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The influence of Roman culture upon Rumanian civilization

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THE INFLUENCE OF ROMAN CULTURE
UPON RUMANIAN CIVILIZATION
A T hesis
P re se n ted to
the F aculty
o f th e D epartm ent o f L a t in
U n iv e rs ity of Southern C a lif o r n ia
In P a r t ia l F u lfillm e n t
o f th e R e q u ire m e n ts f o r th e Degree
M aster of A rts
by
Mary B a r b u l
J a n u a r y 194-0
UMI Number: EP60242
All rights reserved
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This thesis, w rit te n by
MARX BARBUL
under the direction of hгT.. F ac u lt y C o m m it te e ,
a n d a p p r o v e d b y a l l its m e m b e r s , has be en
p r e s e n te d to and a c c e p te d by the Co unc il on
G ra d u a te S t u d y and Res ea rch in p a r ti a l fu lfillн
m e n t o f th e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r the d e g r e e o f
MASTER OF ARTS
Secretary
Date.... EEBRUABX. y...19.40.
Faculty Committee
Chairman
-X
a J jlJ L
?--Ct *--
/7 6 3
(f
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PREFACE
i-iii
chapter
I.
"ROMANUL NON
P1RE?
II. THE LAND AND THE PEOPLE OFRUMANIA
III. ART,LITERATURE,CRAFTS,ANDLAW
IV .
THE CUSTOMS
V. THE LANGUAGE
1
10
22
34
53
CONCLUSION
60
BIBLIOGRAPHY
64
PREFACE
"Romanul non p e r e ? i s
s p i r i t o f th e R um anian.
the p roverb th a t e x p re sse s
The t h r e e w o r d s may b e s i m p l y t r a n s н
l a t e d a s **The R u m a n i a n n e v e r d i e s . ?
m eaning i n t h a t s e n t e n c e ,
for
There
i t holds
Rum anian*s p h i l o s o p h y o f l i f e ;
faith
the
and i t
i s a w orld o f
th e keynote of th e
is
the essen ce of h is
in h im s e lf and i n h i s f a t h e r l a n d .
In the face
ian hordes,
o f w ar,
op p ressio n ,
and in v ading b a rb a rн
m o u n tain - sh ep h erd and p la t e a u - f a r m e r have co n н
s o le d th em se lv e s w ith th e s e w ords, and have found s t r e n g t h
i n th e tim e o f a d v e r s i t y i n t h e know ledge t h a t t h o s e words
h a v e b e e n a m agic c h a rm t h a t w orked w e l l t h r o u g h o u t
c en tu rie s.
I t wa s t h i s
courage to c a rry on,
forced to
down t h e
trad itio n
know ledge t h a t g a v e t h e R um anian
to p e rp e tu ate h is
re tre a t in to
the
cu ltu re
e v e n when
the m ountain h i n t e r l a n d ,
of h is o rig in ,
an cestry ,
and to hand
and th e re a s o n
f o r h i s power o f e n d u ra n c e .
And w h e r e i n l i e s
th e m ag ical power of t h i s
proverb?
I f y o u w i l l a n a l y z e t h e word^Romanul*,* y o u w i l l f i n d
th a t the
root is
? Roman,#? a n d t h a t i s
For th e
R u m a n i a n i s Roman, a n d t h e Roman h a s n o t p e r i s h e d
from t h e e a r t h .
He l i v e s
th e answ er to your q u e s tio n .
tod ay in a l l
them selves c u ltu r e d and c i v i l i z e d .
Italy ,
S pain,
co u n tries
th at c a ll
You w i l l f i n d h i m i n
F r a n c e , E n g la n d ? and i n Rum ania.
ii
To s t r e n g t h e n t h e
quote
s t a t e m e n t o f my t h e s i s ,
I sh all
t h e w o r d s o f t h o s e who a r e c o n s i d e r e d a u t h o r i t i e s
the s u b je c t*
German,
I h a v e r e a d th e books o f Rum anian, F r e n c h ,
H un g arian , and L a t i n a u t h o r i t i e s *
w ith o u t ex cep tio n ,
statem en t.
I n them a l l ,
I h a v e f o u n d c o m p l e t e s u b s t a n t i o n o f my
T herefore
I p r e s e n t them f o r v e r i f i c a t i o n ,
g i v i n g b o th o r i g i n a l and t r a n s l a t e d v e r s i o n s .
latio n s,
u n less
earn estly
on
o th erw ise
sought to fin d
to i l l u s t r a t e
sta te d ,
a r e m ine,
The t r a n s н
and I have
t h e most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p a s s a g e s
my th e m e #
Because o f th e sa d l a c k o f s u f f i c i e n t books o b t a i n н
ab le
in th is f i e l d
my e v i d e n c e
th e f i e l d
is
Los A n g e l e s l i b r a r i e s ,
n o t com plete*
i n t h e Rum anian,
I found a v a i l a b l e .
languages are
B u ch arest,
in th e
Yet t h e r e
H ungarian,
and s c h o l a r l y
and F ren ch books t h a t
in th ese
p ro f e s s o r a t the U n iv e rs ity
co n trib u to r
p ro fe s s o r a t the U n iv e rsity of Ja ssy ,
noted f o r h i s
eru d ite h isto ry
K u l i f f a y Ede,
H ungarian h i s t o r i a n ;
Roman h i s t o r y ;
c h ie fly
Gereb J o s e f ,
an o th er
known f o r h i s v a l u a b l e b o o k o n
a R u m a n i a n who w r i t e s
and T h eo p h ile W echsler,
w hose Die
R um anlsche S p ra c h e I fo u n d th e m ost r e l i a b l e
of the
long
o f t h e Rum anian p e o p l e ;
P rin c e sse B ibesco,
in French;
of
t o Rum anian h i s t o r y ;
A#D. X e n o p o l ,
H u n g a r i a n h i s t o r i a n who i s
th at
i s a good su rv e y o f
The o u t s t a n d i n g a u t h o r i t i e s
N ico lae I o r g a ,
I feel
gram m ar.
i n f o r m a ti o n r e g a r d i n g th e custom s of th e
Much
peasants of
b o t h Old a n d New R u m a n i a ,
the c o u n try ,
the lan g u ag e,
I have o b ta in e d f i r s t - h a n d
come f r o m T r a n s y l v a n i a a n d B u c h a r e s t *
and the
Mf e e l M o f
f r o m my f a m i l y who
CHAPTER I
11ROMANUL NON PERE"
The p r i d e
o f . t h e R u m a n i a n i n h i s Roman h e r i t a g e
im m easurably g r e a t .
o f Rum ania,
says
h is c o u n try :
of our n a tio n ;
plan ted
a p rom inent h i s t o r i a n
i n h i s m on u m en tal work on t h e h i s t o r y
"In T ra ja n ?s conquest are la id
in
it
is
found the p r i n c i p l e
the
of
fo u n dations
of progress
imн
i n a n d b e c o m e i n s e p a r a b l e f r o m o u r e x i s t e n c e . 111
L a t e r he s a y s ,
cu ltu re,
ex ist
So A . D . X e n o p o l ,
is
in reference
th at " ...th e
t o th e R u m an ian 's d e s i r e f o r
o r i g i n and b e g in n in g o f t h i s
tendency
i n t h e p e r i o d o f Roman l i f e ."2
N .B anescu,
the s ta te m e n t t h a t
professor a t
the U n i v e r s i t y o f C l u j,
makes
" t h e R um anian p e o p l e o f t o d a y a r e t h e d i н
r e c t d e s c e n d a n t s o f t h e o l d Roman c o l o n y o f D a c i a . H e c o r н
ro b o rates
t h i s c la im by sa y in g t h a t "th e
tio n e d f o r th e f i r s t tim e h i s t o r i c a l l y
R u m a n i a n s a r e menн
by B y z a n tin e w r i t e r s
who r e p r e s e n t t h e m a s t h e d e s c e n d a n t s o f t h e Roman c o l o n i s t s .
?This h i s t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n
is found a ls o
in the f i r s t
Hunga-
TI
. D .X enopol, I s t o r i a R o m an ilo r d i n D acia T r a i a n a .
p . 2^4:
" i n c u c e r i r e a l u i T r a i a n s t2 f z a m i s l i r e a n a t i o n a l ! t a j , e i n o a s t r e ; to^t i n e a s t a ^ i p r i n c i p i u l p r o g r e s u l u i Jm p l a n t a t s i n e d e sp a r^ tit de a n o a s t r a f a p t u r a . "
2
I b i d . , p . 134:
" . . . c a o r i g i n e a ; b! i n c e p a t u r a a c e s t e i
t e n d i n g ! " s t a i n p e r i o a d a v i e ^ e i rom ane."
?^N.Banescu, H i s t o r i c a l S u r v e y o f t h e Rum anian P e o p l e ,
P-7.
2
r i a n c h r o n i c l e s and i n
t h e a n n a l s c f Homan h i s t o r y . ,,if
reite ra te s
the d e c l a r a t i o n i n th e s e w ords:
Homans a r e
the a n c e sto rs
of th e
fte
"The D a c i a n s and
Rum anian p e o p l e . " ^
More s u h s t a n t si a t i ' o n ? com es f r o m t h a t w e l l - k n o w n i n t e r н
n a tio n al w rite r,
w ith c l a r i t y
K onrad B e r c o v i c i ,
who su m s u p t h e
situ atio n
and b r e v i t y :
The R u m a n i a n s o f t o d a y c l a i m t o b e d e s c e n d a n t s o f
t h e l e g i o n a r i e s o f M a r c u s U l p & s T r a j a n u s who c o n q u e r e d t h e
Dac 1. a n n i h i l a t e d t h e m a l e p o p u l a t i o n , m a r r i e d t h e women,
and s e t t l e d t h e r e perm an en tly .о
A H u n garian h i s t o r i a n of n o te ,
g iv in g th e H ungarian
v e r s i o n o f t h e Romans i n T r a n s y l v a n i a ,
relu c ta n tly
t h a t "D espite
s h e k e p t h e r Roman
th is
(G othic
in v asio n s),
m em ories an d l i k e d to c a l l h e r s e l f
The C a r p a t h i a n s ,
ian in v a s io n s ,
For the
is
n a tiv es,
tru ly
t h e c r a d l e o f D aco-R om an c i v i l i z a t i o n .
escap in g to
m e n t s o f Roman c u l t u r e .
th is
th ese m ou ntain s,
m aintained '
passing of c e n tu r ie s
Banescu,
au th o rity
the r u d i н
on th e s u b j e c t ,
o f h i s own p e o p l e :
far--.y--......................................... .
? - ........
? Roman*."
th e haven of r e t r e a t a g a i n s t b a r b a r н
th r o u g h o u t i n v a s io n s and th e
w rites
adm its
Banescu,
........ -
Q p.C i t . , p . 7 *
^Ib id ., p .9 ?
6
I n c r e d i b l e B a l k a n s , p . 23*
7
to ta
n
S
^ K u l l f f a y , E r d e l y T o r t e n e t e .jp. 8 :
" A z e r t meg m e g t a r r o m a i e m l e k e i t s s z e r e t t e t e m a g a t *r o i n a i n a k * n e v e z n i . "
3
The c o l o n i s t s , a l t h o u g h u n p r o t e c t e d b y a n y g o v н
ernm ent ( a f t e r A u r e li a n w ith d rew th e l a s t of the l e g i o n s ) ,
c o n ti n u e d i n i t s p o p u l a r fo rm , th e'R o m an l i f e .
In the C arн
p a t h i a n s t h e d e s c e n d a n t s o f t h e Roman c o l o n i s t s c o n t i n u e d
t h e o l d Roman way o f l i v i n g . о
Of t h e s e sa m e C a r p a t h i a n s X e n o p o l s p e a k s i n p i c t u r e s q u e l y
fig u rativ e
l a n g u a g e when he c o m p a r e s t h e r e t r e a t
Daco-Romans t o a s n a i l d r a w i n g i t s
of the
body w ith in th e s h e l l
which s e r v e s a s a r e f u g e .
Near th e c i t y
o f B aia-M are i n T r a n s y l v a n ia ,
i n the
h id d en r e c e s s e s of th e m o u n tain s,
in p la c e s alm o st unapн
p r o a c h a b l e by th e
e x i s t today tw enty v i l н
average p erso n ,
l a g e s w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n o f t w e n t y t h o u s a n d f o l k who a r e
c a l l e d Mt h e
l a s t of the_D aci
T his
i s a n i n c r e d i b l e and
a m a z i n g s t a t e m e n t ? t h a t t h e r e c a n e x i s t t o d a y a p e o p l e who
by th e
are
l a w s o f h i s t o r y s h o u l d b e a 11d e a d " r a c e * .
3*hese f o l k
l o o k e d upon by th e R um anians w i t h a lm o s t r e v e r e n t i a l
awe.
The a d v e n t u r o u s s o u l who b r a v e s t h e p a s s e s o f t h e C a r н
p a t h i a n s comes b a c k w i t h a l m o s t I n c r e d i b l e
s i m p l e men a n d women, l i v i n g a c c o r d i n g t o
custom s of t h e i r a n c i e n t f o r e b e a r s .
th ey a re
9
of
these
th e s t a n d a r d s and
A lm ost i t
seems t h a t
shadowy g h o s t s s t e p p i n g from o u t of t h e
^B anescu,
?
tales
pages of an
Q p . C i t . л p . 12 ?
G-eorge O u d a r d , P o r t r a i t d e l a Ro u m a h l e a p . 2 12 s
"Dans un r e p l i de l a m o n ta g n e, e n v i n g t v i l l a g e s , v i v e n t l e s
d e r n i e r s D aces a u nombre de d i x - h u i t m i l l e .
4
a n c i e n t Roman h i s t o r y b o o k .
A leg en d ary s u p e r s t i t i o n clo u d s
t h e s e m o u n ta i n s e c t i o n s where t h e y l i v e .
My f a t h e r t e l l s
me, t h a t a s a y o u n g man, wh en h e s p e n t h i s v a c a t i o n s o n t h e
fam ily e s t a t e
in B aia-M are,
low t o n e s o f t h e s e
an cesto rs r e tr e a te d
MD a c s * M
the p easan ts
land-hungry do th ,
liv e
language,
is
of th e
l e f t t h e r e by t h e
them .
same t y p e
f o l k , whose
v a lle y of the r i v e r
to d ay in th e
relig io n ,
a s t r a n g e a n o m a l y o f c o r r u p t Roman,
T h e .c lo th in g these
these
to t h e s e m o u n ta in s when A u r e l i a n ' s w i t h н
T h e ir custom s, u t e n s i l s ,
raining t o o l s
i n aw ed a n d
I t seems t h a t
draw al of th e l e g i o n s opened the f e r t i l e
Danube t o t h e
talk ed
p ast.
and m ores a r e
They w ork i n m ines w i t h
Roman e n g i n e e r s a n d m i n e r s .
p e a s a n ts w ear and th e food
th e y eat.
t h a t p r e d o m i n a t e d when T r a j a n c o n q u e r e d
I n t h e s e r e g a r d s t h e y a r e p e r h a p s t h e t r u e s t Romans
liv in g .
I n h i s Rumania P a s t an d P r e s e n t
t h a t !,t h e W a l l a c h s
o f the c o u n try ,
Jam es S a m u elso n s a y s
(nam e o f R u m a n i a n s i n t h e n o r t h e r n p a r t
d e r i v e d f r o m t h e L a t i n *, F l a c c u s ,,f) a r e
scen d an ts of the R o m a n s . I t
is
deн
t h i s group of V lachi t h a t
f o r m e d t h e e t h n i c a l L a t i n e l e m e n t i n R u m a n i a . 1 ^ Re a l s o
q u o t e s f r o m P o p e P i u s I I who s a i d
s p e a k t h e Roman l a n g u a g e ,
t h a t Mt h e
but m u tilated .
p e o p l e e v e n now
it 1 2
IK rp T l 5 3 ^
N .F o s te r and D .R osto vsk y,
A Rum anian
12 J . S a m u e l s o n , Q p . C i t . . p . 1 5 3 .
H an d b o o k . p . 60*
G-uglielmo F e r r e r o ,
w rites
o f Rum ania:
d i s t i n g u i s h e d Roman h i s t o r i a n ,
" D a c i a was t h e
la s t g reat creatio n
Rome i n t h e W e s t . " " ^ He f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t e s h i s
of
p o in t by e x н
p l a i n i n g t h e v i r t u a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e o r i g i n a l G-ermanic
ele m en ts as r e p r e s e n te d by th e T h ra c ia n s i n t o
ranean type.
eyes,
w ith
The r a c e o f medium s t a t u r e ,
superseded th e t a l l
t h e i r b lue
o f the n a tiv e p o p u la tio n
1^5
eyes and f la x e n h a i r . ^
p r o o f o f Roman d e s c e n t
modern Rum anian la n g u a g e w h ic h " r e m a in s t o
th is day e s s e n tia lly L a tin in o r ig in ."
t h a t w hile th e
w ith d a rk h a i r and
su rv iv o rs
G leichen s t a t e s t h a t d e f i n i t e
i s found in the
the M e d ite rн
He g o e s o n t o p r o v e
b a r b a r i a n h o r d e s w e r e d e s t r o y i n g Roman c i v i н
lizatio n
i n t h e W e s t , a n d w h i l e t h e Romans w e r e l o s i n g
id en tity
in the
bards,
b ir th of such n a tio n s as th e
t h e v e r y name " R o m a n i " t h a t
th em selv es goes to s u b s t a n t i a t e
rea lly
sio n s."
th eir
F r a n k s a n d Lomн
th e D acians ad o p ted f o r
t h e view t h a t " t h e y were n e v e r
e n g u lf e d i n th e waves of s u c c e s s iv e b a r b a r i a n i n v a н
The f u n d a m e n t a l n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
of the
15 " L e s O r i g i n e s d u ^ F e u p l e Roumain* . " L 1I l l u s t r a t i o n .
S e p t . , 1929:
"L es M e d i t e r r a n e e n s , a l a t a l l l e p e t i t e ou
moyenne, a u s c h ev eu x b r u n s , aux yeux n o i r s , r e m p l a c e r e n t l e s
hommes a u s c h e v e u s b l o n d s , & l a t a l l l e g e a n t e e t a u x y e a u x
b le u s q u l p e u p la ie n t la c o n tre e a v an t la c o n q u ^ te."
1ij.
If
\
Ib id .;
La D a c i e f u t l a d e r n i e r e g r a n d e c r e a t i o n
d e Rome e n O c c i d e n t . "
" B u l g a r i a a n d R o u m a h i a 1. " The N a t i o n s o f T o d a y .
p .208.
6
Roman r a c e w e r e p r e s e r v e d b y t h e s e c o l o n i s t s
who f l e d
to the
m o u n tain s.
In h is
H .G .W ells,
stu p en d o u s u n d e rta k in g ,
In tra c in g c u ltu r e
now R o u m a n i a ,
for a ll
th e
The Ou t l i n e
su rv iv a ls,
passage
of conquest a f t e r co n q u est, th e
says:
of H is to ry .
wI n -
what is
of p e o p le s, and in s p i t e
t r a d i t i o n and I n h e r ita n c e
з h e Roman p r o v i n c e s o f D a c i a a n d M o e s i a I n f e r i o r s t i l l
of
kept
a L a t i n s p e e c h a n d m em or y a l i v e . ? 18
P ro fesso r Iorga,
i n E tu d es R oum aines. t r a c e s w ith
p a i n s t a k i n g s c h o l a r s h i p t h e o r i g i n o f t h e Rum anian p e o p l e
and th e v a r io u s c u l t u r e s
t h a t have i n f l u e n c e d them .
g i v i n g du e c r e d i t t o t h e
B y z a n t i n e a n d G-reek c u l t u r e s w h i c h
are
p ro fu sely re p re se n te d
arc h ite ctu re ,
i n t h e p r e s e n t - d a y Rum anian a r t ,
and l i t e r a t u r e ,
he l a y s s t r e s s
upon th e
n a l s t r a i n o f t h e Roman e l e m e n t w h i c h h e c l a s s i f i e s
b asis
of the
R oumanie . m e n t i o n s t h e
as the
i n w r i t i n g h i s P o r t r a i t de l a
l a n g u a g e o f Rumania a s ? t h e u n i q u e
i n s t r u m e n t o f c i v i l i z a t i o n w hich t h e
(R um anians) have
iл 18
As s t i l l
m ore c o n c l u s i v e e v i d e n c e o f t h e
^-576667
^
o rig in
Rum anian n a t i o n . * ^
G eorges O udard,
guarded?
W hile
?
?
?in flu e n ce s e tra n g ere s
p. 11.
18 p p . 2 6 - 2 7 *
th eo ry under
s u r l a n a t i o n r o u m a i n e , 11
7
d i s c u s s i o n , X e n o p o l may b e q u o t e d a g a i n :
'c h a ra c te ris tic
co in cid en ce
' R o m a n , 1, a n d i t s
G ibbon,
tin
language,
is a n o th er
i n t h a t a w hole d i s t r i c t
c ap ita l is
named ' R o m a n a t i *
th at p ro lific
t h a t "The W a l la c h l a n s s t i l l
?' T h e r e
h isto ria n ,
preserve
is c a lle d
^
assures h is read er
many t r a c e s
o f th e Laн
a n d h a v e b o a s t e d i n e v e r y a g e o f t h e i r Roman
descent
M iller adds:
lapse
of tim e,
from i t s
"The w o n d e r i s
th e language
th a t a f t e r such a long
s h o u ld h a v e d e g e n e r a t e d so l i t t l e
p r o t o t y p e . " 2i G i b b o n ,
t o q u o te him a g a i n ,
makes t h i s
p o in t:
T h e s e Roman c o l o n i s t s who s t a y e d a f t e r A u r e l i a n
w i t h d r e w , h i s a rm y c o n t i n u e d t o s e r v e t h e E m p i r e w h o s e a l l e н
g i a n c e t h e y h ad r e n o u n c e d by i n t r o d u c i n g am ongst t h e i r c o n н
quered the f i r s t n o tio n s of a g r i c u l t u r e , th e u s e f u l a r t s ,
and the co n v en ien ces o f c i v i l i z a t i o n . " 2^
In re fe re n c e
Brevfarium
to th e c o lo n is ts ,
of E u tro p iu s,
o n e may r e a d f r o m t h e
th a t these
pio n eers
o n l y p u r e Roman s t o c k b u t a l s o men " e x t o t o
brought to
the province
to s e t t l e
L atin
in clu d ed not
o r b e E o m a n o , 11
both in c i t i e s
and farm s# 2^
^ Q p .C i t . .p .224:
"Mu n u m a i n u m e l e c a p i t a l e i . d a r ^ i
a c e l a l i n t r e g u l u i j u d e г e s t e r o m a n , a n u m e ' R o m an a ji ?"
^ D e c l i n e a n d F a l l o f t h e Roman E m p i r e , 11 # 2 , p . 7*
21
The B a l k a n s , p . 22*
220 p.0lt..
I I 52,p.IT.
2^ V I I I s 6 ;
? v i c t a D a c i a e x t o t o o r b e Romano i n f i n i н
t e s e o c o p i a s hom inum t r a n s t u l e r a t a d a g r o s e t u r b e s e o l e n d a s . "
8
Professor
l o r g a .rem arks t h a t a lth o u g h th e c i t i e s
t h e Daco-Romans d i s a p p e a r e d ,
a s t h e y w e r e new a n d n o t f i r m l y
co n so lid a te d , h ein g f o r t i f i e d b arrack s f o r th e
m arkets f o r th e
i n a Roman
n eighboring p e asa n ts,
form t h e
so ld iers
the peo p le
"m aintained
24
Yet a n o th e r ' f a c t o r t h a t h elp ed c l a r i f y th e
fo r the
and
t r a d i t i o n of a v e ry a n c ie n t pop u lar c i -
v i l i z a t i o n b e q u e a t h e d t o them*
of these
of
B a l k a n p e o p l e was t h e f a c t t h a t many m e n ,
Roman C a t h o l i c p r i e s t h o o d ,
p rep arato ry tra in in g .
true
o rig in
stud y in g
w e n t t o Rome f o r t h e i r
Here t h e y d i s c o v e r e d m a n u s c r i p t s , p r e н
s e r v e d by e c c l e s i a s t i c s
th r o u g h o u t th e Dark Ages,
th e
These r e v e a l i n g docum ents had b e en
Romans i n R u m a n i a .
trea su red
in th e V atican a rc h iv e s
M iddle Ages,
a n d w e r e now f o r t h e
Rum anian s c h o l a r s .
th ro u g h o u t those
first
I n s p i r e d by t h i s
tellin g
of
in to le ra n t
tim e s t u d i e d
by
con firm atio n of n ativ e
t r a d i t i o n and l o r e p a s s e d on from g e n e r a t i o n to g e n e r a t i o n ,
th ese eager e n th u s ia s ts
were a r o u s e d t o a k e e n p a t r i o t i s m
by t h e i r r e m a r k a b l e a n c e s t r y .
th ey i n i t i a t e d
1*o r ig in s
R etu rn in g t o
propaganda based upon the
ro m a in e du p e u p l e r o u m a i n . ?^
w ording i t
"Dans l e s t r o i s
th e ir n ativ e
" c o n s c i e n c e de
Upon t h i s
pays (M o ld av ie,
prem ise,
V alach ie,
T ransyl-
v a n i e ) l e p e u p l e e s t f i e r d u nom d e R o u m a i n q u i d e r i v e
w? 1? ^
? Jl IW
!? I
?? ?? I II
I.
I I I III .111.? ? ? ? ! II
II HIM?
? ?
II
de
?
My A m e r i c a n L e c t u r e s ,
25
land,
p . 162.
J .U r s u , "A percu H is to r iq u e s u r l e
r o u m a i n , " La R o u m a n i e e n I m a g e s . I s L T .
P a ss e du p e u p le
26
R o m e . 11, M i r o n C o s t i n ,
p r o m i n e n t w r i t e r o f t h e Rum anian
R enaissance,
based h is
n ia n p eo p le,
form ed of t h e
S lav ic,
fact,
H ungarian,
p l e a s f o r n a t i o n a l u n i t y a s a Rumaн
L a tin elem en t,
of the
o r T u rk is h superim posed c u l t u r e s .
In
th e R e v o lu t i o n o f 1784, o r g a n i z e d by N ic o la s U rsu H o ria ,
had n o t only a n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r ,
one,
p u rifie d
f o r H o r i a was c a l l e d
but also
a p ro p ag a n d istic
HRex D a c i a e . 1'
P r o f e s s o r Rugene P i t t a r d ,
o f the U n iv e rs ity o f
Geneva,
who h a s made a n a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l s t u d y o f . R u m a n i a , c o m e s t o
the
co n clu sio n th a t th e
v a ils
p u r e Rum anian ty p e
is
t h a t w hich p r e н
i n s o u t h e r n T ra n s y lv a n ia and th e C a r p a th ia n v a l l e y s
Rumania p r o p e r . T h e y h a v e
short heads,
s tr a ig h t noses,
of
and
d a rk h a i r and e y e s . ^
But t h i s
a r g u m e n t f o r t h e q u e s t i o n o f Roman h e r i t a g e
may b e b e s t s e t t l e d b y
the
in co n tro v ertib le
fa c t th at
d a y R u m a n i a b e a r s a b u n d a n t m a r k s o f H o m e 's p r e s e n c e .
p lain s,
a n d m eadows a r e
to
th is
W alls,
c a l l e d b y Roman n a m e s ; c h i l d r e n a r e
c h r i s t e n e d O v l d i u s . V i r g . l l l u s : c u s t o m s c o n c e i v e d i n Rome a r e
carried
on s t i l l
by b o th a r i s t o c r a t
language p r e s e r v e s
trad itio n
is
the m other r o o t
and p e a s a n t ;
the v ery
i n pure form .
And i n
t h e Roman h e r i t a g e m o s t p r e d o m i n a n t l y m a r k e d .
^ ^ r a u , Qp.Cit. .p.1 7 *
^ C h a r l e s U pton C l a r k , U n i t e d R oum anla. p . 272.
CHAPTER I I
THE LAND AND THE PEOPLE
Rumania I s
situ ated
in s o u th e a s te r n E urope, being
bounded on th e s o u t h and s o u t h e a s t by B u l g a r i a ,
D elta,
and th e B lack Sea;
on th e e a s t by R u s s ia ;
a n d n o r t h e a s t b y G e rm a n y a n d H u n g a r y ;
Y u g o slav ia.
on t h e n o r t h
a n d on t h e w e s t by
P h y s i c a l l y th e c o u n try v a r i e s g r e a t l y and c o n н
ta in s w ith in i t s
p lain s,
t h e Danube
b o u n d a rie s m o untains,
h ills,
p lateau s,
and
each c o v e rin g an ap p ro x im ately p ro p o rtio n a te a r e a .
The C a r p a t h i a n s f o r m t h e v e r t e b r a e
th is range lie s
the
w ooded a n d f e r t i l e ,
m oun tain r e g io n s
of the c o u n try .
W est o f
T ran sy lv an ian p la te a u .
Here t h e la n d
and t h i c k l y
It
populated.
is
is
in the
t h a t one c a n f i n d t h e q u a i n t p r i m i t i v e n e s s
of the c i v i l i z a t i o n
l e f t b e h i n d b y t h e Roman c o n q u e r o r s .
Surrounding the h i l l s
th e M oldavian p l a t e a u ,
are
th e p la in s
of the T isa ,
th e Danube,
and th e p r e - B a lk a n ic - B u lg a r ia n p l a i n .
