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The care and training of the child and adolescent voice

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A Thesis
Presented to
the Faculty of the School of Music
University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Music
Charles Calvan Chase
June 1940
UMI Number: EP61731
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T h i s thesis, w r i t t e n by
...M A R LE S ...C & V ffl..C M S E
u n d e r the d i r e c t i o n o f h.X$. F a c u l t y C o m m it t e e ,
a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l it s m e m b e r s , has been
presented to a n d accepted by the C o u n c i l on
G r a d u a t e S t u d y a n d Research in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l ­
m e n t o f the re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f
F acu lty C om m ittee
C hairm an
THE PROBLEM.................................
Introduction .............................
Statement of the p r o b l e m ............... .
Justification of the problem ..............
Review of related investigations ..........
Sources of information ....................
Organization of the remainder of the study .
Importance of a pleasing voice ............
Range of the speaking voice................
Registers of the singing voice ............
Importance of easy singing................
THE VOCAL INSTRUMENT.......................
The Actuator.............................
The vibrator.......................
Resonance chambers ........................
POSTURE AND BREATHING.......................
Correct posture...............
Breathing. . .
Facial expression.........................
S u m m a r y .................................
V, THE ADOLESCENT VOICE...........................39
The changing voice
. 40
Rules of voice testing...................... 40
Singing during the period of change . . . .
Care and treatment of maturing
voice. . . . 43
VI. VOCAL TECHNIQUE.............................. 53
Tone quality.............................
Intonation............................. . . 59
DICTION....................................... 64
Diction defined .........................
Summary......... .. ................... .
Influence of general health on
v 79
the voice. • 80
Food....................................... 8l
Amount of practice.......................... 90
BIBLIOGRAPHY.......................................... 100
In the early stages of vocal training the teach­
er's first and constant care must be to prevent the
formation of bad habits.
Unless he be exceptionally
fortunate, a large proportion of his classes, however
young, will come to him with faults already developed.
These should receive immediate attention, not only
because the longer a habit is allowed to continue the
more difficult it is to check, but because with young
singers a wrong use of the delicate apparatus producing
what we call "voice11 may easily result, frequently does
result, in lasting and even life-long injury.*1* For
this reason the teacher must be prepared to meet the
problems of training the child and adolescent voice.
At the very outset, children should be impressed
with the fact that if they would sing well, with beauty
of tone and true intonation, the voice must be used with­
out interference or strain.
Many children, particularly
those who are easily discouraged and those whose natural
James Bates, Voice Culture for Children ^New York
New York Novello Company, 1930), p. 12.
musical talents are below the average, are likely to
form the idea that because their progress is not so
rapid as that of others in the class their voices are
not worth the trouble, that care of the voice is all
very well for those who may hope to become good sing­
ers, but that the ordinary boy and girl with no special
musical ambition may misuse the voice with impunity.
Children should be taught to value their voices not
only for what they are but for what they may become#
Here, again, is reason why the teacher must be well
equipped to train the young voice properly.
In many instances, at the present time, ade­
quate facilities for voice training in the elementary
and secondary schools are lacking.
Hollis Dann
In the opinion of
it will have to be admitted that the
schools are not fully equipped with teachers competent
to supervise voice education, and that it should be the
desire of every teacher dealing with the subject, to
improve his or her equipment in this field of endeavor.
Ben G. Graham, Music Supervisor1s National Con­
ference Year Book, 1932. p. 53.
Hollis Dann, Music Educator»s National Confer­
ence Year Book, 1936. p.200.
Statement of the Problem,
The purpose of this
study, therefore, was to furnish practical information
and suggestions on the subject of the care and training
of the child and adolescent voice*
Also to investigate
the characteristics of the child1s singing voice and to
find teaching principles that would be of practical ben­
efit to the vocal instructor in his task of training
youthful voices*
Justification of the Problem, With so many
subjects pressing for attention, few schools are able
to devote very much time to voice production and sing­
A boy‘s vocal career is not a long one and it is
necessary to secure the best possible results in the
shortest time.
Poorly trained music teachers and un­
musical grade school instructors teaching their own
music, are two good reasons why we have so many students
entering junior and senior high school who are of the
opinion that they can not sing.
The time is past when
it was thought that the main requirement for teaching
singing in the public school was sufficient musician­
ship to play the piano, violin, or other instrument and
that given a natural singing voice and the ability to
carry a tune, anyone could teach children to sing*
The modern idea is that the teacher of singing in the
schools should know as much or even more about the voice
than the private teacher of singing, since the public
school music teacher comes in contact with many more
students and consequently has a greater opportunity to
do good or harm, as the case may be, than does the priv­
ate teacher.
Review of Related Investigations*
Since the
field of voice culture in the public schools is com­
paratively new, its related literature is not exten­
.Although certain investigations have been made
on the subject of voice, an examination of these stud­
ies discloses little recent information bearing direct­
ly on the care and training of the child and adolescent
Sources of Information. The data In this study
were taken from books written about the following:
(1) Public speaking
(2) Voice and diction
(3) Physiology of the voice
(4) Voice and singing
(5) School music problems in the form of Teachers'
(6) Music Education from the year books of the
Music Educators National Conferences.
(7) Vocal hygiene
Further information was received through personal
interviews with vocal Instructors and authorities.
Organ ization of the Remainder of the Study.
ter II deals with the speaking and singing voice.
III contains information on the vocal Instrument.
IV discusses posture and breathing,
chapter V deals with
the adolescent voice and the hoy problem.
Chapter VI,
vocal technique, head voice, chest voice, etc.
Chapter VII
takes up diction and the study of vowels, consonants, etc.
Chanter VIII sets forth ideas of vocal hygiene or voice
11Every child should be taught from its youth
to govern its voice discreetly and dexterously,
as it does its hands; and not to be able to sing
should be more disgraceful than not to be able to
read or write.
Stanley and Maxfield write that singing is,
after all, merely a glorification or magnification of
speech, which is wedded to the language of music.
laws which govern the proper functioning of the voice
in both singing and speaking are, in most respects, the
Although the authors just cited maintain that
singing is magnified speech, they give the following
differences between the speaking and singing voice:
First, in view of the fact that the tone is much less
sustained in speaking than in singing, the vibrato
should not occur in the speaking voice.
Second, the
speaking voice is lower in pitch than the singing voice
hence the intensity of the former is lower.
John Ruskin,
11Fors Clavigera".
Douglas Stanley and Maxfield, The Voice, Its
’Production, and Reproduction, (New YorF“ Prt'm"ah Publish­
ing Company, 1933), p. 164..
consonants in speech are shorter and correspondingly
less vigorous than in singing.
Fourth, several tones
in singing may be phonated on one vowel.
This should
never be done in speech.
The requirements for a properly used speaking
voice as given by Stanley4 are as follows:
(a) G-ood quality. (Proper resonance adjustment).
(b) Range— An extensive range (three octaves or
more) depends on the same factors as in sing­
ing— i.e., resonance adjustment and registra­
(c) Carrying power— This depends upon the sound
spectrum which in turn depends upon resonance
(d) Control of intensity— This also depends upon
resonance adjustment and registration.
speaking voice, however, which may drop to the
,fstage whisper” and even to an absolute whisper,
can be used at far lower intensity than can
the singing voice.
(e) Proper intensity balance over range— This
is the same as in singing.
As the intensity
rises the pitch should rise, and vice versa.
(f) Intelligibility— This implies vigorous, cleancut, clear articulation and a proper adjust­
ment of the pharyngeal resonance cavities for
the resonating of the vowel.
(g) Legato— This is more pronounced in English
speech than in singing because of the eliding
(h) Speed, with clear enunciation— This pre­
supposes pharyngeal vowel resonance and
agility of the articulating members.
^i) Wide range of color— True color is only
possible when the technical training is well
advanced, since it is controlled by minute
changes in the adjustments of the resonance
(j) The ability to use the voice vigorously and
audibly in a large auditorium for a long time
without fatiguing it and becoming hoarse.
(k) The establishment of the natural voice—
Normal pitch, quality and power, from which
all modifications of pitch, color, and intensity
are made, for the portrayal of the emotional
and expressive import of the words.
(1) The ability to express, while speaking, the
passing emotion with the eyes and the rest of
the face— This ability demands the elimination
of all muscular interference which, in turn,
is largely dependent on pharyngeal resonance
adjustment (the elimination of the mouth as a
Importance of a Pleasing Voice. Bates 6 tells us
that by rough and careless usage children may not only
prevent their voices from ever improving but may entire­
ly spoil them.
This means that when they become men and
women their voices, instead of being musical and pleasant
both in singing and in speaking, will be gruff and harsh.
It is pointed out that their present voices, frail and
delicate, can in any event be of but short duration and
will be succeeded after about two years of transition by
the permanent, life-long voice, the importance of which
to their future happiness and well-being it is impossible
to over-estimate.
Just as it would be folly to expect
Bates, op. pit», p. 2.
a bruised and broken bulb to produce a perfect flower,
so it is impossible for a voice that has been badly
used and treated ever to regain in maturity the qual­
ities lost in childhood.
There are many ways of spoiling the voice, but
the surest of all is constantly to sing loudly with a
voice produced by muscular strain.
Many children, and
adults too, make the mistake of supposing themselves to
be singing when they are only shouting.
The same author
cited again informs us that if the effect of such misuse
of the voice is bad for the listeners, it is ten times
worse for the singers themselves, and a few minutes'
shouting may easily do harm that can never be undone.
Children should be taught not to try at first to make
their voices powerful, but to cultivate at the outset
a pure and pleasing tone.
They will thus be adopting
the very best means of preserving their voices for fu­
ture use.
Because of the differences in opinion of various
vocal authorities , Louis G-raveure and Stanley are cited
on loud and soft singing. G-raveure
states that soft
Louis Graveure, ,fNew Theories of Vocalism” ,
The Etude, February 1931.
singing is generally misunderstood and rarely well
He points out that the idea that a loud
tone requires effort and expansion and that soft
tone is produced merely by relaxation and ease is all
a mistake, for producing a tone by relaxing the sur­
faces of the resonating apparatus makes the tone sound
either breathy or falsetto.
Citing G-raveure further ;
the throat should
never be contracted; it is one of the channels along
the resonating column which must always be expanded in
good tone production.
The nasal cavities are to be used
simply to warm the air as it is taken in through the nos8
trils and sent along the resonating column.
Both Stanley^ and Graveure claim that correctly
produced soft singing is one of the most difficult phases
of vocal technique and should not be attempted until the
voice is well developed.
While Stanley states that soft
singing must be accomplished by means of a pure upper
register co-ordination of the laryngeal muscles and a
perfectly controlled throat.
Stanley, op. c i t p p . 63-89.
When the singer produces the tone vigorously,
Stanley finds the entire apparatus which is used for the
act will come into full tension.
The throat then will
be likely to take on its proper tension, even if the
muscles which hold it in position are not quite fully
When a soft tone is produced the breath
pressure is less and the tension on the laryngeal mus^
cles is less.
The throat cavity must be held firm and
when the muscles which perform this action are weak, the
lack of general effort which accompanies the act of quiet
phonation, will not be sufficient to keep the weak throat
muscles patent (open).
This same author states that most pupils have, in
a more or less pronounced degree, a “throaty*1 tone.
this reason soft singing should never be attempted until
the muscles which hold the pharynx open are fully develop­
ed and that any attempt to sing softly before this stage
is reached will result only in an ever-increasing “throatiness.1* He advocates the use of the vowels e and a until
the sensation of open throat is established.
Range of the Speaking Voice* All persons must,
of necessity, speak in some register, and it is quite
easy to recognize that the pitch and quality of the tones
of the adult males, adult females, and children differ
greatly from each other*
Seth and Guthrie‘S have given the following in­
formation on the range of the child voice:
JMormally the vocal range is small in childhood,
comprising about six half-tones by the end of the sec­
ond year and gradually widening until at the age of
entering school it encompasses about an octave (c to c ).
From the third year of life onwards the larynx is larger
in the male than in the female.
During school life the
vocal development proceeds slowly, and just before the
voice changes or 11breaks" it has on an average of an oc­
tave and a half.
About 30 per cent of children, many of
whom belong to musical families, have a wider range of
Only a small number, about five per cent, possess .
no singing voice at all.
Ordinary speech is economical, and a range of
very few tones usually not more than two to four inter­
vals of the scale, suffices, but on the stage, and for
public speaking, twice this range is used.
George Seth and Douglas Guthrie, Speech in Child­
hood (London: Oxford University Press, H. MilfordJT 1935. p.19b.
7/esley Mills, Voice Proa.uction in Singing (Philadel­
phia: J. B. Lippincott, 1913), p. 234.
Registers of tiie Singing Voice,
The typical
cnild1s voice previous to adolescence has, according
to Gehrkens
, two divisions called the^ "head11 or
nthin" register and the “chest11 or “thick” register.
