close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

The career of Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman

код для вставкиСкачать
THE CAREER OF SIR HENRY CAMPBELL-BANNERMAN
A T h esis
P re s e n te d t o
th e F a c u lty o f th e D epartm ent o f H is to ry
U n iv e r s ity o f S o u th ern C a lif o r n ia
In P a r t i a l F u lf illm e n t
o f th e R equirem ents f o r th e Degree
M a ste r o f A rts
by
C h e s te r C a rl K a ise r
June 1940
UMI Number: EP59458
All rights reserved
INFORMATION TO ALL USERS
The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted.
In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript
and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed,
a note will indicate the deletion.
Dissertation Publishing
UMI EP59458
Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author.
Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC.
All rights reserved. This work is protected against
unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code
ProQuest LLC.
789 East Eisenhower Parkway
P.O. Box 1346
Ann Arbor, Ml 48106- 1346
<y
Th is thesis, w ri tt en by
...........................
under the direction of h.%3. F acu lt y C o m m it te e ,
a n d a p p r o v e d b y a l l its m e m b e r s , has be en
pr es e nt e d to and a c ce pte d by the Co unc il on
G ra du ate S t u d y and Resea rch in p a r tia l fulfill­
m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r th e d e g r e e o f
.......................... M M T E R .0 F ...A R 5 ’Sl..................................
Dean
Secretary
D a te .......
F aculty C om m ittee
Chairman
I
■
.1
PREFACE
T his i s a stu d y o f th e l i f e and p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r o f
S i r Henry Cam pbell-Bannerman.
He was a sta te sm a n o f im por­
ta n c e i n England d u rin g th e p a s t c e n tu r y , whose su c c e ss i n
le a d e r s h ip was rew arded w ith th e h ig h p o s itio n o f Prime
M in is te r .
p ro b a b ly th e m ost i n t e r e s t i n g d e t a i l of C am pbellB an n erm an s l i f e i s th e f a c t t h a t , d e s p ite h i s p o s it io n in
a w ea lth y and c o n s e rv a tiv e S c o t tis h fa m ily , he was an
advanced l i b e r a l .
He worked lo n g and c o n s c ie n tio u s ly f o r
th e p eo p le a s a w hole—f o r t h e i r p o l i t i c a l freedom , as in
I r e la n d and South A f r ic a ; f o r th e r i g h t s o f th e la b o rin g man,
in a s e r i e s o f b i l l s d esig n ed f o r h i s p r o te c tio n ; and f o r
b e t t e r e d u c a tio n a l f a c i l i t i e s f o r a l l .
My th a n k s a r e due to D r. B enjam in, Chairman o f my
T h e sis Com mittee, and to th e o th e r members, D r. Rowland and
D r. B uss, a l l o f th e D epartm ent o f H is to r y .
was o f g r e a t v a lu e to me.
T h e ir a s s i s t a n c e
I w ish a ls o t o thank th e l i b r a r i a n s
and t h e i r a s s i s t a n t s a t th e Los A ngeles C ity L ib ra ry and th e
l i b r a r i e s a t th e U n iv e rs ity o f S o u th ern C a l i f o r n ia and th e
U n iv e rs ity o f C a lif o r n ia a t Los A n g ele s, a s w e ll a s Mrs.
L e s lie S u n d e rlin , who h e lp e d me e d i t t h i s t h e s i s .
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.
PAGE
EARLY L I F E ....................................................................................
1
A n ce stry ....................................................................................
1
B i r t h .......................................................................................
3
C hildhood
3
...............................................................................
High S c h o o l ............................................................................
3
R e lig io n .
•
4
F a th e r ’ s in flu e n c e . . .....................................................
5
T ra v e l ........................................................................................
6
U n i v e r s i t y ...................................
7
B u s i n e s s ....................................................
S
In flu e n c e o f D an ie l L a w so n ............................................
9
M a r r i a g e ......................................................................................... 10
P o l i t i c a l v i e w s ....................................................................... 11
II.
MEMBER OF PARLIAMENT AND SECRETARY OF VARIOUS
OFFICES, 1868-1895
.................................................
S t i r l i n g Burgh campaign
. . .
12
12
E l e c t i o n .........................................................................................16
Work a s member of S t i r l i n g Burgh
................................ 17
S c o t t is h Endowed H o s p ita l B i l l .................................... 18
U n iv e r s ity T e s t B i l l .......................................................... 21
S c o t t i s h E d u c a tio n a l B i l l ............................................. 23
Bannerman e s t a t e . .
.......................................................... 24
iii
CHAPTER
PAGE
F in a n c ia l S e c r e ta r y to th e War O f f i c e ..................
24
E s t i m a t e s ...........................................................................
24
In flu e n c e o f C ardw ell , ,
25
Army O rg a n iz a tio n B i l l
....................................
. . .
. ..........................
25
M i l it a r y s p e c i a l i s t .....................................................
26
A c c u sa tio n o f Lord S a n d h u rst
26
. . . . . . . .
R egim ental e x c h a n g e s .................................................
26
County fin a n c e and g o v e rn m e n t...............................
27
E le c tio n s and M u n icip al B i l l o f
27
1871 . . . .
S c o t t is h Church P atro n ag e B i l l .....................
.
28
S c o t t is h Temperance B i l l ........................................
30
Army re fo rm
.................................................
31
M utiny B i l l
.....................................................
31
House o f C o m m o n s............................................
. . . .
31
S upply A rm y -E s tim a te s .................................................
31
p h y s ic a l e x a m i n a t i o n s .................................................
32
F in a n c ia l S e c r e ta r y o f th e War O ffic e . . . . ;
32
F o re ig n a f f a i r s ................................................
33
Land q u e s tio n . . . . . . . .
............................
34
I r i s h q u e s t i o n ..............................................................
35
F in a n c ia l S e c r e ta ry to th e A d m i r a l t y ..................
35
Navy........................................................................................
35
P r o f e s s o r P alm er’ s m i s s i o n ...................................
36
C h ief S e c r e ta r y f o r I r e l a n d .....................
38
C iv
CHAPTER
PAGE
P o lic y o f g o v e rn m e n t.....................................................
28
E lem en tary e d u c a t i o n ................................................. .
40
D e fe a t o f th e governm ent .
. . . .............................
40
Home R u l e ................... . .
.. . ................................
41
. i . . . ........................................
43
S e c r e ta ry f o r War
Welcome
........................................
. . . . . . . . .
43
A rm y .................................................. . .................................
44
Home R u l e ...........................................................................
44
House o f Commons..................................................................
46
T ra v e l
....................................................
46
P r e s id e n t o f L ib e ra l A s s o c i a t i o n ...........................
47
D om estic m easures
48
. .......................
. . . . . . .
E d u ca tio n B i l l ..................................................................
48
V arious ex p o su res
48
. . . . . .
S e c r e ta ry f o r W a r ...........................................
49
C ard w e llian s y s t e m .........................................................
49
H o n o u r s ..............................................................................
49
D is e s ta b lis h m e n t o f c h u r c h ........................................
50
Compulsory s a le o f l a n d ............................................
50
I r i s h Land P u rch ase B i l l ............................................
51
Second Home Rule B i l l .................................................
52
E d u c a tio n and L ocal T a x a tio n B i l l
.........................
52
F o r ty - e ig h t hour w e e k ................................................
54
F o re ig n a f f a i r s
54
..............................................................
.V
CHAPTER
BAG!
R e c r u i t i n g ...........................................................................
H a rtin g to n C o m m is s io n
R e tire m e n t o f Duke o f
.
Cambridge
. . . . . . .
S a la ry r e d u c t i o n .............................................................
R e s ig n a tio n
III.
54
.................. . . . . . . . . . . . .
55
55
56
56
S u rre n d e r o f th e s e a l .................................................
57
S u c c e s s ...............................................................................
58
CAREER IN THE HOUSE OF COMMONS, 1895-1905
. . . .
60
E l e c t i o n ....................................................................................
60
D isagreem ent w ith in th e p a r ty
......................
60
Government E d u c a tio n B i l l ............................................
61
A g r i c u lt u r a l R atin g B i l l .................................................
61
F o re ig n p o lic y .......................................................................
62
T rouble i n South A f r i c a .......................................
62
C e c il Rhodes and h i s tr a d in g co m p an y ..................
62
B o e r s ....................................................................................
65
Out l a n d e r s ...........................................................................
63
T ra n sv aal N a tio n a l U n i o n ............................................
63
Dr. Jam eso n 's r a i d .........................................................
63
K ru g e r's u ltim atu m .
64
South A fric a n Committee
................................................
•
...................................
64
R e s ig n a tio n o f S i r W illiam H a r c o u r t ......................
64
L eader o f th e L i b e r a l s .....................................................
64
C h am b erlain 's S outh A fric a n p o l i c y ...........................
66
CHAPTER
PAGE
......................................................................
66
E f f e c t on p o l i t i c s .........................................................
67
Campbell-Bannerman’ s id e a o f w a r ...........................
63
L ib e r a l p o lic y ..................................................................
69
S ta tu s o f L ib e r a l p a r ty . . ♦ .......................................
69
E le c tio n o f 1900 ..................................................................
70
Campbell-Bannerm an’ s c r i t i c i s m o f government . .
71
Methods o f w a r f a r e ..............................................................
71
E f f e c t s o f war on p o l i t i c s ............................................
71
M ethods o f b a r b a r i s m .........................................................
72
E n d-of South A fric a n W a r .................................................
74
Boer War
T re a ty o f Y e r e e n i g i n g ...................................
74
E f f e c t on p o l i t i c s ....................................................
75
C l e r i c a l T ith e s B i l l ..................................................... .
75
Temperance:; q u e s tio n . .....................................................
76
..............................................
76
........................................
76
House and Town P la n n in g A c t ........................................
77
E d u c a tio n B i l l s
..................................................................
78
Corn Tax
......................................................... .... .
80
C ab in et changes
..................................................................
80
S c o t t i s h church q u e s tio n
Home Rule
T a riff . . . . . . .
.........................................................
81
E ree t r a d e ...............................................................................
81
C hinese la b o r
82
.
..............................................................
v ii
CHAPTER
PAGE
F o reig n p o l i c y ............................................................................ 8 5
IV.
PRIME MINISTER......................................................................
L ib e r a l v i c t o r y
..................................................................
.
87
87
R e s ig n a tio n o f B a l f o u r .......................................
87
Grey’ s u l t im a t u m .........................................................
87
Campbell-Bannerman made Prime M i n i s t e r ..................
88
C abinet m e m b e r s ..................................................................
88
I n t e n t i o n o f th e government
89
...................................
C hinese l a b o r .............................................................
90
R e p a tr ia tio n p ro c la m a tio n
............................................
90
..........................
91
Government o f th e T ra n sv a a l
S elf-g o v e rn m en t t o th e c o l o n i e s ...............................
92
Union o f S outh A f r i c a .......................................
93
E d u ca tio n A ct o f 1902
P l u r a l V oting A ct
....................................................... ♦ 93
* .........................................................
T a ff Vale R ailw ay s t r i k e .
T rad es D isp u te A ct
........................................
..........................
94
94
95
Workingmen’ s Com pensation A c t .....................
95
In flu e n c e o f Lady C am pbell-B annerm an......................
96
D eath o f Lady Campbell-Bannerman . . . . . . . .
96
Sm all H oldings and A llo tm en t A c t ...............................
97
Land V alues B i l l ..................................................................
98
H ald an e’ s army r e o r g a n i z a t i o n ....................................
98
O ld -ag e p e n s io n s ..................................................................
99
v iii
CHAPTER
PAGE
F o re ig n s i t u a t i o n
..............................................................
AJLcegiras C onference . .
100
............................................. 100
Second Hague C o n f e r e n c e ...........................................
101
A nglo-R ussian C o n v e n tio n ........................................ .
101
T rouble w ith T u r k s ..........................
102
German Emperor and Empress v i s i t England . . . .
102
Campbell-Bannerman s u f f e r s h e a r t a tta c k
102
L a st sp eech
. . . .
............................................................................103
L a st i l l n e s s .
.........................................................
103
Summons Mr* A s q u i t h ...............................................................103
D e a t h ..........................
104
B u r i a l ..........................
104
T rib u te s p a id in memory o f h i m .........................................104
V ic to r ia n b e l i e f s
...............................
105
S u ccess as Prime M i n i s t e r ..................................................105
p e r s o n a l i t y ................................................................................ 106
D e s ire to serv e h i s c o u n t r y ............................................. 107
A p p e a ra n c e ................................................
108
. G en e ral Smuts* o p in io n o f h i m .........................................109
BIBLIOGRAPHY
.
HO
CHAPTER I
EARLY LIFE
The Campbell fa m ily , a n c e s to rs o f S i r Henry C am pbellBannerman, can be tr a c e d f a r back i n S c o t t i s h h i s t o r y .
The
sound and b u s in e s s - lik e bran ch w ith w hich t h i s s tu d y i s con­
cern ed h as a r a t h e r ro m an tic o r i g i n .
In 1660 a young man o f
th e name o f Campbell became em broiled in an argum ent w ith a
fo e named M cColl.
A t a c la n g a th e r in g McColl was k i l l e d by
h i s opp o n en t, p ro b a b ly a c c i d e n t a l l y .
The clam or t h a t a ro se
fo rc e d th e young k i l l e r t o mount h is h o rse and le a v e h u r r i e d ­
ly .
A f te r some w an d erin g , Campbell s e t t l e d down u nder th e
p r o t e c ti o n o f th e E a r l o f M e n te ith .
L a te r , a f t e r h i s e lo p e ­
ment w ith M iss Haney H aldane, he was g iv e n th e farm o f
In ch an o ch .
Campbell d e sc e n d a n ts h e ld t h e p la c e r e n t f r e e
u n t i l 1779.
McOran was th e name Campbell to o k when he was an o u t­
law .
That name c o n tin u e d i n u se among th e fa m ily a l l th e tim e
th e y were i n M e n te ith , though th e y c a lle d th e m se lv e s Campbell
in o th e r p la c e s .
"T here i s n e v e r a Campbell i n M e n te ith n o r
a McOran o u t o f i t " became a byword in th e c o u n try .^
When Inchanoch became th e p ro p e rty o f Graham o f
1 I . A. S pender, The L ife o f th e R ig h t H onorable S i r
Henry Cam pbell-Bannerm an," 1 ,~T.
“
G artm ore, i t was sold*
Thus, in 1803, lam es McOran, a g r e a t
grandson o f th e f i r s t C am pbell, was p a id f o r h i s le a s e and
fo rc e d t o move*
To Glasgow, where one o f h i s n in e c h ild r e n
was a g r o c e r ’ s a p p r e n tic e , th e fa m ily w ent; and i t i s Glasgow
w ith w hich th e Cam pbells a re su b s e q u e n tly i d e n t i f i e d .
McOran
resumed th e name o f Campbell and went in t o t r a d e .
The e l d e s t son o f th e fa m ily went to A m erica, where
he m arried *
A lthough he r e tu r n e d to S c o tla n d on o c c a sio n ,
e v e n tu a lly he s e t t l e d in New York and liv e d th e r e u n t i l h is
d e a th in 1872.
F or a tim e th e e n t i r e fa m ily p lan n ed t o
m ig ra te , b u t n o th in g came o f th e i d e a . 2
A n o th er so n , Jam es, was in d u s tr io u s and a m b itio u s ,
becoming a p a r tn e r in a t a i l o r i n g b u s in e s s a t tw e n ty .
The
b u s in e s s f a i l e d , b u t James was a b le to pay th e c r e d i t o r s and
l a t e r went i n to th e warehouse b u s in e s s w ith h i s b r o th e r
W illia m .
T h is was th e f ir m o f J . and W. C am pbell, w h o le sa le
d ra p e rs and warehousemen, th e s t a r t o f th e Campbell fo rtu n e .®
Jam es, who, a s th e f a t h e r o f Henry i s our c h ie f in ­
t e r e s t now, became p ro sp e ro u s and w ell-know n i n th e c i t y .
m a rrie d J a n e t Bannerman in 1822.
He
She was th e d a u g h te r of a
m a n u fa c tu re r i n M anchester and th e n ie c e o f th e Glasgow p o e t,
2
g
I , S.
S i r S idney L ee, e d i t o r , D ic tio n a ry o f N a tio n a l
B io g rap h y , I , 302.
W illiam M o th e rw e ll.4
T h e ir f i r s t so n, James A lex an d er, was born in 1825.
In th e meantime James k e p t p ro s p e rin g and b u i l t a f i n e house
on B ath d t r e e t , w hich was
a lw a y s
h i s Glasgow re s id e n c e * A
m ansion a t K e lv in s id e (n e a r th e p r e s e n t B o tan ic G ardens) was
th e fa m ily summer home.
Septem ber 7, 1836.
Henry was born a t K e lv in s id e on
B esid es th e two sons th e r e were f o u r ,
d a u g h te rs , a l l b u t one o f whom d ie d b e fo re m a tu r ity .
There i s no p a r t i c u l a r i z e d account o f H enry*s c h i l d ­
hood.
One le a r n s o n ly t h a t t h e r e was a p le a s a n t fa m ily s p i r i t
and a s tr o n g sen se o f d u ty on th e p a r t o f th e p a r e n ts .
Re­
l i g i o n , d u ty , o rd e r were more im p o rtan t t o th e members o f th e
fa m ily th a n was t h e i r w e a lth .
Of h i s m other Henry r e c a l l s
t h a t she was d i g n i f i e d and s e l f - c o n t r o l l e d .
h i s m o th er.
Henry resem bled
The f a t h e r , a c c o rd in g t o S i r Henry C r a i g s
memory, was n o t handsome, and was r a t h e r brusque b u t alw ays
frie n d ly .
H is b r o th e r Jam es, Henry lo v ed and re s p e c te d
w h ile he and h is s i s t e r L ouisa were alw ays most a f f e c t i o n a t e
p la y m a te s.
The boy a tte n d e d Glasgow High S ch o o l, one o f th e f i r s t
sc h o o ls t o become modern and te a c h modern la n g u a g e s, m athe­
m a tic s , c h e m istry and geography alo n g w ith th e c l a s s i c s .
4 S p ender,
ojd.
5 I b ia . , I , 8.
c i t . , I , 3.
4
Henry seems to have been an o rd in a r y f u n - lo v in g , o u t-o f- d o o rs
boy, n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y a t h l e t i c , b u t e n jo y in g h o rs e s and th e
p le a s u r e s o f co u n try l i f e .
Many y e a rs l a t e r he to o k p a r t in
some o f th e an n u al re u n io n s o f h i s c l a s s , where h i s fo rm er
c la s s m a te s spoke w ith r e s p e c t f u l a f f e c t i o n o f h is y o u th fu l
e x p lo its .6
A ll th e members o f th e fa m ily were e s ta b lis h e d ch u rch ­
men, a tte n d in g S t . G eorge’s , where th e w ell-know n James C ra ik ,
B .D ., was th e r e c t o r .
Henry was a f r i e n d o f th e R everend
C ra ik and h i s so n , f r e q u e n tly v i s i t i n g a t t h e i r home and
re c e iv in g a d v ic e ab o u t h i s e d u c a tio n from th e m i n i s t e r . 7
Throughout h i s l i f e Henry rem ained a d eep ly r e l i g i o u s
member o f th e e s ta b lis h e d Church o f S c o tla n d , b u t h i s demo­
c r a t i c le a n in g s o f te n in c lin e d him tow ard th e P r e s b y te r ia n
fa ith .
He d id n o t h o ld w ith th e id e a t h a t o n ly th o s e o f good
fa m ily and e d u c a tio n were f i t t o c a r r y on t h e work o f th e
c h u rc h .8
He d id o b je c t to th e o v e r r itu a lis m o f th e A n g lican
Church, b u t f o r th e m ost p a r t he was t o l e r a n t tow ard a l l
re lig io u s b e l i e f s .9
6 IS M *,
i.
7 *
7 ifria.. I. 8.
8
9
Andre M aurois, Edw ardian E r a , 129.
S p en d er, o p . c i t . , I I , 57.
Many S c o t t i s h f a m i l ie s were d iv id e d by th e D is ru p tio n
Movement o f 1843, and th e Cam pbells were no e x c e p tio n .
W hile
James k e p t to h is c o n s e rv a tis m , W illiam became a L ib e r a l in
p o l i t i c s and p re e Church i n r e l i g i o n .
T o leran ce and good
n a tu r e , e s p e c i a l ly on th e p a r t o f Jam es, k e p t th e two f a m ilie s
frie n d ly .
James was n e v e r b ig o te d , n o r d id he t r y to fo rc e
h i s o p in io n s on anyone, l e a s t o f a l l h i s c h i l d r e n . ^
James Campbell was n o t o n ly a b u sin essm an , and an in ­
c r e a s in g ly im p o rta n t f i g u r e in Glasgow, b u t he was becoming
known i n th e p o l i t i c a l f i e l d .
A l e a d e r o f th e C o n serv a tiv e
p a r t y in th e c i t y , he tw ic e sto o d a s Tory c a n d id a te b u t was
d e f e a te d b o th t i m e s . ^
He e n te r ta in e d v i s i t i n g d i g n i t a r i e s ,
in c lu d in g Lord Brougham, who was i n Glasgow in 1860 a s P r e s i ­
d e n t o f th e S o c ia l S cien ce C ongress.
S i r R o b ert P e e l, much
adm ired by Mr. Cam pbell, came to be i n s t a l l e d as Lord R e c to r
o f th e U n iv e r s ity i n 1837.
At t h a t tim e he was th e g u e s t o f
Campbell and o th e r C o n se rv a tiv e s a t a b a n q u e t.
Among th e
g u e s ts was Mr. G la d sto n e , th e . fu tu re c h i e f o f young H enry,
th e n an infant.***2
A f te r b e in g a member o f th e Town C ouncil f o r fiv e
y e a r s , James became Lord P r o v o s t, a p o s i t io n which he seems
10 I b i d . ,
I,
6.
to have f i l l e d to th e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f a l l p e rso n s and p a r t i e s
Everyone l ik e d him, and th u s he was a b le to s e t t l e o ld feu d s
and d i f f e r e n c e s .
F o r th e p ro g re s s made i n h is term o f o f f i c e
( e s p e c i a l l y as i t c o n tr ib u te d to th e grow th o f Glasgow a s a
p o r t) he was k n ig h te d i n 1841, th e o c c a sio n b ein g th e b i r t h
o f th e P rin c e o f W ales.
A f te r h i s y e a rs o f p u b lic s e r v ic e
Mr. Campbell bought th e e s t a t e o f s t r a c a t h r o in F o r f a r s h i r e .
There he l iv e d u n t i l h i s d e a th a t e i g h t y - s i x , a h ig h ly r e ­
sp e c te d f i g u r e .
S i r James was no doubt r e s p o n s ib le f o r H enry’ s id e a
o f e d u c a tio n , which was ,fto g e t knowledge o f th e w orld r a t h e r
th a n knowledge o f
b o o k s ." The f a t h e r knew th e v alu e o f
modern la n g u a g e s ,
th ro u g h h i s g r e a t im p o rtin g b u s in e s s . H is
sons le a r n e d F rench a t an e a r l y ag e.
b u s in e s s t r i p s to
H© o f te n to o k them on
F ra n c e . B efore Henry f in is h e d s c h o o l, he
to o k th e Grand Tour o f E urope, th e n an e s s e n t i a l i n th e edu*
c a tio n o f a young g en tlem an.
He went in th e company o f h i s
b r o th e r James and h is c o u sin D avid.
D e sp ite h is y o u th (he
was o n ly fo u rte e n ) he o b serv ed c a r e f u l l y , as ev id en ced i n
th e f r e q u e n t l e t t e r s to L o u isa , who p re s e rv e d them i n copy­
books w hich a re s t i l l i n e x is te n c e .
The boys saw a g r e a t
d e a l o f th e c o n tin e n t and met many o f S i r Jam es’ f r ie n d s and
b u s in e s s a c q u a in ta n c e s .
15 I b i d .,
I,
6 -7 .
E v id e n tly James was r e p r e s e n tin g h i s
7
f a t h e r ’s b u s in e s s w h ile t r a v e l i n g .
co u rse k e p t up t h e i r le s s o n s .
o f th e r o u t i n e .
The younger boys o f
F ren ch and I t a l i a n were p a r t
Always th e th r e e a tte n d e d church on Sundays.
They a tte n d e d High Mass in th e M ilan C a th e d ra l and a g a in a t
S t . P e t e r ’s b u t were n o t a s s u re d o f th e d e v o tio n o f th e s e
s e rv ic e s .
T h e ir sta u n c h P r o te s ta n tis m i s a p p a re n t th ro u g h o u t
H enry’ s l e t t e r s .
These l e t t e r s comment upon th e F ren ch
R e p u b lic , th e c a th e d r a ls , r e s t a u r a n t s , th e methods o f t r a v e l .
Henry en jo y ed and s tu d ie d th e p i c t u r e s i n I t a l y ’s famous
g a l l e r i e s ; he a p p r e c ia te d a l s o th e b e a u tie s o f n a tu r e .
The
t h i r s t f o r knowledge was a lr e a d y e v id e n t in th e young man,
and h i s mind was o r d e r ly f o r one so young.
Henry e n te r e d Glasgow U n iv e r s ity in 1851.
Two y e a rs
l a t e r he won th e Cowan Gold Medal f o r G reek, an im p o rta n t
a ch iev em en t.
A lthough he n e v e r ap p e ared th e h ard -w o rk in g
s tu d e n t ty p e , he was alw ays i n t e r e s t e d and d is tin g u is h e d in
s c h o la r s h ip .
Cam bridge.
From Glasgow he went t o T r i n i t y C o lle g e ,
There he was S e n io r Optime i n th e M athem atical
T rip o s o f 1858, though o n ly t h i r d c l a s s in th e C la s s i c a l
T rip o s .
Among h is c la s s m a te s a t Cambridge were Samuel
B u tle r , th e a u th o r o f Srewhon; B ishop Browne; and Lord
F re d e ric k C avendish, l a t e r a s s a s s in a te d i n P hoenix P a rk .
However, young Henry was h a r d ly a g r e a t l y p o p u la r o r a m b iti­
ous l a d .
He l i v e d q u i e t l y a t th e U n iv e r s ity among h i s few
14 I b i d . .
I,
9-1 0 --,
good f r i e n d s , who were n o t th e m ost d is tin g u is h e d s tu d e n ts
b u t th e k in d who l a t e r occupied c o u n try v ic a r a g e s . 15 He r e ­
c e iv e d h i s B ach e lo r o f A rts degree in 1858 and th e M aster o f
A rts i n 1861.*^
Many y e a rs l a t e r , in 1883, th e u n i v e r s i t y
honored him w ith th e d egree o f L L .D .; w h ile a t th e tim e o f
h i s d e a th in 1908 he was a nominee f o r th e Lord R e c to rs h ip . 17
In 1907 he was made h o n o ra ry D.G.L. o f Oxford and LL.JD. o f
Cam bridge. 18 In some o f h is e a r l y speeches in P a rlia m e n t
Henry was somewhat s a r c a s t i c ab o u t th e v a lu e s o f a u n i v e r s i t y
e d u c a tio n .
When he l e f t Cambridge and r e tu r n e d t o Glasgow, Henry
became a p a r tn e r in th e firm o f J . and W. C am pbell.
He was
by no means a b u sin e ssm a n , hav in g n e i t h e r i n t e r e s t n o r
a b i l i t y in t h a t f i e l d .
F o r tu n a te ly , h i s f a t h e r and e l d e r
b r o th e r d id n o t e x p e c t much o f him.
H is g r e a t e r a d v a n ta g es
o f e d u c a tio n seemed t o excuse him from r o u tin e w ork, a f a c t
which p le a s e d th e young man.
He was b e lie v e d to be in d o le n t
b u t a c t u a l l y he was ac co m p lish in g som ething a l l th e tim e .
A t l e a s t he was th in k in g , re a d in g (H e rb e rt S p en cer and Darwin,
among o t h e r s ) , and form ing h i s c h a r a c te r .
The c o n t r a s t
15 I b i d . , I , 1 8 -1 9 .
16 C liv e Bigham, The Prime M in is te r s o f B r i t a i n
1721-1921, 322.
“
17 L ee, op. c i t . , I , 303.
18 I b i d . , I , 311.
betw een H enry and h i s b r o th e r became more m arked.
had alw ays been w id e ly d i f f e r e n t .
The two
James A lexander was more
l i k e h i s f a t h e r , w h ile H e n ry 's mind had w id er ran g e.!®
He
was n o t to o q u ick t o make up h i s mind o r form an o p in io n .
When he d id , i t was th e r e s u l t o f c a r e f u l t h i n k in g , and he
n e v e r r e lin q u is h e d th e i d e a . 2®
A c e r t a i n D an ie l Lawson, a r e a d e r and a dangerous
r a d i c a l t h i n k e r , in th e ey es o f many, became a c lo s e f r ie n d
o f H e n ry .2!
W hether th ro u g h Lawsonfs in f lu e n c e o r th e tr e n d
o f h i s own th in k in g , th e boy was a c q u ir in g v e ry p r o g r e s s iv e —
p e rh a p s r a d i c a l —p o l i t i c a l i d e a s .
Knowing h i s f a t h e r 's b e ­
l i e f s , he re s p e c te d them , and t r i e d n o t t o em b arrass S i r
James w ith h i s own th o u g h ts .
When he d ec id e d t h a t he d e s ir e d
a p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r , h i s f i r s t th o u g h t was t o s ta n d f o r
P a rlia m e n t i n a c o n s titu e n c y f a r enough from Glasgow t o save
th e ap p earan ce o f a fa m ily b r e a k .22
Along w ith m en tal a c t i v i t y Henry was busy a s an e n ­
t h u s i a s t i c member o f th e F i r s t L a n a rk sh ire R i f l e V o lu n te e rs ,
whose members were em ployees o f th e J . and W. Campbell
Company.
19
20
21
22
As S e c r e ta r y f o r War in l a t e r y e a rs he was an
S pen d er, o p . p i t . , I , 20.
S i r Ia n M alcolm, V acant T h ro n es. 59.
S p en d er, o p . c i t . , I , 2 0.
Ib id .,
I,
21.
10
a tte n d a n t a t th e re u n io n s o f t h i s Corps*
When James A lexander was m a rrie d in 1860, Henry
p ro m p tly f e l l i n lo v e w ith one o f th e b rid e s m a id s .
She was
C h a rlo tte B ruoe, whose f a t h e r was commander o f th e f o r c e s a t
E d in b u rg h .23
The lo v e a f f a i r q u ic k ly cu lm in ated i n m a rria g e
in Septem ber o f t h a t y e a r .
