3-4 W. T* Bartholomew, "Imagery in Voice Pedagogy." Peabody Bulletin (Baltimore, Maryland: The Peabody Conserva tory of Music, December, 1934), p. 80. 3-5 carl E. Seashore, The Psychology of Musical T ale n t , p. 221. 52 Taylor 16 explains that every vocal student should form the habit of listening to the tones of all voices and Instruments. He declares that "Attention to this is extremely valuable In. the training of the ear." He emphasizes the fact that the student must, learn to listen to himself. Musical taste must always guide the vocal student, for the voice thrives on beautiful sounds. He remarks, "This training of the ear is developed by exercise in t h e ' e a r ’s natural f u n c t i o n - l i s t e n i n g to sounds." According to Rogers, 17 the student can acquire auditory faculties which he has no idea of ever possessing, if he will set about forming the habit of listening, wit h concentrated purpose, to note the peculiar differences between one kind of tone and another. She asserts that, not only will the student improve his voice, but he will measurably enrich his enjoyment of music in all its forms. Correct instruction supplemented by assidous practice merges all the separate acts of producing a tone into one. Miller 18 explains that the singer produces the what he terms a "sounding v i sio n” of it in his tone, forms mind, and straightway the vocal tract adapts and coordinates all its D.C. Taylor, The Psychology of V o ice, pp. 551, 2, 5. ^ C'.K. Rogers, 18 p.E. Miller, Preservation, p. 7. Your Voice and Y o u , pp. 12, 13. The V o i c e ,Its Production, Care and 53 parts to the artistic emission of that tone, Shaw 19 finds that by constant attention to the advice of the master, the' s i n g e r ’s ear is educated to both good and bad effects, and by careful study and separation he can as similate, save, and develop the correct ones. A blind person is a good example of an Individual, who as a result of his visual inhibition, has developed his audi tory facilities to the point of super-sensitiveness. Preventing the atrophy of auditory imagery. When one is learning anything new, the rate of forgetting is rapid at first. It is therefore advisable to do considerable reviewing in the early stages of learning. S e a s h o r e ^ observes that on the whole, we do not develop any new capacity for the vivid ness of imagery, but we do develop the ability to put the native capacity to a far greater and diversified use; and to the extent that this is done, we have forestalled the other wise inevitable suppression and atrophy of this capacity. Miller o *i says that, ’’This ability is auto-suggestion and becomes habit through practice.” -jo _ W.W. Murphy 22 agrees with ... Shaw, The Lost Vocal Art and-Its Restoration, p. 151. C.E. Seashore, The Psychology of Musical Talent, p. 222. 23- P.E. Miller, The V o i c e , Its Production, Care, and Preservation, p. 71 ^ G-.A. Murphy, The Voice and Singing, p. 42. 54 this, idea in the statement, "Right actions are largely matters of habit." It is an axiom in psychology that, If a person be r e - . quired to perceive a thing new to him which he has not hither to perceived, all distracting elements must be removed, and the point of perception exaggerated. p *z Lunn00 states: For example, if a pupil cannot reproduce a tone in pitch identical to the note sounded on the keyboard, if the tone be flat, unite with the struck note all similar notes above. If it be G-, multiply by associating all the G ’s above. If the tone be sharp, reverse the process, and strengthen by all the similar notes below. Never in troduce harmony, as it distracts attention from the point of perception. As reproduction of pitch from, recurrent action becomes easier, eliminate the extreme notes until the single note can be reproduced by the le ar ner’s voice. Shift the principle, about in three or four notes, and the sense of hearing is fixed. Tests for auditory imagery. Seashore*^ finds that im agery is no mark of intelligence because some very intelligent people have little imagery, very marked imagery. and some very stupid people have He also calls attention to the fact that images do not always come with the same clearness; therefore auditory imagery is not conducive to objective tests. Seashore has worked out the following tests for auditory imagery. After practicing on hearing the patter of rain, the voice of the teacher in speaking a p u p i l ’s name, or the bark of a dog, the following specific test may be made. ^ 9A p. 219. C. Lunn, The Philosophy of Voic e, pp. 207, 208. G.E. Seashore, The Psychology of Musical T a l e n t , 55 • I The broken m e l o d y . Play the first two phrases of "America11 so that all may know what it is; then announce that you will play a few notes but,may stop any place and that the listener is to image the next note. After the note has been imaged the actual note is played and the listener is to grade himself by the scale of 0 to 6 on the imaged note as compared with the actual note. This is repeated ten . times, the imaged note being always a sustained tone. II Imitating two n o tes. The experimenter plays two notes three times and asks the listener to play them as images in the same way. This is repeated ten times 'with different notes. III Free imaging. The listener is asked to image the first phrase of "America" as played in the first experience. This is repeated ten t i m e s .25 For the next test, of introspective nature, Seashore gives the following directions. Fix clearly in mind and use as consistently as pos sible the following scale of degrees of vividness. 0. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. No image at all. Very faint. Faint. Fairly vivid. Vivid. Very vivid. As vivid as perception. Answer the following questions by 'writing after the number of the question the number which denotes the degree of vividness characteristic of your image. 1. Can you image the sound of-(a) The report of a gun? (b) The clinking of glasses? (c) The ringing of church bells? (d) The hum of bees? p a Ibid. , p. 220. 56 2. Can you image the tone-quality of-(a) A violin? (b) A cello? (c) A flute? ■ (c) A cornet? 3. Can you repeat in auditory imagery the air of-(a) Yankee Doodle? (b) America? 4. Can you form auditory images of the intensity of a violin tone-(a) Very,strong? .(b) Strong? (c) Weak? (d) Very weak? 5. Can you form auditory imagery of the rhythm of-(a) The snare drum? (b) The bass drum? (c) "Dixie” or other air heard played? (d) ”Tell me not in mournful numbers” spoken by yourself?26 Su mmary. This chapter has presented auditory imagery in relation to vocal instruction. In order to sing correctly one has to be able to hear correctly. If the Instructor can not recognize a good tone he will not be able to direct the student in the correct procedure. If the student cannot hear his own voice he will never achieve vocal perfection. It was found, that if one has good auditory imagery, he has the power to recall to his mind, things which he has •perceived with the ear. The following chapter .will take up kinesthetic imagery. 