T hus R u m a n i a * s g e o g r a p h y p r e s e n t s a f o r m o f n a t u r a l d e f e n s e s .
T hese d e f e n s e s a r e fo rm e d by t h e wide p l a t e a u o f
T ran sy lv an ia s e rv in g as a f o r t r e s s
by t h e p l a i n s
M arm uresh.
riv ers:
o f M oldavia,
Beyond t h e s e
W & llachia, B a n a t,
lie s
on th e w e s t.
" t h is c o n fig u ra tio n of lan d ,
surrounded
C rishana,
and
th e r e g i o n bounded by l a r g e
th e D n ie s te r on th e e a s t ,
and th e T h eiss
of la s t re s o rt,
t h e Danube on t h e
So o n e c a n r e a d i l y
see
a f f o r d i n g a n a t u r a l and
south,
th at
most
11
e ffe c tiv e defence,
D acia,
e n a b le d the i n h a b i t a n t s
to p reserv e to t h i s
istic s,
a n d c u s t o m s *1*1
o f e a r l y Rum ania,
day t h e i r la n g u a g e ,
ch aracter -
The p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n o f R u m a n i a ,
m o r e o v e r , h a s made t h a t c o u n t r y I n t e r n a t i o n a l l y
im po rtant.
I sp e ak o f th e highw ay,
t h e r i v e r D a n u b e , w h i c h G-reek n a v i 2
g a t o r s and t r a v e l l e r s c a l l e d th e ? i s t r o s ,
and of th e tra d e
r o u t e which c o n n e c t s t h e B a l t i c
The c l i m a t e
is v a ria b le ,
t o many d e g r e e s b e l o w z e r o .
and B lack S e a s .
d ro p p in g from A fric a n h e a t
H e at shim m ers on t h e p l a i n s
n o t e d f o r t h e i r **Fata M o r g a n a ; ?* b r e e z e s f r o m t h e R u s s i a n
steppes freeze
t h e Danube o v e r n i g h t .
rage o c c a s io n a lly .
ever,
lie s
B etw een t h e s e e x tre m e s
the cool p lea san tn ess
in g en eral,
W hirlw inds and c y c lo n e s
of w eather,
howн
o f a m ild te m p e r a tu r e ,
and
one s h o u ld t h i n k o f t h e Rum anian c l i m a t e a s
c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a d e l i g h t f u l b r e e z e ,
g rain fie ld s ,
r i p p l i n g the g o ld e n
w h isp erin g through th e f r a g r a n t C a rp ath ia n
p in es.
The l a n d i s
in o il d ep o sits,
so il f e r tile
c e re a l crops;
rich
i n m ines^of g o ld , c o p p e r,
and c o a l ;
i n p a s t u r e - l a n d s upon w hich g r a z e s t o c k ;
w ith o rc h a rd s and v in e y a r d s ,
in
and l a d e n w ith
and i n m o u n ta in s w hich s u p p l y v a l u a b l e
tim b er.
R u d e a n o , ? F ro m Rome t o B u c a r e s t , " B u l l e t i n o f S o c i e t y
o f F r i e n d s o f Ruma n i a , p . 1 8 .
2 N. I o r g a ,
H l s t o l r e d e s Roum alns. p . 11.
^ H e r o d o tu s I V : 104.
12
A ll in a l l ,
th is
co u n try i s
i d e a l f o r b o th fa r m e r and m in e r,
h e rd s m a n and lumberman*
Ho o t h e r c o u n t r y i n E u r o p e h a s a m ore m a g n i f i c e n t
gatew ay th ro u g h i t s
o p e n s Rum ania t o
fro n tie rs
t h e w est*
t h a n t h a t by w h ic h t h e Danube
The r i v e r g l i d e s a l o n g t h e p r o н
t e c t i n g w a lls of th e C a r p a t h ia n M o untains u n t i l
narrow d e f i l e *
Then s u d d e n ly th e s h e e r ,
o f th e Kazan P ass r i s e
side
to
it
reaches a
p erp en d icu lar c l i f f s
up from th e w a t e r ' s edge on e i t h e r
t h e h e i g h t o f 2 ,0 0 0 f e e t .
th a t the w ater flo w s th ro u g h i t
the tu r b u le n c e o f t h i s p a s s ,
So n a rr o w i s
as a to rre n t*
lik e
trance
of a c a stle ,
stan d
of the
Iro n G ates.
Grim s e n t i n e l s
the
th is c le ft
J u s t beyond
p o rtc u llis
i n m enacing t h r e a t t h e
th ey stan d ,
a t the e n н
Jagged ro ck s
guardians
of
"Pater. D ^n uv iu s."
T h e r e w a s o n l y o n e p e o p l e o f t h e a n c i e n t w o r l d who
d a re d to pass th e s e s i l e n t w atchers
o n l y o n e p e o p l e who h a d t h e
n acity
m il i ta r y s k i l l and p e rs o n a l t e н
to a tte m p t th e co n q u est of th e s e fo rm id ab le b a r r i e r s
of n atu re*
eag le,
of the w e s te rn f r o n t i e r ;
the
They m arc h ed i n t r i u m p h ,
c a r r y i n g t h e Roman
symbol o f t h e i r n a t i o n a l p r i d e ;
w ealtfi and b e a u ty of th e
land;
th ey c o v e te d the
and they a l s o
feared th e
imн
m i n e n t t h r e a t o f b a r b a r i a n s a c r o s s t h e D a n u b e, R om e's n a н
t u r a l boundary of h e r N e a r-E a s te rn p r o v i n c e s .
t i c a l and m ercen ary r e a s o n s ,
war u n t i l th e
So,
fo r p o liн
t h e s e Roman l e g i o n a r i e s
n a t i v e s were c o m p l e t e ly su b d u e d u n d e r
w a ged
th e yoke*
13
T hen t h e s e c o n q u e r o r s s t a m p e d u p o n t h e c o n q u e r e d t h e c u l t u r e
o f t h e i r own i m m o r t a l c i t y
of .H o m e # And no n a t i o n ,
w ith
has ever t o t a l l y
the d ie of t h a t c i t y ,
p a tte rn of her c iv iliz a tio n *
So i t
stam ped
fo r g o tte n the
i s w i t h Rumania to d a y #
S a i l i n g down t h e D a n u b e , o n e may r e a d f r o m t h e d e c k
of the
v isib le
steam er,
to
th is
the
i n s c r i p t i o n of the co nquering T ra ja n ,
d ay on t h e
c liff:
IMP# CAESAR D I V I IflERVAE F . NERVA TRAIANUS AUG.
GERM. PONTIFEX MAXIMUS T R IB . POT. I I I I
PATER PATRIAE COS.
I I I MONT(IBUS E X C I S I S ) A(M NI)BU(S) S U P ( E R ) A T ( I S ) VIAM F E C I T .
I t sta n d s as a s i l e n t rem inder of th e
power and m ig h t of
Rome.
Y e t T r a j a n h a d r a i s e d a m onum ent more e n d u r i n g t h a n
stone;
" h e h a d c r e a t e d a Roman p e o p l e . " ^
F or even to d a y ,
a f t e r t h e p a s s i n g o f many c e n t u r i e s ,
th e Rum anian p r i d e s h i m s e l f upon h i s
him self s e le c te d
try s t i l l
D espite
h e r i t a g e and f e e l s
a n d h o n o r e d among n a t i o n s b e c a u s e h i s c o u n н
bears th e
o r ig in a l foundation of .its c u ltu r e .
in te r m in g lin g w ith b a rb a r ia n s and the
of S lav and B y zan tin e c & ltu re ,
c iv iliz atio n
4
t h a t the
the ro o ts
ab o rig in es
su p erim p o sitio n
o.f t h e f i r s t
ever ex p erien ced are
true
still
t h e b a s i c e l e m e n t s o f t h e m odern Rum anian c u l t u r e .
^C orpus I n s c r lp tlo n u m L a tln a ru m . 1 1 1 :1 ,
1699.
^ D i m i t r i O n c iu , D in I s t o r l a R o m a n le l. p . 7: " . . a
c a t u n m o n u m e n t m ai n e p e r i t o r ................ p o p o r u l r o m a n . "
rid i-
14
n i n e t e e n c e n t u r i e s ago th e
In h ab itan ts
of th e B alkans
w e r e t h e T h r a c i a n s who d w e l t o n b o t h s i d e s
o f t h e Danube a s
f a r so u th as G reece,
l a n d s o c c u p i e d by
the C e lts .
trib e s
and n o rth w ard s to th e
T hese T h r a c i a n s were d i v i d e d i n t o
in dep en d en t
o f w h i c h t h e D a c i a n s a n d Get&e w e re p r o m i n e n t m em bers.
Of t h e s e G e t a g H e r o d o t u s s a y s s
" ...th e
m ost j u s t . " ^
th e c o u n t r y w hich i s
They i n h a b i t e d a l l
known a s Rum ania and g a v e i t
t r i b e , ?' D a c i a . 11
e x ile,
7
O v id ,'
v ip e r 's g a ll.
th e
These b a r b a r i a n s ,
m ost v a l i a n t and th e
name o f t h e
tod ay
p rev a ilin g
so w r i t e s t h a t e m b i t t e r e d
w e r e w i l d h o r s e m e n who s h o t a r r o w s t i p p e d w i t h
T h e i r h a i r and b e a r d s w ere untrim m ed an d u n н
k ep t?a rev o ltin g sig h t
to the f a s t i d i o u s l y
g e n t l e m a n ? a n d t h e i r c l o t h i n g was o f s h a g g y ,
an im al s k in s .
Of L a t i n t h e y kn ew n o t h i n g . о
laughed^at th e
p o e t's d e sp e ra te attem p ts
g r o o m e d Roman
lo n g -h aired
Indeed,
they
t o e n g a g e them i n
^ IV :93-941
7 T r l s t l a V i v l i , 13- 1 8 : 49-505
T g e n t l s ) p e r m ediae i n e q u i s i t q u e . r e d l t q u e v i a a
i n q u i b u s e s t nemo, q u l n o n c o r y t o n e t a r c u m
telaq u e v lp ereo lu r id a f e l l e gerat#
vox f e r a , t r u x v u l t u s , v e r i s s i r a a M a r t i s imago
non coma, non u l l a b a r b a r e s e c t a m a n u
.
p e l l i b u s e t l a x l s a r c e n t m ala f r i g o r a b r a c i s ,
o ra q u e s u n t l o n g i s h o r r i d a t e c t a com is*
оI b l d . : 5 3 - 5 4 i
u n u s i n h o c nemo e s t p o p u l o , q u i f o r t e
q u a e l l b e t e m edio r e d d e r e v e r b a q u e a t .
L atin e
9I b i d i V : x , 37-38:
b a r b a r u s h i e e g o sum , q u i n o n i n t e l l e g o r u l l i ,
e t r i d e n t s t o l i d i v e rb a L a tin a G etae;
15
co n v ersa tio n -
Of c i t y
was a c r u d e l y f o r t i f i e d
c itie s,
so e a s i l y
life
th ey had l i t t l e .
encam pm ent.
T h eir c a p i t a l
Why t r o u b l e
c a p t u r e d by w a n d e r i n g t r i b e s ,
i s alw ays the r e f u g e o f m o u n tain r e t r e a t s ?
th e y were p r i m a r i l y s h e p h e r d s ,
liv in g
to b u ild
when t h e r e
So b y o c c u p a t i o n
i n sim ple w h ite h u ts
on th e g r e e n m ou ntain s l o p e s .
The g o v e r n m e n t o f t h e s e
sy stem ,
f o l k wa s s i m p l e s
l o c a l c h i e f s b e i n g r u l e d by v a l l e y p r i n c e s ,
suprem e l e a d e r b e i n g t h e k i n g o f th e
When G r e e k t r a d e r s
ters
a feudal
type of D e c e b a lu s .^
came t o T o m i , C a l l a t i s ,
on t h e B lac k S e a ) ,
these
and H i s t r i a
r e ig n o f A lexander
the G r e a t,
first
th is era
the
Today a r e f o u n d p i e c e s o f g o l d c o i n ,
o f G reek i n f l u e n c e ,
tim e
who w a g e d w a r a - '
g a i n s t them and t h e i r k in g a t S a r m iz e g e tu s a ,
c a p i t a l #H
(cenн
o v e r l o r d s gave them p r o t e c t i o n .
We h e a r o f t h e s e s t r a n g e b a r b a r i a n s f o r t h e
during the
the
i n the s i g n e t r in g s
an cien t
in d ic atin g
and o rn aн
m e n t s t h a t t h e men a n d women w e a r .
Under the D a cia n k in g B o e r e b i s t e s ,
made f o r a y s
in to
ih a ra s s i n g ? the
the
n e i g h b o r i n g Roman p r o v i n c e s ,
ru lers.
T acitu s w rite s
M oesia and F a n n o n i a ( s o u th
^ N .Io rg a ,
these b a rb a ria n s
of th e
thereby
pro v in ces
of
o f m odern Rumania) b e i n g s u r r o u n d e d
My A m e r i c a n L e c t u r e s , p . 1 6 3 .
^
11K u l i f f a y , E d e , E r d e l y T o r t e n e t e , p . 55
"A d a k o k a
t o r t e n e t s z in p a d a n l e g e l o s z o r nagy Sandor id e je b e n l e ^ t e k
f o l , k i e l l e n o k h a b o r u t v i s e l t , d e nem s i k k e r e l .
A dakok
k i r a l y a e k k o r S a r m iz e g h e tu s a b a volt.**
b y t h e S a r m a t i a n s a n d D a c i a n s .-^2 J u s t b e f o r e h i s a s s a s s i n a н
tio n ,
J u l i u s C a e s a r was p l a n n i n g a c a m p a ig n a g a i n s t t h e
13
D acians,
who h a d a l r e a d y c r o s s e d t h e D a n u b e a n d e s t a b l i s h e d
th em se lv e s upon both b a n k s , a n d
th e T h racian re g io n s .
were b e g i n n i n g t o
invade
15
D u rin g th e r e i g n o f A ugustus C a e s a r ,
a D a c i a n a rm y
o f 200,000 men, c o m p l e t e l y e q u i p p e d w i t h b r e a s t p l a t e s ,
m ets, c u rv e d sw ords,
and poisoned arrow s fa c e d th e w o rried
Homan p r o v i n c i a l s a c r o s s
the b o r d e r .
So g r e a t was t h e f e a r
o f t h e s e b a r b a r i a n s m a r c h i n g i n t o Roman l a n d s ,
g o ssip ers
th at
the
o f t h e Forum w h i s p e r e d b e h i n d t h e i r h a n d s ;
g u stu s in te n d s
h elн
?Auн
to m arry th e d a u g h te r o f t h e b a r b a r i a n Cotyso
and th u s have p eac e.
U n d e r'th e ir c h ie f ta in - k in g ,
C otyso,
the D acians
r e a c h e d th e h e i g h t o f t h e i r pow er, and u n d e r h i s l e a d e r s h i p
p e r ile d the very w a lls
c ity
o f Rome, ^ - a n d c a s t
s h o r tly a f t e r J u l i u s C a e s a r's d e a th .
d au n tless w arrio rs
terro r in to
Indeed,
the
these
i n 89 A.D. f o r c e d D o m i t i a n t o g r a n t them
I 2r| | j [ g ^ r ^ e s ^ j y . 54 .
rr7 7 v u l g a t o r u m o r e a S a r m a t i s
D a c is q u e M o esia ac P a n n o n i a h i b e r n a c i r c u m s e d e r i ? ?
^ S u e to n iu s,A u g u stu s,V III:2 s
" . . e x p e d i t i o n e m i n D a co s
14
ii
T a c i t u s , O p.G i t . . 3*46:
. . . u t r a q u e D anuvii r i p a
p o tieb an tu r. ?
et
^ S u e t o n i u s . J u l i u s .X L I V ; 3 ?
? ..D a co s,
T hraciam e f f u d e r a n t , c o e r c e m . . M
q u i se
i n P on tum
^ S u e t o n i u s , A u g u s t u s , 63
17
K u l i f f a y , Q p . C i t . л p . 5 s M? ? . C o t y s o . .Roma f a l a i a l a .
h a t o l t es m egrem egtette a v i l a g v a r o s t ."
1?
a p early
g i f t 11 o f a s p e c i f i e d a m o u n t o f m o n e y ! 1о And t h i s
in cid en t occurred a f t e r
th e em p ero r had d e c l a r e d a ?d u p lic em
t r i u m p h u m ,,^ ? o r t h e D a c i a n c a m p a i g n . E v e n T a c i t u s , c l a i m s
th at h is u n ju stifie d
20
stock.
t r i u m p h o v e r t h e D a c i a n s was a l a u g h i n g
1'hey w e r e a l w a y s a t h o r n i n t h e
these b a rb a ria n s .
s i d e o f t h e Romans ?
T h i s a n n o y a n c e t o ftoman p r e s t i g e
m o r e o v e r i n c r e a s e d by t h e
in d isp u tab le
fact
wa s
t h a t no c a m p a ig n
e v e r w a g e d a g a i n s t t h e m h a d come t o a s u c c e s f u l v i c t o r y .
So i t was t h i s
u n c o n q u e r a b le p e o p le t h a t t h e Emperor T r a j a n
p l a n n e d t o c o n q u e r i n t h e y e a r 1 0 1 A .D .
I t was t h e i r k i n g
D e c e b a l u s who h a d t o l d
Rome, t h r o u g h C o r n e l i u s F u s c u s s e n t
to b a ttle
t h a t he w o u ld g r a n t p e a c e a t t h e
a g a i n s t him ,
o f f,two a s s e s f o r e v e r y s o l d i e r ' s
p rice
h e a d ."^1 S i n c e t h e Romans
d i d n o t b a r g a i n i n t e r m s o f mere,_ c o p p e r ' c o i n ^ , F u s c u s was
d efeated
and s l a i n .
It
i s J u v e n a l who w r i t e s h i s
o b itu a ry :
E t q u i v u l t u r i b u s s e r v a b a t v i s c e r a D a c i s 22
F u s c u s , m arm orea m e d i t a t u s p r o e l i a v i l l a .
^ G - e r e b , J o s e f , A Rom alak T o r t e n e t e , p . 5 0 2 : " e v e n k e n t
a j a n d e k o t " . K u l l f f a v . E d e . O p . C i t . . t>. 5 l
?adof i z e t e s r e k e n y sze rite tte .?
IQ
S u e to n iu s , D o m itian . V I:1 :
. . . d e c h a t t i s D acisque
p o s t v a r i a p r o e l i a d u p lic e m trium phum e g i t . . . "
^ QA g r i c o l a , 3 9 ?
^ j.B .B u ry ,
A H i s t o r y o f t h e Roman E m p i r e ,
2^ S a t i r e s . I V : 3 ?
p.4 0 8 ╗
18
T h i s sa m e D e c e b a l u s ,
who a t t h e b a t t l e
o f T apia,
where u n d e r
t h e Roman g e n e r a l , J u l i a n u s , t h e s l a u g h t e r o f t h e D a c i a n s
23
was Im m ense,
f o r c e d u p o n t h e q u a s i - v i c t o r i o u s Romans t h e
term s o f t r i b u t e ,
*2 4
Dac i a l
e n g i n e e r s a n d workmen,
t o be s e n t o u t t o
T h u s i t was t h a t i n t h e y e a r 1 0 1 A . D . , o n t h e t w e n t y fifth
o f M arch, T r a j a n d e p a r t e d from t h e c i t y
w i t h h i m a p a r t o f t h e P r a e t o r i a n G-uard*
s h o r e s o f t h e Dajibe a n d t h e r e
of R om e,tak in g
He m a r c h e d t o t h e
jo in ed th e le g io n a ry fo rc e s
w h ich had b e e n w i n t e r i n g n e a r V im inacium ( K o s t o l o t z ) .
th e e x p e d itio n a ry fo rc e s cro ssed
double b rid g e
of b o a ts .
Here
t h e r i v e r b y means o f a
T hey t h e n s k i r t e d
th e edge o f th e
to w e rin g C a rp a th ia n s u n t i l they found a n a t u r a l p a s s .
It
w a s t h e v a l l e y o f t h e r i v e r Temes w h i c h f o r m s a p a s s a b l e
en tran ce
in to
th e v e rd a n t b e au ty of the T ra n s y lv a n ia n p l a t e a u .
A lth o u g h th e f a r m in g and s h e e p - h e r d in g p e a s a n ts of
the f e r t i l e
leg io n s,
th e
p lain offered fu tile
n a tu ra l defences of th e
w ith the d e s p e r a te ly fe ro c io u s
th is
n a tu ra lly
stra te g ic
t o t h e c o n q u e r i n g Rom an.
c o v eted S arm izeg h etu sa,
leg io n s
7
in to
resistan ce
p o in t,
Iro n G ates,
resistan ce
o f the D acians a t
A lm ost w ith in ,-
s i g h t o f t h e much
T r a j a n was f o r c e d
to w ithdraw h i s
th e s h e l t e r i n g v a ll e y of the
Bury, Loc . c i t .
sup plem ented
p ro v e d ..an im p a s s a b l e b a r r i e r
^Kullffay. Op.cItT7~pT5QO.
pA
t o t h e oncom ing
frien d ly
Temes.
19
Here t h e
Romans a w a i t e d t h e r i g o u r s
D anubian w in te r so v i v i d l y
of a ty p ic a lly c ru e l
d e s c r i b e d by O v id .
w ily and c le v e r D acian c h i e f t a i n l e t
teg ic
m o v e--th at of b e in g
attac k .
the f i r s t
N or d i d t h e
s l i p a sp len d id s t r a н
t o make a n o f f e n s i v e
C r o s s i n g t h e I c e b o u n d D a nu b e was q u i c k l y a c c o m p н
l i s h e d by th e b a r b a r i a n h o r d e s a c c u sto m e d t o s e v e r e c o l d
and h a r d s h ip ,
R o x alav i,
and w ith the
assistan ce
of the
n ew ly -allied
t h e p r o v i n c e o f M o e s i a was s o b i t t e r l y
attack ed
t h a t t h e e m p e r o r came i n p e r s o n t o g i v e b o t h m o r a l a n d m i н
lita ry
relief.
He g a i n e d a d e c i s i v e
v icto ry a t
N ico p alis. -
I n t h e s p r i n g o f 102 a n o t h e r a d v a n c e w a s made i n t o
th e c o u n try o f t h i s
r e s is tin g b arb arian .
p e rie n c e d T ra ja n ad o p ted t a c t i c s
necessary.
B u t now t h e e x н
w hich p a s t d e f e a t s
In stead of a tta c k in g th ese
By g u e r i l l a p r i n c i p l e s ,
by t a c t i c a l
Roman m i l i t a r y c i r c l e s ,
th e
p eo p le,
showed
who f o u g h t
m ethods a p p ro v e d o f
em peror b ro k e up h i s
leg io n s
in н
t o a number o r s m a l l e r colum ns a n d bad e them m arch u p o n th e
sa m e p o i n t f r o m d i f f e r e n t s t a r t i n g
p laces.
c o n v e r g e d u p o n t h e sa m e o b j e c t i v e ,
overw helm ing a l l
cian s
i n t h e i r p a th and s h u t t i n g o u t
su rp rise
flan k a tta c k .
t a n t p o i n t s on t h e
brid g e,
Thus t h e
the p o s s i b i l i t y
At T u rn u -S ev erin ,o n e of the
leg io n s
t h e Daн
of a
im porн
r i v e r Danube, T r a j a n b u i l t a p e rm a n en t
a n d s o w e l l was t h e w o r k d o n e u n d e r t h e a r c h i t e c t ,
A pollodorus
be seen a t
o f Dam ascus,
lo w -tid e.
th a t th e
r e m a i n i n g p y l o n s may s t i l l
20
D e c e b a l u s was c o n q u e r e d a t l a s t *
sp irit
of th is
But th e d a u n tl e s s
d e s c e n d a n t o f c h i e f t a i n s c o u l d b r o o k no s u c h
h u m ilia tio n lo n g .
So a f t e r
tw o y e a r s
o f p l o t t i n g a n d much
s c h e m i n g , he t o o k t h e o f f e n s i v e a n d c r o s s e d t h e Dan u be i n t o
Soman t e r r i t o r y .
T r a j a n o n c e more r a l l i e d
le g io n s and e n te r e d
b o t h knew i t
in to
combat w ith
was a s t r u g g l e
co u rag eo u sly f o r
the D a c i a n s .
to the d e a t h .
th eir c itie s;
C arp ath ian s.
T his
tim e
The D a c i a n s f o u g h t
t h e i r f r e e d o m , b u t t h e Homans o v e r w h e l m e d
t h e m . Many D a c i a n s c o m m i t t e d s u i c i d e
to
to th e h e lp of the
oth ers f le d
D ecebalus
after
in to the
was b r o u g h t
th ey had s e t f i r e .
se cre t recesses
of
the
t o b a y b y Roman h o r s e m e n .
To s a v e h i m s e l f f r o m t h e d e g r a d a t i o n o f a Homan t r i u m p h a l
p r o c e s s i o n he p l u n g e d h i s s w o r d i n t o h i s
So T r a j a n c o n q u e r e d
a p eo p le
th ro at.
these o b s tin a te ly
f ig h tin g p eo p le,
i n whose nom adic b l o o d f l o w e d a n i n h e r e n t l y u n c o n ~ '
querable p assio n forffreed o m ,
and he g l o r i f i e d
th is conquest
by e r e c t i n g a colum n t o h i s h o n o r i n t h e fo ru m w h ich b o re h i s
name.
The p a s s e r b y may s c a n t h e p i c t u r e s v i v i d l y s c u l p t u r e d
24
on t h i s c o lu m n w hose c a p i t a l and b a s e a r e 97 f e e t and 9 i n c h e s
high.
On t h e
s h a f t are r e l i e f s
scenes
of T rja n f s v i c t o r i e s ,
arranged s p ir a lly
i n 23 t i e r s ,
c o n t a i n i n g a b o u t 2500 f i g u r e s .
T h i s c o l u m n wa s b u i l t b y t h e same a r c h i t e c t who h a d d e s i g n e d
t$e b r id g e a t T u rn u -S e v e rin ,
A p ollodorus.
24
B n c y c l o n e d i a B r i t a n n i c a , p . 6O P .
One ise es d e p i c t e d
21
th e s t o r m i n g o f a w a l le d tow n,
R o m ans, a n d d e t a i l s
the u l t i m a t e
of D acian h o u se s,
trium ph of th e
sty les,
and custom s.
r^ he h e a d o f D e c e b a l u s w a s a n i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f T r a j a n ' s
t r i u m p h w h i c h l a s t e d f o r 123 d a y s . 2 ^
I n ..s u c h m a n n e r D a c i a became a p r o v i n c e
S m pire,
b o rd e re d by m i l i t a r y
o th er source of revenue,
coffers.
The n e x t
c o lo n ists
i n the c o u n tr y .
of the
p o s ts and custom h o u s e s .
Roman
Anн
m i n e s , was a d d e d t o t h e E m p i r e ' s
s t e p i n t h i s c o n q u e s t was t h e p l a n t i n g o f
T r a ja n and h i s
su c c e ss o rs pursued
a p o l i c y o f R o m a n iz a tio n by s e t t l i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l c o l o n i s t s ,
m in ers,
and tro o p s
came p r o s p e r o u s ,
F e lix ."
in th is
p rovince,
w hich t h r i v e d and b e н
b e i n g known t h r o u g h o u t t h e E m p i r e a s " D a c i a
The a n c i e n t c a p i t a l o f S a r m i z e g e t h u s a b e c a m e t h e
Roman c a p i t a l U l p i a T r a i a n a , s o l a r g e t h a t t o d a y t e n v i l l a g e s
P^r
r is e w ith in i t s b o u n d aries.
The r u l e r was a Roman p r o p r a e t o r .
B u t more i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h e
p r e v e n tio n o f the c o n s o l i d a t i o n
27
o f a g r e a t r i v a l pow er on th e f r o n t i e r
was t h e c u l t u r a l t r a н
d itio n e stab lish ed
su rv iv ed to
?
in th is
province,
a t r a d i t i o n w hich h as
th is day.
~~2 5
--------
G ereb , O p.C j t . . p . 512:
" . . . a tro p a iu m o k k o z o t t Deceн
b a l u s f e j e t i s m u t o g a t n i , s a c z a s z a r 123 n a p i g t a r t o l a t vanyossagokkal m u la tta tta a n e p et."
26.
^
K u llffa v .O p .C l t . . p . 7:
" ...F o v a r o s a U lpia T rajan a
n e v e t n y e r t , s o l y n a g y v o l t , h o g y h a t a r a n b e l u l ma t i z f a l u
em elk ed ik ."
22 u ry ,O p .C it. ,p .4 2 1 #
CHAPTER I I I
LITERATURE, ART, GRAFTS.;AND LAW
To a p e o p l e who h o l d s o d e a r t h e i r Roman o r i g i n ,
memory o f s u c h a n a n c e s t r y
Roman o r i g i n i s
sin g .
I s comm em orated i n v e r s e .