I t was a f e l i c i t o u s m a rria g e ,
c h a r a c te r iz e d by deep a f f e c t i o n and u n d e rs ta n d in g .
was e v e r a g r e a t h e lp t o h e r h u sb an d .
C h a r lo tte
B esid es h av in g a
s tro n g c h a r a c te r and a g r e a t sen se o f l o y a l t y , she had many
q u a l i t i e s w hich h e r husband la c k e d .
W hile he was o f te n e a s y ­
g o in g and la c k in g in a m b itio n , she was d eterm in ed t h a t h i s
e f f o r t s and accom plishm ents sh o u ld be a d e q u a te ly rew arded.
C h a r l o t t e ’ s p o o r h e a lth and th e ab sence o f c h ild r e n in th e
fa m ily made th e two th e more d evoted and dependent upon each
o t h e r . 24
T h e ir f i r s t few y e a r s o f m a rrie d l i f e were marked by
th e young C am pbells r p a r t In Glasgow s o c ie ty and t h e i r
E uropean t r a v e l s .
N e a rly ev e ry y e a r was sp e n t p a r t l y i n
t r a v e l , d i a r i e s showing how much p le a s u r e and e d u c a tio n th e
couple g a in e d from th e jo u rn e y s .
Henry enjoyed sh o p p in g , and
th e r e i s among h i s p a p e rs a notebook c o n ta in in g th e a d d re s s e s
o f trad esm en i n P a r i s .
He was v e ry p a r t i c u l a r ab o u t h o t e l s
23
E liz a b e th L ee, The Wives o f th e Prim e M in is te r s
1844-1906, 234.
24 S p en d er, o p . c i t . , I , 22.
11
and r e s t a u r a n t s .
The o r d e r lin e s s a lre a d y n o te d k e p t up
th ro u g h o u t h is l i f e ; even on v a c a tio n s e v e ry e x p e n d itu re , no
m a tte r how s m a ll, was w r i t t e n in a n o teb o o k .
In f a c t th e
g r e a t i n t e r e s t he had f o r everyone and e v e ry th in g made h is
t r a v e l s and h i s l i f e a t home a g r e a t p le a s u r e to h im .25
H enry’ s i n t e r e s t in p o l i t i c s had n o t waned d u rin g
th e s e y e a r s ; from l e t t e r s to and from h i s w if e ’ s u n c le in
I n d ia one le a r n s som ething o f h i s id e a s on th e In d ia n s i t u a ­
t i o n , Am erican a f f a i r s (Henry* s sym pathies were w ith th e
N orth in th e C i v il W ar), th e army and navy, and o th e r quest i o n s o f th e day. 26
A ll o f t h i s was g iv in g him a background
f o r p o l i t i c s t h a t made him th e s tro n g and w e ll-in fo rm e d
s ta te sm a n he was to become.
25 i M i * .
2?-
26 I b i d . , I , 24.
MEMBER OF PARLIAMENT AND SECRETARY
OF VARIOUS OFFICES, 1868-1895
In 1868 Henry Campbell made tb e d e c is io n t o g iv e up
a d o u b tfu l b u s in e s s c a r e e r and make p o l i t i c s h is c a re e r*
A f te r two a tte m p ts in t h a t y e a r he won th e e l e c t i o n a s member
f o r S t i r l i n g Burghs and re p r e s e n te d t h a t c o n s titu e n c y f o r th e
r e s t o f h i s p o l i t i c a l life .^ *
When Lawrence O lip h a n t, th e n Member f o r S t i r l i n g B urghs,
a p p lie d f o r t h e C h ilte r n H undreds, two e l e c t i o n s were made
n e c e s s a ry : a b y - e le c tio n u n d er t h e o ld f r a n c h is e and a g e n e ra l
e l e c t i o n u n d er th e new h o u seh o ld s u ffra g e *
The c o n s titu e n c y
was c o n s id e re d Whig o r m oderate L i b e r a l, and th e vacancy was
a s s ig n e d by th e p a r ty t o Mr* John Ramsay*
He was an im p o rta n t
man i n Glasgow, n o te d a s an advanced p o l i t i c a l th in k e r and
backed by th e U n ited P r e s b y te r ia n C hurches.
W ith a l l s ig n s p o in tin g t o an unopposed r e t u r n a t th e
G en eral E le c tio n , an unknown young man su d d en ly u p s e t them*
Henry Campbell ap p eared t o c h a lle n g e th e c a n d id a te .
A lthough
he came o f a Tory fa m ily , h i s p la tfo rm was advanced L i b e r a l.
I t i s h ard t o say w h eth er Henry*s e n tra n c e in t o p o l i t i c s was
^ C liv e Bigham, The Prim e M in is te r s o f B r i t a i n 17211921, 322.
13
in flu e n c e d by f r i e n d s in Glasgow o r i n D u m ferlin e; a t any
r a t e , be bad s tu d ie d th e s i t u a t i o n , knew ab o u t Mr. Ramsay, and
c o n s id e re d bim n o t s u f f i c i e n t l y L ib e r a l fo r-Jjb e p o s i t i o n .
As
y e t be bad no o r g a n iz a tio n ; b u t, b rin g in g Gordon S m ith, a
sbrewd Glasgow law y e r, a s b is a g e n t, be announced b i s i n t e n t i o n t o b o tb e l e c t o r s and n o n - e le c to r s . 2
Tbe p la tfo rm H enry espoused was c o m p le te ly r a d i c a l
f o r t b a t tim e .
He a d v o c a te d bou seb o ld s u f f r a g e f o r c o u n tie s
a s w e ll a s -to w n s , r e l i g i o u s e q u a li ty and d is e s ta b lis h m e n t,
com pulsory e d u c a tio n , se lf-g o v e rn m e n t f o r c o u n tie s , d i r e c t
p o p u la r c o n tr o l o f l i c e n s e s , la n d re fo rm , and th e f r e e in g o f
f o r e ig n p o lic y from P a lm e rsto n ia n jin g o ism .*%' These p o i n ts ,
how ever, w ere a l i t t l e to o s tro n g f o r tb e e l e c t o r s , who gave
4
bim on ly 494 v o te s t o Ramsay1s 565.
Ramsay’s f o llo w e r s bad so f a r m erely sm iled a t tb e
e a r n e s t young R a d ic a l, b u t now tr o u b le s t a r t e d .
c a u s e , though d e f e a te d , was p o p u la r.
C am pbell’s
R am sayites lo ck ed tb e
tow n-house and r e f u s e d Campbell p e rm issio n t o a d d re s s tb e
crowd.
Henry was n o t d isc o u ra g e d *
He was w orking to g a in
th e n o n - e le c to r s who would become e l e c t o r s w ith in tb e y e a r .
2
J . A. S p en d er, Tbe L ife o f tb e R ight H onorable S i r
Henry Campbell-BannermanT" ! » 25 -2 6 .
3 I M a . , I , 2 6 -2 7 .
S i r S idney L ee, e d i t o r , D ic tio n a ry o f N a tio n a l
B io g rap h y , I , 303.
14
A q u o ta tio n from h i s sp eech a f t e r th e d e c la r a t io n o f
th e p o l l i s s i g n i f i c a n t , d e a lin g , a s d id th e h u lk o f th e
sp eech , w ith f o r e ig n a f f a i r s .
There a r e many who cro ak t h a t th e decadence o f th e
B a p ire h as commenced. I am no b e l i e v e r i n a n y th in g o f
t h a t s o r t . I f th e g lo ry o f t h i s c o u n try i s founded on
f o r e ig n a g g r e s s io n , i f i t be d ependent on our power o f
e x t o r t i n g u n w illin g a lle g ia n c e from members o f our ra c e
i n d i s t a n t q u a r te r s o f th e g lo b e —i f a l l t h i s i s to be
g lo ry t h a t i s t o a t t a c h t o a C h r is tia n n a tio n l i k e t h i s
- - i f t h i s i s th e g lo r y , I r e j o i c e t h a t i t i s p a s s in g
away • 5
Campbell p ro m p tly a c c e p te d th e i n v i t a t i o n t o s ta n d
a g a in and now worked t i r e l e s s l y to s tre n g th e n h i s p o s i t i o n .
A l o c a l a g e n t and an a c tiv e and e n t h u s i a s t i c com m ittee a id e d
him .
W ith th e autumn e l e c t i o n coming u p , l i v e l y a c tio n
en su ed .
H enry’ s fo llo w e r s a lle g e d t h a t Ramsay’s o n ly speech
a t W e stm in iste r w as, " I ’11 th a n k ye t o s h u t t h a t window."
In r e t u r n , R am sayites c a lle d Campbell' a "Tory in d is g u i s e ,"
an i n s in u a tio n t h a t h u r t h i s cause more th a n d i r e c t a t t a c k
would do.
H is answ er was t h i s :
Mow some o f my k in d f r ie n d s in th e crowd say I ’m a
T ory. W ell, my f a t h e r i s a Tory and I am proud o f him ,
and my b r o th e r i s a Tory and I am n o t ashamed o f him .
My f a t h e r , a s you a l l w e ll know, becau se you have been
t o l d i t , i s chairm an t o th e Tory c a n d id a te f o r Glasgow,
and my b r o th e r i s chairm an o f th e Lord A d v o cate’s Com­
m itte e o f th e Glasgow U n iv e r s ity . T h e re fo re , th e y say
I am a T ory. I sh o u ld l i k e t o see th e man who would come
to my fa c e and t e l l me t h a t . A ll I can sa y i s t h i s ,
t h a t i f I am a Tory in d is g u i s e , I would be u n f i t f o r
5 Spender, op. c i t . ,
I,
2 7 -2 8 .
15
my p o s i t i o n , b u t i n p ro o f o f th e f a c t t h a t I am n o t a
J e s u i t , as my o p ponents would make you su p p o se, I may
add t h a t t h i s m orning I to o k th e tr o u b le o f going to
Glasgow and re c o rd in g my v o te s f o r th e L ib e r a l c a n d i­
d a te s * 6
H enry Cam pbell had a keen se n se o f humor, b u t th e r e
was much more to him th a n th a t*
Under h i s e a sy sm ile were
g r e a t f o r c e and a d o u r S co tch o b s tin a c y .
H is whole c a r e e r
was marked by t h i s te n a c io u s c lin g in g t o th e p o in ts o f h i s
c o n v ic tio n *
There i s a foreshadow ing o f t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
in th e f i r s t a d d re s s he made t o th e S t i r l i n g e l e c t o r s i n
1868*
The son o f a sta u n c h T ory, he ap p eared a s a L ib e r a l,
a f a c t which m ight cause some t o th in k he ought to a p o lo g iz e
f o r b ein g th e same a s h i s f a t h e r .
T hat he would n o t do,
and he went on:
I f you w ish t o draw any augury from my c lo s e
c o n n e c tio n w ith S i r James C am pbell, t h i s I would have
you b e l i e v e —t h a t p o s s ib ly th e sta u n c h n e ss may ru n
i n th e b lo o d , t h a t I may i n h e r i t h i s t e n a c i t y w ith o u t
i n h e r i t i n g h i s p r i n c i p l e s , and t h a t , a s my f a t h e r ,
th ro u g h a lo n g p u b lic l i f e , th ro u g h good r e p o r t , and
th ro u g h e v i l r e p o r t , in f a i r w e a th e r and f o u l , has
s tu c k t o h i s p a r ty and h i s p r i n c i p l e s , so h i s son in
l i k e manner w i l l s t i c k to h is * 7
W ith th e program a lre a d y ad o p ted th e young c a n d id a te
now added h i s su p p o rt o f th e d is e s ta b lis h m e n t p o lic y i n
Ire la n d .
C le v e rly he made h i s c h ie f a p p e a l t o th o s e who
had r e c e n t l y g a in e d th e fra n c h is e *
6 I b i a . , I , 2 8 -2 9 .
7
"Cam pbell-Bannerm an’ s P o p u l a r i ty ," The N a tio n , 86;
392, A p r il 30, 1908.
16
How, g en tlem en , some tim e. ago you had an e l e c t i o n
h e r e , and a t t h a t e l e c t i o n I f a i l e d to g e t a m a jo rity
o f th e s u ffra g e s * A g a in st t h a t d e c is io n as r e p r e s e n t­
in g th e o p in io n s o f th e p e o p le o f th e Burghs t h i s c a n d i­
d a tu re o f mine i s , o f c o u rse , an open p r o t e s t . I know
t h a t I p o s s e s s th e sympathy and th e good w i l l o f th e
w orking c la s s e s o f th e B urghs. I say I know it* Hot
t h a t I hope f o r i t — I say I have i t . And th e r e h a s been
n o th in g t h a t h as o c c u rre d d u rin g th e l a s t s i x months
w hich h as b e lie d t h a t c o n v ic tio n . W herever I have gone
I have been re c e iv e d w ith th e g r e a t e s t k in d n e ss and
h e a r ty good w i l l , and in e v e ry p a r t o f th e c o n s titu e n c y
th e g e n e ra l p u b lic have crowned me w ith honours w hich X
have done n o th in g to d e s e rv e . A ll t h a t I want from you
i s to a f fo rd me th e o p p o rtu n ity o f d e s e rv in g t h i s honour.
E n tr u s t your P a rlia m e n ta ry i n t e r e s t to me. I prom ise to
d ev o te m y self t o y o u r s e r v ic e and to show by my conduct
t h a t I r e c ip r o c a te th e g r e a t sym pathy, k in d n e s s , and
c o n fid e n c e w hich you have p la c e d i n m e.Q H is c o n fid e n ce was n o t m isp la c e d , f o r he p o lle d 2201
v o te s to Bamsayf s 1682.
A dm irers c a r r i e d him on t h e i r
s h o u ld e rs u n t i l he f i n a l l y escap ed w ith c lo th e s to r n .
"My
appearan ce i n such p o s t u r e , " he a d d re sse d them from a window,
wi s owing to th e s u p p o rt I have re c e iv e d from my f r ie n d s o f
th e w orking c l a s s e s . "
H is f i r s t v i c to r y was won, and he was
a seasoned cam paigner. ^
He was to s i t f o r th e S t i r l i n g
Burghs u n in te r r u p te d ly u n t i l h is d e a th in 1 9 0 8 .10
The f i r s t ta s k o f th e n e w ly -e le c te d member was to t r y
to make peace betw een w a rrin g f a c t i o n s w ith in th e P a r ty .
Q S p en d er, o£ . c i t . ,
9
I , 29.
Loc. c i t .
10 L e e , Q£. c i t . ,
I,
303.
T his he succeeded i n d o in g , e a s i l y w inning o v e r th e Ramsay
f o llo w e r s .
A ll h i s c o n s ti tu e n ts p r a is e d h i s g e n ia l d is p o s i­
t i o n , h is t a c t , and h i s r e a l w ish to se rv e th e p e o p le .
Throughout th e lo n g y e a rs o f s e r v ic e Mr. Campbell n e v e r f o r ­
g o t th e claim h i s c o n s t it u e n ts had upon him.
To th e l a s t
o b je c tio n t h a t he was to o young f o r th e p la c e he had r e t o r t e d
in one o f h i s sp ee ch es t h a t he would be even younger i f he
co u ld and t h a t a l l men f e l t th e same.
"Of a l l th e th in g s
t h a t I p o s s e s s , and o f a l l th e q u a l i t i e s o f w hich I am a b le
to b o a s t , ” he s a id , " th e r e i s none t h a t I v alu e more h ig h ly
th a n th e rem nant o f th e v ig o ro u s f i r e o f y o u th which s t i l l
rem ains to me."
He m ight be young, b u t p eo p le came to be­
l i e v e t h a t he was shrewd and t h a t he would d i s t i n g u i s h him­
s e l f i n P a rlia m e n t.
He s e t ab o u t to keep h i s prom ise to th e p e o p le o f th e
Burghs t h a t he would be a b le to a rra n g e —h i s b u s in e s s so t h a t
he co u ld d ev o te th e whole o f h is tim e to h i s P a rlia m e n ta ry
d u tie s .
F o r tu n a te ly h is fa m ily d id n o t r e s e n t h is b re a k in g
away from th e fa m ily p o l i t i c a l b e l i e f s , h i s f a t h e r and
b r o t h e r showing t h a t th e y were proud o f him by d oing a l l th e y
co u ld t o make th in g s e a sy f o r him and f u r t h e r h is c a r e e r . ^
Itfhen Campbell w ent to th e new P a rlia m e n t o f 1868,
lie was qu ick i n i d e n t i f y i n g h im s e lf w ith th e more in d e p e n d e n t
and advanced s u p p o rte rs o f G la d s to n e s f i r s t a d m in is tra tio n *
Like them , he ad v o cated th e refo rm o f endowed sc h o o ls in
S c o tla n d , com pulsory a tte n d a n c e a t p a r o c h ia l s c h o o ls , th e
a b o l i t i o n o f u n i v e r s i t y t e s t s , th e a p p l ic a t i o n o f th e r e p r e ­
s e n t a t i v e p r i n c i p l e s to county governm ent, th e in f u s io n o f
new b lo o d i n to O xford and Cambridge, and th e cause o f th e
te n a n t fa rm e r.
12
E v id e n tly he was f e e l i n g h i s way slo w ly , f o r he d id
n o t speak b e fo re th e House u n t i l June 17, 1869*
At t h i s tim e
he was b ack in g amendments to th e Lord A d v o c a te s Endowed
H o s p ita ls B i l l , a m easure in te n d e d to re fo rm sc h o o ls in
S cotland*
I t was a s u b je c t t h a t ap p ealed to Cam pbell, r e ­
f e r r i n g a s i t d id to S c o t t i s h s c h o o ls .
t h a t th e B i l l was n o t enough by i t s e l f .
He could s e e , how ever,
In seco n d in g S i r
Lyon P l a y f a i r he s t a t e d t h a t h i s g r e a t e s t o b je c tio n to th e
B i l l a s i t s to o d was t h a t i t was s u ite d o n ly to th o s e sc h o o ls
w hich w ere a lre a d y w i l l i n g to re fo rm th e m se lv e s.
There would
be no u n ifo rm system o f a d m in is te rin g th e fu n d s, a n o th e r
weakness*
The n e c e s s i ty f o r im m ediate in q u ir y was o b v io u s.
The p ro p o sed amendments would do much i n making th e B i l l more
e f f e c t i v e i n d e v e lo p in g th e l a t e n t f o r c e s a g a in s t ig n o ran ce
in S c o tla n d .^
Mr. Campbell had g iv en n o tic e to move:
T h at, in th e o p in io n o f th e House, no sy stem o f edu­
c a tio n w i l l be e f f e c t u a l o r j u s t w hich, w h ile in v o lv in g
com pulsory r a t i n g , does n o t in c lu d e th e power o f en­
f o r c in g th e a tte n d a n c e o f c h ild r e n a t s c h o o l.
He r e g r e t t e d t h a t such an im p o rta n t b i l l — th e m ost im p o rta n t
so f a r as S c o tla n d was co n cern ed — should come up when th e
s e s s io n was so f a r advanced t h a t th e r e was l i t t l e
d is c u s s io n .
tim e f o r
A lthough he s a id he d id n o t w ant to. p e rs e v e re
w ith th e m o tio n , he d id th in k th e q u e s tio n was s u f f i c i e n t l y
im p o rta n t f o r . him to go i n to th e f a c t s o f th e ea se w ith r e ­
g ard to S c o tla n d , w ith o u t going in t o th e q u e s tio n o f com pulsory
e d u c a tio n i n g e n e r a l.
He u rg ed t h a t S c o tla n d 1s a t t i t u d e
tow ard i t was m isu n d ersto o d and t h a t th e B i l l would re c e iv e
su p p o rt from a g r e a t number o f S c o t t i s h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .
The
m easure sh ould be p a sse d a t o nce, he i n s i s t e d , as th e r e were
n in e ty th o u san d c h ild r e n i n S c o tla n d who were n o t r e c e iv in g
any e d u c a tio n a t a l l .
th o u san d .
In Glasgow alo n e th e r e were s i x t y
N a tu r a lly , th e s e c h ild r e n were f o r th e m ost p a r t
o f th e c l a s s who would n o t be a f f e c te d by any m easure t h a t
d id n o t make s c h o o lin g com pulsory.
S c o tt is h p e o p le f e l t t h a t
th e B i l l could n o t be th e p r o g r e s s iv e s te p i t s b a c k e rs ex­
p e c te d when th e m ost im p o rta n t s t i p u l a t i o n had been
C o rn e liu s Buck, e d i t o r , H an sard ’ s P a rlia m e n ta ry
D e b a te s, (T h ird S e r i e s ) , CXCVII, 156-157.
20
o v e rlo o k e d . 14
*
M en's m inds, he c o n tin u e d , were d o u b tle s s d iv id e d i n
re g a rd to th e m achinery pro p o sed to s e t up th e e s ta b lis h m e n t
o f a new system o f e d u c a tio n i n S c o tla n d , f e a r in g e i t h e r
ty ra n n y i n London o r jo b b ery in E din b u rg h .
Campbell th o u g h t
th e s tr e n g th o f th e Board would be s u f f i c i e n t to overcome
th e s e te n d e n c ie s and t h a t S c o tla n d was now p re p a re d f o r u n i­
v e r s a l com pulsion.
I t was n o t so much a d d itio n a l sc h o o ls as
a u n ifo rm system t h a t S c o tla n d need ed .
The power o f e n fo rc in g
a tte n d a n c e a t sch o o l was n e c e s s a ry in th e la r g e c i t i e s and i n
th e sm all tow ns, such as th e f i s h i n g v illa g e s * where c h ild r e n
had t o s t a r t e a rn in g a t an e a r l y a g e .
Compulsory e d u c a tio n
was th e o n ly means o f p r o t e c tin g th e c h ild r e n and a s s u rin g
them an e d u c a tio n .
In E ngland th e e l e c t i o n o f sch o o l b o a rd s had o f te n
tu rn e d on th e q u e s tio n o f r e l i g i o n .
The d e l i c a t e s u b je c t
d iv id e d a u t h o r i t i e s i n to two h o s t i l e camps.
There w as, how­
e v e r, no r e l i g i o u s d i f f i c u l t y to c o m p lic a te th e m a tte r in
S c o tla n d .
s c h o o ls .
In f a c t , to le r a n c e was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c in S c o t t i s h
The whole s i t u a t i o n would be changed u n d er t h i s
B i l l , b ecau se men would o b je c t to com pulsory ta x a tio n f o r
r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n o f which a l l d id n o t ap p ro v e.
1 4 I b i d . . CXCVIII, 8 0 1 - 8 0 2 .
A
21
d e n o m in a tio n a l sy stem o f e d u c a tio n would be th e r e s u l t o f t h i s
h i l l in i t s f u l l developm ent.
The o n ly p o s s ib le s o lu tio n , in ­
s i s t e d th e s p e a k e r, would be f o r th e s t a t e to g iv e up th e
r e l i g i o u s e d u c a tio n o f c h ild r e n .
He hoped t h a t th e House
would a c c e p t amendments t h a t would overcome th e o b je c tio n a b le
p o .i n .t s . 15
Twelve days a f t e r t h i s speech Henry Campbell spoke
a g a in , t h i s tim e in th e d e b a te on th e U n iv e r s ity T e s ts B i l l .
He seemed to make up h i s mind to speak o u t th e t r u t h , even
w h ile m ost p eo p le were w o rsh ip p in g th e U n i v e r s i t i e s , a f r a i d
to c r i t i c i z e .
He announced t h a t h i s o p in io n s on th e B i l l
d i f f e r e d g r e a t l y from b o th i t s opponents and from many o f i t s
s u p p o r te r s .
So f a r m ost o f th e s p e a k e rs had assumed t h a t th e
U n iv e r s ity system was above c r i t i c i s m .
Campbell began on th e
assum ption t h a t th e system was a c tu a lly i n e f f i c i e n t and t h a t
th e in f u s io n o f new blood was e s s e n t i a l .
W hile th e U n iv e rs i­
t i e s had alw ays been c o n sid e re d p la c e s o f sound le a r n in g and
r e l i g i o u s e d u c a tio n , he d id n o t ag ree t h a t e i t h e r was accom­
p lis h e d .
The s tu d e n t was to o o f te n l e f t to h i s own r e ­
s o u rc e s , b e in g o b lig e d to h i r e a t u t o r .
A c tu a lly he could
p re p a re f o r th e e x a m in atio n s in London o r P a r i s as w e ll a s
1 5 I b i d . . CCIV, 9 7 4 - 9 7 5 .
zz
he co u ld do a t O xford o r Cambridge.
As f o r th e r e l i g i o u s
e d u c a tio n , th e r e was l i t t l e e x c e p t com pulsory a tte n d a n c e a t
c h a p e l.
T h is was u sed as a method o f d i s c i p l i n e and could
have v ery l i t t l e
young man.
in flu e n c e on th e r e l i g i o u s c h a r a c te r o f a
The s tu d e n t was exam ined, to be s u r e , on some o f
th e G ospels and o th e r p a r t s o f th e Hew T estam en t; b u t th e s e
a re r e a l l y p a r t s o f c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e r a t h e r th a n m oral
le s s o n s .
Even su p p o sin g — which many may d o u b t— t h a t i t i s
a d v is a b le to supplem ent a t th e U n iv e r s ity th e r e l i g i o u s
t r a i n i n g w hich i s b e t t e r re c e iv e d a t home and a t an
e a r l i e r p e r io d o f l i f e , I v e n tu re to subm it t h a t t h i s
s o - c a l le d r e l i g i o u s e d u c a tio n has no s u b s t a n t i a l v a lu e .
Campbell d id n o t w ish to see any r i g h t b e lo n g in g to th e Church
ta k e n away from h e r , b u t i n s i s t e d t h a t t h i s was a n a t i o n a l ,
n o t a s e c t a r i a n , q u e s tio n .
The in f u s io n o f new blood (mean­
in g new s tu d e n ts u n co n n ected w ith th e Church o f England)
would b r in g th e te a c h in g o r g a n iz a tio n i n t o harmony w ith th e
tim e s .
We w ish to see th e U n i v e r s i t i e s thrown a l t o g e th e r
open to th e n a t i o n ; . . . th e f r e e r and f u l l e r l i f e
o f th e n a tio n w i l l i n tu r n r e a c t on th e U n i v e r s i t i e s
and re n d e r,th e m b e t t e r q u a l i f i e d to f i l l t h e i r h ig h
p o s i t i o n . 16
S p eak in g w ith seem ing l i g h tn e s s ab o u t th e a n c ie n t and
honoured u n i v e r s i t i e s , and i n th e p re se n c e o f Mr. G lad sto n e
b e s id e s , to o k courage on th e p a r t o f th e young L ib e r a l member.
1 6 I b i d . , CXCVII, 7 7 1 - 7 7 5 .
23
The sp eech was in d eed w e ll p re p a re d and had "th e tr u e C a m p b e llBannerman touch* o f l a t e r d a y s.
The S c o t t is h E d u ca tio n B i l l was f i n a l l y in tro d u c e d in
1871.
At t h i s tim e Campbell a g a in e x p re sse d h i s view s on
e d u c a tio n and now co u ld g iv e h is f u l l su p p o rt to th e govern­
ment m ethods.
He f e l t t h a t th e B i l l had been g iv e n s u f f i c i e n t
c o n s id e r a tio n and t h a t i t r e p re s e n te d " th e m ost s ta te s m a n lik e
m easure o f e d u c a tio n .
Mr* Campbell d id n o t make sp eech es o f te n ; when he d id ,
th e y were b r i e f .
He was b e g in n in g to f in d h im s e lf and make
h im s e lf known as an advanced p o l i t i c i a n who would n o t b lin d ly
su p p o rt th e l e a d e r s .
A lthough he had done l i t t l e a s y e t to
d i s t i n g u i s h h im s e lf p a r t i c u l a r l y , he was becoming known f o r
h i s o r i g i n a l i t y and o c c a s io n a l w i t .
He was a g e n i a l and
com panionable young man, who had th e advantage o f a u n i v e r s i t y
e d u c a tio n a s w e ll as some b u s in e s s t r a i n i n g .
h i s m e ttle by h i s independence i n p o l i t i c s .
flu e n c e was f e l t i n S c o tla n d .
He had proved
E v id e n tly h i s in ­
T h is good re c o rd b ro u g h t him
c o n s id e ra b le honour i n November, 1871, when t o . G lad sto n e ap­
p o in te d him a s F in a n c ia l S e c r e ta r y o f th e War O f f ic e .^ 9
17 S pen d er, op. c i t . , I , 37.
18 Buck, OJ5, c i t . , CCIV, 973.
19 S p en d er, op. o i t . , I , 39.
24
T hat same y e a r b ro u g h t th e d e a th o f Henry Bannerman,
b r o th e r o f young H enry’ s m o th er.
The w i l l l e f t to h i s nephew
a l i f e i n t e r e s t i n th e p r o p e r ty o f Hunton C ourt n e a r M aidstone
(now i n th e p o s s e s s io n o f Mr. James Cam pbell-Bannerm an, son
o f James Bannerman and L o u isa C am pbell, H enry’ s s i s t e r ) .
The
c o n d itio n was t h a t Henry should ta k e th e name o f Bannerman.
R e lu c ta n tly he d id so , and he w i l l be r e f e r r e d to a s Henry
Campbell-Bannerman i n th e re m a in d e r o f t h i s w ork.
The e s t a t e
b ro u g h t in a m oderate incom e, though th e r e were many expenses
to m eet.
P eo p le b e lie v e d t h a t Henry had i n h e r i t e d a v a s t
f o r tu n e , b u t t h a t was n o t th e case*
Most o f h i s money came
from th e Campbell b u s in e s s and good in v e stm e n ts i n G lasgow .2®
Upon h is ap p o in tm en t as F in a n c ia l S e c r e ta r y to th e War
O ffic e u n d er C ard w ell, Henry soon became known a s a h a rd w orking and w e l l - l i k e d m i n is t e r . 21
x
There were d is a d v a n ta g e s
as w e ll a s honours a tta c h e d to th e p o s i t i o n .
Some o f h i s
r i g h t o f independent* speech was l o s t , and u n d er a c h i e f i n
th e House o f Commons h is p o s i t i o n was s u b o rd in a te .
D uring
th e th r e e y e a rs t h a t fo llo w e d th e Member f o r S t i r l i n g Burghs
was r a t h e r s i l e n t , a lth o u g h he d id have an o p p o rtu n ity f o r
d e b a te on th e E s tim a te s , a t which he spoke w e ll.
Most o f
th e s e sp ee ch es were on s u b je c ts w hich a re d a te d and have no
2® Bigham, op. o i t . , 323.
21 Loo. o i t .
25
p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to d a y .
on p o l i c i e s .