26 I b i d . , p. 216. CHAPTER IV KINESTHETIC IMAGERY IN VOCAL TRAINING. How the vocal organs ’’f e e l ” in a particular setting, and the art of being able to recall that precise ’’fe eling” or setting is an ever important objective in singing and vocal education. There are definite muscular sensations In the lar ynx, pharynx, tongue, and throat region In general, with every tone produced. There are definite muscular sensations con nected with articulation and breathing, ing. in connection with sing Other muscular sensations which come into play in the interpretation are aroused by the text of the song. Another person feels himself producing music sympathetically when merel listening to it. One who possesses good kinesthetic imagery, but poor auditory imagery, probably recalls many of his past experiences and training in terms of muscular sensations and movem e n t s . Kinesthetic or mot or imagery. Many individuals may be found whose imagery consists largely In images of movement. Breese^ say S that these people habitually recall past exper iences, or imagine future events, in terms of movements ^ B.B. Breese, Psychology (New York: 1917), p. 268. C. Scrib n e r ’s Sons, 58 contained in them. He explains that in recalling w o r d s , they image the movements of articulation; they think of ob jects in terms of the eye-movements required in perceiving them. Some people have this form of imagery developed in un usual strength. James^ cites for example: Professor Strieker of Vienna gave a careful analysis of his own case. His recollections, both of his own mov e ments and of those of others, are accompanied invariably by distinct muscular feelings in those parts of his body which would be used in effecting or following the movement. In thinking of a soldier marching, for example, it is as if he were helping the image march by marching himself in the rear. If he suppresses this sympathetic feeling in his own legs and concentrates all his attention on the imagined soldier, the -latter becomes, as it were, paralyzed* Relation to sensations. On the other hand, some auth orities believe that it is problematical whether true Images of our movements ever occur. imagery is a misnomer. Cole^ maintains that motor It Is his opinion that motor imagery consists of either muscle-sense images, memories of how the gesture would feel in limbs and body if It were executed, or else it consists of incipient movements which suggest the com' plete movements. He suggests that motor imagery- should be called nmotor attitudes,” o r ’motor sensations." Angell^ ^ W. James, Psychology (New York: Henry Holt and Co., 1907), p. 307. L. Cole, Factors of Human Psychology (University of Colorado Press, 1926), p7 408. A Angell, Psychology (New York: Henry Holt and Co., 1908), p. 190. 59 agrees on this point when he says that there are no general motor or kinesthetic images, because every attempt to think of movement results in actually making movements in a rudi mentary way. Boring? in agreement on this point,- says that when we remember a previous movement there is' a tendency to move the muscles slightly. As a consequence, kinesthetic memories are believed to be true perceptions of actual mov e ments rather than imaginal reproductions of previous perceptions. Boring states for example, that it is possible to observe, introspeetively, strains and other sensations arising from the muscles of the body when one recalls former movements. "Strictly speaking, then," says Boring? "memories of movement are images which occur in the presence, rather than in the absence of the stimuli and are perceivable body." in movements of the He points out that memories of movement have usually been called motor or kinesthetic images, and although this terminology is not exact, it may be followed since motor m e m ories are similar in function to true images and are evoked by the same conditions. Auditory imagery is almost inextricably tied up with motor imagery. Seashore explains that motor or kinesthetic 5 Boring, Langfeld, and Weld, Psychology (New York John Wiley and Sons, 1935), p. 347. 6 Ibid., p. 348. 60 imagery is the mental picture of movements and tendencies to movements in terms of feelings of effort and sensations of movement. He supports this viewpoint^ -by saying that in music, motor imagery is the reliving of sensations of strain in movement which are experienced in the a c t u a l ■sensations of hearing or would naturally accompany an imagined hearing. Vocal-motor imag e r y . Memories involving language are frequently expressed in movement of the vocal muscles in the throat and mouth. Boring® points out that the movements are weak and usually no sound is made so that they pass unobserved unless attention is directed to them. He says that, "These movements may be termed vocal-motor images." He supports his view by stating that, "One remembers not only the words spoken by o n e ’s self, but also the words of others, motor imagery." in terms of vocal He explains that vocal music may also be re called in this manner. Many individuals who have this power well developed will find, when reading, that the printed words are spoken sub-vocally. In other words, the sight of the printed words gives rise to vocal-motor imagery. It has been observed that many persons do not realize 7 C.E. Seashore, The Psychology of Musical Talent (New York: Silver, Burdett and Co., 1919), p. 228. ® Boring, Langfeld, and Weld, Psychology, p. 348. 61 what a predominating influence motor images have on the organs of articulation, the point. until their attention is expressly drawn to A good way of bringing this phenomenon *to conscious ness is proposed by James Partly open your mouth and then imagine any word with labials or .dentals in it, such as fb u b b l e , f or C o d d l e . 1 Is your image under these conditions distinct? J a m e s ^ states further that ”To most people the image is Tt h i c k , f as it would be if they tried to promounce it with the lips p a r t e d . ” Vocal-motor realized that, imagery will be best understood if it is all movements tend to become habits and all habits tend to become unconscious. Our habits of speech are more subject t,o becoming unconscious than most other habits because they are mechanized very early in life. ColeH explains that vocal performances tend to leave a disposition or tendency to be repeated rather than an image to be recalled. Motor imagery and m e m o r y . Memories are often character ized by a vague feeling of familiarity, which gives the know ledge of actual previous ’experiences. Eoring 12 ^ It is pointed out by that this feeling springs from associated motor images W. James, Psychology, p. 307. 10 I b i d ., p. 308. L. Cole, Factors of Human Psychology, pp. 12 T 402, Boring, fangfeld, and Weld, Psychology, p. 364. a. 62 of the movements made in response Cole 13 to the situation remembered. explains that when one memorizes, he always feels movement in his throat. He claims that one of his students resorts to the method of repeating a piece of poetry until he remembers it mechanically. This method of applying motor imagery to memorizing poetry often functions in memorizing a song; even more so perhaps than in learning poetry, due to the fact that the song has both words and music. The function of will in guiding motor imagery. Betts-^ claims that it is perhaps safe to say that when one wills to do something, the mental element consists of elements of cog nition and feeling plus a distinct sense of effort. He believes that the secret of the w i l l Ts power of control lies in atten tion. "Will is the line of action that one holds the mind upon with an attitude of intending to perform it that one fin ally follows.” In other words, it is the thing one keeps thinking about that one finally does. On the other hand, one can hold,the mind away from some attractive, but unsuitable, line of action, directing'his thoughts'to some opposite course. Betts explains that in this way the individual effectually blocks the wrong response. 