The i r o n y
lie s
few o f th em r e a l i z e
in the f a c t t h a t
a s t h e y go
t h o u g h t h e s e men a n d
about t h e i r d a ily
M e n t i o n o f T r a j a n i s m o s t common,
i f o n e w e r e t o a s k t h e y o u n g man who m e n t i o n s
T r a j a n ?*', 7 i t
N ev erth eless,
The R u m a n i a n s t i l l
the
11Who wa s
So c l o u d e d h a s t h e memory o f t h i s
t h e M i l k y Yfay i s c a l l e d
l u i T r a j a n ," and th u n d e r i s
reed,
it,
let,
is ex ceed in g ly d o u b tfu l th a t th e c o u n try
yokel co u ld answ er.
h e rd 's
task s,
th e s o u rc e and i n s p i r a t i o n of th e w ords
they speak o r s in g .
man b e c o m e .
T h is
a f r e q u e n t theme o f t h e s o n g s t h e p e a s a n t s
women s i n g t h e s e b a l l a d s
th is
the
plays h is
great
"G ale a
ex p lain ed as " T ra ja n 's v o ic e ."
p a sto ra l b allad
on th e
" k o b o u z , " a n d w h i L e s a w ay t h e
shepн
ted io u s hours
as he w atch es h i s
f lo c k on the m o untain s i d e .
1
T here e x i s t s ev en a d e l i g h t f u l leg e n d b a s e d upon a
love
s t o r y b e tw e e n T r a ja n and D okia,
I t seem s t h a t t h e
th e s i s t e r
l a d y was f a i r a n d d i d p l e a s e
a n d t h a t he p u r s u e d h e r a n d p l e a d h i s
to t h e
m o u n tain s.
He o v e r t o o k h e r ,
su it.
of D ecebalus
the conqueror
B u t she f l e d
a n d was u p o n t h e p o i n t
:---------------------
T .S tra tile sc o ,
pp* 8 - 9 v
From t h e C a r p a t h i a n s t o t h e
P indus.
in
23
of se izin g her,
when a t t h e m a i d e n ^
p a g a n g o d s whom s h e w o r s h i p p e d ,
p iteo u s p ra y e rs,
the
tu rn e d h e r and h e r sheep
2
in to
stones*
on;
d rifts
Even i n f a n t a s y does th e
o f snow p i l e d h i g h i n s e v e r e w i n t e r s
D a n u be a r e named " T r o i a n "
The i d e a b a c k o f t h e
banks to
name o f T r a j a n l i v e
the w a lls
rem ains s t i l l
by th e
term i s
the c lo s e
resem blance of th e s e
stan d .
we f i n d t h e
in flu en ce
B a lk a n c o u n t r y , i n a r o u n d - a b o u t way.
of th e v a rio u s
T u r k is h and Greek i n v a s i o n s
d u r i n g th e M iddle Ages,
the
lea rn in g
cu ltu re
To c o u n t e r a c t t h i s
in the
more c l o s e l y a l l i e d
in flu en ce,
to
to supersede
Because
s c h o o l s was
r u lin g Pha-
and to
in tro d u c e a
the o r i g i n a l i n h a b i t a n t s ,
s c h o o ls w ere e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g th e 1 8 th c e n t u r y
and J a s s y
o f Rome
of the c o u n try
p r i m a r i l y B y z an tin e G reek c l a s s i c i s m un d er th e
n ario tes.
p easan ts.
t h a t w e r e b u i l t b y t h e Romans a n d w h o s e
I n Rum anian l i t e r a t u r e
reach in g th is
su p e rstitio u s
on Ihe
the u n d e s ir a b le
elem en t.
These s c h o o l s were fo u n d e d c h i e f l y
men who w e n t t o Rome t o s t u d y f o r t h e
in B ucharest
i n T r a n s y l v a n i a by
C hurch.
Here th e y
came t o f i n d i n a n c i e n t a n d m e d i e v a l m a n u s c r i p t s t h e t r u e
3
f a c t s of t h e i r o r i g i n and d e s c e n t, and t a k i n g g r e a t p r id e
th is
know ledge,
r e t u r n e d home a n d s e t a b o u t t o e s t a b l i s h
c o u n te r a c tin g elem ents and th e propaganda of "R etu rn to
2" G . A s a c h l , D o c h l a s i
^ N .Io rg a,
p . 128,
in
Isto ria
R o m e."
T ralaii
R om anilor I n C h ip u r l s i
'
Icoane?
24
Some r a d i c a l s
ev en went so f a r a s
to ad v o cate
the e n t i r e
exн
t i r p a t i o n fro m t h e Rum anian v o c a b u l a r y o f a n y f o r e i g n e l e н
ment o t h e r t h a n L a t i n .
These e x t r e m i s t s e v e n com piled a
d i c t i o n a r y i n w h i c h no w o r d s o f a l i e n r o o t w e r e u s e d .
a ll
ex trem ists,
they f a i l e d
Sam uil C l a i n ,
As
in t h e i r m issio n .
G heorghe S i n c a i ,
and P e t r u M aior d u r i n g
the
M i d d l e A g e s s o u g h t t o make t h e u s e o f L a t i n s c r i p t u n l 4
v e rsal.
I t i s due g r e a t l y t o t h e i r e f f o r t s t h a t L a t i n
sc rip t
i s common t o d a y i n R u m a n i a .
T h ey a l s o
trie d
to
stress
in w ritin g ,a t le a s t,
th e L a tin elem en ts o f th e la n g u a g e .
C o n s ta n tin C an tem lr,
a n o u t s t a n d i n g w r i t e r o f th e M iddle
A g e s , d o u b t e d n o t f o r one m i n u t e t h e L a t i n a n c e s t r y o f t h e
5
R u m an ian s, a n d c o n t i n u a l l y s t r e s s e d t h e n e e d o f a homan,
r a t h e r t h a n a GUeek,
In the
a t B laj
first
i n 1754*
the
in flu en ce
in lite r a tu r e .
R om an-elem ent s c h o o l ,
p r i n c i p a l aim of th e
w h i c h wae f o u n d e d
i n s t r u c t o r s was
t o make c l e a r t o t h e
s tu d e n ts th e r e l a t i o n s h i p b etw een t h e i r
6
l a n g u a g e a n d t h a t o f Rome o f l o n g a g o .
T his b e l i e f in s p ir e d
i n the r e t u r n i n g s c h o la r s a s tr o n g sense
o f p a t r i o t i s m and
n atio n alism ,
a n d a s a r e s u l t 11T h e y b e c a m e g o o d R u m a n i a n s a n d
7
fought fo r the l ib e r a tio n of th e ir c o u n try .
^ I o r g a , O p . C i t . . p . 127*
I b i d . , p . 1 2 6 s " P e n t r u e l nu mal e n i c i - o i n d o i a l a
ca L a t l n l l T ^
^ A d a m e s c u . I s t o r i a L i t e r a t u r l i R o m an e . p . 191*
^ I b i d . p . 1 9 1 s H. . b u n i r o m a n i s i l u p t a p e n t r u r i d i c a r e a v a t i u n i i l o r . 11
2,5
O ther r e t u r n i n g
scholars
sought ?to
prove th e
Roman
8
o r ig in of the
n a t i o n a n d o f o u r l a n g u a g e ?**
h o rn in T ran sy lv an ia,
S a m u il M icu,
w ro te i n L a t i n p o n d e ro u s tom es on t h e
D a c a -R o m a n 'h isto ry , and s o u g h t t o p ro v e t h e d e s c e n t o f th e
R u m a n ia n s -fro m th e Romans.
Romanorum s i v e
These hooks a r e
H is to r ia Paco-
V l a c h o r u m . Pл3_ o r i g i n e D a c o - R o m a n o r u m . a n d
E lem en ts lin g u a e daco-rom anae s iv e v a l a c h i c a e . M ichael
K o g a l u c e a n u s t u d i e d i n F r a n c e a n d Germany a n d p u b l i s h e d t h e
MD a c i a L i t e r a r i a ? a s a r e s u l t o f h i s s t u d y o f
c h ro n ic le s
o f Roman h i s t o r y *
lec tu a l k in sh ip ,
It
is because
as w e ll as L a tin c u ltu r e ,
t a b l i s h e d by w r i t e r s an d n a t i o n a l i s t s
p o litic a l alleg ian ce
to the
of th is
in tel> ~
so s t r o n g l y e s н
t h a t Rumania f e e l s h e r
s h o u l d be l i n k e d w i t h F r a n c e ,
w hich she c o n s i d e r s a s i s t e r n a t i o n .
th en ,
the a n c i e n t
It
is
a cou n try
due g r e a t l y ,
HT r a n s y l v a n i a S c h o o l ? t h a t R u m a n i a i s
Roman.
A r c h a e lo g i s ts have added t o th e t h e o r y of th e w r i t e r s
by t h e i r e x c a v a t io n s and f i e l d - t r i p s .
o c c u p a tio n , s h o r t th o u g h i t was,
b u ild in g s,
pub lic
a r t and
and p i e c e s
view .
f o u n d i n t h e many r o a d s ,
of a r t w hich t h e s e
A lthough th e
a rch itectu re
is
C o n f i r m a t i o n o f Roman
in flu en ce
is s lig h t
men h a v e b r o u g h t
o f Rome u p o n R u m a n i a n
, sin ce
t h e Romans w e r e i n
D a c i a o n l y f r o m 102 A . D . ( T r a j a n * s c o n q u e s t )
(A u re lia n * s w ithdraw al of
to
the l e g i o n s ) ,
it
t o 2 7 1 A .D .
is
im p o rtan t in
A d a m e s c u , O p. C i t . . p . 1 9 1 *
11. . s a d o v e d e a s c a o r i g i n e a
r o m a n a a n a t i u n i i ^ i ) . i m b i i n o a s t r e . 1*
26
t h e e y e s o f t h e h i s t o r i a n who f i n d s c l u e s
Because th e c o l o n i s t s had l i t t l e
tu ral
sid e
of l i f e ,
as the
in every d e t a i l .
tim e t o e l a b o r a t e
pro saic a f f a i r s
the c u l н
o f m aking a l i v i n g
amid h a r d s h i p s o c c u p i e d t h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f t h e i r t i m e ,
9
ev id en ces of a r t are found.
As f o r t h e Homan o f f i c i a l s
liv e d
th ere,
who
t h e y , t o o , s p e n t tim e i n r u l i n g th e s e peo p le and
in c h e c k in g the b a r b a r i a n s ,
and had l i t t l e
leisu re
more t h a n t h e a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n t i a l b u i l d i n g s .
-.mafcrBd l o n g e r ,
tie s
few
to e re c t
H ad tjiey r e -
u n d o u b t e d l y t h e s e Romans w o u l d h a v e b u i l t c i н
a n d monuments a s t h e y d i d i n o t h e r p r o v i n c e s .
I n the D obroudja a r e found th e
b u i l t by T rajan ,
c alled
the
Adam K l i s s i b y t h e T u r k s .
Tropaeum T r a i a n l , l a t e r
Here a r e s e e n
c a l e v i d e n c e s o f Rum anian a r t .
t i n g s o l d i e r s , cam paigns,
c e rn e d on t h i s
round tow er,
d iam eter,
r u i n s o f a m onum ent
the f i r s t
h isto riн
Rem ains o f c a r v i n g s ,
and b a r b a r i a n s ,
huge e d i f i c e ,
named
can s t i l l
w h i c h was o r i g i n a l l y
w ith a b ase of a p p ro x im ate ly
a p p ro a c h e d by e i g h t s t e p s .T h e
th irty
d ep ictbe d i s н
a larg e
m eters in
m on u m ent wa s s u r 10
m ounted by a t r o p h y e i g h t m e t e r s
in h eig h t.
The p u r p o s e o f
11
th is
s t r u c t u r e was t o
sh o w t h e d o m i n a n c e o f Rome.
^ M arie B e n g esco ,
I m a g e s . 1:21 ,
11L ' A r t e n R o u m a n i e ,? La R o u m a n i e e n
^ ? ░ 0 . T a f r a l i , M a n u a l de I s t o r l a A r t e l o r . 1 : 2 4 - 3 - 2 5 4 *
<X
╗X
v
E u g e n e P i t t a r d , La R o u m a i n e . p p . 306- 310: ?^ . . d e s t i n e
a m o n t r e r a u x B a r b a r e s l a m e n a c e d e Rome e t d e s t i n e a m a r q u e r
l a t e r m e d e s l i b e r t e s d a c e s . 11
27
At T u rn u -S e v e rin a re fo u n d th e r u i n s
of th e b rid g e
b u i l t b y A p o 1 1 o d o r us d u r i n g t h e c o n q u e s t o f T r a j a n .
m ains o f th e b r i d g e ,
sisted
b u ilt
of tw en ty p i e r s ,
a n d 58 f e e t w i d e .
i n 104 A .D .,
in d icate
e a c h 120 f e e t l o n g ,
E lev en of t h e
The r e н
th at
i t conн
145 f e e t h i g h ,
o rig in a l p iers
can be seen
12
t o d a y a t low t i d e
on t h e D an u b e.
At T urnu M agurele t h e r e
a r e t r a c e s o f a s e c o n d b r i d g e kn o w n a s t h e b r i d g e
13
sta n tin .
A t A p u lu m c a n b e v i s i t e d
the ru in s
of an a m p h ith e a tre .
S a rm iz a g e tu s a and P o ro lis s u m a l s o b o a s te d a r e n a s .
b r o u g h t w a t e r t o A lba I u l i a ,
and rem ains
a rc h e s a d o rn the c o u n tr y s id e .
" B a i l e H e r c u l e a n e 11 s t i l l
w aters to a il i n g
A queducts
of th e g r a c e f u l
A pu lum a l s o h a d p u b l i c b a t h s .
The b e s t e x a m p l e o f o l d Roman b a t h s
w here t h e
o f Con-
i n Rum ania i s a t M ehadia,
f u r n is h m in eral therm al
Rum anians a s t h e y d i d t o a i l i n g Romans.
M ehadia i s
R u m an ia's m ain s p a ,
it
Romans who d i s c o v e r e d t h e h e a l i n g p o w e r s o f
14.
was t h e
b u t.few p eo p le r e a l i z e
th at
the
warm w a t e r .
A L i m e s may b e * f o u n d i n many a p e a s a n t ' s
field .
R em ains
o f the lim e s D anublanus s ta n d n e a r th e t r i b u t a r i e s , th e
15
A rg e siu and the C l tu .
W alls o f f o r t i f i c a t i o n s a r e num erous
?
m
M eyer,
13
14
^
╗?
....
.
л ╗ ' ' '
R e l s e b u c h e r . p . 1 2 5*
P lttard ,
O p.C i t . .
A .D .X enopol,
p .l08л
O p .C it.,
V i c t o r C hapot,
pp.
196-198.
The ^oman W o r l d , p .
379.
28
16
n e a r C o n s ta n z a on th e B lac k S e a .
is p a rtly b u ilt
17
u p o n t h e r e m a i n s o f a n o l d Roman e n c a m p m e n t ,
w h ile the
d istric t
of B a rb o sh i has the
G alatz
fo rtifie d
t u m u l u s t h a t was u s e d
18
as a n o u t p o s t and p la c e of o b s e r v a t i o n .
M in e s, a l t h o u g h t h e y c a n h a r d l y be c a l l e d
art,
provide a v a lu a b le
b y t h e Roman m i n e r s .
in sig h t in to
the c u l t u r e
sources
of
l e f t beh in d
Many o f t h e m i n e s w h i c h w e r e d i s c o v e r e d
a n d w o r k e d b y Roman p r o s p e c t o r s a n d e n g i n e e r s
are
still
in
o p eratio n .
The g o l d m i n e s o f B r a d i n T r a n s y l v a n i a a r e t h e
19
r i c h e s t in the w o rld .
And e v i d e n t l y t h e p r o f i t e e r i n g s p e c u н
lato rs
of th e
Roman f o r u m f o u n d t h e m p r o f i t a b l e ,
th e y s e n t o u t m in e rs and c o l o n i s t s
of w ealth .
Wax t a b l e t s
because
to e x p lo it th ese
sources
on w hich c o n t r a c t s a n d l e a s e s were
s t e n c i l e d were f o u n d a t Z a l a t n a .
It
is
i n t e r e s t i n g t o note
t h a t t h e t e r m s o f r e n t a l w e r e v e r y l o w ?200 l e i f o r s i x
20
?
m o n th s --a n d t h a t th e m in e r s were im m ig ra n ts h i r e d by t h e
l e g i o n a r i e s who h a d g o t t e n t h e c o n c e s s i o n s f r o m Rome, b u t
th e m s e lv e s r e f u s e d to do manual l a b o r .
h eated to a h ig h degree,
^ P itta rd ,
were u sed t o m e lt t h e
O p.C i t . .
^ J * Sam uels on,
V in e g a r and w a t e r ,
rock a p a r t .
p . 206#
Rum ania P a s t a n d P r e s e n t . p . 27,
^ M .W a l k e r , U n tro d d e n P a th s i n R um ania, pp . 16-19*
19'
E . O . H o p p e , I n -G y p s y Camp a n d R o v a l P a l a c e , p . 126,
2^ X e n o p o l, O p .C i t . .
tim p u l de s a s e l u n i . "
p . 186:
11. . . 2 0 0 d e l e i p e n t r u
29
T his m ethod,
21
p r o v e d b y t h e Romans a t V e r e s p a t a k ,
to d ay by u n le a rn e d m iners
way*
to
B a l e Mare a l s o b o a s t s
g e t cumbersome r o c k s
o f some o f t h e s e
is used
out of th e
fabulous " S o lн
o m o n ^ M i n e s . 11
Among t h e
an cien t
in s tr u m e n ts found l y i n g i n t h e s e
m i n e s w e r e Roman m i n i n g l a m p s , c o o k i n g u t e n s i l s , p i t c h e r s ,
22
b a r r e l s , and m easu res f o r g rain *
T rin k e ts of g o ld found in
o ne o f t h e s e m i n e s Are w o r n b y t h e women o f t h e
lag e.
C oins,
to o ,
near-by v ii; -
have b e e n d i s c o v e r e d .
Not o n l y g o l d a n d p r e c i o u s m i n e r a l s a t t r a c t e d
p ro sp ecto rs.
S a lt,
so n e c e s s a r y t o t h e m other c o u n tr y ,
t i c e d many h a r d y t e c h n i c i a n s a n d l a b o r e r s .
th e
M aros, a r e
greedy
At S a l i n a e ,
s a l t m in e s b e i n g v/orked i n e x a c t l y
the
enн
on
same
p rim itiv e
m a n n e r i n w h i c h t h e Roman h i r e l i n g s c a r r i e d o n
23
th e ir task ,
I n s t r u m e n t s o f m i n i n g , now i n t h e museum a t
B ucharest,
I r o n m ines,
c le arly
to o ,
sh ow t h e m e t h o d s a n d t e c h n i q u e s u s e d .
were e x p l o i t e d
in
th is
d istric t.
c i o u s o r e was v a l u a b l e
th en as i t
is
ways b e e n r i c h
resource.
T races o f m arble q u a r r i e s
in th is
a re found i n t h e m ountain d i s t r i c t s
is
notew orthy,
th at th is
X enopol,
22
lan d r i c h
now,
The p r e н
f o r Rumania h a s a l н
of t h i s
in the
sectio n , b u t i t
n a tu ra l resource
O p . C i t . ,r >.187.
L o c . C i t , ; ,f. . l a m p i m i n i e r e . . ? . a m f o r e r o m a n e , b l i d e ,
b u t o a i e , roasuri p e n tr u g r a u . . . M
23
X e n o p o l , O p . C i t . . p . 379.
^
30
o f one o f t h e
g reatest
a rts,
has produced l i t t l e
in the lin e
of sc u lp tu re.
The Homan r o a d s a r e
tru e
i n Rumania^ t o o ,
stra te g ic
tra d itio n a lly
u n ique.
T his h o ld s
f o r re m a in s o f th e m o st i m p o r t a n t and
r o u t e s u s e d h y army a n d i m m i g r a n t s a r e e x t a n t .
T h e s e may b e s e e n a l o n g t h e r i v e r D an ub e a n d t h r o u g h t h e
m ountain p a s s e s .
L eading a r t e r i e s
of the le s s e r r iv e r s ,
and these
fo llo w ed alo n g th e banks
t o o may b e s e e n a l o n g w i t h
th e lim e s and w a tc h -to w e rs a t r e g u l a r
in te rv als.
The O l t u
r i v e r l i m e s and r o a d l i n k e d r i v e r an d C a r p a t h i a n s f o r 235
k ilo m etres,
stra te g ic
p o in ts b ein g f o r t i f i e d w ith c a s t e l l a .
The l i m e s D a n u b i u s e x t e n d e d f r o m T u r n u - S e v e r i n t o T u f e s t i ,
24
the base of the C a rp a th ia n s.
The e x i s t e n c e
^oraans i s
of sch o o ls
p ro v ed by i n s c r i p t i o n s
was d i s c o v e r e d a t t h i s
years.
i n D a c i a e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e
site
f o u n d a t Apulum.
A b rick
d a t i n g f r o m Roman o c c u p a t i o n
On i t a r e
carv ed the l e t t e r s of t h e a lp h a b e t, j u s t
25
a s t h e y a r e u s e d i n Rumania t o d a y .
The u p p e r c l a s s e s h a d a
form of e d u c a tio n ,
essence of
are
a l t h o u g h t h a t fo rm was s i m p l e .
Yet th e
26
t h e s y s t e m was L a t i n .
I n s c r i p t i o n s on tom bsto nes
in in L atin .
Xenopol c i t e s
24 C h a p o t,
^
O p .C i t . . p . 379.
X enopol,
Ib id .,
many o f t h e m i n h i s h i s t o r y .
O p .C it.,
p .202.
p . 204.
31
A nother so u rce
of in fo rm a tio n re g a rd in g the a n c ie n t
D a c i a n s a n d t h e Romans ?is- t h e
in v ario u s
in sc rip tio n s.
.E v id e n tly th e ^omans b r o u g h t w i t h
t h e m t h e i r own p h y s i c i a n s ,
pond to th o s e
c ific
cures
q u a in t m e d ic a l fo rm u la s found
f o r th e m edical fo rm u las c o r r e s н
f o u n d i n o t h e r Roman s o u r c e s .
g iv e n f o r eye t r o u b l e ,
a t t e s t e d by i n s c r i p t i o n s
and o t h e r a i l m e n t s ,
27
f o u n d a t Apulum.
We know f r o m L a t i n l i t e r a t u r e
sp re a d usage of g u i ld s ,
We f i n d
the im portance
speн
as
and w ideн
o r C o llegia,. o f th e v a r i o u s c r a f t s .
in a n c ie n t D acia th e e x is te n c e
exam ple,
There a r e
t h e r e was t h e C o l l e g e
of such g u i l d s .
For
of F a b ri(v ario u s craftsm en ),
d e n d r of o r i ( r a f t s m e n ), a u r a r i i (g o ld m i n e r s ), c e n t o n a r i l ,
(w o o l-w o rk ers),
n a u ta e ( s a i l o r s ),
n e g o t i a t o r e s (m e rc h a n ts).
u t r i c u l a r i i ( w aterm en ), and l e c t l c a r i i ( s e d a n - c h a i r b e a r e r s ).
Today,
in the
tain s,
^ p l u t a s i l o r , 11 o r r a f t s
fresh ly -cu t
are
sw ift-m o v in g r i v e r s
o f t h e C a r p a t h i a n Mounн
made o f l o g s ,
are used to haul
lum ber from th e m o u n ta in h e i g h t s .
These r a f t s
28
i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h o s e u s e d b y Roman c o l o n i s t s .
They p l y
t h e r a p i d m o u n t a i n s t r e a m s , b e a r i n g down t h e i r c a r g o ,
29
t h e y d i d f o r t h e Roman e x p l o i t e r s .
X enopol,
as
O p.C i t . . p . 204.
28 I b i d . , p . 1 9 0 .
PQ
T r a v e l o g u e on Rumania a s r e l e a s e d by P a r a m o u n t
P i c t u r e s i n 1938.
32
Among t h e Roman c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o u n d i n m o d e r n
Rum ania i s
th e system of gov ern m ent.
The c o u n t r y i s
i n t o t e n p r o v in c e s i n a t o t a l i t a r i a n form o f s t a t e .
is
o n l y one p a r t y ,
rate
system .
and th e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o llo w s
J u s t as
d iv id ed
There
the c o rp o н
t h e Roman c o l l e g e s u s e d t o f u n c t i o n i n
a n c i e n t D a c i a , a n d e a c h s p e c i a l i z e d c r a f t h a d i t s own s e t o f
30
law s and g o v ern m en t,
so to d ay i s th e c o r p o r a t e governm ent
c o m p o s e d o f m em b ers o f t h e v a r i o u s c r a f t s , t r a d e s , a n d o c c u 31
p a tio n s.
I n t h i s m anner, each ty p e of w a g e -e a rn e r i s a s s u r e d
of sy m p ath etic
re p re s e n ta tio n a t the c a p i ta l .
The m o s t i m p o r t a n t t o w n s a r e c a l l e d
" m u n ic ip ii" and
32
h a v e a f o r m o f a u t o n o m o u s c o m m u n al o r g a n i z a t i o n . '
A ccording
33
t o t h e new c o n s t i t u t i o n
e s t a b l i s h e d on F e b ru a ry 2 4 , 1938,
th e Rum anian g o v e rn m e n t, h e a d e d by K in g C a r o l ,
of a k in g 's
vislatu re;
is
composed
c o u n c i l and tw e lv e m i n i s t e r s ; a c o r p o r a t i v e le*g34
a Chamber and S e n a t e .
A bbott
d e s c r ib e s the o ld
Roman c l a n s b a n d i n g t o g e t h e r a n d e l e c t i n g a k i n g ,
who was t o
be a d v i s e d by t h e e l d e r s , o r p a t r e s o f
R en tes.
the v a rio u s
The s e n a t o r s a r e e l e c t e d b y t h e k i n g o r b y t h e p e o p l e .
e le cto rs
m u s t be o v e r f o r t y y e a r s o f a g e .
The
The d e p u t i e s o f
3 ░ X en o p o l, f i a . C l i . , p . ,190.
"51
32
^
M oody's g o v e r n m e n ts and M u n i c i p a l s , p p . 2 7 9 5 - 2 8 0 5 *
M .E p stein ,
e d . , ' S ta te sm a n 's
l e a r Book
Moody, L o c . C i t .
34 p . F . A b k o t t ,
Roman P o l i t i c a l
I n s t i t u t i o n s , ,p. 6 * . -
33
t h e Chamber a r e e l e c t e d
who a r e
f o r a term of s i x y e a rs by c i t i z e n s
over t h ir t y years
ag ric u ltu re,
of age,
m anual l a b o r ,
a n d who a r e e n g a g e d i n
in d u stry ,
o r i n t e l l e c t u a l w ork.
I n Homan t i m e s , s e n a t o r s p e r f o r m e d l e g i s l a t i v e
35
d u tie s
a s t h e y d o now i n R u m a n i a .
I n Old Rum ania,
fects
and j u d i c i a l
t h a t i s M oldavia and M untenia,
an d s u b - p r e f e c t s u s e d t o be l o c a l r u l e r s ;
van ia,
praeto re
m ania,
t h e - j u d g e was c l a s s i f i e d
as " t r i b u n a l . ?
and p ro p r a e t o r e .
preн
in T ransylн
I n b o t h O l d a n d New Ru н
as
? j u d i c a t o r , 11 t h e c o u r t
In T ra n sy lv a n ia tr ib u n e s r e p re s e n te d
th e
p e o p l e u n t i l t h e y were d i s p l a c e d by d e p u t i e s a n d s e n a t o r s
1848.
I n t h e M id d le Ages t h e k i n g ,
was c a l l e d
u n til
in
ch o sen by th e " b o y a r d s ? ,
" p r l n c e p s , ? and d i d n o t assum e th e
36.
title
of "king?
1879.
A lth o u g h th e f u n d a m e n t a l s o f Rum anian g o v e rn m e n t a r e
t h e o l d Roman,
the S la v ic a ls o
modern t e n d e n c y i s
to secure
to Ihark
plays a g r e a t p a r t .
back to
the
old c o n c e p ts ,
?xg
and
a s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r m by a d o p t i n g t h e c l a s s i c a l f orms
w hich have p ro v ed s u c c e s s f u l .
^
е et the
A bbott,
O p .C it.,
p p . 385- 386#
E .G -.B arbul, n a t i v e o f T r a n s y l v a n i a
M . B e r c e a B a r b u l , n a t i v e o f O ld R u m a n i a
CHAPTER IV
THE CUSTOMS
The Roman i n f l u e n c e
upon Rum anian c i v i l i z a t i o n
p e rh a p s th e m ost e v id e n t i n th e custom s of t h e
In a l l
of the f e s t iv a ls ;, and r e l i g i o u s
fin d tra c e s
of the L a tin s p i r i t .
fo r in stan ce, v e stig e s
is
c o u n try sid e .
c e r e m o n i e s one may
In th e m odern C h r is tm a s ,
of the S a tu rn a lia are
abundant.
The
Roman c u s t o m o f b a k i n g s p e c i a l l y p r e p a r e d c a k e s b y t h e V e s 1
t a l s t o b e u s e d o n t h e L u p e r c a l i a h a s b e e n h a n d e d down i n
th e t r a d i t i o n of th e housew ife b ak in g s p e c i a l l y p rep a red
c a k e s w hich a r e
boys,
to v i s i t o r s ,
perio d
fin d
given to
is pork.
t h a t the
th e w andering tro o p s
and t o g u e s t s .