O c c a s io n a lly lie was a b le to speak
H is f i r s t speech as a M in is te r r e f u t e d th e Tory
m i l i t a r i s t s who w ere com paring th e B r i t i s h and P r u s s ia n
a rm ie s , h is argum ent b e in g t h a t " th e s e a g iv e s u s tim e " and
t h a t G re at B r i t a i n d id n o t need th e m o b iliz a b le arm y-corps
sy stem t h a t P r u s s i a found n e c e s s a r y .22
F o r Mir* C ard w ell, h i s c h ie f , Campbell-Bannerman had
th e g r e a t e s t a d m ira tio n and f e l t h is in f lu e n c e th ro u g h o u t h i s
p o litic a l l if e .
C ard w e ll’ s refo rm had accom plished much: He
had ended th e o ld c o n f l i c t o f a u t h o r i ty betw een th e S e c r e ta r y
o f S ta te and th e C om m ander-in-C hief; he had b u i l t up an army
r e s e r v e , c le a re d th e way tow ard prom otion by m e r it in s te a d o f
th e p u rc h a se o f com m issions.
A ll in a l l , he had s e t up a
b e t t e r sy stem , le s s e n e d th e c o s t, and a t th e same tim e made
th e Army more p o p u la r.
P u rc h a se o f p ro m o tio n was a p a r t i c u l a r
bone o f c o n te n tio n a t th e tim e Henry Campbell-Bannerman became
F in a n c ia l S e c r e ta r y .
O f f ic e r s had lo n g been "gentlem en" in
th e se n se o f h av in g good b i r t h and a d e q u a te m eans, , and th e y
n a t u r a l l y assumed t h a t th e s e were th e e s s e n t i a l s * 2S
H enry’ s i n t e r e s t was a ro u se d .
In a t a l k on th e Army
O rg a n iz a tio n B i l l he s t a t e d t h a t one o f th e c h ie f o b je c ts was
i
S p e n d e r , o£ .
23
I b id . , I ,
43.
o i t . . I,
3 9 -4 0 .
26
th e a b o lis h in g o f th e system o f p u rc h a se and t h a t s e n i o r i t y
tem pered by s e l e c t i o n was th e b e s t system o f prom otion*
It
was a blow a t s o c i a l e x c lu s iv e n e s s , b u t th o s e who fa v o re d th e
B i l l overcame i t s o p p o n en ts.
M e rit was now th e c h i e f f a c t o r ,
w ith th e army open to a l l th e p e o p le . 24
From t h i s s tr u g g le th e young man le a rn e d much, and
he had a f te rw a rd s a deep i n t e r e s t i n m a tte r s p e r t a i n i n g to
th e army.
Those who worked w ith him found him q u ic k ly
f a m i l i a r w ith th e d u t i e s e x p e c te d o f him.
A f te r G la d s to n e 's d e f e a t when C ardw ell w ent to th e
House o f L o rd s, th e F in a n c ia l S e c r e ta r y became th e c h ie f
spokesman f o r th e O p p o sitio n on m i l i t a r y m a tte r s .
He w as, in
t r u t h , a m i l i t a r y s p e c i a l i s t , though n o t lo s in g h i s i n t e r e s t
i n g e n e ra l re fo rm .
He c r e a te d som ething o f a s t i r in a speech
re g a rd in g th e War O f f i c e 's a tte m p t to compel Lord S an d h u rst
to re fu n d p a r t o f h is s a l a r y a s Com m ander-in-C hief in I r e la n d .
The s i t u a t i o n h a s no h i s t o r i c a l im p o rtan ce, b u t i t se rv e d i t s
p u rp o se in c a l l i n g fa v o ra b le a t t e n t i o n t o C am pbell-B annerm an.25
A gain he had th e chance to speak up in b e h a lf o f h i s
C a rd w e llia n p r i n c i p l e s when a b i l l was in tro d u c e d to l e g a l i z e
money paym ents f o r re g im e n ta l ex c h an g es.
T his m eant t h a t men
o f means could av o id f o r e ig n s e r v ic e and was, i n H e n ry 's
24 The Times (London, 1871) O ctober 50, 4 a.
S pender,, op. c i t . , I , 44-45.
27
e y e s , as bad a s th e o ld p u rc h a se system .
County fin a n c e and governm ent i n t e r e s t e d Mr. C am pbellBannerman, who hoped to see a m easure p ro p o sed to im prove th e
27
f i n a n c i a l a d m in is tr a tio n o f c o u n tie s .
He a ls o had th e id e a
t h a t m u n ic ip a l i n s t i t u t i o n s sh o u ld be c r e a te d a l l o v e r th e
c o u n try d i s t r i c t s and t h a t e v e ry county m ight have an e l e c t i v e
body c o rre sp o n d in g to a town c o u n c il, w ith c o n tr o l o f ta x a ­
t i o n and e x p e n d itu re s , i t s law s s u b je c t to th e s a n c tio n o f
P a r i i am ent.
When th e E le c tio n s and M u n icip al B i l l o f 1871 came
u p , Campbell-Bannerman s a id he c o n s id e re d th e S c o t t is h county
v o te r s i n
a much b e t t e r p o s i t i o n th a n th e co u n ty
E n gland, s in c e in S c o tla n d e v e ry te n v o te r s
v o te r s in
co u ld p e t i t i o n
th e s h e r i f f f o r p o l l i n g p la c e s a rra n g e d to t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n ,
s u b je c t t o a p p e a l to th e Lord A dvocate. 29
The p r e s e n t governm ent had th e unhappy f a te o f b e in g
th e f i r s t to ta k e up a number o f r a t h e r d e l i c a t e q u e s tio n s
upon w hich th e c o u n try c a ll e d f o r l e g i s l a t i o n . SO I t s p o s i t i o n
was d i f f i c u l t and f i n a l l y l o s t in 1874, when th e C o n se rv a tiv e s
26 I b i d . , I , 45.
27
Buck,
0 £.
o i t . . CXCIX,245.
JJQ
I b i d . , CCI, 1855.
29 I b i d . . GCVIII, 822.
30 The Times (London, 1872) December 6 , 7c.
28
came i n t o pow er.
Henry d id n o t ta k e a v ery a c tiv e p a r t i n
House d e b a te s f o r th e e n su in g s i x y e a r s , though he alw ays
made h im s e lf h e a rd in any d is c u s s io n o f th e army o r o f
S c o t t i s h a f f a i r s . 3*
He s tr o n g ly opposed a S c o t t is h Church P a tro n a g e B i l l
in tro d u c e d i n 1874.
T h is p ro p o sed to s tre n g th e n th e E s ta b ­
l i s h e d Church a t th e expense o f th e o th e r P r e s b y te r ia n b o d ie s .
The move was s u s p e c te d to be a p o l i t i c a l d ev ice to checkm ate
th e movement f o r th e u n io n o f th e F re e and U n ited P r e s b y te r ia n
c h u rc h e s.
Henry d e n ie d t h a t th e D is ru p tio n o f 1843 was caused
by any q u e s tio n o f p a tro n a g e and was convinced t h a t i t was a
m a tte r o f s p i r i t u a l in d ep en d en ce. 32
I t was an o ld g rie v a n c e o f S c o t t is h P r e s b y te r ia n s t h a t
th e y d id n o t have f u l l power to choose t h e i r own p a s t o r s .
S in ce th e ch u rch es were l a r g e l y su p p o rted by o ld endowments,
th e d o n o rs and t h e i r h e i r s claim ed th e r i g h t o f f i l l i n g
v a c a n c ie s w ith m in is te r s o f t h e i r c h o ic e .
p a tro n a g e .
p o s itio n .
T hat was c a lle d
O r d in a r ily th e nominee o f th e p a tr o n was g iv en th e
O b je c tio n to t h i s p r a c t i c e grew and f i n a l l y re a c h e d
a c r i s i s i n 1843, when, d i s r u p ti o n took p la c e .
P a tro n a g e was
n o t a b o lis h e d , how ever, u n t i l 1874; and t h a t was too l a t e to
h e a l th e sch ism .
3* Bigham, op. c i t . , 323.
32 S pender, cj£. c i t . , I , 47.
33 Lawrence M. L a rso n , H is to ry o f England and th e
B r i t i s h Commonwealth, 742.
29
Campbell-Bannerman to l d th e House t h a t i f i t were
asked o n ly to a s s e n t to th e p r o p o s itio n t h a t th e p eo p le o f a
ch u rch were th e n a t u r a l ones to a p p o in t t h e i r own m i n is t e r ,
th e r e would be no argum ent.
T hat was th e o n ly sense in w hich
th e S c o t t i s h p e o p le fa v o re d th e B i l l .
B oth L ib e r a ls and D is­
s e n te r s had s t e a d f a s t l y m a in ta in e d t h a t r i g h t o f th e p e o p le .
The B i l l would s tr e n g th e n th e Church o f S c o tla n d , a w orthy
o b je c t i n i t s e l f , e x c e p t t h a t t h i s s tr e n g th e n in g would be
done a t th e expense o f th e o th e r in d e p e n d e n t P r e s b y te r ia n
b o d ie s .
T h is b i l l co u ld s tre n g th e n th e Church o f S c o tla n d
o n ly by such means.®4
The p e o p le th em selv es had n o t demanded t h a t p a tro n a g e
be a b o lis h e d ; t h i s was a m a tte r r a is e d by th e p o l i t i c a l le a d e r s
o f th e Church f o r t h e i r own p u rp o s e s , one o f w hich was th e
hope t h a t some members o f th e se c e d in g groups would r e tu r n to
th e E s ta b lis h e d Church.
A nother p ro p o s a l was t h a t th e r a t e ­
p a y e rs sh o u ld have th e power o f e l e c t i o n .
Campbell-Bannerman
fa v o re d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and t a x a ti o n going hand i n hand, b u t
t h i s p ro p o s a l he opposed because i t would g iv e a man a v ote
f o r one th in g w h ile ta x in g him f o r a n o th e r.
The r e s u l t o f
e x p e c tin g a body composed o f a l l c re e d s and c l a s s e s to ag ree
on th e s e l e c t i o n o f a m in is te r would be c o n fu sin g in d e e d .
"The o n ly r e s u l t would be to p u t th e new wine o f democracy
34 Buck, 0£. o i t . . OCXS, 1553.
i n t o th e o ld b o t t l e o f a s t a t e c h u r c h ." 33
The mere p a y in g o f ta x e s h a rd ly gave a man th e v i r t u e
e n t i t l i n g him to choose a m i n i s t e r .
The sp e a k e r a g re e d w ith
th e governm ent t h a t th e ch o ice o f a p a s t o r co u ld b e s t be l e f t
in th e hands o f th e p e o p le m ost d i r e c t l y co n cern ed , th o se who
would b e n e f i t by h i s m i n i s t r a t i o n s . 33
He c o n s id e re d th e
amendment o b je c tio n a b le , as i t co u ld h a rd ly f u l f i l l i t s p u r­
p o se o f b rin g in g back th e n o n c o n fo rm ists to th e f o ld .
The
amendment seemed a ls o an a tte m p t to s e t up a seco n d ary E s ta b ­
l i s h e d Church, n o t under s t a t e c o n tr o l.
How, he ask e d , were
P r o t e s t a n t C hurches 4 e f in e d , and where was th e l i n e to be
d raw n .37
On a S c o t t i s h Temperance B i l l Campbell-Bannerman
d e c l a r e d , - f o r th e f i r s t tim e , t h a t he was open-m inded on th e
s u b je c t.
The o n ly p o i n t o f agreem ent in S c o tla n d was t h a t
d r in k in g f a c i l i t i e s sh o u ld be d e a lt w ith by lo c a l a u t h o r i t i e s .
A ll ag re e d t h a t some a c ti o n should be ta k e n , b u t no one ag reed
as to w hat i t sh o u ld b e . 38
The two c h i e f p ro v is io n s o f th e
B i l l w ere, f i r s t , t h a t th e g ra n tin g o f f u r t h e r l i c e n s e s be
suspended u n t i l f u r t h e r l e g i s l a t i o n was p ro p o se d , and, second,
35 I b i d . . CCXX, 1555-1556.
35 I b i d . . CCXXI, 696.
37 I b i d - . CCXXI, 699.
38 s p e n d e r,
0£.
c i t . , I , 47.
31
t h a t th e y were t o be suspended u n t i l th e l i c e n s e s came down
t o a c e r t a i n p r o p o r tio n o f th e i n h a b i t a n t s .
v i s i o n s seemed somewhat i n c o n s i s t e n t .
The two p r o ­
Campbell-Bannerman
b e lie v e d i n m in im izin g th e f a c i l i t i e s f o r d r in k in g , e s p e c i a l l y
th e p u b lic 'h o u s e s ; b u t he sto o d w ith h i s countrym en in t h i n k ­
's Q
in g t h a t l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s sh o u ld be i n c o n t r o l . *
The tro u b leso m e y e a rs from 1871 to 1874 b ro u g h t army
re fo rm s by lo r d C ardw ell and Lord W olseley on th e s y s te m -th a t
had been a d v e r tis e d t o th e w orld by th e v i c t o r i o u s Germans in
1870 and 1 8 7 1 .40
I n re g a rd t o th e q u e s tio n o f th e M utiny B i l l w hich
came up i n 1874, Campbell-Bannerman b e lie v e d t h a t i t was
n e c e s s a ry f o r th e governm ent t o h e lp and p r o t e c t th e s o l d i e r s ,
who w ere n e c e s s a r i l y p la c e d i n an a r t i f i c i a l mode o f l i f e .
I t was t o t h i s p u rp o se t h a t th e l a t e S e c r e ta r y o f S t a t e f o r
War had in tro d u c e d th e r e s t r i c t i o n , w hich sh o u ld be k e p t i n
f o r c e . 41
I n h i s comments on th e S upply Army E s tim a te s o f 1875
Cam pbell-Bannerm an ad v o cated t h a t th e c a n d id a te s f o r s t a f f
a p p o in tm en ts sh o u ld be r e q u ir e d t o ta k e e x a m in a tio n s b u t t h a t
th e y sh o u ld be f r e e t o g e t t h e i r e d u c a tio n anywhere th e y
lik e d in s te a d o f b e in g r e s t r i c t e d t o th e S t a f f C o lle g e .
39 Buck, ©£. o i t . , CCXXXII, 1934-1935.
40 w. T* S te a d , "The N ext B r i t i s h Prim e M i n i s t e r , "
The In d e p e n d e n t, 5 9 :2 0 4 , J u ly 27, 1905.
41 Buck, op. c i t . , CCXVTII, 703.
'When th e q u e s tio n o f o f f i c e r s 9 p h y s ic a l e x a m in atio n s
came u p , he a g re e d t h a t p h y s ic a l endurance was n e c e s s a ry .
The R ep o rt o f t h e C om m ittee, how ever, gave an e x a g g e ra te d
im p o rtan ce t o p h y s ic a l f i t n e s s , a s i f i t w ere th e only
r e q u i s i t e . 42
On th e s t r e n g t h o f h i s app o in tm en t a s F in a n c ia l S ec­
r e t a r y in 1871 S i r H enry had been h a ile d by one o f h i s sup­
p o r t e r s i n th e S t i r l i n g Burghs a s a f u t u r e Prim e M in is te r .
W ith th e f a l l o f th e L ib e r a l Government and th e e le v a tio n o f
men p ro b a b ly l e s s a b le th a n h e , h is fo llo w e r s i n th e Burghs
w ere w ondering a few y e a rs l a t e r i f any h ig h e r o f f i c e he
m ight be o f f e r e d would be w orth th e c o rre sp o n d in g lo s s o f i n ­
dependence, a q u a l i t y th e y lik e d i n a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e .
In
1879, when he ap p e ared a t a m eetin g in D u n ferm lin e, h e c k le r s
w anted a d e f i n i t e s ta te m e n t ab o u t w h eth e r he sh o u ld a c c e p t
o f f i c e i f i t w ere o f f e r e d .
C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y he answ ered:
I t w i l l depend f i r s t o f a l l upon th e c o n s titu e n c ie s
o f th e c o u n try w h eth e r th e y r e tu r n a L ib e r a l m a jo r ity ,
and th e n upon H er M ajesty th e Q,ueen w h eth er sh e w i l l
a sk th e L ib e r a l l e a d e r s t o form a Governm ent; then
upon th e L ib e r a l le a d e r s w h eth er th e y w i l l c o n s id e r me
w orthy o f b ein g ta k e n i n t o th e Government, and th e n
upon m y self w h e th e r I w i l l c o n s id e r i t w o rth my w h ile
t o go i n *43
P a rlia m e n t was d is s o lv e d i n M arch, 1880, and Lord
42
CCXIill, 1 3 9 7 .
B e a c o n f ie ld 's Government s u f f e r e d d e fe a t*
The L i t e r a l s had
been e c lip s e d f o r some y e a r s , d u rin g w hich tim e Henry had r e ­
m ained a l o y a l f o llo w e r o f G la d sto n e .
C o n seq u en tly , when Mr.
G lad sto n e was ask ed t o form h i s second a d m in is tr a tio n , he
rew arded th e young man by r e i n s t a t i n g him to h i s fo rm er p o s t
a s F i n a n c ia l S e c r e ta r y .
He h e ld t h i s p la c e u n t i l 1 8 8 2 .44
To many i t seemed t h a t he was w a stin g h i s t a l e n t s by r e tu r n in g
t o t h i s f a i r l y humble p o s i t i o n .
a b i l i t y were s u rp a s s in g him .
Men w ith l e s s e x p e rie n c e and
He h im s e lf d id n o t f e e l t h i s
way, b e in g o f th e e a sy -g o in g d i s p o s i t i o n t h a t i s n o t f r u s ­
t r a t e d by d isa p p o in tm e n ts o r je a lo u s y .
He was w e ll s a t i s f i e d
t h a t h i s r e - e l e c t i o n f o r th e S t i r l i n g Burghs was p r a c t i c a l l y
u n o p p o sed .45
He was a l s o s a t i s f i e d w ith h i s new c h i e f , M r. C h ild e r s ,
whom he adm ired a s fo llo w in g th e same id e a s a s d id C ard w e ll.
The p e r io d from 1880 t o 1882 was a d i f f i c u l t one f o r th e War
O f f ic e .
I t i n h e r i t e d tro u b leso m e q u e s tio n s and had to d e a l
w ith In d ia *s . in c r e a s in g demands, u n r e s t in E g y p t, t r o u b le s
i n th e T ra n sv a a l and Z u lu la n d , and th e n e c e s s i ty t o p ro v id e
tro o p s f o r A ra b ia .
There was much c r i t i c i s m , b u t Mr.
C h ild e rs met i t by a re fo rm schem e.
T h is r a is e d th e minimum
age o f r e c r u i t i n g t o n in e te e n and f ix e d th e p e rio d o f
44 S te a d , op. c i t . , 204.
45 S p en d er, p p . c i t . , I , 5 0.
34
e n lis tm e n t a t tw elv e y e a r s , f i v e o f w hich would be in th e
r e s e r v e . 461°
The F in a n c ia l S e c r e ta r y backed h i s c h ie f h e a r t i l y and
th o u g h t some o f th e members were tr e a d in g on dangerous ground
by p ro p o sin g sw eeping ch an g es,
A w ise c o u rse was b e in g f o l ­
lowed and sh o u ld be g iv e n a f a i r t r i a l .
The l o c a l i z a t i o n
sy stem o f g ro u p in g m i l i t i a b a t t a l i o n s w ith b a t t a l i o n s o f th e
l i n e i n t e r r i t o r i a l re g im e n ts was h e lp in g t o b rin g th e
m i l i t i a up t o a h ig h s ta n d a rd o f e f f i c i e n c y .
P ro b a b ly th e
g r e a t e s t re fo rm co n n ected w ith C h ild e rs* name was t h a t o f
fo rb id d in g f lo g g in g a s a punishm ent in th e .army. 47
In a sp eech a t D unferm line on December 25, 1880,
Campbell-Bannerman t o l d h i s c o n s t i t u e n t s ab o u t o b s tr u c tio n
t o be ex p e c te d i n th e House o f Commons.
W ith two im p o rta n t
q u e s tio n s t o come up soon—la n d re fo rm and P a rlia m e n ta ry
re fo rm —i t was n e c e s s a ry t o th e r e p u ta ti o n o f a s tro n g L ib e r a l
Government t h a t th e f r a n c h is e be ex ten d ed t o th e c o u n tie s .
He a l s o hoped t h a t a r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s e a ts would be e f ­
fe c te d .
S peaking o f th e la n d q u e s tio n , he a sk e d r h e t o r i c a l l y ,
"What i s lan d ed p ro p e rty ? "
A n a ly s is re s o lv e d i t in to th r e e
t h i n g s —nam ely, v a lu e , th e l a n d l o r d 1s s p e c i a l r i g h t s , and
46 I b i d . , I , 51
4” Loo. o i t .
35
s o c ia l p o s itio n .
The s t a t e had th e r i g h t to demand, a l t e r ,
o r e x tin g u is h th e s e p r i v i l e g e s .
The I r i s h q u e s tio n was a n o th e r t h a t would r e q u ir e a b i l ­
i t y and p a tie n c e f o r P a rlia m e n t to s o lv e , b u t he had hopes
t h a t th e fo u n d a tio n f o r a new o rd e r in I r e la n d would soon be
l a i d . 48
When Lord F r e d e r ic k C avendish was a v ic tim o f th e
Phoenix P ark m urders i n I r e l a n d , May, 1882, Mr. T re v e ly a n was
a p p o in te d c h i e f S e c r e ta r y f o r I r e l a n d .
Henry C am pbell-
Bannerman succeeded him a s P a rlia m e n ta ry and F in a n c ia l S e c ­
r e t a r y t o t h e A d m ira lty .
H is c h i e f , Lord N o rth b ro o k , was in
a n o th e r p la c e ; and so he now f o r th e f i r s t tim e became an sw era b le f o r a g r e a t d ep artm en t i n th e House o f Commons.49
There was a g r e a t d e a l o f a g i t a t i o n ab o u t th e Havy
b o th in P a rlia m e n t and in th e c o u n try .
F ra n c e , E n g la n d 's
c h ie f n a v a l c o m p e tito r, was rum ored t o be b u ild in g up h e r
navy u n t i l i t would soon e q u a l i f n o t s u rp a s s B r i t a i n * s .
Most o f th e c r i t i c i s m le v e le d a t C am pbell-B annerm an's e s t i ­
m ates w ere on t h e g ro u n d s, n o t o f e x tra v a g a n c e , b u t o f d a n g e r­
ous economy.
He s to o d w ith th e governm ent i n r e f u s in g t o be
ru sh ed i n t o a g r e a t program o f s h ip b u ild in g and fo u g h t a g a in s t
4® The Times
49 L ee,
0£.
(London, 1880) December 2 5, 6 f .
o i t . , I , 303.
th e a t t a c k s o f th e c r i t i c s . 50
A n o th er q u e s tio n c o n c e rn in g th e navy came up when Mr.
I llin g w o r th ask ed th e S e c r e ta r y t o th e A d m ira lty to e x p la in
how n o m in atio n s f o r a d m issio n t o th e sc h o o l were made.
Camphell-Bannerman r e p l i e d t h a t th e n o m in a tio n s were g iv e n by
th e F i r s t Lord o f t h e A d m ira lty , who u s u a lly nom inated th r e e
c a n d id a te s f o r ea ch v ac an cy .
I t was a l s o th e custom t o g iv e
n o m in atio n s t o so n s o f d eceased o f f i c e r s and p e rso n s who had
c la im s on th e S e r v ic e .
The p r e s e n t system o f c o m p e titiv e
ex a m in a tio n s l a t e r r e p la c e d th e n o m in a tio n s . 51^
-The S e c r e ta r y was a l s o ask ed th e re a s o n why th e
E g y p tia n w ar m edals had n o t y e t heen d i s t r i b u t e d t o th e n a v a l
f o r c e s p r e s e n t a t th e Bombardment o f A le x a n d ria . 52
A l e t t e r w r i t t e n by Mr. B lu n t ap p e ared i n th e Times
i n r e f e r e n c e t o h i s r e c e n t e x p la n a tio n o f th e o b je c ts o f
P ro f e s s o r P a lm e r1s m is s io n i n th e E a s t.
I t s t a t e d t h a t th e
p r i v a t e d i a r i e s o f P r o f e s s o r Palm er and C a p ta in G i l l p ro v e ;
1 . T hat Mr. P alm er*s m is s io n , a s i n t r u s t e d t o him by
Lord N orth b ro o k i n Ju n e , was one o f wide p u r p o r t, w h o lly
un co nnected w ith th e p u rc h ase o f cam els o r th e h i r i n g
of tra n s p o rt;
2• T hat i t had f o r i t s u l tim a te , i f n o t i t s im m ediate,
o b je c t th e b r ib in g o f c e r t a i n Bedouin t r i b e s ;
50 S p en d er, o p . o i t . , I , 5 2 -5 5 .
51 Buck, C£. O i t . , CCI3XXI, 1603.
52 I M d ». CCI2X7I, 846.
3 . T h at Mr. P alm er d id in f a c t prom ise money w ith
t h i s o b je c t;
4 . T hat he t r a v e l e d , n o t a s an E nglishm an, b u t d i s g u ish e d and u n d er an assumed name;
5* T h a t,o n th e s i x t h o f A ugust, he re c e iv e d from
C a p ta in G i l l , a t Suez 20,000 pounds i n g o ld , d i s t i n c t l y
f o r th e B ed o u in s; and
6* That th e p u rc h a se o f cam els was an a f te r t h o u g h t ,
co n n ected o n ly w ith h i s l a s t jo u rn e y , and o n ly a c c id e n ­
t a l l y w ith h i s m is s io n .
I t asked Cam pbell-Bannerm an w hat s te p s he in te n d e d t o
ta k e i n th e m a t t e r . 55
He answ ered t h a t P a lm e rfs a u t h o r i t y
e x te n d e d beyond th e p u rc h a se o f cam els and th e h i r i n g o f
t r a n s p o r t , s in c e h i s r e a l m is s io n was t o use h i s in f lu e n c e
i n c o n c i l i a t i n g th e B edouins and s e c u re t h e i r su p p o rt f o r
th e p r o t e c ti o n o f th e c a n a l, sh o u ld t h i s be n e e e s s a ry .
P ro ­
f e s s o r P alm er c e r t a i n l y was n o t g iv e n money f o r th e p u rp o se
o f b r ib in g th e t r i b e s .
As t o th e m a tte r o f d i s g u i s e , th e r e
was n o th in g s e c r e t i v e ab o u t i t .
M r. P alm er was i n n a tiv e
d r e s s and u sed th e name he was known by among th e B edou ins.
More cam els w ere n e c e s s a ry a f t e r a d is a s t r o u s jo u rn e y , and he
r e c e iv e d 3000 pounds f o r t h i s p u rp o s e .
The a s s e r t i o n t h a t he
r e c e iv e d th e l a r g e r sum from C a p ta in G i l l was a b s o lu te ly w ith
out tr u th .
The 20,000 pounds m entioned was s e n t t o S i r
W illiam H e w itt, th e A dm iral a t S uez, f o r g e n e ra l e x p e n s e s .54
55 I b i d . . CCLXXVTI, 810-811.
54 I b i d . . CCIXXVII, 210-812.
S i r George T re v e ly a n was o b lig e d , i n 1884, to r e s i g n
b i s p o s i t io n a s C h ie f S e c r e ta r y f o r I r e la n d b ecau se o f i l l
h e a lth *
Mr* G lad sto n e p ro m p tly asked Cam pbell-Bannerm an t o
succeed T revelyan*
The p ro p o s a l was n o t a welcome one t o
th e S e c r e ta r y , who f e l t t h a t he was n o t a d e q u a te ly equipped
f o r th e p o s i t i o n and was s u s p ic io u s o f th e I r i s h a d m in is tr a ­
tio n * At f i r s t he r e f u s e d * 55
L a te r he re c o n s id e r e d , p ro b a b ly
b ecau se o f Lord S p e n c e r’ s ap peal*
He was t o work u n d er Lord
S p en cer and was t o be so s u c c e s s f u l t h a t th e I r i s h p ro fe s s e d
th e m se lv e s e a g e r t o r e c e iv e a n o th e r Scotsm an a s C h ie f S ec­
r e t a r y . 56
Campbell-Bannerman a d d re sse d h i s c o n s t i t u e n t s a t
S t i r l i n g in December, 1884, e x p re s s in g g r a ti t u d e a t t h e i r
r e tu r n in g him a f t e r h i s a c c e p ta n c e o f th e C h ie f S e c re ta ry s h ip *
He s a i d he would d is c h a rg e h i s d u t i e s i n c o n n e c tio n w ith h is
new o f f i c e t o th e b e s t o f h is a b i l i t y , and he knew t h a t he
had t h e i r in d u lg e n c e .
The p o lic y o f th e p r e s e n t government
i n re g a rd t o I r e la n d was th e same a s i t had alw ays b ee n , he
s ta te d .
I t would t r y to e n fo rc e law and o rd e r w ith firm n e s s
b u t n o t u n n e c e s s a ry s e v e r i t y and t o p r o t e c t th e l i v e s , p r o p e r ty ,
and freedom o f a c ti o n o f th e I r i s h from a t t a c k o f any kind*
The governm ent b e lie v e d and d e s ire d t h a t th e I r i s h th em selv es
S p en d er, op* o i t *, I , 53.
S te a d ,
op. c i t *, 204.
39
sh o u ld manage t h e i r own a f f a i r s a s much a s p o s s ib le *
P u b lic f e e l i n g had p a sse d th ro u g h th e phase o f dom ina­
t i o n and r e s t r i c t i o n o f I r e la n d and m ust lo o k upon i t s r e s u l t
w ith shame and r e g r e t*
G ra d u a lly t h a t p o lic y had been aban­
doned; b u t th e n e x t p h a se , t h a t o f condescending b en ev o len ce
had n o t worked much b e t t e r w ith th e proud and s e n s i t i v e I r i s h .
The aim now m ust be t o h e lp them r e a l i z e , l i k e th e S c o t t is h
p e o p le , t h a t v i r t u a l n a t i o n a l independence c o u ld be co n ­
s i s t e n t w ith l o y a l t y and f r ie n d s h ip t o th e Um pire.
The new S e c r e ta r y f o r I r e l a n d spoke o f th e ho n o u rs
c o n f e rre d on him and prom ised n o t t o d is a p p o in t th o s e who
had been so k in d t o him .
He would n e v e r u se p u b lic o f f i c e
a s an o p p o r tu n ity t o d i s t i n g u i s h h im s e lf p e r s o n a l l y .57
The C h ief S e c r e ta r y s h ip f o r I r e l a n d was j u s t l y con­
s id e r e d a t t h a t tim e a s th e m ost th a n k le s s p o s i t i o n in th e
governm ent.
The r e c e n t P hoenix P ark m urders made i t d a n g e r­
ous a s w e l l .