1^ He maintains that, "To control our L. Cole, Factors of Human Psy chology, pp. 402-3-5. G. Betts, The Mind and It s -Education (New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1916), pp. 323, 324. 65 acts is therefore to control our thoughts, and strength of will can be measured by o n e ’s ability to direct his attention.” Bartholomew 15 makes this theory applicable to vocal instruction when he points out that the old precepts, and modern variatinns of the old precepts, control the vocal organs in a negative manner by directing attention away from the organs themselves. Will is used to restrain or locate the energies. Lunn^s explains that knowledge is the result of accumulation and con centration of energies. He supports this viewpoint by saying that ’’Right teaching directs the mind to the end, and thus causes the physical parts unconsciously to obey natural laws.” Physical development of the vocal apparatus is very largely coincident with, and the natural consequence of, vocal 17 training. Shaw^ states that certain physiological conditions are necessary, but such conditions are purely resultant; the chief consideration should be to bear in mind that in order to produce the best results, it is necessary for the singer to be in a healthy condition, so that the functional processes W.T* Bartholomew, ’’Imagery in Voice Pedagogy.” Peabody Bulletin (Baltimore, Maryland: The Peabody Conserva tory of Music, December, 1934), p. 89. C. Lunn, The Philosophy of Voice Company, 1906), p. 18. (London: Brillier W. W.> Shaw, The Lost Vocal Art and Its Restoration, (Philadelphia: J*B„ Lippincott Co., 1§14), pp. 61, 62, 63. 64 will act normally under the exacting guidance the proper direction of the will power. of the ear and He explains that, analytically, vocal sounds are produced by the correct action of the vocal instrument commanded by the insensible influence of* the will. ShaY/ asserts that, nThe supremacy of mind over matter is a well-established scientific truth .” We think our muscles. Boring-*-^ points out that: In one investigation a number of subjects were trained in a highly elaborate method of physical relaxation. It Is claimed that by practice, not only can the postural muscles be relaxed to a degree previously unattained, but also the Internal and external muscles of the eyes, the muscles of the larynx, tongue, and throat, and those con nected with the activity of breathing. Wrhen these trained subjects were In a state of complete relaxation, they reported that thought did not take place. The preceding paragraphs make the claims of the voice theorists both reasonable and possible. Bor Instance, Stanley-^ points out that the sense of strain in the singer Is due to the constriction of the throat muscles and the rigidity of the neck muscles. and flexible, He explains that the throat should be firm causing the throat to stay open, while the neck muscles remain relaxed. In view of the fact that Bartholomew 20 claims this setting of the throat region tends to produce and Boring, Langfeld, and Weld, Psychology, pp. 481-2. 19 Fischer, D. Stanley, The Science of Voice 1929), p. 82. (New York: 20 W. Bartholomew, Imagery in Voice Pedagogy, p. 85. Carl permit all the attributes of good voice quality, point well worth considering. that, M i l l e r ^ l it is a is quoted as saying ”The breathing muscles should be' relaxed after inspiration the singer should concentrate on the result or effect.” The same formula, would be applicable, in this situation. W a g n e r ^ S presents a practical formula for the purpose of obtaining ”open throat” and hence, directs the singer to good voice quality. He open the mouth in acquiescence with the pitch and type of tone desired, keeping the lower teeth covered and allowing the upper teeth to show slightly; place the tongue forward for vowel'sounds, of the lower front teeth; with the tip at the base- relax the lower jaw; keep relaxed the constrictor muscles of the neck; sing on the bright vowels e e , a, and ehe, until the feeling of open throat is established. Formation of correct vocal h a b i t . Every act in the process of learning to sing has a very definite purpose. . Ac cording to Betts^® these purposed or volitional acts, as a result of conscientious repetition, become automatic and hab it ual. ”For this reason,” says James,24 ”we must make automatic 21 F. Miller, The Voice, Its Production, Care and Pre servation (New York: G. Schirmer Co., 1931), p. 50. 22 A.H. Wagner, V o i c e . Unpublished lecture at the Uni versity of Southern California, 1957 .’ G. Betts, The Mind and Its Education, p. 326. 24 W. James, Psychology, p. 144. 66 a n d .habitual, as we can." as early as possible, as many useful actions ; Murphy^® applies this maxim to voice pedagogy when he says, '"Correct vocal" action is largely a matter of habit." There are many cases of singing pupils learning wrong vocal actions as a result of studying w i t h a poor teacher or charlatan. In most cases these wrongly placed actions can be corrected by a good teacher. James^^ points out that "one should learn the action correctly the first time, because an action^once become habit, learning a new action," is more difficult to change than He also believes that the more details of an operation we can hand over to the effortless custody of automatism, the more our higher powers of mind will be set free for their own proper work. Emotion and interpretation. The relation of motor imagery and sensation has already been established, and re lation of motor imagery, sensation, and emotion will be estab lished before proceeding. The emotions which are aroused by a fixed stimulus differ in each individual and incident ally cause different sensations and motor imagery. emotional reactions to the same stimulus of each individual’s make-up. Mich.: These different are characteristic If each indiv idua l’s reaction 25 q . Murphy, The Voice and Singing (Grand. Rapids, A. P. Johnson Co., 1929), p. 42,.'' * ^ James, Op. C i t ., p. 145. 