A nother d e lic a c y of t h i s
I f we t u r n t o J u v e n a l a n d H o r a c e
sacrifice
in the f e r t i l i t y
as
we s h a l l
in th e cerem ony.
E lem en ts o f th e L u p e r c a l ia e n t e r i n t o '
Rumania o f t o d a y ,
2
o f a p ig a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r tim e o f
t h e y e a r was a p r i m e f a c t o r
C hristm as
of sin g in g
t h e Rum anian
cerem ony o f th e S a r c o v a .
in the
Rome o f a n t i q u i t y ,
In the
youths,
h o ld н
in g ro d s(sy m b o ls o f f e r t i l i t y ) i n t h e i r h an d s, a p p ro a c h and
3
t a p t h e women w i t h t h i s g r e e t i n g :
1 O v i d . F a B t l . V I 81 1 0
f
J u v e n a l . . S a t l r . e a . . - * ,, I I :86
H o race, O d es, I13rrl7
*2
^ P rln cesse
B ibesco,
I s v o r .p.20 4
35
May y o u l i v e a n d f l o u r i s h
L ike an a p p le t r e e
Or a p e a r t r e e
I n tim e o f s p r i n g ;
T his sym bol o f f e r t i l i t y
is
o b v i o u s l y a r e m n a n t o f t h e Homan
L u p e r c a l i a . when, a f t e r a p p r o p r i a t e
r a n a round th e P a l a t i n e
o f s k i n ta k e n from th e
sacrifices,
y o u n g men
H i l l and w hipped.w om en w i t h s t r i p s
4
s a c r i f i c e d anim als*
S u rv iv a ls of the
a n c ie n t D ionysian r i t u a l s
are
e v id e n t i n the d a n ce s of t h i s
occasio n .
The d a n c e r s , w e a r i n g t h e s k i n s o f v a r i o u s a n i m a l s ,
5
p l a y u p o n drums a n d c y m b a l s .
Warde F o w l e r c i t e s c l a s s i c a l
records
of th e S a lia n p r i e s t s dancing a b o u t in the
skins
of
a nim als
S t i l l a n o t h e r e le m e n t i n th e Rum anian C h r i s t m a s w h ic h
may b e t r a c e d b a c k t o Rome i s
T h is,
th e cerem ony of th e C a le n d a e .
a d e c i d e d o u t g r o w t h o f t h e Festurn C a l e n d a r i u m . i s p e r н
form ed on t h e e v e n i n g s o f t h e 2 4 th and 3 1 s t o f D ecem ber.
G roups o f y o u t h s go a b o u t f r o m h o u se t o h o u s e ,
and b a l l a d s f
f a n back to
A ty p ic al re fra in ,
t h e i r dim p a s t ,
is
i n w hich th e p e a s a n ts h a rk
th is
ones
^ ~ 0 v i d . F a s t i 7 T I s 4 4 5 - 4 5 6 s M. . . i u s s a e
l a e p e l l i b u s e x e e c t i s p e r c u t i e n d a d a b a n t . 1*
^ B ibesco,
sin g in g c a ro ls
sua te rg a p u e l-
O p.C i t . . p . 2 0 4 .
Warde F o w l e r , Roman F e s t i v a l s . p . 4 ? .
O vid, O p . C i t . , I I U 2 6 0 f o i l .
L ivy, H i s t o r y . I ; 2 0
7
S tra tllesco ,
pp. 192-193,
From t h e C a r p a t h i a n s t o
the
P lndus.
36
C? a ^ a -J. l e g e a d i n b a t r a n i ,
D in b a tr & n i d i n oam eni b u n i
F o r so i s t h e law o f o l d ,
F r o m t h e o l d a n d t h e g o o d men
O ther b a lla d e
I tran sla te
have b e e n composed i n h o n o r o f t h i s
one,
occasion*
a " C o lin d e le ? , from th e c o l l e c t i o n by
8
G-h. Adame e c u
For the c a r o le r s
You c h o o s e t w o f r o m a m ong y o u ;
Two f r o m am ong y o u y o u n g e r o n e s ,
And l e a p i n y o n d e r g a r d e n *
B reak a b la d e o f C a lo m fir,
And a b l a d e o f S w e e t B a s i l ,
And p a s s , a n d g o
To t h e f o u n t a i n *
The New Y e a r i n R u m a n i a i s u s h e r e d i n w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e
rite s
f o r increased f e r t i l i t y
remony i n p a r t i c u l a r ,
retro sp ectiv e
f o r t h e com ing y e a r *
the P lu g u so r(th e
o f t h e Roman P a g a n a l i a
^ Oh* A d a m s e c u .
Isto ria
plow ),
L i t e r a t u r l Romane. p . 2 8 s
La r a n t a n a *
V arro,
fa in tly
o f J a n u a r y 2 4 t o 2 6 *^
Voi p a t r u c o l i n d a t u r i
Va a l e z e ^ i d o i
Din v o i
D o i d i n v o i m ai t i n e r e i
p i s a r e t i in ceu g ra d in a .R u p e ti f i r
De c a l o m f i r
p l- o s t e b l a d e b u s u i o c
Q
is
One c e н
L i n g u a L a t i n a .V IS24
At t h a t t im e ,
a s i n Rumania t o d a y ,
the
oxen t h a t drew the
plow s w ere d e c o r a t e d w i t h w r e a t h s o f f l o w e r s .
O vid m e n tio n s
10
i n h i s F a s t i t h e " c o r o n a t i i u v e n c l . 1* T h e n a g a i n , d o n k e y s
11
w e r e f e s t o o n e d i n Ma y.
go a b o u t t h e s t r e e t s
tage d o o rs,
In the v i l l a g e s
after
rec itin g b its
o f Rum ania y o u t h s
dusk, and s ta n d o u t s i d e
of v erse,
the c o t н
accom panying t h e s e c h a n t s
w i t h th e c r a c k i n g o f a whip an d th e r i n g i n g o f a b e l l .
fu n d am en tal
hero
idea of th e s e v erses
is
r,B a d i c a T r a i a n *1( M a s t e r T r a j a n ) .
the g l o r i f i c a t i o n
The
of the
The c h a n g i n g i s o f t e n
12
Hb u h a i n ( a b e l l o w i n g - b u c k e t made o f h i d e ) .
a c c o m p a n ie d by t h e
The E a s t e r s e a s o n i s
The p e a s a n t s o f t h e
a lso c o lo r f u l
c o u n try sid e t e l l
in a n c ie n t custom s.
t h e l e g e n d o f M arcus
A u re liu s and th e hen t h a t l a i d an egg covered w ith red s p o t s .
The c o u r t a u g u r s a i d t h i s
i n c i d e n t w a s a n omen t h a t
w ould some d a y becom e e m p e r o r .
from t h a t tim e onw ard s,
g ifts
of b r illia n tly
dyed v a r i o u s h u e s,
The omen was f u l f i l l e d ,
and
the
Romans u s e d t o s e n d o n e a n o t h e r
13
dyed e g g s .
I n Rum anian t h e s e e g g s a r e
and g iv e n t o v i s i t o r s
g iv in g of these c o lo re d eggs is
ta lity ,
th e boy
to ta k e 'h o m e .
The
t y p i c a l o f Rum anian h o s p i н
p a r t ic u la r l y during h o lid ay seaso n s.
^
F ow ler,
O p.C i t . . p . l 4 8 .
12 S t r a t i l e s c o ,
O p.C i t . . p p .3 57 ~ 3 58 *
A e l i u s L a m p r i d i u s a s c i t e d l n HM a g y a r F o l k l o r e a n d
Some P a r a l l e l s . !>F o l k l o r e J o u r n a l , L i 3 5 9 ? 3 6 0
N? M u r g o s i , **R u m a n i a n E a s t e r E g g s , rl F o l k l o r e . X X s 2 9 6 303.
38
F e rtility
p eo p le,
is
w o rsh ip ,
t h a t m o s t common r i t e
s e e n i n Rum anian d i s t r i c t s
One o f t h e s e r i t e s
is
c alled
rem n an t o f A donis w o rsh ip #
t h e women o f t h e v i l l a g e #
am on g t h e
o f a sim ple
peasants#
th e C a l o i a n . and seem s to be a
T his r i t e
is
o b s e r v e d o n ly by
On t h e f o u r t h d a y a f t e r E a s t e r ,
t h e women k n e a d a l u m p o f y e l l o w c l a y i n t o t h e m i n i a t u r e
fig u re
fin#
o f a man, a G a l o i a n ,
At t h i s
p o i n t th e cerem ony becomes c o n fu s e d w it h a
rain -p ray er r ite ,
and a f t e r w eeping o v e r th e c la y f i g u r e as
though o v e r a r e a l c o rp s e ,
th e b i e r ,
im age,
w hich th e y p u t i n t o a sm a ll c o f н
lig h t it,
s in g in g the
t h e women p l a c e
in c e n se around
and f i n a l l y
w ith g r e a t cerem ony bury th e
14
fo llo w in g verses
0 C alo ian
ian
Go t o H e a v e n a n d a s k
To o p e n t h e g a t e s
To l e t l o o s e t h e r a i n s
To r u n d o w n l i k e s t r e a m s
Da ys a n d n i g h t s ,
T h a t t h e w h e a t may grow#
In t h r e e days*
in to th e
riv er,
tim e
t h e c l a y image i s u n e a r t h e d and th ro w n
in o rd e r to
tro u b le
th e w aters and to r a i s e
rain -c lo u d s?
^
S tra tilesc o ,
Op#C i t л. p . 183*
0 C alo ien e
iene
D u te 'n c e r ^ f i c e re
Sa d e s c h i d a p o r t i l e
Sa s lo b o a d a p j o i l e
Sa c u rg a c a g a r l e l e
N ap tile s i ^ i l e l e
Ca s a c r e a s c a g i r n e l e .
39
T h i s c e r e m o n y sh o w s r e m a r k a b l e
Roman c u s t o m o f May 1 5 , a t w h i c h t i m e
resem blance
to
the
the V e sta l V irg in s
c a s t in to
the T ib e r th e p u p p ets o f stra w o r ru s h , A rg e i,
1*5
r e s e m b l i n g men#
I n h i s Roman F e s t i v a l s F o w l e r c i t e s D r .
M a n r i h a r d t ( B a u m k u l t u s 358) a s s a y i n g t h a t t h e c e r e m o n y o f t h e
*
Ar&ei
rep resen ts
the d e p a rtu re
the f r u i t f u l s e a s o n .
He c a l l s
of w i n t e r and t h e
a r r i v a l of
15
i t a HR a i n S p e l l #11
M oreover,
F ow ler r e c a l l s
i n s t a n c e s o f t h e same t y p e o f c e r e m o n y i n
17
R u s s i a a n d G-ermany.
H e r e a n o l d man c a r r i e s a p u p p e t o f
s tr a w and th ro w s i t
in to
t h e r i v e r w h i l e t h e women s i n g
m o u rn fu l v e r s e and weep c o p i o u s l y .
Som etim es th e f i g u r e
is
burnt or b u ried .
W hile upon t h e
su b ject of f e r t i l i t y
and r a i n
sp e lls,
I may h e r e m e n t i o n a n o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t r a i n c e r e m o n y , t h e
* 18
P aparude.
I t i s an echo of th e legend of Danae,
although
t h e m a i d e n s o f r o y a l d e s c e n t h a v e now b e c o m e w a n d e r i n g g y p s y
g irls.
On t h e t h i r d S u n d a y a f t e r E a s t e r ,
gypsy g i r l s ,
c la d only in f r e s h
house to h o u se,
if
rain is
needed,
l e a v e s , d a n ce a b o u t from
c h a n t i n g w o r d s i n t e n d e d t o b r i n g down r a i n s
"*
15 O y i d . F a s t i . V s г 3 2 ~ 6 5 5 s
11. . . s t r a m i n e o s i n a q u a m
m is s is s e , corpora f a ls a ia & i...;
O v i d , O p . C i t . . Vs621╗╗622; ? turn q u o q u e p r i s c o r u m
v i r g o s i m u l a c r a v i r o r u m / m i t t e r e r o b o r e o s c i r p e a p o n t e s o l e #11
16 ?
F o w l e r , O p . C l t . . p . 118*
17 I b i d . .
p . 119.
18 I b i d . . p . 1 1 6 .
40
Paparuda
ruda
Gome a n d w e t u s
For th e ra in s to f a l l
W ith t h e w a t e r p a i l s ,
T h a t t h e e a r s may g r o w
As h i g h a s t h e h e d g e s
To a u g m e n t t h e w h e a t
1Q
And t o f i l l t h e b a r n .
And t h e h o u s e w i v e s g o o u t a n d d r e n c h t h e d a n c i n g g i r l s
p a ils
w ith
of w ater!
S t i l l a n o th e r cerem ony of g r e a t i n t e r e s t d u r in g th e
E a s t e r s e a s o n i s t h a t one w h ic h com m em orated t h e c a c k l i n g
geese of th e C a p lto lin e
p easan ts r e a liz e
Illitera cy
but i t
is
the
H ill,
an tiq u ity
th a t th ese
and s i g n i f i c a n c e
of th is r i t e .
u n c o m m o n l y s t r a n g e how t h e s e f o l k h a v e r e t a i n e d
c a c k lin g saved the c i t y
days a f t e r E a s te r a l l
and tr e a te d
t h e h o n o r i n g o f t h e .g e ese whose
o f Rome f r o m t h e G -o th s.
the g e ese
e x tra o rd in a ry a tte n tio n .
lik e
in the
HS a n s C a p i t o l e ,
So, fort^:
n eighborhood r e c e i v e
They a r e d e c k e d w i t h g ay r i b b o n s ,
little
gods.
P rin cess
e v o lv e d a t h e o r y t h a t seems q u i t e r e l e v a n t ;
batim :
sim ple
c a n h a n d down o n l y w a rp e d t r a d i t i o n a l c u s t o m s ,
t h r o u g h o u t s o many c e n t u r i e s
p etted ,
One d o u b t s
p a s d e Rome;
?*-9 S t r a t i l e s c o , O p . C i t . . p . 182
11P a p a r u d a
ruda
V i n o d e rie u d a
Ca s a c a d a p l o i l e
Cu g a l e г i l e
S^ s a c r e a s c a s p i c e l e
C it g a rd u rile
A
Sa s p o r e a s c a g r a n e l e
Sa u m p l e p a l u l e l e *
B ibesco has
so I quote v e r н
s a n s Rome, p a s d e C e s a r ;
41
pas de F ra n c e ,
pas d 'E s p a g n e ,
pas d * I t a l i e ,
t e r r e i . . . . p a s d e c e s hommes q u i ,
p a s meme d ' A n g l e -
q u estio n n es,
respondents
' S u n t R o m an '.'"20
E a s t e r tim e
s e e m s a s e a s o n o f c e l e b r a t i o n among t h e
p leasu re-lo v in g p easan ts.
p lain fo lk
seize
W ith c h i l d l i k e
upon any p r e t e x t ,
n a iv e te
however s l i g h t ,
m erry and to f o r g e t th e u n e n d in g and p r o f i t l e s s
t h e i r u n ev en tfu l liv e s*
of
The m o s t i m p o r t a n t o n e
The v e r y name d e n o t e s t h e
se c re t o rg an izatio n .
of them .
t e n t of th e
to il
is
E ivy
21
m entions th e
S a lii;
22
G vid a l s o
A lth o u g h tim e h as c o r r u p t e d the o r i g i n a l i n н
Roman f r a t e r n i t y
streets,
of
o rig in of th is
of th e tw elv e d a n cin g p r i e s t s ,
th e fundam ental c e re m o n y --th a t of dan cin g th ro u g h t h e
lage
the
o f the G a l u s h e r i i ( C o l l i - S a l l i ). a f r a t e r n i t y
d a n c i n g members*
tells
t o make
So t h e y t a k e d e l i g h t i n t h e f o r m a н
t i o n of s e c r e t brotherhoods*
b rotherhood
th ese
leap in g
in to the
a ir,
sto p p in g before
v ilн
th e
h o u s e s t o p e r f o r m , a n d m i m i c k i n g t h e r a p e o f t h e S a b i n e wo23
m en-- has b e en l e f t u n a l t e r e d .
Were o n e t o a s k t h e p e r н
f o r m i n g p e a s a n t MJ u s t w h a t d o e s t h i s c e r e m o n y m ean?
y o u do i t ? ? he w ould l o o k a t t h e
my f a t h e r d o e s i t ;
q u e s t i o n e r a n d a n s w e r ? Why,
my g r a n d f a t h e r d i d i t ;
a n d a l l my a n c e s -
520 B i b e s c o , O p . C i t * . p p . 2 1 - 2 2 *
21 O p . C i t * . V ; 5 2 . 7
22
^
O p . C i t . . I I I S 260 f o i l .
S tra tile sc o ,
Why do
O p . C i t *. p p . 3 5 3 - 3 5 4 ?
42
have done i t . "
Yet th e
o r i g i n and m eaning h a s b e e n b u r i e d
under the w eight of h is
F or t h i s perform ance
ig n o ran ce?
the
It
is
i n i t i a t e d b r e t h e r n wear th e
t i o n a l costum e o rn am en ted w ith s t r i n g s
and flo w ers#
" J u s t a c u s t o m #'1
E a c h man c a r r i e s
of a l l c o lo rs,
a stick #
in th is
cers, c alle d
" C a l u s h e r i , " a r e composed o f s e v e n ,
m y steries.
It
cerem ony i s c a l l e d
n ine,
T h e ir i n i t i a t i o n and t r a i n i n g a re
I s on T r i n i t y Day,
o r the
b e lls,
One o f t h e i r p r i n 24
"R om anul."
The d a n н
c ip a l dances
e l e v e n m em bers.
naн
or
secret
R u ssalll. th at
th ey g a th e r to g e th e r and perform t h e i r r i t e s .
The m y s t e r i e s
of the R u s s a lii a re
shrouded i n
the
m is ts of ages p a s t,
b u t t h e f u n d a m e n t a l i d e a s e e m s t o be t h e
25
R o s a l i a o f t h e a n c i e n t R om ans. The o r i g i n a l p u r p o s e h a s b e e n
ch an g ed from th e
sp rin g f e s tiv a l of ro se s,
in e x p lic a b ly c o n n ected w ith a c u l t of
s a l i i are h o s tile
d iv in itie s,
o f a n e m p e r o r , who,
storm s.
o r in th e b e l t i s
26
the th r e e
rejected
d a u g h ters
a n g e r e d a t mankind f o r l a c k o f a t t e n t i o n
p a id them d u r i n g t h e i r l i v e s ,
d e stru ctiv e
a n d now i t i s
26
the d ead .
The R u s -
run about the f i e l d s
raisin g
A t w i g o f wormwood u n d e r o n e ' s p i l l o w
the
o n l y p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e s e women.
S tra tilesco ,
Loc. P i t .
Stratilesco,
Op.C i t ?.p.184,
P a u l v - W l s s o w a л^ E n c y c l o o e d l e - R e a l . c o l . I T I I : 11. . .
d as R o s e n f e s t, e i n u r s p r i i n g li c h i t a l i s c h e s F e s t das besondeis
im V e r b i n d u n g m i t dem T o t e n k u l t a u f t r i t t u n d s i c h a u c h n o c h
d e r B a l k a n h a l b i n s e l und K l e i n A s ie n v e r b r e i t e t h a t . "
43
In c o n n e c ti o n w ith t h e s e w icked s p i r i t s
who a r e
the F a te s,
o f f e r e d b r e a d a n d h o n e y a nd s p r i n g w a t e r a s p e a c e
o fferin g s
a n d emblem s o f g o o d - w i l l ,
th e p l a t e s upon w hich th e s e
placed a s i l v e r c o in ,
thread.
v o tiv e
o ffe rin g s are
a n d some f l o w e r s
The f o l l o w i n g a d d r e s s i s
la d ie s and p ure,
may b e m e n t i o n e d *
Near
made a r e
t ie d w ith a red s i l k
made t o t h e m :
l a d i e s of honour and l i g h t !
?B le s s e d
Sod g r a n t
t h a t y o u r m o o d . t h i s d a y may b e a s g o o d a s b r e a d ,
honey,
sm ooth a s w a t e r ,
sw eet as
27
a n d b e a u t i f u l a s f l o w e r s . 11 I t i s
these
t h r e e women who a r e p r e s e n t a t e v e r y c h i l d * s b i r t h ,
28
a n d who d e c i d e h i s f a t e .
The o f f e r i n g o f f o o d a n d f l o w e r s
i n p r o p i t i a t i o n t o iг he d e a d i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e R o m an s ,
29
a s V i r g i l s a y s i n t h e A e n e i d . a n d a s was c u s t o m a r y a t t h e
30
P aran talia.
E very s c h o la r o f th e c l a s s i c s
P ro s e rp in a and P lu to ,
k ing of the
the
rec o lle cts
the
tale
t h e f t o f t h e l o v e l y m aiden by th e
U n d e rw o rld a s sh e was p i c k i n g f l o w e r s i n t h e
f i e l d s . R u t f e w know t h a t i n t h e
m o u n ta in o u s Rum ania,
an cien t in c id e n t' th a t
p ictu resq u e co u n try sid e of
peasant g ir ls ,
s c a r c e l y c o g n iz a n t of the
th ey are r e c a p i t u l a t i n g ,
d ram atize
2Y B l b e e c o . O p . C i t . . P t u l 8 2 - 1 8 ~ 5 .
28
л ?
D . D i m a n c e s c o , ? Rome o f o u r C u s t o m s " , b u l l e t i n o f
S o c i e t y o f FrdLends o f R u m a n i a , p . 57.
29
V*7 9 :
"purpureosque ia c e t f lo r e s "
^
of
Fow ler,
O p .C i t . . p . 308.
44
th e
legend of th e
m orning,
young,
seasons.
On P a l m S u n d a y ,
unwedded g i r l s
go o u t i n t o
early
in the
the f i e l d s
in
g ro u p s and g a t h e r f l o w e r s .
As t h e y p l u c k t h e w i l d b l o s s o m s
31
t h e y c h a n t a s o n g , o n e i n w h i c h t h e y make a p l e a f o r a l o v e r
to
come t o c a r r y
t h e m a w a y a n d wed t h e m .
D uring th e h a r v e s t se a s o n th e
w hich a l l Rum anian p e a s a n t s
p u r i f i c a t i o n cerem ony
perform i s
r e lig io u s ly rem iniн
s c e n t o f th e r i t e s o f th e V e s t a l i a . B ibesco t e l l s us In h e r
32
Isvor
t h a t d a i r y u t e n s i l s a r e washed and s e t o u t i n t h e su n н
lig h t,
decked w ith flo w e rs and w illow b ra n c h e s ;
p o ts and pans a r e
passed th ro u g h a f i r e
and t h a t
k i n d l e d by e m b e rs .
t a k e n f r o m t h e h e a r t h w h i c h i s n e v e r a l l o w e d t o go o u t .
Roman t i m e s t h e
V e s ta ls gu ard ed the
tem ple and p a r t i c i p a t e d
h earth f i r e s
In
of the h o ly
i n th e cerem ony o f th e p u r i f i c a t i o n
of the u t e n s il s
and s t o r e - c l o s e t o f t h e h o u s e which w a s i n
33
t h e i r c h a r g e . Fow ler
show s t h e c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n
t h i s Roman c u s t o m o f a n t i q u i t y a n d i t s
su rv iv als
among t h e
v a r i o u s p e a s a n t l a n d s o f t o d a y , w h en h e s a y s t h a t ? s p e c i a l
34 B i b e s c o , Q p . C l t . . p p . 7 8 - 7 9 *
,
F e u i l l e v e r t e , F a r f a r a ? F l e u r e de c h a p e l i e r e ,
o u v r e - t o i , m o n t r - m o i , # a c pure*.
F l e u r q u e l e s o l e i l n * a p a s e n c o r e (v u e , q u e l e v e n t
n fa pas b a t t u e , que p e rso n n e encore n*a fo u le e aux p ie d ,
O u v r e - t o i dans l e f e u i l l e , m ontre t a f a c e i g n o r a n t e
d e s homines*.
,
0 ma f l e u r p a r f u m e e . . . v a d a n s s o n v i l l a g e t r o u v e r
c e l u l q u i d o i t m * a i m e r о . . . . . q u * i l s e h a t e d e v e n i r lsT o u J e
s u i s . . . . q u * i l v i e n n e a r o o i , v i t e , s u r u n c h e v a l p a p i d e comme
le v e n t
?
32
p p .119-120,
53 O p . O l t . . p p . 1 4 5 - 1 5 4 .
45
im portance
i s a tt a c h e d to th e days im m ediately b e fo re h a r н
v e s t and th e g a th e r in g of th e
there
is
F urtherm ore,
and f r u i t - b e a r i n g
fille d
f r u i t s ? a t w hich tim e
a general clean in g out of house,
r e c e p t a c l e s and u t e n s i l s ,
34
of re jo ic in g * ?
crease.
first
barns,
and f o llo w in g upon t h i s
t h e Rum anian p e a s a n t b e l i e v e s
and a l l
a p eriod
th at g rain -
t r e e s s h o u l d b e s o w n a t t h e m o o n 1s i n н
A young g i r l ,
h o ld in g in h er hands b ra s s
w ith pure w a t e r ,
35
v essels
c h a n ts an im p lo rin g p ra y e r to the
moons
Moon, new moon,
L e t g o o d n e s s be l i k e t h e dew;
As much s a n d i n t h e r i v e r ,
So t h e p o c k e t b o o k o f t h e f a t h e r ;
As t h e e m b e r s i n t h e h o u s e ,
So ifchny p e o p l e a a t o u r t a b l e ;
Be t h o u l i k e me
And I l i k e t h e e I
I n one o f h e r p h a s e s t h e Roman D i a n a w a s t h e p r o t e c н
t i n g g oddess o f th e fa rm e r and h i s
c a ttle .
patro m d e it y
t o ward o f f e v i l s p i r i t s
o f women.
from h is w if e ,
grove,
T herefore,
and c a t t l e ,
S h e was a l s o
the
t h e Rum anian f a r m e r u t t e r s
34 F o w l e r , O p . C i t . . p . 151
G .D .T eo d o rescu , P o e z ii p o n u la re
Luna, lu n a , noau
G-hine c a t a r o a u ;
G a t a - a r i n a 1n v a l e
Punga l i t a t e ;
w
C a t a s p r u n a 1n c a s a
A haгi o a m in i p r i m easa;
T in e c a mine
S ' i o c a t i n e 1.
rom ane,
p .47;
46
th is
in v o c a tio n a t the
new moon:
. . . . . t a k e s t th e s p e l l and e n c h a n tm e n t from o u r
h o u s e , a n d t a b l e , f r o m my f a c e a n d my w i f e * s f a c e , f r o m o u r
l a n d s and w e a l t h *
Lum inous moon
tak e th e s p e l l from our
h o m e , w e a l t h , c a t t l e , g r o v e , o r c h a r d , a n d a l l my t h i n g s ?**
T his
i n v o c a t i o n was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
o f th e A m barvalia of th e
Homan p e a s a n t who s a i d :
. . . . F a t h e r M ars, I p r a y t h e e t o be w i l l i n g and
p r o p i t i o u s t o me, jpy h o u s e h o l d , a n d my s l a v e s . . . . I p r a y t h e e
k e e p , a v e r t , and t u r n from us a l l d i s e a s e , s e e n o r u n se e p ,
a l l d e s o l a t i o n , r u i n , damage, and u n s e a s o n a b le i n f l u e n c e ; I
pray th e e give in c re a s e to th e f r u i t s , th e c o rn , th e v in e s ,
and th e p l a n t a t i o n s
Keep a l s o i n s a f e t y t h e s h e p h e r d s
a n d t h e i r f l o c k s , a n d g i v e g o o d h e a l t h a n d v i g o u r t o me,
my h o u s e , a n d my h o u s e h o l d
'
The c o l o r f u l p a g e a n t r y o f w e d d i n g c e r e m o n i e s
v ersal.
In the B a lk a n s,
co lo rfu ln ess
and p a r t i c u l a r l y
is u n iн
i n B um ania,
i s h i g h l y s t r e s s e d among t h e p e a s a n t s .
th is
Added
to
the p i c t u r e s q u e n e s s o f m a n y -c o lo re d e m b ro id e re d costum es
is
the t r a d i t i o n a l p a g e a n try
of cerem ony.
And t h i s
cerem ony
i s a c u r i o u s b l e n d i n g o f Roman p a g a n i s m a n d O r t h o d o x C h r i s н
t i a n i t y - - t h e O c c i d e n t o f Rome a n d t h e O r i e n t o f B y z a n t i u m .
The tw o i n f l u e n c e s a r e
d iffic u lt
phases
so c l o s e l y
to d is tin g u is h
o f the r i t e ,
the
in terw o v en t h a t i t
is
one f r o m t h e o t h e r . C e r t a i n
n ev erth eless,
^Tache
P apahagi,
?^C ato,
De Re R u s t l c a . 1 4 1 j
are
o b v i o u s l y Roman:
D in Fol k l o r u l R om anic,
pp. 166-168.
47
t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l Ht h e f t ? o f t h e b r i d e b y t h e b r i d e g r o o m
38
w h i c h c o m m e m o r a t e s t h e r a p p o f t h e S a b i n e women,
the g a r39
la n d of flo w e r s crow ning each p a r t i c i p a n t
and th e assum ing of th e
m atron? s v e i l
i n the cerem ony,
by t h e
40
new ly-w ed m aiden.