I t had w recked more th a n one p ro m isin g c a r e e r .
Cam pbell-Bannerm an u n d e rsto o d t h a t a c o o l head and an even
tem per were e s s e n t i a l on h is p a r t to make him s u c c e s s f u l.
N a tu r a lly h i s p o s i t i o n would be a s u b o rd in a te o ne •
.
T hat h i s deep i n t e r e s t i n e d u c a tio n had n o t waned i s
ev id en ced by h i s one e f f o r t a t l e g i s l a t i o n , th e in tr o d u c t i o n
*57
The Times (London, 1884) December 13, 6d.
58 S p en d er, The L if e o f th e R ig h t H onorable S i r Henry
C am pbell-B annerm an, I , S 0 -6 S .
40
o f a B i l l to ex ten d e le m e n ta ry e d u c a tio n in I r e l a n d .
There
was s t i l l much i l l i t e r a c y in th e c o u n try , and l i t t l e had been
done to e n fo rc e com pulsory a tte n d a n c e a t s c h o o ls .
The I r i s h
opposed th e B i l l b ecau se th e e x tr a c o s t e n t a i l e d would be
b o rn e by them .
S u b se q u e n tly Cam pbell-Bannerm an su g g e ste d
t h a t th e m a tte r be p o stp o n ed u n t i l th e I r i s h County C o u n cils
were s e t u p . 59
In Ju n e, 1885, th e 4 overnBien^ was d e fe a te d and o b lig e d
to re s ig n .
T urm oil a t home and th e c e r t a i n t y o f a g e n e r a l
e l e c t i o n i n November d id n o t p re v e n t th e e x -C h ie f S e c r e ta r y
f o r I r e la n d from e n jo y in g a c a r e f r e e h o lid a y .
A f te r a few
m onths o f r e s t and t r a v e l he s t a r t e d e l e c ti o n e e r i n g .
In h i s
sp ee ch es he opposed th e C e n tr a l C o u n cil i n I r e l a n d , b u t came
o u t i n fa v o r o f f r e e e d u c a tio n and f o r d is e s ta b lis h m e n t in
S c o tla n d and i n E n g lan d .
wisdom o f Home B u ie .
He was n o t y e t convinced o f th e
One p assag e i n an e l e c t i o n a d d re s s he
found h a rd t o l i v e down:
I am d e s ir o u s o f se e in g a t th e e a r l i e s t p o s s ib le
. moment a l a r g e e x te n s io n o f l o c a l se lf-g o v e rn m e n t i n
I r e l a n d ; b u t I w ould g iv e no countenance t o th e scheme
o f th o s e who seek t o in ju r© th e c o u n try , a s th e y would
a s s u r e d ly r u i n t h e i r own, by s e p a r a tio n u n d e r one
name o r a n o th e r .
He f e l t t h a t a m id d le c o u rse d e s ir e d by th e L ib e r a ls was
59 I b i d . , I , 70-71
60 I b i d . . I , 8 9 .
41
b e in g r u in e d by a co m b in atio n o f m isgovernm ent by th e B r i t i s h
and stu b b o rn n e s s by th e I r i s h .
A m e e tin g was h e ld in E dinburgh i n May, 1886, in
s u p p o rt o f Mr* G la d s to n e ’s Home Rule B i l l .
At t h i s tim e
Campbell-Bannerman moved t h a t th e m eetin g r e s o lv e t h a t th e
demand o f th e I r i s h p eo p le was j u s t and r e a s o n a b le , ad d in g
t h a t th e r e was o p p o s itio n t o th e B i l l among th e L ib e r a ls a s
w e ll a s th e C o n s e rv a tiv e s .
He h im s e lf had ta k e n much tim e
t o be convinced t h a t i t was th e b e s t and th e m ost p r a c t i c a b l e
p o lic y .
The tim e he had sp e n t i n I r e la n d
f e e l i n g o f th e p eo p le t h e r e ,
had shownhim
th e
and he c o u ld see t h a t an a g g r e s ­
s i v e l y n a t i o n a l i s t i c f e e l in g was grow ing s t e a d i l y .
A f te r a l l ,
p eo p le w ere th e b e s t ju d g es o f t h e i r own a f f a i r s , and a
governm ent co u ld n o t r u l e s u c c e s s f u lly w ith o u t a t t r a c t i n g
th e sym pathy o f th e p e o p le .
The I r i s h demands were r e a s o n a b le , s in c e th e y w ere a
p eo p le o f d i f f e r e n t h i s t o r y , t r a d i t i o n , and r e l i g i o n .
T h e ir
s e lf-g o v e rn m e n t co u ld be ac h ie v e d w ith o u t en d an g erin g th e
i n t e g r i t y o f th e B a p ire .
The m ain p ro p o s a l b e fo re th e
c o u n try was th e c r e a t i o n o f a c e n t r a l body i n D u b lin w hich
sh o u ld have l e g i s l a t i v e and a d m in is tr a tiv e d u t i e s , w ith th e
62
r i g h t t o a p p o in t th e I r i s h e x e c u tiv e .
61
I , 97.
The Times (London,
1886) May 6 , 9 f .
42
L a te r , as t h e m outhpiece o f th e C a b in e t, he to o k p a r t
i n th e d e b a te s on Home R ule and made e v e ry e f f o r t a t c o n c i l i ­
a tio n .
Mr# G lad sto n e pro p o sed a B i l l t h a t i t s o pponents
c h a r a c te r iz e d a s a v i o l a t i o n o f th e o ld p r i n c i p l e o f " t a x a tio n
w ith o u t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ."
When th e B i l l was d e f e a te d by t h i r t y
v o te s , G lad sto n e im m ed iately d is s o lv e d P a rlia m e n t.
D uring th e p e r io d o f Lord S a l i s b u r y f s a d m in is tr a tio n
Campbell-Bannerman a c t i v e l y s u p p o rte d G lad sto n e i n f i g h t i n g
63
th e cau se o f Home R ule f o r I r e l a n d .
In an a d d re s s t o th e
e l e c t o r s o f t h e S t i r l i n g Burghs he s a i d :
When you d id me th e honour t o e l e c t me, on th e
o c c a s io n o f my a c c e p tin g o f f i c e u n d er th e crown in
F e b ru a ry , 1886, i t was w e ll known t h a t th e Government
w hich I th e n jo in e d had re s o lv e d upon an a tte m p t t o
m eet th e w ish es o f th e I r i s h p e o p le by g iv in g t o I r e la n d
th e c o n tr o l of h e r d o m estic a f f a i r s . T h is r e s o l u t i o n
was form ed, n o t o n ly b ecau se i t seemed t o u s a re a s o n ­
a b le p o lic y and u n d e r p ro p e r c o n d itio n s , a s a f e one,
b u t a l s o b ecau se i t was h o p e le s s t o e x p e c t any good
r e s u l t from a c o n tin u a n c e o f th e o th e r p o lic y o f r e ­
p r e s s io n and r e s i s t a n c e w hich had been fo llo w e d i n a
g r e a t e r o r l e s s e r d eg ree s in c e th e f i r s t y e a r s o f t h i s
c e n tu r y . A c c o rd in g ly , th e Government in tro d u c e d i n t o
th e House o f Commons a B i l l f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g i n I r e l a n d
a s t a t u t o r y P a rlia m e n t t o w hich sh o u ld be i n t r u s t e d f u l l
pow ers, b o th a d m in is tr a tiv e and l e g i s l a t i v e , o v er a l l
i n t e r e s t s w hich a re e x c lu s iv e ly I r i s h . The B i l l h av in g
been r e j e c t e d i n th e second re a d in g , Mr. G lad sto n e now
a p p e a ls to th e judgm ent o f th e n a tio n w h eth er such a
deg ree o f s e lf-g o v e rn m e n t s h a l l o r s h a l l n o t be conceded
t o I r e l a n d . The scheme su b m itte d t o P a rlia m e n t may be
im p e rfe c t and open t o c r i t i c i s m in some o f i t s d e t a i l s .
The Governm ent, in d e e d , e x p re s se d a r e a d in e s s t o re c o n ­
s i d e r some o f i t s p r o v is io n s , b u t t h a t B i l l i s no lo n g e r
b e f o re th e c o u n try , and H er M a je s ty 's Governm ent, i f
63
L e e , D i c t i o n a r y o f N a t i o n a l B io g r a p h y , I ,
304
43
c a l l e d upon t o d e a l w ith th e q u e s tio n s , w i l l have p e r f e c t
freedom in d e te rm in in g th e p a r t i c u l a r method by w hich
th e y sh o u ld seek th e a tta in m e n t o f th e m ain o b je c t o f
t h e i r p o lic y . I c o n f i d e n t i a l l y c la im y o u r a p p ro v a l f o r
t h a t p o lic y , b e in g convinced t h a t any more lim ite d ex­
te n s io n o f s e lf-g o v e rn m e n t in I r e l a n d would be n e i t h e r
a d e q u ate n o r s a fe and t h a t th e e s ta b lis h m e n t o f a do m estic
L e g is la tu r e in t h a t c o u n try i s th e s u r e s t way t o a t t r a c t
t o us th e f r ie n d s h ip o f th e I r i s h p e o p le , t o c o n s o lid a te
th e u n io n betw een th e th r e e p a r t i e s o f t h e U n ite d Kingdom,
and th u s to s e c u re th e i n t e g r i t y and s t r e n g t h o f th e
E m p ire .64
I n 188? he su g g e ste d an amendment to Mr. A. J . B a lf o u r #s
I r i s h Land B i l l , s t a t i n g t h a t no b i l l was s a t i s f a c t o r y u n le s s
i t p ro v id e d f o r r e v i s i o n o f th e j u d i c i a l r e n t s .
To him i s
a t t r i b u t e d th e t e r n " U l s t e r i a ," a d e s c r i p t i o n o f th e b le n d
o f Orange b ig o t r y and I r i s h Toryism w hich he found i n th e
opponents o f Home R ule.® 5
Lord S a l i s b u r y fs Government f e l l i n 1886.
was ask ed t o form h i s t h i r d a d m in is tr a tio n .
G ladstone
G am pbell-
Bannerman now e n te r e d t h e C ab in et f o r th e f i r s t tim e , b e in g
a p p o in te d S e c r e ta r y o f S t a t e f o r War.
The Queen h e r s e l f
was r e s p o n s ib le f o r h i s ap p o in tm en t, G la d s to n e 's f i r s t ch o ice
b e in g Mr. C h ild e r s .
The new S e c r e ta r y was f o r t y - n in e and had
had e ig h te e n y e a rs i n th e House o f Commons.®®
From c i v i l i a n s and s o l d i e r s a l i k e he r e c e iv e d a warm
welcome.
He was th e i d e a l c h i e f .
^
B e sid e s b e in g f a m i l i a r w ith
Times (London, 1886) June 17, 6 a .
®5 L ee,
ojd.
c i t . , I , 304.
6 S p en d er, o £ . e i t . , I , 9 8 -9 9 .
44
th e w orkings o f th e War O f f ic e , he had th e g i f t o f g e t t i n g
a lo n g w e ll w ith th e o th e r o f f i c i a l s .
Under him were l o r d
S a n d h u rst and th e son o f Mr# G la d sto n e .
He was o b lig e d to produce in c re a s e d e s t im a te s , w hich
he arg u ed w ere n e c e s s a r y .
England had t o keep pace w ith th e
new developm ents i n guns and pow der.
Troops i n I n d ia had
been augm ented, and th e I n f a n t r y B a t ta l io n s a t home had t o
he re a rra n g e d so t h a t none sh o u ld he o f a lo w er s tr e n g t h
t h a t 750 Bank and F i l e . 57
Home Rule was s t i l l th e c h i e f q u e s tio n .
C am pbell-
Bannerman, as a form er C h ief S e c r e ta r y f o r I r e l a n d , was o f te n
c o n s u lte d on th e pro b lem .
t o th e m e a s u re .68
He gave h i s a p p ro v a l o f f i c i a l l y
H is c h ie f work t h a t f i r s t y e a r was i n con­
n e c tio n w ith I r e l a n d , n o t w ith th e Army.
He was p r a is e d f o r
h i s p h ra se " f in d in g s a l v a t i o n , H w hich he used t o d e s c r ib e
th e p ro c e s s o f a d o p tin g Home R u le .69
On h i s ap p o in tm en t as S e c r e ta r y o f S ta t e f o r War he
had been r e tu r n e d t o th e House unopposed.
But now h i s con­
s t i tu e n c y was becoming d iv id e d o v er t h e q u e s tio n o f Home R u le .
He was c h a lle n g e d by Mr. John P en d er, a fo rm id a b le c a n d id a te
o f th e C o n s e rv a tiv e s .
In e l e c tio n e e r i n g Cam pbell-Bannerm an
67 I b i d . . I , 100-104.
5® John M. M orley, The L if e o f W illiam Ewart G la d sto n e ,
I I I , 341.
69 s t e a d , o p . o i t . . 205.
45
ap p e a le d t o th e L ib e r a ls and warmly defended th e Home Rule
m easu re.
He was l e s s e n t h u s i a s t i c ab o u t th e Land P u rch ase
B i l l , t o w hich th e r e was th e g r e a t e s t o b j e c ti o n .
A lthough
th e Burghs re tu r n e d him by a la r g e m a jo r ity a s u s u a l, th e
Government was d e f e a te d h e a v ily in th e c o u n try .
The l a s t
o f f i c i a l a c t o f th e S e c r e ta r y o f S t a t e f o r War was t o d r a f t
th e fo u n d a tio n o f th e D is tin g u is h e d S e rv ic e O rd er.
70
H is
f i r s t term o f C abinet, o f f i c e l a s t e d o n ly a l i t t l e more th a n
f i v e m onths.
W ith th e new a d m in is tr a tio n th e Home R u le rs d id n o t
ce ase t h e i r e f f o r t s .
Cam pbell-Bannerm an, in a sp eech g iv e n
a t S t i r l i n g i n J a n u a ry , 1887, s a i d t h a t th e Home R ule p r i n ­
c i p l e co u ld be r e s o lv e d in t o th r e e e le m e n ts: f i r s t , t h a t
I r i s h n a t i o n a l s e n tim e n t sh o u ld be s a t i s f i e d by t h e power t o
manage t h e i r own a f f a i r s ; second was th e p a r t i c u l a r m achinery
by w hich th e f i r s t was to be a p p lie d ; th e t h i r d elem en t com­
p r is e d th e d e t a i l s o f t h a t m ach in ery .
of v i t a l p rin c ip le .
The f i r s t was a m a tte r
U n til th e q u e s tio n co u ld be s e t t l e d ,
I r e la n d and i t s problem s would c o n tin u e t o be in th e f o r e ­
f r o n t o f p u b lic c o n s c io u s n e s s and p re v e n t P a rlia m e n t from
a tte n d in g t o o th e r u rg e n t refo rm s i n E ngland and S c o tla n d . 71
He i n s i s t e d t h a t a r e a l e f f o r t t o accede t o I r e l a n d fs w ish es
70
S p en d er, o p . c i t . , I , 107-108.
The T im es (L o n d o n , i 8 8 7 )
J a n u a r y 2 0 , lO d .
46
would s tr e n g th e n th e bond betw een th e two c o u n tr ie s and would
be more im p o rta n t t o th e s tr e n g th o f th e Empire th a n would
a l l th e m i ll i o n s t h a t m ight be sp e n t on m i l i t a r y d e f e n s e • 72
As an e x -C a b in e t M in is te r , Campbell-Bannerm an had
from t h i s tim e fo rw ard a new s t a t u s i n th e House o f Commons.
He was an o f f i c i a l l e a d e r now and had t h e r i g h t o f b e in g
c a l l e d to th e e x -C a b in e t c o n c la v e s .
He was f r e e t o ta k e
p a r t i n g e n e r a l d e b a te s and was c e r t a i n o f p u b l i c i t y i n th e
new spapers w henever he sp o k e .
He was th e O p p o sitio n sp o k e s­
man on a l l m i l i t a r y m a tte r s ; h i s knowledge o f th e A d m ira lty
e n a b le d him t o ta k e p a r t i n n a v a l d e b a te s ; and he h ad , o f
c o u rs e , a s p e c i a l s ta n d in g on th e s u b je c t o f I r e l a n d , w hich
was th e dom inant q u e s tio n o f th e d a y .
I n 1888 he se rv e d a s a member o f t h e R oyal Commission
on th e c i v i l a d m in is tr a tio n o f th e n a v a l and m i l i t a r y d e­
p a rtm e n ts , o f w hich he sig n e d th e m in o r ity r e p o r t . 73
D uring th e s e s i x y e a rs (1888-1892) C am pbell-B annerm ans
,• d ia r y shows *him c o n s ta n tly on t h e move betw een London,
S c o tla n d , and h i s house i n K en t, w ith s id e t r i p s t o th e con­
tin e n t.
There was a Bohemian w a te rin g p la c e t o w hich he and
h i s w ife went ev e ry A u g u st. " Sometimes th e y en jo y ed an
I ta lia n to u r.
He li k e d a g re e a b le s o c i e t y b u t n o t th e r i c h
72 I b i a «, F e b ru a ry 3 , 1887, 10b.
73
B ig h a m ,
ojd.
o it .,
323.
47
and sm art p eo p le who lik e d t o t r e a t him in a condescending
m anner b ecau se o f h i s R a d ic a l o p in io n s .
He was v e ry h o s p i­
t a b l e and en jo y ed e n t e r t a in i n g h i s f r i e n d s . -Good food was
one o f h i s e n th u sia sm s, though he to o k o n ly a s m a ll q u a n tity
o f w ine and n e v e r smoked. 74
Mr. Cam pbell-Bannerman a c c e p te d th e p re sid e n c y o f th e
Medway (K ent) L ib e r a l A s s o c ia tio n i n 1887.
In h is l e t t e r of
a c c e p ta n c e he s a id t h a t e v e ry day th e p o s i t i o n o f th e oppo­
n e n ts to Home R ule was w eakening.
Many who o b je c te d a t
f i r s t c o u ld now see th e good sen se o f Mr. G la d s to n e ’s
p o l i c y . 75
When th e L ib e r a ls met a t Dundee, th e y p a sse d r e s o l u ­
t i o n s condemning th e p r e s e n t Governm ent’ s c o e rc io n p o lic y
and e x p r e s s in g c o n fid e n c e in G lad sto n e and th e o th e r L ib e r a l
l e a d e r s . 7S
Once p ersu a d ed t h a t G la d s to n e ’s, p la n was th e r e a l
c u re f o r I r i s h d i s c o n t e n t , Henry n ev er gave up h i s d e v o tio n
to th e c a u s e . 77
C am pbell-B annerm an’s c r i t i c i s m o f th e p o s t s e s s io n
was a d v e rs e , th o u g h he blam ed th e Government l e s s th a n th e
p r e s s u r e o f b u s in e s s b e f o r e fi t .
A remedy su g g e ste d was th e
74 S p en d er, o p . c i t . , I , 111.
7^ The Times (London, 1887) March 16, lO e.
76 I b i d . , Ja n u a ry 7, 1888, lO e.
77 H aro ld S p en d er, " S ir Henry Cam pbell-Bannerm an,"
The L iv in g Age, 2 5 8 :1 5 , J u ly 4 , 19G8.
48
ap p o in tm en t o f Grand Com m ittees to d e a l w ith d o m estic m e a su re s,
g iv in g P a rlia m e n t more tim e f o r th e s o lu t io n o f th e Home R ule
p roblem .
He fa v o re d th e id e a o f a C e n tra l P a rlia m e n t t o d e a l
w ith im p e r ia l q u e s tio n s and l o c a l p a r lia m e n ts f o r l o c a l
_ 4
78
a ffa irs .
In re g a rd to a n o th e r e d u c a tio n b i l l t h a t had come up,
he s a id t h a t th e Government sh o u ld in s u re p o p u la r c o n tr o l
o v e r th e money g iv e n to th e s c h o o ls . 79
From 1888 on th e Government seemed to be l o s in g ground.
The L i b e r a ls had been a c tiv e a l l th e tim e , p a r t i c u l a r l y on
th e I r i s h p ro b lem .
In 1891 th e y announced t h e i r "N ew castle
Programme" f o r s o c i a l re fo rm .
Some encouragem ent was g iv en
th e cause when th e P i g o t t f o r g e r i e s , supposed to im p lic a te
P a r n e ll i n th e P hoenix P ark m u rd ers, were ex p o sed .
I t lo o k ed
as i f Mr. G la d sto n e would be r e tu r n in g to power by a g r e a t
m a jo r ity .
Such hopes were s h a tt e r e d te m p o ra r ily w ith th e
P a r n e l l d iv o rc e s c a n d a l, w hich was n o t o n ly a blow to th e
L i b e r a ls b u t a ls o th e cause o f a d i v i s io n i n th e I r i s h p a r ty .
The a f f a i r o f P a r n e l l and M rs. O’ Shea was f a r from a s e c r e t ,
b u t b r in g in g i t i n t o th e open was o f f e n s iv e to b o th th e
C a th o lic I r i s h and th e P r o t e s t a n t E n g lis h .
were
a b le
The U n io n is ts
to r e c o v e r much o f t h e i r l o s t g ro u n d .80
78 T*19 Times (London,
1889) Ja n u a ry 24, 10c.
^ I b i d . , Jan u a ry 11,
1891, 9 f .
J . A. S p en d er, A S h o rt H is to ry o f Our Tim es, 23.
49
N e v e rth e le s s i n 1892 Lord S a lis b u r y d is s o lv e d P a r l i a ­
m en t, and h i s Government was d e f e a te d a t th e p o lls *
f o u r t h a d m in is tr a tio n began in J u ly o f t h a t y e a r .
G la d s to n e s
To
Campbell-Bannerman w ent h i s form er p o s t i n th e C a b in e t.
r e p u ta ti o n had grown c o n s id e r a b ly .
H is
Throughout h i s y e a rs in
th e War O ffic e he c a r r i e d on th e C ardw ell system and d efen d ed i t a g a in s t a l l c r i t i c s .
81
A lth o u g h Lord R osebery succeeded G lad sto n e a s Prim e
M in is te r i n th e s p rin g o f 1894, Campbell-Bannerman rem ained
in h is o f f ic e .
GO
He made th e s ta te m e n t t h a t th e c o u n try had
re p u d ia te d th e U n io n is t Government, as p ro v ed by th e in c r e a s e
in v o te s f o r th e L i b e r a ls .
He d en ied th e c h a rg e s t h a t th e
L ib e r a ls w ere m aking p ro m ise s w hich co u ld n e v e r be k e p t.
P ro m ises were n o t made, b u t th e l i n e o f a c ti o n on w hich th e y
012
ex p e c te d to p ro c e e d was i n d i c a t e d .
S e v e ra l h onours w ere g iv e n to Campbell-Bannerman in
h i s c o n s titu e n c y .
He was made a freem an o f th e burgh and
re c e iv e d an a d d re s s from th e S t i r l i n g b ra n ch o f th e Educa­
tio n a l I n s titu te .
th e re .
L a te r he was made a member o f th e G u ild ry
The Dean o f th e G u ild s a id t h a t i t s c h a r t e r had been
re c e iv e d i n th e t w e l f t h c e n tu ry .
The l a s t o u t s i d e r to be
81 L ee, 0 £ . c i t . , I , 304.
82
Loc. c i t .
83
The T im es (L o n d o n , 1 8 9 2 J J a n u a r y 2 8 , 6 b .
50
g iv e n membership was W illiam P i t t in 1784,
84
The q u e s tio n o f d is e s ta b lis h m e n t o f th e Church o f
S c o tla n d coming up a g a in in 1892, Campbell-Bannerman rem arked
a p p ro v in g ly t h a t th e r e s o l u t i o n m eant t h a t a l l th e r e l i g i o u s
b o d ie s i n S c o tla n d would be e q u a l.
No lo n g e r would one
b ra n ch o f th e P r e s b y te r ia n Church be fa v o re d w ith s t a t e
p a tro n a g e .
P u b lic fu n d s , now used in m a in ta in in g th e E s­
t a b l i s h e d Church, sh o u ld be d e v o te d in th e f u tu r e t o some
p u rp o se b e n e f i t i n g a l l , r e g a r d l e s s o f c re e d , c h u rch , o r
o p in io n .85
In 1892 th e Compulsory S a le o f Land o f I r e la n d came up.
The p ro p o s a l was made "T h a t, on grounds b o th o f j u s t i c e and
ex p e d ie n cy , i t i s d e s i r a b le t h a t te n a n ts i n I r e la n d sh o u ld be
en a b le d to compel t h e i r la n d lo r d s to s e l l to them t h e i r h o ld ­
in g s u n d er th e Land P u rch a se A cts a t a f a i r p r i c e .
Campbell-Bannerman c o n s i s t e n t l y v o te d a g a in s t i t , h i s s tro n g ­
e s t re a s o n b e in g t h a t he had no hope t h a t i t would e f f e c t a
p e a c e f u l s e ttle m e n t o f th e la n d q u e s tio n o r c o n tr ib u te to th e
q u i e t and co n ten tm en t o f I r e la n d .
W hile one te n a n t re c e iv e d
f u l l b e n e f i t from t h e a c t , a n o th e r m ight have no a d v a n ta g e .
34 I b i d . , December 16, 6 f .
Q
C
C o rn e liu s Buck, e d i t o r , Hansard* s P a rlia m e n ta ry
D e b a te s , (F o u rth S e r i e s ) , I I I , 1767-176&.
86 I b i d . , I I I , 227.
51
Such i n e q u a l i t y co u ld b r in g n o th in g h u t d is c o n te n t.,8 7
Mr. Wyndham's I r i s h Land P u rc h a se B i l l was a n o th e r
s te p in th e governm ent p o lic y o f k i l l i n g Home R ule w ith k in d ­
ness.
I t o f f e r e d inducem ents f o r te n a n ts to buy and la n d lo r d s
to s e l l .
The te n a n t would r e c e iv e a tw enty pound r e n t r e ­
d u c tio n th ro u g h s t a t e c r e d i t and co u ld a c q u ire th e fe e sim ple
*
a t th e end o f s i x t y - e i g h t y e a r s .
Campbell-Bannerman approved
th e B i l l and d e n ie d t h a t i t would k i l l Home R u le.
88
He r e ­
fu s e d to b e lie v e t h a t Home R ule would n o t be ad opted e v e n tu ­
a lly .
"N ever?" he asked o f an opponent who s a id i t could
n e v e r b e , and was unconvinced by th e em phatic "N ev er!” he
re c e iv e d i n r e p ly .
Campbell-Bannerman acknow ledged h im s e lf , i n 1893, a
b e l i e v e r in th e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l system o f governm ent by p a r ty
a s w e ll as a fir m b e l i e v e r in th e p r i n c i p l e s o f th e L ib e r a l
P a rty .
One o f th e s e p r i n c i p l e s was Home R u le, and th e p eo p le
seemed to be i n agreem ent w ith th e id e a .
There were o th e r s ,
who, w h ile ap p ro v in g o f s e lf-g o v e rn m e n t and o b je c tin g to th e
p r e s e n t system in I r e l a n d , s t i l l were n o t s u f f i c i e n t l y
■9
co u rag eo u s to go so f a r .
90
87 I b i d . , I I I , 244.
88
S p en d er, The L if e o f th e R ig h t H onourable S i r Henry
Cam pbell-Bannerm an. I I , 91-917
89 George W. S m alley, " P e rs o n a l R em in iscen ces o f Famous
Men and Women," M cC lures. 18*225, J a n u a ry , 1902.
90
The T im es (L o n d o n , 1 8 9 3 ) N ovem b er 1 ,
6 f.
52
The Second Home Rule m easure was in tro d u c e d by
G lad sto n e in F e b ru a ry , 1895.
I t was an improvement on th e
f i r s t m easure, a n d 'b e s id e s th e r e were many L ib e r a l s e c e s ­
s i o n i s t s who were now w i l l i n g to s u p p o rt G la d sto n e .
Cam pbell-
Bannerman w as, o f c o u rs e , one o f th o s e who would fo llo w th e
Prim e M in is te r i n any b a t t l e he w anted to wage. 91The C ab in et Committee which d r a f t e d th e B i l l in c lu d e d
G la d sto n e , M orley, S p e n c e r, H e r s e h e ll, Cam pbell-Bannerm an,
and James B ry ce.
The c h ie f d if f e r e n c e from th e B i l l o f 1886
was i n th e p r o v is io n t h a t I r e la n d sh o u ld send to th e Im p e ria l
P a rlia m e n t members who would v o te o n ly on m a tte r s o f I r i s h o r
im p e ria l co n c ern .
The I r i s h l e g i s l a t u r e would have no power
to r e g u la te army, navy, custom s, o r tr a d e m a tte r s , o r f o r e ig n
r e l a t i o n s . 92
The B i l l p a sse d th e second and t h i r d re a d in g s i n th e
House o f Commons.
In th e House o f Lords th e second re a d in g
was p ro p o sed by Lord S p encer and opposed by th e Duke o f
D ev o n sh ire .
41.
The o p p o n ents to th e B i l l won by 419 v o te s to
T h is k i l l e d th e m easure, w hich was th u s b u rie d f o r
n e a r ly tw en ty y e a r s .
93
The e d u c a tio n and l o c a l t a x a t i o n b i l l was in tro d u c e d
91
J u s t i n M cCarthy, " S i r Henry C am pbell-B annerm an,"
O u tlook, 7 3 :3 5 4 , F eb ru a ry 7 , 1903.
92 R. C. K. E n so r, England 1870-1914, 210-211.
9® S p en d er, A S h o rt H is to r y o f Our Tim es, 24-25.
in 1892.
Town and county c o u n c ils had been p le d g e d 110,000
pounds by th e governm ent, to be s p e n t a t th e r a t e o f te n
s h illin g s p e r c h ild .
F a i lu r e to r e c e iv e th e money would mean
u n b alan ced b u d g e ts f o r th e s e u n i t s .
94
Town C o u n cils and-
P a r o c h ia l B oards were unanim ous i n t h e i r demands f o r th e
money.
Campbell-Bannerman rem arked t h a t i f he were a member
o f one o f th e s e b o d ie s , he sh o u ld aim a t k e e p in g down th e
ra te s .
Many o f th o se who were members f e l t t h a t th e govern­
m ent g r a n t w ould, i n th e lo n g ru n , have a bad e f f e c t .
In to o
many c a s e s th e r e l i e f prom ised would b e n e f i t th e l a r g e r r a t e ­
p a y e rs and b u s in e s s men, w ith th e w orking c l a s s e s l e f t o u t
a s u s u anl. 95
Campbell-Bannerman b e lie v e d t h a t th e U n i v e r s i t i e s
sh o u ld re c e iv e more money, b u t i t sh o u ld come from d i r e c t
v o te by P a rlia m e n t.