67 were the same there would be no differences in the inter pretation of a given composition. op Batts6 ' writ e s , ,"Emotion resembles sensation in that both are effective phases of consciousness--both have the power to move, behavior .” He supports compel, and modify this statement.by saying that to an observer, emotion appears as various forms of expression, or behavior, of the individual. According to James^S theory of emotions the f,stirred-up state of m i n d ” which we call emotion is but the mental effect of the ”stirred-up state of b ody.” He observes that particular perceptions certainly do produce wide-spread bodily effects by a sort of immediate physical influence, idea. antecedent to the arousal of an emotion or emotional For example, he cites the case of the individual who in listening to poetry, drama, music, or heroic narrative ex periences a cutaneous shiver and heart swelling wh ich suddenly flow over him like a wave. According to Webster, emotion is an act or a state of excited feeling. the Betts^ claims that, fstirred-up feeling of the b o d y . ’ "Emotion is not only It is the way the body feels when it is prepared for a certain line of ac tio n.” supports this opinion by saying that "Emotional states not P7 2R *^ G. Betts, The Mind and Its Education, p. 290. W. James, Psycholo gy, pp. 27 5-6. G. Betts, _0p. G i t ., pp. 293-6. He 68 only have their rise in organic reactions, but they also tend to result in acts." He finds that a state of emotional tension may be relieved by the form of physical expression on which it is founded. . C o l e ^ O states that this accounts for the use of gesture when interpreting a piece of poetry or a song. He says the gesture is the motor image suggested by the words in poetry, and by both words and music in song. The power of imagination determines the ability to interpret literature of all kinds. B e t t s ^ l asserts that the interpretation of literature is nothing more than the recon struction on our part of the pictures with their meanings which were in the mind of the writer as he penned the words, and the experiencing of the emotions which moved him as he wrote. rzn Lehmann*^ writes that she interprets all her songs from mental pictures. She warns that, not until the singer has made a clear picture of the whole, the details, through which, however, should he elaborate the impression of the whole should never be allowed to suffer. that a word is an idea; She points out and not only the idea, but how that idea in color and connection is related to the whole, must •210 L. Cole, Factors of Human Psycho log y, p. 408. 31 G. Betts, The Mind and Its Ed ucation, p. 133. 32 p. Lehmann, How to Sing (New York: The Macmillan Co., 1910), p. 263. 69 be expressed. .She explains that the singer must mingle the feelings set before him for portrayal with his own in his interpretation, and theirs, and so to speak, lay bare his very soul. The singer forms his conceptions of how a song should be performed by studying the text of the song, wherein he perceives the ideas, which awaken in him emotional response. This emotional response, according to Kirkland,33 j_s influenced by what he perceives in three distinct ways: quality, in its strength or quantity, "These,” remarks Kirkland, emotion, in its nature or and in its activity. "are the characteristics of every and are manifested through a particular means of expression." The treatment of the atmosphere of a song depends upon the mood of the singer. 'Z A Greene^ explains that the mood De longs to the singer and atmosphere belongs to the song; connecting link between the two is imagination. the He says that if the s i n g e r fs imagination can show him the atmosphere, the mood follows. He maintains that the details of the composition of a song contributes to the atmosphere of the song as a whole. Guilbert points out that one cannot sing the song of a cowboy 33 H. Kirkland, Expression in Singing (Boston: R.G. Badger, The Gorham Press, 1916), p. 34. 3^ H. Greene, Interpretation in S ong(New~ York: The Macmillan Co., 1921), p. 15. 70 with the same attitude as one would sing a s o l d i e r ’s s o n g . ^ Again, one cannot express words of comedy with a feeling of tragedy, nor can one interpret a love song in terms of violence. For purposes of illustration, of painting to that of singing. one can compare the art Kirkland shows that the painter has some conception of what he is going to paint before he begins his pictures, and it is that his brush and influences his colors. conception which guides The painter will not produce a landscape if his idea is that of a portrait. Like wise, the singer plans the part that he is to represent before he begins to sing upon the stage; being young or old, proud or humble, hero or villain, Imagine, etc.; and his plan governs his voice. says Kirkland, the absurdity of a p a i n t e r ’s beginning a picture without knowing what it is going to be, or a s i n g e r ’s commencing to sing with no idea of the part he is to play. declares that the singer, definite ideals, He like any other artist, should have and through use of right means, should be able to express them thoroughly. ’’Granting that emotion, imagery, and expression are part of the complex act of interpretation,” says Cole,*^ ’’the •35 yvette Guilbert, How to Sing a S ong; The Art of Dramatic and Lyric Interpretation (New York: The Macmillan Co., 1918T7~p. 36 Henry Kirkland, Expression in Sin ging, pp. 46-7. rZX1 Lawrence Cole, Factors of Human Psy cho log y, p. 422. 71 singer must have experienced much in order to bring the hearer under the spell of his tones and w o r d s . ” that the singer must be a spectator, Guilbert3 ® maintains a- critic and a judge of humanity, and by such observations keep adding to the catalog in his mind the best traits of humanity. f,With the aid of imagination one is able to characterize all the types that he has observed.” Imagination is highly susceptible to cultivation. should take care to secure One a large and usable stock of images from all fields of perception. In the opinion of Betts,3 ® one type of imagery is not enough, for many times one will be con fronted by situations demanding all types. He claims that one's imagination is limited by his stock of images; due to this fact one must have a first hand contact w i t h just as large an environ ment as possible--large in the world of Nature with all her varied forms suited to appeal to every avenue of sense; in one's contact with people in one's contact with books. large in all phases of experience; large He maintains that not only must one put himself in the way of acquiring new experiences, but he must, by recall and reconstruction, keep his imagery fresh. Some authorities distinguish between two types of imag ination: reproductive and creative. 38 Yvette Guilbert, G. Reproductive imagination, Op. Cit., p. 99. Betts, The Mind and. Its Educat ion , pp. 143-4. 72 according to Betts,40 is the type used when the subject re produces in his own mind the pictures described by others, as in singing, writing, or in the form of memory. These images must be definitely recognized as coming from o n e !s own exper ience. But, we must have leaders and originators, else we should imitate each other and the world would be at a stand still. Everyone should be in a degree capable of initiative and originality. This ability* depends in no small measure on the power to use creative imagination. It is explained by one author that creative imagination takes the images from o n e fs own past experiences or those gleaned from the work of the others and puts them together in new and original forms and t h a t , "Creative imagination is always found at the van of prog r ess." Self proj ection. A person who has good motor imagery lives in a world of emotional responses; when such a person listens to the subject of music he feels himself producing it sympathetically. Seashore41 observes that the Individual finds himself responding emotionally often in a false and fig urative way as in feelings of enlargement, strength. He states that, expansion, and "Where the musician .’p r o j e c t s 1 40 I b i d ., p. 142. 44 C. Seashore, Psychology of Musical T a l e n t , p. 229. 