A f te r adequate p r e p a r a tio n s b e fo re h an d ,
th e w edding,
the b rid eg ro o m ,
a t t e n d e d by h i s b e s t f r i e n d s ,
r i d e s t o t h e home o f t h e b r i d e .
and a f t e r a v o lle y of guns,
'They s u r r o u n d h e r h o u s e ,
sim u latin g a b a tt l e ,
g i r l a w ay t o t h e b r i d e g r o o m ? s h o m e .
w hich i s
take
the
D u rin g th e cerem ony,
u s u a l l y p e rfo rm e d by an O rthodox p r i e s t ,
a n d groom w e a r w r e a t h s
heads.
on th e day o f
b o th b rid e
of b r i g h t l y c o lo r e d flo w e rs upon t h e i r
S h o rtly afterw ard s
the b rid e
assum es th e m a tro n ?s
vei^.
The c u s t o m o f a r r a n g i n g a deswery s e t t l e m e n t b e t w e e n
groom a n d f a t h e r - i n - l a w i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h e
41
c o e m p ti o . A f t e r th e cerem ony th e groom l i f t s
the
th resh o ld ,
Roman m a r r i a g e
th e b rid e
over
42
an d she a n o i n t s th e d o o r w ith b u t t e r o r h o n e y .
T h u s d i d h e r ADman a n c e s t r e s s . 4 3 S u g a r - c o a t e d a l m o n d s a r e d i s 44
45
t r i b u t e d t o th e g u e s t s by t h e groom, J u s t a s i n a n c i e n t d a y s .
^Dlmancesco.
at Rome. p.62 ,
Op.Ci t 77pp.57-59 : Fowler, Soci a l Life
-Z Q
''McDaniel, Roman Private Life and i t s Survivals . p.48.
оM.Yifalker, Untrodden Paths in Rumania, p. 186.
^H.Johnston, Private Life of the Romans,p.6$.
42Lucy Garnett, Balkan Home Life, p .168,
^3johnston, Op.C it. . p.63,
^E.O.Hoppe, In Gypsy Camp and Rpyal Palace. p . l 6 l ,
45johnston,
O p. C i t . , p . 62 t
48
The p i c t u r e s q u e n e s s
of m arriage r i t e s
o n ly by t h e m o u r n f u l f u n e r a l p a g e a n t r y *
sant b eliev es
i n m aking h i s
life *
t h a t t h e w e a l t h . o f Homan t r a d i t i o n f i n d s
stitio n s
may b e C h r i s t i a n ,
a r e Roman-pagan*
f u n e r a l day
The two o c c a s i o n s v i e
w ith each o th e r in r i t u a l and c o s t l i n e s s .
The r i t e s
eq u alled
The H u m a n i a n p e a н
w edding day and h i s
t h e two g r e a t e s t e v e n t s o f h i s
let.
is
And i t
its
i s here
g re a te s t o u tн
b u t th e u n d e rly in g su p e rн
The s o u l o f t h e d e c e a s e d may go
to a m ost C h r i s t i a n Heaven,
b u t h e g o e s b y a Homan r o u t e .
He m u s t c r o s s t h e
r i v e r S ty x and he m u st pay h i s
to the ferry m an .
B ut l e t u s a t t e n d a t y p i c a l Rum anian p e a н
sant fu n e ra l in th e
The c o r p s e ,
borne to
cries
fastn ess
o f th e C a r p a th ia n M o untains:
washed and c l a d i n g r a v e - c l o t h i n g ,
the church,
a c c o m p a n ie d by t h e
of lam en tatio n ,
the c o rp s e
and c u r i o s i t y
open to the
b a t i o n s c a n be p o u r e d i n t o
Charon*s f a r e ,
it,
s e e k e r s . - The f a c e
i n th e m outh o r u pon t h e e y e l i d .
c h a n t e d b y t h e women d r e s s e d
MS i t t i b i
terra
liн
and so t h a t th e b ro n z e c o i n ,
At t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h e p r i e s t c h a n t s :
the
sound o f f i d d l e s ,
moment o f b u r i a l s o t h a t t h e
may b e p l a c e d
Funeral d irg e s are
is
is
of
46
i s e x p o s e d t o v i e w - - a n i n h e r i t a n c e f r o m Home.
The c o f f i n l i e s
$his
Mo b o l u s M
HF i e - i
l e v i s 11 o f Rome.
i n m ourning.
t a r i n a usoaral*?
B u r i a l wine i s
47
poured i n to th e g ra v e ,
and th e
soiil i s
^ ~ M c D a n ie l, O p.C l t . . p. 193.
F o w le r , O p.C i t . . p . 328,
4 7 W .B e c k e r, Gal l u a . p . 5 2 1 ,
alread y
sa ilin g
in
49
the s k i f f
of C h a ro n -~ if the
fa r e has been p a id ,
of th e cerem ony m ust n e v e r be n e g l e c t e d ,
stitio u s
peasant b eliev es
dead o n e 's
forever,
th at
if
the
T his b e l i e f
is
48
the s u p e r н
f a r e be n o t p a i d ,
s o u l m ust wander ab o u t th e
a lo s t so u l,
because
T his p a r t
the
s h o re s of th e Styx
w i t h no hope o f f i h d i n g e t e r n a l r e s t .
found in V i r g i l 's
lin e s
in the
S i x t h Boo k o f
the A eneid:
Haec o m n i s ,
P o rtito r
quern c e r n i s ,
ille
in o p s inhum ataque
tu rb a
e st:
C h a r o n h i q u o s v e h i t un& $, s e p u l t d *
And t h e ^ a n e s m u s t b e a p p e a s e d w i t h l i b a t i o n s .
the f u n e r a l f e a s t each g u e s t,
a f e w d r o p s o f t h e wind-,
a s he d r i n k s ,
say in g " F ie - i
W hitsunday a d i s h o f b o i l e d g r a i n i s
T his p a r a l l e l s
e n tire
w ill f i r s t
sp ill
49
t a r i n a u s o a r a " 1 On
o ffe re d to th e
Manes.
t h e Roman c u s t o m o f t h e P a r e n t a l l a . when
f a m i l y w ould go t o t h e g r a v e w i t h o f f e r i n g s
w ine, m ilk , honey,
50
dead.
I n Rum ania,
n u ts, and honey,
and o i l ,
to
how ever,
the
partak e
cem etery,
and a l i t t l e
of w ater,
o f a meal w ith th e
i n t h e m o r n i n g on
t a k i n g w i t h them t h e
co liv a ,
51
candle.
*&~VI:325-326
^
50
^
the
c o l l v a . made o f b a k e d c o r n ,
foie women l e a v e e a r l y
Holy T h u r s d a y f o r t h e
a jug of w a te r,
So a t
S t r a t l l e s c o , 0 j 2 .C iJ i. , p . 2 9 A - .
W alker, O p .C l t . . p . 30.
V i r g i l , A e n e i d . V :7 9 ; O vid, F a s t i .
M cD aniel.O p.C l t . . p p . 195-196 >
H t60 ~ff-- *
50
In o ld e r tim es th e re
was a n o t h e r f u n e r a l c u s t o m w h i c h
c a n be t r a c e d b a c k t o L a t i n I n f l u e n c e :
52
sheep.
On t h e e v e o f t h e f u n e r a l d a y ,
u su a lly b lack,
the s a c r i f i c e
of a
o n e o r m o re s h e e p ,
w e r e d e c o r a t e d w i t h b u r n i n g wax c a n d l e s
p la c e d on t h e i r h o r n s .
Jhen,
in the
presence of the p r i e s t ,
t h e s h e e p w a s made t o s t a n d b e s i d e a h o l e a l r e a d y d u g , a n d
when i t
tu rn e d tow ard th e w e s t,
and a llo w e d th e b lo o d to flo w
the p r a y in g p r i e s t k i l l e d
in to th e
p it.
it
The m e a t o f t h e
s h e e p was e a t e n a t t h e f u n e r a l f e a s t a n d t h e s k i n was g i v e n
to
the p r i e s t .
the s a y in g :
53
p r i e s t )?
From t h i s c u s t o m ,
no l o n g e r e x t a n t ,
i#A d a p i e l a p o p i i . ? ( T o g i v e
rem ains
the s k in to the
In the m a tte r of d r e s s the T ra n sy lv a n ia n m o u n tain eer
still
still
clin g s
t h e c u s t o m s o f h i s f o r e f a t h e r s - - ? The men
54
w e a r Roman c l o t h i n g # ? The t u n i c a n d t o g a o f Roman a n н
tiq u ity
are
to
d isc ern ib le
costum es of t h e
in
shepherd#
w ears a h e a d d r e s s w hich i s
the f u l l - s k i r t e d
and lo n g -s le e v e d
The p r i e s t o f t h e s e
sim ple f o l k
? j u s t one s t e p rem oved from th e
a n i m a l - h i d e h e a d g e a r s w h i c h t h e a n c i e n t s w o r e . . . a n d w h i c h we
55
may s e e i n t h e o l d D a c i a n r e c o r d s . 1 The p e a s a n t w e a r s a
5^ S t r a t i l e s c o .
Op. C i t . . p . 295 .
53 I b i d .
O p i t z , E n c v c l o c e d l e R e a l . 1621s
noch J e t z t f a s t ro m isch M u ster t r a g e n . . ?
" d ie M en sch en .d ie
^ ^
^ S . S z i l a d y , A Mi E r d e l v u n k : ? E s t , p e d i g c s a k e g y ^
l e p e s v a l a s z t j a e l a t t o l ?~a f e j v e d й a l l a t b o r t o l . . . I l y e n t l a t hatu n k a r e g i T ra c ia k o l t o j e n e k . .
51
sheepskin c o a t,
lam h sk in cap,
56
d id h is a n c e sto r of y o re.
Indeed,
makes I t s e l f
w ill c a ll h is
name h i s
and l e a t h e r s a n d a ls ,
i n e v e r y h a b i t a n d c u s t o m t h e Roman i n f l u e n c e
felt.
A Rum anian p e a s a n t ,
sons " O v id iu s," " T i t u s ,"
steers
"C a ssiu s,"
"B ru tu s,"
T r a j a n i s a s common w i t h t h e m a s
to c ra tic
names.
is
I illu stra te
w i t h m ine:
th e usages of c e n tu r ie s
c u rta ile d
m eaning " l i t t l e
b e ard ."
Miot. a n e d u c a t e d man,
" V irg iliu s."
"A u g u stu s."
He w i l l
The name
John w ith u s.
g e n try p o in t o u t w ith p rid e
B arb u la,
j u s t as
The a r i s н
the L a t i n r o o t o f t h e i r
B arb u l.
it,
O rig in ally ,
before
t h e f u l l name was
The c o n n o t a t i o n i s
th at a
Roman p r o p r a e t o r e who g o v e r n e d T r a n s y l v a n i a was c h r i s t e n e d
w ith th is
nicknam e and handed i t
Ju s t as
i n c l a s s i c a l tim es
name a n d i d e n t i t y
in th a t
down t o t h e
present
t h e Roman woman l o s t h e r
of h e r f a t h e r o r husband,
t h e m o d e r n R u m a n i a n p e a s a n t woman b e c o m e m e r e l y t h e
of
Io n ," o r th e"w ife
of
Ion";
she i s
known a s
w i f e 2>f I o n " o r " t h e M a r i e o f S i m o n P e t e r . "
t h e man h i m s e l f
u a lity
tim e.
i n many r e m o t e d i s t r i c t s ,
so does
"d aug hter
" A rn ica ,
the
In f a c t,
lo ses
the
even
in d iv id н
o f a surnam e and becomes m e r e ly a g r o u p o f C h r i s t i a n
names.
I h u s we m e e t o n e " i o n D e m e t r i u s I o n , " o r " P e t e r
57
Sim on J o h n G -eorge."
So i t was w i t h Roman p e a s a n t .
56 W a l k e r .
57
B ibesco,
O p .C lt..
p p .2 2 -2 ^ .
O p.C l t . . p . 4 .
52
In co n clu d in g t h i s
c h a p t e r m e n t i o n s h o u l d b e made o f
t h e many s u p e r s i t i o n s a n d l e g e n d s
o l d &oman t r a d i t i o n s
p la y s a m ajor r o le
t h a t have
th e ir bases
l e f t am ong t h e s e p e o p l e ?
in
the liv e s
of these
S u p erstitio n
u n tu to red
f o lf c *
and th e f e a r o f d e a th ,
relig io u s
served,
gam ut o f e l e m e n t a l f o l k w a y s a n d mores
are
and t h e e n t i r e
the
s o u r c e and m a in te n a n c e
cerem onies
in
of the p e a s a n ts .
t h e w o r ld a b o u t them w i t h c r e a t u r e s
generations
in h is
Among t h e s e
to the
l e g e n d s h a n d e d do w n t h r o u g h
t h a t came a t
g ian ts,
the "g e n iu s
a serp en t.
lo ci"
o f the household,
the
58
eyes.
r e p r e s e n t e d by
I n P o m p eii were fo u n d t h e
the
p ic tu r e s of snakes
59
"g e n ii."
Among t h e e v i l -
w o r k e r s t h a t h a u n t t h e d a r k woo d s a r e
So t h e
t h a t tim es
and the cy clo p s w ith s in g le
p a i n t e d on th e w a l l s and c a l l e d
strid es
in sp irн
l e g e n d s a r e t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l m yths o f
who w e r e t h e
There i s
And f o r h i s
th eir
fam ily c i r c l e .
c r e a t i o n and th e c r e a t u r e s
u rlesl
They f i l l
of t h e i r fancy as
a tte m p t to answ er the u n i v e r s a l r i d d l e .
a t i o n the p e a s a n t tu r n s
t h a t m ust be obн
the s t r i g o r l ,
o f G r e e c e a n d Rome, who t h r e a t e n t h e
p a re n t says
t h i s charm :
"I c a st
th is
the
new -born i n f a n t .
stone
in to the
60
mouth o f t h e s t r i g o r i . "
O vid q u o te s a charm o f t h i s k i n d .
58 Me Dan i e 1 s , O p . C l t . .
p p .101-102,
^ G a r n e t t . O p . C i t . . p . 164,
6 o F a s t l .Y I{
159-162.
CHAPTER V
THE LANGUAGE
In p rep arin g th is
c h a p t e r on t h e
la n g u a g e o f Rum ania,
I have n o t a tte m p te d a th o ro u g h p h i l o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s ,
t h a t i s b e y o n d my a i m i n t h i s
and b r i e f l y
su g g ested those
L a t in la n g u a g e s w hich a r e
The l a n g u a g e i t s e l f ,
b ein g " s e t ,"
b ut I have o u tlin e d
r e s e m b la n c e s , i n t h e Rum anian and
obvious to
m oreover,
is
the average
still
in the
a n d o ne f i n d s many d i f f e r e n c e s
a n d 11New1* R u m a n i a *
tio n s
th esis,
found i n
sin ce
T his i s w e ll i l l u s t r a t e d
scholar*
process
of
o f form i n "O ld"
by the v a r i a н
t h e gram m ars o f W e e h s le r , A x e lr a d ,
L overa,
and Hughes.
The m a i n p r i n c i p l e ,
how ever,
guage i s b a se d d i r e c t l y upon L a t i n ,
Through a l l
is
not to be d is p u te d .
th e w ars and i n v a s i o n s o f v a r i o u s b a r b a r i c
t h a t sw ept th e
land a f t e r th e
"T h e L a t i n l a n g u a g e
io u sly ;
t h a t t h e Rum anian l a n н
in i t s
trib e s
r e c a l l o f t h e Roman g a r r i s o n s ,
e sse n tia ls
came t h r o u g h v i c t o r н
i n some r e s p e c t s R u m a n i a n p r e s e r v e s L a t i n b e t t e r
t h a n a n y o f t h e m o d e r n l a n g u a g e s ."?*? T h i s i s s e e n i n t h e g r a m н
mar o f t h e
la n g u a g e w hich s t i l l
reta in s
d e c l e n s i o n f o u n d i n no o t h e r l a n g u a g e
a "rom ance" to n g u e .
The v o c a b u l a r y i s
th e c o m p le te noun
th a t bo asts
of b ein g
p redom inantly L a tin .
xR o l a n d K e n t , " T h e C o n q u e s t s o f t h e L a t i n L a n g u a g e , "
C l a s s i c a l J o u r n a l . XXIVs206
The l i t e r a r y
d ialect*
Rum anian l a n g u a g e
Of c o u r s e
the c l a s s i c a l sp e e c h of C ic e r o ,
r a t h e r in the e v ery -d a y ,
2
W allach ian
one m ust rem ember t h a t e v en t h i s
uage i s ro o te d n o t i n
Roman p r o v i n c i a l .
i s b a sed upon th e
sim p le,
Yet t h i s
lan g н
but
c o llo q u ia l speech of the
language
is
t r u e r t o t h e mother**
r o o t t h a n a n y o t h e r s b e c a u s e some o f t h e s o u n d s a n d a c c e n t s
3
have changed l e s s th a n e ls e w h e r e .
T his language i s a ls o .
spoken i n c o lo n ie s
i n M acedonia and I s t r y a .
t h a t t h e Rum anian h a s n e v e r l o s t
He i l l u s t r a t e s
th is
traces
h
W echsler sa y s
of i t s
L a tin o rig in #
p o i n t by d r a w i n g a n i n t e r e s t i n g compaн
r i s o n Q^hich I h a v e c o p i e d v e r b a t i m s
C u rio sita tea
C u rio sitas
j
fe ric ita
felix
ne
nos
гi
et
lau d a b ila
lau d a b ilis
in stru im
instruam us
m em oria
m em oriam
este
est
de
de
no stra
nostram
o
una
^
cand
quando
lu cru ri
lu cris
cu
cum
fap te
fac tis
d isp o sitium e
d isp o sitio
ne
nos
face
facet
j
sa
(dass)
u tile ,
sa
ornam
u t i l i b u s , (dass)ornem us
6
in te ressa n te ;
( i n t e r e s s a n t s );
^R umania*.* E n c y c l o p e d i a B r l t a n n l c a . X X I I I s 8 4 2 - 8 4 4
^ R oland,
Loc. C l t .
^ H n cv clo n ed la B r i t a n n i c a . L o c .C it.
c
O p.C j t . . p#10s
H. . . . h a t d a s R u m a n i s c h e n i e m a l s
s e in e n l a t e i n i s c h e n U rsprung v e r le u g n e t.
D ies g i l t ganz b e s o n d e r s i n b e z u g a u f d i e G ram m atik.
6
c
55
It
in the
is
i n the c o n ju g a tio n of verbs t h a t
tw o l a n g u a g e s may b e e a s i l y
m in a tio n ,
the
seen.
the s i m i l a r i t y
A ccording to
R u m a n i a n v e r b may b e c l a s s e d
in
ter-
? one o f f o u r
co n ju g atio n :
R um anian
I ? -a
II.
L atin
I ? -are
-ea
III.
-e
IV.
-i
II..
-ere
III.
-ere
IV ?
The c o n j u g a t i o n ' o f t h e
-ire
a u x il i a r y verb " to b e ? in a
few t e n s e s w i l l f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e
Rum anian
a f1
'
the
p o in t:
L atin
esse
In d ica tiv
P r e ze n t
sunt
esti
este
suntem
su n te$ i
sunt
sum
es
est
su m u s
e stls
sunt
Im p erfectu l
eram
erai
era
eram
era ti
erau
eram
eras
erat
eram us
e ra tis
erant
P e r f e c t u l sim p lu
ful
fusi
fu"
furam
fu rati
fura
There a r e
two t e n s e s
fui
fu isti
f u it
of p a st
tim e,
fuim us
fu istis
fuerunt
called
M a i-m u lt-d a -p e rfe c tu l and M a i-m u lt-c a -p e rfe c t I I ,
i n fium anian
w hich
seem t o be a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e L a t i n p l u p e r f e c t t e n s e
in d ic ativ e
and s u b j u n c t i v e
moods.
in
56
REGULAR VERBS
I . a lau d a
(lau d are)
XX. a t a c e a
(tacere)
laud
lau d i
laud
tac
taci
tace
a geme
(gem ere)
gem
gemi
geme
P rezen tu l
gemem
tacem
g em eti
tac eti
tac
gem__
gemeam
taceam
g
emeai
taceai
geme a
tacea
Im perfectul
taceam
geme am
ta c ea ti
gemea^i
taceau
^emeau
tacu i
gemei
tacu si
gemusi
tacu /
gemu
P e r f e c t u l sim p lu
tacuram
gemur am
gem u rati
t a c u r a /t i
tacu ra
K e m ura 7
am g e m u t
am t a c u t
a i tacu t
a i gemut
a tacu t
a gemut
P e r f e c t u l c o m p us
am t a c u t
am g e m u t
ajii t a c u t
apl g e m u t
au ta c u t
a u Kemut
t&cusem
gemusem
t a^ c u s e Js l
gemusepi
tacuse
gemuse
M & i-m ult-ca-perf e c t u l
tacuseram
gemuseram
tac u se rafi
g em u serati
tSTcusera
gemus.era'.. . . .
laudam
lau d a^i
laud
laudam
lau d ai
laud
laudam
l a u d a pi
laudau
laudai
lau d asi
laud
laudaram
lau d ara> l
lau d ara
am l a u d a t
a i lau d at
a lau d at
am l a u d a t
aгi laudat
au la u d a t
laudasem
lau d ase si
lau d ase
lau daseram
lau d aserati
laudasera^
S ince
ill.
the rem ain in g te n s e s
only re m o te ly ,
in d icate
IV . a fu g i
(fu g ire)
fug
fugi
fuge
fugim
fu g iti
fuл
fugiam
fu g iai
fu g ia
fugiam
f u giajii
fu g iau
fu g ii
fu g isi
fugi
fu g iram
fu g ira^ i
_ f u K i r a _____
am f u g i t
ai fu g it
a fu g it
am f u g i t
a^i fu g it
au f u g i t
fugisem
fu g ise^i
fu g ise
fugiseram
fu g ieerati
_ t u g l a e r . a f ! ___
th e ir L atin o rig in
I s h a l l o m it c i t a t i o n o f them h e r e f sim p ly
c o n c lu d in g w ith W e c h s le r's s ta te m e n t t h a t the f o u r c o n ju g a н
tio n s
i n R um anian h a v e a L atiin
fo u n d atio n .
O p .C it. f p .8 4 l
"D ie v i e r K o n j u g a t i o n e n l a s s e n d e u t l i c h
l a t e i n i s c h e S p u ren erkenneia."
57
The R u m a n i a n language h a s
g e n itiv e, d a tiv e ,
its
own f o r m .
accu sativ e,
fiv e c a s e s i
and v o c a tiv e .
Each c a s e h as
The f o l l o w i n g d e c l e n s i o n s w i l l i l l u s t r a t e s
1 . Fem inine nouns e n d in g i n - a ,
S.
P.
N.
casa
casele
easel
Gr * s a s e l o r
D.
casei
c aselo r
A.
casele
casa
V.
caselo r
casa
2.
n o m in ativ e,
-
q,
-e a ,-a
M asculine nouns e n d in g i n - u l and - l e
S.
P.
po m u l
N.
pom ii
Or? p o m i l o r
pom ului
D.
pom ului
po m ilor
A.
pomul
pom ii
p o m u le
V.
pom ilor
H e te ro g e n e o u s nouns
S.
P.
N.
co arn ele
cornul
c o r n u l u i G.
co arn elo r
c o r n u l u i D.
co arn elo r
A.
c ornul
co arn ele
V.
cornu le
co arn elo r
4.
Nouns w i t h
S.
mama b u n a
mamei b u n e
mamel b u n e
mame b u n a
mamei b u n e
S.
a c e s t om
a c e s t u i om
a c e s t u i om
a c e s t om
The a b l a t i v e
tio n a l phrases.
ad je ctiv es
P.
N. m am ele b u n e
Gr. mame l o r b u n e
D.
m am elor bune
A . m am ele b u n e
V.
m em elor bune
P.
a c e ^ t i oameni
a ce stet* oameni
a c e s t o r oameni
a c e s г i oameni
case has been co n v erted in to p re p o s iн
58
VOCABULARY
The f o l l o w i n g
m anian language#
is
the
o f o r d i n a r y words i n
t h e Ruн
By p u t t i n g t h e m s i d e - b y - s i d e w i t h t h e i r
ex act L atin e q u iv a le n ts,
se lf
a list
I can l e t
t h e r e a d e r s e e f o r him н
sim ila ritie s.
Rum anian
L atin
Rum anian
L a t i n ___________
alb
an
anim al
arbore
arm a
a rtiflc iu
aur
bun
cadea
caine
campul
can ta
capra
carne
casa
corb
corpul
cu
da
d ilig e n t
d in te
doamna
domn
duce
dulce
e d ificiu
fam ille
f a p ta
f emee
f iu
flu v ia l
f rate
frig
f ruct
fuga
geme
a lb u s, -a
annus
anim al
arbor
arm a
a rtific iu m
aurus
bonus
cadere
can ls
campus
can tare
caper
carn is
casa
corvus
corpus
cum
dare
d ilig e n s, - t is
dens, - t i s
dom ina
dom inus
due e r e
d u l c i s , -e
aed Ificium
fam llia
facta
fem insc
filiu s
flu v iu s
frate r
frig u s , -a
fru ctu s
fuga
gem ere
g rav itate
g usta
guverna
im perat
inam ic
incepe
inim a
in sp ira
in te g rita te
in teleg e
in v id ie
Judeca
ju ra
lana
latu re
lauda
loc
lung
luna
lup
mana
m ania
mare
marmora
mas a
m asura
m em oriu
m oarte
m ult
m u n te
musca
n astere
n atie
n av ig a
nim eni
n um i
g rav itas, - t is
g u stare
gubernare
im perator
in am icu s, -a
in cip ere
anim a
in sp irare
in te g rita s, - tis
in te lle g ere
in v id ia
iu d icare .
iu rare
lan a
latu s
lau dare
lo cu s
longus - a
luna
lupus
m an u s
m ania
m are
marmora
mens a
m ensura
m em oria
m ors, - t i s
m ultus
mons , - t i s
m u sc a
nascere
n a tio
n ag iv are
n em o,nem inis
nom inare
59
R um anian
L atin
Rum anian
L atin
numero
oase
oaste
o ch il
ocupa
om
onoare
o stil
pain e
pasere
perde
p ericu lo s
p icto r
plac& a
ploaie
poet
po arta
prada
pret
prinde
pune
punte
p u rtat
ram ura
rapi
raspunde
reduce
rege
reg in a
relig ie
rem anea
renun ta
revoca
roza
ruga
sal
sangeros
sarcln a
sarcin a
silv ic
sora
spuma
sta
statu ra
sco ala
sedea
num erus
ossa
h o stis
o cu lu s
occupare
homo
honor
h o stilis
p an is
passer
perdere
p erid u lo su s
p icto r
p lacere
p lu v iu s
p o eta
p o rta
praeda
pretium
prehsndere
ponere
p o n s,-tis
p o rtatu s
ram es
rapere
respondere
reducere
rex ,re g is
reg in a
re lig io
rem anere
ren u n tiare
revocare
rosa
rogare
sal
sanguineus
sarcin a
sarcin a
silv iu s
soror
spuma
stare
statu ra
scola
sedere
tacea
tau r
term ina
tim p
trage
turbura
uman
umer
unda
urs
venl
verde
vin
vinde
vorba
vulpe
zice
zece
tacere
taur& s
term in are
tem pus
trah ere
turbare
humanus
ume r u s
unda
ursus
v en ire
v e r d i s , -e
vinum
vendere
verbum
vulpus
d icere
decem
60
CONCLUSION
The Homan f o r m o f c i v i l i z a t i o n wa s i n t r o d u c e d
R u m a n i a when t h e e m p e r o r T r a j a n w a s v i c t o r i o u s
cam paign a g a i n s t th e D a cia n s and added t h e i r
province
t o t h e Homan E m p i r e .
p a i g n was t w o - f o l d :
in h is
in to
fin al
c o u n try as a
The p u r p o s e o f T r a j a n f s cam н
to p re v e n t
the c o n s o l i d a ti o n o f a g r e a t
r i v a l po\=?er o n t h e N a m i b i a n f r o n t i e r s
o f t h e Em pire and to
a d d t h e m i n e r a l a n d a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s o u r c e s o f D a c i a t o Rom e? s
i n c r e a s i n g econom ic n e e d s .
had no a l t r u i s t i c
c u ltu ral
m o tiv e
A l t h o u g h t h e Romans a t t h i s
i n view and c a r e d n o t h i n g f o r t h e
a d v a n c e m e n t o f t h e p e o p l e whom t h e y w e r e c o n q u e r i n g ,
th ey l a i d
t h e f o u n d a t i o n s o f t h e f u t u r e Rum anian c i v i l i z a t i o n
T r a j a n c o n d u c t e d two c a m p a ig n s a g a i n s t
w ere l e d by D e c e b a lu s .