L ik ew ise, th e 25,000 pounds t h i s m easure
in te n d e d f o r p au p e r l u n a t i c s sh o u ld be v o te d on by P a rlia m e n t.
As f o r th e t h i r d p u rp o se f o r w hich th e money was to be a p p lie d
— e d u c a tio n — th e sum a l l o t t e d was n o t la r g e enough to make
a b e g in n in g .
Campbell-Bannerm an was p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d
i n th e s p a r s e ly s e t t l e d r u r a l d i s t r i c t s , which u s u a ll y d id
n o t r e c e iv e s u f f i c i e n t f u n d s .96
94 Buck,
0£.
A ll i n a l l , he f e l t t h a t th e
c i t . . I , 1251-1254.
I b i d . , I, 1256-1257.
96 I b i d . , I I I , 4 3 6 -4 3 7 .-
54
e n t i r e p ro c e e d in g s showed f a u l t y fin a n c e and a d m in is tr a t i o n . 97
W hile Campbell-Bannerman was head o f th e War O f f ic e ,
a f o r t y - e i g h t hour week i n th e o rd in a n c e f a c t o r i e s was
e s ta b lis h e d .® 0
The S e c r e ta r y o f S ta t e f o r War was d e te rm in e d
to keep th e C ardw ell sy stem ^in f o r c e .
Under t h a t system
th e r e were e le v e n more b a t t a l i o n s ab ro ad th a n was p e r m is s ib le .
His id e a f o r b a la n c e was t o send th e G uards on f o r e ig n s e r ­
v ic e , so t h a t o th e r re g im e n ts co u ld r e c a l l t h e i r s t r a y in g
b a tta lio n s .
The Queen o b je c te d , b u t f i n a l l y gave way to th e
w ish es o f th e e n t i r e War Office.® ®
Many and v a r ie d w ere th e problem s th e War O ffic e had
t o m eet: th e f i g h t o v er p a tro n a g e , th e Commission r e p o r t
recommending v a r io u s changes, tr o u b le in ch o o sin g commanders
i n I n d ia and o th e r b ra n c h e s o f th e f o r e ig n s e r v ic e ; and alw ays
th e r e was th e C h a n c e llo r o f th e E xchequer, s t r u g g l i n g f o r
econom y.100
F o re ig n a f f a i r s were t h r e a te n in g , p a r t i c u l a r l y
th e r e l a t i o n s w ith F r a n c e .101
R e c r u itin g was good d u rin g
C am pbell-B annerm an's regim e; th e r e s e rv e was b ro u g h t above
97 I b i d . , I , 1258-1259.
98 I b i d . , XX, 924.
99
S p en d er, The L if e o f th e R ig h t H onorable S i r Henry
C am pbell-Bannerm an, I , 126.
100 I b i d . , I , 130-156.
101 I b i d . , I , 139-140.
55
e ig h ty t h o u s a n d . ^ 2
He worked h ard on th e r e o r g a n iz a tio n o f th e War O f f ic e .
The H a rtin g to n Commission had p ro p o sed c r e a ti n g a N aval and
M i l i t a r y C ouncil to c o - o r d in a te o p e r a tio n s .
S in ce n e i t h e r
d e p a rtm e n t would merge i t s e l f in th e o th e r , t h i s was im p o s s ib le .
L a te r a C ab in et com m ittee o f B efence was a p p o in te d , and th e n a
Committee o f Im p e ria l D efen ce.
The pro b lem i s s t i l l f a r from
s o lv e d .
A nother p ro p o s a l o f th e Commission was th e c r e a tio n
o f a C h ief o f S t a f f to ta k e th e p la c e o f th e Commander-inC h ief and a c t a s th e c h ie f m i l i t a r y a d v is e r o f th e S e c r e ta r y
o f S ta te .
As an a l t e r n a t i v e Campbell-Bannerman d e c id e d t h a t
th e C om m ander-in-C hief, who would be r e ta in e d on p e r i o d i c a l
ap p o in tm en t s u b j e c t to r e tir e m e n t, would be Chairman o f th e
Army B oard.
D u tie s o f th e Board would in c lu d e s e l e c t i o n s f o r
p ro m o tio n and s t a f f a p p o in tm e n ts, p ro p o s a ls f o r e s ti m a t e s ,
and o th e r q u e s tio n s t h a t m ig h t be r e f e r r e d to i t .
103
Campbell-Bannerman was fa c e d , in 1895, by th e d e l i c a t e
m a tte r o f a rra n g in g th e r e tir e m e n t o f th e aged Duke o f
Cam bridge, who had lo n g opposed th e army re fo rm s , as Commanderin - C h ie f .
He managed t h i s i n such a way a s to keep th e good
w i l l o f th e Duke and th e a p p ro v a l o f th e Queen, though he l o s t
102 Ib id .. , I , 144.
103 I b i d . , I , 145-146.
56
h i s own p o s i t i o n a s a r e s u l t . ^ * 4
Mr. S t . John B ro d ric k p ro m p tly moved to re d u ce th e
s a l a r y o f th e S e c r e ta r y o f S ta te f o r War because th e ammu­
n i t i o n r e s e r v e s o f th e Army were in a d e q u a te .
Both th e
F in a n c ia l S e c r e ta r y and th e War M in is te r a v e rre d t h a t e x p e rt
o p in io n backed t h e i r s i n showing t h a t th e re s e rv e was am ple.
N e v e r th e le s s , th e House v o te d f o r th e s a l a r y r e d u c tio n ; by
so d o in g , i t ended P a rlia m e n t and caused Lord R o seb ery ’ s
Government to f a l l .
105
The n e x t m orning Campbell-Bannerman w ro te to th e
Prim e M in is te r :
June £1, 1395
B ear Lord R o seb ery ,
A f te r th e in c id e n t o f l a s t n ig h t in th e House
o f Commons w hich amounted to a c e n su re upon m y se lf,
I have no a l t e r n a t i v e o th e r th a n to ask you to te n d e r
to Her M a je sty th e r e s i g n a t i o n o f th e o f f i c e w ith
whose s e a ls she had g r a c io u s ly t r u s t e d me.
I would ask you a t th e same tim e to convey to
Her M ajesty my p ro fo u n d g r a t i t u d e f o r a l l h e r g ra c io u s
k in d n e ss to me, and to a s s u re H er M ajesty on my
C o n stan t d e v o tio n .
Yours v e ry s i n c e r e l y ,
Henry Campbell-Bannerman'
104 J . A* S p en d er, G re at B r i t a i n , Kmpire and Common­
w e a lth 1886-1935, 78.
Spender,* The L ife o f th e R ig h t H onorable S i r Henry
C am pbell-Bannerm an, I , 156.
106 L oc. c i t .
57
An u n u su a l in c id e n t fo llo w e d .
The custom i s t h a t when
a M in is te r r e s ig n s o f f i c e , he s h a l l hand h i s s e a ls t o th e
S o v ere ig n o r to some o th e r d e s ig n a te d p e rs o n .
Lord S a lis b u r y ,
who would be th e n e x t Prim e M in is te r , was to o im p a tie n t to
s ta n d on cerem ony.
H is p r i v a t e s e c r e t a r y was s e n t t o r e q u e s t
th e s e a l s im m e d ia tely .
Cam pbell-Bannerm an r e p l i e d t h a t he
m ust f i r s t c o n s u lt Lord R o seb ery .
The l a t t e r was im m ed iately
up in arms and i n s i s t e d t h a t th e s e a ls sh o u ld n o t be s u r ­
re n d e re d i n any b u t th e p ro p e r way.
new spapers and c r e a te d much i n t e r e s t .
The a f f a i r re a c h e d th e
In th e House o f L ords
Lord R osebery re q u e s te d an e x p la n a tio n from Lord S a lis b u r y ,
who was by t h a t tim e th o ro u g h ly em b arrassed .
He made a
r a t h e r r e l u c t a n t ap o lo g y f o r th e i r r e g u l a r p ro c e d u re . IQ7
There was g e n e ra l r e g r e t t h a t so a b le and p o p u la r a
M in is te r sh o u ld have t h i s tr e a tm e n t.
H is many f r i e n d s and
a d m ire rs w rote sy m p a th e tic l e t t e r s , p r a i s i n g h i s a tta in m e n ts .
He had in d eed acco m p lish ed much, n o t th e l e a s t th in g b ein g
h i s e f f o r t s to h e a l th e o ld b re a c h betw een th e s o l d i e r s and
th e p o l i t i c i a n s .
The Queen*s a p p ro v a l o f h i s a d m in is tr a tio n was made
m a n if e s t when he was k n ig h te d and g iv e n th e Grand C ross o f
th e B ath.
107 I t) I d . , I , 15 8-159.
108 I b i d . , I , 162.
58
D uring th e l a s t few months o f h i s work as War M in is te r
Campbell-Bannerman had e x p re s s e d a d e s i r e t o be made S peaker
o f th e House o f Commons.
T his was a s u r p r i s e to h is c o l­
le a g u e s who knew h i s d e l ig h t i n d e b a tin g and h is s tr o n g
ad h eren ce to h i s own p a r t y .
good S p eak er.
No doubt he would have made a
Bven th e O p p o s itio n in d ic a te d t h a t i t would
n o t oppose him ; b u t th e C a b in e t, th e Prim e M in is te r , even
th e Queen would n o t h e a r t o i t .
M in is te r and as a le a d e r*
They needed him a s War
I t had n o t o c c u rre d to him t h a t
he was i n d i s p e n s a b l e .109
Campbell-Bannerman s a id t h a t t h e c o u n try had g iv e n
th e L ib e r a l P a r ty , i n 1892, a g r e a t m andate, and t h a t th e
p a r t y had t r i e d to l i v e up to a l l t h a t was ex p e c te d o f them;
b u t th e means g iv e n i t were n o t s u f f i c i e n t to overcome th e
o b s t a c l e s . 110
A lthough th e - L i b e r a ls had been hampered in
e v e ry way, th e y had n o t been d is c o u ra g e d .
Among t h e i r
accom plishm ents were an in c re a s e d navy and a g r e a t scheme o f
n a v a l d e fe n c e ; an in c r e a s e o f army s t r e n g t h and a re fo rm i n
m i l i t a r y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .11*1*
In a n o th e r sp eech i n J u ly , 1895, Campbell-Bannerman
u rged th e L ib e r a ls n o t t o be d is h e a r te n e d .
109 Bigham,
ojd.
They m ust l e a r n
c i t . . 323-324.
110 The Times (London, 1895) J u ly 1 1, I t .
111 I b i d . , J u ly 10, 1895, 8 c .
a l e s s o n from t h i s d e f e a t —nam ely, n o t to a tte m p t a g r e a t e r
program th a n th e y co u ld c a r r y o u t.
H is p a r ty had alw ays
heen n o ted f o r i t s i n t e r e s t in s o c i a l re fo rm and would con­
tin u e to make i t s e l f h e a rd i n P a r l i a m e n t . ^ 2
I t was a L ib e r a l p r i n c i p l e to ad v o cate th e r i g h t o f
s e lf-g o v e rn m e n t, w hich was n o t o n ly th e m ost e f f e c t i v e
governm ent b u t th e s u r e s t way to b rin g f a c t io n s to g e th e r . 113
The L ib e r a ls had had l e s s th a n th r e e y e a r s i n pow er,
.o n ly h a l f th e norm al le n g th o f an a d m i n i s t r a t i o n 's l i f e i n
th o s e d a y s.
The C a b in e t had been h in d e re d th ro u g h o u t by th e
la n k o f a s tr o n g m a jo r ity .
As a b re a k i n a lo n g p e r io d o f
C o n se rv a tiv e r u le v i t had im p o rtan ce f o r th e p a r t y and f o r
th e co u n try a s a w h o le.
112 I b i d . , J u ly 19, 1895, 6 d ,e .
I b i d . , December 13, 1895, 6b.
E n so r, o p . c i t . , £09.
CAREER IN THE HOUSE OF COMMONS 1 8 9 5 - 1 9 0 5
A lthough a new U n io n is t c a n d id a te , Mr. S . M 'C ask ie,
opposed h i s e l e c t i o n in J u ly , 1895, Cam pbell-Bannerman won
by an in c re a s e d m a j o r i ty .
H is p a r t y , how ever, s u f f e r e d de­
f e a t , t h e r e b e in g a m a jo r ity o f 133 a g a in s t i t . 1
No s ig n s o f d e p re s s io n were a p p a re n t on t h e p a r t o f
th e L i b e r a ls , S i r H enry s t a t e d .
The m a jo r ity a g a in s t them
re p r e s e n te d no more th a n a sm a ll b a la n c e o f th e v o t e r s .
o
The h i s t o r y o f th e p a r ty f o r th e n e x t f i v e y e a rs i s u n iq u e ,
a s i t s u f f e r e d what seemed com plete d i s r u p t io n and th e n
a c h ie v e d a re m a rk ab le e l e c t o r a l v i c t o r y . s
R e tu rn in g from M arienbad, Cam pbell-Bannerm an found a
d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n . —Some among th e le a d e r s o f th e p a r ty
w ere' n o t on sp e a k in g te rm s .
C onfusion c o u ld h a r d ly be con­
c e a le d , th o u g h e f f o r t s w ere made t o p a tc h up th e q u a r r e l s .
When th e Armenian q u e s tio n came t o th e f r o n t in t h e autumn
o f 1896, Mr. G lad sto n e gave a speech a d v is in g B r i t a i n t o be
1 J . A. S p en d er, The L if e o f th e R ig h t H onorable S i r
H enry Campbell -Bannerm an, I , 182.
2
tiro es (London, 1896) March 6 , 5 f .
5
E a r l o f Oxford and K. G. A s q u ith , Memories and
R e f l e c t i o n s , I , 175.
“
61
f ir m a g a in s t th e T u rk ish S u lta n .
S h o r tly a f te r w a r d s , Lord
R osebery r e s ig n e d h i s p o s i t i o n a s p a r ty l e a d e r , e x p la in in g
t h a t h i s c o lle a g u e s i n th e House o f Commons d id n o t a g re e
w ith him on m a tte r s o f p o lic y , a s proved by G la d s to n e 's a d ­
vocacy o f a fir m s ta n d a g a in s t Abdul Hamid.
He c o u ld n o t
work w ith S i r W illia m H a re o u rt in p a r t i c u l a r .
H is r e s i g n a ­
t i o n d id n o t s to p th e q u a r r e ls betw een h i s sy m p a th iz e rs and
th o s e o f S i r W illia m .
Lord K im berley was named le a d e r in th e
House o f L o rd s, S i r W illia m c o n tin u in g i n th e Commons.
A lthough h i s sym pathy was l a r g e l y w ith Lord R o seb ery ,
Cam pbell-Bannerm an saw f a u l t s on b o th s id e s and r e g r e t t e d
R o s e b e ry 's a c t i o n . 4
On d o m e stic , i f n o t on f o r e ig n q u e s tio n s , th e L ib e r a ls
a g re e d .
B y - e le c tio n s in 1897 and 1898 b ro u g h t them some
v ic to rie s .
They managed t o k i l l th e Government E d u c a tio n
B i l l , and th e y fo u g h t a g a in s t th e A g r i c u lt u r a l R a tin g B ill.* *
1
Of t h e l a t t e r Cam pbell-Bannerm an s a id n o t th e te n a n t b u t th e
la n d lo r d would g e t th e r e l i e f .
"The la n d lo r d would sw allow
th e o y s t e r , and th e te n a n ts and th e la b o u r e r would each r e ­
c e iv e a v e r y b e a u t i f u l s h e l l . "
4
ft
Some a g r i c u l t u r a l com m unities
S p en d er, o p . c i t . » I , 103-185.
5 I b i d . . I , 185.
ft
The Times (London, 1896) June 8 , 1 4 a.
62
would r e c e iv e r e l i e f w ith o u t re g a rd t o th e n a t u r e .o f th e
a g r i c u l t u r e o f th e p a r t i c u l a r l o c a l i t y , and i t would he a t
th e expense o f t h e r a te p a y e r s , who needed r e l i e f th e m s e lv e s .7
The o n ly a s p e c t b e in g s t r e s s e d was t h a t o f p e c u n ia ry b e n e f i t
t o th e la n d lo rd .®
On th e q u e s tio n o f f o r e ig n p o lic y t h e r e was no harmony.
The p a r ty was b e in g d iv id e d , w ith R osebery and h i s fo llo w e r s
c lin g in g to s o - c a l l e d Im p e ria lis m .
Numerous f o r e ig n problem s
gave r i s e t o f u r t h e r d is a g re e m e n t.
A c r i s i s in th e F ar F a s t
was cau sed by th e R u ssia n s e iz u r e o f P o r t A rth u r and t h e
German s e iz u r e o f Kiao-Chow.
In Egypt th e Soudan campaign
and th e Fashoda c r i s i s le d th e R osebery f a c t i o n t o come o u t
i n s u p p o rt o f t h e Governm ent.
W ith t h i s o p in io n C am pbell-
Bannerman c o n c u rre d , b u t he c o n tin u e d t o s ta n d on m id d le
ground and t r y t o b r in g th e r i v a l f a c t i o n s t o g e t h e r . 9
T here was a l s o a tro u b leso m e problem i n S o u th A f r ic a .
The B oers t h e r e r e s e n te d th e advance o f C e c il Rhodes and
h i s t r a d i n g company an d , even m ore, th e in v a s io n o f th e Rand
by E u ro p ean s.
They w ere t r y i n g t o d is c o u ra g e th e O u tla n d e rs ,
by heavy t a x a t i o n and e n fo rc e d m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e , from ex ­
p l o i t i n g th e g o ld f i e l d s .
The B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s , who were i n
7 I b i d • . December 16, 1697, 6 f .
Q
I
•
C o rn e liu s Buck, e d i t o r , H an sa rd ’ s P a rlia m e n ta ry
D eb ates (F o u rth S e r i e s ) , LTVT, 101.
9 Spender, op . c i t . ,
I,
1 8 5 -1 8 6 .
63
t h e m a jo r ity , n a t u r a l l y tu rn e d t o t h e i r governm ent f o r
s u p p o r t.
A p p ro x im ately f i v e hundred th o u sa n d B oers were t o he
found in S o u th A f r ic a in th e l a s t decade o f t h e n in e te e n th
c e n tu r y ; ab o u t h a l f l iv e d u n d e r th e B r i t i s h f l a g , c h i e f l y in
Gape C olony, o th e r s i n th e Orange F re e S t a t e and th e
T ran sv aal*
The O u tla n d e r s , in c lu d in g ab o u t f i f t y th o u san d
E uropeans and a s many K a f f ir s and A s i a t i c s im p o rted f o r la b o r ,
l i v e d aro u n d Johannesburg*
S in c e th e m ines were owned l a r g e l y
by E n g lis h i n v e s t o r s , B r i t i s h banks re c e iv e d m ost o f th e
p ro fits *
The B oers f e l t m enaced.
They r e f u s e d s u f f r a g e t o
E u ro p ean s, f e a r i n g t h a t a s t h e O u tla n d e rs became more num er~ous, th e y co u ld o u tv o te th e B oers and i n v i t e a n n e x a tio n t o
th e B r i t i s h crown*
I n r e t a l i a t i o n th e O u tla n d e rs o rg a n iz e d
t h e T ra n sv a a l N a tio n a l U nion f o r th e p urpose o f in tr o d u c in g
E n g lis h id e a s and governm ent i n t o th e T ran sv aal*
As y e t th e y
had n o t d e c id e d w h eth e r th e y d e s ir e d a n n e x a tio n o r m erely
c o n s t i t u t i o n a l reform *
Rhodes was i n t e r e s t e d o n ly in th e
f i r s t a lte rn a tiv e .
The p la n f i n a l l y ad o p ted was t h a t Rhodes sh o u ld keep
a f o r c e o f f i f t e e n hundred men a t M afeking n e a r th e T ra n sv a a l
b o rd e r f o r th e m oral e f f e c t ;
10
Upon r e q u e s t D r. Jameson would
L aurence M. L arso n , H is to r y o f England and th e
B r i t i s h Commonwealth, 706-707.
b rin g th e tro o p s to Jo h an n e sb u rg .
When t h i s r e q u e s t was n o t
fo rth c o m in g , Jam eson grew im p a tie n t and c ro s s e d th e b o rd e r
w ith a few hundred men.
The B oers g a th e r e d , su rro u n d ed th e
fo rc e b e f o re i t c o u ld re a c h Jo h an n esb u rg , and d e fe a te d th e
O u tla n d e rs .
B i t t e r n e s s in c re a se d *
C e c il Rhodes was f o rc e d
t o r e s ig n a s Prim e M in is te r o f Cape C olony.
The alarm ed
B oers i n th e Orange F re e S t a t e sought an a l l i a n c e w ith th o s e
i n th e T ra n s v a a l.
M i l i t a r y p r e p a r a tio n s w ent on r a p i d l y .
By 1899 th e S o u th A fric a n R ep u b lic co u ld b o a s t o f a f i n e
modern arm y, whose ev e ry s o l d i e r was "a t r a i n e d horsem an, an
a c c u r a te marksman, and a f a n a t i c a l enemy o f th e B r i t i s h . ”
The i n e v i t a b l e w a rfa re was p r e c i p i t a t e d when P r e s id e n t
K ruger s e n t an u ltim atu m t o th e B r i t i s h governm ent, demanding
w ith d ra w a l o f tr o o p s from th e T ra n sv a a l f r o n t i e r . ^
When th e S o u th A fric a n tr o u b le s f i r s t became a p o l i ­
t i c a l problem , i n 1897, Cam pbell-Bannerm an was made a member
o f th e S outh A fric a n C om m ittee, form ed to in q u ir e ab o u t th e
c irc u m s ta n c e s o f D r. Jam eson’ s r a i d .
W ith th e new im p o rtan ce
o f t h i s q u e s tio n h i s p o s i t i o n became more p ro m in e n t. I 2
S i r W illiam H a rc o u rt re s ig n e d h i s p a r ty le a d e r s h ip
i n th e House o f Commons l a t e i n 1898.
S i r Henry C am pbell-
Bannerman was th e s e n io r member o f th e s m a ll group l e f t
11 I b i d . , 707-709.
12 C liv e Bigham, The Prim e M in is te r s o f B r i t a i n 17211921, 324.
from th e p re v io u s C a b in e t, and c o u r te s y d i c t a t e d t h a t he be
o f f e r e d th e p o s i t i o n .
would a c c e p t.
H is c o lle a g u e s w ere n o t s u re t h a t he
He had n o t , how ever, th e s l i g h t e s t i n t e n t i o n
o f d e c lin in g i n fa v o r o f h is j u n i o r (Mr. A s q u ith ) .
" I am
enough son o f my f a t h e r , ,f he w ro te t o a n o ld f r i e n d , " to
have enough o f th e S h o r te r C atechism s t i l l s t i c k i n g ab o u t
my i n s id e t o do my b e s t when a th in g comes s t r a i g h t t o m e.” IS
He would n o t av o id a h ard t a s k , even though i t m eant le a d in g
a p a r ty t h a t was n o t only i n th e m in o r ity b u t was a ls o
d iv id in g i n t o f a c t i o n s .
The I r i s h N a t i o n a l i s t s had b ro k en
away from th e L i b e r a ls and were in t h e i r o ld p la c e a s an
in d ep en d en t group o v e r whose s u p p o rt th e o th e r p a r t i e s would
b a t t l e . 14 Cam pbell-Bannerm an was n o t e x a c tly a f a v o r i t e w ith
a l l o f h i s p a r ty when he became i t s l e a d e r .
th e l e a s t e lo q u e n t o f a l l House l e a d e r s .
w o rth , th o u g h , and had e a rn e d a G.C.B. 15
He was p erh ap s
He had proved h i s
P o s s ib ly he was th e
b e s t man t o keep th e p a r ty to g e th e r and h e a l th e wounds t h a t
had been m ade.*^
H is to le r a n c e and good d i s p o s i ti o n would
13
J . A. S p en d er, G re at B r i t a i n , B a p ire and Common­
w e a lth 1886-1935, 153.
^ S id n ey B ro o k s, "C am pbell-B annerm an,” H a r p e r ^
W eekly, 4 8 :1 4 , J a n u a ry , 1904.
15 R. C. K. E n so r, E ngland 1870-1914, 384.
107.
E lie H alev y , A H is to ry o f th e E n g lis h P e o p le , I ,
~
66
make him a l e a d e r who w ould n o t d i c t a t e b u t would c o - o p e ra te
and e x p e c t th e same from th o s e who had chosen him t o do t h e i r
w ork. 1 *7'
Cam pbell-Bannerm an r e p l i e d t o th o s e who c o n g r a tu la te d
him t h a t he a p p r e c ia te d th e good f e e l i n g shown t o him and
t h a t t h i s f r ie n d s h ip was a l l th e more v a lu a b le s in c e a l l w ere
n o t o f th e same p o l i t i c a l f a i t h .
He prom ised t o do h i s b e s t
to l i v e up t o t h e i r good o p in io n .
The f i r s t im p o rta n t s u b je c t w ith w hich th e new le a d e r
had t o d e a l was Mr. C h am b erlain ’ s S o u th A fric a n p o l ic y ,
w hich had r e s u l t e d i n w ar.
B efo re h o s t i l i t i e s b eg an , S i r
Henry had d e c la r e d t h a t n o th in g t h a t had o c c u rre d j u s t i f i e d
m ilita r y p re p a ra tio n s .
When w ar d id b re a k o u t, he o f f e r e d
a t once t o f a c i l i t a t e th e g r a n t o f s u p p lie s f o r i t s p ro s e c u ­
tio n .
N e v e r th e le s s , he was outsp o k en i n h i s c r i t i c i s m o f a
governm ent t h a t was d o ing e v e ry th in g t o h u r t th e c h a n c e s o f
a p e a c e fu l s o lu tio n .
W hile u rg in g th e n a tio n n o t t o be d i s ­
couraged a t th e e a r l y r e v e r s e s , he s t i l l i n s i s t e d t h a t
C ham berlain was r e s p o n s ib le f o r th e w ar.
He was a d v is e d t o
ta k e ad v an tag e o f t h e Governm ent’s d is c o m fitu re t o v o ic e th e
p u b lic d is a p p ro v a l o f th e incom petence o f th e arm y.
He
17
J . A. S p en d er, The L if e o f th e R ig h t H onorable S i r
H enry Cam pbell-B annerm an» I , 2 £ s , ~
^
Times (London, 1899) April 12, lOf.
-
67
r e f u s e d t o do t h i s .
He b e lie v e d t h a t th e e a r l y d i s a s t e r s
were th e d i r e c t r e s u l t o f h i s c o u n try ’ s b l u f f i n g diplom acy.
The sm a ll f o r c e s t h a t had been s e n t o u t were n o t ad eq u ate
to c a r r y on a w ar, b u t th e y were enough to aro u se th e s u s p ic io n s o f th e B o ers. 19
The o u tb re a k o f th e w ar had i t s e f f e c t upon f o r e ig n
a f f a i r s and a ls o caused th e g r e a t e s t ^confusion i n B r i t i s h
p o litic s .
The new d i f f e r e n c e s se rv e d to d iv id e th e L ib e r a l
p a r t y i n t o t h r e e s e c ti o n s ; one in c lu d e d th e L ib e r a l Im p e r ia l­
i s t s who b e lie v e d th e war to be " in e v ita b le * 1 and 11j u s t , 11
and c o n s e q u e n tly s u p p o rte d th e governm ent; a t th e o th e r
extrem e were th e p ro -B o e rs; and i n betw een was a c e n te r
p a r t y , c o n s i s t i n g o f th o s e who b e lie v e d t h a t war m ig h t have
been avoided b u t now were w i l l i n g to g iv e s u p p o rt to th e
governm ent i n i t s p r o s e c u tio n ,
Cam pbell-Bannerm an t r i e d t o
be n e u t r a l and a c t a s a b a la n c e w heel.
He a g re e d w ith th e
I m p e r i a l i s t f a c t i o n t h a t th e u ltim a tu m had b ro u g h t on th e
w ar and w ith th e p ro -B o e rs t h a t C ham berlain’ s d i s c r e d i t a b l e
p o lic y had c o n tr ib u te d to th e in e v i t a b l e r e s u l t . 20 P ro b a b ly
h i s o p in io n s even th e n were le a n in g tow ard th e p ro -B o e r
s i d e . A H is id e a a s to w hat sh o u ld be done on th e c o n c lu sio n
^ S i r S id n ey L ee, e d i t o r , D ic tio n a r y o f N a tio n a l
B io g rap h y , I , 306.
20 J . A. S pender and C y ril A sq u ith , L ife o f H e rb e rt
Henry A s q u ith , Lord Oxford and A s q u ith , I , 3 l5 .
21
A. S p en d er, A S h o rt H is to ry o f Our T im es, 40.
o f th e w ar was one i n w hich a l l c o n c u rre d .
Throughout th e
c o n tro v e rs y , e s p e c i a l l y a s B r i t a i n 1s s i t u a t i o n i n S o u th A f r ic a
im proved, he b e lie v e d t h a t h e r d u ty was t o r e s t o r e s e l f governm ent t o th e conquered s t a t e s a s q u ic k ly a s p o s s i b l e .
In an im p o rta n t sp eech g iv e n a t Glasgow, June 7 , 1900,
S i r H enry spoke o f th e aim tow ard " c o n c i l i a t i o n and harm oni­
ous c o - o p e r a tio n o f th e two E uropean r a c e s i n S outh A f r ic a "
and th e n e c e s s i ty f o r s t e e r i n g away from r e c r i m in a ti o n s , such
a s f a i l u r e to g iv e th e f r a n c h is e to. th e B o e rs.
l e s s th in k in g o f th e f u t u r e .
He was d o u b t­
The p r i n c i p l e s he e x p re s s e d
h e re a c t u a l l y l a i d th e fo u n d a tio n f o r th e f i n a l r e c o n c i l i a ­
t i o n w hich d id n o t come u n t i l s i x y e a rs l a t e r , when he was
Prim e M i n i s t e r .22
From th e b e g in n in g Cam pbell-Bannerm an was co n v in ced
t h a t a w ar i n S o u th A fr ic a co u ld r e s u l t i n n o th in g e l s e th a n
th e a b s o r p tio n by th e B r i t i s h o f B oer t e r r i t o r y , in c lu d in g
th e g o ld f i e l d s .
Lloyd George and o th e r s ta te sm e n ag reed
w ith him t h a t n e g o t i a t i o n s sh o u ld be made a s q u ic k ly a s p o s ­
s i b l e and t h a t th e c i t i z e n s o f th e T ra n sv a a l and th e Orange
F re e S t a t e sh o u ld be g ra n te d f u l l p o l i t i c a l and c i v i l r i g h t s
u n d er th e new form o f g o v ern m e n t.2®
22 J . A. S p en d er, The L if e o f th e R ight H onorable S i r
Henry C am pbell-B annerm an. I , 281-284. ~
~
2*5
H a le v y , op . o i t . , I ,
1 0 9-110.