73 himself into the music, or ’lives i t , ’ he couches himself essentially in motor imagery.” The mind, in response to verbal suggestion, creates images which it presents in a motor framework, which may be localized in the person of the reader o r ’singer> or projected AO into the object itself. Downey ° points out that it is not enough to feel the motions described; garmented in them. one may see oneself She says that three types of. response should be recognized which are recognized under actual exper imentation: that of the ecstatic, the participator and the spe ctator• ’’Often, for the ecstatic, with loss of self, both time and space orientation lapses,” says the author. ”Hq passes into the trance of the mystic and may lose consciousness even of the art-stimulus.” static enjoyment music. D o w n e y 4 3 avers that perhaps such ec is most commonly experienced in listening to She upholds this statement by saying that there is such an identification with the objects perceived that the ”1 ” seems utterly lost; one becomes what he is enjoying. She presents as an example the report of one of her students: I am the tall white lilies and feel tall with a slender swaying feeling that goes to my head, and makes me feel a trifle dizzy. I am rolling masses of music; 4^ J. Downey, Creative Imagination Brace and Co., 19,29), p. 185. 43 Ibid., p. 180. (New York: Harcourt 74 or I dance with notes with flying feet until my heart beats rapidly. I enjoy particularly nature work that personifies as Sh elley’s ’C l o u d ’ because I more easily translate myself into such works. "There is secondly the participator," according to D o w n e y , ^ "who takes upon himself another self, who can sink himself in another personality, play many roles." One of the subjects of the experiment writes: When I am reading or listening to a performance, I readily become quite deaf and insensible to ordinary inter ruptions. I am living a great number of different lives. I laugh and cry w it h all the characters and imagine myself carrying out their every action. Downey says that "Thirdly there is the attitude of the spectator who retains his own personality— in the enjoy*?-•* ment of the arts he is spectator, or the onlooker."' She ex« plains that such an attitude may be found very notably in the critic whose enjoyment never swamps his capacity to estimate the value of the work in terms of his own criteria; but it may also occur in the most artistic of spectators who maintains a godlike detachment in the face of conflicting emotions. of the au th o r ’s reagents reports thus: In all projections I am there as a spectator. I see the surroundings. I stand to the left or in front. I am hidden. Another writes: 4 4 I b i d «> P - 181. 45 Ibid., pp. 182-190 One 75 Faint visual sense of two figures at a window. see the scenes mentioned from their standpoint and into them I project the emotions which I feel. I The study of self projection can be approached from the stand point of either the performer or the listener. Test for motor imagery.. S e a s h o r e ^ presents a test for the measurement of kinesthetic imagery. He directs the individual to fix clearly in mind and use as consistently as possible the following scale of degrees of vividness: 0. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. No image at all. Very faint. Faint. Fairly vivid. Vivid. Very vivid. As vivid as perception. Answer the following questions by writing after the number of the question the number which denotes the degree of vividness of your image. 1. Can you image, in motor terms, yourself-(a) Rocking in a chair? (b) Walking down a stairway? (c) Biting a lump of sugar? (d) Clenching your fist? 2. Does motor imagery arise in your mind when you reeall--(a) A waterfall? (b) A facial expression of fear? (c) The bleating of sheep? (d) Two boys on a teeter board? 3. Aside from the actual inceptive movements, do you get motor imagery when recalling--(a ) -A very high tone? (b) A very low tone? (c) Words like "Paderewski," "bubble," "tete-a-tete," "Hurrah!"? 4. Can you form motor images of--(a) The weight of a 46 C. Seashore, The Psychology of Musical T a l e n t , p. 215. 76 pound of butter? (b) Your speed in running a race? (c) The speed of an arrow? * S um ma ry . imagery. This chapter deals with kinesthetic or motor It was found that motor imagery consists largely in images of past movements. The singer sings a perfect tone and in repeating that tone, tries to recall the exact setting or feelings of his vocal organs as used in its production. Kinesthetic Imagery thus plays an important role In the for mation of correct vocal habits. Many people memorize by re peating a passage until the muscles move all but automatically. Many individuals may be found who, when listening to music, produce it sympathetically in incipient movements. will become the music itself. who play several roles. Others Others will be participators Still others will be merely passive listeners. The following chapter will take up visual imagery in voice pedagogy. CHAPTER V VISUAL IMAGERY IN VOCAL INSTRUCTION The ability to see, coupled with the power to retain and recall what has been seen, plays an important part in vocal instruction. From close observation of other singers, the student is able to acquire rfstage presence" and the proper technique for appearing before the public. In studying ex pression he observes the proper gestures. illustrate the mistakes The instructor can. of the student and show him how to correct them by making a caricature of himself. words, hear, In other the student singer is in a position to see, as well as correct singing and song technique. Visual imagery. There are people who perceive and imagine visual sensations very readily. Myerl claims that they give attention to the shape and color of things rather than to any other sensible qualities, and they imagine visual shape or color very vividly so that the right and left, the above and below, of their imagery Is clearly In their minds. Breese^ states that past experiences and creations of Imagination Max Meyer, Psychology (New York: 1908), p. 98. P _ B.B. Breese, Psychology Sons, 1917), p. 267. D.C. Heath and Co., (New York: C h a s . Scribner's 78 curve back to the "visualizer" In visual sensory material. He explains that one whose Imagery Is prevailingly visual sees the past and constructs the future in the speak. "mind’s eye" so to Gole^ presents an example of this type of imagery. He reports one subject who no sooner thought of persons or things, than features, forms and colors arose w i th the same clearness, before him. sharpness, and accuracy as if the object stood He explains that at school the subject recited from a mentally seen page which he read off line by line. supports this statement by saying that the subject He could never think of a passage in a play without the entire scene, stage, actors and audience appearing before him. Visual imagery in voice managem en t. The teacher should not only tell and explain the precise rules to the student, but he should Illustrate their meaning by making himself an example; assuming both right and wrong positions, that the student may see as well as hear the in order corresponding tone which comes from the corresponding position. Mancini^ maintains that the pupil will be enlightened by seeing the teacher making an exact caricature of his faulty positions, ^ Lawrence Cole, Factors of Human Psychology of Colorado Press, 1926), p. 406. (University ^ C. Mancini, Practical Reflections on the Figurative Art of Singing (Boston: The Gorham Press, 1912), pp. 93, 97. 79 as well as reproductions of the correct position. in taking a lesson, carries away with him visual The student, images which are beneficial if practised in front of a mi rr o r . 5 por ex ample, Mancini6 claims that the student should open his mouth for singing, just as he shapes it when he smiles, with the upper teeth showing a little, the lower ones. He points and slightly separated from out that the pupil should stand straight and natural, with head raised; on the chest, nor tip it back. do not lean the head He also cautions the student against going through body or facial contortions, such as standing on the toes when reaching for a high tone, contortions of the neck, wrinkling the forehead, and twisting the eyes. Most authorities agree with James? when she says that the tongue should be kept down, with the tip against the lower teeth. She also claims that the mouth should be opened, and the lower jaw brought forward, more and more, when ascending the scale. In teaching, the instructor should show the student how to put these rules into practice. front of the mirror, The student could then practice in keeping before himself at all times the image of how the various acts should be performed. Stanley 5 W.VV. Shaw, The Lost Vocal Art and Its Restoration (Philadelphia: J.P. Lippineott Co., 1914), p. 188. G. Mancini, _0p. C i t ., pp. 93, 94. ? Mary James, Scientific Tone Production (Boston: Boston Music Co., 1931), p. 387 80 advocates use of the mirror, although warning against its excessive use, since it is quite liable to lead to selfconsciousness •® Memorizing and visual imagery. There are many individuals who visualize the written words, and in regard to music, notes, when memorizing compositions. the One good visualizer, according to James9 could look down the mentally seen page and see the words that commence all the lines, and from any one of the words could continue the line. For example: T o u s ........ Ade s ....... . Que f i t .... Ave c ........ Cole^*9 states that many music teachers require their students to commit music to memory, by seating themselves away from their instruments with instructions to memorize the sheet or sheets of music until they could read the pages from memory, having a visual image of every note, or note and word in mind. Mimicry and visual imagery. 8 Mimicry is the expression Douglas Stanley, The Science of Voice Carl Fischer, 1929), p. 144. 9 (New York: William James, Psychology (New York: Henry Holt and Co., 1907), p. 504. 10 L. Cole, Factors of Human Psychology, p. 404. 81 of thought and the emotions by gesture and facial movements. W r o n s k i ^ asserts that the language of mimicry is universal, for no matter how diverse may be the tongues of the nations, their peoples meet upon the common ground of gesture and the interpreting play of' the features. He points out that mimicry is very important in every-day life and often takes the place of words; for example, take the case of deaf mutes; the stage, the eloquence of pantomime. and on He says that in order to determine the essential characteristics of stage mimicry, the study of poses, is vital. of "facial acting," and of general attitude Ifronski^ maintains that the gesture' on the singing stage is fundamentally the same as that on the speaking stage. He explains that the gesture or pose is some times longer or shorter on the singing stage, for it is dependent upon the music and melody. Mancini^-^ says that the actor must live the personages he represents and exemplify them with action and proper feeling. He points out, for illustration, how ridiculous it would be if Caesar were portrayed as meek and. cowardly, Mercury assumed the actions of an old man, or Neptune were represented as I *j Thadde.us Wronski, The Singer and His Art B. Appleton and Co., 1921), p. 116. (New York: _Ibid., p. 118. ^ G. Mancini, Practical Reflections on the Figurative Art of Singing, p. 167. 82 vivacious-. Whe n the singer appears on the stage to p e r f o r m in an opera or to sing a simple song, there must he an ab so lu te h ar m o n y b e t w e e n the ex pr ess ion of his art and, his body. Guilbert^ states that the sin ger must be a sculpt or who gives to his bo dy the attitude w h i c h the thought requires. She ostentatious; cautions of his song the artist against being po mpous declari ng that his attitude should be or one of nobl e and gracious simplicity. Cu ltivatin g visual i m a g e r y . Visual imagery can be a c quired b y o bs erving and liste nin g to actors and singers. Ma ncin i claims that the singer is nec es saril y a traveler, attentive to the predominan t its ma n n e r of dress that one acquires virtue a n d passion of ea ch nation, and wa y of speaking. Gui lbertl^ says this abi l i t y by educa ti on of the eyes; co nt em platio n of sculptures and paintings, by not by m e r e l y looking at them. M u c h mater ia l for the cu ltivation of visual lies in the eve ry -day life all about us. ima ger y Huma n-l ife an d the 1^ Y vette Cuilbert, H o w to Sing a. S o n g ; The Art of Dramat ic and Lyric In t e r p r e t a t i o n (Hew York; The M a c m i l l a n C o . , 1 9 1 8 7 7 ”P* 77. 15 Q-. Mancini, Op. C i t ., p. 169. 16 Y. Guilbert, Op. Cit., p. 77. 83 movement of human affairs, says B e t t s , ^ constantly appeal to the visual side of our nature, if we understand at all what life and action mean. Test for visual imagery. visual imagery. S e a s h o r e l S gives a test for He directs the subject to: Fix clearly in mind and use as consistently as possible the following scale of degrees of vividness: 0. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. No image at all. Very f a i n t . Paint. Fairly vivid. Vivid. Very vivid. As vivid as perception. Answer the following questions by writing after the number of the question the number which denotes the degree of vividness characteristic of your image. (a) (d) 1. Can you image the color of-A red rose? (b) A green leaf? (c) A blue sky? (a) (d) 2. Can you image the brightness of-A white teacup? (b) A black crow? (c) The blade of a knife? Ayellow ribbon? A gray 3. Can you image the form of-(a) The rose? (b) The leaf? (c) The teacup? knife? * stone? (d) The 4. Can you form a visual image of-(a) A moving express train? (b) Your sharpening of your pencil? (c) An up and down movement of your tongue? 17 George Betts, The Mind and Its Education (New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1916), p. 299. 1 York: Carl Seashore, The Psychology of Musical Talent Silver, Burdett and Co.