The f i r s t
v/ar,
t h e D a c i a n s who
u n d e r t a k e n i n 101 A .B .,
p r o v e d a f r u i t l e s s v i c t o r y t o t h e Ro m an s;
th e
second, fo u g h t
i n 1 0 2 A . D . , m ade T r a j a n m a s t e r o f t h e c o u n t r y .
q u e r o r ? s n e x t s t e p was t h e
m o th er-co u n try .
se ttled
of
tim e
M iners,
in tro d u ctio n of c o lo n ists
farm ers,
m erchants,
i n ?D acia F e l i x ? and e x p l o i t e d
the p r o v in c e .
th e s e p eo p le l e f t
In re tu rn fo r
c o u n try to th e
and t r o o p s
t h e i r com m ercial e x p l o i t a t i o n
a m ong t h e n a t i v e s
o f the le g io n s
from th e
the n a t u r a l re s o u rc e s
the ru d im e n ts o f
and r a p i d l y - d e v e l o p i n g Daco-Roman c u l t u r e .
w ithdrew th e l a s t
T he c o n н
a new
When A u r e l i a n
i n 271 A .D . a nd e x p o s e d t h e
d e p r e d a t i o n s o f th e oncom ing b a r b a r i a n h o r d e s ,
?
61
the Daco-Roman elements left the capital, Ulpia Traiana, and
the neighboring'fortified towns, and sought refuge in the
Carpathian and Transylvanian Mountains.
They took with them
the customs, tradition, industries, and government of their
Romanized culture.
And throughout the succeeding invasions ~
of Goths, Huns, and Turks, who swept?through the country as
a plague, these Daco-Romans preserved the essence of the
Roman culture.
Evidence of this occupation is found in the mines of
Transylvania, where implements, records, and coins indicate
the Roman origin of the workers.
Throughout all Rumania,
moreover, are found archaelogical remains of bridges, baths,
walls, roads, towns, and theaters.
Inscriptions on limites,
walls, and buildings are written in Latin, and attest to.the
occupancy of the Romans.
In the present Rumanian government
and in the system of guilds one may find traces of the old
Roman principles.
Rumanian literature glorifies the Homan influence upon
the country and maintains in folklore and history the tradiн
tions established by the Roman conquerors.
During the Rumaн
nian Renaissance scholars wrote many volumes stressing the
pride their people felt in their cultural origin, and even
modern poets compose lyrics and ballads about Troian and his
glory.
These writers have strengthened Rumanian nationalism
which is based upon the sloganffSunt Roman.0
62
In th e custom s o f th e p e a s a n t s o f
c o n firm in g ev id en ce i s
found.
th e c o u n t r y s i d e more
Some o f t h e R u m a n i a n f e s t i v a l s
now b e i n g c e l e b r a t e d b y t h e p e o p l e h a v e d i s t i n c t Roman s o u r c e s .
Th e C h r i s t m a s a n d Hew Y e a r ? s c e r e m o n i e s c o n t a i n e l e m e n t s o f
th e L u p ercalia*
hi 11
ri. w
S atu rn alia*
w
?iiiiih .ih
I I ?Ii n ^ m . i' iiw
mm>
m
.restum C a le n d a r i u m ,
un n
m'm?╗nim1 . 1mn h ,..i.m i ?? +
iлл
and P a g a n a l i a .
?nwnii ?л╗╗??! nmii. i i
bA um i
E a s t e r h a s t r a c e s o f A donis w orhsip and th e S p rin g f e s t i v a l s
c o m m e m o r a te t h e l e g e n d s o f D a n a e a n d P e r s e p h o n e ,
t h e Boman w o r s h i p o f t h e S a l i a n p r i e s t s ,
rite
the R o a slia ,
and t h e
of A rg e i. H a rv e st-tim e r e c a l l s f e a t u r e s o f the Tes t a l i a
and A m b a rv a lia .
M arriage
d itio n
dowry,
in r i te s ,
t h e Homan s t a m p .
rest,
and r e f l e c t
food,
t h a t m ust be perfo rm ed o v er th e c o rp s e
Rum anian p a r e n t s c a l l
and f r i g h t e n them w i t h
and s p i r i t s
th e ir fav o rite
of rain .
i n Rome.
t h e i r c h i l d r e n b y Roman n a m e s ,
t a l e s o f one-eyed g i a n t s ,
th at in h ab it
c a ttle
farm ers p r o p i ti a t e
a n d s h e e p a f t e r Roman r u l e r s ,
th e sun-god,
sp irits
th e m oon-goddess,
are
w hile
an d t h e god
in terp reted
in term s
o f good o r e v i l .
T he m o d e r n R u m a n i a n l a n g u a g e ,
s p e e c h o f t h e Roman p r o v i n c i a l ,
and h a s r e t a i n e d
pu rsu in g
t h e w o o d s . ? S h e p h e r d s name
A l l t h e phenomena o f n a t u r e
o f p ag an -lik e
fu n e ra ls a lso bear
s o u l? s journey to e t e r n a l
t a k e one t o a f u n e r a l s c e n e
fu ries,
c o l o r e d b y Boman t r a н
and c u s t o m s ,
The b e l i e f o f t h e
and the r i t e s
rea d ily
cerem onies a re
is
ro o ted in the c o llo q u ia l
a t r u e rom ance la n g u a g e
t h e sy s te m o f c o n ju g a ti o n s and d e c l e n s i o n s .
65
T his f a c t
sch o lars
i s due p a r t l y
to
the d e li b e r a t e
a t t e m p t o f Rum anian
o f th e R e n a is s a n c e and o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y
n a tio n a lists
to purge
th e Rum anian la n g u a g e o f S l a v i c
T u r k i s h e l e m e n t s and t o r e - e s t a b l i s h
T his tr a n s f o r m a tio n
o f form and s y n t a x .
is
still
it
in process
and
upon a p u re L a t in form .
and c a u s e s v a r i a t i o n s
64
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BOOKS
A bbott,
F r a n k F r o s t , Homan P o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s .
G i n n a n d Co m p an y, 1 9 1 1 45U p p .
A
A d a m e s c u , &h*, I s t o r i a L i t e r a t u r i i R o m a n e .
U n iv ersale, n .d .
522 p p .
~
B oston:
B u eu resti:
B a n e s c u , N . , H i s t o r i c a l S u r v e y o f t h e R um ani a n P e o p l e .
B u eu resti:
C u l t u r a N a t i o n a l s , 1926*.* 60 p p .
B ecker,
W.A#, G a l l u s . t r a n s l a t e d b y B e v . P r e d M e t c a l f e .
London:
Longmans, G re e n , a n d e G o . , 1 9 0 7 .
550 p p .
B e r c o . v i c i , K o n r a d , T he I n c r e d i b l e B a l k a n s .
Putnam ? s S o n s, 1923.
265 p p .
'Hew Y o r k :
B eza, M areu, P a g a n ism i n Roum anian F o l k l o r e .
D u tto n and C o ., 1 9 2 8 .
161 p p .
B ibesco, P r in c e s s e , I s v o r . le
L ib r a ir ie P lo n , 1923.
New Y o r k :
pays dess a u le s .
198 p p .
York:
C a r p e n t e r , F r a n k , The A l p s . D a n u b e , a n d N e a r B a s t .
D oubleday, Page, and C o ., 1924.
297 p p .
C lark,
V i c t o r , T h e Homan w o r i d .
1928.
444 p p .
New Y o r k :
C h a r le s Upson, U n ite d R oum ania.
Mead C o . , 1 9 3 2 .
397 p p .
C u rtis,
A m eriн
New Y o r k :
A l f r e d A. K n o p f
New Y o r k ; , D o d d ,
W i l l i a m E l r y , A r o u n d t h e B l a c k S e a . New Y o r k :
iiodder and S to u g h to n , i y l l .
217 p p .
E p s t e i n , M ., e d i t o r The S t a t e s m a n ? s Y e a r B o o k .
M a c m illa n C o ., 1938
F o ster,
E .F .
P aris:
&Bur y, J . B . , A H i s t o r y o r t h e Homan
u m p i r e . New
c a n Book C o . , n . d .
638 p p .
C hapot,
G .P .
London:
N ., and R o s t o v s k y , D . , A Roum anian H andbook.
S im k in , M a r s h a l l , L t d . , 1931*
320 p p .
London:
Fow ler,
Warde A . , Roman F e s t i v a l s .
C o . , 1 92 5 *
352 pp*
and C o.,
London:
, S o c i a l L i f e a t R om e.
1909*
371 p p .
G - a r n e t t , L u c y , B a l k a n Home L i f e .
C o . , 191 7*
3 0 9 pp*
s
?
M acm illan and
Londons
New Y o r k s
/
M acm illan
D o d d , Mead a n d
G ereb,
J o s e f , A Rom aiak T o r t e n e t e .
T a r s u l a t , 1899* 680 p p .
G hica,
Ion, S c r i e r l .
G ibbon,
E d w a r d , D e c l i n e a n d F a l l o f t h e Roman E m p i r e .
I I , V. L o n d o n s
F r e d de Fau a n d C o ., 1906
V ol.
I-IV .
B u dapest:
B u eu resti:
F ran k lin
M inerva,
1914
V ol.
G l e i c h e n , M a jo r - G e n e r a l Lord Edward, " B u l g a r i a a n d R o m an ia,"
The N a t i o n s o f T o d a y . B o s t o n s
H oughton M i f f l i n ,
1924.
314 p p.
H o p p e , E . O . I n G y p s y Camp a n d R o y a l
P re ss , 1924.
3 8 7 PP*
lorga,
P alace.
N icolae, In tro d u c tio n a ^ h i s t o r i e
1921.
1 8 9 PP*
P ariss
London : O xford
d e s Roumans.
P aris
, H i s t o i r e d e s Roum ains e t d e le u r. c i v i l i s a t i o n
. P a u l i n , 1 9 2 0 . 2 8 9 PP*
_________ , " I n f l u e n c e s e t r a n g e r e s s u r l a n a t i o n r o u m a i n e ,
E tudes R oum alnes.
P aris:
L ib rairie U n iv ersitaire,
1923.
, My A m e r i c a n L e c t u r e s .
P r i n t i n g , 1 923*
1 9 2 pp,
B ucharest:
,, I s _ t o r i a R o m a n i l o r i n C h i p u r l s i
C raio v a:
R<5a>m u r i , 1 9 2 1 .
335 pp
S tate
Icoane
J o h n s t o n , H a r o l d , P r i v a t e L i f e o f t h e Romans.
New Y o r k s
S c o t t , F o r e s m a n , a n d C o . , 1903*
331 PP*
K irke,
D o ro th e a , D om estic L i f e i n R um ania.
C o ., 1926.
290 pp.
New Y o r k s
K u l i f f a y , Edo, E r d e l y T o r t e n e t e a s O s - I d o k t o l
B udapest:
I 876.
232 p p .
L ain
66 a
M arie,
Q u e e n , The Co u n t r y t h a t
1925.
1 75 p p .
Mommsen, T h e o d o r e ,
P .D ickso n.
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V ol. I -
MoodyAs G o v e r n m e n t s a n d M u n i c i p a l s .
v e s t o r e * S e r v i c e , 1939*
New Y o r k :
M oody? s In**
M c D a n i e l , W .B . , Roman P r i v a t e L i f e a n d i t s
B oston:
M a r s h a ll J o n e s C o., 1924.
S u rv iv als.
1 9 7 PP*
Meyer,
B ib lio g rap h isch e s
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468 p p .
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1 9 1 8 # 2 5 8 pp* ( t r a n s l a t e d b y M r s . D . d e S . W a i n r i g h t )
O nciu,
D im itre,
211 p p .
Isto rla
A
R om anlei.
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O p re sc u , G eo rg e, P e a s a n t A rt i n R um ania.
n .d .
182 p p .
O udard, G eorge,
2 52 p p .
Papahag i,
Tache,
P o r t r a i t d e l a R oum anie.
Eugene,
London:
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La R o u m a i n e .
P aris:
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1913
The S t u d i o ,
P lon,
Din F o l k l o r u l R om anic. B u c u r e s t .
P u scariu , S e x til, I s t o r i a L it e r a t u r li
1920.
174 p p .
P ittard ,
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1935*
1 9 2 3 - 30 1 p p .
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B ossard,
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311 p p .
R e i s i n g e r , F . P , a n d W a g n e r , R . , The C u l t u r e o f A n c i e n t G r e e c e
a n d Rome.
B oston:
L i t t l e , Brown, and C o ., 1 9 2 6 .
3 97 pp*
R o s t o v t z e f f , M ., H i s t o r y o f the A n c l e n t W o rld .
London:
O x f o r d P r e s s , 1927*
3 80 p p .
. S a m u e ls o n , J a m e s , Roum anla P a s t an d P r e s e n t .
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487 p p .
V ol.
London:
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P h ilip ,
S e r b e s c o , S e b a s t i a n , ??R o u m a n i a n Law D i g e s t , ?
Law D i r e c t o r y .
V ol. I I .
New Y o r k :
M a r tin d a le and H u b b e ll, I n c .*
1938.
67
S t a r k i e , W alter,
399 p p .
R a g g le -tan g le.
New Y o r k ;
D alto n ,
S t o b a r t , J . C . , The G r a n d e u r t h a t w a s Rome.
a n d J a c k s o n , 1 9 20 *
31 6 p p .
S t r a t i l e s c o , T e r e z a , Fro m t h e C a r p a t h i a n s
London; U nw in, 1 9 0 6 .
365 p p .
S z i l a d y , S . , A mi E r d e l y u n k .
170 pp.
B u d ap est;
T a f r a l i , 0 . , M a n u a l de I s t o r l a A r t e l o r ╗
Romaneasca, 1922.
213 pp.
London; Sidgw ick
to the
Pindus.
G udafak,
1922.
B u eu resti;
T e o d o re sc u , G .D ., P o e z il p o p u la re ro m an e.
R o m an e asca , 1885*
398 p p .
V l a h u t a , A . , D i n Tr e c u t u l N o s t r u .
easca, n .d .
209 p p .
1 9 33 *
B u eu resti;
B ueu resti;
C artea
C artea
C a r t e r Romanн
W alker,
Mary A . , U n t r o d d e n P a t la I n R o u m a n i a .
man a n d H a l l , 1 8 8 8 .
34-5 pp*
London;
W ells,
H .G ., O u t l i n e of H i s t o r y .
l i s h i n g C o . , I n c . , 19 3 1 *
G ardenC i ty Pubн
New Y o r k ;
1190 pp.
Chapн
X enopol, A .D ., I s t o r i a R o m a n ilo r.
V ol. I : d i n D acia T r a i a n a .
B ueu resti:
C a r t e a R o m a n e a s c a , 1925*
2 3 5 PP*
CLASSICAL REFERENCES
C a t o a n d V a r r o , De Re R u s t i c a . w i t h a n E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n
b y W.D. H o p p e r .
C am bridge;
H arvard U n iv e rs ity P r e s s ,
1934.
D i o C a s s i u s , Roman H i s t o r y , Book I x v i i i , w i t h a n E n g l i s h
t r a n s l a t i o n by E a r n e s t C a ry .
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M acm illan and
C o ., 1914.
E u tro p i,
B rev iariu m . L ip sia e :
T eu b n eri,
1897*
H e r o d o t u s , H i s t o r y . Book I V , w i t h a n E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n b y
A .D .G odley.
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68
H o r a c e , Od e s a n d H E p o d e s . w i t h a n E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n b y
C .E .B en n ett*
New Y o r k :
M a c m i l l a n , 19 1 4
________t S a t i r e s , E p i s t l e s , a n d Are- Poe t i c a . w i t h a n E n g l i s h
t r a n s l a t i o n by H .R .F a irc lo u g h *
New Y o r k :
Putnam* s
Sons, 19^6.
J u v e n a l an d P e r s i u s , S a t i r e s . w i t h an E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n by
G-.G-. R a m s a y .
London:
K e i n e m a n n , 1920*
L ivy,
H i s t o r y , w ith an E n g lis h t r a n s l a t i o n by B .O .F o e te r.
London:
K einem ann, 1922.
O vid,
F a s t i , w i t h ;ah E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n by S i r J .G -.F ra z e r*
New Y o r k :
P utnam ? s S ons, 1931
, T r i s - t l a . Ex P o n t o , w i t h a E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n b y
A .D .W heeler*
New Y o r k :
P u t n a m ' s S o n s , 1924*
P lin y ,
N a t u r a l H i s t o r y , w i t h a n E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n b y W .H .S .
J o n e s a n d H. R a c k h a m .
C am bridge:
H arvard U n iv e rs ity
P re ss, 1938.
_
L e t t e r s . w i t h and E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n b y Melmoth a n d
H utchinson.
C am bridge:
H arvard U n iv e rs ity P re s s ,
1 9 27 *
S u e t o n i u s , The C a e s a r s , w i t h ' a n JE n g life h t r a n s l a t i o n b y J . C .
R o lfe.
L ondon: K e in em an n , 1920*
T a c i t u s , H i s t o r i e s , w ith an E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n by C l i f f o r d
H .M oore.
New Y o r k :
P u t n a m * s S o n s , 1 937*
V arro,
L i n g u a L a t i n a , w i t h a n E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n b y R.G-.
K ent.
C am bridge:
H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 19 38*
V i r g i l , A e n e l d . w i t h a n E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n by H .R.Fair**
clough .
London:
H einem ann, 1 9 1 6 .
PERIODICAL
ARTICLES
B e n g e s c o , M a r i e . HL * A r t e n R o u m a n i o , ? L a R o u m a n l e e n I m a g e s *
P aris:
L H oir, n .d .
2 7 0 pp*
F e r r e r o . G u g l i e l m o , uL e s O r i g i n e s du P e u p l e R oum ain, u
L I l l u s t r a t i o n . S e p t . , 1929*
69
B u lle tin of th e S o ciety of F rie n d s .
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36 W.44 S t .
D i m a n e s c o , D . D . , ^ o m e o f o u r G u s t o m s . ,,
D u l l e s , J . F * , ??R o u m a n i a n J u r i s p r u d e n c e . ?
H e r b e r t , E d w a r d , ? The Roman Law f r o m D e m o c r a t i c
R oum ania.?
R u d e a n o , G e n e r a l , ??From Rome t o B u c u r e e t . ?
H olm es,
H e n r i e t t a A l l e n , ??T he S p e l l o f R o m a n i a , ? N a t i o n a l
G eographic. 65s4, A p ril, 1934.
J o n e s a n d K r o p t , ??M a g y a r F o l k l o r e a n d Some P a r a l l e l s , ?
F o lk lo re J o u rn a l. 1 0 5 9 -3 6 0 .
K ent,
L ife
R o l a n d , ??C o n q u e s t s o f t h e L a t i n L a n g u a g e , ? C l a s s i c a l
J o u r n a l , XXIV;206.
( s p e c i a l e d i t i o n on Rum ania),
C hicago:
Tim e.
M urgosi,
T .,
January 9,
1939*
??R o u m a n i a n E a s t e r E g g s , ? F o l k l o r e
VI : 2 .
J o u r n a l .* XX:
296- 303.
U rsu,
P . , ?A p e r c u H i e t o r i q u e s u r l e P a s s e d u P e u p l e R o u m a i n , ?
La R o u m a i n e e n I m a g e s .
P aris:
L?H oir, n .d .
GRAMMARS
A lle n and G reenough,
C o ., 1 9 03.
New L a t i n G r a m m a r .
A x e l r a d , P h i l i p , R um anian Grammar.
r o m a n a , 1919л
108 p p .
?______ , D i c t i o n a r R o m a n - E n g l A z . .
rom ana, 1 9 1 4 .
New Y o r k :
Gramma i r e
R oum aine.
G inn and
B ib lio teca
New Y o r k :
_________, G r a m a t i c a T a l m a c i u g i D i c t i o n a r .
B i b l i o t e c a rom ana, 1914.
Dame^, F r e d e r i c ,
B oston:
B ib lio teca
New Y o r k :
B u carest,
1898.
________ , N o u v e a u D l c t i o n n a i r e R o u m a i n - F r a n c a i s
Nouveau D i c t i o n n a i r e F r a n c a i s-R oum ai n
Buc a r e s t , 1 9 0 0 ?
r
H ughes, A . , R oum anian C o n v e r s a t i o n Grammar.
J u l i u s G roos, 1920.
H eidelberg:
TO.
L overa,
H u m a n is e he K o n v e r s a t i o n s - G - r a m m a t l k .
Schonkron,
M arcel,
D ic tio n a r ro m an -en g lez.
H e i d e l b e r g 5192 3
C raio v a,
W e c h s le r , T h e o p h i l e , D ie R um anlache S tr a c h e ?
l e b e n 's V erlag , n .d .
Wiens
n .d .
Kart**
ENCYCLOPEDIAS .
Encyc l o p e d i a s B r i t a n n i c a . X X I II :842-844*
s i t y P re s s , 1911.
ilth ed itio n .
L a G-rande E n c y c l o p e d i e . X X V I I I ; 1 0 2 5 - 1 0 5 5 *
& C i e , n.d*
C am bridge:
P aris:
U n iv erн
L am irau lt
New I n t e r n a t i o n a l E n c y c l o p e d i a ╗ X X : 2 2 1 - 2 2 2 . C a m b r i d g e :
M ead, a n d C o . , 1 9 2 2 .
D o d d,
P a u l y - ? / ! s s o w a , R e a l - E n c y c l o p e d i e d e r k l a s s i s c h e n A l t e r turn s**
w lssen sh aft.
S t u t t g a r t , 1 9 0 1 . V o l *I V : c o l . 1 9 4 8 - 1 9 7 6 /
a c t o r y f o r m by a d o p t i n g t h e c l a s s i c a l f orms
w hich have p ro v ed s u c c e s s f u l .
^
е et the
A bbott,
O p .C it.,
p p . 385- 386#
E .G -.B arbul, n a t i v e o f T r a n s y l v a n i a
M . B e r c e a B a r b u l , n a t i v e o f O ld R u m a n i a
CHAPTER IV
THE CUSTOMS
The Roman i n f l u e n c e
upon Rum anian c i v i l i z a t i o n
p e rh a p s th e m ost e v id e n t i n th e custom s of t h e
In a l l
of the f e s t iv a ls ;, and r e l i g i o u s
fin d tra c e s
of the L a tin s p i r i t .
fo r in stan ce, v e stig e s
is
c o u n try sid e .
c e r e m o n i e s one may
In th e m odern C h r is tm a s ,
of the S a tu rn a lia are
abundant.
The
Roman c u s t o m o f b a k i n g s p e c i a l l y p r e p a r e d c a k e s b y t h e V e s 1
t a l s t o b e u s e d o n t h e L u p e r c a l i a h a s b e e n h a n d e d down i n
th e t r a d i t i o n of th e housew ife b ak in g s p e c i a l l y p rep a red
c a k e s w hich a r e
boys,
to v i s i t o r s ,
perio d
fin d
given to
is pork.
t h a t the
th e w andering tro o p s
and t o g u e s t s .
A nother d e lic a c y of t h i s
I f we t u r n t o J u v e n a l a n d H o r a c e
sacrifice
in the f e r t i l i t y
as
we s h a l l
in th e cerem ony.
E lem en ts o f th e L u p e r c a l ia e n t e r i n t o '
Rumania o f t o d a y ,
2
o f a p ig a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r tim e o f
t h e y e a r was a p r i m e f a c t o r
C hristm as
of sin g in g
t h e Rum anian
cerem ony o f th e S a r c o v a .
in the
Rome o f a n t i q u i t y ,
In the
youths,
h o ld н
in g ro d s(sy m b o ls o f f e r t i l i t y ) i n t h e i r h an d s, a p p ro a c h and
3
t a p t h e women w i t h t h i s g r e e t i n g :
1 O v i d . F a B t l . V I 81 1 0
f
J u v e n a l . . S a t l r . e a . . - * ,, I I :86
H o race, O d es, I13rrl7
*2
^ P rln cesse
B ibesco,
I s v o r .p.20 4
35
May y o u l i v e a n d f l o u r i s h
L ike an a p p le t r e e
Or a p e a r t r e e
I n tim e o f s p r i n g ;
T his sym bol o f f e r t i l i t y
is
o b v i o u s l y a r e m n a n t o f t h e Homan
L u p e r c a l i a . when, a f t e r a p p r o p r i a t e
r a n a round th e P a l a t i n e
o f s k i n ta k e n from th e
sacrifices,
y o u n g men
H i l l and w hipped.w om en w i t h s t r i p s
4
s a c r i f i c e d anim als*
S u rv iv a ls of the
a n c ie n t D ionysian r i t u a l s
are
e v id e n t i n the d a n ce s of t h i s
occasio n .
The d a n c e r s , w e a r i n g t h e s k i n s o f v a r i o u s a n i m a l s ,
5
p l a y u p o n drums a n d c y m b a l s .
Warde F o w l e r c i t e s c l a s s i c a l
records
of th e S a lia n p r i e s t s dancing a b o u t in the
skins
of
a nim als
S t i l l a n o t h e r e le m e n t i n th e Rum anian C h r i s t m a s w h ic h
may b e t r a c e d b a c k t o Rome i s
T h is,
th e cerem ony of th e C a le n d a e .
a d e c i d e d o u t g r o w t h o f t h e Festurn C a l e n d a r i u m . i s p e r н
form ed on t h e e v e n i n g s o f t h e 2 4 th and 3 1 s t o f D ecem ber.
G roups o f y o u t h s go a b o u t f r o m h o u se t o h o u s e ,
and b a l l a d s f
f a n back to
A ty p ic al re fra in ,
t h e i r dim p a s t ,
is
i n w hich th e p e a s a n ts h a rk
th is
ones
^ ~ 0 v i d . F a s t i 7 T I s 4 4 5 - 4 5 6 s M. . . i u s s a e
l a e p e l l i b u s e x e e c t i s p e r c u t i e n d a d a b a n t . 1*
^ B ibesco,
sin g in g c a ro ls
sua te rg a p u e l-
O p.C i t . . p . 2 0 4 .
Warde F o w l e r , Roman F e s t i v a l s . p . 4 ? .
O vid, O p . C i t . , I I U 2 6 0 f o i l .
L ivy, H i s t o r y . I ; 2 0
7
S tra tllesco ,
pp. 192-193,
From t h e C a r p a t h i a n s t o
the
P lndus.
36
C? a ^ a -J. l e g e a d i n b a t r a n i ,
D in b a tr & n i d i n oam eni b u n i
F o r so i s t h e law o f o l d ,
F r o m t h e o l d a n d t h e g o o d men
O ther b a lla d e
I tran sla te
have b e e n composed i n h o n o r o f t h i s
one,
occasion*
a " C o lin d e le ? , from th e c o l l e c t i o n by
8
G-h. Adame e c u
For the c a r o le r s
You c h o o s e t w o f r o m a m ong y o u ;
Two f r o m am ong y o u y o u n g e r o n e s ,
And l e a p i n y o n d e r g a r d e n *
B reak a b la d e o f C a lo m fir,
And a b l a d e o f S w e e t B a s i l ,
And p a s s , a n d g o
To t h e f o u n t a i n *
The New Y e a r i n R u m a n i a i s u s h e r e d i n w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e
rite s
f o r increased f e r t i l i t y
remony i n p a r t i c u l a r ,
retro sp ectiv e
f o r t h e com ing y e a r *
the P lu g u so r(th e
o f t h e Roman P a g a n a l i a
^ Oh* A d a m s e c u .
Isto ria
plow ),
L i t e r a t u r l Romane. p . 2 8 s
La r a n t a n a *
V arro,
fa in tly
o f J a n u a r y 2 4 t o 2 6 *^
Voi p a t r u c o l i n d a t u r i
Va a l e z e ^ i d o i
Din v o i
D o i d i n v o i m ai t i n e r e i
p i s a r e t i in ceu g ra d in a .R u p e ti f i r
De c a l o m f i r
p l- o s t e b l a d e b u s u i o c
Q
is
One c e н
L i n g u a L a t i n a .V IS24
At t h a t t im e ,
a s i n Rumania t o d a y ,
the
oxen t h a t drew the
plow s w ere d e c o r a t e d w i t h w r e a t h s o f f l o w e r s .
O vid m e n tio n s
10
i n h i s F a s t i t h e " c o r o n a t i i u v e n c l . 1* T h e n a g a i n , d o n k e y s
11
w e r e f e s t o o n e d i n Ma y.
go a b o u t t h e s t r e e t s
tage d o o rs,
In the v i l l a g e s
after
rec itin g b its
o f Rum ania y o u t h s
dusk, and s ta n d o u t s i d e
of v erse,
the c o t н
accom panying t h e s e c h a n t s
w i t h th e c r a c k i n g o f a whip an d th e r i n g i n g o f a b e l l .
fu n d am en tal
hero
idea of th e s e v erses
is
r,B a d i c a T r a i a n *1( M a s t e r T r a j a n ) .
the g l o r i f i c a t i o n
The
of the
The c h a n g i n g i s o f t e n
12
Hb u h a i n ( a b e l l o w i n g - b u c k e t made o f h i d e ) .
a c c o m p a n ie d by t h e
The E a s t e r s e a s o n i s
The p e a s a n t s o f t h e
a lso c o lo r f u l
c o u n try sid e t e l l
in a n c ie n t custom s.
t h e l e g e n d o f M arcus
A u re liu s and th e hen t h a t l a i d an egg covered w ith red s p o t s .
The c o u r t a u g u r s a i d t h i s
i n c i d e n t w a s a n omen t h a t
w ould some d a y becom e e m p e r o r .
from t h a t tim e onw ard s,
g ifts
of b r illia n tly
dyed v a r i o u s h u e s,
The omen was f u l f i l l e d ,
and
the
Romans u s e d t o s e n d o n e a n o t h e r
13
dyed e g g s .
I n Rum anian t h e s e e g g s a r e
and g iv e n t o v i s i t o r s
g iv in g of these c o lo re d eggs is
ta lity ,
th e boy
to ta k e 'h o m e .
The
t y p i c a l o f Rum anian h o s p i н
p a r t ic u la r l y during h o lid ay seaso n s.
^
F ow ler,
O p.C i t . . p . l 4 8 .
12 S t r a t i l e s c o ,
O p.C i t . . p p .3 57 ~ 3 58 *
A e l i u s L a m p r i d i u s a s c i t e d l n HM a g y a r F o l k l o r e a n d
Some P a r a l l e l s . !>F o l k l o r e J o u r n a l , L i 3 5 9 ? 3 6 0
N? M u r g o s i , **R u m a n i a n E a s t e r E g g s , rl F o l k l o r e . X X s 2 9 6 303.
38
F e rtility
p eo p le,
is
w o rsh ip ,
t h a t m o s t common r i t e
s e e n i n Rum anian d i s t r i c t s
One o f t h e s e r i t e s
is
c alled
rem n an t o f A donis w o rsh ip #
t h e women o f t h e v i l l a g e #
am on g t h e
o f a sim ple
peasants#
th e C a l o i a n . and seem s to be a
T his r i t e
is
o b s e r v e d o n ly by
On t h e f o u r t h d a y a f t e r E a s t e r ,
t h e women k n e a d a l u m p o f y e l l o w c l a y i n t o t h e m i n i a t u r e
fig u re
fin#
o f a man, a G a l o i a n ,
At t h i s
p o i n t th e cerem ony becomes c o n fu s e d w it h a
rain -p ray er r ite ,
and a f t e r w eeping o v e r th e c la y f i g u r e as
though o v e r a r e a l c o rp s e ,
th e b i e r ,
im age,
w hich th e y p u t i n t o a sm a ll c o f н
lig h t it,
s in g in g the
t h e women p l a c e
in c e n se around
and f i n a l l y
w ith g r e a t cerem ony bury th e
14
fo llo w in g verses
0 C alo ian
ian
Go t o H e a v e n a n d a s k
To o p e n t h e g a t e s
To l e t l o o s e t h e r a i n s
To r u n d o w n l i k e s t r e a m s
Da ys a n d n i g h t s ,
T h a t t h e w h e a t may grow#
In t h r e e days*
in to th e
riv er,
tim e
t h e c l a y image i s u n e a r t h e d and th ro w n
in o rd e r to
tro u b le
th e w aters and to r a i s e
rain -c lo u d s?
^
S tra tilesc o ,
Op#C i t л. p . 183*
0 C alo ien e
iene
D u te 'n c e r ^ f i c e re
Sa d e s c h i d a p o r t i l e
Sa s lo b o a d a p j o i l e
Sa c u rg a c a g a r l e l e
N ap tile s i ^ i l e l e
Ca s a c r e a s c a g i r n e l e .
39
T h i s c e r e m o n y sh o w s r e m a r k a b l e
Roman c u s t o m o f May 1 5 , a t w h i c h t i m e
resem blance
to
the
the V e sta l V irg in s
c a s t in to
the T ib e r th e p u p p ets o f stra w o r ru s h , A rg e i,
1*5
r e s e m b l i n g men#
I n h i s Roman F e s t i v a l s F o w l e r c i t e s D r .
M a n r i h a r d t ( B a u m k u l t u s 358) a s s a y i n g t h a t t h e c e r e m o n y o f t h e
*
Ar&ei
rep resen ts
the d e p a rtu re
the f r u i t f u l s e a s o n .
He c a l l s
of w i n t e r and t h e
a r r i v a l of
15
i t a HR a i n S p e l l #11
M oreover,
F ow ler r e c a l l s
i n s t a n c e s o f t h e same t y p e o f c e r e m o n y i n
17
R u s s i a a n d G-ermany.
H e r e a n o l d man c a r r i e s a p u p p e t o f
s tr a w and th ro w s i t
in to
t h e r i v e r w h i l e t h e women s i n g
m o u rn fu l v e r s e and weep c o p i o u s l y .
Som etim es th e f i g u r e
is
burnt or b u ried .
W hile upon t h e
su b ject of f e r t i l i t y
and r a i n
sp e lls,
I may h e r e m e n t i o n a n o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t r a i n c e r e m o n y , t h e
* 18
P aparude.
I t i s an echo of th e legend of Danae,
although
t h e m a i d e n s o f r o y a l d e s c e n t h a v e now b e c o m e w a n d e r i n g g y p s y
g irls.
On t h e t h i r d S u n d a y a f t e r E a s t e r ,
gypsy g i r l s ,
c la d only in f r e s h
house to h o u se,
if
rain is
needed,
l e a v e s , d a n ce a b o u t from
c h a n t i n g w o r d s i n t e n d e d t o b r i n g down r a i n s
"*
15 O y i d . F a s t i . V s г 3 2 ~ 6 5 5 s
11. . . s t r a m i n e o s i n a q u a m
m is s is s e , corpora f a ls a ia & i...;
O v i d , O p . C i t . . Vs621╗╗622; ? turn q u o q u e p r i s c o r u m
v i r g o s i m u l a c r a v i r o r u m / m i t t e r e r o b o r e o s c i r p e a p o n t e s o l e #11
16 ?
F o w l e r , O p . C l t . . p . 118*
17 I b i d . .
p . 119.
18 I b i d . . p . 1 1 6 .
40
Paparuda
ruda
Gome a n d w e t u s
For th e ra in s to f a l l
W ith t h e w a t e r p a i l s ,
T h a t t h e e a r s may g r o w
As h i g h a s t h e h e d g e s
To a u g m e n t t h e w h e a t
1Q
And t o f i l l t h e b a r n .
And t h e h o u s e w i v e s g o o u t a n d d r e n c h t h e d a n c i n g g i r l s
p a ils
w ith
of w ater!
S t i l l a n o th e r cerem ony of g r e a t i n t e r e s t d u r in g th e
E a s t e r s e a s o n i s t h a t one w h ic h com m em orated t h e c a c k l i n g
geese of th e C a p lto lin e
p easan ts r e a liz e
Illitera cy
but i t
is
the
H ill,
an tiq u ity
th a t th ese
and s i g n i f i c a n c e
of th is r i t e .
u n c o m m o n l y s t r a n g e how t h e s e f o l k h a v e r e t a i n e d
c a c k lin g saved the c i t y
days a f t e r E a s te r a l l
and tr e a te d
t h e h o n o r i n g o f t h e .g e ese whose
o f Rome f r o m t h e G -o th s.
the g e ese
e x tra o rd in a ry a tte n tio n .
lik e
in the
HS a n s C a p i t o l e ,
So, fort^:
n eighborhood r e c e i v e
They a r e d e c k e d w i t h g ay r i b b o n s ,
little
gods.
P rin cess
e v o lv e d a t h e o r y t h a t seems q u i t e r e l e v a n t ;
batim :
sim ple
c a n h a n d down o n l y w a rp e d t r a d i t i o n a l c u s t o m s ,
t h r o u g h o u t s o many c e n t u r i e s
p etted ,
One d o u b t s
p a s d e Rome;
?*-9 S t r a t i l e s c o , O p . C i t . . p . 182
11P a p a r u d a
ruda
V i n o d e rie u d a
Ca s a c a d a p l o i l e
Cu g a l e г i l e
S^ s a c r e a s c a s p i c e l e
C it g a rd u rile
A
Sa s p o r e a s c a g r a n e l e
Sa u m p l e p a l u l e l e *
B ibesco has
so I quote v e r н
s a n s Rome, p a s d e C e s a r ;
41
pas de F ra n c e ,
pas d 'E s p a g n e ,
pas d * I t a l i e ,
t e r r e i . . . . p a s d e c e s hommes q u i ,
p a s meme d ' A n g l e -
q u estio n n es,
respondents
' S u n t R o m an '.'"20
E a s t e r tim e
s e e m s a s e a s o n o f c e l e b r a t i o n among t h e
p leasu re-lo v in g p easan ts.
p lain fo lk
seize
W ith c h i l d l i k e
upon any p r e t e x t ,
n a iv e te
however s l i g h t ,
m erry and to f o r g e t th e u n e n d in g and p r o f i t l e s s
t h e i r u n ev en tfu l liv e s*
of
The m o s t i m p o r t a n t o n e
The v e r y name d e n o t e s t h e
se c re t o rg an izatio n .
of them .
t e n t of th e
to il
is
E ivy
21
m entions th e
S a lii;
22
G vid a l s o
A lth o u g h tim e h as c o r r u p t e d the o r i g i n a l i n н
Roman f r a t e r n i t y
streets,
of
o rig in of th is
of th e tw elv e d a n cin g p r i e s t s ,
th e fundam ental c e re m o n y --th a t of dan cin g th ro u g h t h e
lage
the
o f the G a l u s h e r i i ( C o l l i - S a l l i ). a f r a t e r n i t y
d a n c i n g members*
tells
t o make
So t h e y t a k e d e l i g h t i n t h e f o r m a н
t i o n of s e c r e t brotherhoods*
b rotherhood
th ese
leap in g
in to the
a ir,
sto p p in g before
v ilн
th e
h o u s e s t o p e r f o r m , a n d m i m i c k i n g t h e r a p e o f t h e S a b i n e wo23
m en-- has b e en l e f t u n a l t e r e d .
Were o n e t o a s k t h e p e r н
f o r m i n g p e a s a n t MJ u s t w h a t d o e s t h i s c e r e m o n y m ean?
y o u do i t ? ? he w ould l o o k a t t h e
my f a t h e r d o e s i t ;
q u e s t i o n e r a n d a n s w e r ? Why,
my g r a n d f a t h e r d i d i t ;
a n d a l l my a n c e s -
520 B i b e s c o , O p . C i t * . p p . 2 1 - 2 2 *
21 O p . C i t * . V ; 5 2 . 7
22
^
O p . C i t . . I I I S 260 f o i l .
S tra tile sc o ,
Why do
O p . C i t *. p p . 3 5 3 - 3 5 4 ?
42
have done i t . "
Yet th e
o r i g i n and m eaning h a s b e e n b u r i e d
under the w eight of h is
F or t h i s perform ance
ig n o ran ce?
the
It
is
i n i t i a t e d b r e t h e r n wear th e
t i o n a l costum e o rn am en ted w ith s t r i n g s
and flo w ers#
" J u s t a c u s t o m #'1
E a c h man c a r r i e s
of a l l c o lo rs,
a stick #
in th is
cers, c alle d
" C a l u s h e r i , " a r e composed o f s e v e n ,
m y steries.
It
cerem ony i s c a l l e d
n ine,
T h e ir i n i t i a t i o n and t r a i n i n g a re
I s on T r i n i t y Day,
o r the
b e lls,
One o f t h e i r p r i n 24
"R om anul."
The d a n н
c ip a l dances
e l e v e n m em bers.
naн
or
secret
R u ssalll. th at
th ey g a th e r to g e th e r and perform t h e i r r i t e s .
The m y s t e r i e s
of the R u s s a lii a re
shrouded i n
the
m is ts of ages p a s t,
b u t t h e f u n d a m e n t a l i d e a s e e m s t o be t h e
25
R o s a l i a o f t h e a n c i e n t R om ans. The o r i g i n a l p u r p o s e h a s b e e n
ch an g ed from th e
sp rin g f e s tiv a l of ro se s,
in e x p lic a b ly c o n n ected w ith a c u l t of
s a l i i are h o s tile
d iv in itie s,
o f a n e m p e r o r , who,
storm s.
o r in th e b e l t i s
26
the th r e e
rejected
d a u g h ters
a n g e r e d a t mankind f o r l a c k o f a t t e n t i o n
p a id them d u r i n g t h e i r l i v e s ,
d e stru ctiv e
a n d now i t i s
26
the d ead .
The R u s -
run about the f i e l d s
raisin g
A t w i g o f wormwood u n d e r o n e ' s p i l l o w
the
o n l y p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e s e women.
S tra tilesco ,
Loc. P i t .
Stratilesco,
Op.C i t ?.p.184,
P a u l v - W l s s o w a л^ E n c y c l o o e d l e - R e a l . c o l . I T I I : 11. . .
d as R o s e n f e s t, e i n u r s p r i i n g li c h i t a l i s c h e s F e s t das besondeis
im V e r b i n d u n g m i t dem T o t e n k u l t a u f t r i t t u n d s i c h a u c h n o c h
d e r B a l k a n h a l b i n s e l und K l e i n A s ie n v e r b r e i t e t h a t . "
43
In c o n n e c ti o n w ith t h e s e w icked s p i r i t s
who a r e
the F a te s,
o f f e r e d b r e a d a n d h o n e y a nd s p r i n g w a t e r a s p e a c e
o fferin g s
a n d emblem s o f g o o d - w i l l ,
th e p l a t e s upon w hich th e s e
placed a s i l v e r c o in ,
thread.
v o tiv e
o ffe rin g s are
a n d some f l o w e r s
The f o l l o w i n g a d d r e s s i s
la d ie s and p ure,
may b e m e n t i o n e d *
Near
made a r e
t ie d w ith a red s i l k
made t o t h e m :
l a d i e s of honour and l i g h t !
?B le s s e d
Sod g r a n t
t h a t y o u r m o o d . t h i s d a y may b e a s g o o d a s b r e a d ,
honey,
sm ooth a s w a t e r ,
sw eet as
27
a n d b e a u t i f u l a s f l o w e r s . 11 I t i s
these
t h r e e women who a r e p r e s e n t a t e v e r y c h i l d * s b i r t h ,
28
a n d who d e c i d e h i s f a t e .
The o f f e r i n g o f f o o d a n d f l o w e r s
i n p r o p i t i a t i o n t o iг he d e a d i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e R o m an s ,
29
a s V i r g i l s a y s i n t h e A e n e i d . a n d a s was c u s t o m a r y a t t h e
30
P aran talia.
E very s c h o la r o f th e c l a s s i c s
P ro s e rp in a and P lu to ,
k ing of the
the
rec o lle cts
the
tale
t h e f t o f t h e l o v e l y m aiden by th e
U n d e rw o rld a s sh e was p i c k i n g f l o w e r s i n t h e
f i e l d s . R u t f e w know t h a t i n t h e
m o u n ta in o u s Rum ania,
an cien t in c id e n t' th a t
p ictu resq u e co u n try sid e of
peasant g ir ls ,
s c a r c e l y c o g n iz a n t of the
th ey are r e c a p i t u l a t i n g ,
d ram atize
2Y B l b e e c o . O p . C i t . . P t u l 8 2 - 1 8 ~ 5 .
28
л ?
D . D i m a n c e s c o , ? Rome o f o u r C u s t o m s " , b u l l e t i n o f
S o c i e t y o f FrdLends o f R u m a n i a , p . 57.
29
V*7 9 :
"purpureosque ia c e t f lo r e s "
^
of
Fow ler,
O p .C i t . . p . 308.
44
th e
legend of th e
m orning,
young,
seasons.
On P a l m S u n d a y ,
unwedded g i r l s
go o u t i n t o
early
in the
the f i e l d s
in
g ro u p s and g a t h e r f l o w e r s .
As t h e y p l u c k t h e w i l d b l o s s o m s
31
t h e y c h a n t a s o n g , o n e i n w h i c h t h e y make a p l e a f o r a l o v e r
to
come t o c a r r y
t h e m a w a y a n d wed t h e m .
D uring th e h a r v e s t se a s o n th e
w hich a l l Rum anian p e a s a n t s
p u r i f i c a t i o n cerem ony
perform i s
r e lig io u s ly rem iniн
s c e n t o f th e r i t e s o f th e V e s t a l i a . B ibesco t e l l s us In h e r
32
Isvor
t h a t d a i r y u t e n s i l s a r e washed and s e t o u t i n t h e su n н
lig h t,
decked w ith flo w e rs and w illow b ra n c h e s ;
p o ts and pans a r e
passed th ro u g h a f i r e
and t h a t
k i n d l e d by e m b e rs .
t a k e n f r o m t h e h e a r t h w h i c h i s n e v e r a l l o w e d t o go o u t .
Roman t i m e s t h e
V e s ta ls gu ard ed the
tem ple and p a r t i c i p a t e d
h earth f i r e s
In
of the h o ly
i n th e cerem ony o f th e p u r i f i c a t i o n
of the u t e n s il s
and s t o r e - c l o s e t o f t h e h o u s e which w a s i n
33
t h e i r c h a r g e . Fow ler
show s t h e c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n
t h i s Roman c u s t o m o f a n t i q u i t y a n d i t s
su rv iv als
among t h e
v a r i o u s p e a s a n t l a n d s o f t o d a y , w h en h e s a y s t h a t ? s p e c i a l
34 B i b e s c o , Q p . C l t . . p p . 7 8 - 7 9 *
,
F e u i l l e v e r t e , F a r f a r a ? F l e u r e de c h a p e l i e r e ,
o u v r e - t o i , m o n t r - m o i , # a c pure*.
F l e u r q u e l e s o l e i l n * a p a s e n c o r e (v u e , q u e l e v e n t
n fa pas b a t t u e , que p e rso n n e encore n*a fo u le e aux p ie d ,
O u v r e - t o i dans l e f e u i l l e , m ontre t a f a c e i g n o r a n t e
d e s homines*.
,
0 ma f l e u r p a r f u m e e . . . v a d a n s s o n v i l l a g e t r o u v e r
c e l u l q u i d o i t m * a i m e r о . . . . . q u * i l s e h a t e d e v e n i r lsT o u J e
s u i s . . . . q u * i l v i e n n e a r o o i , v i t e , s u r u n c h e v a l p a p i d e comme
le v e n t
?
32
p p .119-120,
53 O p . O l t . . p p . 1 4 5 - 1 5 4 .
45
im portance
i s a tt a c h e d to th e days im m ediately b e fo re h a r н
v e s t and th e g a th e r in g of th e
there
is
F urtherm ore,
and f r u i t - b e a r i n g
fille d
f r u i t s ? a t w hich tim e
a general clean in g out of house,
r e c e p t a c l e s and u t e n s i l s ,
34
of re jo ic in g * ?
crease.
first
barns,
and f o llo w in g upon t h i s
t h e Rum anian p e a s a n t b e l i e v e s
and a l l
a p eriod
th at g rain -
t r e e s s h o u l d b e s o w n a t t h e m o o n 1s i n н
A young g i r l ,
h o ld in g in h er hands b ra s s
w ith pure w a t e r ,
35
v essels
c h a n ts an im p lo rin g p ra y e r to the
moons
Moon, new moon,
L e t g o o d n e s s be l i k e t h e dew;
As much s a n d i n t h e r i v e r ,
So t h e p o c k e t b o o k o f t h e f a t h e r ;
As t h e e m b e r s i n t h e h o u s e ,
So ifchny p e o p l e a a t o u r t a b l e ;
Be t h o u l i k e me
And I l i k e t h e e I
I n one o f h e r p h a s e s t h e Roman D i a n a w a s t h e p r o t e c н
t i n g g oddess o f th e fa rm e r and h i s
c a ttle .
patro m d e it y
t o ward o f f e v i l s p i r i t s
o f women.
from h is w if e ,
grove,
T herefore,
and c a t t l e ,
S h e was a l s o
the
t h e Rum anian f a r m e r u t t e r s
34 F o w l e r , O p . C i t . . p . 151
G .D .T eo d o rescu , P o e z ii p o n u la re
Luna, lu n a , noau
G-hine c a t a r o a u ;
G a t a - a r i n a 1n v a l e
Punga l i t a t e ;
w
C a t a s p r u n a 1n c a s a
A haгi o a m in i p r i m easa;
T in e c a mine
S ' i o c a t i n e 1.
rom ane,
p .47;
46
th is
in v o c a tio n a t the
new moon:
. . . . . t a k e s t th e s p e l l and e n c h a n tm e n t from o u r
h o u s e , a n d t a b l e , f r o m my f a c e a n d my w i f e * s f a c e , f r o m o u r
l a n d s and w e a l t h *
Lum inous moon
tak e th e s p e l l from our
h o m e , w e a l t h , c a t t l e , g r o v e , o r c h a r d , a n d a l l my t h i n g s ?**
T his
i n v o c a t i o n was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
o f th e A m barvalia of th e
Homan p e a s a n t who s a i d :
. . . . F a t h e r M ars, I p r a y t h e e t o be w i l l i n g and
p r o p i t i o u s t o me, jpy h o u s e h o l d , a n d my s l a v e s . . . . I p r a y t h e e
k e e p , a v e r t , and t u r n from us a l l d i s e a s e , s e e n o r u n se e p ,
a l l d e s o l a t i o n , r u i n , damage, and u n s e a s o n a b le i n f l u e n c e ; I
pray th e e give in c re a s e to th e f r u i t s , th e c o rn , th e v in e s ,
and th e p l a n t a t i o n s
Keep a l s o i n s a f e t y t h e s h e p h e r d s
a n d t h e i r f l o c k s , a n d g i v e g o o d h e a l t h a n d v i g o u r t o me,
my h o u s e , a n d my h o u s e h o l d
'
The c o l o r f u l p a g e a n t r y o f w e d d i n g c e r e m o n i e s
v ersal.
In the B a lk a n s,
co lo rfu ln ess
and p a r t i c u l a r l y
is u n iн
i n B um ania,
i s h i g h l y s t r e s s e d among t h e p e a s a n t s .
th is
Added
to
the p i c t u r e s q u e n e s s o f m a n y -c o lo re d e m b ro id e re d costum es
is
the t r a d i t i o n a l p a g e a n try
of cerem ony.
And t h i s
cerem ony
i s a c u r i o u s b l e n d i n g o f Roman p a g a n i s m a n d O r t h o d o x C h r i s н
t i a n i t y - - t h e O c c i d e n t o f Rome a n d t h e O r i e n t o f B y z a n t i u m .
The tw o i n f l u e n c e s a r e
d iffic u lt
phases
so c l o s e l y
to d is tin g u is h
o f the r i t e ,
the
in terw o v en t h a t i t
is
one f r o m t h e o t h e r . C e r t a i n
n ev erth eless,
^Tache
P apahagi,
?^C ato,
De Re R u s t l c a . 1 4 1 j
are
o b v i o u s l y Roman:
D in Fol k l o r u l R om anic,
pp. 166-168.
47
t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l Ht h e f t ? o f t h e b r i d e b y t h e b r i d e g r o o m
38
w h i c h c o m m e m o r a t e s t h e r a p p o f t h e S a b i n e women,
the g a r39
la n d of flo w e r s crow ning each p a r t i c i p a n t
and th e assum ing of th e
m atron? s v e i l
i n the cerem ony,
by t h e
40
new ly-w ed m aiden.
A f te r adequate p r e p a r a tio n s b e fo re h an d ,
th e w edding,
the b rid eg ro o m ,
a t t e n d e d by h i s b e s t f r i e n d s ,
r i d e s t o t h e home o f t h e b r i d e .
and a f t e r a v o lle y of guns,
'They s u r r o u n d h e r h o u s e ,
sim u latin g a b a tt l e ,
g i r l a w ay t o t h e b r i d e g r o o m ? s h o m e .
w hich i s
take
the
D u rin g th e cerem ony,
u s u a l l y p e rfo rm e d by an O rthodox p r i e s t ,
a n d groom w e a r w r e a t h s
heads.
on th e day o f
b o th b rid e
of b r i g h t l y c o lo r e d flo w e rs upon t h e i r
S h o rtly afterw ard s
the b rid e
assum es th e m a tro n ?s
vei^.
The c u s t o m o f a r r a n g i n g a deswery s e t t l e m e n t b e t w e e n
groom a n d f a t h e r - i n - l a w i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h e
41
c o e m p ti o . A f t e r th e cerem ony th e groom l i f t s
the
th resh o ld ,
Roman m a r r i a g e
th e b rid e
over
42
an d she a n o i n t s th e d o o r w ith b u t t e r o r h o n e y .
T h u s d i d h e r ADman a n c e s t r e s s . 4 3 S u g a r - c o a t e d a l m o n d s a r e d i s 44
45
t r i b u t e d t o th e g u e s t s by t h e groom, J u s t a s i n a n c i e n t d a y s .
^Dlmancesco.
at Rome. p.62 ,
Op.Ci t 77pp.57-59 : Fowler, Soci a l Life
-Z Q
''McDaniel, Roman Private Life and i t s Survivals . p.48.
оM.Yifalker, Untrodden Paths in Rumania, p. 186.
^H.Johnston, Private Life of the Romans,p.6$.
42Lucy Garnett, Balkan Home Life, p .168,
^3johnston, Op.C it. . p.63,
^E.O.Hoppe, In Gypsy Camp and Rpyal Palace. p . l 6 l ,
45johnston,
O p. C i t . , p . 62 t
48
The p i c t u r e s q u e n e s s
of m arriage r i t e s
o n ly by t h e m o u r n f u l f u n e r a l p a g e a n t r y *
sant b eliev es
i n m aking h i s
life *
t h a t t h e w e a l t h . o f Homan t r a d i t i o n f i n d s
stitio n s
may b e C h r i s t i a n ,
a r e Roman-pagan*
f u n e r a l day
The two o c c a s i o n s v i e
w ith each o th e r in r i t u a l and c o s t l i n e s s .
The r i t e s
eq u alled
The H u m a n i a n p e a н
w edding day and h i s
t h e two g r e a t e s t e v e n t s o f h i s
let.
is
And i t
its
i s here
g re a te s t o u tн
b u t th e u n d e rly in g su p e rн
The s o u l o f t h e d e c e a s e d may go
to a m ost C h r i s t i a n Heaven,
b u t h e g o e s b y a Homan r o u t e .
He m u s t c r o s s t h e
r i v e r S ty x and he m u st pay h i s
to the ferry m an .
B ut l e t u s a t t e n d a t y p i c a l Rum anian p e a н
sant fu n e ra l in th e
The c o r p s e ,
borne to
cries
fastn ess
o f th e C a r p a th ia n M o untains:
washed and c l a d i n g r a v e - c l o t h i n g ,
the church,
a c c o m p a n ie d by t h e
of lam en tatio n ,
the c o rp s e
and c u r i o s i t y
open to the
b a t i o n s c a n be p o u r e d i n t o
Charon*s f a r e ,
it,
s e e k e r s . - The f a c e
i n th e m outh o r u pon t h e e y e l i d .
c h a n t e d b y t h e women d r e s s e d
MS i t t i b i
terra
liн
and so t h a t th e b ro n z e c o i n ,
At t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h e p r i e s t c h a n t s :
the
sound o f f i d d l e s ,
moment o f b u r i a l s o t h a t t h e
may b e p l a c e d
Funeral d irg e s are
is
is
of
46
i s e x p o s e d t o v i e w - - a n i n h e r i t a n c e f r o m Home.
The c o f f i n l i e s
$his
Mo b o l u s M
HF i e - i
l e v i s 11 o f Rome.
i n m ourning.
t a r i n a usoaral*?
B u r i a l wine i s
47
poured i n to th e g ra v e ,
and th e
soiil i s
^ ~ M c D a n ie l, O p.C l t . . p. 193.
F o w le r , O p.C i t . . p . 328,
4 7 W .B e c k e r, Gal l u a . p . 5 2 1 ,
alread y
sa ilin g
in
49
the s k i f f
of C h a ro n -~ if the
fa r e has been p a id ,
of th e cerem ony m ust n e v e r be n e g l e c t e d ,
stitio u s
peasant b eliev es
dead o n e 's
forever,
th at
if
the
T his b e l i e f
is
48
the s u p e r н
f a r e be n o t p a i d ,
s o u l m ust wander ab o u t th e
a lo s t so u l,
because
T his p a r t
the
s h o re s of th e Styx
w i t h no hope o f f i h d i n g e t e r n a l r e s t .
found in V i r g i l 's
lin e s
in the
S i x t h Boo k o f
the A eneid:
Haec o m n i s ,
P o rtito r
quern c e r n i s ,
ille
in o p s inhum ataque
tu rb a
e st:
C h a r o n h i q u o s v e h i t un& $, s e p u l t d *
And t h e ^ a n e s m u s t b e a p p e a s e d w i t h l i b a t i o n s .
the f u n e r a l f e a s t each g u e s t,
a f e w d r o p s o f t h e wind-,
a s he d r i n k s ,
say in g " F ie - i
W hitsunday a d i s h o f b o i l e d g r a i n i s
T his p a r a l l e l s
e n tire
w ill f i r s t
sp ill
49
t a r i n a u s o a r a " 1 On
o ffe re d to th e
Manes.
t h e Roman c u s t o m o f t h e P a r e n t a l l a . when
f a m i l y w ould go t o t h e g r a v e w i t h o f f e r i n g s
w ine, m ilk , honey,
50
dead.
I n Rum ania,
n u ts, and honey,
and o i l ,
to
how ever,
the
partak e
cem etery,
and a l i t t l e
of w ater,
o f a meal w ith th e
i n t h e m o r n i n g on
t a k i n g w i t h them t h e
co liv a ,
51
candle.
*&~VI:325-326
^
50
^
the
c o l l v a . made o f b a k e d c o r n ,
foie women l e a v e e a r l y
Holy T h u r s d a y f o r t h e
a jug of w a te r,
So a t
S t r a t l l e s c o , 0 j 2 .C iJ i. , p . 2 9 A - .
W alker, O p .C l t . . p . 30.
V i r g i l , A e n e i d . V :7 9 ; O vid, F a s t i .
M cD aniel.O p.C l t . . p p . 195-196 >
H t60 ~ff-- *
50
In o ld e r tim es th e re
was a n o t h e r f u n e r a l c u s t o m w h i c h
c a n be t r a c e d b a c k t o L a t i n I n f l u e n c e :
52
sheep.
On t h e e v e o f t h e f u n e r a l d a y ,
u su a lly b lack,
the s a c r i f i c e
of a
o n e o r m o re s h e e p ,
w e r e d e c o r a t e d w i t h b u r n i n g wax c a n d l e s
p la c e d on t h e i r h o r n s .
Jhen,
in the
presence of the p r i e s t ,
t h e s h e e p w a s made t o s t a n d b e s i d e a h o l e a l r e a d y d u g , a n d
when i t
tu rn e d tow ard th e w e s t,
and a llo w e d th e b lo o d to flo w
the p r a y in g p r i e s t k i l l e d
in to th e
p it.
it
The m e a t o f t h e
s h e e p was e a t e n a t t h e f u n e r a l f e a s t a n d t h e s k i n was g i v e n
to
the p r i e s t .
the s a y in g :
53
p r i e s t )?
From t h i s c u s t o m ,
no l o n g e r e x t a n t ,
i#A d a p i e l a p o p i i . ? ( T o g i v e
rem ains
the s k in to the
In the m a tte r of d r e s s the T ra n sy lv a n ia n m o u n tain eer
still
still
clin g s
t h e c u s t o m s o f h i s f o r e f a t h e r s - - ? The men
54
w e a r Roman c l o t h i n g # ? The t u n i c a n d t o g a o f Roman a n н
tiq u ity
are
to
d isc ern ib le
costum es of t h e
in
shepherd#
w ears a h e a d d r e s s w hich i s
the f u l l - s k i r t e d
and lo n g -s le e v e d
The p r i e s t o f t h e s e
sim ple f o l k
? j u s t one s t e p rem oved from th e
a n i m a l - h i d e h e a d g e a r s w h i c h t h e a n c i e n t s w o r e . . . a n d w h i c h we
55
may s e e i n t h e o l d D a c i a n r e c o r d s . 1 The p e a s a n t w e a r s a
5^ S t r a t i l e s c o .
Op. C i t . . p . 295 .
53 I b i d .
O p i t z , E n c v c l o c e d l e R e a l . 1621s
noch J e t z t f a s t ro m isch M u ster t r a g e n . . ?
" d ie M en sch en .d ie
^ ^
^ S . S z i l a d y , A Mi E r d e l v u n k : ? E s t , p e d i g c s a k e g y ^
l e p e s v a l a s z t j a e l a t t o l ?~a f e j v e d й a l l a t b o r t o l . . . I l y e n t l a t hatu n k a r e g i T ra c ia k o l t o j e n e k . .
51
sheepskin c o a t,
lam h sk in cap,
56
d id h is a n c e sto r of y o re.
Indeed,
makes I t s e l f
w ill c a ll h is
name h i s
and l e a t h e r s a n d a ls ,
i n e v e r y h a b i t a n d c u s t o m t h e Roman i n f l u e n c e
felt.
A Rum anian p e a s a n t ,
sons " O v id iu s," " T i t u s ,"
steers
"C a ssiu s,"
"B ru tu s,"
T r a j a n i s a s common w i t h t h e m a s
to c ra tic
names.
is
I illu stra te
w i t h m ine:
th e usages of c e n tu r ie s
c u rta ile d
m eaning " l i t t l e
b e ard ."
Miot. a n e d u c a t e d man,
" V irg iliu s."
"A u g u stu s."
He w i l l
The name
John w ith u s.
g e n try p o in t o u t w ith p rid e
B arb u la,
j u s t as
The a r i s н
the L a t i n r o o t o f t h e i r
B arb u l.
it,
O rig in ally ,
before
t h e f u l l name was
The c o n n o t a t i o n i s
th at a
Roman p r o p r a e t o r e who g o v e r n e d T r a n s y l v a n i a was c h r i s t e n e d
w ith th is
nicknam e and handed i t
Ju s t as
i n c l a s s i c a l tim es
name a n d i d e n t i t y
in th a t
down t o t h e
present
t h e Roman woman l o s t h e r
of h e r f a t h e r o r husband,
t h e m o d e r n R u m a n i a n p e a s a n t woman b e c o m e m e r e l y t h e
of
Io n ," o r th e"w ife
of
Ion";
she i s
known a s
w i f e 2>f I o n " o r " t h e M a r i e o f S i m o n P e t e r . "
t h e man h i m s e l f
u a lity
tim e.
i n many r e m o t e d i s t r i c t s ,
so does
"d aug hter
" A rn ica ,
the
In f a c t,
lo ses
the
even
in d iv id н
o f a surnam e and becomes m e r e ly a g r o u p o f C h r i s t i a n
names.
I h u s we m e e t o n e " i o n D e m e t r i u s I o n , " o r " P e t e r
57
Sim on J o h n G -eorge."
So i t was w i t h Roman p e a s a n t .
56 W a l k e r .
57
B ibesco,
O p .C lt..
p p .2 2 -2 ^ .
O p.C l t . . p . 4 .
52
In co n clu d in g t h i s
c h a p t e r m e n t i o n s h o u l d b e made o f
t h e many s u p e r s i t i o n s a n d l e g e n d s
o l d &oman t r a d i t i o n s
p la y s a m ajor r o le
t h a t have
th e ir bases
l e f t am ong t h e s e p e o p l e ?
in
the liv e s
of these
S u p erstitio n
u n tu to red
f o lf c *
and th e f e a r o f d e a th ,
relig io u s
served,
gam ut o f e l e m e n t a l f o l k w a y s a n d mores
are
and t h e e n t i r e
the
s o u r c e and m a in te n a n c e
cerem onies
in
of the p e a s a n ts .
t h e w o r ld a b o u t them w i t h c r e a t u r e s
generations
in h is
Among t h e s e
to the
l e g e n d s h a n d e d do w n t h r o u g h
t h a t came a t
g ian ts,
the "g e n iu s
a serp en t.
lo ci"
o f the household,
the
58
eyes.
r e p r e s e n t e d by
I n P o m p eii were fo u n d t h e
the
p ic tu r e s of snakes
59
"g e n ii."
Among t h e e v i l -
w o r k e r s t h a t h a u n t t h e d a r k woo d s a r e
So t h e
t h a t tim es
and the cy clo p s w ith s in g le
p a i n t e d on th e w a l l s and c a l l e d
strid es
in sp irн
l e g e n d s a r e t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l m yths o f
who w e r e t h e
There i s
And f o r h i s
th eir
fam ily c i r c l e .
c r e a t i o n and th e c r e a t u r e s
u rlesl
They f i l l
of t h e i r fancy as
a tte m p t to answ er the u n i v e r s a l r i d d l e .
a t i o n the p e a s a n t tu r n s
t h a t m ust be obн
the s t r i g o r l ,
o f G r e e c e a n d Rome, who t h r e a t e n t h e
p a re n t says
t h i s charm :
"I c a st
th is
the
new -born i n f a n t .
stone
in to the
60
mouth o f t h e s t r i g o r i . "
O vid q u o te s a charm o f t h i s k i n d .
58 Me Dan i e 1 s , O p . C l t . .
p p .101-102,
^ G a r n e t t . O p . C i t . . p . 164,
6 o F a s t l .Y I{
159-162.
CHAPTER V
THE LANGUAGE
In p rep arin g th is
c h a p t e r on t h e
la n g u a g e o f Rum ania,
I have n o t a tte m p te d a th o ro u g h p h i l o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s ,
t h a t i s b e y o n d my a i m i n t h i s
and b r i e f l y
su g g ested those
L a t in la n g u a g e s w hich a r e
The l a n g u a g e i t s e l f ,
b ein g " s e t ,"
b ut I have o u tlin e d
r e s e m b la n c e s , i n t h e Rum anian and
obvious to
m oreover,
is
the average
still
in the
a n d o ne f i n d s many d i f f e r e n c e s
a n d 11New1* R u m a n i a *
tio n s
th esis,
found i n
sin ce
T his i s w e ll i l l u s t r a t e d
scholar*
process
of
o f form i n "O ld"
by the v a r i a н
t h e gram m ars o f W e e h s le r , A x e lr a d ,
L overa,
and Hughes.
The m a i n p r i n c i p l e ,
how ever,
guage i s b a se d d i r e c t l y upon L a t i n ,
Through a l l
is
not to be d is p u te d .
th e w ars and i n v a s i o n s o f v a r i o u s b a r b a r i c
t h a t sw ept th e
land a f t e r th e
"T h e L a t i n l a n g u a g e
io u sly ;
t h a t t h e Rum anian l a n н
in i t s
trib e s
r e c a l l o f t h e Roman g a r r i s o n s ,
e sse n tia ls
came t h r o u g h v i c t o r н
i n some r e s p e c t s R u m a n i a n p r e s e r v e s L a t i n b e t t e r
t h a n a n y o f t h e m o d e r n l a n g u a g e s ."?*? T h i s i s s e e n i n t h e g r a m н
mar o f t h e
la n g u a g e w hich s t i l l
reta in s
d e c l e n s i o n f o u n d i n no o t h e r l a n g u a g e
a "rom ance" to n g u e .
The v o c a b u l a r y i s
th e c o m p le te noun
th a t bo asts
of b ein g
p redom inantly L a tin .
xR o l a n d K e n t , " T h e C o n q u e s t s o f t h e L a t i n L a n g u a g e , "
C l a s s i c a l J o u r n a l . XXIVs206
The l i t e r a r y
d ialect*
Rum anian l a n g u a g e
Of c o u r s e
the c l a s s i c a l sp e e c h of C ic e r o ,
r a t h e r in the e v ery -d a y ,
2
W allach ian
one m ust rem ember t h a t e v en t h i s
uage i s ro o te d n o t i n
Roman p r o v i n c i a l .
i s b a sed upon th e
sim p le,
Yet t h i s
lan g н
but
c o llo q u ia l speech of the
language
is
t r u e r t o t h e mother**
r o o t t h a n a n y o t h e r s b e c a u s e some o f t h e s o u n d s a n d a c c e n t s
3
have changed l e s s th a n e ls e w h e r e .
T his language i s a ls o .
spoken i n c o lo n ie s
i n M acedonia and I s t r y a .
t h a t t h e Rum anian h a s n e v e r l o s t
He i l l u s t r a t e s
th is
traces
h
W echsler sa y s
of i t s
L a tin o rig in #
p o i n t by d r a w i n g a n i n t e r e s t i n g compaн
r i s o n Q^hich I h a v e c o p i e d v e r b a t i m s
C u rio sita tea
C u rio sitas
j
fe ric ita
felix
ne
nos
гi
et
lau d a b ila
lau d a b ilis
in stru im
instruam us
m em oria
m em oriam
este
est
de
de
no stra
nostram
o
una
^
cand
quando
lu cru ri
lu cris
cu
cum
fap te
fac tis
d isp o sitium e
d isp o sitio
ne
nos
face
facet
j
sa
(dass)
u tile ,
sa
ornam
u t i l i b u s , (dass)ornem us
6
in te ressa n te ;
( i n t e r e s s a n t s );
^R umania*.* E n c y c l o p e d i a B r l t a n n l c a . X X I I I s 8 4 2 - 8 4 4
^ R oland,
Loc. C l t .
^ H n cv clo n ed la B r i t a n n i c a . L o c .C it.
c
O p.C j t . . p#10s
H. . . . h a t d a s R u m a n i s c h e n i e m a l s
s e in e n l a t e i n i s c h e n U rsprung v e r le u g n e t.
D ies g i l t ganz b e s o n d e r s i n b e z u g a u f d i e G ram m atik.
6
c
55
It
in the
is
i n the c o n ju g a tio n of verbs t h a t
tw o l a n g u a g e s may b e e a s i l y
m in a tio n ,
the
seen.
the s i m i l a r i t y
A ccording to
R u m a n i a n v e r b may b e c l a s s e d
in
ter-
? one o f f o u r
co n ju g atio n :
R um anian
I ? -a
II.
L atin
I ? -are
-ea
III.
-e
IV.
-i
II..
-ere
III.
-ere
IV ?
The c o n j u g a t i o n ' o f t h e
-ire
a u x il i a r y verb " to b e ? in a
few t e n s e s w i l l f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e
Rum anian
a f1
'
the
p o in t:
L atin
esse
In d ica tiv
P r e ze n t
sunt
esti
este
suntem
su n te$ i
sunt
sum
es
est
su m u s
e stls
sunt
Im p erfectu l
eram
erai
era
eram
era ti
erau
eram
eras
erat
eram us
e ra tis
erant
P e r f e c t u l sim p lu
ful
fusi
fu"
furam
fu rati
fura
There a r e
two t e n s e s
fui
fu isti
f u it
of p a st
tim e,
fuim us
fu istis
fuerunt
called
M a i-m u lt-d a -p e rfe c tu l and M a i-m u lt-c a -p e rfe c t I I ,
i n fium anian
w hich
seem t o be a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e L a t i n p l u p e r f e c t t e n s e
in d ic ativ e
and s u b j u n c t i v e
moods.
in
56
REGULAR VERBS
I . a lau d a
(lau d are)
XX. a t a c e a
(tacere)
laud
lau d i
laud
tac
taci
tace
a geme
(gem ere)
gem
gemi
geme
P rezen tu l
gemem
tacem
g em eti
tac eti
tac
gem__
gemeam
taceam
g
emeai
taceai
geme a
tacea
Im perfectul
taceam
geme am
ta c ea ti
gemea^i
taceau
^emeau
tacu i
gemei
tacu si
gemusi
tacu /
gemu
P e r f e c t u l sim p lu
tacuram
gemur am
gem u rati
t a c u r a /t i
tacu ra
K e m ura 7
am g e m u t
am t a c u t
a i tacu t
a i gemut
a tacu t
a gemut
P e r f e c t u l c o m p us
am t a c u t
am g e m u t
ajii t a c u t
apl g e m u t
au ta c u t
a u Kemut
t&cusem
gemusem
t a^ c u s e Js l
gemusepi
tacuse
gemuse
M & i-m ult-ca-perf e c t u l
tacuseram
gemuseram
tac u se rafi
g em u serati
tSTcusera
gemus.era'.. . . .
laudam
lau d a^i
laud
laudam
lau d ai
laud
laudam
l a u d a pi
laudau
laudai
lau d asi
laud
laudaram
lau d ara> l
lau d ara
am l a u d a t
a i lau d at
a lau d at
am l a u d a t
aгi laudat
au la u d a t
laudasem
lau d ase si
lau d ase
lau daseram
lau d aserati
laudasera^
S ince
ill.
the rem ain in g te n s e s
only re m o te ly ,
in d icate
IV . a fu g i
(fu g ire)
fug
fugi
fuge
fugim
fu g iti
fuл
fugiam
fu g iai
fu g ia
fugiam
f u giajii
fu g iau
fu g ii
fu g isi
fugi
fu g iram
fu g ira^ i
_ f u K i r a _____
am f u g i t
ai fu g it
a fu g it
am f u g i t
a^i fu g it
au f u g i t
fugisem
fu g ise^i
fu g ise
fugiseram
fu g ieerati
_ t u g l a e r . a f ! ___
th e ir L atin o rig in
I s h a l l o m it c i t a t i o n o f them h e r e f sim p ly
c o n c lu d in g w ith W e c h s le r's s ta te m e n t t h a t the f o u r c o n ju g a н
tio n s
i n R um anian h a v e a L atiin
fo u n d atio n .
O p .C it. f p .8 4 l
"D ie v i e r K o n j u g a t i o n e n l a s s e n d e u t l i c h
l a t e i n i s c h e S p u ren erkenneia."
57
The R u m a n i a n language h a s
g e n itiv e, d a tiv e ,
its
own f o r m .
accu sativ e,
fiv e c a s e s i
and v o c a tiv e .
Each c a s e h as
The f o l l o w i n g d e c l e n s i o n s w i l l i l l u s t r a t e s
1 . Fem inine nouns e n d in g i n - a ,
S.
P.
N.
casa
casele
easel
Gr * s a s e l o r
D.
casei
c aselo r
A.
casele
casa
V.
caselo r
casa
2.
n o m in ativ e,
-
q,
-e a ,-a
M asculine nouns e n d in g i n - u l and - l e
S.
P.
po m u l
N.
pom ii
Or? p o m i l o r
pom ului
D.
pom ului
po m ilor
A.
pomul
pom ii
p o m u le
V.
pom ilor
H e te ro g e n e o u s nouns
S.
P.
N.
co arn ele
cornul
c o r n u l u i G.
co arn elo r
c o r n u l u i D.
co arn elo r
A.
c ornul
co arn ele
V.
cornu le
co arn elo r
4.
Nouns w i t h
S.
mama b u n a
mamei b u n e
mamel b u n e
mame b u n a
mamei b u n e
S.
a c e s t om
a c e s t u i om
a c e s t u i om
a c e s t om
The a b l a t i v e
tio n a l phrases.
ad je ctiv es
P.
N. m am ele b u n e
Gr. mame l o r b u n e
D.
m am elor bune
A . m am ele b u n e
V.
m em elor bune
P.
a c e ^ t i oameni
a ce stet* oameni
a c e s t o r oameni
a c e s г i oameni
case has been co n v erted in to p re p o s iн
58
VOCABULARY
The f o l l o w i n g
m anian language#
is
the
o f o r d i n a r y words i n
t h e Ruн
By p u t t i n g t h e m s i d e - b y - s i d e w i t h t h e i r
ex act L atin e q u iv a le n ts,
se lf
a list
I can l e t
t h e r e a d e r s e e f o r him н
sim ila ritie s.
Rum anian
L atin
Rum anian
L a t i n ___________
alb
an
anim al
arbore
arm a
a rtiflc iu
aur
bun
cadea
caine
campul
can ta
capra
carne
casa
corb
corpul
cu
da
d ilig e n t
d in te
doamna
domn
duce
dulce
e d ificiu
fam ille
f a p ta
f emee
f iu
flu v ia l
f rate
frig
f ruct
fuga
geme
a lb u s, -a
annus
anim al
arbor
arm a
a rtific iu m
aurus
bonus
cadere
can ls
campus
can tare
caper
carn is
casa
corvus
corpus
cum
dare
d ilig e n s, - t is
dens, - t i s
dom ina
dom inus
due e r e
d u l c i s , -e
aed Ificium
fam llia
facta
fem insc
filiu s
flu v iu s
frate r
frig u s , -a
fru ctu s
fuga
gem ere
g rav itate
g usta
guverna
im perat
inam ic
incepe
inim a
in sp ira
in te g rita te
in teleg e
in v id ie
Judeca
ju ra
lana
latu re
lauda
loc
lung
luna
lup
mana
m ania
mare
marmora
mas a
m asura
m em oriu
m oarte
m ult
m u n te
musca
n astere
n atie
n av ig a
nim eni
n um i
g rav itas, - t is
g u stare
gubernare
im perator
in am icu s, -a
in cip ere
anim a
in sp irare
in te g rita s, - tis
in te lle g ere
in v id ia
iu d icare .
iu rare
lan a
latu s
lau dare
lo cu s
longus - a
luna
lupus
m an u s
m ania
m are
marmora
mens a
m ensura
m em oria
m ors, - t i s
m ultus
mons , - t i s
m u sc a
nascere
n a tio
n ag iv are
n em o,nem inis
nom inare
59
R um anian
L atin
Rum anian
L atin
numero
oase
oaste
o ch il
ocupa
om
onoare
o stil
pain e
pasere
perde
p ericu lo s
p icto r
plac& a
ploaie
poet
po arta
prada
pret
prinde
pune
punte
p u rtat
ram ura
rapi
raspunde
reduce
rege
reg in a
relig ie
rem anea
renun ta
revoca
roza
ruga
sal
sangeros
sarcln a
sarcin a
silv ic
sora
spuma
sta
statu ra
sco ala
sedea
num erus
ossa
h o stis
o cu lu s
occupare
homo
honor
h o stilis
p an is
passer
perdere
p erid u lo su s
p icto r
p lacere
p lu v iu s
p o eta
p o rta
praeda
pretium
prehsndere
ponere
p o n s,-tis
p o rtatu s
ram es
rapere
respondere
reducere
rex ,re g is
reg in a
re lig io
rem anere
ren u n tiare
revocare
rosa
rogare
sal
sanguineus
sarcin a
sarcin a
silv iu s
soror
spuma
stare
statu ra
scola
sedere
tacea
tau r
term ina
tim p
trage
turbura
uman
umer
unda
urs
venl
verde
vin
vinde
vorba
vulpe
zice
zece
tacere
taur& s
term in are
tem pus
trah ere
turbare
humanus
ume r u s
unda
ursus
v en ire
v e r d i s , -e
vinum
vendere
verbum
vulpus
d icere
decem
60
CONCLUSION
The Homan f o r m o f c i v i l i z a t i o n wa s i n t r o d u c e d
R u m a n i a when t h e e m p e r o r T r a j a n w a s v i c t o r i o u s
cam paign a g a i n s t th e D a cia n s and added t h e i r
province
t o t h e Homan E m p i r e .
p a i g n was t w o - f o l d :
in h is
in to
fin al
c o u n try as a
The p u r p o s e o f T r a j a n f s cam н
to p re v e n t
the c o n s o l i d a ti o n o f a g r e a t
r i v a l po\=?er o n t h e N a m i b i a n f r o n t i e r s
o f t h e Em pire and to
a d d t h e m i n e r a l a n d a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s o u r c e s o f D a c i a t o Rom e? s
i n c r e a s i n g econom ic n e e d s .
had no a l t r u i s t i c
c u ltu ral
m o tiv e
A l t h o u g h t h e Romans a t t h i s
i n view and c a r e d n o t h i n g f o r t h e
a d v a n c e m e n t o f t h e p e o p l e whom t h e y w e r e c o n q u e r i n g ,
th ey l a i d
t h e f o u n d a t i o n s o f t h e f u t u r e Rum anian c i v i l i z a t i o n
T r a j a n c o n d u c t e d two c a m p a ig n s a g a i n s t
w ere l e d by D e c e b a lu s .
The f i r s t
v/ar,
t h e D a c i a n s who
u n d e r t a k e n i n 101 A .B .,
p r o v e d a f r u i t l e s s v i c t o r y t o t h e Ro m an s;
th e
second, fo u g h t
i n 1 0 2 A . D . , m ade T r a j a n m a s t e r o f t h e c o u n t r y .
q u e r o r ? s n e x t s t e p was t h e
m o th er-co u n try .
se ttled
of
tim e
M iners,
in tro d u ctio n of c o lo n ists
farm ers,
m erchants,
i n ?D acia F e l i x ? and e x p l o i t e d
the p r o v in c e .
th e s e p eo p le l e f t
In re tu rn fo r
c o u n try to th e
and t r o o p s
t h e i r com m ercial e x p l o i t a t i o n
a m ong t h e n a t i v e s
o f the le g io n s
from th e
the n a t u r a l re s o u rc e s
the ru d im e n ts o f
and r a p i d l y - d e v e l o p i n g Daco-Roman c u l t u r e .
w ithdrew th e l a s t
T he c o n н
a new
When A u r e l i a n
i n 271 A .D . a nd e x p o s e d t h e
d e p r e d a t i o n s o f th e oncom ing b a r b a r i a n h o r d e s ,
?
61
the Daco-Roman elements left the capital, Ulpia Traiana, and
the neighboring'fortified towns, and sought refuge in the
Carpathian and Transylvanian Mountains.
They took with them
the customs, tradition, industries, and government of their
Romanized culture.
And throughout the succeeding invasions ~
of Goths, Huns, and Turks, who swept?through the country as
a plague, these Daco-Romans preserved the essence of the
Roman culture.
Evidence of this occupation is found in the mines of
Transylvania, where implements, records, and coins indicate
the Roman origin of the workers.
Throughout all Rumania,
moreover, are found archaelogical remains of bridges, baths,
walls, roads, towns, and theaters.
Inscriptions on limites,
walls, and buildings are written in Latin, and attest to.the
occupancy of the Romans.
In the present Rumanian government
and in the system of guilds one may find traces of the old
Roman principles.
Rumanian literature glorifies the Homan influence upon
the country and maintains in folklore and history the tradiн
tions established by the Roman conquerors.
During the Rumaн
nian Renaissance scholars wrote many volumes stressing the
pride their people felt in their cultural origin, and even
modern poets compose lyrics and ballads about Troian and his
glory.
These writers have strengthened Rumanian nationalism
which is based upon the sloganffSunt Roman.0
62
In th e custom s o f th e p e a s a n t s o f
c o n firm in g ev id en ce i s
found.
th e c o u n t r y s i d e more
Some o f t h e R u m a n i a n f e s t i v a l s
now b e i n g c e l e b r a t e d b y t h e p e o p l e h a v e d i s t i n c t Roman s o u r c e s .
Th e C h r i s t m a s a n d Hew Y e a r ? s c e r e m o n i e s c o n t a i n e l e m e n t s o f
th e L u p ercalia*
hi 11
ri. w
S atu rn alia*
w
?iiiiih .ih
I I ?Ii n ^ m . i' iiw
mm>
m
.restum C a le n d a r i u m ,
un n
m'm?╗nim1 . 1mn h ,..i.m i ?? +
iлл
and P a g a n a l i a .
?nwnii ?л╗╗??! nmii. i i
bA um i
E a s t e r h a s t r a c e s o f A donis w orhsip and th e S p rin g f e s t i v a l s
c o m m e m o r a te t h e l e g e n d s o f D a n a e a n d P e r s e p h o n e ,
t h e Boman w o r s h i p o f t h e S a l i a n p r i e s t s ,
rite
the R o a slia ,
and t h e
of A rg e i. H a rv e st-tim e r e c a l l s f e a t u r e s o f the Tes t a l i a
and A m b a rv a lia .
M arriage
d itio n
dowry,
in r i te s ,
t h e Homan s t a m p .
rest,
and r e f l e c t
food,
t h a t m ust be perfo rm ed o v er th e c o rp s e
Rum anian p a r e n t s c a l l
and f r i g h t e n them w i t h
and s p i r i t s
th e ir fav o rite
of rain .
i n Rome.
t h e i r c h i l d r e n b y Roman n a m e s ,
t a l e s o f one-eyed g i a n t s ,
th at in h ab it
c a ttle
farm ers p r o p i ti a t e
a n d s h e e p a f t e r Roman r u l e r s ,
th e sun-god,
sp irits
th e m oon-goddess,
are
w hile
an d t h e god
in terp reted
in term s
o f good o r e v i l .
T he m o d e r n R u m a n i a n l a n g u a g e ,
s p e e c h o f t h e Roman p r o v i n c i a l ,
and h a s r e t a i n e d
pu rsu in g
t h e w o o d s . ? S h e p h e r d s name
A l l t h e phenomena o f n a t u r e
o f p ag an -lik e
fu n e ra ls a lso bear
s o u l? s journey to e t e r n a l
t a k e one t o a f u n e r a l s c e n e
fu ries,
c o l o r e d b y Boman t r a н
and c u s t o m s ,
The b e l i e f o f t h e
and the r i t e s
rea d ily
cerem onies a re
is
ro o ted in the c o llo q u ia l
a t r u e rom ance la n g u a g e
t h e sy s te m o f c o n ju g a ti o n s and d e c l e n s i o n s .
65
T his f a c t
sch o lars
i s due p a r t l y
to
the d e li b e r a t e
a t t e m p t o f Rum anian
o f th e R e n a is s a n c e and o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y
n a tio n a lists
to purge
th e Rum anian la n g u a g e o f S l a v i c
T u r k i s h e l e m e n t s and t o r e - e s t a b l i s h
T his tr a n s f o r m a tio n
o f form and s y n t a x .
is
still
it
in process
and
upon a p u re L a t in form .
and c a u s e s v a r i a t i o n s
64
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BOOKS
A bbott,
F r a n k F r o s t , Homan P o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s .
G i n n a n d Co m p an y, 1 9 1 1 45U p p .
A
A d a m e s c u , &h*, I s t o r i a L i t e r a t u r i i R o m a n e .
U n iv ersale, n .d .
522 p p .
~
B oston:
B u eu resti:
B a n e s c u , N . , H i s t o r i c a l S u r v e y o f t h e R um ani a n P e o p l e .
B u eu resti:
C u l t u r a N a t i o n a l s , 1926*.* 60 p p .
B ecker,
W.A#, G a l l u s . t r a n s l a t e d b y B e v . P r e d M e t c a l f e .
London:
Longmans, G re e n , a n d e G o . , 1 9 0 7 .
550 p p .
B e r c o . v i c i , K o n r a d , T he I n c r e d i b l e B a l k a n s .
Putnam ? s S o n s, 1923.
265 p p .
'Hew Y o r k :
B eza, M areu, P a g a n ism i n Roum anian F o l k l o r e .
D u tto n and C o ., 1 9 2 8 .
161 p p .
B ibesco, P r in c e s s e , I s v o r . le
L ib r a ir ie P lo n , 1923.
New Y o r k :
pays dess a u le s .
198 p p .
York:
C a r p e n t e r , F r a n k , The A l p s . D a n u b e , a n d N e a r B a s t .
D oubleday, Page, and C o ., 1924.
297 p p .
C lark,
V i c t o r , T h e Homan w o r i d .
1928.
444 p p .
New Y o r k :
C h a r le s Upson, U n ite d R oum ania.
Mead C o . , 1 9 3 2 .
397 p p .
C u rtis,
A m eriн
New Y o r k :
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