69
The L ib e r a l p o lic y was com m itted t o two m ain o b je c t s ;
f i r s t , t o t e l l th e p eo p le o f th e b e l l i g e r e n t s t a t e s d e f i ­
n i t e l y t h a t E n g la n d ’s p u rp o se was c o n c i l i a t i o n and freedom ,
n o t c o n q u e st; sec o n d , t h a t th e term s sh o u ld r e - e s t a b l i s h i n
t h e i r homes a l l th o s e who had been d is p o s s e s s e d and sh o u ld
e s t a b l i s h o r d e r and s e lf-g o v e rn m e n t.
The p ro p e r a t t i t u d e
o f t h e B r i t i s h p eo p le would d e te rm in e th e f u t u r e o f S outh
A f r ic a .
H onourable peace te rm s , u rg ed Cam pbell-Bannerm an,
would h a s te n th e end o f th e w ar, a b a te s u s p ic io n s , and win
th e a p p ro b a tio n o f o th e r n a t i o n s . 24
In December, 1900, S i r H enry to o k a d e f i n i t e s ta n d
a g a in s t th e u n c o n d itio n a l s u r r e n d e r a t t i t u d e w hich was p a r t
o f t h e U n io n is t p o l i c y .
He b e lie v e d t h a t th e Government
sh o u ld is s u e a p ro c la m a tio n , a s k in g c o - o p e r a tio n and p ro m is­
in g , a t a l a t e r d a t e , t h e i r f u l l r i g h t s in th e g o v e rn in g
of th e ir s ta te s .
Such an a t t i t u d e would g iv e th o s e who
were f i g h t i n g a lo s in g b a t t l e new hope f o r th e f u t u r e . 2^
The whole s i t u a t i o n was f a r w orse th a n C am pbellBannerman had ex p e c te d when he became t h e p a r ty l e a d e r .
At
t h a t tim e L ib e r a l o p in io n s seemed t o be g a in in g a new f o o t ­
h o ld , b u t now t h e p a r ty was more th a n e v e r t o r n by d is s e n ­
s io n .
S e re n e ly he w ent a b o u t h is d i f f i c u l t t a s k s , h i s
T*19 ^iniQS (London, 1901) March 4 , 15b.
25 J .A .S p en d er, The L ife o f th e R ig h t H onorable S i r
Henry Campb e ll-B a n n e rm a n , I , 510.
70
b e l i e f i n th e u l tim a te triu m p h o f L ib e ra lis m u n s h a k e n .26
O th ers were n o t so im p e rtu rb a b le .
A n o th er m eetin g o f t h e
L ib e r a l p a r ty a t th e Reform Club b ro u g h t f o r t h a d e c la r a ­
t i o n t h a t i f th in g s d id n o t im prove, a new l e a d e r would
have t o be fo u n d .27
The e l e c t i o n o f 1900 r e tu r n e d Lord S a l i s b u r y ’ s
Government to pow er.
an i s s u e .
I t won many v o te s by making th e war
S in ce th e w ar was n e a r ly o v e r, th e same p a r ty
sh o u ld be r e s p o n s ib le f o r th e s e t tl e m e n t .
E very v o te c a s t
a g a in s t th e p a r ty i n pow er, w ent th e campaign s lo g a n s , was
a v o te f o r th e B o e rs. 28 Y et th e war dragged on f o r a n o th e r
tw en ty m o n th s.
OQ
S i r H enry’ s own m a jo r ity was red u ced t o
630.
The L ib e r a l l e a d e r ’s p o s i t i o n was becoming more d i f ­
fic u lt.
He r e f u s e d t o r e s i g n , a s h i s two p re d e c e s s o r s had
done, and
make a la u g h in g s to c k o f th e L i b e r a l s .
By t h i s
tim e he was f i g h t i n g n o t o n ly f o r h i s own c a r e e r b u t t o
a v o id L ib e r a l d i s r u p t i o n .
The L ib e r a l p r e s s was c a ll i n g f o r p a r ty harmony,
26 I b i d . , I , 260.
27 H enry W. Lucy, " S ix ty T e a rs i n th e W ild e rn e s s ,"
The L iv in g A ge, 2 4 0 :4 8 7 , February, 1909.
28 J . A. S p en d er, The L if e o f th e R ig h t H onorable S i r
Henry Cam pbell-B annerm an, I , 291.
Lee, op. c i t . ,
I,
306.
71
©specially for co-operation between Rosebery and Campbell-
Bannerman.
The l a t t e r r e f u s e d t o chance a r e b u f f from
R osebery, b u t d id , in a speech a t Dundee, le a v e th e door open
f o r Lord R o se b e ry ’s re tu r n .® 0
R osebery e v id e n tly p r e f e r r e d
an a t t i t u d e o f d e ta c h m e n t.
S i r Henry would n o t g iv e up
**1
h i s own p r i n c i p l e s even f o r peace i n th e p a r t y . **
He was
co n v in ced t h a t th e m a jo r ity o f th e L ib e r a ls was b eh in d him.®^
When P a rlia m e n t met on F e b ru a ry 14, 1901, i t plunged
a t once i n t o th e o ld q u e s tio n o f S outh A fric a *
C am pbell-
Bannerman p ro m p tly came t o th e p o i n t , c r i t i c i s i n g th e"G o v ern ­
ment f o r i t s m ethod o f re in f o rc e m e n t, p le a d in g f o r a d e c la r a ­
t i o n t h a t w ould in d u ce th e B oers t o la y down t h e i r arms
w ith o u t to o much hum iliation*® ®
The m ethods o f w a rfa re were a s v e x a tio u s a s th e p o l i ­
t i c a l problem s t h e w ar was b re e d in g .
The g u e r i l l a f i g h t i n g
o f th e B oers was b a f f l i n g to t h e i r enem ies*
c h a rg e s o f in h u m an ity on b o th s i d e s .
There were
The B r i t i s h p a id back
t h e i r s c o re by su ch r e p r i s a l s a s th e .b u r n in g o f fa rm s.
Cam pbell-Bannerm an t r i e d t o p o in t o u t th e d i f f e r e n c e betw een
m i l i t a r y and p u r e ly p u n itiv e m easures and i n s i s t e d t h a t th e
®° J . A* S p en d er, The L if e o f th e R ig h t H onorable S i r
Henry Campbell -B annerm an, I , 300-305.
L ee, o p . c i t * , I , 306.
*20
J . A. S p en d er, The L ife o f th e R ight H onorable S i r
Henry C am pbell-B annerm an, I , 299.
33 I b i d . ,
I,
320.
72
soldiers could not be blamed for what happened.
A
The b re a c h i n th e O p p o sitio n p a r ty was w idened by th e
c o n tr o v e rs y a b o u t th e s e m eth o d s.
The p ro -B o e r s a id t h a t th e
devastation wrought by the British was another wrong added
t o th e o r i g i n a l .
The I m p e r i a l i s t th o u g h t th e r e p r i s a l
method n e c e s s a ry b ecau se o f t h e o b s tin a c y o f th e B o e rs.
S ir
H enry, i n th e m id d le , r e c e iv e d th e u s u a l tr e a tm e n t o f th e
b u f f e r . 35 The B oer War was m aking him w hat he had n e v e r
been b e f o r e , a c t u a l l y u n p o p u la r.
C am pbell-Bannerm an, l i k e o t h e r s , was much moved by
th e s t o r i e s coming o u t from S outh A f r ic a .
He denounced th e
h a rs h m easures u sed a g a in s t th e B o e rs—b u rn in g s , w reck in g o f
p r o p e r ty , d e v a s ta tio n o f c r o p s , d e s t r u c ti o n o f m ach in ery
and m i l l s , and th e d e p o r ta tio n o f women and c h i l d r e n .
In
c o n c e n tr a tio n camps, where th e women and c h ild r e n w ere h e ld ,
bad c o n d itio n s w ere r e s p o n s ib le f o r a h ig h d e a th r a t e .
Hews was c a r r y in g on a s e n s a ti o n a l cam paign
on th e s u b j e c t o f t h e c o n c e n tr a tio n camps.
S i r Henry was
p e rh a p s in f lu e n c e d by t h i s when, a t a d in n e r o f th e N a tio n a l
Reform U nion, he s t a t e d t h a t th e w ar was b e in g c a r r i e d on
34 I b i d . . X, 322.
35 I b i d * . I . 324-325.
E. T» Raymond, P o r t r a i t s o f a Hew C e n tu ry . 23.
The Times (London, 1901) J u ly 3 , 10b.
73
by "m ethods o f b a r b a r is m ." 38
and b la z e d i n la r g e h e a d lin e s .
The p h ra se s p re a d l i k e w i l d f i r e
P eo p le b randed him a s a p ro -
Boer t r a i t o r who had i n s u l te d th e B r i t i s h A rm y.39
The n e x t th r e e weeks were c r i t i c a l ones i n h i s p o l i ­
tic a l c a re e r.
He r e f u s e d t o back down o r e x p la in .
he had m eant no i n s u l t t o th e Army.
C e r ta in ly
As an e x - S e c r e ta r y f o r
War, he had alw ays had th e g r e a t e s t i n t e r e s t and r e s p e c t f o r
th e army c o rp s and o f f i c e r s .
I t was th e system t o w hich he
o b je c te d , th e p o lic y o f d e s tr o y in g homes and p u t t in g women
and c h ild r e n i n c o n c e n tr a tio n camps,
F i n a l l y , a g a in s t a d v ic e ,
he c a l l e d a m eetin g o f th e L ib e r a l Members o f P a rlia m e n t to
a s k them s q u a r e ly w h eth e r o r n o t th e y w ished him t o c o n tin u e
as t h e i r le a d e r.
They w ere u n w illin g t o w reck th e p a r ty by
s u p p la n tin g him .
A v o te o f c o n fid e n c e was g iv e n , though th e
o th e r s demanded l i b e r t y t o e x p re s s t h e i r own o p in io n s w ith in
th e p a r t y .
The a c t i o n p re v e n te d a s e r io u s q u a r r e l and proved
an a n ti- c lim a x f o r th o se who ex p e c te d som ething s e n s a tio n .4 0
•
*.
a l.
The s tu b b o rn n e ss th e l e a d e r showed a t t h i s tim e
a c t u a l l y a id e d him i n th e lo n g ru n .
H is i n s i s t e n c e upon th e
b a r b a r i t y o f th e system was p a r t l y r e s p o n s ib le f o r th e re fo rm
38
39
40
S i r Henry
H alev y , o p . c i t . , I , 108.
J . A. S p ender, A S h o rt H is to r y o f Our T im es, 4 9 -5 0 .
J • A. S p e n d e r, The L ife o f th e R ig h t H onorable
Cam pbell-B annerm an, I , 337-346.
o f some o f th o s e abuses*
At any r a t e , h i s r e p u t a ti o n f o r
h o n e sty and s i n c e r i t y grew , and he was c o n s id e re d one man
re a lly q u a lifie d
t o p la y a p a r t i n th e r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f
B r i t i s h and D u tc h .4^"M ethods o f b a rb a rism " was a p h ra se he co u ld n o t l i v e
down.
In l a t e r y e a rs G en eral B otha s a id t h a t th o s e w ords,
and th e f a c t t h a t an im p o rta n t p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r had had th e
co u rag e t o u se them , had to u c h e d th e h e a r t s o f th e B o e rs,
who w ere f i g h t i n g a l o s t c a u s e .42
S i r Henry made up h i s
mind t o say e x a c tly w hat he th o u g h t and g iv e up th e id e a
o f m e d ia tio n .
T h is b ro u g h t on p o l i t i c a l a n im o s ity on th e
p a r t o f Lord R o seb ery , A s q u ith , S i r Edward G rey, and S i r
Henry F o w ler, who form ed a L ib e r a l League e v id e n tly f o r th e
p u rp o se o f c h a lle n g in g h i s l e a d e r s h i p .43
A s e p a r a te o r g a n i­
z a ti o n w ith in th e p a r ty was a g a i n s t Cam pbell-Bannerm an’ s
44
id e a s ; he was th o ro u g h ly a n g ry and p re p a re d t o f i g h t .
The S outh A fr ic a n War came t o a c lo s e on May 31, 1902
The T re a ty o f V e re e n ig in g p ro v id e d f o r th e s u r r e n d e r o f a l l
b u rg h e rs w ith t h e i r arms and m u n itio n s and t h e r e p a t r i a t i o n
o f a l l who d e c la r e d th e m se lv e s s u b je c ts o f King Edward V I I .
41
I . A. S p en d er, A S h o rt H is to ry o f Our T im es, 50-51
4.P
I . A. S p en d er, The L ife o f th e R ig h t H onorable
S i r H enry Cam pbell-B annerm an, I , 3 5 l.
~
\
43
• I I ', 8 6 -3 3 .
44 I jb id ., I I , 3 4 -3 6 .
I t s t a t e d t h a t no a c tio n would be ta k e n a g a in s t th e b u rg h e rs
e x c e p t i n a few s p e c if ie d c a s e s ; t h a t E n g lis h would be th e
o f f i c i a l la n g u a g e , though D utch could be ta u g h t in th e
sc h o o ls and allo w ed in th e c o u r ts ; t h a t h u n tin g r i f l e s would
be allo w ed on l i c e n s e ; t h a t no s p e c ia l p r o p e r ty ta x would be
imposed t o d e f r a y c o s ts o f w ar.
M il it a r y a d m in is tr a tio n
sh o u ld g iv e way t o c i v i l as soon as p o s s i b l e , and th e l a t t e r
sh o u ld le a d up ,to s e lf-g o v e rn m e n t.
The B r i t i s h were to
g r a n t 5 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 pounds f o r th e r e b u ild in g and r e s to c k in g o f
fa rm s. 45
T h is was u n u su a l; th e r e a re few in s ta n c e s re c o rd e d
where th e v i c t o r s have done so much t o h e lp th e v an q u ish ed
r i s e . 46
The t r e a t y had i t s good e f f e c t on p o l i t i c s by b rin g ­
in g Campbell-Bannerm an in c l o s e r a s s o c i a ti o n w ith A sq u ith
and o t h e r s .
He had won s u p p o rt by h i s courage and c h a r a c te r ,
and h i s s u c c e s s io n as Brime M in is te r seemed a s s u re d .
47
W hile th e S outh A fr ic a n q u e s tio n had been fo rem o st
f o r a number o f y e a r s , t h e r e were v a rio u s d o m estic problem s
to d e a l w ith .
In 1899 th e C l e r i c a l T ith e s B i l l was i n t r o ­
duced f o r th e p u rp o se o f r e l i e v i n g th e c le r g y a t a c o s t to
45 E n so r, op. c i t . , 547-348.
46 T
L a rso n ,
0£.
c i t . , 71£.
47 I . A. s p e n d e r, G re at B r i t a i n , Empire and Commonw e a lth . 1886-1955, 1 8 8 -19£.
76
th e ta x p a y e rs o f 8 7 ,0 0 0 pounds p e r annum.
n a t u r a l l y , u n p o p u la r.
The m easure w as,
C am pbell-B annerm an-took th e s ta n d
t h a t th e B i l l was b o th in a d e q u a te and i n a p p r o p r i a t e .48
In th e same y e a r th e tem perance q u e s tio n came up
a g a in .
No L ib e r a l le a d e r co u ld p le a s e th e p e o p le on t h i s
p o in t.
Many o f h i s M an ch ester l i s t e n e r s were up i n arm s a t
S i r H en ry ’ s v e ry c a u tio u s encouragem ent o f th e r e f o r m .49
He f r a n k ly t o l d th e w orking c l a s s e s t h a t th e S t a t e co u ld
do l i t t l e f o r them u n le s s th e y t r i e d t o h e lp th e m s e lv e s .
They w aste d $ 1 5 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 a week on d r in k and g a m b lin g .5^
A gain th e S c o t t i s h church q u e s tio n came u p .
r e l i g i o u s body was form ed t h e r e a f t e r th e b a t t l e s .
A new
The S ta te
Church i n S c o tla n d was P r e s b y te r ia n , b u t t h e r e w ere s e v e r a l
P r e s b y te r ia n b o d ie s o u ts id e i t .
The F ree Church was in d e ­
p en d en t u n t i l i t u n i t e d , i n 1900, w ith t h e U n ite d P r e s b y t e r ­
ia n C hurch.
S e v e ra l s m a ll, i s o l a t e d c o n g re g a tio n s r e fu s e d
t o e n t e r th e u n io n a t a l l .
The Home R ule q u e s tio n was n o t e n t i r e l y d ead .
Cam pbell-Bannerm an s t i l l fa v o re d i t , though n o t w ith h i s
48 J . A. S p en d er, The L ife o f th e R ig h t H onorable
S i r Henry Cam pbell-B annerm an. I , 265.
49 I b i a . , . I , 2 6 3 .'
50
" W o r ld - P o litic s , M N o rth A m erican R eview , 1 8 7:132,
: J a n u a ry , 1908;.*
51
L arson, op . c i t . ,
742.
77
e a r l i e r u n q u a lif ie d a p p r o v a l.
He f e l t t h a t o t h e r m a tte r s
were more im p o rta n t a t th e tim e ; n e v e r t h e l e s s , th e L ib e r a ls
would "rem ain t r u e t o th e I r i s h p eo p le a s lo n g a s th e I r i s h
rem ain t r u e t o th e m s e lv e s .n5^
He p r o t e s t e d t h a t Home R ule
was n o t a f a n t a s t i c scheme ad o p ted o n ly t o w in th e I r i s h
v o t e . 55
The House and Town P la n n in g A ct was t o g iv e l o c a l
a u t h o r i t i e s th e r i g h t t o remove o ld and u n s a n ita r y b u ild in g s ,
r e p la c in g them w ith modern s t r u c t u r e s .
The h o u sin g p r o v is io n
in c lu d e d was f o r th e p u rp o se o f p ro v id in g b e t t e r l i v i n g
c o n d itio n s f o r t h e w orking c l a s s e s . 54
H ousing c o n d itio n s
w ere bad b o th i n E ngland and in S c o tla n d , t h e r e b e in g a la c k
o f h o u se s.
B e t t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s would a ls o h e lp
b e t t e r th e s i t u a t i o n .
There was alw ays d i f f i c u l t y i n o b ta in ­
in g la n d on w hich t o b u ild in th e l a r g e r c i t i e s , a s many
owners r e s e rv e d t h e i r p r o p e r ty f o r th e h ig h e r v a lu e w hich
would fo llo w i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n o f th e community.
C am pbell-
Bannerman arg u ed t h a t i t was. n o t p ro p e r t o a llo w zones t o be
e s t a b l i s h e d around g r e a t i n d u s t r i a l c e n t e r s , so t h a t owners
co u ld p r e v e n t, th e b u ild in g o f h o u s e s .
52 L ee,
0£ .
The m u n i c i p a l i t i e s
o i t . , I , 305.
53
J . A. S p en d er, The L if e o f th e R ig h t H onorable
S i r Henry C am pbell-B annem an» I I , 2 8.
54
L a r s o n , oj>. c i t . ,
757.
78
sh o u ld he g iv e n g r e a t e r power to a c q u ir e la n d f o r p u b lic
p u rp o s e s such a s t h i s .
One way to remedy th e s i t u a t i o n would
he to t a x on th e v a lu e o f th e la n d , w h eth e r o r n o t i t was
55
o cc u p ie d .
The governm ent would do w e ll to ta k e up th e
h o u sin g q u e s tio n , as i t would he v e ry p o p u la r w ith many
c o n s t i t u e n t s . 56
The c o n s id e r a tio n o f two e d u c a tio n h i l l s b ro u g h t new
c o n tro v e rs y .
In th e C oekerton judgm ent th e c o u r ts had de­
c id e d t h a t School B oards d id n o t have th e a u th o r i ty to
m a in ta in s c ie n c e and a r t sc h o o ls and c l a s s e s .
I t was de­
sig n e d to ta k e away power from th e B o ard s, h u t th e r e s u l t
was t h a t one hundred f i f t y th o u san d s c h o la r s i n th e s e c la s s e s
were th r e a te n e d w ith sto p p ag e o f e d u c a tio n .
A re lig io u s
an g le was a ls o in v o lv e d .
The f i r s t h i l l th e Government in tro d u c e d would s e t
up E d u c a tio n Com mittees o f County C o u n cils t o c a r r y on th e
work th e School B oards w ere n o t q u a l i f i e d to do.
Cam pbell-
Bannerman was alarm ed ab o u t t h i s m easu re, w hich was f i n a l l y
abandoned i n th e fa c e o f o p p o s itio n .
E d u c a tio n B i l l No. 2 was
a tem p o rary m easure w hich would p e rm it th e s c h o o l B oards to
c a r r y on f o r a y e a r , u n d e r th e s t i p u l a t i o n t h a t th e y o b ta in
55 The Times (London, 1902) December 25, 5 e.
56 Buck,
0£ .
c i t . (F o u rth S e r i e s ) , T.xranr,
9 9
.
79
p e rm is s io n from th e County C o u n cil o r o th e r l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s .
I t was an i n t r i c a t e m easu re, f u l l o f t e c h n i c a l i t i e s
t h a t w ere in c o m p re h e n sib le t o m ost p e o p le .
The two c h ie f
p u rp o s e s , e v id e n tly , were t h e s e : f i r s t , t o p u t th e m oulding
o f c h i l d r e n f s m inds and c h a r a c t e r s more th a n e v e r u n d e r
c l e r i c a l c o n t r o l ; and seco n d , t o impose a p u b lic b u rden upon
c e r t a i n c l a s s e s w ith o u t g iv in g them th e r i g h t t o c o n t r o l
th e e x p e n d itu re o f money ta k e n from them .
were a n t i - L i b e r a l . 57
B oth th e s e id e a s
The Church o f E ngland d e se rv e d c r e d i t f o r s e t t i n g up
s c h o o ls , d u rin g p a s t y e a r s , i n n e g le c te d d i s t r i c t s ,
but
t h a t had g iv e n h e r such a monopoly o f e d u c a tio n i n c e r t a i n
p la c e s t h a t c h ild r e n o f o th e r b e l i e f s were now o b lig e d t o
a tte n d th e s e s c h o o ls and subm it to p r o s e l y t i n g . 58
Cam pbell-Bannerm an h a te d th e id e a o f s u b s e rv ie n c e
and b e lie v e d t h a t freedom and independence sh o u ld be f o s ­
te re d in c h ild re n .
Those m ost i n t e r e s t e d i n e d u c a tio n - - th e
c i t i z e n and th e p a r e n t — sh o u ld have th e c o n t r o l l i n g i n f l u ­
ence i n c h a r a c t e r b u i l d i n g . 59
He saw n o th in g i n th e B i l l
t h a t would b r in g im provem ent o f th e sc h o o ls o r b e t t e r
57
Times (London, 1903) Ja n u a ry 3 , l i d .
58 I b i d . . December 1 6, 1897, 6 f .
59
I b id .,
June 1 2 ,
1903,
7 f.
8G
te a c h in g .* 50
The B i l l was fo u g h t i n th e House o f Commons f o r m onths
and f i n a l l y a d o p te d .
A n o th er problem was in re g a rd t o th e Corn Tax.
The
U n io n is t C h a n c e llo r o f th e E xchequer proposed to r e s t o r e th e
Corn Laws and th u s r a i s e enough money t o b a la n c e h i s war
b u d g e t.
T h is he c a ll e d a " r e g i s t r a t i o n ” d u ty and p ro p o sed
t o make i t a perm anent p a r t o f t h e f i s c a l sy stem .
At f i r s t ,
th e p la n seemed in n o c e n t enough; c e r t a i n l y th e money was
n eed ed ,
b u t soon i t began t o a p p e a r a s a P r o t e c t i o n i s t id e a .
I f i t was n o t p r o t e c t i o n , why n o t an e x c is e d u ty on home­
grown c o rn and f l o u r , ask ed o t h e r s .
Cam pbell-Bannerm an*s
L ib e ra lis m was a ro u se d a g a in s t th e p ro p o s a l, w hich had th e
u s u a l e f f e c t s ; b a k e rs p ro m p tly added a h a lfp e n n y t o th e
p r i c e o f each l o a f o f b re a d .
gn
The d u ty p a sse d th e House o f
Commons a m id st g r e a t c o n tr o v e r s y ,02 b u t f o r th e tim e b e in g
o th e r im p o rta n t e v e n ts e c lip s e d i t .
The King became v e ry i l l ; th e C o ro n a tio n was p o s t ­
poned.
Lord S a lis b u r y r e s ig n e d and was su cceed ed by Mr.
B a lf o u r .
V a rio u s changes i n th e C ab in et an d o t h e r h ig h
o f f i c e s , though th e y to o k p la c e w ith no p a r t i c u l a r n o t i c e ,
60
J . A. S p en d er, The L if e o f th e R ig h t H onorable
S i r Henry Cam pbell-B annerm an, " l l , IB .
61 I b i d . , I I , 6 5 -6 6 .
62 I b i d . . I I , 70.
had s i g n i f i c a n c e l a t e r *
The o ld o rd e r was c h a n g in g .
The
b y - e le e t io n s w ere showing a marked r e a c t i o n i n f a v o r o f th e
L i b e r a l s ; a l l s ig n s p o in te d t o a s h o r t a d m i n is tr a t io n f o r
Mr. B a l f o u r .65
S i r H enry was having h is p e r s o n a l t r o u b l e s d u rin g
th e se y e a rs.
The f a i l i n g h e a lt h o f h i s w ife was h i s c h i e f
p reo c cu p a t i o n •
In th e autumn o f 1903 th e C ab in et met t o c o n s id e r i t s
f i s c a l p o lic y .
Mr. C ham berlain made p ro p o s a ls f o r C o lo n ia l
P r o t e c t i o n and T a r i f f Reform t h a t se rv e d t o s p l i t th e U nion­
is ts .
S e v e r a l members, in c lu d in g C h am b erlain , re s ig n e d from
th e C a b in e t.
A lth o u g h B a lfo u r was a b le t o r e c o n s t r u c t h i s
Governm ent, Cam pbell-Bannerm an to o k ad v an tag e o f th e s i t u a ­
t i o n t o p ro c la im th e n e c e s s i ty o f F re e T rade t o E ngland,
a s ta te m e n t s u p p o rte d by a l l th e L ib e r a ls and many C onserva64
tiv e s .
He h e ld t h a t p r o t e c t i o n i s bad economy and a ls o
t h a t i t i s im m oral, fa v o rin g a few t r a d e s and f i n a n c i a l g ro u p s
a t th e expense o f th e com m unity.65
S tr o n g ly a s he b e lie v e d in F ree T ra d e, he was w o rrie d
o v e r th e t u r n th e b a t t l e was t a k i n g .
He f e l t t h a t th e
6S I b i d . . I I , 7 0 -7 1 .
Bigham,
ojd.
a i t . , 325.
J . A. S p en d er, The L ife o f th e R ig h t H onorable
S i r Henry C am pbell-B annerm an,. I I , 215.
82
L ib e r a ls sh o u ld make t h e i r d e fe n c e o f F re e Trade p o s i t i v e and
c o n s tru c tiv e .
Twelve m i ll i o n p e o p le , he d e c la re d in a
s p e e c h , w ere " u n d e rfe d and on th e v e rg e o f h u n g e r."
C ham berlain p ro m p tly s e iz e d on th e p h ra s e and s a id t h a t th e
L ib e r a l l e a d e r had a d m itte d t h a t m i l l i o n s o f p eo p le w ere
"alw ays on th e v erg e o f s t a r v a t i o n u n d e r F re e T ra d e ."
To
t h i s th e l e a d e r r e p l i e d t h a t th e m i ll i o n s would p ro b a b ly
be pushed from hu n g er to s t a r v a t i o n i f t h e i r fo o d s were
t a x e d . 66
A n o th er s u b je c t c a u sin g tr o u b l e f o r th e governm ent
was th e q u e s tio n o f C hinese la b o r in th e Rand m ines o f S outh
A f r ic a .
The C hinese had been im p o rted i n g r e a t numbers t o
work i n th e m ines u n d e r c o n d itio n s o f v i r t u a l s l a v e r y .
The
O rdinance p ro p o sed i n 1904 p ro v id e d t h a t th e C hinese would
come i n t o S outh A fr ic a f o r a f ix e d te rm o f y e a rs and would
be s e n t back t o China a t th e c o s t o f th e im p o rte r when t h a t
term e x p ir e d .
W hile in A f r ic a , th e C hinese w ere fo rb id d e n
t o own p r o p e r ty o r m in e ra l r i g h t s o r t o engage i n any
b u s in e s s e x c e p t mine l a b o r .
Working h o u rs w ere f ix e d a t te n
h o u rs a d ay , s i x days a week. * A lthough o r i g i n a l l y no minimum
wage was g u a ra n te e d , l a t e r two s h i l l i n g s a day was a d o p te d .
The c o n d itio n s w ere such t h a t th e C hinese co u ld n o t b rin g
t h e i r f a m i l i e s w ith them .
To Cam pbell-Bannerman th e p r o v is io n s v i o l a t e d th o s e
66 J . A. S p en d er, G reat B r i t a i n , Empire and Common­
w e a lth 1886-1 9 5 5 , 213-214.
83
c o n d itio n s on w hich a s e l f - r e s p e c t i n g c o u n try co u ld s a n c tio n
th e im p o rta tio n o f la b o r*
He opposed th e m easure p a r t l y on
th e grounds o f th e new problem s t h a t would be r a i s e d by th e
im p o rta tio n o f C h in ese la b o r*
The c o o lie s m ust e i t h e r be
s e g re g a te d from th e r e s t o f th e comm unity, w hich would
r e a l l y be s la v e r y , o r th e y would be l e t lo o s e o v e r th e
c o u n try , s p re a d in g i n f e c t i o n and d e m o ra liz a tio n , p ro v id in g
u n f a i r t r a d e c o m p e titio n , and b r in g in g new r a c i a l p ro b le m s .^ 7
The L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n cil o f th e T ra n sv a a l had p a s s e d ,
i n 1903, an O rdinance t o " r e g u la te th e in tr o d u c ti o n i n t o th e
T ra n s v a a l o f U n s k ille d N on-European L a b o r e r s ," w hich r e ­
c e iv e d th e B oyal A s s e n t;
The c o n d itio n s w ere s t r i c t : a
l i c e n s e c o s tin g 100 pounds was n e c e s s a ry t o employ c o o li e s ,
t o be im p o rted f o r f i v e y e a rs and th e n s e n t back a t th e c o s t
o f th e l i c e n s e e .
