THE CARE AND TRAINING- OF THE CHILD AND ADOLESCENT VOICE A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the School of Music University of Southern California In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Music t>y Charles Calvan Chase June 1940 UMI Number: EP61731 All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion. Dissertation Publishing UMI EP61731 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 48106- 1346 T h i s thesis, w r i t t e n by ...M A R LE S ...C & V ffl..C M S E ........ u n d e r the d i r e c t i o n o f h.X$. F a c u l t y C o m m it t e e , a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l it s m e m b e r s , has been presented to a n d accepted by the C o u n c i l on G r a d u a t e S t u d y a n d Research in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f MASTER OFHUUSIC .... Dean Secretary Date J.un-e-j--l,&4G.~ F acu lty C om m ittee C hairm an TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I. II. III. IV. PACE THE PROBLEM................................. 1 Introduction ............................. 1 Statement of the p r o b l e m ............... . 3 Justification of the problem .............. 3 Review of related investigations .......... 4 Sources of information .................... 4 Organization of the remainder of the study . 5 THE SPEAKING AND SINGING V O I C E ............. 6 Importance of a pleasing voice ............ 9 Range of the speaking voice................ 12 Registers of the singing voice ............ 14 Importance of easy singing................ IV Summary ................................ 20 THE VOCAL INSTRUMENT....................... 21 The Actuator............................. 21 The vibrator....................... 22 Resonance chambers ........................ 23 Summary 26 ............ POSTURE AND BREATHING....................... 28 Correct posture............... 28 Breathing. . . 30 ......................... Phrasing........................... 34 Facial expression......................... 36 S u m m a r y ................................. 38 ii CHAPTER PAGE V, THE ADOLESCENT VOICE...........................39 The changing voice . 40 Rules of voice testing...................... 40 Singing during the period of change . . . . Care and treatment of maturing 42 voice. . . . 43 Monotones........................... 46 Summary.......... 51 VI. VOCAL TECHNIQUE.............................. 53 Tone quality............................. 53 Intonation............................. . . 59 Summary................ VII. 63 DICTION....................................... 64 Diction defined ......................... 64 Vowels............................. 68 Consonants..................................74 Summary......... .. ................... . VIII. VOCAL HYGI E N E Influence of general health on 77 v 79 the voice. • 80 Food....................................... 8l Clothing....................................83 Amount of practice.......................... 90 Summary....................................94 IX. GENERAL SUMMARY ANDCONCLUSIONS................97 BIBLIOGRAPHY.......................................... 100 CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND METHODS OF PROCEDURE In the early stages of vocal training the teach er's first and constant care must be to prevent the formation of bad habits. Unless he be exceptionally fortunate, a large proportion of his classes, however young, will come to him with faults already developed. These should receive immediate attention, not only because the longer a habit is allowed to continue the more difficult it is to check, but because with young singers a wrong use of the delicate apparatus producing what we call "voice11 may easily result, frequently does result, in lasting and even life-long injury.*1* For this reason the teacher must be prepared to meet the problems of training the child and adolescent voice. At the very outset, children should be impressed with the fact that if they would sing well, with beauty of tone and true intonation, the voice must be used with out interference or strain. Many children, particularly those who are easily discouraged and those whose natural I James Bates, Voice Culture for Children ^New York New York Novello Company, 1930), p. 12. 2 musical talents are below the average, are likely to form the idea that because their progress is not so rapid as that of others in the class their voices are not worth the trouble, that care of the voice is all very well for those who may hope to become good sing ers, but that the ordinary boy and girl with no special musical ambition may misuse the voice with impunity. Children should be taught to value their voices not 2 only for what they are but for what they may become# Here, again, is reason why the teacher must be well equipped to train the young voice properly. In many instances, at the present time, ade quate facilities for voice training in the elementary and secondary schools are lacking. Hollis Dann In the opinion of it will have to be admitted that the schools are not fully equipped with teachers competent to supervise voice education, and that it should be the desire of every teacher dealing with the subject, to improve his or her equipment in this field of endeavor. 2 Ben G. Graham, Music Supervisor1s National Con ference Year Book, 1932. p. 53. 3 Hollis Dann, Music Educator»s National Confer ence Year Book, 1936. p.200. 3 Statement of the Problem, The purpose of this study, therefore, was to furnish practical information and suggestions on the subject of the care and training of the child and adolescent voice* Also to investigate the characteristics of the child1s singing voice and to find teaching principles that would be of practical ben efit to the vocal instructor in his task of training youthful voices* Justification of the Problem, With so many subjects pressing for attention, few schools are able to devote very much time to voice production and sing ing. A boy‘s vocal career is not a long one and it is necessary to secure the best possible results in the shortest time. Poorly trained music teachers and un musical grade school instructors teaching their own music, are two good reasons why we have so many students entering junior and senior high school who are of the opinion that they can not sing. The time is past when it was thought that the main requirement for teaching singing in the public school was sufficient musician ship to play the piano, violin, or other instrument and that given a natural singing voice and the ability to carry a tune, anyone could teach children to sing* 4 The modern idea is that the teacher of singing in the schools should know as much or even more about the voice than the private teacher of singing, since the public school music teacher comes in contact with many more students and consequently has a greater opportunity to do good or harm, as the case may be, than does the priv ate teacher. Review of Related Investigations* Since the field of voice culture in the public schools is com paratively new, its related literature is not exten sive* .Although certain investigations have been made on the subject of voice, an examination of these stud ies discloses little recent information bearing direct ly on the care and training of the child and adolescent voice. Sources of Information. The data In this study were taken from books written about the following: (1) Public speaking (2) Voice and diction (3) Physiology of the voice (4) Voice and singing (5) School music problems in the form of Teachers' Manuals (6) Music Education from the year books of the Music Educators National Conferences. 5 (7) Vocal hygiene Further information was received through personal interviews with vocal Instructors and authorities. Organ ization of the Remainder of the Study. Chap ter II deals with the speaking and singing voice. Chapter III contains information on the vocal Instrument. Chapter IV discusses posture and breathing, chapter V deals with the adolescent voice and the hoy problem. Chapter VI, vocal technique, head voice, chest voice, etc. Chapter VII takes up diction and the study of vowels, consonants, etc. Chanter VIII sets forth ideas of vocal hygiene or voice health. CHAPTER II THE SPEAKING- AND SlHOllNG- VOICE 11Every child should be taught from its youth to govern its voice discreetly and dexterously, as it does its hands; and not to be able to sing should be more disgraceful than not to be able to read or write. p Stanley and Maxfield write that singing is, after all, merely a glorification or magnification of speech, which is wedded to the language of music. The laws which govern the proper functioning of the voice in both singing and speaking are, in most respects, the same. Although the authors just cited maintain that singing is magnified speech, they give the following differences between the speaking and singing voice: First, in view of the fact that the tone is much less sustained in speaking than in singing, the vibrato should not occur in the speaking voice. Second, the speaking voice is lower in pitch than the singing voice hence the intensity of the former is lower. Third, I John Ruskin, 11Fors Clavigera". 2 Douglas Stanley and Maxfield, The Voice, Its ’Production, and Reproduction, (New YorF“ Prt'm"ah Publish ing Company, 1933), p. 164.. consonants in speech are shorter and correspondingly less vigorous than in singing. Fourth, several tones in singing may be phonated on one vowel. This should never be done in speech. The requirements for a properly used speaking voice as given by Stanley4 are as follows: (a) G-ood quality. (Proper resonance adjustment). (b) Range— An extensive range (three octaves or more) depends on the same factors as in sing ing— i.e., resonance adjustment and registra tion, (c) Carrying power— This depends upon the sound spectrum which in turn depends upon resonance adjustment, (d) Control of intensity— This also depends upon resonance adjustment and registration. The speaking voice, however, which may drop to the ,fstage whisper” and even to an absolute whisper, can be used at far lower intensity than can the singing voice. 3 Ibid. 4 Ibid. (e) Proper intensity balance over range— This is the same as in singing. As the intensity rises the pitch should rise, and vice versa. (f) Intelligibility— This implies vigorous, cleancut, clear articulation and a proper adjust ment of the pharyngeal resonance cavities for the resonating of the vowel. (g) Legato— This is more pronounced in English speech than in singing because of the eliding factor. (h) Speed, with clear enunciation— This pre supposes pharyngeal vowel resonance and agility of the articulating members. ^i) Wide range of color— True color is only possible when the technical training is well advanced, since it is controlled by minute changes in the adjustments of the resonance cavities.' (j) The ability to use the voice vigorously and audibly in a large auditorium for a long time without fatiguing it and becoming hoarse. (k) The establishment of the natural voice— Normal pitch, quality and power, from which all modifications of pitch, color, and intensity 9 are made, for the portrayal of the emotional and expressive import of the words. (1) The ability to express, while speaking, the passing emotion with the eyes and the rest of the face— This ability demands the elimination of all muscular interference which, in turn, is largely dependent on pharyngeal resonance adjustment (the elimination of the mouth as a resonator.)^ Importance of a Pleasing Voice. Bates 6 tells us that by rough and careless usage children may not only prevent their voices from ever improving but may entire ly spoil them. This means that when they become men and women their voices, instead of being musical and pleasant both in singing and in speaking, will be gruff and harsh. It is pointed out that their present voices, frail and delicate, can in any event be of but short duration and will be succeeded after about two years of transition by the permanent, life-long voice, the importance of which to their future happiness and well-being it is impossible to over-estimate. Just as it would be folly to expect 5 Ibid. 6 Bates, op. pit», p. 2. 10 a bruised and broken bulb to produce a perfect flower, so it is impossible for a voice that has been badly used and treated ever to regain in maturity the qual ities lost in childhood. There are many ways of spoiling the voice, but the surest of all is constantly to sing loudly with a voice produced by muscular strain. Many children, and adults too, make the mistake of supposing themselves to be singing when they are only shouting. The same author cited again informs us that if the effect of such misuse of the voice is bad for the listeners, it is ten times worse for the singers themselves, and a few minutes' shouting may easily do harm that can never be undone. Children should be taught not to try at first to make their voices powerful, but to cultivate at the outset a pure and pleasing tone. They will thus be adopting the very best means of preserving their voices for fu ture use. Because of the differences in opinion of various vocal authorities , Louis G-raveure and Stanley are cited *7 on loud and soft singing. G-raveure states that soft _ Louis Graveure, ,fNew Theories of Vocalism” , The Etude, February 1931. 11 singing is generally misunderstood and rarely well executed. He points out that the idea that a loud tone requires effort and expansion and that soft tone is produced merely by relaxation and ease is all a mistake, for producing a tone by relaxing the sur faces of the resonating apparatus makes the tone sound either breathy or falsetto. Citing G-raveure further ; the throat should never be contracted; it is one of the channels along the resonating column which must always be expanded in good tone production. The nasal cavities are to be used simply to warm the air as it is taken in through the nos8 trils and sent along the resonating column. Both Stanley^ and Graveure claim that correctly produced soft singing is one of the most difficult phases of vocal technique and should not be attempted until the voice is well developed. While Stanley states that soft singing must be accomplished by means of a pure upper register co-ordination of the laryngeal muscles and a perfectly controlled throat. _ Ibid. 9 Stanley, op. c i t p p . 63-89. 12 When the singer produces the tone vigorously, Stanley finds the entire apparatus which is used for the act will come into full tension. The throat then will be likely to take on its proper tension, even if the muscles which hold it in position are not quite fully developed. When a soft tone is produced the breath pressure is less and the tension on the laryngeal mus^ cles is less. The throat cavity must be held firm and when the muscles which perform this action are weak, the lack of general effort which accompanies the act of quiet phonation, will not be sufficient to keep the weak throat muscles patent (open). This same author states that most pupils have, in a more or less pronounced degree, a “throaty*1 tone. For this reason soft singing should never be attempted until the muscles which hold the pharynx open are fully develop ed and that any attempt to sing softly before this stage is reached will result only in an ever-increasing “throatiness.1* He advocates the use of the vowels e and a until the sensation of open throat is established. Range of the Speaking Voice* All persons must, of necessity, speak in some register, and it is quite easy to recognize that the pitch and quality of the tones of the adult males, adult females, and children differ 13 greatly from each other* Seth and Guthrie‘S have given the following in formation on the range of the child voice: JMormally the vocal range is small in childhood, comprising about six half-tones by the end of the sec ond year and gradually widening until at the age of 1 2 entering school it encompasses about an octave (c to c ). From the third year of life onwards the larynx is larger in the male than in the female. During school life the vocal development proceeds slowly, and just before the voice changes or 11breaks" it has on an average of an oc tave and a half. About 30 per cent of children, many of whom belong to musical families, have a wider range of voice. Only a small number, about five per cent, possess . no singing voice at all. Ordinary speech is economical, and a range of very few tones usually not more than two to four inter vals of the scale, suffices, but on the stage, and for public speaking, twice this range is used. 11 10 George Seth and Douglas Guthrie, Speech in Child hood (London: Oxford University Press, H. MilfordJT 1935. p.19b. 11 7/esley Mills, Voice Proa.uction in Singing (Philadel phia: J. B. Lippincott, 1913), p. 234. 14 Registers of tiie Singing Voice, The typical cnild1s voice previous to adolescence has, according to Gehrkens 12 , two divisions called the^ "head11 or nthin" register and the “chest11 or “thick” register. In the opinion of some authorities, until the age of puberty is reached the thin, head register should be used.'*’'"’ Concerning these divisions, Howard makes the following comments: The tones of the head register are musical, pure, and sweet, and their use promotes the growth of musical sensibility and an appreciation of beauty of tone. The use of the chest register in class singing is dangerous because it may strain the voice, and it is almost impossible to confine it within the proper limits. Children can sing in the chest register higher than adults because of the amount of musical exertion they put forth. Even up to the change of voice, boys can often force the thick register several notes higher than women sopranos. If the vocal bands of chil dren were less elastic, composed of stronger fibers, and protected from undue exertion by firm connect ing cartilages, such forcing would be impossible. In the discussion of voice problems, one often hears the term “break". In the case of the adult, there is usually a definite pitch at which the voice goes from 12 ' Karl W. Gehrkens, Music in the Grade Schools (Boston: C. G. Birchard and Company, 193477 P* 91 • 13 Francis E. Howard, The Child Voice in Singing (New York: The H. W. Gray Company, 1898), p. 28. 14 Ibid., p. 31. 15 the lower register to the higher one. It is this point that is often called the “break11 in the voice and it should be noted that in the adult this “break11 ordinarily 15 occurs at approximately the same point in the scale. In the child’s voice, however, the break: may occur at different points in the scale at different times; high er up in the case of louder singing, and lower in the case of soft singing. In other words, the child's voice has a “movable break”, the point at which the voice goes from the lower register to the upper one depending upon the force \vith which he sings. If an eight “year-old child is asked to begin at Middle C and sing a scale upward softly, the voice will change from the chest register to the head register at about f' or g'. But if he is asked to sing loudly, the change will probably H 1 6 not occur until he reaches c" or even d” or e . Concerning the registers of the voice, Cundiff and Dykema make the following statement: The desirable voice quality is one that gives a beautiful expression of the spirit of the song. With children this generally comes through the use of the head tone and the avoidance of the chest tone... Children naturally use the proper head voice on up per tones such as fourth line treble staff d, and thisquality should be carried down into the lower 15 Gehrkens, op. cit., p. 91. 16 Ibid. 16 tones, Great care on the teacher’s part is needed to keep out all heavy, chest tones. If the chest voice does creep in, it is apt to cause bad throats,. It is also responsible for a good deal of flatting. ' The tone quality of the chest register is poor and the intonation is likely to be faulty, therefore the use of this part of the voice is to be discouraged. The two-fold method of approach recommended by Gehrkens is to insist that the children sing lightly at first, and to compel the use of the head register by choosing songs that are high in range. Tosi was the first to write a study on the care and training of the boy’s voice and as the matter of voice registers is still a controversial question, Tosi’s 19 point of view is quoted: A diligent Master, knowing that a soprano, with out the Falsetto, is constrained to sing within the narrow Compass of a few notes, ought not only to en deavor to help him to it, but also to leave no means untried, so to unite the feigned and natural Voice, that they may not be distinguished; for if they do not perfectly unite, the voice will be of divers Registers, and must consequently lose its Beauty. The Extent of the full natural Voice terminates generally upon the fourth Space, which is C; or on the fifth Line, which is D; and there the feigned Hannah M. Cundiff and Peter W, Dykema, School Music Handbook (Boston: C. C. Birchard and Company, 1923), p. 57. 18 Gehrkens, c>£. cit., pp. 91-92. 19 Pier F. Tosi, Observations of the Florid Song (London: Reprinted from the "Second Edition by William Reeves Bookseller Limited, 83 Charing Road, 1926. Original in 1723. 17 Voice becomes of use, as well in going up to the High Notes, as returning to the natural Voice; the Diffi culty consists in uniting them........ The plan advocated by Tosi is followed by certain choir masters both in this country and abroad, a notable example being the Vienna Boy Choir. Importance of Easy Singing. Ease of singing in the opinion of Bates,20is a matter of great importance, be cause it concerns especially the boys and girls who try. Usually, he claims, the very children who are most anx ious to please are the most likely to go wrong. Wishing to do their utmost to earn approval from teacher and oth ers, they put themselves into stiff and uncomfortable attitudes that prevent them from using their voices to advantage. Many boys and girls who can speak and recite well, when asked to sing, straighten themselves up and put on solemn and unnatural expressions. Some will scowl fiercely, others look careworn and v/orried. To cite Bates further, this is not a.t all as it should be, and for once, at least, it is the apparently careless boys and girls who set the best example to' the class. Bates, op♦ cit., p. 2/. 21 Ibid. The child who would 18 sing well must learn not to stiffen M s or,any part of the body. jaw, neck, chest, Many teachers of singing find it a good plan to have in the classroom a long mirror for the students. When pupils see for themselves these constrained attitudes and rigid expressions they soon abandon them. The matter of posture will be discussed in another chapter, but it is referred to now only be cause it is so closely connected with ease of singing# Though opposed to stiffness in the jaw, neck, chest and other muscles, Stanley 22 advises that the throat can never be relaxed during the act of phonation. Either the constrictor or the extensor group of muscles must be in tension. However, the important point to be brought out on this subject is the fact that the child should be taught to sing without struggle; never to feel a strain or tired in the throat. P'x Stanley is cited as follows on ease of singing and relaxation: One of the current fallacies in the teach ing not only in the voice, but also of the technique of many other activities, is the idea that the performer must be in a condition of complete relaxation. It is obvious to anyonw ivho sees an artist perform, that he is singing 22 Stanley, The Science of Voice, op. cit. p. 135. 23 Ibid. p. 136. 19 or playing without any apparent strain and that his face is expressive of what he is singing about or of the emo tions of the music. There is no sign of struggle. 04 This same author gives the following parallels that will make his point more clearly understood. great athlete appears to be free from effort. The The golfer or tennis player will hit the ball with terrific force, apparently without effort, but with close observation will snow that he is actually in a. condition of extreme activi ty. In other words, his body is in the most perfect degree of tonus. If he were not in this condition, he could not make the fine adjustments which are the vital concomitant of a delicate and properly executed stroke. In the same way observation of a great singer, actor, or pianist, will show that his general muscular condition is exactly ilar to that of the athlete. sim It will, then, be seen that the whole body must, during the act of phonation, be in a state of proper tonus and it is only the muscles act ually effective in the production of sound which should have their state of tension increased, i. e., the muscles of the larynx, pharynx, and thorax. 24 Ibid. 20 Summary. The following summary enumerates three reasons why children up to the age of puberty, at least in class or chorus singing, should use the thin or head register only: 1. It is from the physiological standpoint en tirely safe, for the use of this register will not strain the child1s delicate vocal organs* 2. The tones of the head-register are musical, pure, and sweet, and their use promotes the growth of music sensibility and an appreciation of beauty in tone. The chest voice quality is harsh and dis pleasing, 3. The use of the chest voice is dangerous be cause it is almost impossible to confine it within proper limits, 5 Writers on the subject of the child voice are generally agreed that the chest voice of the child is an abnormal product of a weak, growing, undeveloped organ. It possesses, even when used carefully, little of the tone-tints of the adult voice. The chest voice belongs to the- adult life, not childhood. It cannot be musical, for the larynx has not reached that stage of growth and development where it can produce these tones , 26 musically. 25 Howard, ojd, 26 Ibid. p. 42 cit., p. 28. CHAPTER III THE VOCAL INSTRUMENT Writers on voice frequently describe the vocal instrument under three headings; namely, 1. The motor, or actuator (breath pressure), 2. The vibrator, and 3. The resonator* This classification will he used in the present chapter in an endeavor to make clear the func tions of the voice mechanism. The Motor or the Actuator. (Breath Pressure.) The human voice is actuated by means of air, or breath, under pressure. According to Stanley and Maxfieldf when tones of low intensities are produced the breath passes over the vocal cords in a stream, thus starting them into vibration. Cited further, these authors p explain that the breath in the lungs, which is at considerably higher pressure than is that of the outside air, is released through the vocal cords. If the cords are under tension with a relatively narrow space between them, they are set into rapid vibration, whereby the opening of the Stanley and Maxfield, o£. Cit., p. 85. 2 Ibid. 22 glottis -is alternately opened and closed. This alternate opening and closing of tne vocal cords modulates tne stream of air at a frequency wnicii depends mainly upon tne tension of the vocal cords. It is also made plain tnat in view of the fact that such terms as"vocalized breath’* etc., appear quite often in the literature of vocal technic, it is important for the reader to real ize that this modulated air stream is the source of the sound, but that the escaping breath does not carry the sound through the remainder of the vocal mechanism. Further consideration of the breath will be given later in Chapter IV under posture and breathing. The Vibrator. The second part of the vocal apparatus is the vibrator or the vocal chords. They are located in the larynx, which is the enlargement felt at the top of the wind-pipe and is sometimes called the Adam's apple. The vocal chords are neither cords nor bands and 1 2 according to Fillebrown , Stanley , and others, they are thick folds of membrane extending across the inner surface of the larynx. They are fairly well represented by the lips of the cornet player when placed on the mouth piece of the instrument. Voice The pitch of the tone is fixed ^ Thomas Fillebrown, Resonance in the Speaking ^Boston: Oliver Ditson Company, 19117,p.9. 2 Stanley, op. cit., p. 67. 23 by the tension of the vocal cords and the width and length of the opening between them. Their tension and proximity are self-adjusting to produce the proper pitch without any conscious volition of the singer. Present photographic studies of the vibration of the vocal cords made by Russel, the Bell Telephone Com pany laboratories, and Pressman, and others, show that the chest voice or the lower register is produced by stretching the vocal cords while the upper register or head voice is produced by shortening the cords so that the vibration takes place in their anterior portion only. In the production of the head voice or upper register the opening becomes progressively snorter as the scale is ascended. Resonance Chambers. The third part of the vocal machine is the resonator. The Bell Telephone Labortories in their literature on High-Speed Motion Pictures of the Human Vocal Cords point out that such work as has been done would indicate that the waves generated by the vocal cords are rich in overtones some of which are amplified by passing through partly open cavities or resonators on 3 their way to the outside. 4 On the subject of resonators Seth and G-uthrie 3 Seth and G-uthrie, ojo. cit. p. 1? 4 Ibid. pp.26-30 24 are cited as follows: While the pitch of vocal sound is determined by the larynx alone, the character of the voice peculiar to the speaker or singer (timbre) is supplied by the resonating cavities (pharynx and mouth) through which the sound passes* The sound is modified or interrupted during its exit by alterations in the relative position of the tongue, lips, teeth, and pal ate. By such alterations in the form of the resonating cavities of the mouth and throat during expiration cer tain sounds are produced and the original note produced in the larynx is moulded into articulate speech. There has been a divergence of opinion as to what constitutes the resonance chambers. Formerly it was thought that the air-containing spaces connected with the cavity of the nose, known as the nasal accessory sinuses, imparted resonance to the voice, but it is now recognized that they have little effect. Moreover, the openings by which the sinuses communicate with the nose are very small, and the sinuses could only act as secondary resonators, if at all. Seth and G-uthrie R point out further that the nasal cavity can scarcely act? as a 5 Ibid., p. 27. 25 resonator as the only speech-sounds reinforced in it are m, n, 'and ng. For all other sounds the voice is unaIterat ed hy closure of the nostrils, and the peculiar nasal sound imparted to the voice in case of adenoids or during a simple nasal cold is mainly due to interference with the mobility of the palate* These same authorities say that whether the chest can act as a resonator is an open question. The feeling of chest resonance is simply due to the extension of the feeling of vibration which is also felt throughout the entire body when the voice is in use. The chest may act as a sounding-board or secondary resonator, but this can have no direct effect upon the outgoing sound, and the sensation is felt by the singer and not the audience* The pharynx, or the throat, is about five Inches in length and it consists of three parts; a nasal or upper p art (naso-pharynx), a part opposite the mouth, the only part visible on looking into the mouth (oro pharynx) , and the lower part behind the larynx (laryngopharynx). The pharynx is lined by mucous membrane and its wall consists of a number of muscles (constrictor mu scles)• 26 Other muscles connect the pharynx with the base of the skull, with the soft palate,, and with other structures* Outside the muscular layer is s. firm envelope of fib rous tissue. The cavity of the pharynx is capable of changes in shape and size. When the larynx is drawn downwards and forwards by the muscles which connect it with the sternum or breast bone the capacity of the laryngeal pharynx is increased. It is related that this movement is not directly controlled by the will but takes place constantly during speech and song when it becomes necessary to alter the capacity of the pharyngeal reC t sonating chamber. t ■ Fillebrown^ compares the action of the pharynx with the expanding tube of brass instru ments. It increases the force and depth of the tone waves. The wider the pharynx is opened, without cons traint, the fuller the resonance and the better the tone. Summary. It is well for the singing-teacher to know something of the physical make up of the voice and the conditions that favor the vocal instrument. III can be summarized under the following : ' 6 Ibid., p. 2b. 7 Fillebrown, op. cit., p. 10. Chapter 27 1* The motor, actuator or breath pressure is the first consideration. This deals with the breath ing apparatus and explains how the motor is controlled. 2. The vibrator, or the vocal chords, their lo cation in the larynx and how the tone is produced. 3. Resonance chambers, a subject of importance to the teacher and a valuable part of the vocal instru ment. CHAPTER XV POSTURE AMD BREATHING I Posture* It is of the utmost importance that children should learn to stand and sit correctly while singing. The following singing position is recommended: Stand or sit erect, not touching the back of the seat; chest active; both feet on the floor; head up. While singing the body should be erect and active, yet comfortable. 1 "Standing position11 means feet at an angle of 90 degrees, heels touching, knees almost touching, the weight of the body being equally distributed upon each leg, but falling mainly upon the heels; trunk erect, the chest being the most prominent part; head poised easily upon the shoulders so that the eyes look straight ahead; the forearms and hands lightly touching the sides. Details for good sitting posture are given by G-ehrkens: (1) Both feet on tne rloor— flat. (2) Back free— not leaning against the seat. 1 Howard, op. cit., p. Bl. 2 Bates, 0£. cit., p. 40. 29 (3) Chest high— hut not held stiffly. 14) The body relaxed— but not sprawling. Such a posture should be encouraged from the very be ginning and by the second grade the habit of sitting thus should be so firmly established that the teacher will not find it necessary to speak of position except in the case of the occasional child who forgets what he is doing and slumps. It is easy enough to cause the pupils to take the right posture for a few seconds after a reminder by the teacher, but the essential thing is that posture become an automatic habit. To quote (rehrkens* The teacher who every few minutes calls out, "Sit up straighti” is wasting her breath, for within fifteen seconds the children will be slumped into an utterly inefficient posture. It is better not to speak of it, but to see to it without scold ing or nagging, that the children form the habit of always sitting or standing easily correct while singing. Such a teacher has done her pupils a great service, not merely because they will sing better an a result of such posture, but because of the beneficial effect upon health, upon beauty and grace of carriage; and upon mental attitude.4 3 G-ehrkens, 0£. cit., p. 94. 4 Ibid. 30 Citing Giddings5 on tnis subject, position has a great deal to do with the success of the breathing and consequently with the use of the voice. The pupils should always stand erect while singing or sit erect with the back away from the back of the seat, so that the muscles in the sides of the back, under the shoulder blades, can work freely. Resting the back against the back of the seat induces chest breathing. It is sug gested that if the student will place the elbows apart on the desk, if it is the right height, and raising the chest, will bring the correct position and induce pro per breathing. This is very important at every age, but more especially so with the younger children. It is very important for the student to be taught to hold himself in the proper position while growing up. This will encourage a symmetrical growth, his lungs will be strong and usable, and his voice will be developed na turally. Breathing. G-iddings points out that the teach ers dealing with the child voice must be very careful 5 Thaddeus P. G-iddings and Will Earhart and Ralph L. Baldwin, Eldredge W. Newton, Manual for Teachers(Boston: Ginn and Company, 1924), p. 184. 6 Ibid. p. 10. 31 about mentioning breatning to the child, but since it is important that the pupil should habitually use a smoothy pleasant tone, the following facts are vital concerning the problem of breathing. First, that it is folly to give the pupils any breathing exercises even while establishing the habit of smooth singing. Breathing exercises usually make the trouble worse, as they call attention to taking in the breath. It is not inhaling that the child need to practice, but to send the breath out evenly and smoothly. It is recommended to teach this to the child by allowing him to practice singing long, smooth phrases in songs. If inhalation is not mentioned and much attention is given to singing long, smooth tones and phrases the class will soon learn to take the proper amount of breath and no more, thus the attention of the students will be centered on the ability to exhale properly. G-iddings*7 suggests that the pupil be made conscious of his method of exhaling by letting him put the ends of the fingers of the left hand on the middle of the front of the waist line, with the thumb of the same hand on the fifth or-sixth rib as far back as it will reach 7 G-iddings, 0£. cit., p. 11. 32 without moving the fingers from their position. When the hand is properly placed the pupil should hold a tone as long as he can easily with one breath and notice what his rib and waist muscles are doing. Each child in the class will readily discover that the ribs and waist muscles are slowly sinking in and should be very steadily. After this has been accomplished the same thing can be tried, but with singing a phrase in stead of a single tone. If this method is practiced, the uneven singing will soon disappear and smooth sing ing will become a habit. Q Dann states that the breathing of the singer should be natural and comfortable, never forced, never exaggerated, and very much like the breathing of a normal person for other activities. There is nothing difficult to understand about deep breathing, which is a combination of diaphragmatic breathing (the natural respiration of the human being) and costal or rib breath ing, which is the normal means of getting more air for " y Hollis Dann, Song Series, Conductor1s Book American Book Company. 33 any unusual physical activity* He finds that a good plan for older children is to inhale deeply, noticing the extension of ribs; hold the breath and exhale softly and quickly, reciting as much of a poem as one breath will allow, A one minute breathing exercise may be given to advantage just before the singing lesson. void any mention of breathing. During the lesson, aIf songs are phrased naturally, as in reading and speaking, breathing will take of itself* The wise teacher will watch the phras ing, and not allow children to take breath in the middle 9 of a word* Mouth breathing is the most desirable method to be used in singing. This method is urged by Mills'1'0 for the following reasons: 1. Mouth breathing is noiseless* 2. The song would be interrupted between phrases, if the time were taken to breathe deeply through the nose. 3. Mouth breathing in singing, is less conspicuous than nose breathing. Only by mouth breathing can enough breath be in9 ' Kathryn K. Stone, Manual of Music (not published,) 10 Mills, ojo. cit., p. 30. 34 haled in the mere moment available for this purpose. Mills further states: Breathing through the nostrils will more than likely, place the tongue and soft palate in an un favorable position, thus causing the tone to be muffled and throaty. Mouth breathing for the pur pose of tone production is the only method which has physiological justification. Phrasing. Correct phrasing is very closely re lated to the subject of breathing. To phrase correctly means, roughly speaking, to take a breath in the proper place. The teacher should explain that in every com position there are certain pauses between phrases and sentences that can be used for the purpose of taking a breath, without in any way interfering with the march of the song or the sense of what is sung. Many children take breath in a most careless and haphazard way, often completely spoiling the meaning and reason of the words they convey. “The most foundational thing in enabling the child to hear the music properly is to teach him to grasp its phrases and its melody." TT“ 12 “ James L. Mursell, Human Values in Music Education (New York: Silver, Burdette ancTUompany, 193¥7, p. 146. 12 Henry Coward, Choral Technique (London: Novello and Company, 1914) p. 4. Coward states that in addition to technical per fection, vitalizing of the words and sentences by pro per tone and emphasis is demanded, so that the dramatic sense is never in doubt, the result being the attainmen of good diction. ° The matter of correct phrasing is of vital imp14 ortance, citing Mursell on this subject; Music no more consists of notes than a poem consists of letters. We do not try to teach children the meaning and beauty of a poem by having them spell through the letters it contains. Neither do we try to teach the child the meaning of a piece of music by having him attend to and spell out the notes it contains. Both the poem and the music are structures of meaning. So the most impor tant thing is to teach the child to grasp the phrases and the melody. This is the first and also the most important of all those tonal elements in musical beauty on which ear training must concentrate. In considering the psychology of melody and its application to teach ing, it has been shown that the essence of a melody or a phrase is its unity. A single tone produces _ Cowardl, 0£. cit., p. .14.’. 14 Mursell, 0£. cit., p. 146. 36 one psychological effect when it exists all by itself, but quite a different one when it is part of a phrase* Heinlein 15 shows that our feeling for tones depends largely on the presence of what he calls a "melodic con figuration" , that is, on the relationship^of the tones to one another in a complete musical phrase. Another good example as to what is meant in this paragraph is this simple exercise: Let the reader listen to anyone talking and try to count the words. quite impossible. He will find this And the reason is that he hears not words but meaningful phrases. In just that way music is made up of unitary phrases. Thus we learn from psychological research that in teaching phrase properly we must emphasize its unity and do this through response; we must empha size its up and dqwn, or melodic curve, and do this through response; and we must emphasize its rhyth mic structure. Facial expression. "A most important adjunct to characterization in singing is an animated, mobile IV facial expression." Citing Coward , Facial expres sion is important in two directions. It not only pro motes good articulation, but the expression and reflec tion in the face of the sentiment, whether it is laughter 15 Mursell, op. cit., p. 147. 16 Ibid. 17 Coward, Choral Technique, op. cit., p. 168. love, or hate, carries conviction to the hearer. IB Mursell gives the following information con cerning facial expression. Freedom of the facial muscles is the most important consideration. This means a free posture of the cheeks, tongue, and jaw. In the first place the situation should he approached by setting up a happy and an interesting atmosphere to which good facial expression is a natural response. When the class is presented with a new song which they like very much, it is natural for the facial mechanism of every student to relax into a condition of smiling. ”A rigid jaw and a set expression are concomitants of unpleasant situations, which call for exacting effort.”19 Of course we must sometimes work more directly for the • result we want, as for instance when we deliberately tell the children to let the jaw fall wide open or open the mouth as if yawning. School music teachers encourage children to sing with a smile. But any direct attack that is made on facial rigidity must have the support of those pleasurable conditions that favor relaxation. 15 Mursell, ££. cit., p. 287. 19 Ibid. 38 Summary, The preceding chapter makes it evident that posture, breathing, and phrasing are important factors in teaching the child to sing well. Posture while standing or sitting can be taught in such a way that children will not be conscience of the fact that they are sitting in any other way than to be comfortable. The teacher will make pleasure out of the task of posture and the child will appreciate what has been done for him not only as a singer, but as a physical being. Breath ing exercises are not recommended, but care must be given in selecting songs with the long phrases, as cited in the previous chapter, so that breath control can be exercised and guided by the teacher. Phrasing can be handled in the same manner as pos ture and breathing. Children should not be reminded of breathing at every comma, but to remember the interpre tation of the song. The march of the song must be kept going and it not advisable to make pauses and breathing marks where such effects were not intended. Posture, breathing, phrasing and facial expression all go to gether in making the song well-done and pleasing in every respect. The child should enjoy his singing and facial expression will need little attention on the part of the teacher. CHAPTER V THE ADOLESCENT VOICE Running parallel to developments and emotional growth already noted in foregoing chapters we find ^keep ing in mind individual differences) a rapid physical de velopment. In the fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, phys ical changes are very slight, as a general rule, but be ginning with the seventh, eighth and ninth grades there is a sudden increase in stature. This sudden physical growth, with all its attendant awkwardness, and in many cases, sudden and uncontrollable "breaks" in the voices of the boys, demands of the teacher a sympathetic under standing and special care. The Adolescent Voice. During adolescence, the voices of both boys and girls go through a process of change which though more noticeable in boys, yet is present in girls and is a matter for careful attention in both. So far as girls are concerned the important things are to see that they avoid all heavy or forced singing, to test frequently and to make such changes in assignment to parts as to prevent any being strained or forced. voice from 40 The Changing Voice. The reason for the changing voices of boys at adolescence is explained by CundiffDykema^ as follows: When the boy’s larynx grows, the shield (thyroid) cartilage flattens out, pushing the rounded end for ward, forming what is called the Adam’s Apple. The vocal cords must follow this, so they are pulled out until they are twice as long. The result is a drop of an octave in pitch.... The reason for the antics of a boy's voice during the break, is the unequal rapidity in growth and de velopment of the cartilages and muscles of the larynx. The muscles develop more slox^ly than the cartilages, and so abnormal physical conditions produce abnormal results. Inasmuch as music teachers and supervisors are agreed that one of the most essential points in proper treatment of the adolescent voice' is proper assignment of parts G-iddings" widely used plan for voice testing is outlined as follows: (a) Reasons fbr voice testing: 1. Voices frequently tested and not forced will develop naturally and satisfactorily. 2. Voices should be tested for musical effects in ensemble singing. 3. Frequent testing insures correct classification. Cb) When to test voices: 1. Voices should be tested for part singing as soon as they show signs of changing. 1 • Cundiff, ££. cit., p. 64. 41 2. From the beginning of the sixth grade to the end of the senior year in high school, each voice should be tested often. 3. Pupils snould be instructed to ask for a test whenever the part he is singing begins to seem hard for him. (c) Staying on the same parts. (Keep young voices on the same parts until they change). 1. Easy compass of a young voice is usually short, and to develop t&e voice properly he should use only the easy compass. 2. A voice that sings in a limited compass during the changing period will have a wider compass and bet ter quality after the change. (d) System (same for grades and high school). 1. Each pupil should be taught to do the same ex ercise as rapidly and as loudly as he can, and to keep at it until he is told what part he is to sing. 2. Two students should stand at once and as soon as one is tested, the next should start instantly and sing his exercise without being told. 3. The rest of the class must watch the singing pupil and supply the right key if he gets it wrong. 4. The exercise must be kept going at high speed and no pupil should be allowed to stop and make excuses. 5. Exercise. Let each pupil begin on .g, second line of the treble staff, if the voice is changed boy voice, start an octave lower. Sing the scale up through one octave and then down two octaves, returning over the same ground and going up and down until told to stop. The boys should start this exercise in the opposite direction, because the boy's voice often shows during the first octave, what it is and saves time to let the boys start downward. The pupil should be required to go through this exercise to the full extent. Tell 42 them you are looking for bad spots in the voice, since we all have them* Singing during the period of change. There is some disagreement among teachers on the subject of singing while the voice is undergoing the change. Cundlff-Dykema believe that the boy can and should sing during the mutation period, and that doing so is beneficial. They advocate the practice of giving young people of this age, an opportunity to mas ter the fundamentals of good singing. girl should be learnings The musical boy or some instrument and acquiring a practical knowledge of the theory of music. This is also a time for extensive listening to music. Ohoir boys who are s,ccustomed to much singing daily, should use their voices sparingly and carefully during the change, always shifting to lower parts to avoid strain.0 Mabelle Glenn is quoted: The three year period of junior high school is the time when we worry most about the boy's voice, because it is then that the voice is changing. Today a boys' voice may be soprano, next week the same boy will be on the way to being a baritone. It is better to keep him singing constantly through this period, so that the enthusiasm for singing and the interest in it will not be lost. Thaddeus Gidaings, Grade School Music Teaching (New York: C. H. Congdon, 19T9T~Chapter TOZ 3 J. J. Dawson, The Voice of the Boy (Chicago: Laidlow Brothers, 1919)", p. 11. 4. Music Educators National Yearbook, 1936. p. 200. 43 From the concensus opinions of people who work with boys whose voices are changing, it would seem wise to al low boys in the schools to sing through the period of mu tation* However, great care should be exercised in the avoidance of too much singing and all forms of strain* Care and treatment of maturing voices * It is nec essary that the boys' voices should have special care, and skillful treatment during mutation. are cited again on this subject. Cundiff-Dykema In their opinions, the matter should be treated as a business-like, inevitable, interesting happening, thus avoiding personal embarrass ment. The boy should be led to see that by following sug gestions and not minding occasional queer happenings in his tone, he is working with nature and following out an interesting development. Up to the age of twelve or thir teen usually, there is little difference in the range or quality of the boy and girl voice. At this time the low er tones of the boy voice begin to broaden and deepen in quality, and the high notes come less easily and possess a shriller quality. The boys should discontinue singing soprano and take the middle parts where there is no effort required. As the voice becomes more mature the upper tones are cut off and the quality changes from boy alto to boy tenor , and finally to changed tenor or bass. 44 Crane5 suggests tiiat at tne beginning of tne change, , some boys will merely sing alto for a while, and drop naturally to tenor or bass, witnout appearing to notice tne change themselves. Others will find their voices un wieldy and hoarse, one voice fails on: low tones, an other on high-ones. /» Citing Crane again, we find that she advocates taking the boy by himself, as soon as the change appears, and giving exercises pitched where they may be easily sung. Select exercises of narrow compass, as the voice range will be limited. The boy whose voice is changing may be able to sing in either the boy's voice or the new ly acquired man's voice. An attempt of the teacher, to soften the boy's voice, often results in strained and pinched tones. Allowing more freedom in the use of vol ume often results in a wider range for untrained voices, and may cause the boy to discontinue his interest in mus ic. Restraint at this time in the boy's life may destroy his desire to sing. 5 Julia E. Crane, Music Teacher's Manual (Potsdam, New York: Elliot Fay and sons, Printers, 1915), 6 Ibid. 45 One of tne most recent publications on the subject of the maturing voice is an article by Breach cited as follows: The boy voice is one of the most perplexing and challenging problems that confronts the vocal teacher in our public schools. The period of change is the time which presents the most difficulties. Breach gives two factors which are apt to complicate matters. First, there is frequently a lack of understanding of the boy voice and how it should be treated while in the changing period. Second, there is too much choral material being used that is not suitable to the voice at this critical stage. Until the boy nears the age of puberty his voice is said to be practically identical with the voice of the girl, having the same range and being treated in the same way. Then when the adolescent stage of growth appears the voice begins to undergo certain changes which later result in the ”changed" voice. As this period of mutation advances some voices will drop gradually into the lower ranges and finally become changed voices. This author points out that these voices are able to sing ail through the - William Breach, “When Voices are Changing11, Presser1s Qr-Ba-Chor Journal, Vol. I (February 1940). changing period. There will be voices that will exper ience a decided break and will notbe able to sing for a short period of time or they may be able to sing only a few tones. When this type of voice does settle down % to the changed voice it usually results in the lower part of the bass voice in which it is difficult to help the boy to find the upper part of his voice. y Monotones. G-iddings informs us that there are few real monotones and that “monotone11 is a term usual ly applied when people sing out of tune. thor is cited further. This same au The first remedy for the monotone is to teach him to sing a perfectly smooth tone. will not always be a cure cases. This but willbe effective in most To prevent the monotone from spoiling the ears of other pupils in the class, he should be placed in the front seat where he cannot be heard by the pupils back of him and the good singers behind will help him to find his tone. It is not recommended that the monotone be kept silent; this is a sure way of keeping him from ever learning to sing in tune. Let the boy sing softly and smoothly and he will soon be able to adjust his voice to correct pitch. 8 G-iddings, og. cit., p. 136. 47 The earlier the corrective training for monotones is begun the better, as it thus forestalls the fixing of wrong impressions and habits and there is less of selfconsciousness to be overcome. It is generally conceded to be best for these pupils not to sing with the class during the singing lesson as they mar the tone of the group, and their imperfect singing is confusing and req tards the progress of others.' Cundiff offers the fol lowing constructive suggestions: These children should receive daily individual help. When properly handled this work can be done during the music period with class co-operation through-out the first four grades. The spirit of play should be employed and the child led to see nothing to be ashamed of in his voice. It is futile to tell him his tones are right if they are not, but he must feel each day that he is accomplishing something........ Glass co-opera tion must be good natured and constructive, an attitude largely to be created by the teacher... As soon as he can carry a tune with the others he should join in the class singing. To do this work with monotones successfully requires interest and tact. If the primary teachers have been con scientious and skillful there will be but a few monotones found in the fourth grade, except those who may come in from schools where no training has been given them. ^ 9 Cundiff and Dykema, op. cit., p. 70. 10 Ibid. pp. 70-71* 48 Whether the deficiency shows itself in singing entirely, on one pitch, or in merely singing out of tune, Crane also takes the position that the best remedy is individual help to meet individual needs.^ In large classes, and if the music period is short, it is often deemed impossible to deal with children individually, but this is because few teachers realize what two or three minutes twice a week will do for a pupil. If the pupil is too timid, or conscious of his failings to be willing to sing in the presence of the class, a teacher may accomplish much by taking the pupil alone after school. The following devices may prove beneficial: Call the child’s name with the syllables an octave apart, and ask the child to imitate the sound. Imitation of Indian calls while patting the lips, train whistle, etc., may be helpful. In most cases large intervals are at first more easily imitated than small ones. If the child can not imitate the sound given him by the teacher, ask him to sing a tone, allowing him to take any pitch possible to him, then let the teacher join with him and sing up or down the scale or chord line, depending on whether the _ Crane, op. cit., pp.55-56. 49 child has taken a high or low p i t c h . J P h e use of the teacher*s hand to show whether the pitch moves up or down may assist the child. Ask him also to move his hand up as he sings higher, and down as he sings lower. Drawing a line on the blackboard up or down as the pitch ascends or descends, often serves to convey the impres sion of change of pitch. The child should be told when he is too high or too low. He needs to be encouraged 13 and praised for improvement, even though slight. An important factor in dealing with monotones is the voice of the teacher.-1*4 She should possess what she would transfer to the pupil, namely, a youthful qual ity of singing voice, correct in pitch. The process, therefore, is largely one of hearing correctly and imi tating. As to drills for these children, the teacher should be careful to find something of musical value, for instance: Why tell the child to buzz like a bee when the bee itself is a monotone? Instead, give a short simple song, and if he cannot sing the whole of it he can imitate at least a few tones. He will then 12 Ibid,, pp.55-56. 13 Ibid. 14 Katherine Davis Detmold, "The Correction of Mono tones", Music Educator *s National Conference, 1957 Yearbook, Chicago: Music Educator *s Conference)? p. 251. 50 feel as if he had some part in the lesson. It is sur prising what a little interest, created in such a man ner, will do toward making the child put forth more effort to produce the tone. . . . Call the roll each day using the tones of the tonic chord and have the child answer back on the same tones they have heard. Do not segregate these children or make them feel they have no part in the group. Place the good sing ers back of them. In every way possible enable to hear the song correctly done. Many children cannot sing because they have not 16 learned to listen accurately. In such cases G-lenn also places strong emphasis upon the fact that the most success ful results can be obtained through individual help. All corrective work given to inaccurate singers should be short, attractive, and presented in the spirit of play which should exclude, however, a certain amount of ser iousness and concentration. The following concrete suggestions may be used in giving the individual help to children show sing inaccur ately: With the younger children, (1) Try using imitation calls or phrases chanted on a high tone; then those that involve octaves, start ing on a high pitch. If the child cannot match the teacher’s tone, let him sing any tone he can and let the teacher match his tone. Some children use only 15 Detmold, op. cit. 16 G-lenn, og. cit. , p. 23. 51 high tones; others will sing only low tones, and often it is possible to get good results from working up or down from the child's tones. 12) G-smies of "Boat” and 11Train" are helpful. Toeplays benefit the musical as well as the unmusical child. The child must match the choo-choo of the teacher if he wants to ride the train, or the toe-too if he wants a boat ride. (3) A child with a clear,, sweet, high voice may act as teacher to a pupil with a less musical voice, or a small group may keep a call sounding with a light tone while the less musical child tries to make his voice match their tone. (4) A conversationr-may be carried on between the teacher and pupil in a singing tone. For example: Teacher (singing on a high pitch): "have you seen my dog? 11 Pupil (trying for the same pitch): "Yes, I saw him run away•" (5) Raising his hand as high as he can reach often helps the pupil to raise the pitch of his own voice. It gives the child a mental concept of some thing high. Summary. In concluding the discussion of means to assist children who have pitch difficulties it must always be borne- in mind that individual help brings quickest most gratifying returns. and The teacher should always build upon what the child succeeds in doing. Persistent effort with very simple methods -sometimes will secure surprising results. If the unmusical child can be induced to sing softly, and at the same time listen to some accurate 17 Ibid., p. 24. 52 voices near him, he will eventually find his head-voice and in time be able to sing. T o Stone expresses the hope ful thought that: “As a rule, time, patience, and personal attention will eliminate monotones within the first year. 19 is worthy of honest effort.11 18 Stone, op. cit., p.5. 19 Ibid., p.2. The aim CHAPTER VI VOCAL TECHNIQUE This chapter will he devoted to the subject of vocal technique which will be discussed under two head ings, namely; tone quality, and intonation. Tone quality. The emotional attitude of the child plays an important part in tone production. There fore one of the first steps is to induce a happy condi tion of mind, so that the voice may reflect this mood,"*' Pupils cannot be scolded into beautiful singing. A bright, happy spirit and an interested mind cannot be over estimated in voice production. The sweet, natural voice of the child should be conserved at all times. Not only the teacher himself should be conscious of beautiful tone quality, but he should endeavor to train his pupils to recognize and appreciate it. The quality and not the quantity of the voice is all important. Pupils may be directed to sing more distinctly, but not more loudly; more sweetly, but not more loudly; more sweetly, but not p more softly. _ _ Stone, ££. cit., p. 6. 2 Ibid. 54 They should "be encouraged to listen to ot;her voices in the class* Relevant to the importance of a proper emotional mood in securing good tone quality, the following ideas may prove helpful to the teacher: (1) A happy quality of tone can come only from a happy heart; (2) A change of facial expression will often change and improve the quality of tone; (3) If children sing badly, make them happy and they will sing better; (4) Before beginning a song, see that the children are comfortable, and in a cheerful frame of mind; a pleasant smile from the teacher, or a well chosen comment, may all be time saved in the end, as the result cannot be the best, if the spirits are dull; (5) Frequently use songs of a bright and lively character, varying with songs of a quieter mood, but avoid somber depressing or sad songs, especial ly with younger children; (6 ) Choose song of high pitch rather than low pitch. The quality of voice used by children on the c or d above middle £, is usually sweet and clear, and free from throat contractions. By sing ing down from this pitch, children naturally carry this good quality of voice down, thus creating a free, even quality of tone throughout the entire compass of the voice, whereas if they begin on middle c, they are more 55 likely to sing heavy thick tones, which when carried up, not only produce a disagreeable sound but cause a break in the voice, and often fear of the high tones. Clear,distinct articulation should be required in singing as well as in reading and speaking. enunciation can be made a matter of habit. Good As the vow els in songs are the singable parts in words, they should be sustained. Light natural singing with high pitched voices in the primary grades will insure the correct use 4 of the voice and strengthen the delicate growing bands. Ease of production and good, quality go hand in hand. So-called hearty singing and loud, coarse tone quality are always to be discouraged. In the opinion of the authors of the Progressive Music Series: One cause of the raucous, disagreeable quality so often heard in children's singing is the habit ual abuse of the vocal organs on the playground. Children should be cautioned against unnecessary yelling, screeching, and shouting.5 Good tone quality should be characterized by pur ity, sweetness, and lightness. There should be freedom and lack of strain in producing tones. There should be Crane, oj>. cit., pp.68-69. 4 Stone, og. cit., p. 7. Progressive Music Series, Teacher 1s Manual, (New York; Silver Burdette and Company, 1919), Vol. I, p.16. 56 pleasant facial expression, and the lips should be flexible and rounded in a natural easy manner, for puckering the lips injures the tone. It is unwise to refer specifically to these physical conditions, but rather should they be obtained through general suggestions as to the expression of the feeling or mood of the song* Hollis Dann gives the following suggestion for tone production: The teeth must be apart, the muscles of the tongue, lips, and face, flexible and soft in the singing of all vowels. The mouth must be opened easily and naturally. An unnatural and distorted expression of the face while singing is conclu sive evidence of a bad tonal condition. A stiff, forced condition of the open mouth may be quite as bad as the closed teeth. One of the most com mon errors is the neglect to open the back part of the throat and mouth. The lips and teeth may be wide open while the tongue and soft palate com pletely close the throat. However, no direct ap peal should ever be made to the child to "open the throat", Such instructions cause an unnatural ef fort and develops wrong conditions. The singer should feel the sensation of gently lifting the tones. Sometimes the act of yawning wilj help to give this sensation of lifting the tone. Correct enunciation and pronunciation are of vi tal importance in securing good tone. To make a song a thing of beauty, good tone-quality, artistic phrasing, clean attacks and release, and clear enunciation are 6 Hollis Dann, oj). cit., Book II, p. 7. 57 most necessary factors. The teacher should bear in mind that the formation of correct habits of voice production in youth lay the foundation for an attractive adult voice. Children should be taught to sing softly for a soft mellow tone improves the voice.^ The way to preserve the vocal instrument is to practice much with a soft voice. The most important of all the advantages in the use of soft tones is that it prevents undue strain upon the vocal instrument, thus preserving the power and freshness of the voice. However, it seems to be the opinion of many edu cators that soft singing can be exaggerated and over-em phasized. Concerning this topic the following signifi cant remarks are made by Crane: There seems to be much .misunderstanding as to what is meant by “soft singing*1. JMothing is more undesirable than a flabby, breathy, covered tone. If the teacher makes such a tone in her attempt to sing softly, the children imitate it at once, and the result is most unpleasant. When-a child*s voice is at its best, it has the clearness of a bell without the slightest trace of the metallic quality, nor harshness of any kind. It is pure,-^ crystal like, and with great carrying power. . . 7 G-lenn, op. cit., p. 61. 8 Mary Ingles James, Scientific Tone Production (Boston: Boston Music Company, 1931), p. 85. 9 Loc. cit. ^ Crane, op. cit., p. 70. 11 Ibid. 58 So much has been said about the harm of forcing the child voice that the evil results of tension caused by too much restraint are often over-looked. To quote Crane again: This is especially true of boys, during the per iod of mutation. . . .A teacher with a sensitive ear constantly reiterating "sing softly" to a boy who has just tumbled into the possession of his manly voice, is certainly a discouraging, if not an annoying ele ment in the boy's musical experience. . . .Restraint often causes a holding of the muscles of the throat, and even ugly contractions of the face, which pro duces a pinched and meager quality of voice, as well as greatly limiting the range. The result of the al lowing more freedom in the use of the volume of tone even when the sound is far from musical, have proved the wisdom of the plan, in that the voices that have developed under this regime are full and mellow, and of unusually wide range for untrained voices.12 It is all important that correct habits of tone production be acquired during' the first year in school, and that the head tones shall be developed? and not al lowed to become breathy or harsh. To attain this vital— * ly important result, the teacher should maintain the same standard in all of the singing whether it is dictation and sight reading material or rote songs. The teacher should have the ability to discriminate between good and bad tone production and the skill to eliminate bad tonal conditions • T2 Ibid., pp. 63-64. 59 “Any successful teacher wno is not tone-deaf has the capacity to learn to do this, "but it requires spec ial training under an expert, and cannot be gained from reading alone.11"^ From the previous discussion it can readily be seen that the teacher herself must possess reasonably good voice quality* It will be futile to expect that the children sing correctly if the teacher's own singing is harsh, disagreaable, and full of faults in articula14 tion and enunciation. The power of imitation is the child*s strongest menfeal asset. If good models are given constantly, the child will soon learn to imitate them* Intonation* Singing out of tune, or as it is gen erally called, “bad intonation1*, is a frequent fault of young singers. It is very disagreeable and should be avoided, According to Bates to wrong breathing. 15 , sharp singing is often due Too much breath is forced through the larynx by the aid of the shoulders and the upper ribs, _ Hollis Dann, op, cit., p. 31* 14 Horatio Parker, 0. McConathy, E. B. Birge and W. 0. Miessner, Teacher1s Manual Chew York: Silver, Bur dette and Company, 1919), Vol. I, p. 16. 15 Bates, op. cit., p. 59* 60 the air striking against the vocal cords with a "gust of breath” instead of a "gentle breeze." 16 The vibrations of the vocal cords are thus increased beyond the proper pitch, and the tone is raised. A boy who has a whistle that gives a shrill note c, can by blowing with extra forc.e raise the pitch to c sharp. This is what happens when young singers raise the shoulders and then lower them so that the pressure and the compression of the upper ribs force the breath too strongly through the larynx. 1? Citing Bates again, another cause of sharp sing ing is squeezing the tone forward on the closed vowels e and i. When this is done the notes, especially those above e, are pinched and sharp. Boys whose voices are breaking use undue effort to produce certain notes and sing sharp in consequence. Flat singing is a very common fault of children and choir boys. It is caused mainly by the use of the forced chest tone. The strain on the delicate vocal muscles by the production of this unnatural tone is so 16 Bates, 0£. cit. IV Loc. cit. 61 great that it causes them to relax, and thus lowers the tone. This flatting is more noticeable when children are asked to sing on one tone. If the vocal muscles are fixed in a certain position, they are effected just as the muscles of any other part of the body would be. A child who holds out a reading book at arms length, at right angles to the shoulder, will very soon find that his arm becomes tired, and there wij.1 be a tendency to lower the book. So, if the vocal muscles are fixed, as with sing ing on one tone with heavy chest voice ihey will soon grow tired and relax, with the result of flat singing. Other causes for singing out of tune as given by Bates lb are: tl) Ringing in bad atmosphere, as in a crowded or badly ventilated hall. The lung cannot under such conditions inhale sufficient oxygen to keep the muscles of the body in good working order. (2 ) Singing when physically or mentally tired, as though over-exertibm in games or studies, or through want of sleep. M 3 )Singing when in ill-health. 14) Singing when the voice is breaking and cannot be controlled. Bates^ advises further that when bad intonation 18 Bates, 0£. cit., p. 60. 19 Ibid. , pp. 62-63. 62 is the result of one of the last four causes little can be done to prevent it; but in the case of sharp singing and flat singing,the cure, as explained previously in this chapter, is to breathe correctly and maintain a vital posture* A few children may have what is called a nbad ear" for music. That is, they do not readily distinguish between one musical sound and another, and are not able to imitate a pitch that the teacher may sing or play on the piano, or if they do imitate the pitch, they unknow ingly sing out of tune. In many such cases it is not the "ear*11 that is at fault— proper training. it is sometimes the-want of Boys and girls, like men and women, differ very much in their fondness for music; but it can be said with safety that the majority of our children can, with patience and perseverance learn to sing with pleasing voice and good intonation* No child should be allowed to deny himself the pleasure which music affords on the plea of “no voice•5 or "bad ear" for both complaints are often curable. 63 Summary. In concluding the discussion of vocal technique, the following points should be born in mind by the teacher: 1. Before maturity, children should sing with the light, flute-like head voice, common to all normal child ren . 2 . The thick, heavy, lower voice should be used sparingly or be avoided altogether* 3. Music teaching in public school where a harsh strident, throaty, unmusical and unpleasant tone is tol erated, does more harm than good and is a positive menace to youthful voices. 4. It is the duty of every teacher who attempts to teach singing to children, to prepare himself to give safe and intelligent instruction. 5. In the matter of tone production, example is stronger than precept. 6. Owing to its technical character vocal music in the schools requires skillful supervision, without which it is extremely unwise to make any attempt to teach 20 the subject. 20 Hollis Dann, op. cit. p. 31. CHAPTER VII DICTIOH Diction defined. The term diction has two ac cepted definitions: 1 . Choice of word for expressing ideas, and 2 . the art or manner or oral expression as regards pronunciation, enunciation, clarity or meaning fulness of utterance. It Is to the second definition that Green ^ refers when he maintains that one of the most important factors to be remembered by the singer or the speaker is “purity” of diction. If singing is to be speech and song, we must sing the language as it should be spoken. Pure vowel sounds should be used. The English language is particularly difficult to speak or sing. Variations of word accentuation are numerous. If one is to have a clear understanding as to the meaning of the word diction, pronunciation and enunciation must be defined at this point. Pronunciation, in its strictest sense, is the cor rect ness with which articulate sounds are uttered. example, "get11 called “git”; For “tremendous”, ”tremenejus” ; Harry P. Greene, Interpretation in Song (Hew York Macmillan Company, 1921) , p. 10. 65 “address11, “address51; “film", “fillura15, are matters of correctness, or pronunciation* While in cases in which the sounds are all correctly given, the accent properly placed, and the syllables correctly divided, and yet in which the utterance so lacks in clearness and the general effect upon the ear is that of a blurring sound, it is a matter of fullness and distinctness, or enunciation. 2 Pronunciation, as explained by Houghton 3 is the correct utterance of words in four particulars: 1 . Correctness of the vowel sounds, as "get", not "git"; “roses," not “rosuz", 2 .Correctness of the consonant sounds, as "pro fuse," not “profuze"; “exit", not " exzit"• 3* Correct division of words into syllables, as “vow el", not "vow1!"; “elm," not "el lum". 4. Correct placing of the accent, as "entire," not "entire"; "ordeal", not "ordeal." If words are properly uttered in these four res pects, the pronunciation is perfect* But how rarely do we find a speaker or singer who is able to pronounce _ g H* G-* Houghton, Elements of Speaking,(Boston: Ginn and Company, 1916), p. 127. 3 Ibid*, p . 143• 66 with accuracy even the common words of our language. 4 Fillebrown points out that it is a matter of common observation that American singers, although they may be very careful in their pronunciation of their French and German, are indifferent and even very care less, in the clear and finished enunciation of their native tongue. The singer must never forget that his mission is to vitalize text with tone. "Pronunciation (concerns not only the listener but the singer and the speaker, for pure tone and pure 5 pronunciation cannot be divorced.fl One nunciation cannot exist without the other. Correct pro and beautiful tone are so interdependent as to be inseparable. The words, according to Fillebrown, should seem to be formed by the upper lip and to come through it. It is found that this method makes words easy to pronounce distinctly. Clear enunciation is a is an enormous asset since it vital factor in the pronunciation of words and the teacher should encourage the student to make each and 4 Fillebrown, op. cit., p. 19. 5 Ibid. 67 every word clean cut and clearly understandable. 6 In his booh, “Science of the Voice”, Stanley tells us that the lips must be strengthened by using them neatly and vigorously for articulation, and even by direct exercise. The lips should never be drawn over to touch the teeth during the act of phonation, and therefore, the pupil must be taught to open them, thereby showing a few of the upper, and not lower, teeth all the time he is sing ing. The use of a mirror may be permitted for the purpose of allowing the pupil to see whether his lips are in the proper position. This author advocates ex ercises for strengthening the lips by holding them open before a mirror. He also advises against excessive use of the mirror to avoid self-consciousness. SJ Mackenzie tells us that no pains should be spared by the pupil to perfect himself on pronunciation, which lies at the root of artistic enunciation, a thing too often neglected by vocalists. To quote Mackenzie on the subject of pronunciation, he says, 6 ~ Stanley, op. cit., p. 143. 7 Sir Morell Mackenzie, The Hygiene of the Vocal Organs.(Belmar, New Jersey: Edgar S. Werner, 192b77""p ^* 113. 6b “Without it,song'loses one of its greatest charms, and the voice of ’articulately-speaking man* becomes little more expressive than sounding brass or tinkling b cymbal f J Vowels. Children will have learned from reading and grammar that the vowels in the English language are a, e, i, o, and u, and that every syllable must contain at least one of them. It should be explained that in reality, however, there are more than five of these vowel sounds, because some, such as a, are pronounced in several ways as in far, fate, fat, etc. Bates^ tells us that it unfortunately happens that several of the vowels that are most often used are very bad for sing ing purposes, and if sung as most people speak them would be "non-resonant" and 11tone-cramping". This is thv. more unfortunate because vocal tone is, of course pro duced entirely on the vowels, and the consonants do more to hinder than to help. "To secure pure resonant tone, therefore, it is necessary to make the fullest possible use of the vowels Ibid. 9 Bates, op. cit., p. 2?. 69 that are good for our purpose*11 Stanley-*-^ has written that the vowels contain a greater part of the energy of the speaking or singing sounds; that the vowels can be sustained more or less steadily and are. periodic in their nature, or in other words they consist of a series of sound waves substantial ly constant in shape during the phonation of a given vowel* Stanley regards singing as the production of a number of more or less sustained vowels separated by consonants or by pauses. 12 Mackenzie 13 describes the different vowel-sounds as a result of the gradual elongation of the mouth-cavity combined with alterations in the shape and size of its external orifice produced by the varying action of the lips. To cite Mackenzie again; when producing vowel sounds the mouth acts as a resonator, the inlet of which is at the back, and the outlet at the lips, both orifices being alike variably in length and in shape. The proper production of the vowels depends on distinctness'.of ar ticulation and the final, as it is the severest, test of 10 Stanley, op. cit., p. 36. 11 Ib id . 12 Ibid. 13 Mackenzie, op.cit. p. 165. 70 a speaker*s training is the perfection of his rendering those five letters, _a, e, i_, o_, and u. The good tone-producing, resonant vowels as given 14 15 by Bates, Mills, and others are as follows: ho. I. AH, as in Father. No. 2. E, as in Egg. No. 3, I, as in Pin. No. 4. 00, as in Tooth. No.5. 0 , as in Oak. No. B. AW, as in Gnaw. No. 7. 0, as in On. It is recommended by these that the class should learn these authors andothers sevensinging vowels very thoroughly and be accustomed to use them on every possible occasion. Also, to explain to each and every class or student that the o, _e, and i named above as good singing vowels are not the ordinary d , e_, and i. included among the five speaking vowels of the English alphabet. It should be carefully explained that No. 2 is not the (e) of (me), but_e_ as in egg. No. 3 is not the i. of “ 14 Bates, op. cit., pp. 23-27. 15 Mills, op. cit., pp. 218-221. VI night, but i_ as in pin. No.7 is not the o of oak, hut q. as in on. Many students will ask ,"What of the hundreds of words which contain other vowels than the seven named in the table above?" Bates answers this question by saying, "it is possible to sing nearly all words (say at least ninety1.per cent) on the seven good vowels and combinations „16 of them." Under the study of the good singing vowels the following information is valuable in child voice training. Five non-resonant vowels which require special treat ment are i as in "night", u as in "music", ow as in "now", oi as in "joy", and a as in "save". These all tend to pull down and cramp the tone in the throat, but here again our seven good vowels, or rather combinations of them, can easily be substituted. Let the list of good singing vowels, numbered one to seven on the previous page be continued as given again by Bates. No. 8 . i, as (vowels 1 and 3 in "night", should be sungas ah-i in former list) gliding together. No. 9. u, as in "music," should be (vowels 3 and 4), gliding together. sungas i-oo No. 10.ow, as in "now", should be sung as .ahiqo (vowels 6 and 3), gliding together. No. 11. ox, as in "joy", should be sung as aw-1 (vowels 6 and 3), gliding together* 16 “ Bates, op. cit. 17 Loc. cit. No. 12. a, as in ’’save” and “make11, should be sung as ei (vowels 2 and 3), gliding together. It would be of interest to the children, and at the same time impress upon them the importance of substituting good vowels for bad ones, to get them to sing some familiar piece to the best vowels and dipthongs only. They willthen realize, too, how exceptional it is to come across a word that cannot be fitted to one or more of the seven vowels and five combinations. ° List of vocalizing vowels for the child voice as selected from the 11Silver Book” of the “Music Hour Series11, Bates, Mills, and others. 1 . ah as in “fahher". 2. eas in “egg". 3. ias in “pin11. 4. oo as in “tooth11. 5. o as in “oak“. 6 . aw as in “gnaw". V. oas in “on". 8. ias in “night", sung as ahi(l and 3 gliding together). 9. u as in “music", sung as ioo(3 and 4 gliding together.) 10.ow as in "now1 ,1 sung as ahoo(l and 4 gliding together.) 11. oy as in "joy", sung as awi (6 and 3 gliding together.) 73 12. a as in "save” , sung as (2 and 3 gliding together). 13. u as in "much”, sung as a modification of q. (vowel no. 7.) 14. £ as in “Earth0,sung as a modification of ah (Aumber 1 ). 15. & as in “bat0, sung as a modification of e ( number 2 ). In singing the consonants w and y are always treated as vowels. When beginning a word, y is sung as i such as number three of the above list, and as in “yet0 (sung as i-et) and "you" (sung as i-oo). When y occurs at some other part of a word than the beginning, as in “merry11, it is sung as i_(no. 3). and sometimes as ah-i (hos. 1 and 3) as in “try0 (trah).:.' w is changed to oo. as in tooth, such words as “will0 being sung oo-ill, “wit0 oo-it and “were0 oo-ere. The sound of wh in words like “when0, “where0, “which0, is sung to the oo vowel as in tooth and is preceded by ghe 19 aspirate “h u , thus: “when0 is sung as hooen “where0 is sung as hooer “which0 is sung as hooich “white0 is sung as hooahit 19 Bates, ££. cit., p. 30. Bates sums up the most important considerations of the vowels to impress upon the singing class as follows 1. Pure vocal tone can only he produced on the singing vowels. 2. The best tone-producing vowels are the seven named on the third page of this chapter, 3. With a little care and practice very nearly all words can be sung on the seven good vowels and the five diphthongs on pages 3 and 4 of this chapter. Clear enunciation being also accomplished. Consonants. Consonants are formed with the ton gue and lips, in the mouth, and with the exception of the gutturals, in the front of the mouth, therefore, is is only possible for the singer or speaker to artic ulate perfectly when the tone is resonated pharyngeally and the mouth is left free to form the consonants. When the mouth serves as the resonator of the vowel sounds, there is considerable interference between them and the consonants, since the singer will be trying to use his mouth for articulation when it is being shaped for vowel 21 position, and the two actions will conflict. 20 Bates, op. cit. p. 33, 21 Stanley, op. cit., p. 143. 75 The properly formed consonant is produced by means of very rapid, vigorous and, at the same time, small movements of the articulating parts. For this reason consonant practice is a necessary phase of vocal training and the tongue— principally the tip of the ton gue— and the lips, which have to be strengthened and brought under control, must be exercised. 22 Mackenzie 23 very briefly states that consonants have been variously divided by grammarians and physio logists according to the modification of the air-blasfc in delivering them, and again according to the supposed anatomical factor in their production. Thus we have the division into lip-letters known as labials( b, p, f, m, v, ), tooth-letters or dentals (d, t, 1 , n, r, s, ), and throat-letters or gutturals (g, k, h, j ), and the more scientific, but less practically convenient, classifica tion into explosives, resonants, vibrants and aspirates. B a tes^ tells us that it should be explained that the consonants are like little shutter separating vowels 22 Stanley, op. cit., p. 143. 23 Mackenzie, ojo. cit. p. 165. 24 Mackenzie, op. cit., p. 166. 25 Bates, op. cit., p. 33. 76 from each other and labelling them with a meaning* This author says it is utterly impossible to make musical tone out of the consonants such as b, c, d, g, f, j, k, 1, m, h, Pj ox3 r, s, t, v, x, or z. It is also pointed out that the only way ato secure full vocal effect and clear enunciation is to train the class to make the vowels as long as possible and the consonants short but distinct. The initial consonant of a word or syllable should always be sounded instantly, so that the singer may pass at once to the tone-producing vowel. Consonants in the middle of a word should be treated in the same way, hurrying on to the following vowel. But consonants at the end of words must, if the meaning is to be clear to listeners, have just a little more time given to them and be sounded very distinctly . To insure the best tone quality and distinct articulation Bates ' gives the following suggestions: 1. Articulate the first and intermediate consonants very quickly. 2. Dwell on the vowels as long as possible. 3. Articulate the final consonants quickly but very distinctly. ° Unless children are put on their guard, this 26 Bates, o p . c i t ., p. 35. last point (i\io. 3) will become more and more difficult tJae more tney improve in singing. Tnis is because it is harder to articulate while singing one of the resonant vowels than before doing so. That is, it is easier to sound the first consonant than the last, although the last is so much the more important in conveying the word to the listeners. As their voices become more full and beautiful by singing on the vowels, children will find the final consonants increasingly troublesome, and will need to give them constant attention if people are to understand what they are singing. One often hears it said of a singer who uses bad vocal tone that whatever his faults, his words can be understood, while those of much better singers cannot. With proper care, how ever, pupils cannot only sing musically and with full vocal effect, but can also sing clearly and be \>yell understood. Summary♦ A great deal has been written about the importance of clarity of diction and considerable confu sion has arisen with regard to the factors which govern it. The research offered in this chapter is by no means a complete explanation of diction, but the parts described are those which confront the school music teacher. Cer tainly the words are being sung should clearly and definit 78 ly understood by the audience* It was pointed out that clarity of diction depends far more upon consonants than vowels. Trying to form a clearly understood vowel at the expense of the tone is technically destructive. The tone must always be of good quality. Many examples have been given in the foregoing pages which will furnish the teacher with a guide to pronunciation for almost any word that he might encount er. These examples have been cited, not as exercises for the child to labor with but for the teacher to keep in mind and suggest to his pupils when the occasion may arise. CHAPTER VIII VOCAL HYGTEJME Very little has been written about vocal hygiene for the cnild, therefore the major portion of the re search reported in this chapter pertains to the pro fessional singer rather than to the child or adoles cent. However, it is felt that the teacher may profit by having a knowledge of vocal hygiene as recommended by such authorities as Mills, Mackenzie, and others, which may be conveyed to the child through the training and guidance of the voice instructor. James Bates1 sums up the problem of vocal hy giene for children in a few short paragraphs which are cited as follows. Boys and girls should be taught to be careful, especially immediately after singing. The exertion of singing leaves the throat and larynx in a heated condition and should not be exposed to sudden changes in temperature. This author does not advocate the wearing of scarves to protect the throat. Bates on this topic: 1 Bates, o p . cit.,p. 21. To quote BO "Boys and girls wno wear these so-called throat protectors run twice tne risk as their unprotected comp panions •" Influence of general health on the voice* Hygiene should, in the broadest sense, refer to the entire physi cal make-up of an individual, his body, intellect, feelings, and will. The term has usually been restricted to the pre servation of bodily health. It is recognized however, that man is a whole, and that one part of him cannot suffer with out the others taking part# In this chapter the general welfare of the voice user will be studied. Mackenzie as artists. writes that singers are athletes as well A vocal artist must always be in training, and his life is therefore full of self-sacrifices. There are many things he must be concerned with if he is to keep his voice at its best. So what is good for the singer*s general health is beneficial to the condition of his voice. It is related that a friend of Sir Morell Macken zie's whose beautiful voice was well known in London society said that his voice distinctly gained in clearness 2 — Ibid., p. 22. 3 Mackenzie, ojd . cit., p. 143. 81 and flexibility while he was under severe training for the University Boat-race. Food. We know that food is required by the body as fuel is by a fire, for the repair of the waste of tis sue that is constantly going on. The more exercise the body receives the more waste increases; thus more food is needed. We learn from the study of physiology that the two main functions of the diet are the formation of flesh and the generation of heat, the former being taken care of by the nitrogenous, and the latter by the carbonaceous element. It is therefore necessary that the body receive, from time to time, certain amounts of nitrogen and carbon. 4 Mackenzie states that it is calculated that 300 grains of nitrogen and 4,800 grains of carbon are required to keep an adult body in a state of proper efficiency. Ni trogen is mainly supplied by eating animal substances and carbon is furnished by bulky grains, flour, and meals. Of course each category contains a certain proportion of both. Eating vegetables of the proper amounts will fur nish these substances and does not require an unnecessary 4 Ibid., p. 146. amount of work for the digestive system as would the eating of heavier foods. Not only the amount eaten, but also the cooking of the food is of great importance to the vocalist. Fried foods are coated with a layer of fat and will not permit the digestive juices to take proper effect. Indigestion will rob the voice of its true qual ity and it is wise to take the meal at least three hours before singing or speaking. It is best to avoid an even ing meal made up of too solid foods which usually result 5 in a restless night. Citing Mackenzie again; temperance of every kind is more necessary for the singer than for almost any other profession. Tobacco. While probably every one would agree that tobacco should not be used by children, Mackenzie an others are of the opinion that older singers may smoke moderately without harmful results, provided they do not inhale the smoke into the lungs as is done by 6 many who use cigarettes. Mackenzie relates that smoke cannot fail to irritate the mucous membrane of the deep er air passages, which is even more delicate than the covering of the eye. No doubt this is very true and it 83 is just as harmful to blow smoke of a cigar up behind the palate and out through the nose. Clothing. Clothing is a matter of importance to the singer and speaker or any one who is concerned with his health. The clothing worn should be suitable to the season and the weather. The parts of the body needing protection in singers are the chest and throat. The chest should never be exposed to cold air and the throat need not be muffled up in the day time unless the air is extremely cold. At night, where the air becomes consider ably cooler, or when coming out of a warm room or crowded theatre, the throat should be carefully wrapped up and the mouth kept closed. Stiff collars, especially the old fashioned kind are very uncomfortable and should never be worn by the vocalist. The abdomen and chest should not with tightly fitted clothes. be covdred These parts of the body must be free and comfortable. Other external things to be guarded against by the singer are fog, dust, smoke, sulphur fumes, and gases. Sitting in stuffy smoke-filled rooms is especially perni cious, as the heat and irritation combined make the throat doubly sensitive to cole when the outer air has to be faced. Over-heating is dangerous for voice-users because 84 of the increased risk of chill. It is wise not to venture out in extreme cold winds, hut in fine weather the outer air is a useful stimulant* 7 Mackenzie says that women should walk not less than three and men not less than six miles a day* Hiking, tennis, indoor hall and other sports are recommended as ideal for improving the “wind" and invigorating the mus cles. Running, climbing hills or hunting are not advis able for the vocal artist. Any sport that leads to shout ing and misusing the vocal chords should he avoided. Colds. JNearly all vocal instructors will advise not to use the voice when the throat is in any way out of order* The most common throat trouble is a cold and is a nuisance to everyone. Boys and girls as well as the adult should be most careful, especially immediately after singing. ‘ ^he exertion of singing, as is the case when work of any kind is done, produces heat; and when the larynx and the throat are thus heated, people are liable to catch cold in the throat. In this respect. Sfcngers are great sufferers When after singing or an evening prac tice they pass out into the cold air with heated throats they should be more careful to breathe through the nostrils. 7 Mackenzie, op. cit., p. 157. d5 The air passing through the nostrils is warmed and the risk of catching cold is thus greatly lessened. Exper ienced singers on leaving a concert room are always most careful to close the lips and breathe through the nostrils. Many even make a rule not to apeak for some minutes, un til the heated vocal apparatus has had time to cool. On ly by adapting these precautions are they able to keep free from colds in the throat and thus maintain their voices in first class condition. Nodes often result from using the voice too vigorously when one has a cold. Another very frequent cause of sore throat is the wearing of scarves. People who wear these so-call ed throat protectors run twice as much risk as their unprotected companions. By carefully and fully exposing the throat at all times to the air it is hardened and strengthened, and people render themselves for less liable to colds. Voorhees states that the usual reason for making a change of bill in arrangement of performances is be cause the singer has a cold. Of course this is not - I. W # Voorhees,Hygiene of the Voice (New York: Macmillan Company, 1923), p. 44. 86 always a valid reason; for a 11cold11 is a very convenient excuse, and is ordinarily quite acceptable* However, it does not require much of a cold to put a singer quite out of the running, so to speak. As to the cure of colds, much material has been read and investigated. brief. The conclusions are given in Camphor, quinine and belladonna are quite often used for cold relief because they react quite rapidly, but any drug of this type has a tendency to dry up the secretion quickly and to parch the mucous membrane. Every singer and speaker knows, a dry throat is fatal to good tone work. Many suffer from chronic laryngitis or bronchitis and have a constant desire to clear blowing or with the use of drugs. their air ways b y These conditions are easy to detect because the voice will be good one day and bad the next. Specialists tell us that in spite of all the various singing methods which are supposed to cure such infection, it still persists because the bacterial cause is still present deep down beneath the 9 mucous membrane and cannot be permanently routed out, : - F. E. Miller, The Voice, Its Production, Care an(i Preservation (New York: G-. Schirmer, 1931) , p. 146. 87 Thus it is quite easy to understand that no amount of vocalization or breathing exercises can ever hope to effect the cure. The cautious voice-user will discon tinue his work after the acute symptoms of an infection have begun. Some think that an engagement outweighs every other consideration, but this is undoubtedly a mistake. Following are important rules for vocalists to 1° consider as given by Miller: Luke-warm rather txhan hot baths. Do not sleep in a draught. Be careful of the neck and head after having had a hair cut. Eat the proper amount of food and get the proper amount of exercise. Smoking is very injurious. Singers should be prepared for traveling conditions such as proper clothing for extreme exposures , and sleeping conditions on trains and in hotels. Stiff high collars are injurious, because they are irritants to blood-vessels and nerves. The first sneege should send the artist singer to his physician. Rest is a great cure. Singers should avoid living in rooms heated by apparatus which may produce carbonic acid. 10 Miller, op. cit., p. 146. 88 Practice deep breathing first tning each morning. Regulate the thickness of the clothing in ac cordance with the prevailing temperature. Very nutritive and very digestable foods should be chosen. Alcoholic liquors should be absolutely forbidden. The first singing exercise should not be too long. The first exercise should never contain the extreme notes of the vocal range. Tobacco irritates the pharynx and reddens the vocal cords. Pungent scents should be prescribed for singers. The odors of some flowers, are for some artists, the cause of persistent hoarseness. Avoidance of strain-or int erference in the use of the vocal organs. Constant practice is as necessary for the vocalist's laryngeal muscles as it is for the violin ist's fingers, if they are to be kept supple and well trained. Vocal instructors recommend that these vocal exercises should be short but frequent. Mackenzie^ writes: 111 say the three things necessary to keep the voice in good order are Practice, Practice, and Practice.11 Of course the amount of practice must be governed 11 Mackenzie, *0 £. ** P # 139* 89 by the activities of the singer. If one is to sing in concert the amount of practice to preceed the appearance must be carefully considered to avoid tiring the voice* The voice must not be abused either in being forced beyond its natural compass or by excessive violence of produc tion. Turning the peg and tightening the string on a violin too much will cause it to snap, and severe physical injury to the vocal organs may be the consequences of the straining the voice beyond the limits of its capacity. Some indications of misusing the voice are loss of elas ticity of the vocal cords from over-stretching, rupture of some of the muscular fibres or even of a blood-vessel 12 in the throat, and paralysis of one or more of the laryn geal muscles. Loud singing, according to Stanley , is beneficial, but much care must be used as to the amount of practice. Certain modes of singing are ^sometimes very trying to the voice yet they are to be done in an artistic manner. For example, staccato and the tremelo can easily be injurious to the voice. Staccato singing which seems to be a natural gift and requires no training to acquire the art, if much or frequently practiced would 13 in time spoil the finest voice; the short, jerky snaps '12 Medical Record, March, 1885, p. 317. 13 Stanley and Maxfield, op. cit., p. 184, 90 require such a rapid succession of delicate muscular ad justments that exhaustion is sure to follow. Compare this type of singing with trying to read while an auto is traveling at a good rate of speed thus making the optical adjustments almost impossible and very harmful to the eye. Another important factor to remember in the preservation of the voice is never to sing when it is felt that vocal apparatus is not in its highest condi tion of efficiency. The singer never should attempt any public effort when he feels the effect of a cold, indigestion, fatigue or any other reason for not being "in voice." It is said that violent or prolonged weeping is likely to dull a voice as much as it does the eye sight. Stanley and Maxfield tell us, The well-trained singer workd hard and vigorously, but the energy expended is utilized in the production of tone. The badly-trained singer works too, but his work takes the form of strain or effort, since he is endeavoring to add tension to already tensed muscles and, at the same time to fight against interfering muscles. 15 Amount of Practice. Mills relates in his book 14 Ibid., p. 185. 15 Mills, og. cit., p. 184. 91 on "Voice Production" that the purpose of practice is not only to render success more certain and more perfect, but to make efforts tell to the fullest extent with a little expenditure of energy to the speaker or singer. He also states that he sings best who attains the end with the least expenditure of energy. Many instructors inform us that the beginner should never practice except in the presence of his or her instructor or one who knows the correct methods and can teach the student to form his habits wisely. Citing Mills-® again, practice alone may not only do little good, but, by the formation of wrong habits of production , be positively mischievous. A trainer of athletes often stresses how and when to practice, and exercises more supervision over it, than do some teachers of singing, in spite of the fact that the apparatus that the singer or speaker uses is more delicate, and wrong habits much more injurious. Most teachers agree that it is far better to practice ten minutes with the whole attention of a fresh and interested mind given intelligently to a subject than hours of mere mechanical movement. 16 Mills, op. cit., 165. As 92 to the amount of practice, reliable sources tell us that this question:cannot be answered by any teacher, singer or writer, nor does the experience, in itself , of any one person furnish an adequate guide for others# 17 The time at which, as a rule, any work can best be carried out is during the early hours of the day, so that if it is possible, practice should begin early, and after some preliminary exercise for the good of the body in general* The subject of the amount of practice, after considering many sources, may be concluded by saying that the student is the one with the aid of his teacher to decide whether he is to practice five minutes or one hour, provided that he is sufficiently observant, to know when he begins to feel weary in Soft and Loud Singing* his vocal mechanism. Soft and loud singing are considered an important factor in the care and training of the voice. No wise trainer ever allows charges to go to a racing track and at once run a hundred yards at the highest possible speed. sound judgment. Such a course would be against Hence the question if soft and loud practice I? Mills, 0 £. cit., p. 185. 93 answers itself; the singer should never begin an exercise forte but either piano or moderate— as to which depends on the individual. Some people can only after long study produce really good tones pianissimo. Such if not most persons should of course begin practicing with moderate IB force. Certainly the voice-user should, in order to gain volume, gradually increase the vigor of his practice, but exactly how to do this, and to what extent daily, are questions in which the advice of sensible and experienced teacher is of great value. We are taught by instructors in Public School Music courses or methods and vocal instuctbrs that the vocal exercises for children are to be strictly moderate both as to quality and quantity, that is to say the lesson must be very short, and at the cost only the ten or twelve notes which form the average com pass of a child’s voice must be used."^ To cite Macken zie^° further, vocal training in childhood, if properly carried out, is not only good for the voice and health, and dis tinctly advantageous to both. “IB Mackenzie,0£. cit., p. 130. 19 Ibid., p. 133. 20. Ibid., p. 134. 94 The pupil , while practicing (in the first case in the middle and high register, in the second only in the high register), must limit himself to a few tones, singing always downwards and very softly. The tones will be weak, husky, and often impure in the beginning, especial ly if not sung softly enough,but improve as the exercise continues. When these tones are pure and clear, the exercises may be extended downwards, always singing soft ly. The high and middle registers, or only the high reg ister, must be extended downwards as far as possible. The extending downwards of a higher register is also an excellent help in smoothing out the break in the voice at the passage from one register to the other. This extending downwards of the high registers always can be done without any danger to the voice. The "timbre" of the voice will even gain considerably in briliaincy and fullness by exercising in this way.21 Summary. The school child is usually not con cerned with the effect of general health on his voice. Neither does he give much thought to the effects on his voice of proper food, clothing, or amounts of practice. This chapter, however, deals with the foregoing topics SI Mills, ojd . c i t ., p. 166. since it is considered important that the teacher of voice should be informed on all points affecting the vocal health of the students. Boys and girls should learn to be careful in using their voices. It has been stated that singers she athletes as well as artists and a vocal artist must always be in training, xhere are many things that he must be concerned with if he is to keep his voice at its best. So what is good for the singer's general health is beneficial to the condition of his voice. CHAPTER IX GENERAL SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The preceding chapters make it evident that train ing children to sing is no task to be undertaken lightly* On the part of the teacher, it rdemands seriousness of purpose, competent training, and a genuine love for good music. The teacher should be person of culture and good breeding, well educated, a good musician, able to play or sing with reasonable technical skill, accuracy, Intellig ence, and taste, thoroughly grounded in the theory of mus ic, equipped with a wide knowledge of musical literature and finally, must have high art ideals and be able to arouse and maintain them in his pupils. He should enjoy working with children and be able to win their confidence* The teacher of vocal music in the grade school is not merely teaching children to sing; he is training them to recognize lovely tone quality, to interpret songs in an artist manner; in short he is teaching them through doing to appreciate good music* The factors involved in the training of the child and also:: : adolescent voices are both physiological and psychological, demanding of the teacher a knowledge; first of the voice changes that are a sign of adolescence; and 97 second, methods of dealing with these changes designed to help the pupil over a most trying and depressing period. The psychological changes occuring during adoles cence are social and emotional. The child wishes to be with his own group and enters actively into any and all clubs and organizations. He feels a need for emotional expression that is best satisfied by participation in musical activities both vocal and instrumental. Physically he is growing into manhood and uncon sciously develops coarse and undesirable vocal habits by trying to make his voice keep pace with his body growth. Singing has many-sided values. It is physical trailing , intellectual training and emotional guidance. No other subject can compete with music as a means of emotional training. Perfect mental development is im possible without emotional culture, because the emotions are an integral part of the mind. Breathing exercises properly taken enlarge the chest and increase breath capacity, besides being one of the most healthful of all exercises. Intellectually, singing excels on the side of discipline. It teaches self-control, obedience, unity of action, training of the ear and provides an association with good literature. It has been said that music is one of the most refined forms of mental recreation. 98 Another argument i# favor of singing is the fact that a pleasant speaking voice is a valuable asset from a business standpoint. We cannot say that only good sing ers have pleasing speaking voices, but it is safe to as sume that if a person can sing in a pleasing way that his speaking voice will also be pleasant and well modulated. A pleasant voice is regarded as a mark of refinement and culture both in men and women. Authorities agree that with proper training, and an understanding of the changes taking place in the mental and physical make-up of the child, the teacher can save his pupils, especially the boys, a great deal of mental and physical discomfort; and by proper selection of in teresting song material the child’s interest in music may be retained and his life enriched by the finest mental recreation possible. The following conclusions may be drawn from the foregoing study of the child and adolescent voice. 1. That the child ¥oice is a delicate instrument demanding careful training. 2. That the entire elementary vocal program should be carefully planned since it represents the major portion of the child’s musical activities* 99 3. That good singing during childhood constitutes a splendid foundation for any future music study, 4. That singing gives to the child not only present pleasure and satisfaction, but helps him to build a melodic repertoire for future enjoyment, 5, That the technical phases should always be sub ordinated to the song itself since the object is not mere ly to teach musical symbols, but singing, 6, That the public schools do not pretend to give children a thorough course in voice-culture, but they should at least prevent the wrong use of the voice and protect it from injury. The teacher has a right to expect that the voices of children who have sung in the schools will be in better condition than those who have not had this privilege, also that such pupils will be better able to discriminate in matters of tone quality. Y. Finally, that the success of the song period rents largely with the teacher and in a genuine love of good singing on his part. BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHY A. BOOKS Aikin, W. A., Voice. New York: Longmans, Green and Company, 1927. i59 pp. A useful volume in which scientific research and vocal problems are effectively combined. Barrows, Sarah T., Voice: How to Use it. Boston: Expression Company, 1933. 60 pp. A book on vocal problems. Bates, James, Voice Culture for Children. Company, 1930. 70 pp. New York: Novello Especially supplies to the child voice, its care and treatment. Beattie, McConathy, M . , Music in the Junior High School. New York: Silver Burdette and Company, 1938. 252 pp. Prepared especially for the teacher of the Junior High School Blusic classes. Coward, Henry, Choral Technique. 1914. 333 pp. London: Novello Company, A text book on choral problems and materials. Crane, Julia E., Music T eacher1s Manual♦ Potsdam, New York: Elliot Fay and sons, Printers, 1915. 142 pp. A manual for the grade school music teacher. Cundiff, Hannah Mathews, and Peter W. Dykema, School Music Handbook. Boston: C. C. Birchard and Company, 1923.266 pp. Handbook designed for teaching aids. 101 Curtis, Louis Woodson, ’’The Development of Vocal Music in the Elementary Grades,” 1957 Yearbook of the Music Educators’ National Conference. Chicago: Music Educa tors’ National Conference. 250 pp. A valuable book giving recent vocal developments. Clippinger, D. A., The Head Voice and Other Problems. New York: Oliver Ditson and Company, 1952. 128 pp. Class method text book. Damrosch, Frank, Some Essentials in the Teaching of Music. New York: G. Schirmer, 1916. 101 pp. Essentials of musicianship and music training. Dann, Hollis, Complete Manual for Teachers. New York: American Book Company, 1912. 172 pp. Instruction guide book. . . . ., Music Educator's National Conference Year Book, 1936. 200 pp. A valuable text of recent date, giving effective sug gestions. Detmold, Katherine, ’’The Correction of Monotone!!, Music Educator's National Conference 1957 Year Book, Chicago: Music Educator1s Conference, 1937• 251 pp. For the correction of monotones. Dawson, J. J . , The Voice of the Boy. Chicago: Laidlow Bro thers, 1919. 40 pp. Discusses the boy voice and its many problems. Felderman, Leon, The Human Voice. Company, 1931. 301 pp. New York: H. Holt and Scientific.research on the human voice. 102 Fillebrown, Thomas, Resonance in the Speaking Voice. Boston: Oliver Ditson Company, 1911. 93 pp. Resonance and shaping organs for phonation. Gehrkens, Karl Wilson, Music in the Grade School. Boston: C. C. Birchard and Company, 1934. 233 pp. A book of very important grade school music problems. Giddings, Thaddeus P., Will Earhart, Ralph L. Baldwin, and Eldredge W. Newton, Manual for Teachers. Boston: Ginn and Company, 1924. 224 pp. Handbook written on elementary music teaching. Giddings, Thaddeus P., Grade School Music Teaching. New York: C. H. Congdon, 1919. 25? pp. Serves as a course of study for grade music teachers. Glenn, Mabelle, Helen S. Leavitt, Rebmann, and Earl L. Baker, Music Teaching in Kindergarten and Primary Grades. Boston: Ginn and Company, 1936. 132 pp. Especially written for the serious music teacher. Glenn, Mabelle, and others, Music Teaching in Inter mediate Grades. Boston: Ginn and Company, 1936. 85 pp. A very detailed text of vocal problems. Graham, Ben G., Music Supervisor’s National Conference Year Book, 1932. Article on vocal problems in year book. Greene, Harry P., Interpretation in Song. New York: Mac Millan Company, 1921. 30? pp. One of the best books on interpretation of music and of great value to the director. 103 Howard, Francis E., The Child Voice in Singing. New York: The H. W. Gray Company, 1898. 138 pp. Not a recent book, but one of the best dealing with the child voice. Houghton, Harry G-. Elements of Public Speaking. Boston: Ginn and Company, 1916. 333 pp. Good on the pronunciation and enunciation of words. Hubbard, G-. E. , Music Teaching in the Elementary Grades. New York: American Book Company, 1934. 228 pp. A very thorough study of the child voice problem. Ingalls, K. Elizabeth,“Vocal Material in the Elementary Grades1 ] Yearbook of the Mu sic Educ at or *s National Conference. Chicago: Music Educators' National Conference, 193V. 209 pp. Of much value to those concerned with the child voice * James, Mary Ingles, Scientific Tone Production. Boston: Boston Music Company, 1931. 101 pp. A very scientific research. Kwalwasser, J., Problems in School Music. New York: Witmark and Sons, 1932. “~T59 pp. An unusual text of effective music education. Mackenzie, Sir Morell, The Hygiene of the Vocal Organs. Belmar, New Jersey: Edgar S. Werner, 1928. 2 8 5 pp. One of the best books Y\rritten on the care of the voice instrument and health conditions and its effects on the voice. Mills, Wesley, Voice Production in Singing. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1913. 294 pp. Scientific approach of the vocal apparatus. 104 Miller, P. E« ,The Voice, Its Production, Care and Preser vation. New York: G-. Schirmer, 1931. 196 pp. A book dealing with most every problem of the voice. Mursell, G-lenn, Psychology of School Music Teaching. New York: Silver Burdette and Company. A text that should be on the desk of every music teacher. Mursell, James L., Human Values in Music Education. New York: Silver Burdette and Cfompany, 1934. 388 pp. Related to psuchology of school music but more detailed in every respect. Ogg, H. L., Voice and Speech. Ann Arbor, Michigan: Brothers, Inc., 1938. 85 pp. Edwards A comparison of the singing and speaking voice. Parker, Horatio , Osbourne McConathy, Edward Bailey Birge, and W. Otto Miessner, Teacher1s Manual, Vol I. New York: Silver Burdette and Company, 1919. 192 pp. Guide book for teachers. Good but not a recent book. Proschowski, Franz, The Beginner1s Voice Book. Philadelphia: Theodore Presser (Company, 1930. 156 pp. An outstanding guide for the serious vocal student and teacher. Russell, G. 0., Speech and Voice. pany, 1931. 250 pp. New York: MacMillan Com A complete volume on vocal problems. Seth, George and Douglas Guthrie, Speech in Childhood. Lon don: Oxford University Press, H. Milford, 1935. 224 pp. A very detailed study of the child voice; speaking and singing. 105 Stanley, Douglas, The Science of Voice* Fischer, 1929. 32V pp. New York: Carl A complete guide for all vocal instructors. Stanley, Douglas and Maxfield, The Voice, its Production, and Reproduction. New York: Pitman Publishing Oompany, 1933. 184 pp. This book deals-with nearly every vocal problem. Stone, Kathryn E.,ManuaIlof Music (no publisher) Tosi, Pier F., Observations of the Florid Song. (London: Reprinted from the Second Edition by William Reeves Bookseller Limited, 83 Charing Road, 1926. Original in 1723 •) The first book ever written on the voice. Voorhees, I. W., Hygiene of the Voice. Millan Company, 1923. 212 pp. New York: Mac Another aid in the effects of health on the voice* Wagner, Arnold H., Music for Secondary Schools * A Syllabus for Education 173 H, University of South ern California, Los Angeles, 1935. 19 pp. B. PERIODICAL ARTICLES Breach, William, “When Voices are Changing11, Presser1s OrpBa-Chor Journal, Vol. I (February, 1940). G-raveure, Louis, “New Theories of Vocalism“, The Etude, (February, 1931).