~^ 1919), p. 216. (New 84 5. Can you image sim ultane ous ly-(a) A g ro up of colors in a group of sweet peas? (b) Colors, forms, brightness, and movement s in a landscape view? 6. Can you compare in a visual image-(a) The color of cream and the color of milk? (b) The tint of one of you r fingernails w i t h that of the pa l m of your hand? 7. Can you hold fa irl y constant for ten seconds-(a) The color of the rose? (b) The f o r m of the rose? Chapter summary. This chapter presents a discussion of visual imagery in relation to vocal instruction. found that the student sees as well as hears It was correct singing. The student sees the correct vocal procedure and later, with the aid of visual imagery, recalls these correct positions to mind. Visual imagery, it was found, is also valuable in recalling gestures. The following and last chapter will present a general summary and conclusion of the thesis. CHAPTER VI SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The old masters did not aim to manage the vocal organs directly. The fundamental principle In the teachings of the old Italian masters was that f1e ffectfr in:vo.cal utterance is the constant guide for both singer and teacher. Skill in physical adjustment is obtained as a consequence of the desired. r,effectfl The vocal precepts were meant to contain a perfect description of correctly produced voice. In short, the p r e cepts were intended to point out the difference between good and bad singing. The old masters aimed to explain the various faults of voice production from experience in hearing and feeling, and not from a scientific viewpoint. Investigators have since offered proof that the science of psychology is the real science on which the old Italian school stood. The old masters taught from a knowledge of things of basic Importance to singers which have since become proved facts of science. The old Italian school relied on the instinctive and initiative p r o cesses for imparting correct vocal action, whereas the newer, or local effort school, sought to accomplish the same result through mechanical management of .the vocal organs. The great ness of the old Italian school lies in the simplicity of its means and the naturalness of its concepts. 86 Imagery was found to be the very essence of the teach ings of the old Italian masters. The quality and success of the teaching depended, and still depends upon the ability of the teacher and student to employ imagery of the various types for the improvement of tone quality. The old Italian masters . and their pupils depended upon their ability to hear correctly and incorrectly produced tones, to feel correct and incorrect muscular sensations, and to see correct and incorrect vocal p ro cedure• Many voice teachers do not understand the terms with which they are working, and there are many current vocal terms which are utterly worthless, if not harmful. vocal i n s t r u c t o r s It is every obligation to familiarize himself with the correct and accepted vocal terms and practices, so that he has a working knowledge of them. Imagery, as previously stated, should not be condemned in vocal instruction. Quite the contrary. But it must be known as imagery, valuable and varied though it is. imagery, Being it should be used merely to suggest indirectly through its psychological effects, a certain muscular setting which is difficult for the beginner. When using it, the teacher should keep the true facts in mind at all times, for when imagery becomes so vivid that it is transferred into the phy sical field and used to explain physiologic and acoustic phenomena, it becomes unreliable, false, and harmful. It is 87 this misuse which causes so much dissension amongst vocal theorists. BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHY Angell, James R., Psychology. pany, 1908. Mew York: Henry Holt and Com Bartholomew, Wilmer T., Imagery in Voice Peda go gy , Peabody Bulletin, Baltimore, Maryland: The Peabody Conservatory of Music, December, 1934. pp. 20-29. An article discussing the scientific uses of imagery in vocal instruction. Behnke, K. E . , S i n g e r Ts Difficulties; How to Overcome T h e m . New York: Stokes Company, 1908. A book presenting the various problems and methods of overcoming them. of the singer Betts, George H., The Mind and Its Education. Appleton and Company, 1916. Mew York: D. A book on general psychology. Bills, Gilbert, General Experimental Psychology. Longmans, Green and Company, 1934. Boring, Langfeld, and Weld, Psychology. and Sons, 1935. Breese, B.B., Psychology. 1917. New York: New York: New York: John Wiley Charles Scribner!s Sons, Brower, Harriette Moore, Vocal M a s t e r y . Stokes Company, 1920. New York: Frederick A book dealing in ways and means of bringing the vocal organs under control. Browne, Lennox and Emil Behnke, V o i c e , S o n g , and S p e ec h. New York: G. P. P u t n a m fs Sons, 1883. A book for singers and speakers compiled by surgeon and vocal theorist. Bryant, H.C., The Voice Instrument. Hamilton, New York: published by the Hamilton Republican, 1913. 90 Buzzi-Peecia, A., How to Succeed T h e o ? Presser Company, 1925* in Si ng in g .Philadelphia*: A good book for singers contemplating entering the profession of singing. Christensen, A.H., Certain Trends in Vocal Music Teaching Methods. An unpublished master's thesis, University of Southern California, 1957. Cole, Lawrence, Factors of Human Psychology. Colorado Press, 1926. Davies, David T., Singing of the Futu re . J. Lane Company^ 1907 . Good for general information University of London and New York: on singing. Dodds, George, and James Lickey, Control of the B r ea t h. London: Oxford University Press, 1925. A book emphasizing breath control; of more or less elementary character. Downey, J., Creative Imagination. and Company, 1929. New York: Harcourt, Brace A treatise on the imagination as used in interpreting songs and poetry. Drew, W. S., Voice Tra in in g; the Relation of Theory and Prac tice . London:. H. Milford, Oxford. University Press, 1924. A book on voice training, p ract ic e• and how best to put theory into Evetts, Edgar, and Robert Worthington, The Mechanics of S in ging. New York: Oxford University Press, 1936. This book dwells on the mechanical methods of obtaining results in vocal instruction. Fernald, M.. R., The Diagnosis of Mental I m a g e r y . Princeton: New Jersey: Baltimore Psychological Review Company, 19i2. This work goes into the analysis of imagery. 91 Fillebrowne, Thomas, Resonance in Singing and Speaking* Boston:; Oliver Ditson Company, 1911* A book which stresses vocal resonance* Fletcher, Harvey, Speech and H e a r i ng * Nostrand Company, Inc., 1929. Hew York: D. Van French, Will, "Functions of Secondary Education: Function I." National Education Association, Department of Secondary School Principals, Bulletin 6 4 . Berwyn, Illinois: National Education Association, Department of Secondary School Principals, 1937. A discussion by French of scientific knowledge as a basis for facts. Fucito, Salvatore, and Beyer, Caruso and the Art of S in ging* New York: Frederick Stokes and Company, 1922. A book describing Caruso*s method of singing, his exercises and advice to pupils. Garcia, Manuel, Hints on Singing. Company, 1894. New York: along with Schuberth and One of the earliest books on scientific tone production* Greene, Harry P., Interpretation in S o n g . Maicmillan Company, 1921. New York: The A book emphasizing interpretation in song. Guilbert, Yvette, How to Sing a S o n g : the Art of Dramatic and Lyric Interpretation. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1918. This book goes into every phase of vocal technique. Hast, Harry, The Sin ge r’s Art. 1935*. London: Methuen and Company, A book which stresses tone production. Henderson, William J., The Art of the Singer. Charles Scribner's Sons, 1920 New York: Suggestions for singers from the standpoint of a critic. 92 Henderson, William J., The Early History of S i n g in g* York: Longmans, Green and Company, 1921. New This book contains the beliefs of the early writers. Herman, R. L * , An Open Door for Singers. Music Company ,"i 9X2* Boston: The Boston A book of general information for singers. Hinman, Mrs. Florence L., Slogans for Si ngers. Schirmer Company, 1934. New York: G. A very compact book, giving information in condensed form. Howard, Francis E . , The Child-Voice in Singi ng . H. W. Gray Company, 1895. Nev/ Yorkr A book approaching the question of asinging from a physi*-*ological standpoint; especially adapted to adolescent groups• Hubach, C . E., The S i n ge r1s A r t . not paged.) 1920. (No publisher given, and A book of general information concerning voice. James, Mary I., Scientific Tone Production. Music Company^ 1 § 3 1 • Boston: Boston Deals with the science of voice; written in the question and answer style. James, W., Psychology. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1907. Kirkland, Henry S., Expression in Singing. Badger, The Gorham Press, 1916. Boston: R. G. A book which stresses result. Kofler, Leo, The Art of Breathing as the Basis of Tone— Production. New York: Edgar Werner, 1902. Eamperti, Giovanni B., Vocal W i s d o m . Brown, 1931. New York: William E. This book contains many suggestions which will aid the singer. 93 Lehmann, Lilli, How to Sing. 1910. New York: The Iviacmillan Company, A book of general information in voice production. Lunn, Charles, The Philosophy of V o i c e . Company, 1906. A good book on voice production; of the old masters. London: Brilliere interpreting the theories Mackenzie, Sir More 11, The Hygiene of Jersey: E. S. Werner and Company, the' Vocal O r g a n s . 1928. New A book dealing with the care and development of the vocal apparatus. Mancini, Giambattista, Practical Ref lections on the Figurative Art of Singing. Boston: The Gorham Press, 1912. First edition published in Vienna in 1774. A book of one of the old masters, the second to be published on vocal instruction; dealing w ith every phase of vocal instruction. Marafiotti, P. M., The New Vocal A r t . Liveright, 1925. New York: Boni and A book on general instruction. Marafiotti, P. M., C a r u s o !s M e t h o d . Appleton Company, 1922. New York and London: Medini, F. R . , The What and How of Voice Culture. E. S. Werner Company, 1893. D. New ^ork: A book on general instruction. Meyer, Max, Psych ol o gy . New York: D. C. Heath Company, 1908. Miller, Frank E . , The V o i c e : Its Production, C ar e, and Pre servation. New York: G. Schirmer Company, 1931. A book on general vocal instruction and care of the vocal instrument. Miller, Frank E . , Vocal Art Science and Its Application. York: G. Schirmer, 1917. New 94 This book deals with the science of voice and its ap plication. Mills, Wesley, Voice Production in Singing and Speaking. Philadelphia and London: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1906. A book which deals with voice culture in singing and speaking. Muckey, Floyd, The Natural Method of Voice P ro du ct io n . Y o rk and Chicago: S c r i b n e r !s, 1915. New This book endeavors to demonstrate the natural method of singing. Murphy, George A., The Voice and Singing. Grand Rapids, Michigan: A. P. Johnson Company, 1929. A general book of voice instruction. Myer, Edmund John, The Renaissance of the Vocal A r t . The Boston Music Company, 1902. Myer, Edmund John, Vocal Reinforcement. Music Company, 1891. Boston: Boston: The Boston A study dealing with the reinforcement of the breathing muscles. Myer, Edmund John, Position and Action in Singing. The Boston Music Company, 1897. Boston: This is a study of tone and breath control. Palmer, E. Davidson, Rightly Produced Voice. Williams, Limited, 1932. London: Joseph This is a study of a new theory of voice production. Parisotti, Luigi, Speaking and Singing. Boosey and Company, 1911. New York and London: A book which deals with the principles of voice production as presented by the old Italian school. Proschowsky, Frantz, The Way to S i n g . Company, 1923. Boston: Birchard and Presents thirty exercises as a guide to correct vocal te chnique. 95 Redfield, John, Music, a Science and an Art. A. Knopf, Inc., 1928. New York: Alfred A general discussion of music as a whole. Rogers, Clara K., Your Voice and Y o u . Company, 1925. Boston: Oliver Ditson A discussion of psychology and singing. Rogers, Clara K., My Voice and _l. Chicago: McClurg and Com pany, 1910. A book on the faults in voice production and how to rectify them. Russell, G. Oscar, Speech and V o i c e . Company, 1951. New York: The Macmillan This book, illustrated with X-ray pictures, describes the voice in action. Russell, Louis A., The Commonplace of Vocal A r t . and Boston: The Oliver Ditson Company, 1907. New York A philosophy of singing compiled from talks with vocalists. Santley, Charles, The Art of Singing. Company, 1908. New York: The Macmillan A book of general instruction. Seashore, Carl E . , The Psychology of Musical T a l e n t . New York: Silver, Burdett and Company, 1919. This book deals with the i n d i v i d u a l ^ capabilities in music, presenting several tests for their measurement. Shakespeare, William, The Art of Singing. Ditson Company, 1921. Boston: The Oliver A book which emphasizes breath control and the old Italian method. Shaw, William Warren, The Lost Vocal Art and Its Restoration* Philadelphia: J. B. LIppincott Company, 1914. This book describes the old Italian method and makes a plea for its restoration. 96 Shaw, William Warren, Authentic Voice Production. phia: J. B. Lippineott Company, 1930. Philadel A hook of instruction built on the method established by the old Italian school. Stanley, Douglas and J. Maxfield, The V o i c e : Its Production and Reproduction. New York: Pitman Publishing Company, 1933. A book on voice production and the recording of sound. Stanley, Douglas, The Science of V o i c e . Fischer, 1929. New York: Carl A scientific treatise on voice, dealing with it from the standpoint of physics and physiology. Starch, Daniel, Educational Psychol og y. Macmillan Company, 1§28• New Yofk: The Taylor, David C., The Psychology of Singing. Macmillan Company, 1917. New York: The A general method of instruction, using scientific materi&l from both ancient and modern systems of teaching. Taylor, David C., N e w Light on the Old Italian M e t h o d . York: The H.W. Gray Company^ 1916. New A revival of the old Italian method. Tosi, P . F . , Observations on the Florid Song. London: Printed for J. Wilcox, at Virgil's Head in the Strand, 1723. Reprinted from the Second Edition by William Reeves, Book seller, Ltd., 83 Charing Cross Road, London, W.C.: 2, Great Britain, in the year 1926. The first book on voice training revealing the methods of the old Italian school. Wagner, A.H., The Psychology of Vocal Music T ea ch in g. An u n published Master's thesis, University of Southern Califor nia, 1924. Wagner, A.H., V o i c e . Unpublished lecture delivered at the University of Southern California, 1937. Witherspoon, Herbert, 1925. Singing. 97 New York: G. Schirmer, Inc., A book on singing for both teacher and student. Wood, Henry, The Gentle Art of Singing. University Press, 1927. New York: The Oxfordc Wronski, Thaddeus, The Singer and His Art*Appleton Company, 1921. New York: D.