At th e end o f 1904, tw e n ty - f iv e th o u sa n d c o o lie s were
a t work on th e Rand.
At f i r s t , th e ex p erim en t seemed t o be
w orking s a t i s f a c t o r i l y .
The o u tp u t o f g o ld in c r e a s e d , and
th e employment o f w h ite la b o r was f a c i l i t a t e d b o th in and
o u t o f th e m in e s.
By th e s p rin g o f 1905, when n e a r ly t h i r t y -
f i v e th o u sa n d C hinese had been im p o rte d , tr o u b l e s were b e ­
g in n in g .
S t r i k e s and o t h e r v i o l e n t o u tb re a k s were g o in g on
i n th e m in e s.
C o o lie s were d e s e r tin g and com m itting
67 I b i d . ,
1 4 3 -1 4 5 .
r o b b e r i e s , a s s a u l t s , and even m u rd e rs.
Out o f f o r ty - s e v e n
th o u sa n d , th e f i g u r e re ach ed by S eptem ber, 1905, more th a n
tw e n ty - f iv e hundred had been c o n v ic te d o f b re a c h o f la b o r
r e g u l a t i o n s , and n e a r ly one th o u san d were in j a i l .
fa rm e rs had re a s o n f o r a la rm .
The B oer
In England p u b lic o p in io n was
r i s i n g a g a in s t t h e s la v e r y o f th e C h in e s e .60
The u s u a l r e a c t i o n fo llo w in g th e war had been a g g ra ­
v a te d by d e f e c t s i n th e m i l i t a r y system and th e f a i l u r e o f
th e Government t o r e c o v e r any p a r t o f i t s c o s t from th e m in eowners o f t h e Rand.
The s i t u a t i o n became w orse when th e
m ine-ow ners w ere e n a b le d t o im p o rt C hinese la b o r un d er th e
c o n d itio n s d is c u s s e d .
I t seemed i r o n i c a l t h a t a w ar sh o u ld
be fo u g h t to keep one i n f e r i o r c i v i l i z a t i o n from th e c o u n try
i f c o n d itio n s w ere t o become even w o rse.
T here was g r e a t a g i t a t i o n in P a r lia m e n t.
The l i b e r a l s
denounced th e p r o v is io n s o f th e O rdinance t h a t s e g re g a te d
th e C h in e se , fo rb a d e them th e r i g h t t o h o ld p r o p e r ty and
a c c e s s t o th e c o u r t s . 69
Cam pbell-Bannerm an c o u ld se e th e p o in t o f view o f th e
m ine-ow ners and th e s h a r e - h o ld e r s , who n a t u r a l l y w anted
p ro fits .
However, t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e c o u n try a t l a r g e
sh o u ld be th e f i r s t c o n s i d e r a t io n .
The problem was t o
68 S i r J . A. R. M a r r i o t t , - Modern England 1885-1953,
263-265.
J . A. S p en d er,
A
S h o rt H is to r y o f Our T im es, 7 7 -7 8 .
c o n tin u e when he became Prim e M i n is te r .
In m a tte r s o f f o r e ig n p o lic y S i r H enry ad v o c ated
a r b i t r a t i o n f o r s e ttle m e n t o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l d i s p u t e s , l i m i t a ­
t i o n o f arm am ents by n e g o t i a t i o n w ith r i v a l pow ers, and th e
encouragem ent o f l i b e r a l s e n tim e n t in a l l c o u n t r i e s . 7^
Mr. B a lf o u r #s Government had made i t s m ost im p o rta n t
ach iev em en ts i n f o r e ig n p o l i c y .
The A n g lo -F ren ch C onvention
B i l l was c o r d i a l l y r e c e iv e d by Cam pbell-Bannerm an among
71
o th e rs .
_He. was th e p r e s i d i n g s p i r i t o f th e l i t t l e i n n e r
C a b in e t, when a rra n g e m e n ts w ere b e in g made f o r m i l i t a r y c o 72
o p e r a tio n w ith th e F ren ch in c e r t a i n e v e n t u a l i t i e s .
Speak­
in g o f I n d i a , he echoed th e p r i n c i p l e o f th e suprem acy o f
c i v i l pow er.
He was a ls o one o f th o s e who w ere w orking
to w ard a b e t t e r u n d e rs ta n d in g w ith Germany. 73
The y e a r 1904 ended w e ll f o r th e L i b e r a ls , who w ere
g r a d u a lly g a in in g s t r e n g t h .
S i r W illia m H a rc o u rt had d ie d
i n th e autum n, and th e g u lf betw een Cam pbell-Bannerm an and
Lord R o seb ery had w idened in t o a c tu a l s e p a r a t io n .
S i r Henry
was moving s t e a d i l y tow ard th e l e f t , a th o ro u g h R a d ic a l.
70 L ee, o p . c i t . , I , 309.
J . A. S p en d er, The L if e o f th e R ig h t H onorable
S i r " H enry Campbe11-Bannerm an, ~ I I , 150-151.
72
Raymond, ojd. c i t . , 22.
73
The T im es
(L o n d o n , 1 9 0 8 ) A p r i l 2 3 , 4 d .
E x p e rie n c e had proved him c o m p le te ly tr u s tw o r th y , one who
co u ld be e n t r u s t e d w ith th e h ig h e s t p la c e in th e Govern­
ment . 74
74 J* A* S p en d er, The L if e o f th e R ig h t H onorable
S i r Henry C am pbell-B annerm an, ~ I I , 186-187*
CHAPTER IV
PRIME MINISTER
The U n io n is t p a r ty f e l l i n th e w in te r o f 1905, and a
L ib e r a l v i c t o r y was a s s u re d .
T a r i f f re fo rm p la y e d i t s p a r t
i n th e d e a th o f . t h e C o n se rv a tiv e a d m in is tr a tio n .
Mr. B a lfo u r
had an au d ien c e w ith K ing Edward on December 4, a f t e r w hich th e
announcem ent was made t h a t H is M ajesty had g r a c io u s ly a c c e p te d
th e r e s i g n a t i o n o f f e r e d by B a lfo u r and h i s c o lle a g u e s .
B a lfo u r had been th r e a te n in g to r e s i g n , b u t i t seemed
a n o th e r o f h i s t r i c k s .
Cam pbell-Bannerm an s a t q u i e t l y a t h is
home u n t i l th e t h r e a t ap p eared to be an a c t u a l i t y , th e n
h a s te n e d to London.
him.
A d is a g r e e a b le s u r p r i s e was i n s t o r e f o r
The ev e n in g o f h i s a r r i v a l S i r Edward Grey d e liv e r e d an
u ltim a tu m : Campbell-Bannerman sh o u ld a c c e p t a p e e ra g e and
le a v e th e le a d e r s h ip i n th e Commons to A sq u ith ; o th e rw is e he
(Grey) and p o s s ib ly o t h e r s would n o t ta k e p a r t in th e new
governm ent.
F o r tu n a te ly , i t soon became a p p a re n t t h a t A sq u ith
was n o t o f th e same m ind.
1 E liz a b e th Lee, Wives o f th e Prim e M i n i s t e r s , £41.
o
The Times (London, 1905) December 5, 9 f .
3 J . A. S pen d er, The L ife o f th e R ig h t H onorable S i r
Henry Cam pbell-Bannerm an, 1 ,1 $ 3 - 1 9 4 .
88
As th e o f f i c i a l l e a d e r o f th e L ib e r a ls i n th e House
o f Commons, Cam pbell-Bannerman was summoned by th e K ing.
S ir
W illiam H a re o u rt and Lord K im berley were d e a d ; and w ith o n ly
a s e c tio n o f th e p a r t y l o y a l to Lord H o sebery, no one e ls e
seemed l i k e l y to be a b le t o form a s tr o n g governm ent.
Henry a c c e p te d th e co m m issio n .4
S ir
He k is s e d hands on h i s
ap p o in tm en t a s Prim e M in is te r and F i r s t Lord o f th e T r e a s u r y .5
Even th e K ing su g g e ste d h i s a c c e p tin g a p e e ra g e and g o in g to
th e House o f L o rd s.
He m ig h t have acceded i f h is w ife had
n o t e m p h a tic a lly v e to e d th e s u g g e s tio n ; a s i t w as, he s a id
g
a firm Mn o M to G rey’ s p r o p o s a l.
In o rd e r to have a s tr o n g governm ent, th e new prim e
M in is te r needed S i r Edward Grey as F o re ig n S e c r e ta r y .
h e ld o f f f o r some tim e b u t f i n a l l y to o k th e o f f i c e .
Grey
H ald an e,
d is a p p o in te d a t n o t b e in g o f f e r e d th e C h a n c e llo rs h ip , r e f u s e d
to be A tto rn e y -G e n e ra l, though he f i n a l l y a c c e p te d th e War
O f f ic e .
James Bryce was a p p o in te d C h ie f S e c r e ta r y f o r I r e l a n d ,
b u t he was n o t w e ll q u a l i f i e d f o r th e p o s i t i o n and l a t e r ex­
changed i t f o r t h a t o f Ambassador a t W ashington.
A lthough
tw elv e o f th e n in e te e n C a b in e t members were new to su ch
4 C liv e Bigham, The Prim e M in is te r s o f B r i t a i n 17211921, 525-326.
—
5 The Times (London, 1905) December 6, 9 e.
6
J . A. S pender and C y ril A s q u ith , L ife o f H e rb e rt
Henry A s q u ith , Lord O xford and A s q u ith , I , 1^2.
89
o f f i c e , th e group pro v ed an a b le o n e .7
A f te r th e C ab in et was
form ed, th e new c h i e f d is s o lv e d P a rlia m e n t.®
A few m onths e a r l i e r th e id e a o f Cam pbell-Bannerm an*s
h ead in g an a d m in is tr a tio n seemed r id i c u l o u s to many.
Not
lo n g a f t e r h i s s e s s io n had s t a r t e d , he was c o n s id e re d i r r e ­
p la c e a b le .
In f a c t , he n e v e r was re p la c e d .
He was a s tro n g
L ib e r a l b ecau se o f h is s tr o n g b e l i e f in l i b e r t y ; he was a
R a d ic a l b ec au se o f h i s d i s l i k e o f p r i v i l e g e . ^
The Prim e M in is te r mad.e h i s d e c la r a t i o n o f p o l i c y on
December S I, and s t a t e d th e i n t e n t i o n s o f h is Government:
We w ish to d ev elop o u r undeveloped e s t a t e s , and to
c o lo n iz e o u r own c o u n try . The h e a lth and sta m in a o f th e
n a tio n a re bound up w ith th e m ain ten an ce o f a la r g e
c l a s s o f w o rk e rs on th e s o i l . The town p o p u la tio n
re d u n d a n t, th e c o u n try p o p u la tio n d ec im ated , i s a sub­
v e r s io n o f h e a lth y n a t i o n a l l i f e . 3*°
O th er is s u e p la c e d b e fo re th e e l e c t o r s were f r e e t r a d e ,
s to p p in g o f C hinese l a b o r , and r e v i s i o n o f th e e d u c a tio n and
lic e n s in g a c t s . ^
The g e n e ra l e l e c t i o n o f Ja n u a ry and F e b ru a ry b ro u g h t
7 S i r J . A. R. M a r r i o tt, Modern England 1885-1932,
248-249.
9 Bigham, o p . c i t . , 325-326.
9 E. T. Raymond, P o r t r a i t s o f th e New C en tu ry , 32.
10 P e rc y A lden, D em ocratic E n g la n d , 240-241.
H S i r S id n e y L ee,
B io g ra p h y , I , 308.
e d it o r , D ic tio n a r y o f N a tio n a l
an overw helm ing triu m p h f o r th e L i b e r a ls ,
B xeept f o r Mr,
C ham berlain, no U n io n is t was to o im p o rta n t f o r d i s a s t e r .
L ib e r a l m a j o r i t i e s in c r e a s e d g r e a t l y i n S c o tla n d and I r e la n d ,
w h ile W ales d id n o t e l e c t a s in g le C o n s e rv a tiv e ,
T here was
a v e ry la r g e L ib e r a l m a jo r ity i n th e House, w ith a la r g e
group o f I r i s h n a t i o n a l i s t s and In d ep en d en t L a b o u r ite s who
co u ld u s u a lly be co u n ted on t o s u p p o rt th e Governm ent.
The f i r s t pro b lem to be c o n sid e re d was th e o ld one
in re g a rd to C hinese l a b o r .
I t was found to be l e g a l l y im­
p o s s ib le to an n u l th e c o n tr a c t s t h a t a lr e a d y e x i s t e d , b u t
new r e c r u i t i n g co u ld and would be sto p p e d . 13w
A d e p u ta tio n o f more th a n a hundred L i b e r a ls , n a t i o n a l ­
i s t s , and L abor members w a ite d upon th e Prim e M in is te r to
p r e s e n t a m em orial sig n e d by 166 Government s u p p o r te r s who
had th e fo llo w in g r e q u e s ts t o make:
1, That th e r e p a t r i a t i o n p ro c la m a tio n be so amended as
to ac co rd w ith th e u n d e rta k in g g iv e n on b e h a lf o f
h i s M a je s ty 's Government o f F e b ru a ry ZZ t h a t wi f a
Chinaman e x p re s s e s th e d e s i r e t o r e t u r n f o r any
good re a s o n , o r w ith o u t g iv in g any re a s o n a t a l l ,
h i s r i g h t w i l l be s u s ta in e d by th e f o r c e s o f th e
crown, and th e funds to r e tu r n him to h i s c o u n try w i l l
be p ro v id e d by th e B r i t i s h e x c h e q u e r."
2 . That in view o f th e g ra v e d a n g e rs to l i f e and p r o p e r ty
a d m itte d ly caused by th e in d e n tu re d C hinese a t p r e s e n t
in th e T ra n s v a a l, i n s p i t e o f u n p re c e d e n te d m easures
^
735.
12 T# F # T o u t, An Advanced H is to r y o f G re a t B r i t a i n ,
R. C. K. E n so r, E neland 1870-1914. 390.
91
o f r e p r e s s i o n , a l l f u r t h e r im p o rta tio n sh o u ld c e a s e ,
3 . T hat a d e f i n i t e s ta te m e n t sh o u ld he made a s t o th e
tim e and m anner o f th e a n n u llin g o f th e e x i s t i n g
C hinese L abour O rd in a n c e s.
4. T h a t an e a r l y day he g iv e n f o r th e d is c u s s io n o f
a f f a i r s i n S outh A f r ic a .
In r e p ly Campbell-Bannerm an s a id t h a t th e r e p a t r i a t i o n
p ro c la m a tio n d id n o t r e p r e s e n t th e Governm ent’ s i n t e n t i o n s .
As f a r as th e o u ts ta n d in g l i c e n s e s were co n cern ed , r e c o n s id e r ­
a t i o n would he g iv e n i f i t sh o u ld p ro v e t h a t th e i n s e c u r i t y
o f l i f e and p r o p e r ty on th e Band was in c r e a s in g .
a d m itte d ly an e x p e rim e n t, could n o t he p ro lo n g e d .
The sy stem ,
He ex­
p r e s s e d agreem en t w ith th e d e p u ta tio n t h a t th e d e g ra d in g
system o f la b o r sh o u ld he condemned.14
The o n ly d e f i n i t e
s te p th e Prim e M in is te r co u ld ta k e was r e f u s a l to a llo w any
more r e c r u i t i n g o f c o o l ie s .
1906.
He to o k t h i s s te p i n F e b ru a ry ,
In lu n e , 1907, th e B otha C ab in et i n th e T ra n s v a a l p ro ­
h i b i t e d f u r t h e r im p o r t a tio n .15
The governm ent o f th e T ra n sv a a l was th e n e x t q u e s tio n .
C om pleting th e r e c o n c i l i a t i o n Campbell-Bannerm an c o n sid e re d
h i s m ost im p o rta n t t a s k .
W hile he was C o lo n ia l S e c r e ta r y i n
S outh A f r ic a , L y t t le to n had d r a f t e d a new c o n s t i t u t i o n .
14 The Times (London, 1906) lu n e 20, 14a.
15
M a r r i o tt , 0 £ . c i t . , 266.
16 I b i d ., 263.
9£
T h is s t i l l a w a ite d c o m p le tio n , b u t th e Prim e M in is te r was in
f a v o r o f f o r g e t t i n g i t and p ro c e e d in g a t once to r e s p o n s ib le
governm ent f o r th e T ra n s v a a l. 17 He s e n t o u t a com m ission to
make i n q u i r i e s .
In J u ly he announced h i s d e c is i o n to th e
House o f Commons, and i n December he had th e l e t t e r - p a t e n t
is s u e d .
A l i k e g r a n t was made to th e Orange R iv e r Colony a
few months l a t e r . 18
The S outh A fr ic a n War and i t s r e s u l t s had caused p e o p le
to t h i n k , and was i n some p a r t r e s p o n s ib le f o r th e change in
p o l i t i c a l o p in io n .
Now p eo p le were re a d y to t r y th e b rav e
e x p e rim e n t o f g r a n tin g im m ediate and com plete r e s p o n s ib le
governm ent to th e two e x - r e p u b l ic s .
To Campbell-Bannerm an
t h i s seemed th e o n ly way to p re v e n t d is c o n te n t , v io le n c e , and
f r i c t i o n betw een th e D utch and th e E n g lis h .
There was o f
co u rse o p p o s itio n .
At a C a b in e t C o uncil th e Prime M in is te r gave a power­
f u l and to u c h in g a p p e a l f o r h i s p la n f o r th e f u t u r e o f S outh
A f r ic a .
A f te r a p e r io d o f com plete s i le n c e th e C ab in et v o te d
unanim ously f o r g r a n tin g se lf-g o v e rn m e n t to th e new c o lo n ie s .
17 S p en d er, 0 £ . e l t . . I I , 238.
18 E n s o r, op. c i t . . 390.
*1 Q
H arold S p en d er, " S i r Henry C am pbell-B annerm an,”
The L iv in g Age, £ 5 8 :1 1 , J u ly , 1908.
19
93
I f a b i l l in P a rlia m e n t bad been n e c e s s a ry , th e House o f Lords
would no d o u b t have k i l l e d i t .
Cam pbell-Bannerm an was a b le
t o acco m p lish i t by l e t t e r - p a t e n t — t h a t i s , an a d m in is tr a tiv e
a e t n e e d in g o n ly th e c o n fid e n c e o f th e House o f Commons. so
S i r Henry* s name w i l l alw ays be a s s o c ia te d w ith t h i s a c t o f
p o lic y .
21
I t s wisdom was soon a p p a r e n t.
The p e o p le o f S outh
A f r ic a began w orking to g e th e r f o r t h e i r common i n t e r e s t s .
They m et, d is c u s s e d , and a t l a s t a g re e d .
A f r ic a was th e f i n a l r e s u l t . 22
The Union o f S outh
The r e c o n c i l i a t i o n was un­
d o u b te d ly th e m ost im p o rta n t ach iev em en t o f t h i s G overnm ent.23
O th e r prom ised re fo rm s th e Prim e M in is te r b ro u g h t up
were th e E d u c a tio n B i l l , P l u r a l V o tin g , and th e T rad es D is­
p u te B i l l .
The f i r s t c la s h betw een th e two Houses o f P a rlia m e n t
to o k p la c e when th e Government t r i e d to amend th e E d u c a tio n
A ct o f 1902.
The many N o n co n fo rm ists i n th e Commons demanded,
s in c e r e p e a l was im p o s s ib le , a m o d if ic a tio n t h a t would r e l i e v e
them o f p a y in g ta x e s f o r th e s u p p o rt o f A n g lic a n s c h o o ls .
The
Government p ro p o se d t h a t f i n a n c i a l su p p o rt be c o n tin u e d f o r
20 E n so r, o£. c i t . , 389.
21
22
I . A. S p en d er, A S h o rt H is to ry o f Our Tim es, 9 9-100.
H.
and E u ro p e, 709.
A. L. F is h e r , An I n tr o d u c to r y H is to r y o f Englan
23 E . G. A s q u ith , Memories and R e f l e c t i o n s , I , 232.
94
th e v o lu n ta r y d e n o m in a tio n a l s c h o o ls , b u t t h a t th e y be used
a s p u b lic s c h o o ls o n ly f i v e days a week and be p u t a t th e
d is p o s a l o f r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n on S a tu rd a y and Sunday.
The r e l i g i o u s te a c h in g sh o u ld n o t be c a rrie d on by p u b lic
fu n d s o r by th e r e g u l a r t e a c h e r s .
A lthough th e B i l l p a s se d
i n t h e House o f Commons, th e L o rd s, w ith U n io n is ts i n a
g r e a t m a jo r ity , r e j e c t e d i t .
OA
The House o f L ords a ls o k i l l e d th e P l u r a l V o tin g
B ill.
Up t o 1918 an E n g lis h v o te r had th e p r i v i l e g e o f
c a s tin g h i s b a l l o t i n e v e ry d i s t r i c t i n w hich he owned
p r o p e r ty .
The U n io n is ts , who r e p r e s e n te d th e la n d e d i n ­
t e r e s t s b e n e f i te d m ost by t h i s sy stem .
The em ployees o f t h e T a ff V ale R ailw ay had c a ll e d a
s t r i k e in 1900, an a c t i o n t h a t s t a r t e d e v e n ts o f g r e a t im­
p o r ta n c e .
The u n io n co n cern ed was su ed f o r damages by th e
r a ilw a y c o r p o r a tio n .
When th e c a se re a c h e d th e House o f
L o rd s, t h a t body d e c id e d t h a t la b o r u n io n s w ere c o r p o r a tio n s
and co u ld be h e ld r e s p o n s i b le .
C o n seq u en tly th e ra ilw a y
u n io n s w ere o b lig e d t o pay c o s t s and dam ages.
L a te r th e
new In d ep en d en t Labor p a r ty a l l i e d i t s e l f w ith th e S o c i a l ­
i s t s f o r th e p u rp o se o f s e c u rin g l e g i s l a t i o n s fa v o ra b le to
24 L aurence M. L a rso n , H is to r y o f E ngland and th e
B r i t i s h Commonwealth, 757-758.
25 I b i d . , ? 5 8 .
95
o rg a n iz e d l a b o r .
25
The T rad es D isp u te A ct o f 1906, in tro d u c e d by th e
L i b e r a l s , was t o p r o t e c t th e u n io n s .
*
The a c t s o f 1871 and
1875 had been supposed t o s h i e l d th o u n io n s from f i n a n c i a l
r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n e a s e o f s t r i k e . The T a ff V ale c a se proved
t h i s u n t r u e . 27 The C a b in e t was a g re e d on two o f th e th r e e
m ain p o i n t s —a s o f te n in g o f vth e law o f c o n s p ira c y and th e
l e g a l i z a t i o n o f p e a c e f u l p ic k e tin g ;- - b u t a b o u t t h e exem ption
o f t r a d e u n io n fu n d s th e y d i f f e r e d .
The B i l l o r i g i n a l l y p ro v id e d t h a t a u n io n was n o t t o
be h e ld l i a b l e f o r th e w ro n g fu l a c t o f i t s a g e n t u n le s s i t
had been ap p ro v ed by t h e e x e c u tiv e com m ittee o f th e u n io n
o r had been com m itted by someone a u th o r iz e d t o b in d th e
u n io n by h i s a c t s .
L abor members d id n o t a l t o g e t h e r approve
o f th e G overnm entfs B i l l and in tro d u c e d one o f t h e i r own,
w hich w ould r e l i e v e u n io n s o f a l l l i a b i l i t y f o r dam ages.
The seco n d re a d in g c a r r i e d by 416 t o 66; and th e B i l l , w ith
t h i s amendment, was passed*^®
A n o th er b i l l o f im p o rtan ce t o th e w orking c l a s s e s
was a Workingmen’ s Com pensation A c t.
T h is made em ployers
l i a b l e t o co m p en satio n f o r a c c i d e n t s , d i s e a s e s , and d e a th
go
met w ith by w o rk e rs i n th e d is c h a rg e o f t h e i r d u t i e s .
26 I b i d . . 754.
27 R o b e rt M. R ay n er, N in e te e n th C en tu ry E ng lan d , 377.
28 M a r r i o t t , 0 £ . c i t . , 235-237.
29 L a rso n , op. c i t . , 755.
The g e n e ra l o p in io n was t h a t S i r Henry C am pbellBannerman had acco m p lish ed a l l t h a t a m b itio n co u ld d e s ire *
A c tu a lly , he was g r e a t l y tro u b le d *
D ea rer t o him th a n any
p o l i t i c a l su c c e s s was h i s w if e , whose h e a lth had s t e a d i l y
f a ile d *
He was u s in g up h i s own s t r e n g t h i n h i s u n t i r i n g
c a re f o r h e r . 30
Lady C am pbell-Bannerm an had alw ays had a d e v o te d i n ­
t e r e s t in h e r husband *s c a r e e r .
U n w illin g t h a t h e r i l l n e s s
sh o u ld i n t e r f e r e w ith h i s advancem ent, she added h e r i n ­
s i s t e n c e t h a t he a c c e p t th e h ig h e s t honor h i s c o u n try co u ld
o ffe r*
R e lu c ta n tly , sh e moved from t h e i r house i n B elg rav e
S q u are t o Downing S t r e e t . ^
A lth o u g h h e r husband alw ays d is c u s s e d w ith h e r a l l
th e problem s o f h i s c a r e e r and she was alw ays i n t e r e s t e d
and h e l p f u l , Lady Cam pbell-Bannerm an i n s i s t e d upon re m a in in g
c o m p a ra tiv e ly unknown.
She n e v e r to o k p a r t i n h i s cam­
p a i g n s .32
H er d e a th came on A ugust 30, 1906, n o t u n ex p e cted b u t
r e c e iv e d w ith deep r e g r e t th ro u g h o u t th e c o u n try .
E veryone,
r e g a r d l e s s o f p a r ty , e x p re s s e d g r e a t sympathy f o r th e saddened
Prim e M i n i s t e r . 33
30
I* A. S p e n d e r, The L if e o f th e R ig h t H onorable S i r
Henry C am pbell- Bannerm an, I I / 387.
31
The Times (London, 1906) A ugust 31, 4b.
32 I b i a . , 40.
I b i d . , 4b.
97
The d r a in on h i s s t r e n g t h d u rin g h i s w if e ’ s i l l n e s s
was in c re a s e d by t h e blow h e r d e a th b ro u g h t t o him .
S ir
Henry was now s e v e n ty y e a r s o ld , an d th e b u rd en s o f h i s
c a r e e r w ere p ro v in g to o much f o r him .
*ZA
E a r ly in O cto b er
he had th e f i r s t o f a s e r i e s o f h e a r t a t t a c k s
D e s p ite a l l t h i s , he was d e te rm in e d t o s e e h i s p o l i ­
t i c a l program th ro u g h t o t h e en d .
T h is co u rse he fo llo w e d
f o r two y e a r s , w in n in g f o r h im s e lf g r e a t a d m ira tio n and
r e s p e c t . 3e
New s o c i a l re fo rm s w ere b e in g in tro d u c e d i n P a r l i a ­
m en t.
In 1907 th e S m all H o ld in g s and A llo tm e n t A ct o f 1907
gave a u t h o r i t y t o th e County C o u n c ils t o ta k e la n d s a t th e
c u r r e n t p r i c e even w ith o u t c o n se n t o f t h e ow ners.
W ith in
t h r e e y e a rs n e a r ly one hundred th o u san d a ore's? were a l l o t t e d
t o s m a ll c u l t i v a t o r s . 37
The d e s e r t io n o f t h e r u r a l p o p u la tio n had been a
h an d ica p t o b o th E ngland and S c o tla n d .
th e d an g e r and sought t o remedy i t .
The Government saw
The House o f L ords had
done much t o make t h e s i t u a t i o n w o rse .
C ountry p eo p le who
co u ld n o t a c q u ir e la n d w ere com pelled t o s e t t l e i n th e c i t i e s
34 Bigham, o p . c i t . , 326.
35 J . A« S p en d er, The L if e o f th e R ight H onorable S i r
H enry C am pbell-B annerm an, 1 1 / 297.
33 S i r Ia n M alcolm , V acant T h ro n e s. 4 5 .
37
A r th u r L yon C r o s s , A S h o r t e r H i s t o r y o f E n g la n d
and G r e a te r B r i t a i n , 7 4 3 .
98
o r t o e m ig ra te . 38
A n o th er Land V alu es B i l l d id more th a n th ro w upon
th e l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s th e d u ty o f e v a lu a tin g la n d a p a r t
from im provem ents.
The House o f L ords showed "a rro g a n c e and
h ig h -h a n d e d n e ss" i n r e j e c t i n g t h i s B i l l . w B oth h i l l s w ere
k i l l e d by th e L o rd s .
Much o f th e l e g i s l a t i o n Cam pbell-Bannerm an and h i s
C a b in e t p la n n e d f o r th e p eo p le a t la r g e was b lo c k e d by th e
House o f L o rd s .
B ecause o f t h i s , c h ild r e n and s c h o o ls w ere
h a n d ica p p ed i n o rd e r t o u p h o ld th e p r i v i l e g e s o f th e
E s ta b lis h e d C hurch; e l e c t o r s s u f f e r e d t h e o ld w rongs t h a t
w ould have been done away w ith by th e P l u r a l V o tin g B i l l ;
th e a g r i c u l t u r a l com m unities w ere wronged by th e f a i l u r e
to p a s s t h e S c o t t i s h Land B i l l s and by th e im pairm ent o f
th e Land Tenure B i l l .
s a c rific e . . .
A ll i n a l l , i t was a "heavy l i s t o f
to th e p r e ju d ic e s and p r i v i l e g e s o f th e
House o f L ords
The S e c r e ta r y f o r War, Mr. H ald an e, beg an , i n 1907,
h i s scheme f o r army r e o r g a n i z a t io n .
He had an a m b itio u s
program : t o lo w er th e Army E s tim a te s by th r e e m i l l i o n s , to
o rg a n iz e a more e f f i c i e n t arm y, and to r e t a i n th e C a rd w e llia n
38
Times (London, 1907) O cto b er 7, 7 a ,b .
39 I b i d . . 7 c .
40 I b i d . . 7d.
99
sy stem .
Most o f th e C ab in et had i t s e h i e f i n t e r e s t in th e
f i r s t p a r t , s in o e th e Government was p led g ed t o b r in g down
army and navy c o s t s .
Cam pbell-B annerm an, alw ay s a b so rb e d i n
War O ffic e a f f a i r s , was somewhat s k e p t i c a l a b o u t H a ld a n e ’s
p la n s .
He soon a c q u ire d g r e a t r e s p e c t f o r h i s M in is te r o f
War.
In b r i e f , Mr. H aldane*s id e a was t o o rg a n iz e th e con­
fu s e d mass o f t r o o p s —r e g u l a r army, m i l i t i a , and v o l u n t e e r s - i n t o two l i n e s .