In the opinion of some authorities, until the age of
puberty is reached the thin, head register should be
Concerning these divisions, Howard makes the
following comments:
The tones of the head register are musical,
pure, and sweet, and their use promotes the growth
of musical sensibility and an appreciation of
beauty of tone. The use of the chest register in
class singing is dangerous because it may strain
the voice, and it is almost impossible to confine
it within the proper limits. Children can sing in
the chest register higher than adults because of
the amount of musical exertion they put forth.
Even up to the change of voice, boys can often
force the thick register several notes higher
than women sopranos. If the vocal bands of chil­
dren were less elastic, composed of stronger fibers,
and protected from undue exertion by firm connect­
ing cartilages, such forcing would be impossible.
In the discussion of voice problems, one often
hears the term “break".
In the case of the adult, there
is usually a definite pitch at which the voice goes from
Karl W. Gehrkens, Music in the Grade Schools
(Boston: C. G. Birchard and Company, 193477 P* 91 •
Francis E. Howard, The Child Voice in Singing
(New York: The H. W. Gray Company, 1898), p. 28.
Ibid., p. 31.
the lower register to the higher one.
It is this point
that is often called the “break11 in the voice and it
should be noted that in the adult this “break11 ordinarily
occurs at approximately the same point in the scale.
In the child’s voice, however, the break: may occur at
different points in the scale at different times; high­
er up in the case of louder singing, and lower in the
case of soft singing.
In other words, the child's voice
has a “movable break”, the point at which the voice goes
from the lower register to the upper one depending upon
the force \vith which he sings.
If an eight “year-old
child is asked to begin at Middle C and sing a scale
upward softly, the voice will change from the chest
register to the head register at about f' or g'. But
if he is asked to sing loudly, the change will probably
1 6
not occur until he reaches c" or even d” or e .
Concerning the registers of the voice, Cundiff
and Dykema make the following statement:
The desirable voice quality is one that gives
a beautiful expression of the spirit of the song.
With children this generally comes through the use
of the head tone and the avoidance of the chest tone...
Children naturally use the proper head voice on up­
per tones such as fourth line treble staff d, and
thisquality should be carried down into the lower
Gehrkens, op. cit., p. 91.
tones, Great care on the teacher’s part is needed
to keep out all heavy, chest tones. If the chest
voice does creep in, it is apt to cause bad throats,.
It is also responsible for a good deal of flatting. '
The tone quality of the chest register is poor
and the intonation is likely to be faulty, therefore the
use of this part of the voice is to be discouraged. The
two-fold method of approach recommended by Gehrkens is
to insist that the children sing lightly at first, and
to compel the use of the head register by choosing songs
that are high in range.
Tosi was the first to write a study on the care
and training of the boy’s voice and as the matter of
voice registers is still a controversial question, Tosi’s
point of view is quoted:
A diligent Master, knowing that a soprano, with­
out the Falsetto, is constrained to sing within the
narrow Compass of a few notes, ought not only to en­
deavor to help him to it, but also to leave no means
untried, so to unite the feigned and natural Voice,
that they may not be distinguished; for if they do
not perfectly unite, the voice will be of divers
Registers, and must consequently lose its Beauty.
The Extent of the full natural Voice terminates
generally upon the fourth Space, which is C; or on
the fifth Line, which is D; and there the feigned
Hannah M. Cundiff and Peter W, Dykema, School
Music Handbook (Boston: C. C. Birchard and Company, 1923),
p. 57.
Gehrkens, c>£. cit., pp. 91-92.
Pier F. Tosi, Observations of the Florid Song
(London: Reprinted from the "Second Edition by William Reeves
Bookseller Limited, 83 Charing Road, 1926. Original in 1723.
Voice becomes of use, as well in going up to the High
Notes, as returning to the natural Voice; the Diffi­
culty consists in uniting them........
The plan advocated by Tosi is followed by certain
choir masters both in this country and abroad, a notable
example being the Vienna Boy Choir.
Importance of Easy Singing.
Ease of singing in
the opinion of Bates,20is a matter of great importance, be­
cause it concerns especially the boys and girls who try.
Usually, he claims, the very children who are most anx­
ious to please are the most likely to go wrong.
to do their utmost to earn approval from teacher and oth­
ers, they put themselves into stiff and uncomfortable
attitudes that prevent them from using their voices to
Many boys and girls who can speak and recite
well, when asked to sing, straighten themselves up and
put on solemn and unnatural expressions.
Some will scowl
fiercely, others look careworn and v/orried.
To cite Bates
further, this is not a.t all as it should be, and for once,
at least, it is the apparently careless boys and girls who
set the best example to' the class.
Bates, op♦ cit., p. 2/.
The child who would
sing well must learn not to stiffen M s
or,any part of the body.
jaw, neck, chest,
Many teachers of singing find
it a good plan to have in the classroom a long mirror
for the students.
When pupils see for themselves these
constrained attitudes and rigid expressions they soon
abandon them.
The matter of posture will be discussed
in another chapter, but it is referred to now only be­
cause it is so closely connected with ease of singing#
Though opposed to stiffness in the jaw, neck,
chest and other muscles, Stanley
advises that the
throat can never be relaxed during the act of phonation.
Either the constrictor or the extensor group of muscles
must be in tension.
However, the important point to be
brought out on this subject is the fact that the child
should be taught to sing without struggle; never to feel
a strain or tired in the throat.
is cited as follows on ease of singing
and relaxation: One of the current fallacies in the teach­
ing not only in the voice, but also of the technique of
many other activities, is the idea that the performer must
be in a condition of complete relaxation.
It is obvious
to anyonw ivho sees an artist perform, that he is singing
Stanley, The Science of Voice, op. cit. p. 135.
Ibid. p. 136.
or playing without any apparent strain and that his face
is expressive of what he is singing about or of the emo­
tions of the music.
There is no sign of struggle.
This same author
gives the following parallels
that will make his point more clearly understood.
great athlete appears to be free from effort.
The golfer
or tennis player will hit the ball with terrific force,
apparently without effort, but with close observation will
snow that he is actually in a. condition of extreme activi­
In other words, his body is in the most perfect degree
of tonus. If he were not in this condition, he could not
make the fine adjustments which are the vital concomitant
of a delicate and properly executed stroke.
In the same
way observation of a great singer, actor, or pianist, will
show that his general muscular condition is exactly
ilar to that of the athlete.
It will, then, be seen that
the whole body must, during the act of phonation, be in
a state of proper tonus and it is only the muscles act­
ually effective in the production of sound which should
have their state of tension increased, i. e., the muscles
of the larynx, pharynx, and thorax.
The following summary enumerates three
reasons why children up to the age of puberty, at least
in class or chorus singing, should use the thin or head
register only:
1. It is from the physiological standpoint en­
tirely safe, for the use of this register will not
strain the child1s delicate vocal organs*
2. The tones of the head-register are musical,
pure, and sweet, and their use promotes the growth
of music sensibility and an appreciation of beauty
in tone. The chest voice quality is harsh and dis­
3. The use of the chest voice is dangerous be­
cause it is almost impossible to confine it within
proper limits, 5
Writers on the subject of the child voice are
generally agreed that the chest voice of the child is
an abnormal product of a weak, growing, undeveloped
It possesses, even when used carefully, little
of the tone-tints of the adult voice.
The chest voice
belongs to the- adult life, not childhood.
It cannot be
musical, for the larynx has not reached that stage of
growth and development where it can produce these tones
, 26
Ibid. p. 42
Writers on voice frequently describe the vocal
instrument under three headings; namely, 1. The motor,
or actuator (breath pressure), 2. The vibrator, and 3.
The resonator*
This classification will he used in the
present chapter in an endeavor to make clear the func­
tions of the voice mechanism.
The Motor or the Actuator. (Breath Pressure.)
The human voice is actuated by means of air, or breath,
under pressure.
According to Stanley and Maxfieldf when
tones of low intensities are produced the breath passes
over the vocal cords in a stream, thus starting them into
Cited further, these authors
explain that the
breath in the lungs, which is at considerably higher
pressure than is that of the outside air, is released
through the vocal cords.
If the cords are under tension
with a relatively narrow space between them, they are
set into rapid vibration, whereby the opening of the
Stanley and Maxfield, o£. Cit., p. 85.
glottis -is alternately opened and closed.
This alternate
opening and closing of tne vocal cords modulates tne
stream of air at a frequency wnicii depends mainly upon
tne tension of the vocal cords.
It is also made plain
tnat in view of the fact that such terms as"vocalized
breath’* etc., appear quite often in the literature of
vocal technic, it is important for the reader to real­
ize that this modulated air stream is the source of the
sound, but that the escaping breath does not carry the
sound through the remainder of the vocal mechanism.
Further consideration of the breath will be
given later in Chapter IV under posture and breathing.
The Vibrator.
The second part of the vocal
apparatus is the vibrator or the vocal chords.
They are
located in the larynx, which is the enlargement felt at
the top of the wind-pipe and is sometimes called the
Adam's apple.
The vocal chords are neither cords nor bands and
according to Fillebrown , Stanley , and others, they
are thick folds of membrane extending across the inner
surface of the larynx.
They are fairly well represented
by the lips of the cornet player when placed on the mouth­
piece of the instrument.
The pitch of the tone is fixed
^ Thomas Fillebrown, Resonance in the Speaking
^Boston: Oliver Ditson Company, 19117,p.9.
Stanley, op. cit., p. 67.
by the tension of the vocal cords and the width and
length of the opening between them.
Their tension and
proximity are self-adjusting to produce the proper pitch
without any conscious volition of the singer.
Present photographic studies of the vibration of
the vocal cords made by Russel, the Bell Telephone Com­
pany laboratories, and Pressman, and others, show that
the chest voice or the lower register is produced by
stretching the vocal cords while the upper register or
head voice is
produced by shortening the cords so that
the vibration takes place in their anterior portion only.
In the production of the head voice or upper register
the opening becomes progressively snorter as the scale
is ascended.
Resonance Chambers. The third part of the vocal
machine is the resonator.
The Bell Telephone Labortories
in their literature on High-Speed Motion Pictures of the
Human Vocal Cords
point out that such work as has been
done would indicate that the waves generated by the vocal
cords are rich in overtones some of which are amplified
by passing through partly open cavities or resonators on
their way to the outside.
On the subject of resonators Seth and G-uthrie
Seth and G-uthrie, ojo. cit. p. 1?
Ibid. pp.26-30
are cited as follows: While the pitch of vocal sound is
determined by the larynx alone, the character of the
voice peculiar to the speaker or singer (timbre) is
supplied by the resonating cavities (pharynx and mouth)
through which the sound passes*
The sound is modified
or interrupted during its exit by alterations in the
relative position of the tongue, lips, teeth, and pal­
By such alterations in the form of the resonating
cavities of the mouth and throat during expiration cer­
tain sounds are produced and the original note produced
in the larynx is moulded into articulate speech.
has been a divergence of opinion as to what constitutes
the resonance chambers.
Formerly it was thought that the
air-containing spaces connected with the cavity of the
nose, known as the nasal accessory sinuses, imparted
resonance to the voice, but it is now recognized that
they have little effect.
Moreover, the openings by
which the sinuses communicate with the nose are very
small, and the sinuses could only act as secondary
resonators, if at all.
Seth and G-uthrie
point out
further that the nasal cavity can scarcely act? as a
Ibid., p. 27.
resonator as the only speech-sounds reinforced in it are
m, n,
'and ng.
For all other sounds the voice is unaIterat­
ed hy closure of the nostrils, and the peculiar nasal
sound imparted to the voice in case of adenoids or during
a simple nasal cold is mainly due to interference with
the mobility of the palate*
These same authorities say that whether the chest
can act as a resonator is an open question.
The feeling
of chest resonance is simply due to the extension of the
feeling of vibration which is also felt throughout the
entire body when the voice is in use.
The chest may act
as a sounding-board or secondary resonator, but this can
have no direct effect upon the outgoing sound, and the
sensation is felt by the singer and not the audience*
The pharynx, or the throat,
is about five Inches
in length and it consists of three parts; a nasal or
upper p art (naso-pharynx), a part opposite the mouth,
the only part visible on looking into the mouth (oro­
pharynx) , and the lower part behind the larynx (laryngopharynx).
The pharynx is lined by mucous membrane and its
wall consists of a number of muscles (constrictor
mu scles)•
Other muscles connect the pharynx with the base of the
skull, with the soft palate,, and with other structures*
Outside the muscular layer is s. firm envelope of fib­
rous tissue.
The cavity of the pharynx is capable of
changes in shape and size.
When the larynx is drawn
downwards and forwards by the muscles which connect it
with the sternum or breast bone the capacity of the
laryngeal pharynx is increased.
It is related that this
movement is not directly controlled by the will but takes
place constantly during speech and song when it becomes
necessary to alter the capacity of the pharyngeal reC t
sonating chamber.
t ■
Fillebrown^ compares the action
of the pharynx with the expanding tube of brass instru­
It increases the force and depth of the tone
The wider the pharynx is opened, without cons­
traint, the fuller the resonance and the better the tone.
It is well for the singing-teacher to
know something of the physical make up of the voice and
the conditions that favor the vocal instrument.
III can be summarized under the following :
Ibid., p. 2b.
Fillebrown, op. cit., p. 10.
1* The motor, actuator or breath pressure is
the first consideration.
This deals with the breath­
ing apparatus and explains how the motor is controlled.
2. The vibrator, or the vocal chords, their lo­
cation in the larynx and how the tone is produced.
3. Resonance chambers, a subject of importance
to the teacher and a valuable part of the vocal instru­
Posture* It is of the utmost importance that
children should learn to stand and sit correctly while
The following singing position is recommended:
Stand or sit erect, not touching the back of the
seat; chest active; both feet on the floor; head up.
While singing the body should be erect and active, yet
comfortable. 1
"Standing position11 means feet at an angle of
90 degrees, heels touching, knees almost touching, the
weight of the body being equally distributed upon each
leg, but falling mainly upon the heels; trunk erect,
the chest being the most prominent part; head poised
easily upon the shoulders so that the eyes look straight
ahead; the forearms and hands lightly touching the sides.
Details for good sitting posture are given by
(1) Both feet on tne rloor— flat.
(2) Back free— not leaning against the seat.
Howard, op. cit., p. Bl.
Bates, 0£. cit., p. 40.
(3) Chest high— hut not held stiffly.
14) The body relaxed— but not sprawling.
Such a posture should be encouraged from the very be­
ginning and by the second grade the habit of sitting
thus should be so firmly established that the teacher
will not find it necessary to speak of position except
in the case of the occasional child who forgets what he
is doing and slumps.
It is easy enough to cause the pupils to take
the right posture for a few seconds after a reminder
by the teacher, but the essential thing is that posture
become an automatic habit.
To quote (rehrkens*
The teacher who every few minutes calls out,
"Sit up straighti” is wasting her breath, for
within fifteen seconds the children will be slumped
into an utterly inefficient posture. It is better
not to speak of it, but to see to it without scold­
ing or nagging, that the children form the habit of
always sitting or standing easily correct while
singing. Such a teacher has done her pupils a great
service, not merely because they will sing better
an a result of such posture, but because of the
beneficial effect upon health, upon beauty and grace
of carriage; and upon mental attitude.4
G-ehrkens, 0£. cit., p. 94.
Citing Giddings5 on tnis subject, position has
a great deal to do with the success of the breathing
and consequently with the use of the voice.
The pupils
should always stand erect while singing or sit erect
with the back away from the back of the seat, so that
the muscles in the sides of the back, under the shoulder
blades, can work freely.
Resting the back against the
back of the seat induces chest breathing.
It is sug­
gested that if the student will place the elbows apart
on the desk, if it is the right height, and raising the
chest, will bring the correct position and induce pro­
per breathing.
This is very important at every age,
but more especially so with the younger children.
is very important for the student to be taught to hold
himself in the proper position while growing up.
will encourage a symmetrical growth, his lungs will be
strong and usable, and his voice will be developed na­
points out that the teach­
ers dealing with the child voice must be very careful
Thaddeus P. G-iddings and Will Earhart and Ralph L.
Baldwin, Eldredge W. Newton, Manual for Teachers(Boston:
Ginn and Company, 1924), p. 184.
Ibid. p. 10.
about mentioning breatning to the child, but since it
is important that the pupil should habitually use a
smoothy pleasant tone, the following facts are vital
concerning the problem of breathing.
First, that it
is folly to give the pupils any breathing exercises
even while establishing the habit of smooth singing.
Breathing exercises usually make the trouble worse, as
they call attention to taking in the breath.
It is not
inhaling that the child need to practice, but to send
the breath out evenly and smoothly.
It is recommended
to teach this to the child by allowing him to practice
singing long, smooth phrases in songs.
If inhalation is not mentioned and much attention
is given to singing long, smooth tones and phrases the
class will soon learn to take the proper amount of
breath and no more, thus the attention of the students
will be centered on the ability to exhale properly.
G-iddings*7 suggests that the pupil be made conscious of
his method of exhaling by letting him put the ends of
the fingers of the left hand on the middle of the front
of the waist line, with the thumb of the same hand on
the fifth or-sixth rib as far back as it will reach
G-iddings, 0£. cit., p. 11.
without moving the fingers from their position.
the hand is properly placed the pupil should hold a
tone as long as he can easily with one breath and notice what his rib and waist muscles are doing.
child in the class will readily discover that the ribs
and waist muscles are slowly sinking in and should be
very steadily.
After this has been accomplished the
same thing can be tried, but with singing a phrase in­
stead of a single tone.
If this method is practiced,
the uneven singing will soon disappear and smooth sing­
ing will become a habit.
Dann states that the breathing of the singer
should be natural and comfortable, never forced, never
exaggerated, and very much like the breathing of a
normal person for other activities.
There is nothing
difficult to understand about deep breathing, which is
a combination of diaphragmatic breathing (the natural
respiration of the human being) and costal or rib breath­
ing, which is the normal means of getting more air for
Hollis Dann, Song Series, Conductor1s Book
American Book Company.
any unusual physical activity*
He finds that a good plan for older children
is to inhale deeply, noticing the extension of ribs;
hold the breath and exhale softly and quickly, reciting
as much of a poem as one breath will allow,
A one
minute breathing exercise may be given to advantage
just before the singing lesson.
void any mention of breathing.
During the lesson, aIf songs are phrased
naturally, as in reading and speaking, breathing will
take of itself*
The wise teacher will watch the phras­
ing, and not allow children to take breath in the middle
of a word*
Mouth breathing is the most desirable method
to be used in singing.
This method is urged by Mills'1'0
for the following reasons:
1. Mouth breathing is noiseless*
2. The song would be interrupted between phrases,
if the time were taken to breathe deeply through
the nose.
3. Mouth breathing in singing, is less conspicuous
than nose breathing.
Only by mouth breathing can enough breath be in9
Kathryn K. Stone, Manual of Music (not published,)
Mills, ojo. cit., p. 30.
haled in the mere moment available for this purpose.
Mills further states:
Breathing through the nostrils will more than
likely, place the tongue and soft palate in an un­
favorable position, thus causing the tone to be
muffled and throaty. Mouth breathing for the pur­
pose of tone production is the only method which has
physiological justification.
Correct phrasing is very closely re­
lated to the subject of breathing.
To phrase correctly
means, roughly speaking, to take a breath in the proper
The teacher should explain that in every
position there are certain pauses between phrases and
sentences that can be used for the purpose of taking a
breath, without in any way interfering with the march
of the song or the sense of what is sung.
Many children
take breath in a most careless and haphazard way, often
completely spoiling the meaning and reason of the words
they convey.
“The most foundational thing in enabling the child
to hear the music properly is to teach him to grasp its
phrases and its melody."
James L. Mursell, Human Values in Music Education
(New York: Silver, Burdette ancTUompany, 193¥7, p. 146.
Henry Coward, Choral Technique (London: Novello
and Company, 1914) p. 4.
Coward states that in addition to technical per­
fection, vitalizing of the words and sentences by pro­
per tone and emphasis is demanded, so that the dramatic
sense is never in doubt, the result being the attainmen
of good diction. °
The matter of correct phrasing is of vital imp14
ortance, citing Mursell
on this subject; Music no
more consists of notes than a poem consists of letters.
We do not try to teach children the meaning and beauty
of a poem by having them spell through the letters it
Neither do we try to teach the child the
meaning of a piece of music by having him attend to
and spell out the notes it contains.
Both the poem and
the music are structures of meaning. So the most impor­
tant thing is to teach the child to grasp the phrases
and the melody.
This is the first and also the most
important of all those tonal elements in musical beauty
on which ear training must concentrate.
In considering
the psychology of melody and its application to teach­
ing, it has been shown that the essence of a melody
or a phrase is its unity.
A single tone produces
Cowardl, 0£. cit., p. .14.’.
0£. cit., p. 146.
one psychological effect when it exists all by itself,
but quite a different one when it is part of a phrase*
shows that our feeling for tones depends
largely on the presence of what he calls a "melodic con­
figuration" , that is, on the relationship^of the tones
to one another in a complete musical phrase.
good example as to what is meant in this paragraph is
this simple exercise:
Let the reader listen to anyone
talking and try to count the words.
quite impossible.
He will find this
And the reason is that he hears not
words but meaningful phrases.
In just that way music
is made up of unitary phrases.
Thus we learn from psychological research that
in teaching phrase properly we must emphasize its
unity and do this through response; we must empha­
size its up and dqwn, or melodic curve, and do this
through response; and we must emphasize its rhyth­
mic structure.
Facial expression.
"A most important
to characterization in singing is an animated, mobile
facial expression."
Citing Coward , Facial expres­
sion is important in two directions.
It not only pro­
motes good articulation, but the expression and reflec­
tion in the face of the sentiment, whether it is laughter
Mursell, op. cit., p. 147.
Coward, Choral Technique, op. cit., p. 168.
love, or hate, carries conviction to the hearer.
gives the following information con­
cerning facial expression.
Freedom of the facial
muscles is the most important consideration.
means a free posture of the cheeks, tongue, and jaw.
In the first place the situation should he approached
by setting up a happy and an interesting atmosphere to
which good facial expression is a natural response.
When the class is presented with a new song which they
like very much, it is natural for the facial mechanism
of every student to relax into a condition of smiling.
”A rigid jaw and a set expression are concomitants of
unpleasant situations, which call for exacting effort.”19
Of course we must sometimes work more directly for the •
result we want, as for instance when we deliberately tell
the children to let the jaw fall wide open or open the
mouth as if yawning.
School music teachers encourage
children to sing with a smile.
But any direct attack
that is made on facial rigidity must have the support
of those pleasurable conditions that favor relaxation.
Mursell, ££. cit., p. 287.
The preceding chapter makes it evident
that posture, breathing, and phrasing are important
factors in teaching the child to sing well.
while standing or sitting can be taught in such a way
that children will not be conscience of the fact that
they are sitting in any other way than to be comfortable.
The teacher will make pleasure out of the task of posture
and the child will appreciate what has been done for him
not only as a singer, but as a physical being.
ing exercises are not recommended, but care must be given
in selecting songs with the long phrases, as cited in the
previous chapter, so that breath control can be exercised
and guided by the teacher.
Phrasing can be handled in the same manner as pos­
ture and breathing.
Children should not be reminded of
breathing at every comma, but to remember the interpre­
tation of the song.
The march of the song must be kept
going and it not advisable to make pauses and breathing
marks where such effects were not intended.
breathing, phrasing and facial expression all go to­
gether in making the song well-done and pleasing in every
The child should enjoy his singing and facial
expression will need little attention on the part of the
Running parallel to developments and emotional
growth already noted in foregoing chapters we find ^keep
ing in mind individual differences) a rapid physical de­
In the fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, phys
ical changes are very slight, as a general rule, but be­
ginning with the seventh, eighth and ninth grades there
is a sudden increase in stature.
This sudden physical
growth, with all its attendant awkwardness, and in many
cases, sudden and uncontrollable "breaks" in the voices
of the boys, demands of the teacher a sympathetic under­
standing and special care.
The Adolescent Voice. During adolescence, the
voices of both boys and girls go through a process of
change which though more noticeable in boys, yet is
present in girls and is a matter for careful attention
in both.
So far as girls are concerned the important
things are to see that they avoid all heavy or forced
singing, to test frequently and to make such changes
in assignment to parts as to prevent any
being strained or forced.
voice from
The Changing Voice.
The reason for the changing
voices of boys at adolescence is explained by CundiffDykema^ as follows:
When the boy’s larynx grows, the shield (thyroid)
cartilage flattens out, pushing the rounded end for­
ward, forming what is called the Adam’s Apple. The
vocal cords must follow this, so they are pulled out
until they are twice as long. The result is a drop
of an octave in pitch....
The reason for the antics of a boy's voice during
the break, is the unequal rapidity in growth and de­
velopment of the cartilages and muscles of the larynx.
The muscles develop more slox^ly than the cartilages,
and so abnormal physical conditions produce abnormal
Inasmuch as music teachers and supervisors are
agreed that one of the most essential points in proper
treatment of the adolescent voice' is proper assignment
of parts G-iddings" widely used plan for voice testing
is outlined as follows:
(a) Reasons fbr voice testing:
1. Voices frequently tested and not forced will
develop naturally and satisfactorily.
2. Voices should be tested for musical effects
in ensemble singing.
3. Frequent testing insures correct classification.
Cb) When to test voices:
Voices should be tested for part singing as
soon as they show signs of changing.
1 •
Cundiff, ££. cit.,
p. 64.
2. From the beginning of the sixth grade to the
end of the senior year in high school, each voice
should be tested often.
3. Pupils snould be instructed to ask for a test
whenever the part he is singing begins to seem hard
for him.
(c) Staying on the same parts. (Keep young voices on
the same parts until they change).
1. Easy compass of a young voice is usually short,
and to develop t&e voice properly he should use only
the easy compass.
2. A voice that sings in a limited compass during
the changing period will have a wider compass and bet­
ter quality after the change.
(d) System (same for grades and high school).
1. Each pupil should be taught to do the same ex­
ercise as rapidly and as loudly as he can, and to keep
at it until he is told what part he is to sing.
2. Two students should stand at once and as soon
as one is tested, the next should start instantly and
sing his exercise without being told.
3. The rest of the class must watch the singing
pupil and supply the right key if he gets it wrong.
4. The exercise must be kept going at high speed
and no pupil should be allowed to stop and make excuses.
5. Exercise. Let each pupil begin on .g, second line
of the treble staff, if the voice is changed boy voice,
start an octave lower. Sing the scale up through one
octave and then down two octaves, returning over the
same ground and going up and down until told to stop.
The boys should start this exercise in the opposite
direction, because the boy's voice often shows during
the first octave, what it is and saves time to let the
boys start downward. The pupil should be required to
go through this exercise to the full extent. Tell
them you are looking for bad spots in the voice, since
we all have them*
Singing during the period of change. There is some
disagreement among teachers on the subject of singing while
the voice is undergoing the change.
Cundlff-Dykema believe
that the boy can and should sing during the mutation period,
and that doing so is beneficial.
They advocate the practice
of giving young people of this age, an opportunity to mas­
ter the fundamentals of good singing.
girl should be learnings
The musical boy or
some instrument and acquiring a
practical knowledge of the
theory of music.
This is also
a time for extensive listening to music.
Ohoir boys who are s,ccustomed to much singing daily,
should use their voices sparingly and carefully during the
change, always shifting to lower parts to avoid strain.0
Mabelle Glenn is quoted:
The three year period of junior high school is the
time when we worry most about the boy's voice, because
it is then that the voice is changing. Today a boys'
voice may be soprano, next week the same boy will be
on the way to being a baritone. It is better to keep
him singing constantly through this period, so that
the enthusiasm for singing and the interest in it
will not be lost.
Thaddeus Gidaings, Grade School Music Teaching
(New York: C. H. Congdon, 19T9T~Chapter TOZ
J. J. Dawson, The Voice of the Boy (Chicago:
Laidlow Brothers, 1919)", p. 11.
Music Educators National Yearbook, 1936.
p. 200.
From the concensus opinions of people
work with
boys whose voices are changing, it would seem wise to al­
low boys in the schools to sing through the period of mu­
However, great care should be exercised in the
avoidance of too much singing and all forms of strain*
Care and treatment of maturing voices * It is nec­
essary that the boys' voices should have special care,
and skillful treatment during mutation.
are cited again on this subject.
In their opinions, the
matter should be treated as a business-like, inevitable,
interesting happening, thus avoiding personal embarrass­
The boy should be led to see that by following sug­
gestions and not minding occasional queer happenings in
his tone, he is working with nature and following out an
interesting development.
Up to the age of twelve or thir­
teen usually, there is little difference in the range or
quality of the boy and girl voice.
At this time the low­
er tones of the boy voice begin to broaden and deepen in
quality, and the high notes come less easily and possess
a shriller quality.
The boys should discontinue singing
soprano and take the middle parts where there is no effort
As the voice becomes more mature the upper tones
are cut off and the quality changes from boy alto to boy
tenor , and finally to changed tenor or bass.
Crane5 suggests tiiat at tne beginning of tne change,
, some boys will merely sing alto for a while, and drop
naturally to tenor or bass, witnout appearing to notice
tne change themselves.
Others will find their voices un­
wieldy and hoarse,
one voice fails on: low tones, an­
other on high-ones.
Citing Crane
again, we find that she advocates
taking the boy by himself, as soon as the change appears,
and giving exercises pitched where they may be easily
Select exercises of narrow compass, as the voice
range will be limited.
The boy whose voice is changing
may be able to sing in either the boy's voice or the new­
ly acquired man's voice.
An attempt of the teacher, to
soften the boy's voice, often results in strained and
pinched tones.
Allowing more freedom in the use of vol­
ume often results in a wider range for untrained voices,
and may cause the boy to discontinue his interest in mus­
Restraint at this time in the boy's life may destroy
his desire to sing.
Julia E. Crane, Music Teacher's Manual (Potsdam,
New York: Elliot Fay and sons, Printers, 1915),
One of tne most recent publications on the subject
of the maturing voice is an article by Breach cited as
The boy voice is one of the most perplexing
and challenging problems that confronts the vocal teacher
in our public schools.
The period of change is the time
which presents the most difficulties.
Breach gives two
factors which are apt to complicate matters.
there is frequently a lack of understanding of the boy
voice and how it should be treated while in the changing
Second, there is too much choral material being
used that is not suitable to the voice at this critical
Until the boy nears the age of puberty his voice
is said to be practically identical with the voice of the
girl, having the same range and being treated in the same
Then when the adolescent stage of growth appears the
voice begins to undergo certain changes which later result
in the ”changed" voice.
As this period of mutation advances
some voices will drop gradually into the lower ranges and
finally become changed voices.
This author points out
that these voices are able to sing ail through the
William Breach, “When Voices are Changing11, Presser1s Qr-Ba-Chor Journal, Vol. I (February 1940).
changing period.
There will be voices that will exper­
ience a decided break and will notbe able to sing for
a short period of time or they may be able to sing only
a few tones.
When this type of voice does settle down
to the changed voice it usually results in the lower
part of the bass voice in which it is difficult to
help the boy to find the upper part of his voice.
Monotones. G-iddings informs us that there are
few real monotones and that “monotone11 is a term usual­
ly applied when people sing out of tune.
thor is cited further.
This same au­
The first remedy for the monotone
is to teach him to sing a perfectly smooth tone.
will not always be a cure
but willbe effective in most
To prevent the monotone from spoiling the ears
of other pupils in the class, he should be placed in the
front seat where he cannot be heard by the pupils back
of him and the good singers behind will help him to find
his tone.
It is not recommended that the monotone be
kept silent; this is a sure way of keeping him from ever
learning to sing in tune.
Let the boy sing softly and
smoothly and he will soon be able to adjust his voice to
correct pitch.
G-iddings, og. cit., p. 136.
The earlier the corrective training for monotones
is begun the better, as it thus forestalls the fixing of
wrong impressions and habits and there is less of selfconsciousness to be overcome.
It is generally conceded
to be best for these pupils not to sing with the class
during the singing lesson as they mar the tone of
group, and their imperfect singing is confusing and req
tards the progress of others.'
Cundiff offers the fol­
lowing constructive suggestions:
These children should receive daily individual
help. When properly handled this work can be done
during the music period with class co-operation
through-out the first four grades. The spirit of
play should be employed and the child led to see
nothing to be ashamed of in his voice. It is
futile to tell him his tones are right if they
are not, but he must feel each day that he is
accomplishing something........ Glass co-opera­
tion must be good natured and constructive, an
attitude largely to be created by the teacher...
As soon as he can carry a tune with the others
he should join in the class singing. To do this
work with monotones successfully requires interest
and tact. If the primary teachers have been con­
scientious and skillful there will be but a few
monotones found in the fourth grade, except those
who may come in from schools where no training
has been given them. ^
Cundiff and Dykema, op. cit., p. 70.
pp. 70-71*
Whether the deficiency shows itself in singing
entirely, on one pitch, or in merely singing out of tune,
Crane also takes the position that the best remedy is
individual help to meet individual needs.^
In large
classes, and if the music period is short, it is often
deemed impossible to deal with children individually,
but this is because few teachers realize what two or
three minutes twice a week will do for a pupil.
If the
pupil is too timid, or conscious of his failings to be
willing to sing in the presence of the class, a teacher
may accomplish much by taking the pupil alone after school.
The following devices may prove beneficial:
Call the child’s name with the syllables an octave
apart, and ask the child to imitate the sound.
of Indian calls while patting the lips, train whistle, etc.,
may be helpful.
In most cases large intervals are at first
more easily imitated than small ones.
If the child can­
not imitate the sound given him by the teacher, ask him
to sing a tone, allowing him to take any pitch possible
to him, then let the teacher join with him and sing up
or down the scale or chord line, depending on whether the
Crane, op. cit., pp.55-56.
child has taken a
high or low p i t c h . J P h e use of the
teacher*s hand to show whether the pitch moves up or
down may assist the child.
Ask him also to move his
hand up as he sings higher, and down as he sings lower.
Drawing a line on the blackboard up or down as the pitch
ascends or descends, often serves to convey the impres­
sion of change of pitch.
The child should be told when
he is too high or too low.
He needs to be encouraged
and praised for improvement, even though slight.
An important factor in dealing with monotones
is the voice of the teacher.-1*4
She should possess what
she would transfer to the pupil, namely, a youthful qual­
ity of singing voice, correct in pitch.
The process,
therefore, is largely one of hearing correctly and imi­
As to drills for these children, the teacher
should be careful to find something of musical value,
for instance:
Why tell the child to buzz like a bee when the
bee itself is a monotone? Instead, give a short
simple song, and if he cannot sing the whole of it
he can imitate at least a few tones. He will then
Ibid,, pp.55-56.
Katherine Davis Detmold, "The Correction of Mono­
tones", Music Educator *s National Conference, 1957 Yearbook,
Chicago: Music Educator *s Conference)? p. 251.
feel as if he had some part in the lesson. It is sur­
prising what a little interest, created in such a man­
ner, will do toward making the child put forth more
effort to produce the tone. . . . Call the roll each
day using the tones of the tonic chord and have the
child answer back on the same tones they have heard.
Do not segregate these children or make them feel
they have no part in the group. Place the good sing­
ers back of them. In every way possible enable to
hear the song correctly done.
Many children cannot sing because they have not
learned to listen accurately. In such cases G-lenn
places strong emphasis upon the fact that the most success­
ful results can be obtained through individual help.
corrective work given to inaccurate singers should be
short, attractive, and presented in the spirit of play
which should exclude, however, a certain amount of ser­
iousness and concentration.
The following concrete suggestions may be used in
giving the individual help to children show sing inaccur­
With the younger children,
(1) Try using imitation calls or phrases chanted
on a high tone; then those that involve octaves, start­
ing on a high pitch. If the child cannot match the
teacher’s tone, let him sing any tone he can and let
the teacher match his tone. Some children use only
Detmold, op. cit.
G-lenn, og. cit. , p. 23.
high tones; others will sing only low tones, and
often it is possible to get good results from working
up or down from the child's tones.
12) G-smies of "Boat” and 11Train" are helpful. Toeplays benefit the musical as well as the unmusical
child. The child must match the choo-choo of the
teacher if he wants to ride the train, or the toe-too
if he wants a boat ride.
(3) A child with a clear,, sweet, high voice may
act as teacher to a pupil with a less musical voice,
or a small group may keep a call sounding with a
light tone while the less musical child tries to make
his voice match their tone.
(4) A conversationr-may be carried on between the
teacher and pupil in a singing tone. For example:
Teacher (singing on a high pitch): "have you seen
my dog? 11
Pupil (trying for the same pitch): "Yes, I saw him
run away•"
(5) Raising his hand as high as he can reach
often helps the pupil to raise the pitch of his own
voice. It gives the child a mental concept of some­
thing high.
In concluding the discussion of means to
assist children who have pitch difficulties it must always
be borne- in mind that individual help brings quickest
most gratifying returns.
The teacher should always build
upon what the child succeeds in doing.
Persistent effort
with very simple methods -sometimes will secure surprising
If the unmusical child can be induced to sing
softly, and at the same time listen to some accurate
Ibid., p. 24.
voices near him, he will eventually find his head-voice
and in time be able to sing.
T o
Stone expresses the hope­
ful thought that:
“As a rule, time, patience, and personal attention
will eliminate monotones within the first year.
is worthy of honest effort.11
Stone, op. cit., p.5.
Ibid., p.2.
The aim
This chapter will he devoted to the subject of
vocal technique which will be discussed under two head­
ings, namely; tone quality, and intonation.
Tone quality.
The emotional attitude of the
child plays an important part in tone production.
fore one of the first steps is to induce a happy condi­
tion of mind, so that the voice may reflect this mood,"*'
Pupils cannot be scolded into beautiful singing.
bright, happy spirit and an interested mind cannot be
over estimated in voice production.
The sweet, natural
voice of the child should be conserved at all times.
only the teacher himself should be conscious of beautiful
tone quality, but he should endeavor to train his pupils
to recognize and appreciate it.
The quality and not the
quantity of the voice is all important.
Pupils may be
directed to sing more distinctly, but not more loudly;
more sweetly, but not more loudly; more sweetly, but not
more softly.
Stone, ££. cit., p. 6.
They should "be encouraged to listen to ot;her voices in
the class*
Relevant to the importance of a proper emotional
mood in securing good tone quality, the following ideas
may prove helpful to the teacher:
(1) A happy quality
of tone can come only from a happy heart; (2) A change
of facial expression will often change and improve the
quality of tone; (3) If children sing badly, make them
happy and they will sing better; (4) Before beginning
a song, see that the children are comfortable, and in
a cheerful frame of mind; a pleasant smile from the
teacher, or a well chosen comment, may all be time saved
in the end, as the result cannot be the best, if the
spirits are dull; (5) Frequently use songs of a bright
and lively character, varying with songs of a quieter
mood, but avoid somber depressing or sad songs, especial­
ly with younger children; (6 ) Choose song of high pitch
rather than low pitch.
The quality of voice used by
children on the c or d above middle £, is usually sweet
and clear, and free from throat contractions.
By sing­
ing down from this pitch, children naturally carry this
good quality of voice down, thus creating a free, even
quality of tone throughout the entire compass of the
voice, whereas if they begin on middle c, they are more
likely to sing heavy
thick tones, which when carried
up, not only produce a disagreeable sound but cause a
break in the voice, and often fear of the high tones.
Clear,distinct articulation should be required
in singing as well as in reading and speaking.
enunciation can be made a matter of habit.
As the vow­
els in songs are the singable parts in words, they should
be sustained.
Light natural singing with high pitched
voices in the primary grades will insure the correct use
of the voice and strengthen the delicate growing bands.
Ease of production and good, quality go hand in
So-called hearty singing and loud, coarse tone
quality are always to be discouraged.
In the opinion of
the authors of the Progressive Music Series:
One cause of the raucous, disagreeable quality
so often heard in children's singing is the habit­
ual abuse of the vocal organs on the playground.
Children should be cautioned against unnecessary
yelling, screeching, and shouting.5
Good tone quality should be characterized by pur­
ity, sweetness, and lightness.
There should be freedom
and lack of strain in producing tones.
There should be
Crane, oj>. cit., pp.68-69.
Stone, og. cit., p. 7.
Progressive Music Series, Teacher 1s Manual,
(New York; Silver Burdette and Company, 1919), Vol. I, p.16.
pleasant facial expression, and the lips should be
flexible and rounded in a natural easy manner, for
puckering the lips injures the tone.
It is unwise to
refer specifically to these physical conditions, but
rather should they be obtained through general suggestions
as to the expression of the feeling or mood of the song*
Hollis Dann gives the following suggestion for
tone production:
The teeth must be apart, the muscles of the
tongue, lips, and face, flexible and soft in the
singing of all vowels. The mouth must be opened
easily and naturally. An unnatural and distorted
expression of the face while singing is conclu­
sive evidence of a bad tonal condition. A stiff,
forced condition of the open mouth may be quite
as bad as the closed teeth. One of the most com­
mon errors is the neglect to open the back part
of the throat and mouth. The lips and teeth may
be wide open while the tongue and soft palate com­
pletely close the throat. However, no direct ap­
peal should ever be made to the child to "open the
throat", Such instructions cause an unnatural ef­
fort and develops wrong conditions. The singer
should feel the sensation of gently lifting the
tones. Sometimes the act of yawning wilj help to
give this sensation of lifting the tone.
Correct enunciation and pronunciation are of vi­
tal importance in securing good tone.
To make a song a
thing of beauty, good tone-quality, artistic phrasing,
clean attacks and release, and clear enunciation are
Hollis Dann, oj). cit., Book II, p. 7.
most necessary factors.
The teacher should bear in mind
that the formation of correct habits of voice production
in youth lay the foundation for an attractive adult voice.
Children should be taught to sing softly for a soft
mellow tone improves the voice.^
The way to preserve the
vocal instrument is to practice much with a soft voice.
The most important of all the advantages in the
use of soft tones is that it prevents undue strain
upon the vocal instrument, thus preserving the power
and freshness of the voice.
However, it seems to be the opinion of many edu­
cators that soft singing can be exaggerated and over-em­
Concerning this topic the following signifi­
cant remarks are made by Crane:
There seems to be much .misunderstanding as to
what is meant by “soft singing*1. JMothing is more
undesirable than a flabby, breathy, covered tone.
If the teacher makes such a tone in her attempt
to sing softly, the children imitate it at once,
and the result is most unpleasant. When-a child*s
voice is at its best, it has the clearness of a
bell without the slightest trace of the metallic
quality, nor harshness of any kind. It is pure,-^
crystal like, and with great carrying power. . .
G-lenn, op. cit., p. 61.
Mary Ingles James, Scientific Tone Production
(Boston: Boston Music Company, 1931), p. 85.
Loc. cit.
Crane, op. cit., p. 70.
11 Ibid.
So much has been said about the harm of forcing
the child voice that the evil results of tension caused
by too much restraint are often over-looked.
To quote
Crane again:
This is especially true of boys, during the per­
iod of mutation. . . .A teacher with a sensitive ear
constantly reiterating "sing softly" to a boy who has
just tumbled into the possession of his manly voice,
is certainly a discouraging, if not an annoying ele­
ment in the boy's musical experience. . . .Restraint
often causes a holding of the muscles of the throat,
and even ugly contractions of the face, which pro­
duces a pinched and meager quality of voice, as well
as greatly limiting the range. The result of the al­
lowing more freedom in the use of the volume of tone
even when the sound is far from musical, have proved
the wisdom of the plan, in that the voices that have
developed under this regime are full and mellow, and
of unusually wide range for untrained voices.12
It is all important that correct habits of tone
production be acquired during' the first year in school,
and that the head tones shall be developed? and not al­
lowed to become breathy or harsh.
To attain this vital— *
ly important result, the teacher should maintain the same
standard in all of the singing whether it is dictation
and sight reading material or rote songs.
The teacher
should have the ability to discriminate between good and
bad tone production and the skill to eliminate bad tonal
conditions •
Ibid., pp. 63-64.
“Any successful teacher wno is not tone-deaf has
the capacity to learn to do this, "but it requires spec­
ial training under an expert, and cannot be gained from
reading alone.11"^
From the previous discussion it can readily be
seen that the teacher herself must possess reasonably
good voice quality*
It will be futile to expect that
the children sing correctly if the teacher's own singing
is harsh, disagreaable, and full of faults in articula14
tion and enunciation.
The power of imitation is the
child*s strongest menfeal asset.
If good models are given
constantly, the child will soon learn to imitate them*
Intonation* Singing out of tune, or as it is gen­
erally called, “bad intonation1*, is a frequent fault of
young singers.
It is very disagreeable and should be
According to Bates
to wrong breathing.
, sharp singing is often due
Too much breath is forced through
the larynx by the aid of the shoulders and the upper ribs,
Hollis Dann, op, cit., p. 31*
Horatio Parker, 0. McConathy, E. B. Birge and
W. 0. Miessner, Teacher1s Manual Chew York: Silver, Bur­
dette and Company, 1919), Vol. I, p. 16.
Bates, op. cit., p. 59*
the air striking against the vocal cords with a "gust of
breath” instead of a "gentle breeze."
The vibrations
of the vocal cords are thus increased beyond the proper
pitch, and the tone is raised.
A boy who has a whistle
that gives a shrill note c, can by blowing with extra
forc.e raise the pitch to c sharp.
This is what happens when young singers raise
the shoulders and then lower them so that the pressure
and the compression of the upper ribs force the breath
too strongly through the larynx.
Citing Bates
again, another cause of sharp sing­
ing is squeezing the tone forward on the closed vowels
e and i.
When this is done the notes, especially those
above e, are pinched and sharp.
Boys whose voices are
breaking use undue effort to produce certain notes and
sing sharp in consequence.
Flat singing is a very common fault of children
and choir boys.
It is caused mainly by the use of the
forced chest tone.
The strain on the delicate vocal
muscles by the production of this unnatural tone is so
Bates, 0£. cit.
Loc. cit.
great that it causes them to relax, and thus lowers the
This flatting is more noticeable when children
are asked to sing on one tone.
If the vocal muscles are
fixed in a certain position, they are effected just as the
muscles of any other part of the body would be.
A child
who holds out a reading book at arms length, at right
angles to the shoulder, will very soon find that his arm
becomes tired, and there wij.1 be a tendency to lower the
So, if the vocal muscles are fixed, as with sing­
ing on one tone with heavy chest voice ihey will soon
grow tired and relax, with the result of flat singing.
Other causes for singing out of tune as given by
tl) Ringing in bad atmosphere, as in a crowded
or badly ventilated hall. The lung cannot under
such conditions inhale sufficient oxygen to keep
the muscles of the body in good working order.
(2 ) Singing when physically or mentally tired,
as though over-exertibm in games or studies, or
through want of sleep.
M 3 )Singing when in ill-health.
14) Singing when the voice is breaking and cannot
be controlled.
Bates^ advises further that when bad intonation
Bates, 0£. cit., p. 60.
, pp. 62-63.
is the result of one of the last four causes little can
be done to prevent it; but in the case of sharp singing
and flat singing,the cure, as explained previously in
this chapter, is to breathe correctly and maintain a
vital posture*
A few children may have what is called a nbad
ear" for music.
That is, they do not readily distinguish
between one musical sound and another, and are not able
to imitate a pitch that the teacher may sing or play on
the piano, or if they do imitate the pitch, they unknow­
ingly sing out of tune.
In many such cases it is not
the "ear*11 that is at fault—
proper training.
it is sometimes the-want of
Boys and girls, like men and women,
differ very much in their fondness for music; but it can
be said with safety that the majority of our children can,
with patience and perseverance learn to sing with pleasing
voice and good intonation*
No child should be allowed to deny himself the
pleasure which music affords on the plea of “no voice•5
or "bad ear" for both complaints are often curable.
Summary. In concluding the discussion of vocal
technique, the following points should be born in mind
by the teacher:
1. Before maturity, children should sing with the
light, flute-like head voice, common to all normal child­
ren .
2 . The thick, heavy, lower voice should be used
sparingly or be avoided altogether*
3. Music teaching in public school where a harsh
strident, throaty, unmusical and unpleasant tone is tol­
erated, does more harm than good and is a positive menace
to youthful voices.
4. It is the duty of every teacher who attempts
to teach singing to children, to prepare himself to give
safe and intelligent instruction.
5. In the matter of tone production, example is
stronger than precept.
6. Owing to its technical character vocal music
in the schools requires skillful supervision, without
which it is extremely unwise to make any attempt to teach
the subject.
Hollis Dann, op. cit. p. 31.
Diction defined.
The term diction has two ac­
cepted definitions: 1 . Choice of word for expressing
ideas, and 2 . the art or manner or oral expression as
regards pronunciation, enunciation, clarity or meaning­
fulness of utterance.
It Is to the second definition
that Green ^ refers when
he maintains that one of the
most important factors to be remembered by the singer
or the
speaker is “purity” of diction.
If singing is
to be speech and song, we must sing the language as it
should be spoken.
Pure vowel sounds should be used.
The English language is particularly difficult to speak
or sing.
Variations of word accentuation are numerous.
If one is to have a clear understanding as to the
meaning of the word diction, pronunciation and enunciation
must be defined at this point.
Pronunciation, in its strictest sense, is the cor­
rect ness with which articulate sounds are uttered.
example, "get11 called “git”;
“tremendous”, ”tremenejus” ;
Harry P. Greene, Interpretation in Song (Hew York
Macmillan Company, 1921) , p. 10.
“address11, “address51; “film", “fillura15, are matters of
correctness, or pronunciation*
While in cases in which
the sounds are all correctly given, the accent properly
placed, and the syllables correctly divided, and yet in
which the utterance so lacks in clearness and the general
effect upon the ear is that of a blurring sound, it is a
matter of fullness and distinctness, or enunciation. 2
Pronunciation, as explained by Houghton 3 is the
correct utterance of words in four particulars:
1 . Correctness of the vowel sounds, as "get",
not "git"; “roses," not “rosuz",
2 .Correctness of the consonant sounds, as "pro­
fuse," not “profuze"; “exit", not " exzit"•
3* Correct division of words into syllables, as
“vow el", not "vow1!"; “elm," not "el lum".
Correct placing of the accent, as "entire,"
not "entire"; "ordeal", not "ordeal."
If words are properly uttered in these four res­
pects, the pronunciation is perfect*
But how rarely do
we find a speaker or singer who is able to pronounce
H* G-* Houghton, Elements of Speaking,(Boston:
Ginn and Company, 1916), p. 127.
Ibid*, p . 143•
with accuracy even the common words of our language.
Fillebrown points out that it is a matter of
common observation that American singers, although they
may be very careful in their pronunciation of their
French and German, are indifferent and even very care­
less, in the clear and finished enunciation of their
native tongue.
The singer must never forget that his
mission is to vitalize text with tone.
"Pronunciation (concerns not only the listener
but the singer and the speaker, for pure tone and pure
pronunciation cannot be divorced.fl
cannot exist without the other.
Correct pro­
and beautiful tone are so interdependent as
to be inseparable.
The words, according to Fillebrown,
should seem to be formed by the upper lip and to come
through it.
It is found that this method makes words
easy to pronounce distinctly.
Clear enunciation
is a
is an enormous asset since it
vital factor in the pronunciation of words and the
teacher should encourage the student to make each and
Fillebrown, op. cit., p. 19.
every word clean cut and clearly understandable.
his booh, “Science of the Voice”, Stanley tells us that
the lips must be strengthened by using them neatly and
vigorously for articulation, and even by direct exercise.
The lips should never be drawn over to touch the teeth
during the act of phonation, and therefore, the pupil
must be taught to open them, thereby showing a few of
the upper, and not lower, teeth all the time he is sing­
The use of a mirror may be permitted for the
purpose of allowing the pupil to see whether his lips
are in the proper position.
This author advocates ex­
ercises for strengthening the lips by holding them open
before a mirror.
He also advises against excessive use
of the mirror to avoid self-consciousness.
tells us that no pains should be spared
by the pupil to perfect himself on pronunciation, which
lies at the root of artistic enunciation, a thing too
often neglected by vocalists.
To quote Mackenzie on the
subject of pronunciation, he says,
Stanley, op. cit., p. 143.
Sir Morell Mackenzie, The Hygiene of the Vocal
Organs.(Belmar, New Jersey: Edgar S. Werner, 192b77""p ^* 113.
“Without it,song'loses one of its greatest charms,
and the voice of ’articulately-speaking man* becomes
little more expressive than sounding brass or tinkling
cymbal f
Children will have learned from reading
and grammar that the vowels in the English language are
a, e, i, o, and u, and that every syllable must contain
at least one of them.
It should be explained that in
reality, however, there are more than five of these
vowel sounds, because some, such as a, are pronounced
in several ways as in far, fate, fat, etc.
Bates^ tells
us that it unfortunately happens that several of the
vowels that are most often used are very bad for sing­
ing purposes, and if sung as most people speak them
would be "non-resonant" and 11tone-cramping".
This is thv.
more unfortunate because vocal tone is, of course pro­
duced entirely on the vowels,
and the consonants do more
to hinder than to help.
"To secure pure resonant tone, therefore, it is
necessary to make the fullest possible use of the vowels
Bates, op. cit., p. 2?.
that are good for our purpose*11
Stanley-*-^ has written that the vowels contain a
greater part of the energy of the speaking or singing
sounds; that the vowels can be sustained more or less
steadily and are. periodic in their nature, or in other
words they consist of a series of sound waves substantial­
ly constant in shape during the phonation of a given vowel*
Stanley regards singing as the production of a number of
more or less sustained vowels separated by consonants or
by pauses.
describes the different vowel-sounds
as a result of the gradual elongation of the mouth-cavity combined with alterations in the shape and size of its
external orifice produced by the varying action of the
To cite Mackenzie again; when producing vowel
sounds the mouth acts as a resonator, the inlet of which
is at the back, and the outlet at the lips, both orifices
being alike variably in length and in shape.
The proper
production of the vowels depends on distinctness'.of
ticulation and the final, as it is the severest, test of
Stanley, op. cit., p. 36.
Ib id .
Mackenzie, op.cit.
p. 165.
a speaker*s training is the perfection of his rendering
those five letters, _a, e, i_, o_, and u.
The good tone-producing, resonant vowels as given
by Bates, Mills,
and others are as follows:
ho. I. AH, as in Father.
No. 2. E, as in Egg.
No. 3, I, as in Pin.
No. 4. 00, as in Tooth.
No.5. 0
, as in Oak.
No. B. AW, as in Gnaw.
No. 7. 0, as in On.
It is recommended by these
that the class should learn these
authors andothers
sevensinging vowels
very thoroughly and be accustomed to use them on every
possible occasion.
Also, to explain to each and every
class or student that the o, _e, and i named above as good
singing vowels are not the ordinary d , e_, and i. included
among the five speaking vowels of the English alphabet.
It should be carefully explained that No. 2 is not the
(e) of (me), but_e_ as in egg.
No. 3 is not the i. of
“ 14
Bates, op. cit., pp. 23-27.
Mills, op. cit., pp. 218-221.
night, but i_ as in pin.
No.7 is not the o of oak, hut
as in on.
Many students will ask ,"What of the hundreds of
words which contain other vowels than the seven named in
the table above?"
Bates answers this question by saying,
"it is possible to sing nearly all words (say at least
ninety1.per cent) on the seven good vowels and combinations
of them."
Under the study of the good singing vowels the
following information is valuable in child voice training.
Five non-resonant vowels which require special treat­
ment are i as in "night", u as in "music", ow as in "now",
oi as in "joy", and a as in "save".
These all tend to
pull down and cramp the tone in the throat, but here again
our seven good vowels, or rather combinations of them, can
easily be substituted.
Let the list of good singing vowels,
numbered one to seven on the previous page be continued as
given again by Bates.
No. 8 . i, as
(vowels 1 and 3
in "night", should be sungas ah-i
in former list) gliding together.
No. 9. u, as
in "music," should be
(vowels 3 and 4), gliding together.
sungas i-oo
No. 10.ow, as in "now", should be sung as .ahiqo
(vowels 6 and 3), gliding together.
No. 11. ox, as in "joy", should be sung as aw-1
(vowels 6 and 3), gliding together*
op. cit.
Loc. cit.
No. 12. a, as in ’’save” and “make11, should be
sung as ei (vowels 2 and 3), gliding together.
It would be of interest to the children, and at
the same time impress upon them the importance of
substituting good vowels for bad ones, to get them
to sing some familiar piece to the best vowels
dipthongs only. They willthen realize, too, how
exceptional it is to come across a word that cannot
be fitted to one or more of the seven vowels and five
combinations. °
List of vocalizing vowels for the child voice as
selected from the 11Silver Book” of
the “Music Hour Series11,
Bates, Mills, and others.
1 . ah as in “fahher".
eas in “egg".
ias in “pin11.
4. oo as in “tooth11.
5. o as in “oak“.
6 . aw as in “gnaw".
oas in “on".
ias in “night", sung as ahi(l and 3 gliding
9. u as in “music", sung as ioo(3 and 4 gliding
10.ow as in "now1
,1 sung as ahoo(l and 4 gliding
11. oy as in "joy", sung as awi (6 and 3 gliding
12. a as in "save” , sung as
(2 and 3 gliding
13. u as in "much”, sung as a modification of q.
(vowel no. 7.)
14. £ as in “Earth0,sung as a modification of ah
(Aumber 1 ).
15. & as in “bat0, sung as a modification of e
( number 2 ).
In singing the consonants w and y are always
treated as vowels.
When beginning a word, y is sung as
i such as number three of the above list, and as in “yet0
(sung as i-et) and "you" (sung as i-oo).
When y occurs at some other part of a word than
the beginning, as in “merry11, it is sung as i_(no. 3).
and sometimes as ah-i (hos. 1 and 3) as in “try0 (trah).:.'
w is changed to oo. as in tooth, such words as “will0
being sung oo-ill, “wit0 oo-it and “were0 oo-ere. The
sound of wh in words like “when0, “where0, “which0, is
sung to the oo vowel as in tooth and is preceded by ghe
aspirate “h u , thus:
“when0 is sung as hooen
“where0 is sung as hooer
“which0 is sung as hooich
“white0 is sung as hooahit
Bates, ££. cit., p. 30.
sums up the most important considerations
of the vowels to impress upon the singing class as follows
1. Pure vocal tone can only he produced on the
singing vowels.
2. The best tone-producing vowels are the seven
named on the third page of this chapter,
3. With a little care and practice very nearly
all words can be sung on the seven good vowels and the
five diphthongs on pages 3 and 4 of this chapter.
enunciation being also accomplished.
Consonants are formed with the ton­
gue and lips, in the mouth, and with the exception of
the gutturals, in the front of the mouth,
is is only possible for the singer or speaker to artic­
ulate perfectly when the tone is resonated pharyngeally
and the mouth is left free to form the consonants.
the mouth serves as the resonator of the vowel sounds,
there is considerable interference between them and the
consonants, since the singer will be trying to use his
mouth for articulation when it is being shaped for vowel
position, and the two actions will conflict.
Bates, op. cit.
p. 33,
Stanley, op. cit., p. 143.
The properly formed consonant is produced by
means of very rapid, vigorous and, at the same time,
small movements of the articulating parts.
For this
reason consonant practice is a necessary phase of vocal
training and the tongue— principally the tip of the ton­
and the lips, which have to be strengthened and
brought under control, must be exercised. 22
very briefly states that consonants
have been variously divided by grammarians and physio­
logists according to the modification of the air-blasfc
in delivering them, and again according to the supposed
anatomical factor in their production.
Thus we have the
division into lip-letters known as labials( b, p, f, m,
v, ), tooth-letters or dentals (d, t, 1 , n, r, s, ), and
throat-letters or gutturals (g, k, h, j ), and the more
scientific, but less practically convenient, classifica­
tion into explosives, resonants, vibrants and aspirates.
B a tes^ tells us that it should be explained that
the consonants are like little shutter separating vowels
Stanley, op. cit., p. 143.
Mackenzie, ojo. cit. p. 165.
Mackenzie, op. cit., p. 166.
Bates, op. cit., p. 33.
from each other and labelling them with a meaning*
author says it is utterly impossible to make musical tone
out of the consonants such as b, c, d, g, f, j, k, 1, m,
h, Pj ox3 r, s, t, v, x, or z.
It is also pointed out
that the only way ato secure full vocal effect and clear
enunciation is to train the class to make the vowels as
long as possible and the consonants short but distinct.
The initial consonant of a word or syllable should always
be sounded instantly, so that the singer may pass at
once to the tone-producing vowel.
Consonants in the
middle of a word should be treated in the same way,
hurrying on to the following vowel.
But consonants
at the end of words must, if the meaning is to be clear
to listeners, have just a little more time given to them
and be sounded very distinctly .
To insure the best tone quality and distinct
articulation Bates ' gives the following suggestions:
1. Articulate the first and intermediate consonants
very quickly.
2. Dwell on the vowels as long as possible.
3. Articulate the final consonants quickly but
very distinctly. °
children are put on their guard, this
Bates, o p . c i t ., p. 35.
last point (i\io. 3) will become more and more difficult
tJae more tney improve in singing.
Tnis is because it is
harder to articulate while singing one of the resonant
vowels than before doing so.
That is, it is easier to
sound the first consonant than the last, although the
last is so much the more important in conveying the
word to the listeners.
As their voices become more full
and beautiful by singing on the vowels, children will find
the final consonants increasingly troublesome, and will
need to give them constant attention if people are to
understand what they are singing.
One often hears it
said of a singer who uses bad vocal tone that whatever
his faults, his words can be understood, while those
of much better singers cannot.
With proper care, how­
ever, pupils cannot only sing musically and with full
vocal effect, but can also sing clearly and be \>yell
Summary♦ A great deal has been written about the
importance of clarity of diction and considerable confu­
sion has arisen with regard to the factors which govern
The research offered in this chapter is by no means
a complete explanation of diction, but the parts described
are those which confront the school music teacher.
tainly the words are being sung should clearly and definit
ly understood by the audience*
It was pointed out that
clarity of diction depends far more upon consonants than
Trying to form a clearly understood vowel at
the expense of the tone is technically destructive.
tone must always be of good quality.
Many examples have been given in the foregoing
pages which will furnish the teacher with a guide to
pronunciation for almost any word that he might encount­
These examples have been cited, not as exercises
for the child to labor with but for the teacher to keep
in mind and suggest to his pupils when the occasion may
Very little has been written about vocal hygiene
for the cnild, therefore the major portion of the re­
search reported in this chapter pertains to the pro­
fessional singer rather than to the child or adoles­
However, it is felt that the teacher may profit
by having a knowledge of vocal hygiene as recommended
by such authorities as Mills, Mackenzie, and others,
which may be conveyed to the child through the training
and guidance of the voice instructor.
James Bates1 sums up the problem of vocal hy­
giene for children in a few short paragraphs which are
cited as follows.
Boys and girls should be taught to
be careful, especially immediately after singing.
exertion of singing leaves the throat and larynx in a
heated condition and should not be exposed to sudden
changes in temperature.
This author does not advocate
the wearing of scarves to protect the throat.
Bates on this topic:
Bates, o p . cit.,p. 21.
To quote
"Boys and girls wno wear these so-called throat
protectors run twice tne risk as their unprotected comp
panions •"
Influence of general health on the voice*
should, in the broadest sense, refer to the entire physi­
cal make-up of an individual, his body, intellect, feelings,
and will.
The term has usually been restricted to the pre­
servation of bodily health.
It is recognized however, that
man is a whole, and that one part of him cannot suffer with­
out the others taking part#
In this chapter the general
welfare of the voice user will be studied.
as artists.
writes that singers are athletes as well
A vocal artist must always be in training,
and his life is therefore full of self-sacrifices.
are many things he must be concerned with if he is to keep
his voice at its best.
So what is good for the singer*s
general health is beneficial to the condition of his
It is related that a friend of Sir
Morell Macken­
zie's whose beautiful voice was well known in London
society said that his voice distinctly gained in clearness
Ibid., p. 22.
ojd .
cit., p. 143.
and flexibility while he was under severe training for
the University Boat-race.
Food. We know that food is required by the body
as fuel is by a fire, for the repair of the waste of tis­
sue that is constantly going on.
The more exercise the
body receives the more waste increases; thus more food
is needed.
We learn from the study of physiology that the
two main functions of the diet are the formation of flesh
and the generation of heat, the former being taken care
of by the nitrogenous, and the latter by the carbonaceous
It is therefore necessary that the body receive,
from time to time, certain amounts of nitrogen and carbon.
Mackenzie states that it is calculated that 300 grains
of nitrogen and 4,800 grains of carbon are required to
keep an adult body in a state of proper efficiency.
trogen is mainly supplied by eating animal substances
and carbon is furnished by bulky grains, flour, and meals.
Of course each category contains a certain proportion of
Eating vegetables of the proper amounts will fur­
nish these substances and does not require an unnecessary
Ibid., p. 146.
amount of work for the digestive system as would the
eating of heavier foods.
Not only the amount eaten, but
also the cooking of the food is of great importance to
the vocalist.
Fried foods are coated with a layer of
fat and will not permit the digestive juices to take
proper effect.
Indigestion will rob the voice of its true qual­
ity and it is wise to take the meal at least three hours
before singing or speaking.
It is best to avoid an even­
ing meal made up of too solid foods which usually result
in a restless night. Citing Mackenzie again; temperance
of every kind is more necessary for the singer than for
almost any other profession.
Tobacco. While probably every one would agree
that tobacco should not be used by children, Mackenzie
an others are of the opinion that older singers may
smoke moderately without harmful results, provided they
do not inhale the smoke into the lungs as is done by
many who use cigarettes. Mackenzie relates that smoke
cannot fail to irritate the mucous membrane of the deep­
er air passages, which is even more delicate than the
covering of the eye.
No doubt this is very true and it
is just as harmful to blow smoke of a cigar up behind
the palate and out through the nose.
Clothing. Clothing is a matter of importance to
the singer and speaker or any one who is concerned with
his health.
The clothing worn should be suitable to the
season and the weather.
The parts of the body needing
protection in singers are the chest and throat.
chest should never be exposed to cold air and the throat
need not be muffled up in the day time unless the air is
extremely cold.
At night, where the air becomes consider­
ably cooler, or when coming out of a warm room or crowded
theatre, the throat should be carefully wrapped up and
the mouth kept closed.
Stiff collars, especially the old fashioned kind
are very uncomfortable and should never be worn by the
The abdomen and chest should not
with tightly fitted clothes.
be covdred
These parts of the body must
be free and comfortable.
Other external things to be guarded against by the
singer are fog, dust, smoke, sulphur fumes, and gases.
Sitting in stuffy smoke-filled rooms is especially perni­
cious, as the heat and irritation combined make the throat
doubly sensitive to cole when the outer air has to be
Over-heating is dangerous for voice-users because
of the increased risk of chill.
It is wise not to venture
out in extreme cold winds, hut in fine weather the outer
air is a useful stimulant*
Mackenzie says that women should walk not less
than three and men not less than six miles a day*
tennis, indoor hall and other sports are recommended as
ideal for improving the “wind" and invigorating the mus­
Running, climbing hills or hunting are not advis­
able for the vocal artist.
Any sport that leads to shout­
ing and misusing the vocal chords should he avoided.
JNearly all vocal instructors will advise
not to use the voice when the throat is in any way out
of order*
The most common throat trouble is a cold and
is a nuisance to everyone.
Boys and girls as well as the
adult should be most careful, especially immediately after
^he exertion of singing, as is the case when
work of any kind is done, produces heat; and when the
larynx and the throat are thus heated, people are liable
to catch cold in the throat.
In this respect.
Sfcngers are great sufferers
When after singing or an evening prac­
tice they pass out into the cold air with heated throats
they should be more careful to breathe through the nostrils.
Mackenzie, op. cit., p. 157.
The air passing through the nostrils is warmed and the
risk of catching cold is thus greatly lessened.
ienced singers on leaving a concert room are always most
careful to close the lips and breathe through the nostrils.
Many even make a rule not to apeak for some minutes, un­
til the heated vocal apparatus has had time to cool.
ly by adapting these precautions are they able to keep
from colds in the throat and thus maintain their
voices in first class condition.
Nodes often result
from using the voice too vigorously when one has a cold.
Another very frequent cause of sore throat is
the wearing of scarves.
People who wear these so-call­
ed throat protectors run twice as much risk as their
unprotected companions.
By carefully and fully exposing
the throat at all times to the air it is hardened and
strengthened, and people render themselves for less
liable to colds.
states that the usual reason for making
a change of bill in arrangement of performances is be­
cause the singer has a cold.
Of course this is not
W # Voorhees,Hygiene of the Voice (New York:
Macmillan Company, 1923), p. 44.
always a valid reason; for a 11cold11 is a very convenient
excuse, and is ordinarily quite acceptable*
However, it
does not require much of a cold to put a singer quite
out of the running, so to speak.
As to the cure of colds, much material has been
read and investigated.
The conclusions are given in
Camphor, quinine and belladonna are quite often
used for cold relief because they react quite rapidly,
but any drug of this type has a tendency to dry up the
secretion quickly and to parch the mucous membrane.
Every singer and speaker knows, a dry throat is fatal to
good tone work.
Many suffer from chronic laryngitis or bronchitis
and have a constant desire to clear
blowing or with the use of drugs.
their air ways b y
These conditions are
easy to detect because the voice will be good one day
and bad the next.
Specialists tell us that in spite
of all the various singing methods which are supposed
to cure such infection, it still persists because the
bacterial cause is still present deep down beneath the
mucous membrane and cannot be permanently routed out,
F. E. Miller, The Voice, Its Production, Care
an(i Preservation (New York: G-. Schirmer, 1931) , p. 146.
Thus it is quite easy to understand that no amount of
vocalization or breathing exercises can ever hope to
effect the cure.
The cautious voice-user will discon­
tinue his work after the acute symptoms of an infection
have begun.
Some think that an engagement outweighs
every other consideration, but this is undoubtedly a
Following are important rules for vocalists to
consider as given by Miller:
Luke-warm rather txhan hot baths.
Do not sleep in a draught.
Be careful of the neck and head after having had
a hair cut.
Eat the proper amount of food and get the proper
amount of exercise.
Smoking is very injurious.
Singers should be prepared for traveling conditions
such as proper clothing for extreme exposures , and
sleeping conditions on trains and in hotels.
Stiff high collars are injurious, because they are
irritants to blood-vessels and nerves.
The first sneege should send the artist singer to
his physician. Rest is a great cure.
Singers should avoid living in rooms heated by
apparatus which may produce carbonic acid.
Miller, op. cit., p. 146.
Practice deep breathing first tning each morning.
Regulate the thickness of the clothing in ac­
cordance with the prevailing temperature.
Very nutritive and very digestable foods should
be chosen.
Alcoholic liquors should be absolutely forbidden.
The first singing exercise should not be too long.
The first exercise should never contain the extreme
notes of the vocal range.
Tobacco irritates the pharynx and reddens the vocal
Pungent scents should be prescribed for singers.
The odors of some flowers, are for some artists, the
cause of persistent hoarseness.
Avoidance of strain-or int erference in the use of
the vocal organs.
practice is as necessary for
the vocalist's laryngeal muscles as it is for the violin­
ist's fingers, if they are to be kept supple and well
Vocal instructors recommend that these vocal
exercises should be short but frequent.
111 say the three things necessary to keep the
voice in good order are Practice, Practice, and Practice.11
Of course the amount of practice must be governed
Mackenzie, *0 £.
P # 139*
by the activities of the singer.
If one is to sing in
concert the amount of practice to preceed the appearance
must be carefully considered to avoid tiring the voice*
The voice must not be abused either in being forced beyond
its natural compass or by excessive violence of produc­
Turning the peg and tightening the string on a
violin too much will cause it to snap, and severe physical
injury to the vocal organs may be the consequences of the
straining the voice beyond the limits of its capacity.
Some indications of misusing the voice are loss of elas­
ticity of the vocal cords from over-stretching, rupture
of some of the muscular fibres or even of a blood-vessel
in the throat,
and paralysis of one or more of the laryn­
geal muscles.
Loud singing, according to Stanley , is
beneficial, but much care must be used as to the amount
of practice.
Certain modes of singing are ^sometimes
very trying to the voice yet they are to be done in an
artistic manner.
For example, staccato and the tremelo
can easily be injurious to the voice.
Staccato singing
which seems to be a natural gift and requires no training
to acquire the art, if much or frequently practiced would
in time spoil the finest voice;
the short, jerky snaps
Medical Record, March, 1885, p. 317.
Stanley and Maxfield, op. cit., p. 184,
require such a rapid succession of delicate muscular ad­
justments that exhaustion is sure to follow.
this type of singing with trying to read while an auto
is traveling at a good rate of speed thus making the
optical adjustments almost impossible and very harmful
to the eye.
Another important factor to remember in the
preservation of the voice is never to sing when it is
felt that vocal apparatus is not in its highest condi­
tion of efficiency.
The singer never should attempt any public effort
when he feels the effect of a cold, indigestion, fatigue
or any other reason for not being "in voice."
It is
said that violent or prolonged weeping is likely to dull
a voice as much as it does the eye sight.
Stanley and
Maxfield tell us,
The well-trained singer workd hard and vigorously,
but the energy expended is utilized in the production
of tone. The badly-trained singer works too, but his
work takes the form of strain or effort, since he is
endeavoring to add tension to already tensed muscles
and, at the same time to fight against interfering
Amount of Practice. Mills
relates in his book
Ibid., p. 185.
Mills, og. cit., p. 184.
on "Voice Production" that the purpose of practice is
not only to render success more certain and more perfect,
but to make efforts tell to the fullest extent with a
little expenditure of energy to the speaker or singer.
He also states that he sings best who attains the end with
the least expenditure of energy.
Many instructors inform us that the beginner
should never practice except in the presence of his or
her instructor or one who knows the correct methods and
can teach the student to form his habits wisely.
Mills-® again, practice alone may not only do little
good, but, by the formation of wrong habits of production ,
be positively mischievous.
A trainer of athletes often
stresses how and when to practice, and exercises more
supervision over it, than do some teachers of singing,
in spite of the fact that the apparatus that the singer
or speaker uses is more delicate, and wrong habits much
more injurious.
Most teachers agree that it is far better to
practice ten minutes with the whole attention of a
fresh and interested mind given intelligently to a
subject than hours of mere mechanical movement.
Mills, op. cit., 165.
to the amount of practice, reliable sources tell us that
this question:cannot be answered by any teacher, singer
or writer, nor does the experience, in itself , of any
one person furnish an adequate guide for others# 17
The time at which, as a rule, any work can best
be carried out is during the early hours of the day,
so that if it is possible, practice should begin early,
and after some preliminary exercise for the good of the
body in general*
The subject of the amount of practice, after
considering many sources, may be concluded by saying that
the student is the one with the aid of his teacher to
decide whether he is to practice five minutes or one
hour, provided that he is sufficiently observant, to know
when he begins to feel weary in
Soft and Loud Singing*
his vocal mechanism.
Soft and loud singing are
considered an important factor in the care and training
of the voice.
No wise trainer ever allows charges to
go to a racing track and at once run a hundred yards at
the highest possible speed.
sound judgment.
Such a course would be against
Hence the question if soft and loud practice
Mills, 0 £. cit., p. 185.
answers itself; the singer should never begin an exercise
forte but either piano or moderate— as to which depends
on the individual.
Some people can only after long study
produce really good tones pianissimo.
Such if not most
persons should of course begin practicing with moderate
Certainly the voice-user should, in order to gain
volume, gradually increase the vigor of his practice, but
exactly how to do this, and to what extent daily, are
questions in which the advice of sensible and experienced
teacher is of great value.
We are taught by instructors
in Public School Music courses or methods and vocal instuctbrs that the vocal exercises for children are to be
strictly moderate both as to quality and quantity, that
is to say the lesson must be very short, and at the cost
only the ten or twelve notes which form the average com­
pass of a child’s voice must be used."^
To cite Macken zie^°
further, vocal training in childhood, if properly carried
out, is not only good for the voice and health, and dis­
tinctly advantageous to both.
Mackenzie,0£. cit., p. 130.
Ibid., p. 133.
20. Ibid., p. 134.
The pupil , while practicing (in the first case
in the middle and high register, in the second only in
the high register), must limit himself to a few tones,
singing always downwards and very softly.
The tones will
be weak, husky, and often impure in the beginning, especial­
ly if not sung softly enough,but improve as the exercise
When these tones are pure and clear, the
exercises may be extended downwards, always singing soft­
The high and middle registers, or only the high reg­
ister, must be extended downwards as far as possible.
The extending downwards of a higher register is
also an excellent help in smoothing out the
break in
the voice at the passage from one register to the other.
This extending downwards of the high registers always can
be done without any danger to the voice.
The "timbre" of
the voice will even gain considerably in briliaincy and
fullness by exercising in this way.21
The school child is usually not con­
cerned with the effect of general health on his voice.
Neither does he give much thought to the effects on his
voice of proper food, clothing, or amounts of practice.
This chapter, however, deals with the foregoing topics
ojd .
c i t ., p. 166.
since it is considered important that the teacher of
voice should be informed on all points affecting the vocal
health of the students.
Boys and girls should learn to
be careful in using their voices.
It has been stated
that singers she athletes as well as artists and a vocal
artist must always be in training,
xhere are many things
that he must be concerned with if he is to keep his voice
at its best.
So what is good for the singer's general
health is beneficial to the condition of his voice.
The preceding chapters make it evident that train­
ing children to sing is no task to be undertaken lightly*
On the part of the teacher, it rdemands seriousness of
purpose, competent training, and a genuine love for good
The teacher should be person of culture and good
breeding, well educated, a good musician, able to play or
sing with reasonable technical skill, accuracy, Intellig­
ence, and taste, thoroughly grounded in the theory of mus­
ic, equipped with a wide knowledge of musical literature
and finally, must have high art ideals and be able to
arouse and maintain them in his pupils.
He should enjoy
working with children and be able to win their confidence*
The teacher of vocal music in the grade school is not
merely teaching children to sing; he is training them to
recognize lovely tone quality, to interpret songs in an
artist manner; in short he is teaching them through doing
to appreciate good music*
The factors involved in the training of the child
and also:: : adolescent voices are both physiological and
psychological, demanding of the teacher a knowledge; first
of the voice changes that are a sign of adolescence; and
second, methods of dealing with these changes designed
to help the pupil over a most trying and depressing period.
The psychological changes occuring during adoles­
cence are social and emotional.
The child wishes to be
with his own group and enters actively into any and all
clubs and organizations.
He feels a need for emotional
expression that is best satisfied by participation in
musical activities both vocal and instrumental.
Physically he is growing into manhood and uncon­
sciously develops coarse and undesirable vocal habits by
trying to make his voice keep pace with his body growth.
Singing has many-sided values.
It is physical
trailing , intellectual training and emotional guidance.
No other subject can compete with music as a means of
emotional training.
Perfect mental development is im­
possible without emotional culture, because the emotions
are an integral part of the mind.
Breathing exercises
properly taken enlarge the chest and increase breath
capacity, besides being one of the most healthful of all
Intellectually, singing excels on the side
of discipline.
It teaches self-control, obedience, unity
of action, training of the ear and provides an association
with good literature.
It has been said that music is one
of the most refined forms of mental recreation.
Another argument i# favor of singing is the fact
that a pleasant speaking voice is a valuable asset from
a business standpoint.
We cannot say that only good sing­
ers have pleasing speaking voices, but it is safe to as­
sume that if a person can sing in a pleasing way that his
speaking voice will also be pleasant and well modulated.
A pleasant voice is regarded as a mark of refinement and
culture both in men and women.
Authorities agree that with proper training, and
an understanding of the changes taking place in the mental
and physical make-up of the child, the teacher can save
his pupils, especially the boys, a great deal of mental
and physical discomfort; and by proper selection of in­
teresting song material the child’s interest in music
may be retained and his life enriched by the finest mental
recreation possible.
The following conclusions may be drawn from the
foregoing study of the child and adolescent voice.
1. That the child ¥oice is a delicate instrument
demanding careful training.
2. That the entire elementary vocal program should
be carefully planned since it represents the major portion
of the child’s musical activities*
3. That good singing during childhood constitutes
a splendid foundation for any future music study,
4. That singing gives to the child not only present
pleasure and satisfaction, but helps him to build a melodic
repertoire for future enjoyment,
5, That the technical phases should always be sub­
ordinated to the song itself since the object is not mere­
ly to teach musical symbols, but singing,
6, That the public schools do not pretend to give
children a thorough course in voice-culture, but they
should at least prevent the wrong use of the voice and
protect it from injury.
The teacher has a right to expect
that the voices of children who have sung in the schools
will be in better condition than those who have not had
this privilege, also that such pupils will be better able
to discriminate in matters of tone quality.
Y. Finally, that the success of the song period
rents largely with the teacher and in a genuine love of
good singing on his part.
Aikin, W. A., Voice. New York: Longmans, Green and Company,
1927. i59 pp.
A useful volume in which scientific research and vocal
problems are effectively combined.
Barrows, Sarah T., Voice: How to Use it. Boston: Expression
Company, 1933. 60 pp.
A book on vocal problems.
Bates, James, Voice Culture for Children.
Company, 1930. 70 pp.
New York: Novello
Especially supplies to the child voice, its care and
Beattie, McConathy, M . , Music in the Junior High School.
New York: Silver Burdette and Company, 1938. 252 pp.
Prepared especially for the teacher of the Junior
High School Blusic classes.
Coward, Henry, Choral Technique.
1914. 333 pp.
London: Novello Company,
A text book on choral problems and materials.
Crane, Julia E., Music T eacher1s Manual♦ Potsdam, New York:
Elliot Fay and sons, Printers, 1915.
142 pp.
A manual for the grade school music teacher.
Cundiff, Hannah Mathews, and Peter W. Dykema, School Music
Handbook. Boston: C. C. Birchard and Company, 1923.266 pp.
Handbook designed for teaching aids.
Curtis, Louis Woodson, ’’The Development of Vocal Music
in the Elementary Grades,” 1957 Yearbook of the Music
Educators’ National Conference. Chicago: Music Educa­
tors’ National Conference. 250 pp.
A valuable book giving recent vocal developments.
Clippinger, D. A., The Head Voice and Other Problems.
New York: Oliver Ditson and Company, 1952. 128 pp.
Class method text book.
Damrosch, Frank, Some Essentials in the Teaching of Music.
New York: G. Schirmer, 1916. 101 pp.
Essentials of musicianship and music training.
Dann, Hollis, Complete Manual for Teachers. New York:
American Book Company, 1912. 172 pp.
Instruction guide book.
. . . ., Music Educator's National Conference Year Book,
1936. 200 pp.
A valuable text of recent date, giving effective sug­
Detmold, Katherine, ’’The Correction of Monotone!!, Music
Educator's National Conference 1957 Year Book,
Chicago: Music Educator1s Conference, 1937• 251 pp.
For the correction of monotones.
Dawson, J. J . , The Voice of the Boy. Chicago: Laidlow Bro­
thers, 1919. 40 pp.
Discusses the boy voice and its many problems.
Felderman, Leon, The Human Voice.
Company, 1931. 301 pp.
New York: H. Holt and
Scientific.research on the human voice.
Fillebrown, Thomas, Resonance in the Speaking Voice.
Boston: Oliver Ditson Company, 1911. 93 pp.
Resonance and shaping organs for phonation.
Gehrkens, Karl Wilson, Music in the Grade School.
Boston: C. C. Birchard and Company, 1934. 233 pp.
A book of very important grade school music problems.
Giddings, Thaddeus P., Will Earhart, Ralph L. Baldwin,
and Eldredge W. Newton, Manual for Teachers. Boston:
Ginn and Company, 1924. 224 pp.
Handbook written on elementary music teaching.
Giddings, Thaddeus P., Grade School Music Teaching.
New York: C. H. Congdon, 1919. 25? pp.
Serves as a course of study for grade music teachers.
Glenn, Mabelle, Helen S. Leavitt, Rebmann, and Earl L.
Baker, Music Teaching in Kindergarten and Primary
Grades. Boston: Ginn and Company, 1936. 132 pp.
Especially written for the serious music teacher.
Glenn, Mabelle, and others, Music Teaching in Inter­
mediate Grades. Boston: Ginn and Company, 1936.
85 pp.
A very detailed text of vocal problems.
Graham, Ben G., Music Supervisor’s National Conference
Year Book, 1932.
Article on vocal problems in year book.
Greene, Harry P., Interpretation in Song. New York: Mac­
Millan Company, 1921. 30? pp.
One of the best books on interpretation of music and
of great value to the director.
Howard, Francis E., The Child Voice in Singing. New York:
The H. W. Gray Company, 1898. 138 pp.
Not a recent book, but one of the best dealing with
the child voice.
Houghton, Harry G-. Elements of Public Speaking. Boston:
Ginn and Company, 1916. 333 pp.
Good on the pronunciation and enunciation of words.
Hubbard, G-. E. , Music Teaching in the Elementary Grades.
New York: American Book Company, 1934. 228 pp.
A very thorough study of the child voice problem.
Ingalls, K. Elizabeth,“Vocal Material in the Elementary
] Yearbook of the Mu sic Educ at or *s National
Conference. Chicago: Music Educators' National Conference, 193V. 209 pp.
Of much value to those concerned with the child voice *
James, Mary Ingles, Scientific Tone Production. Boston:
Boston Music Company, 1931. 101 pp.
A very scientific research.
Kwalwasser, J., Problems in School Music. New York: Witmark and Sons, 1932. “~T59 pp.
An unusual text of effective music education.
Mackenzie, Sir Morell, The Hygiene of the Vocal Organs.
Belmar, New Jersey: Edgar S. Werner, 1928. 2 8 5 pp.
One of the best books Y\rritten on the care of the
voice instrument and health conditions and its effects
on the voice.
Mills, Wesley, Voice Production in Singing. Philadelphia:
J. B. Lippincott, 1913. 294 pp.
Scientific approach of the vocal apparatus.
Miller, P. E« ,The Voice, Its Production, Care and Preser­
vation. New York: G-. Schirmer, 1931. 196 pp.
A book dealing with most every problem of the voice.
Mursell, G-lenn, Psychology of School Music Teaching.
New York: Silver Burdette and Company.
A text that should be on the desk of every music teacher.
Mursell, James L., Human Values in Music Education. New
York: Silver Burdette and Cfompany, 1934. 388 pp.
Related to psuchology of school music but more detailed
in every respect.
Ogg, H. L., Voice and Speech. Ann Arbor, Michigan:
Brothers, Inc., 1938. 85 pp.
A comparison of the singing and speaking voice.
Parker, Horatio , Osbourne McConathy, Edward Bailey Birge,
and W. Otto Miessner, Teacher1s Manual, Vol I. New
York: Silver Burdette and Company, 1919. 192 pp.
Guide book for teachers.
Good but not a recent book.
Proschowski, Franz, The Beginner1s Voice Book. Philadelphia:
Theodore Presser (Company, 1930. 156 pp.
An outstanding guide for the serious vocal student and
Russell, G. 0., Speech and Voice.
pany, 1931. 250 pp.
New York: MacMillan Com­
A complete volume on vocal problems.
Seth, George and Douglas Guthrie, Speech in Childhood. Lon­
don: Oxford University Press, H. Milford, 1935. 224 pp.
A very detailed study of the child voice; speaking and
Stanley, Douglas, The Science of Voice*
Fischer, 1929. 32V pp.
New York:
A complete guide for all vocal instructors.
Stanley, Douglas and Maxfield, The Voice, its Production,
and Reproduction. New York: Pitman Publishing Oompany, 1933. 184 pp.
This book deals-with nearly every vocal problem.
Stone, Kathryn E.,ManuaIlof Music (no publisher)
Tosi, Pier F., Observations of the Florid Song. (London:
Reprinted from the Second Edition by William Reeves
Bookseller Limited, 83 Charing Road, 1926. Original
in 1723 •)
The first book ever written on the voice.
Voorhees, I. W., Hygiene of the Voice.
Millan Company, 1923. 212 pp.
New York: Mac­
Another aid in the effects of health on the voice*
Wagner, Arnold H., Music for Secondary Schools * A
Syllabus for Education 173 H, University of South­
ern California, Los Angeles, 1935. 19 pp.
Breach, William, “When Voices are Changing11, Presser1s
OrpBa-Chor Journal, Vol. I (February, 1940).
G-raveure, Louis, “New Theories of Vocalism“, The Etude,
(February, 1931).
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