The f i r s t would be th e E x p e d itio n a ry F o rce
o f one hundred s i x t y th o u san d men, re a d y f o r i n s t a n t m o b iliz a ­
tio n .
The second l i n e w ould be composed o f d i v i s i o n s o f
m i l i t i a and v o l u n t e e r s .
I n a l l n o n - m ilita r y m a tte r s th e
second would be c o n t r o l le d by County A s s o c ia tio n s . ^
A d e p u ta tio n o f L ib e r a l and Labor members o f th e
House o f Commons w a ite d on th e Prim e M in is te r on th e s u b je c t
o f o ld -a g e p e n s io n s .
The group u rg e d t h a t t h i s m a tte r be
c o n s id e re d a t once by th e Governm ent.
Cam pbell-Bannerm an
ag re e d w ith w hat th e y s a i d b u t s t a t e d t h a t he co u ld n o t a c t
a t t h i s tim e b ec au se o f th e la c k o f tim e and money.
A
u n i v e r s a l p la n o f o ld -a g e p e n s io n s , sp o n so red by t h e S t a t e
and in d e p e n d e n t o f c o n t r i b u to r y schem es, s h o u ld be a d o p te d .
I n o r d e r t o be u s e f u l , th e p e n sio n p la n sh o u ld g iv e a se n se
o f s e c u r i t y r a t h e r th a n s a p p in g in d ep en d e n ce.
He prom ised
^ J . A . S p e n d e r , The L i f e o f t h e R i g h t H o n o r a b le
S i r H en ry C am p b e11-B an n erm an , I I , 3 ^ 5 .
th e d e p u ta tio n t h a t when tim e and money p e r m itte d , th e m a tte r
42
would he g iv e n f u l l c o n s id e r a t io n .
I t proved t o be th ro u g h
Cam pbell-Bannerm an *s e f f o r t s t h a t th e o ld -a g e p e n sio n law
was l a t e r p a s s e d , a lth o u g h i t was n o t in h i s a d m in is tr a tio n .4^
S i r H enry*s C ab in et i n h e r i t e d a c r i t i c a l f o r e ig n s i t ­
u a t i o n w ith w hich t o d eal*
S i r Edward Grey succeeded
Lansdowne i n th e F o re ig n O ffic e a t a moment o f E uropean
c ris is .
F ran c e had G re a t B r i ta i n * s p le d g e o f s u p p o rt f o r
h e r c la im s i n M orocco, b u t Germany com plained t h a t she had
been s l i g h t e d and was t h r e a te n in g F ra n c e .
Grey and t h e new
Government a ffirm e d L ahsdow ne*s agreem ent and sto o d by
F ra n c e .
A A.
The A lc e g ir a s C onference met in J a n u a ry , 1906,
and p roved a d isa p p o in tm e n t i n i t s e f f o r t s t o b r in g an
e n t i r e l y p e a c e f u l s e tt l e m e n t , th o u g h b o th s i d e s y ie ld e d on
some p o i n t s .
Germany w ith d rew on th e Morocco q u e s tio n , b u t
i t was t o be j u s t f i v e y e a rs b e fo re sh e a g a in t r i e d t o f o r c e
th e i s s u e . 45 S ub seq u ent e v e n ts p roved th e A lc e g ir a s S e t t l e ­
ment f a r from f i n a l .
A ttem p ts w ere made a t home t o b r in g
ab o u t more f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s betw een B r i t a i n and Germany.4**
42 The Times (London, 1906) November 21, 11b.
475
44
45
46
L a rso n ,
0 |>.
c i t . , 756.
George M acaulay T re v e ly a n , H is to r y of E n g la n d , 710.
E n so r, o£ . c i t - , 401.
J . A . S p e n d e r , The L i f e o f t h e R i g h t H o n o r a b le S i r
H en ry C am p bel1 - B an n erm an , I I , 2 5 9 .
The Second Hague C o n fe re n c e , w hich was t o have been
h e ld i n th e summer o f 1906, was p o stp o n ed u n t i l th e n e x t
y e a r.
On March 2 , 1907, Cam pbell-Bannerm an p u b lis h e d an
a r t i c l e i n th e London N a tio n .
I t was headed "The Hague
C o nference and th e L im ita tio n o f A rm am ents,” and p le a d e d
f o r th e s to p p in g o f th e armaments ra c e betw een n a t i o n s .
At
th e same tim e , he s t r e s s e d th e d e fe n s iv e re a s o n s why E n g lan d 1
navy m ust rem ain suprem e.
As th e e x p r e s s io n o f a B r i t i s h
L ib e r a l who s i n c e r e l y d e s ir e d p eace and i n t e r n a t i o n a l good­
w i l l , i t was a d m ira b le .
From Germany*s p o in t o f v iew , th e
a r t i c l e was d i s t i n c t l y i r r i t a t i n g .
She b e lie v e d t h a t
B r i t i s h diplom acy was se e k in g t o keep perm anent E n g la n d ’s
a d v a n ta g e o v e r h e r . 47
In t h e meantime t h e r e had been d i f f i c u l t i e s w ith
R u s s ia , w h ich , i t seem ed, would be c r y s t a l l i z e d by th e
E m peror’ s s u s p e n s io n o f th e duma.
In A ugust, 1907, th e
A n g lo -R u ssian C onvention was c o n c lu d e d .
The two c o u n tr ie s
a g re e d on t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s p h e re s o f in f lu e n c e i n P e r s i a ,
R u s s ia i n th e n o r th and G re a t B r i t a i n i n th e s o u th .
A l­
though th e agreem ent seemed t o f a v o r R u s s ia , E ngland was
moved t o * th e t r a n s a c t i o n b ec au se o f a b e l i e f t h a t th e t s a r
p la n n e d t o annex P e r s ia and p e rh a p s t h r e a te n I n d i a .
47 E n so r, op. c i t . , 401-402.
L a rso n , o p .
c it .,
783.
AQ
108
A n o th er c r i s i s th e Government fa c e d i n 1906 was w ith
th e T u rk s, who a p p e a re d t o be making an a tte m p t t o move up
t o th e banks o f t h e Suez C a n a l.
E g y p tia n tr o o p s s e n t t o
occupy c e r t a i n s t r a t e g i c p o s ts found T u rk ish tr o o p s i n
o c c u p a tio n .
Each governm ent made demands t o w hich th e o th e r
would n o t a c c e d e .
F i n a l l y an u ltim a tu m was s e n t t o T urkey,
and th e mere t h r e a t p roved s u f f i c i e n t to end t h e c r i s i s . 49
The German Em peror and Em press made a s t a t e v i s i t
t o E ngland i n t h e autumn o f 19G7.
The s t r a i n o f c o n s ta n t
a tte n d a n c e upon them was h a rd on th e Prim e M i n i s t e r .
He
was o b lig e d t o go t o and from W indsor and t o make many
sp eech es.
November 13 proved a d i s a s t r o u s day f o r him .
A
lu n ch eo n in h o nor o f th e r o y a l v i s i t o r s was g iv e n a t th e
G u ild h a ll, a f t e r w hich S i r Henry h a s te n e d t o B r i s t o l —to
a t t e n d th e a n n u a l C o lsto n B an q u et.
sp e e c h .
T here he gave an h o u r 's
That n ig h t he was s e iz e d by a n o th e r h e a r t a t t a c k .
A lth o u g h he soon r a l l i e d , h i s f r i e n d s and d o c to rs
i n s i s t e d t h a t he ta k e a com plete r e s t .
f o r e ig h t w e e k s .50
He went t o B i a r r i t i z
I n P a r i s , on th e way, he had a n o th e r
a t t a c k . 5^
40 J . A . S p en d er, The L if e o f th e R ig h t H onorable
S i r Henry Campbe 11 - B a n n e r m a n I I , 864-865.
50 S i r S id n ey L ee, e d i t o r , D ic tio n a r y o f N a tio n a l
B io g ra p h y , I , 310.
~
51 J . A. S p en d er, The L if e o f th e R ig h t H onorable
S i r Henry Campbe 11 -Bannerm an, I I , 5 7 3 .
~
103
I n J a n u a ry he i n s i s t e d upon r e tu r n in g t o London.
He
seemed g r e a t l y im proved, and a g a in he p re s id e d a t th e C ab in et
s e s s io n s *
On Ja n u a ry 29 he was n o t i n h i s u s u a l p la c e , f o r
word had re a c h e d him o f th e s e r io u s i l l n e s s o f h i s b r o t h e r
Jam es.
The l a s t sp eech th e Prim e M in is te r made was on
F e b ru a ry 12, when he spoke b r i e f l y on th e S c o t t i s h Sm all
H o ld in g s and Land V a lu a tio n s B i l l s .
In f lu e n z a a tta c k e d him a few days l a t e r , and he n e v e r
53
re c o v e re d h i s s t r e n g t h .
I t was c l e a r t h a t he c o u ld n o t
g e t w e l l and t h a t a new Government m ust be fo rm ed .
D e sp ite
th e K in g ’s d e s i r e t h a t he p o stp o n e h i s d e c is io n , C am pbellBannerman te n d e r e d h i s r e s i g n a ti o n on A p r il 5 .
b u t g r a c io u s ly , t h e monarch a c c e p te d i t . 54-
R e g r e tf u lly
S i r H enry summoned Mr* A s q u ith t o t e l l him t h a t he
was d y in g .
He seemed q u i t e c h e e r f u l and announced th e t e x t
from Psalm s he had chosen f o r h i s to m b sto n e .
Thanking
A sq u ith f o r h i s l o y a l t y and u n s e l f i s h n e s s , th e o ld man s a id
to h i s w eeping c o lle a g u e , "You a re d i f f e r e n t ♦from th e o t h e r s ,
A s q u ith , and I am g la d t o have known you*- God b l e s s y o u J" 55
52 I b i d - ■ I I , 377-378.
53
Bigham, o£. c i t . , 326.
The Times (London, 19G8) A p r il 6, 9 e.
Andre M au ro is, The E dw ardian E r a . 3G5.
104
C am pbell-B annem an d ie d on A p r il 22, s e v e n te e n days
a f t e r b i s r e s i g n a t i o n a s Prim e M i n i s t e r . 56
He was b u rie d b e s id e b i s w ife i n M eigle C hurchyard in
S c o tla n d a f t e r th e e a r l i e r f u n e r a l s e r v ic e a t W e stm in ster
Abbey, co n d u cted by t h e A rchbishop o f C a n te rb u ry and th e
Dean o f W e stm in ste r.
There a t a b l e t was p u t up t o h i s memory.
L arge crowds a tte n d e d th e l a s t r i t e s .
At th e tim e o f h i s d e a th he was th e f a t h e r o f t h e
House o f Commons, a s he had s a t t h e r e f o r f o r t y y e a r s .
"He
was th e f i r s t Prim e M i n is te r t o r e c e iv e such a d e f i n i t e
p la c e in th e s c a le o f p re c e d e n c e , t h a t o f th e fo rm er Lord
T r e a s u r e r ." 57
Out o f r e s p e c t t o h i s memory t h e House a d ­
jo u rn e d a f t e r many e u lo g ie s and t r i b u t e s by th e le a d e r s o f
a l l p a rtie s .
There was h a r d ly an im p o rta n t f i g u r e who d id
n o t sp eak w ith p r a i s e o f th e l a t e c h i e f M i n i s te r .
Clemenceau
made a s p e c i a l v i s i t from P a r i s t o p u t a w re a th on h i s b i e r .
G en eral B otha s e n t, a c a b le o f sym pathy from S outh A f r i c a . 58
A few weeks a f t e r h i s d e a th Mr. A sq u ith moved i n
th e House:
T hat a humble a d d r e s s be p r e s e n te d t o h i s M a je sty p ra y ­
in g t h a t h i s M a je sty w i l l g iv e d i r e c t i o n s t h a t a monument
be e r e c te d i n th e C o lle g ia te Church a t S t . P e t e r ,
56 The Times (London, 1908) A p r il 23, 4 a .
57 Bigham, o p . c i t . , 326-327.
58
J . A . S p e n d e r , The L i f e o f t h e R i g h t H o n o r a b le
S i r H en ry C a m p b e ll-B a n n e r m a n . I I , 3 9 2 - 3 9 6 .
W e s tm in s te r, t o th e memory o f th e l a t e R ig h t H onourable
S i r Henry Cam pbell-Bannerm an w ith an i n s c r i p t i o n e x ­
p r e s s iv e o f th e h ig h se n se e n t e r t a i n e d by t h i s House
o f th e em inent s e r v ic e s re n d e re d by him t o th e c o u n try
i n P a rlia m e n t and in th e g r e a t o f f i c e s o f S t a t e ,
H is r e s o l u t i o n was a g re e d t o u n an im o u sly .
was p la c e d in W e stm in ster Abbey i n 1 9 1 2 .
RQ
The monument
P a r t o f th e d e sig n
i s a r e d m arb le b u s t by P a u l R aphael M o n tfo rd .
He was
a ls o com m issioned t o make a f u l l le n g th s t a t u e f o r S t i r l i n g ,
Funds f o r t h i s w ere r a i s e d by p u b lic s u b s c r i p t i o n , and i t
was u n v e ile d by Mr, A sq u ith on November 1 , 1913.
63_
C am pbell-B annerm an’ s d e a th seemed th e p a s s in g o f t r u e
L ib e r a lis m .
H is b e l i e f s were th e V ic to r ia n ones o f P eace,
R etren ch m en t, and R eform .
George D a n g e rfie ld sa y s t h a t
" S i r H enry’ s p o l i t i c a l f a i t h had been a n o b le one i n i t s
d a y ," one t h a t had condemned th e B oer War, reform ed th e
army and n avy, h e lp e d t h e w orking c l a s s r i d i t s e l f o f ig n o ra n c e
and p o v e r ty .6^
Cam pbell-Bannerm an had been a s u c c e s s f u l Prim e M in is te r ,
n o t b ec au se o f g e n iu s , h ig h i n t e l l e c t , o r im p assio n ed e l o ­
q uence, b u t b ec au se h i s i n t e r e s t s w ere th e s e n s i b le ones o f
any s u c c e s s f u l b u s in e s s man.
H is l o y a l t y , sh rew d n ess, and
The Times (London, 1908) May 19, 8 c .
L ee, op. c i t . , I , 312.
^
J . A . S p en d er, The L ife o f th e R ig h t H onorable
S i r H enry C am pbell-B annerm an, I I , 4S5,*“
^
George D a n g e rfie ld , The S tra n g e D eath o f L ib e r a l
E n gland, 16.
106
f ir m w i l l le d him t o ad o p t a l i n e o f a c ti o n and s t i c k t o i t *
H is good b ack g ro u n d , h i s even te m p e r, humor, and t a c t gave
him f r i e n d s and a l l i e s . 63 He succeeded ad m irab ly i n th e
d i f f i c u l t t a s k o f h o ld in g t o g e th e r th e d iv e r s e and h o t ­
headed e le m e n ts o f th e L ib e r a l p a r t y , w hich was in d e e d a
r e a l a c h ie v e m e n t.64
One m ig h t c a l l h i s s u c c e s s one o f c h a r a c t e r r a t h e r
th a n o f g e n iu s .
He was h e lp e d by h i s courage and common
s e n s e , and a l s o by t h e d e v o tio n and th e i n s p i r a t i o n o f h i s
w i f e . 65
W hile n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y e lo q u e n t, Cam pbell-Bannerm an
e x p re s s e d h im s e lf p r e c i s e l y and had th e r a r e g i f t o f le a v in g
many th i n g s u n s a id .
Campbell-Bannerman* s p e r s o n a l i t y was n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y
s t r i k i n g , and he was o f te n c o n s id e re d r a t h e r d u l l and u n ­
d i s t in g u i s h e d .
H is q u a l i t i e s o f le a d e r s h ip g r a d u a lly
b ro u g h t him a d m ir a tio n .
in g man.
Always he was a f r i e n d o f th e w ork­
H is s i n c e r i t y , c o u ra g e , and c o n s is te n c y won him
" th e a p p ro v a l o f th e m asses, t h e s u p p o rt o f h i s p a r t y , and
th e r e s p e c t o f h i s o p p o n e n ts .” 66
66 The Times (London, 1908) A p r il 23, 4 a .
64.
" S i r H enry C am pbell-B annerm an," The L iv in g Age,
2 5 7 :3 1 4 , May 2 , 1908.
65 " S i r H enry C am pbell-B annerm an," The O u tlo o k , 8 9 :6 ,
May 2 , 1908.
66 A rth u r G o o d rich , " S i r H. C am pbell-B annerm an,"
Am erican I l l u s t r a t e d M agazine, 6 1 :6 8 1 -6 8 2 , A p r i l , 1906.
107
I t was p l a i n t h a t S i r H en ry ’s d e s ir e was n o t f o r
p e r s o n a l advancem ent b u t f o r s e r v ic e t o h i s c o u n tr y .
i d e a l o f p u b lic s e r v ic e was e x a c tin g .
H is
He c o n s id e re d th e
r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s g r e a t e r th a n th e p r i v i l e g e s .
I t was t h a t
s p i r i t w hich h e lp e d save h i s p a r ty from d e m o r a liz a tio n .
He was e x tre m e ly h o n e s t and u n p r e te n tio u s .
A lthough he en­
jo y ed h i s p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r , he a c c e p te d h i s d u t i e s c h e e rf u l l y and d id n o t co m plain when th in g s d id n o t go h i s way.
60
A shrew d ju d g e o f c h a r a c te r , he had no p a tie n c e w ith
fla tte ry .
He r e f u s e d t o p re te n d l i k i n g f o r p eo p le he d id
n o t l i k e , and on o c c a s io n he p ro v ed h im s e lf a good h a t e r .
70
Andre* M aurois s a y s o f him:
He was a r e a l l e a d e r , o f g r e a t m oral c o u ra g e , c a p a b le
o f fa c in g u n p o p u la r ity r a t h e r th a n deny h i s b e l i e f s .
He had been m isju d g ed b e c a u s e , l i k e a good S c o t, he was
s i l e n t and a l o o f . He b elo n g ed t o t h e r i c h m id d le c l a s s .
He had th r e e p a s s io n s : f o r h i s w ife , t o whom he was
s im p le -h e a r te d and t o t a l l y d e v o te d ; f o r F ren ch l i f e ,
w hich he lo v e d t o th e p o in t o f c r o s s in g by th e m orning
b o a t and r e t u r n i n g by th e ev en in g o n e, and f o r h i s
w alk in g s t i c k . 7J*
S i r Henry made no show w ith h i s money, l i v i n g q u i e t l y
67 "C am pbell-B annerm an’ s P o p u l a r i t y ,” The N a tio n , 86:
398, A p r il 30, 1908.
68 HThe New p rjjae M i n i s t e r , ” L iv in g Age, 8 4 7 :8 1 4 ,
December 3 0 , 1905.
69 "H enry C am pbell-B annerm an,” L iv in g Age, 2 5 7:315,
May 2 , 1908.
70
I.
A. S p en d er, The L ife o f th e R ig h t H onorable
S i r Henry C am pbell-B annerm an, . I I , 49.
71
f
Andre M au ro is, E dw ardian E r a , 128-129.
and s a n e ly among a sm a ll c i r c l e o f f r i e n d s . 72
H is i n t e r e s t
i n la n g u a g e s and s c h o la r s h ip i n g e n e r a l made him a good
l i n g u i s t and a w e l l - r e a d man.
was t r a v e l*
One o f h i s g r e a t e n th u sia sm s
He was th e same in p u b lic a s a t home, a hum orous,
k in d ly man who a p p e a le d to p e o p l e .73
n a tu r e n e v e r f a i l e d .
H is k in d n e ss and good
He had a l s o a k e e n se n se o f humor, n o t
74.
commonly b e lie v e d to c h a r a c t e r iz e th e S c o ts m a n .'1
*
In ap p e a ra n c e he was s o l i d and w e ll b u i l t .
H is p o r­
t r a i t s show a f a t f a c e , b r i g h t e y e s , and humorous e x p r e s s io n
75
—a t y p i c a l S cotsm an.
In h i s p e r s o n a l h a b i t s S i r H enry
was c o n s e r v a tiv e and a v e rs e t o change.
He n e v e r le a r n e d t o
l i k e m otor c a r s b u t en jo y ed d r iv in g a c a r r ia g e b e h in d a p a i r
o f f i n e h o r s e s . 7S
The d e a th o f S i r H enry Cam pbell-Bannerm an b ro u g h t th e
e x p re s s io n o f g r e a t t r i b u t e .
He was c e r t a i n l y one o f th e
m ost p o p u la r, i f n o t th e b e s t- lo v e d , man i n E ngland, a lth o u g h
j u s t a few y e a rs e a r l i e r he had been u n p o p u la r. 77
72 I . A. S p e n d e r, The L if e o f t h e B ig h t H onorable
S i r H enry Campbe 11 -B annerm an, I , 1 9 .
73 I b i d . , I I , 4 3 .
7* J u s t i n M cCarthy, B r i t i s h P o l i t i c a l P o r t r a i t s , 310.
75
Bigham, p p . c i t . , 327.
76 Raymond, op. c i t . , 3 1 .
77
" C a m p b e ll-B a n n e r m a n ’ s P o p u l a r i t y , "
8 6 :3 9 1 -3 9 2 , A p r il 3 0 , 1 9 0 8 .
The N a t i o n ,
109
D e s p ite h i s o r i g i n in a w e a lth y and c o n s e rv a tiv e
f a m ily , Cam pbell-Bannerm an had th e g r e a t e s t i n t e r e s t i n th e
common man and d id a l l he co u ld t o h e lp him a g a in s t o p p o s itio n
o f t h e House o f L o rd s,
F a te d e p riv e d C am pbell-B annerm an’ s P re m ie rs h ip
o f i t s f u l l f r u i t o f a c h ie v e m e n t, and th e r e i s some
d an g e r l e s t p o s t e r i t y sh o u ld judge him s o l e l y by h i s
b r i e f r e c o rd o f P a rlia m e n ta ry a c h ie v e m e n t.7 8
G en eral Smuts o f S outh A f r ic a u t t e r e d th e s e w ords
i n 1917:
I hope when you draw up a c a le n d a r o f em pire b u i l d e r s ,
you w i l l n o t f o r g e t th e name o f Cam pbell-Bannerm an, a
w ise man w ith p ro fo u n d f e e l i n g and p ro fo u n d p o l i t i c a l
i n s t i n c t who a c h ie v e d one o f th e w is e s t p o l i t i c a l s e t t l e ­
m ents i n t h e h i s t o r y o f t h i s c o u n tr y ,79
P erh a p s Lady C am pbell-Bannerm an’ s words sh o u ld be
h is f in a l tr ib u te .
"H enry i s a good m an," she s a i d , "how
good no one knows b u t m y s e lf ."
78 H aro ld S p en d er, "C am pbell-B annerm an,’’ L iv in g Age,
2 5 8 :1 1 , J u ly 4 , 19G8.
79 M alcolm , o p , c i t . , 4 6 .
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BIBLIOGRAPHY
PRIMARY MATERIAL
A*
BOOKS
O xford, E a r l , and K. G. A s q u ith , Memories and R e f le c t i o n s *
2 v o l s . ; B o sto n : L i t t l e , Brown and Company, 19&8.
B. DEBATES
Buck, C o r n e liu s , e d i t o r , H ansard*s P a rlia m e n ta ry D eb ates
(T h ird S e r i e s ) . London: 23 P a t e r n o s t e r Row. Volumes
CXCVII, 156-157, 771-775: CXCVIII, 801-802: CXCIX,
245; CCI, 1855; CCIV, 973-975; CCVIII, 822; CCXVIII,
703; CCXX, 1553-1556; CC2XI, 696-699; CCXXXII, 19341935; GCXLII, 1397; COLXXVI, 846; CCLXXVII, 210-212;
CCLXXXI, 1603.
t , H a n sa rd f s P a rlia m e n ta ry D eb ates (F o u rth S e r i e s ) .
Condon: R e u te r *s te le g ra m Company, L td . Volumes I ,
1251-1259; I I I , 287, 244, 436-1437, 1767-1768; XX, 130144, 924; LXVI, 101; LXXXIX, 99.
C.
NEWSPAPERS
The Tim es, London, E n g lan d . O cto b er 30, 1871; December 6,
1872; December 25, 1880; December 1 3 , 1884; May 6 , 1886
June 17, 1886; Ja n u a ry 20, 1887; F e b ru a ry 3 , 1887;
March 1 6 , 1887; J a n u a ry 7, 1888; J a n u a ry 24, 1889;
Ja n u a ry 11, 1891; Ja n u a ry 28, 1892; December 16, 1892;
November 1 , 1893; J u ly 10, 1895; J u ly 11, 1895;
J u ly 19, 1895; December 13, 1895; March 6 , 1896; June
8 , 1896; December 16, 1897; A p r il 12, 1899; March 4 ,
1901; J u ly 3 , 1901; December 2 5 , 1902; J a n u a ry 3 , 1903;
June 12, 1903; December 5 , 1905; December 6, 1905;
June 20, 1906; A ugust 3 1 , 1906; November 21, 1906;
O cto b e r 7 , 1907; A p r il 6, 1908; A p r il 23, 1908;
May 19, 1908.
112
SECONDARY MATERIAL
A.
BOOKS
A ld e n , P e rc y , D em ocratic E n g la n d ,
P r e s s , 191TI
New Y ork: The C hautauqua
Bigham, C liv e , The Prim e M in is te r s o f B r i t a i n 1721-1921,
New York: D u tto n and Company, 1924*
C ro ss, A rth u r Lyon, A S h o r te r H is to r y o f England and
G re a te r B r i t a i n S e w York:* M acm illan and Company, 1925.
D a n g e rfie ld , G eorge, The S tra n g e D eath o f L i b e r a l E n g lan d .
New York: H a r ris o n Sm ith and R o b ert H aas, 1935.
E n so r, R. C. K ., E ngland 1870-1914.
1956.
London: C laren d o n P r e s s ,
E i s h e r , H. A. L ., An I n tr o d u c to r y H is to r y o f E ngland and
E u ro p e. London: V ic to r C o lla n c z , 1935.
H alev y , E l i e , A H is to r y o f th e E n g lis h P e o p le .
London: E rn e s t Benn, L t d ., 1929*
Y o l. I .
L a rso n , L aurence M ., H is to r y o f England and t h e B r i t i s h
Commonwea 1 t h . New Y ork: Henry H o lt and Company, 1924.
L ee, E liz a b e t h , W ives o f th e Prim e M in is te r s 1844-1906.
New York: E . P . D u tto n and Company, n .d .
L ee, S i r S id n e y , e d i t o r , D ic tio n a ry o f N a tio n a l B io g ra p h y .
V o l. 1 . London: O xford U n iv e r s ity P r e s s , 1927.
M alcolm, S i r I a n , Vacant T h ro n e s.
Company, 1951.
London: M acm illan
M a r r i o t t , S i r j . A. R ., Modern England 1885-1952.
M ethuen and Company, L t d ., 1954.
M au ro is, A ndre, The E dw ardian E r a .
C en tu ry Company, 1955.
London:
New Y ork: D. A p p le to n *
M cCarthy, J u s t i n , B r i t i s h P o l i t i c a l P o r t r a i t s .
The O utlook Company, 19057
New Y ork:
113
M orley, Jo h n , The L if e o f W illia m E w ait G la d s to n e .
I I I . New York: M acm illan Company, 1903.
Raymond, E. T . , P o r t r a i t s o f th e New C en tu ry .
D oubleday, D oran and Company, 1928.
R aynor, R o b ert M ., N in e te e n th C entury E n g la n d .
Longmans, Green and Company, 1927.
V ol.
New York:
New York:
S p en d er, J . A ., G re at B r i t a i n , Empire and Commonwealth
1886-1935. London: C a s s e ll and Company, L t d . , 1935.
_______ , The L if e o f th e R ig h t H onourable s i r Henry
Cam pbell-B annerm an, 2 v o ls . New York: Houghton M i f f l i n
Company, 1924.
________, A S h o rt H is to r y o f Our Tim es.
A. S to k e s Company, n . “ cT.
New York: F r e d e r ic k
_______ , and C y r il A s q u ith , L ife o f H e rb e rt Henry A s q u ith ,
L ord O xford and A s q u ith . - London: H u tch in so n and
Company, 1932.
T o u t, T. F . , An Advanced H is to r y o f G re at B r i t a i n .
Y ork: Longmans, Green and Company, 1914.
T re v e ly a n , George M acaulay, H is to ry o f E n g la n d .
Longmans, G reen and Company, -1-934.
B.
New
New York;
PERIODICAL ARTICLES
B rooks, S id n e y , "C am pbell-B annerm an," H arp er* s W eekly,
4 8 :1 4 , J a n u a ry , 1904.
"C am pbell-B annerm an's P o p u l a r i t y ," The N a tio n , 8 6 :3 9 1 -3 9 2 ,
A p r il 30, 1908.
G oo d rich , A rth u r, " S i r H. C am pbell-B annerm an," A m erican
I l l u s t r a t e d M agazine, 6 1 :6 81-683, A p r il , 1906.
Lucy, Henry W., " S ix ty Y ears i n th e W ild e rn e s s ," The L iv in g
Age, 2 6 0 :4 7 7 -4 9 0 , F e b ru a ry , 1909.
M cCarthy, J u s t i n , " S i r Henry C am pbell-B annerm an," The
O u tlo o k , 7 3 :3 5 3 -3 5 9 , F e b ru a ry 7, 1903.
114
"The New Prim e M i n i s t e r ,” The L iv in g Age, 247:814-81,7,
December 30, 1905*
" S i r Henry C am pbell-B annerm an," The L iv in g Age, 2 5 7 :3 1 4 -3 1 7 ,
May 2, 1908.
" S i r Henry C am pbell-B annerm an," The O utlook, 8 9 :6 - 7 , May 2,
1908.
S m alle y , George W., " P e rs o n a l R em in iscen ces o f Famous Men
and Women," M cClure’ s M agazine, 1 8 :2 1 6 -2 2 6 , Ja n u a ry ,
1902.
S p en d er, H a ro ld , " S ir Henry C am pbell-B annerm an," The L iv in g
Age, 2 5 8 :1 1 -1 6 , J u ly 4, 1908.
S te a d , W. T . , "The N ext B r i t i s h Prim e M i n i s te r ," The
In d e p e n d e n t, 5 9 :2 0 1 -2 0 5 , J u ly 27, 1905.
" W o r l d - P o li t i c s ," N o rth Am erican R eview , 1 8 7 :1 3 2 -1 3 8 ,
J a n u a ry , 1908.
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
3
Размер файла
5 778 Кб
Теги
sdewsdweddes
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа