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Women painters in America in the twentieth century

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A\ Thesis
Presented to
the Faculty of the Department of Fine Arts
University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Art
Laura Annette Penny
June 1940
UMI Number: EP57816
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T hi s thesis, w r i t te n by
M U M . . M H E T J . E . . . P M M ............
under the d ir ec ti o n o f h
F a c u l t y Co mmit te e,
a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l its m e m b e r s , has been
presented to a nd accepted by the C o u n c i l on
Gradu ate St ud y and Research in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l ­
m e n t o f th e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r th e de g re e o f
D ean
Faculty Committee
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Statement of the problem
. . . . . . . . . . .
Definition and limitation . . . . ............
Justification of the p r o b l e m .................
Sources and evaluation of m a t e r i a l .......... .
Organization of the remainder of the thesis
Books of narrative b i o g r a p h y ................
Books on woman’s place in the social organism .
E d u c a t i o n .....................................
P a s t .......................................
. . ...............................
Professional recognition
. ..................
P a t r onage.....................................
. . . . . .
FIELD OF PAINTINGCharacteristics in style
Tendencies In selection of subject matter . . .
Contribution to American painting ............
. . . . . . . . . .
B i o g r a p h i e s .................................
. . . . . . . .
SUMMARY AND C O N C L U S I O N S ..........
C o n c l u s i o n s .................................
B I B L I O G R A P H Y .......................................
Letters andquestionnaires
T a b l e s .................................
Table I.
Personal Biographical Review . . . .
Table II.
Table III.
Professional Biographical Review
P l a t e s .................................
Abercrombie, Gertrude
Slaughter House Ruinsat A l e d o ....................1323
Bishop, Isabel
The Noon Hour
................................. 133
The K i d ........................................... 134
Blanch, Lucille
Afternoon in Spain
Deserted Quarry
. ♦ ...................
. .. . . ........................ 136
Brockman, Ann
Pigeon Hill P i c n i c ............................ .
N u d e ............
Cuthbert, Virginia I*
Shellhammer Family R e u n i o n .......................139
Davis, Gladys Rockmore
Morning P a p e r s ................................... 140
The Pink S k i r t ................................... 141
Dickson, Helen
The W a t e r f a l l ................................... 142
Ford, Lauren
Paradis Terrestre
Little Boy B l u e ..........................
The Country D o c t o r ............................... 145
The Boyhood of J e s u s .........................146
No Room in the
I n n ............................... 154
Goldthwaite, Ann
St. P e t e r ........................
Klitgaard, Georgina
Farm and Horsechestnut...........................156
View of Kingston . . . ...............
Lee, Doris
Hudson River E x c u r s i o n ...................... . . 158
Landscape with F i s h e r m a n ......................... 159
Winter in the C a t s k i l l s ............
N o o n ............................................. 161
P a s t o r a l .................. ...................
. 162
Richardson, Constance Coleman
View of Cambridge, NewY o r k ..................... '165
Margaret King
Peasants Threshing
......................... 164
Rosenthal, Doris
At the Blackboard
Two B o y s ......................................... 166
Schmidt, Katherine
Mr. Broe Waits His T u r n ................
• • •
Waterfront Scene ...............................
Sparhawk-Jones, Elizabeth
Burial of aPoet
................................ 169
Varian, Dorothy
Sandra in a PinkS l i p .............
The RockingHorse
The notable development of American art In the past
few years has great significance*
Working in a new order,
the American artist has made pertinent use of the vital
social, governmental, and cultural forces dominating the
growth of a self-sustaining, united democracy*
Although the
woman painter has had a unique part in the rise of American
art, practically no attempt has been made to survey her work*
Statement of the problem*
The purpose of this study
was, first, to survey the influences in the development, the
characteristics in style, the tendencies in selection of sub­
ject matter, and the contribution to American art of a
selected group of American women painters living in the
tv/entieth century; and, second, to collect the biographies
of this group through the medium of questionnaires and per­
sonal correspondence*
Definition and limitation.
In 1939, contemporary
American painters at the New York World*s Fair and the Golden
Gate International Exposition on Treasure Island in San
Francisco presented a vigorous and expressive native art*
The Treasure Island show was the best new work of four hun­
dred twenty men and women painters*
It was assembled by one
man, Roland McKinney, who is possessed of extraordinary
ability and taste.1
Throughout a year, Mr. McKinney went
from studio to studio, from the little known to the well
established artist, saw the entire output of each, and made
selections which gave a vivid account of the work of living
He selected characteristic canvasses of the sur­
realist, the painter of abstractions, of social content, and
of the American scene.
Since each of two creditable biographical indexes
American artists listed approximately fifteen hundred women
artists, this study obviously had to be limited to a speci­
fied group.
Because of the discrimination and taste of the
man who assembled the Exhibition of Contemporary American
Art at the Golden Gate International Exposition, the methods
he used, and the commendation of the entire collection by
the layman, critic, and artist of America, the sixty-four
women who exhibited at Treasure Island were believed to be
as ‘representative a group of American women painters as could
have been chosen by any other means.
1 Mr. McKinney resigned in October, 1957, from his
position as director of Baltimore*s Art Museum and, after
the opening of the Fair, February, 1939, went to a new posi­
tion as director of the Los Angeles Museum of History, Science
and Art.
Who*s Who in American Art lists as many as 94 in the
A*s alone! Fielding’s Dictionary of American Painters,
Sculptors and Engravers lists 81 women painters in the A\*s.
Justification of the problem*
The recognition of the
woman painter in the past two decades in America has proved
that she has made and is making a noteworthy contribution.
Her work has been shown in competition with a man's and has
been judged on the same basis as a man’s.
In the major
exhibitions open to both men and women in the United States
in the past year, the average of one out of seven who passed
the jury was a woman.
The rise of women in painting and the
fact that no review of the rise has been written were deemed
sufficient justification for this study.
Sources and evaluation of material.
The publications
in book form were found to be of a general nature and not
The most valid source of material was the periodical
art magazine.
The Art Digest, Magazine of Art, and Art News
led in this classification.
Of less value in order of their
importance were Parnassus, The Arts, Arts Weekly, Creative
A r t , International Studio, California Arts and Architecture,
Arts and Decoration, London Studio, Art and Understanding,
Art and Archaeology, Beaux Arts, Atelier, and Liturgic Arts.
Life1s deep interest in the growth of American art has made
it a valuable source. A recent issue of the Ladles Home
Journal contributed color reproductions.
Ladies Home Journal, 56*14-15, July, 1939.
The museum publications Baltimore Museum News Record,
Carnegie Magazine, Milwaukee Institute Bulletin, Brooklyn
News Quarterly, and Worcester Museum Annual proved to be of
The catalog of Contemporary American Art at the Pair
printed seven reproductions of women1s paintings.
The indexes American Women, W h o 1s Who in American Art,
MallettVs Index of Artists, and Fielding1s Dictionary of
American Painters, Sculptors, and Engravers were consulted.
Although it is not of painters, exclusively, American Women
is an authentic, but limited, biographical source.
The pub­
lishers have acknowledged it to be a biographical dictionary
of notable women.
It includes many painters.
The Index of
Twentieth Century Artists, both an index and a periodical,
has excellent narrative biographies, lists and dates of ex­
hibitions , and a complete book and periodical magazine
bibliography for five leading American women artists t Anne
Goldthwaite, Georgina Klitgaard, Lucile Blanch, Georgia
O fKeefe, and Mary Cassatt.
The first three women were among
those who had canvasses at Treasure Island.
The Art Index and the Index of Periodical Literature
furnished references for many of the better known women.
An interview with Roland J. McKinney revealed his
^ A\ periodical index published by the College Art
Association from 1934 to 1936, inclusive, only.
competency for the task which had been his, as well as some
valuable opinions of the capacities and achievements of
women in the field of professional painting.
The newspaper article source was not used in this
Correspondence with painters afforded interesting
biographical material not previously published.
& question­
naire type of letter was sent to each of the women.
information asked was varied, depending upon the available
biographical accounts.
Thirty-five of the sixty-four women
responded to these letters.
Their opinions of the problems
and the influences affecting the growth of the woman painter
were invaluable and are discussed in succeeding chapters.
& questionnaire was sent to ten male museum directors
and newspaper art editors.
Five, acknowledging receipt of
the letter, regretted that they could not contribute any­
thing to the survey, while five responded with helpful
opinions and information.
The Appendix contains copies of
the correspondence and questionnaires.
Organization of the remainder of the thesis.
remainder of the thesis is devoted to a survey, analysis,
and summary of the topic, followed by conclusive comments.
Chapter II reviewed previous related studies.
5 Iufra, pp. 118-26.
A discussion
of the influences in the development of women painters is
contained in Chapter III*
Chapter IV developed a three-fold
analysis of the characteristics in style, tendencies in
selection of subject matter, and the contribution of women
to American painting.
The biographies of fifty-four women painters are
included in Chapter V.
The material for thirty-five was
gathered through personal correspondence.
No published
biographical material was available for ten of the sixtyfour painters under consideration.
The findings of this survey are summarized in Chap­
ter VI.
Also included are conclusions based upon the summary.
A selected and partially annotated bibliography con­
tains books and periodical magazines bearing upon the sub­
ject as a whole together with a special periodical magazine
bibliography, arranged alphabetically by artists.
bibliography also lists all personal correspondence of the
The appendix consists of forty-one plates--selected
reproductions of paintings.
Recently, several books on modern American painting
have appeared; all of them include biographies and repro­
ductions of the paintings of important women artists*
was no published material in book form to be found about the
woman painter in the twentieth century.
Books of narrative biography*
The only book concern­
ing women artists In narrative biographical form to be found
was Elizabeth Tries Ellettfs Women Artists in All Ages and
Countries, with a publication date of 1859.
This book has
been a source of information on the woman painter of a gener­
ation or more ago*
Its pages are filled with evidences of
discriminations against women and lack of opportunity for
Cecilia Beaux* autobiography, Background with Figures,^*
gave a vivid portrayal of the art world In the generation in
which she lived and worked, as well as fascinating details
of her own career.
Born in 1863, until she was fourteen
years of age, Cecilia Beaux whad no schooling outside of the
^ Cecilia Beaux, Background with Figures (Boston and
New York* Houghton Mifflin Company^ 1530)7 p. 26.
home circle;
then she went to boarding school in Philadel­
By the time she was sixteen she showed an aptitude for
The first assignment in her training required her
to copy lithograph portraits in conte crayon.
drew from plaster casts and bones.
Finally, she
When Miss Beaux needed
to earn her living, her accuracy as a draftsman got her a
job with a famous paleontologist.
She left fossils for china
painting and finally did portraits on china.
Later, for
about two years, she had criticism from William Sartain.
Obtaining aid from her uncle in the ensuing years, she went
to Europe and copied masterpieces.
She had a studio in
Many illustrious people have sat for Miss Beaux.
painted the portrait of Mrs. Theodore Roosevelt, and her
daughter, Ethel.
In 1919 she was commissioned to paint
portraits of Cardinal Mercier, Clemenceau, and Admiral Lord
This work occupied the next two years.
At present Miss Beaux lives at Gloucester.
She was a
charter member of the National Association of Women Painters
and Sculptors.
Watson, in his book on Mary Cassatt,
has given three
Beaux, loc. cit.
^ Forbes Watson, Mary Cassatt (New Yorks
Museum of American Art, 1932), 60 pp.
accounts of Mary Cassatt:
first, the young woman as mad© up;
from words of her contemporaries; second, the middle-aged
woman, still able, despite spasmodic illnesses, to paint,
and well versed in French and American politics; and, last,
the embittered old woman, blind and lonely, still possessed
of a dominating personality.
In the early *70*s she joined independent painters
known as Impressionists, now famous as the individualists
of their day.
She knew and bought canvasses of Courbet,
Cezanne, and Degas before they were well known.
Although renowned as a painter of mother-and-child
subjects, a recent Memorial Exhibit of her work at the Penn­
sylvania Museum of Art showed considerable variation from
this theme.
Artists of the 19th Century, by Clara Erskine Clement,
Is a biographical index of men and women artists of all
A perusal of the names and nationalities of the
women entered In the index reveals that the names of American
women artists In any section of the index far outnumber those
of the British or French nationality.^
Presumably, In the
early American* t environment there were Indications of the
^ For example, alphabetically from A through D, E, F,
and H from pages 150 to 324 there were no British or French
women listed, while there were eight American-born women.
spirit of endeavor which is manifest in the accomplishment
of today1s women*
A glimpse into the biographies of the
American women artists of the nineteenth century has shown
that, wherever they were born in the United States, they did
not find the opportunities for development in their native
They studied abroad and many finally lived abroad, as
did May Alcott (Madam Ernest Nieriker) after her marriage.
American-born Mary Cassatt lived most of her life in France
where, as the friend of Degas and Manet, she was accepted
for the great painter that she was#
Books on woman1s place in the social organism*
Woman’s place in the social organism is important in any
study of the achievements of women*
This phase has been
thoroughly reviewed in the books Woman’s Share in Social
Culture and Woman in Modern Society, publication dates 1925
and 1912, respectively.
One author, after a survey of edu­
cational opportunities for women, observed ’’’
that women of
marked talent appeared whenever and wherever women have had
the opportunities of higher education#
The review of previous related studies has shown that
publications on this topic are limited in number and that
none have a recent enough publication date to be of much
value, except for historical background#
® Anna Garlin Spencer, Woman’s Share in Social Cul­
ture (London: J. P. Lippincott Company, 1925T, pp. 51.
The controlling influences in the development of the
woman painter have been, chiefly, education, professional
recognition, and patronage.
Individuals must have educa­
tional opportunities andt"re cognition to make progress In any
field of professional endeavor.
Woman1s advancement in
painting has depended largely upon these factors.
There Is a marked contrast between past and present
educational opportunities for women in the United States.
For centuries woman has been considered Ma
combination of housekeeper, nun, and lady.
It is the
kitchen, church, and children idea of the German Emperor.11
Well into the 19th Century girls were not allowed to go to
high school.
MProduee a Michael Angelo or a Plato and then
you may go,w they were told by the Boston Board of Educa­
In 1912 Spencer wrote?
1 Earl Barnes, Woman in Modern Society (New York:
B. W. Huebsch, 1912), p. 130.
® Anna Garlin Spencer, WomanTs Share in Social Culture
(London* J. P. Lippincott Company, 192$)," p . 50.
The woman of talent and of special gifts has had
until very lately, and in most countries has still, to
go against the massed social pressure of her time in
order to devote herself to any particular intellectual
It is generally known that, formerly, class control has not
permitted women to move with men in the spirit of the times.
In m o d e m democracies the attitude of the German
Emperor and the Boston Board of Education has been supplanted,
for the most part, by many opportunities for higher education
and for a career in any; professional field.
That women have
eagerly taken advantage of these opportunities for higher
education seems evident in this survey, in that eight of the
fifty-four women painters have college degrees as well as
technical professional training.
The opportunities for an art education in
the United States are increasing each year.
More colleges
have departments of fine arts.
There are five hundred art
schools in the United States.
According to Boswell, wlt is
now considered almost a stigma on an American artist for him
to study abroad.11
Only eleven of the selected group of
painters were trained abroad.
Three were born abroad, and
several others went on traveling fellowships.
3 Ibid., p. 81.
4 Peyton Boswell, 11American Art as it is Today,11
The Studio, p. 4, January, 1937.
What is the future for women in the professional
field of painting?
Ten women painters answered that the
future of the woman painter was the same as a man1s.
replied that the question was silly, for the future depended
upon the work produced, that they needed only the will,, that
it depended upon how good they were, that the governments
awakening public interest widened the future for women; also,
naturally, that there was success if they were sincere, that
with the freedom women have already gained, their future in
art was no different from a man1s.
make art sex?
One said, "Why not?
I can^.t wish to compete only against women—
but to be considered an American artist."
The diminishing discrimination against woman in higher
education has led to less discrimination in the matter of
recognition in her chosen professional field.
To the question
"Have you been discriminated against in getting a commission
or award or in exhibitions because you were a woman?"6 the
women painters generally answered that they had not; however,
two replied they had failed to get certain teaching positions
® Letter from Doris Rosenthal, December 28, 1939.
6 Infra, p. 120.
because they were w o m e n A n o t h e r felt that, considering her
rating in the art world, the offers she had for teaching jobs
were comparatively fewer than those of a man with the same
Although the low selling price of her pictures might
have been due to her sex, yet more likely it was due to lack
of particular style or choice of subject matter, which is an
individual matter apart from sex*
In the writer*s opinion,
the best answer to this question of discriminations was to
the effect that if such a thing existed, 11to put it from the
mind and get down to the main business, which is painting.w
The progress of women in the field of painting has
been advanced professionally through such organizations as
the National Association of Women Painters and Sculptors
which was Established in 1889 to give women throughout the
country an opportunity to show and market their work.11^
to that time, Briggs comments, tfintrepid girls no longer
needed to disguise themselves as men to gain admittance to
art school.
• • • Women could qualify for the rank of
Letters from Jean Goodwin, December 28, 1939, and
Nora Houston, January~30, 1940.
® Letter from Lucile Blanch, December 3, 1939.
9 Letter from Virginia Armitage McCall, January 1, 1940.
Fiftieth Anniversary Exhibit of National Associa­
tion of Women Painters and Sculptors, Catalog, 1939.
professional artists yet had no opportunity to show their
work with other painters
Five women organized the
association; its membership has grown to eight hundred from
forty-four states in the Union.
This organization has
labored unceasingly to remove-the stigma attached to women
as painters.
Although one of the foremost organizations of
its kind, only two of the group selected for this study,
Agnes Pelton and Jessie Arms Botke, had membership in pro­
fessional women’s organizations.
It becomes evident that,
because of diminishing discrimination against recognition,
women do not feel the need for membership in such groups.
It is also possible that they felt that a purely feminine
organization tended to segregate them unfavorably.
Upon the
occasion of the annual exhibition of the New York Society of
Women Artists in 1936, Theresa Bernstein commented on this
subject as follows;
Although much progress has been made, many artists
have fear of exhibiting in a woman’s group.
Others, achieving some measure of success, promptly
withdraw to enjoy their exalted positions. Comparatively
few dealers handle the work of women artists. Prizes
are almost invariably given to artists not of the "fair"
sex. Purchases also follow suit. Our government is
perhaps the most impartial art patron and points the way
^ Berta N. Briggs, "History of the National Associa
tion of Women Painters and Sculptors," Catalog of Annual
Exhibition, 1939, p. 21.
Fiftieth Anniversary Exhibit, op. clt,, p. 13.
of the future quite clearly.^
Miss Bernstein is not more outspoken than Watson, who
concluded the Mary Cassatt biography by saying that she
^lifted her art to a high level that will not be fully appre­
ciated until all of our prejudices against the woman artist
have vanished.
In view of the facts and opinions presented, it may
well be concluded that, while the factor of educational
discrimination has greatly retarded the development of women
painters in the past, it plays a far less important part now.
The increased professional recognition is one evidence of
improved opportunities.
Private and public patronage of artists has always
been one of the most important factors in the development of
the fine arts.
It is particularly significant in the his­
tory of the development of women painters in the United
Public. The importance of government patronage of art
is stressed by Boswell:
^ **New York Women Artists Open their Annual,*1 Art
Digest, 10:16, January 1, 1936.
Watson, loc. cit.
In the seven years between 1932 and 1939 American art
underwent the greatest transformation In its history.
One reason is that the tjnited States government, for the
first time in its history, stepped;into' the arena of art
patronage and joined the old line capitalists there
Lucile Blanch, a supervisor on the easel division of
the Hew York Federal Art Project, has done two murals under
the Treasury Department Federal Art program#
In her opinion,
in five years the recognition of art by the government
speeded its. development by fifty years compared to what it
would have been otherwise#
Out of what began as a relief
measure sprang a permanent branch in the government called
the Section of Fine Arts of the Treasury Department#
missions for murals in Federal buildings have been given on
the basis of work submitted by artists in competition#
procedure has been a great stimulus to the artists#
in public buildings tend to awaken public interest in art#
So it is that the governments patronage has brought the
people into close contact with art.
been directly or indirectly affected#
Many women painters have
The artists of the
selected group who have done government murals are:
Bishop, Lucile Blanch, Helen Forbes, Peggy Strong, and jean
Florence Allston Swift and Florence Standish
(New York:
Peyton Boswell, Jr., Modern American Painting
Dodd, Mead, and Company, 1§39), p. 68#
Letter from Lucile Blanch, December 3, 1939#
Whiting have also painted murals, but not for the government.
When the people in the United States are
willing to'accept art as a normal part of their existanee,
$he country may expect a cultural period.
Conditions pre­
ceding former periods of renaissance are to be seen on every
It is fashionable to be an art patron.
This point is
illustrated in a recent issue of the Art Digest:
Art and international relations both have in Thomas J.
Watson, president of the International Business Machines
Corporation, a sponsor who translates his idealism into
vigorous action. Latest evidence of Mr. Watson1s interest
is the assembling of a composite exhibit from the two
shows which his company presented at the New York and the
San Francisco fairs. This exhibition will, some time in
the near future, be circulated through South American
• . • Meantime, both fair exhibitions will
be shown throughout the United States.
. . • Concur­
rently, Mr. Watson is arranging for the formation of a
collection of American art to be composed of two canvases
from each of the forty-eight states.*7
The San Francisco Museum of Art reported that, in 1939,
ttnew accessions number 170 works.
• • • Some came to the
West Coast museum through purchase, but most were gifts of
patrons, particularly Albert M. Bender.11**-® Bender, whose
name has long been associated with the finest in art in the
Bay City, has been a valued patron of art.
Three figure subjects, three still lifes and a land­
scape, all by contemporary American artists, have just
17 nTo your south America,*1 Art Digest, 14:£6,
December 15, 1939.
p- io.
been acquired by the Metropolitan Museum through the
famous Hearn fund.19
Four of the seven canvases were by women painters:
Klitgaard, Edna Reindel, Toni Schulte, and Marguerite Zbrach.
Art patronage has been and will undoubtedly continue to be a
controlling influence in the development of painters, men
and women alike, in America.
From the discussion of the influencing factors it
seems apparent that the decrease in discrimination against
women painters has been the largest single factor in their
The importance of this change is evident in
increased educational opportunities, professional recogni­
tion, and patronage, both government and private.
19 „^o fpour $outh America,” loc. cit.
An analysis of the characteristics of the American
woman painter* ss work has led to a study of her contributions
as to style and her tendencies in the choice of subject.
This chapter discusses style and subject matter, in order to
determine, first, the contribution made to American art as to
style; and, second, the relationship between the choice of
subject matter of this group and that of other American
Technique In painting has not been considered In
this study except as it might'be related to characteristics
In the style of various painters.
Characteristics in style.
That there Is a definite?
style of painting in America today seems to be a moot ques­
According to Boswell, this may not be an indictment
of the work of the American artist.
nStyle is one of the
last infirmities of a national art, the first indication of
national decadence.w^
He feels, however, that style is
appearing in American painting.
Among the women were a number whose work showed
evidence of a definite style.
Some paintings showed tactile
1 Peyton Boswell, 11American Art as it is Today,w The
Studio (American Edition), 13:4-6, January, 1937.
quality and an interest in three-dimensional form, which is
revealed by significant use of light* The paintings of
Isabel Bishop were in this category, as was also the work
of Gladys Rockmore Davis, and Katherine Schmidt*
American artists who may be said to have similar interest In
form, light, and tactile quality were Kenneth Hayes Miller
and Eugene Speicher*
Some women showed an Interest in dramatic action*
Doris Lee!s work was of this type;
however, as a matter
of fact, her style seems to have been influenced considerably
by her choice of subject matter*
Her paintings, similar to
those of James Steuart Curry, had an element of the reporter*
Some women painters in the group gave evidence of
other styles.
Georgina Klitgaard developed a style which Is
perhaps more definite,
to be
as well as more personal,
seen in the work of any other woman in the
8 Infra. Plates
Infra. Plates
2; and 3, pp. 133-34.
9 and 10, pp. 140-41.
4 Infra. Platea 36 and 37, pp. 167-68.
Peyton Boswell, Modern American Painting (New York
City: Dodd, Mead and Company, 1939), p. l'<55.
Infra. Plates 27-31, pp. 158-62.
’’Doris Lee, An American Painter with a Humorous
Sense of Violence,” Life. 3:44, September 20, 1937.
8 ££•
Plates 27 and 31, pp. 158 and 162.
incorporated symbolism and a quality of mysticism in her
landscapes9 similar in feeling to that of Pieter Bruegel.10
Definite as her style is, Klitgaard revealed by her change
in methods of painting and choice of subject matter that she
was constantly setting new problems for herself.
In a recent
exhibit she showed an interest in the complexities of figure
composition which r,indicates a sound knowledge of structure11
and has a ^harmonizing vitality and poetic charm.”
said that her painting was similar in style to that of John
Carroll: and Frederic Taubes.
Although more anecdotal, the
work of Lauren Ford has a similar mystic quality.
13 14
Klitgaard*s, her landscapes recall Breugel.
That ”lack of style is the weakness of women in art”
is the opinion of Louise Pershing.
It was also her belief,
as well as that of the writer, that style is the result of
many years of work.
Perhaps many of the younger women
9 Infra, Plates 25 and 26, pp. 156-57.
^ ”Symbolism Marks Klitgaard Landscapes,” Art Digest,
9:19, March 15, 1935.
11 ”Georgina Klitgaard,” Magazine of Art, 32:181,
March, 1939.
12 Boswell, loc. cit.
13 »&n eC(iotal Scenes by Ford,” Art News, 26:13,
Plates 25 and 26, pp. 156-57.
Letter from Louise Pershing, January 15, 1940.
painters have not had time enough to develop their style and
that, as Boswell infers, the painter who does not have a
style has not worked out a formula; hence, he is still
making discoveries.
Tendencies in selection of subject matter.
painting varies as much in the selection of subject matter
as men’s.
Women and men artists in America have access to a
common training and are subject to common influences; con­
sequently, their work will differ only if their reactions
The school of painting known as the American Scene in
all its phases was well represented among the women.
well puts Katherine Schmidt in the studio division of this
*i g
Tiger, Tiger in the Fair show or Mr. Broe Waits
His Turn
may furnish evidence for this classification.
In addition, he says that Klitgaard, who Is a "painter of
the nation’s landscapes in various moods,
belongs to the
landscape division, and that Doris Lee represents the
picturesque naturalistic division of the American Scene.
He classifies the portrayal of Isabel Bishop’s city high
^ Peyton Boswell, "American Art as it is Today,”
The Studio (American Edition), 13:5, January, 1937.
Iafra* Plate 36, p. 167.
Boswell, loc. clt.
achool girls and middl© class office girls, which are simi­
lar in content to Kenneth Hayes Miller1s canvases of women
shopping along 14th Street, as American Scene*
In the
opinion of the writer, Virginia I* Cuthbert-^ also belongs
to this school.
Social protest subjects appear in the work of some
According to Art Digest, wthe work singled out for
special praise from the critics included that of Lucille
Blanch1s Afternoon in Spain, a mother shot in the neck while
picnicing with her little c h i l d , i s
the marriage of art and propaganda♦11
wa good example of
This statement
elaborates upon her interest in social protest subject mat22?
ter, Arnold Blanch*s The Crime shows a similar interest.
The technique and ideas of surrealism
in the work of at least one of the painters.
have appeared
Art Hews
classifies Gertrude Abercrombie*s Slaughter House
„. ,. 24
as surrealistic.
Infra, Plat© 8, p. 159.
Infra, Plate 4, p. 135.
Ruins at
lfCongress, Less Militant, Holds 2nd Annual,** Art
Digest, 12:14, May 15, 1938.
22j p©yton Boswell, Modern American Painting, op. cit.
p. 171.
Infra, Plate 1, p. 132.
24 titpke Miaaie West Paints::
36:18, March 26, 1938,
Chicago Show,11 Art News,
Sbme painters feel that to be obliged to conform to
reality in subject matter interferes with aesthetic ideals.
Among this group were Agnes Felton and Eleanor de Laittre,
the former being an abstract realist and the latter non­
It seems evident that Miss Felton*s pictures
were inspired by nature, but that, as the work progressed,
aesthetic demands required marked deviation from nature;
the result is abstraction with only a semblance of reality.
On the other hand, Eleanor de Laittre,
In an impersonal
and unemotional approach, based her work on abstract pattern
and the result is non-objective abstraction.
The subject matter of some of the painters seemed to
be of a more personal and emotional nature than of others.
Lauren Ford has often painted children, expressing a reli­
gious theme.
Her mystical nature seems to have reacted to
the spirit of the child.
Little Boy Blue
represents a
moment in the life of the sleeping child, surrounded by
domestic animals and activities.
It seems to be an inter­
pretation of a spiritual experience and may have found its
25 Letter from Agnes Pelton, December 31, 1939.
26 Letter from Eleanor de Laittre, December 28, 1939.
2^ Infra3 Plates 13 and 15-22, pp. 144 and 146-53.
Plate 13, p. 144.
origin in the deep personal life of the artist.
On the
other hand, Jean Goodwin was deeply moved by lyrical line
and subtle color.
She composed figures in settings which
gave her nature the aesthetic satisfaction it demanded.
the opinion of the writer, her Summer on the Shore, in the
Pair exhibit, has interest in line, color, and subject mat­
ter, in common, to a degree, with the figure compositions
of Arthur B. Davies.
A study of the canvases by the women exhibiting at
Treasure Island showed more interest in landscape and figure
composition than in still life and portrait subjects.
were thirty landscape, fourteen figure composition, nine
still life, and nine portrait studies.
This observation
seems to be in accordance with Boswell’s statement that the
American Scene shifted interest from still life to a por29
trayal of a people and its country.
Some still lifes in the exhibit warranted particular
In the opinion of the writer, Katherine Schmidt’s
Tiger, Tiger1 might be cited as evidence of her reaction to
the swing of the painters of the American Scene to Pure Art,
a term applied to a new trend which follows the American
According to Boswell, it "retains the freedom and
29 Boswell, op. cit., p. 87.
30 Loc. cit.
nationalistic strength of the American Scene, but places
greater emphasis on the aesthetics of painting,” in which
"texture, design, color organization, form, paint quality
and a deeper feeling for media are claiming more attention.”
Katherine Schmidt has used texture, color organi­
zation, and form as other exponents of the new trend have
used these qualities
Variety in the choice of subject matter among women
painters in this study ranged from the American Scene, in
all its phases, through surrealism and abstraction to Pure
The selection seems to have had little to do with sex,
and has varied according to the influences of environment
and personal taste.
Women1s choice of subject, therefore,
seemed to indicate a sensitiveness on the part of the women
paitaters to the spirit of the times.
Contribution to American painting.
That many women
in the selected group have been received as qualified pro­
fessional painters by layman, critic, and fellow artist
seems to indicate that they have made contributions which,
in most ways, have been identical with that of the men.
They seem to have caught the spirit of the rising tide of
31 Loc. cit.
p. 76.
nationalistic art in America and have cast their lot, as
have the men; hence, they share in the distinguished develop­
ment of art in America in the last few decades.
The art critic and the museum director,- contacted
through correspondence, expressed themselves as to the
contribution of the woman painter to American art.
Francis, Curator of Paintings and Prints at the Cleveland
Museum of Art, wrote:
A cursory consideration of the work of women painter®
in America does not lead me to feel that there is a
great difference, either in the choice of subject matter
or in the methods of painting, between men and women in
the contemporary field. In looking at paintings it
would be difficult to tell whether or not the artist was
a man or woman.33
Writing on the same topic, Mr. Kelly, of the Chicago
Art Institute, said that the woman painter1s contribution to
American art was not different from man*s win kind.
are more men than women devoting their full time to paint­
Mr. Edgell,33 Director of the Boston Museum of Fine
Arts, and Mr. Poland,36 of the San Diego Gallery of Fine
Arts, and Mr. Jewell,37 art critic of the New York Times,
33 Letter from Henry Sayles Francis, March 15, 1940.
34 Letter from Charles Fabens Kelly, March 4, 1940.
33 Letter from George Harold Edgell, March 12, 1940.
36 Letter from Reginald Poland, March 8, 1940.
37 Letter from Edward Alden Jewell, March 9, 1940.
shared Mr. Kelly’s opinion.
According to men whose opinion may be considered
relatively important, women of the selected group have made
a comparatively larger contribution to American art than
other women painters. Edgell
would say that the top women
painters in America today were Virginia Cuthbert, Laura
Coombs Hill, Gladys Davis, Florence Standish Whiting, Yvonne
Pene du Bois, Katherine Schmidt, and Henriette Wyeth, five
of whom had canvases at Treasure Island.
top ranking women painters:
named as
Georgia 0 fKeefe, Peggy Bacon,
Henrietta Shore, Lauren Ford, Jessie Arms Botke, Agnes
Pelton, Georgina Klitgaard, and Marguerite Zorach, half of
whom showed at Treasure Island.
He would place in a more or
less important category the following fourteen:
Skeele, Gina Knee, Anne Goldthwaite, Edna Reindel, Elise
Armitage, A. Rouellan, Lueile Blanch, Jane Berlandine, Helen
Forbes, Anne Brockman, Dorothy Varian, Theresa Bernstein,
Isabel Bishop, and Doris Lee.
Treasure Island show.
Ten of these were in the
Francis^ has named as top ranking:
Doris Lee, Georgia O ’Keefe, Georgina Klitgaard, Elsie Driggs,
Isabel Bishop, Anne Goldthwaite, Dorothy Varian, and Esther
Edgell, loc. cit.
39 Poland, loo. cit.
^0 Francis, loo, felt.
Six of the eight showed at Treasure Island,
such list of painters may be considered arbitrary, dependent
upon personal taste; however, the opinions of such men as
Edgell, Poland, and Francis have not been expressed without
It seems evident, from a perusal of these lists,
that many of the women exhibiting at Treasure Island were
top ranking American women painters who have made notable
contributions to American art.
There was a wide difference of opinion concerning the
existence of femininity
in woman’s work; and, whether or
not, if it appears, it is a contribution, Poland
has said
that femininity in woman’s work has been its greatest weak­
On the other hand, the work of some outstanding men
painters, such as Alexander Brook and John Carroll, has
shown definite feminine characteristics, which have never
been considered signs of weakness.
An article in the Art
Digest comments on Carroll’s recent show as follows:
Pictures of women set for the John Carroll exhibition
at the Rehn Galleries a tone that is utterly feminine,
graceful, and exquisitely poised. The feminity, however,
has at its base a sound structure and a strength bora of
a technique masculine in vigor.
^ Feminine style may be recognized in graceful line,
in subtlety of color, or in sensitivity to tone relationship.
Likewise, it may be perceptible in the taste shown in choice
of subject matter.
Poland, loc. cit.
The Wrestlers acts as a foil to heighten by sheer
contrast the sensitive feminity of most of the pictures
of the exhibition,43
Femininity could be a contributing factor when found
in a woman*s work as well as when found in a man*s work, it
would seem.
The appearance of masculine characteristics in a
woman*s work might or might not be an indication of strength*
Of Louise Pershing*s work, the critics have written:
Miss Pershing*s oils, scenes of Pennsylvania mining
towns, are, for the most part, stark documents of a
dreary phase of American life. With a masculine courage
and realism that will always be associated with her name.
. . . In her landscapes Miss Pershing makes much use,
compositionally, of the repeated motives of chimney
stacks, roof-tops and road turns, arranging them in concentrics and parallels which approach at times a tour
de force.44
However important, the appearance of masculine characteristics
in her work has not generally been considered the greatest
contributing factor in the estimation of her work.
Regarding the possibility of feminine characteristics
in the work of all women, Anne Goldthwaite^ said that she
imagined she could always tell a woman*s work; while
Georgina Klitgaard predicted that **perhaps women painters
4® “Charm of Carroll,11 Art Digest, 14:7, January 1,
women,11 Art Digest, 11:16, January 1, 1937.
Letter from Anne Goldthwaite, November 15, 1939.
will just become painters,
Poland summed up the point under discussion rather
well with these words which amplify his former statement;
To me, art is not a matter of something that is
either masculine or feminine. It should be an interpre­
tation of life, and of course, sometimes might be on the
feminine side, and sometimes on the masculine.48
The arguments as to the merits of a feminine or a
masculine style in painting led to the conclusion that if
the work is sincere, as is the work of Carroll, Pershing,
and artists of like standing, it may be judged upon its merit
and can be accepted or rejected on that basis.
the evidence would seem to Indicate that characteristics in
style, choice of subject matter, or sex of the painter have
little to do with whether or not the result is a good
The extent of women*s contribution to the profes­
sional field of painting in America may be said to be in
direct ratio to their acceptance in major exhibitions and in
critical surveys.
Women constituted 20 per cent of the ex49
hibition at the New York World*s Fair Show,
and 15 per
46 Letter from Georgina Klitgaard, December 5, 1939.
47 Cf. ante, pp. 30-31.
4® Poland, loc. cit.
49 **These Painters and Sculptors Passed the Jury,M
Art Digest, 13;32, June 1, 1939.
cent at San Francisco.50
Hall, in Eyes on America,
given space to twenty-one illustrations hy women, more than
ten per cent of the total 220 illustrations.
dueed the work of a like percentage of women.
Boswell repro52
Many of the women in the selected group were repre­
sented in the permanent collections of principal museums of
the country.
Twenty per cent of the women had pictures in
the Whitney Museum of American Art; while approximately 10
per cent were represented in each of the following museums:
Phillips Memorial Gallery, Washington, D. C.; Pennsylvania
Academy of Fine Arts; Chicago Art Institute; and the Metro­
politan Museum of Art.
Fifteen or more other museums had
pictures of one or two of the women in their collections.
Fifteen per cent of the women had done government murals.
Practically every recent issue of any news magazine of art
included an account of the acquisition by a museum of a
woman*s work or of an honor or award given a woman.
All of these facts may serve to illustrate the extent
of women’s contribution to American Art today.
50 nLiviag Americans,” Art Digest, 13:45, March 15,
W;. S. Hall, Eyes on America (New York:
Publications, Inc., 1939)7 1^6 pp.
52 Boswell, op. cit., 200 pp.
The Studio
The analysis of the characteristics in the work of
the woman painter of the selected group has perhaps aided in
clarifying the characteristics of contemporary American art.
Moreover, the chief characteristics found in all American .
painting seemed to have been present in the work of the
group selected for this survey.
Their contribution as to
style was found to be identical with that of the men painters.
Their choice of subject matter was similar in content to
that of men in a like environment; however, there were pro­
portionately fewer women in active full-time painting.
sequently, the contribution of American women in the profes­
sional field of painting may be said to differ from that of
men in extent only,
No bettor way to picture the part women have played
in the growth of American art could be found than through a
study of their biographies •
This chapter deals with the
lives of fifty-four women painters, comprising this survey.
No biographical material from any source whatsoever was
available for ten of the painters in the original group of
Most of the data for thirty-five of the fifty-
four biographies were obtained from recent personal corres­
pondence of the writer.
The remainder were secured from
biographical indexes.
Gertrude Abercrombie.
The work of Gertrude Abercrom­
bie shows'** the influence of Breughel, Memling, Picasso, and
the French primitives.
Concerning her subject matter, Miss
Abercrombie says that she is interested in ,fcats, horses,
landscapes with clouds, small figures walking around in a
Many of her paintings are In public and private
Present tense Is used throughout the biographies
wherever it facilitates reading, since most of the data were
secured from direct personal correspondence.
^ Letter from Gertrude Abercrombie, October 51, 1939.
Her Black Cat is in the Burbank School, Chicago
Cat with Hut Bowl is owned by the Highland Park, Illinois,
Board of Education; Portrait of Catl Mount is in the Walter
S. Brewster collection; Thornton Wilder owns Still Life with
Grapes and Portrait of Thornton Wilder; Charles Wooster owns
Slaughter House Ruins at Aledo
are in minor collections#
and The Pedestal
She was represented by Late Summer
Landscape at the New York World1s Fair in 1939.
Although painting occupies her full time, she has
never had a one-man exhibition.
In 1929 she took her Bache­
lor of Arts Degree at the University of Illinois#
She lives
in Chicago and is a member of the United American Artists
and the Chicago Society of Artists.
Miss Abercrombie won the Joseph N. Eisendrath prize
in the Annual Exhibition of Chicago Artists at the Art Insti­
tute in 1936, and a silver medal the following year; she won
the Mr. and Mrs. Frank Armstrong prizB at the Chicago Art
Institute in 1938#
Mabel Alvarez #
Born in Waialua, Oahu, Mabel Alvarez
divides her time between Los Angeles, California, and Hawaii#
At present she is painting in Honolulu and giving a morning
or an afternoon a week to teaching underprivileged children#
3 Infra, Plate 1, p. 132.
Of her art training, Miss Alvarez says, “Reproductions
of great paintings had to be my teachers:
Titian, Delacroix, and Renoir.”^
El Greco, Goya,
In Los Angeles, where she
grew up, she attended art classes after high school, supple­
mented by wide reading in many fields and travel.
For a
short time she studied with William H. Cahill in Los Angeles.
Although she spends most of her time painting, Miss
Alvarez has made half a dozen lithographs and is now doing a
few dry points.
She says that she likes “people, figure
composition, not necessarily portraits, expressing a mood.w
Consistently from 1916 to 1954, Mabel Alvarez has been
a prize winner in California.
She won the silver medal at
the Panama-California Exposition, San Diego, in 1916; third
Black prize at the California Art Club in 1918 and 1919; the
Federation of Women*s Club prize at the Painters and Sculp­
tors of Southern California exhibit in 1923; first prize at
the Southwest Exposition, Long Beach, in 1928; second prize
at the Laguna Beach Art Association In 1928; honorable men­
tion at the second annual in Pasadena in 1929; honorable
mention in 1931 and first prize in 1933 at the San Diego
annual; and, at the Los Angeles Ebell Club, third print prize
in 1933 and first prize In 1934.
She Is represented by a
Letter from Mabel Alvarez, November 9, 1939.
Loc. cit.
by a canvas in the Law Building, University of Southern
California, portrait of the late Dean Porter,
For diversion, Miss Alvarez likes her friends, garden- *
ing, astronomy, music, and reading.
She has dropped all
memberships in art organizations except that in an Honorary
Art Society in Honolulu.
Elise W. Bacharach.
cated at the Horace
Born in New York City and edu­
Mann School, Barnard College, and
Teacher1s College, Elise Bacharach did not begin the serious
study of art until 1929.
She has had an extensive musical
education, although painting has always been her ambition.
After studying with Winold Reiss in New York City, Miss
Bacharach went to Paris where she was a student at the
Aeademie Delacliese.
In 1932 she exhibited a portrait head
at the Spring Salon and another in the Fall Salon the next
Returning to America she studied with Emil Ganso at
Woodstock, New York, and with Alexander Brook.
Elise Bacharach has exhibited at the Milch Gallery.
She is now preparing for a one-man show.
In 1938, the jury
of the National Women Painters and Sculptors1 annual awarded
her the Olive Noble Prize for Still Life.
Miss Bacharach lives at Woodstock.
Her leisure hours
are spent in companionship with her husband and son.
® Letter from Elise W. Bacharach, February 11, 1940.
Theresa Bernstein*
Painter, lecturer, teacher, and
writer, Theresa Bernstein lives in Hew York City.
She is
the author of articles on art in museum quarterlies and in
She was born in Philadelphia and studied there
in the School of Design for Women, finally going to Hew York
to study at the Art Students League.
She won the John Sar-
tain and the William Green Travelling fellowships.
Since 1915, Miss Bernstein has won awards for her
portraits and landscape painting.
In 1930, the Grand Central
Art Galleries showed a group of her paintings which were
highly praised by the best critics.
Her pictures are in the
permanent collections of the Phillips Memorial Gallery,
Washington, D. C.; the Brooklyn Museum; Chicago Art Insti­
tute; Benjamin West Memorial Gallery, Swarthmore, Pennsyl­
vania; Semitic Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge Massa­
chusetts; and the Dayton, Ohio, Art Institute.
Miss Bernstein has a membership in ten artists1
She is an ardent feminist.
Isabel Bishop.
Of her training for her profession,
Isabel Bishop says that she attended tthigh school— then about
six years of art schools
Witter Art School, Detroit, Michi­
gan, Hew York School of Applied Design for Women, Art Studentss
League of Hew York.w*^ She won the Maynard Portrait Prize for
Letter from Isabel Bishop, Hovember 17, 1939.
The Kid® at the National Academy in 1936 and the Newport Art
Association prize in 1937; her Young Woman was purchased by
the Philadelphia Art Museum in 1938, and Noon Hour, by the
Springfield Art Museum in 1939,
She is represented in the
Whitney Museum of Art by Combing her Hair, and in the Metro­
politan Museum by Two Girls»
Miss Bishop says of her choice of subject matter that
she is interested in Individuals and situations which seem
*1 Q
to typify (for me) *middle class* American life.1*
Isabel Bishop*s paintings show the influence of her
teachers Kenneth Hayes Miller and Guy Pene du Bois, as well
as her study of the Masterpieces of Rembrandt, Watteau, Van
Ostade, and Rubens.
After a day of painting, Miss Bishop*s leisure hours:
are spent with her husband and friends.
Formerly, she
taught at the Art Students League in New York.
Sarah Jane Blakeslee.
In 1934, Sarah Blakeslee was
awarded the William Emlen Gresson Traveling Scholarship by
the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts.
In 1937 she was commissioned to paint a mural for the
Infra. Plate 3, p. 134.
9 Ibid., Plate 2, p.
1®' Bishop, loe. cit.
Strasburg, Virginia, Post Office, tinder the Section of Fine
Arts of the Treasury Department, Washington, D. C,
mural was completed the next year.
Concerning her choice of subject matter, Miss Blakes­
lee wrote:
When I first started to paint I preferred figures and
heads because it was easier to see the form and compose
these subjects than landscape. Later I liked to paint
landscapes and at present possibly do more of them.
However I do paint from models as often as I can,
She studied with Catharine Ctitcher in Washington, D.
C., with Burtis Baker at the Corcoran School of Art, and with
her artist husband, Francis Speight.
Her great interest in
painting people has been stimulated by the work of Rembrandt,
El Greco, and Renoir,
Lucile Blanch,
In addition to teaching and painting,
Lucile Blanch is active in art affairs. Now Resident Artist
at Converse College,
she formerly taught in the Ringling
School of Art, at Sarah Lawrence College for Women, and at
the Westchester County Workshop,
She was supervisor on the
easel division of the Federal Art Project of the W. P, A. of
New York City,
She is an active member of the American
Artists Congress when in New York City.
On occasion she has
Letter from Lucile Blanch, December 3, 1939.
12 Converse College (for women), Spartanburg, South
Carolina, where Carnegie Corporation maintains an Artist-inResidence.
written papers and given them radio presentations,
Mrs. Blanch was born in Hawley, Minnesota.
In 1917,
she won a scholarship for Minneapolis School of Art where she
worked under Gustave Goetsh, Vaclan Vytlacil, and Robert
In 1918 a national scholarship took her to the Art
Students League, where she studied with Frank Vincent Du
Mond, Boardman Robinson, Frederick Gruger, and Kenneth Hayes
Of her training she says:
Ho teachers helped me, particularly, while in school.
I gained my best footing In finding myself in art through
my husband, Arnold Blanch. I also feel greatly indebted
to Kenneth Hayes Miller, both from friendly discussions
with him and indirectly from so many of his students, Mr.
Blanch being one of them. I think I owe an attitude of
industry and thoroughness and feeling of respect and joy
in the profession to the three German teachers I had in
the Minneapolis Institute of Art. I do not recall much
that they taught, or feel that they Influenced my aes­
thetic standards.
In 1933, Mrs. Blanch won a Guggenheim Foundation
Fellowship and went abroad to study; in 1934 she was awarded
the Wanamaker Regional Exhibition Purchase Prize along with
Thomas Benton and Reginald Marsh.
painted Deserted Quarry. ^
About this time she
Six paintings and her folio of
twelve drawings of the Circus and Flowers are in the Whitney
Museum of American Art collection.
Florida Wildflowers was
13. Letter from Lucile Blanch, December 3, 1939.
Iftfra, Plate 5, p. 136.
bought by the Metropolitan Museum in 1937; Autumn Landscape,
by the Minneapolis Institute of Art; and Nude, by the Whitney
Museum of American Art In 1938; Houndout was purchased by
the museum of the University of Nebraska in 1939.
She did a
mural for the Port Pierce, Texas, Post Office in 1938.
color reproduction of her Outdoor Circus
has been pub­
lished in the Living American Art Series.
Writing about the time when she was little known,
Mrs. Blanch says:
I did not get enough money out of sales of pictures
to live on. Aside from a job at clerical work and one
of running a restaurant, including the cooking, I earned
my living designing and painting lampshades and later
augmented that by hand-weaving. I always, as most ar­
tists do, prepare my own frames, either buying them in
the raw wood or remodeling old frames. Many artists of
my generation earned their living by practicing some
such craft as I did.16
Soon after the World War she and her husband moved to
Woodstock where they managed Maverick Cafeteria, and wove
and sold tapestries.
Jessie Arms Botke.
A decorative painter of birds and
flowers, Jessie Arms Botke is interested chiefly in pattern,
texture, and color.
She admires Gothic tapestries, Botti17
celli, and the early Renaissance masters.
Blanch, loc. cit.
koo* cit.
Letter from Jessie Arms Botke, November 14, 1939.
For many years, Mrs, Botke lived In Chicago*
studied at the Art Institute with John C, Johansen and Albert
White Swans is in the permanent collection of the
Municipal Gallery, Chicago; Geese Is owned by the Art Insti­
tute; she has mural decoration in Ida Noyes Hall, University
of Chicago*
Work outside Chicago Includes %
Bird Decoration,
owned by the Nebraska Art Association; After the Bath, in
the Public Schools, Lincoln, Nebraska; and Nest in the Jimson Weeds, recently purchased by the Los Angeles Art Associ­
She did murals for the St. Francis Hotel, San
Francisco, in 1935, and for the new I* Magnin Store in Los
Since 1917, Mrs* Botke has won prizes as follows;
Englewood Woman’s Club Prize at the Chicago Art Institute
In 1917; Cahn prize, 1918; bronze medal, Peoria Society of
Allied Arts, 1918; medal from the Chicago Society of Artists
in 1919; honorable mention, National Association of Women
Painters and Sculptors, 1925; Shaffer Prize, Chicago Art
Institute; first bronze medal, Pacific Southwest Exposition,
Long Beach, California, 1928; a prize from the Chicago
Gallery of Art in 1931; the Tucker prize, National Associa­
tion of Women Painters and Sculptors, 1933; first prize for
decorative painting, California State Fair, 1934; a first
prize at the Los Angeles County Fair in 1934; third prize at
the Western Academy of Painting, Los Angeles Museum, 1935,
and honorable mention in 1936; the Carpenter Prize First
Sanity in Art Show, Chicago, 1938; and first prize for water
color at the Los Angeles County Fair, 1938.
One-man shows of Jessie Botke!s work have been held
at~Grand Central Galleries in 1925, 1930, 1934, and 1937;
Chicago Galleries Association, 1927; Ilsley Gallery, Ambas­
sador Hotel, Los Angeles, 1932; Courvoisier Gallery, 1934;
Pomona College, 1938; Laguna Beach Association, Stanford
University, and Occidental College, all in 1938.
She has had
several joint shows with her artist husband, Cornells Botke.
Mrs. Botke is one of America1s leading women in the
decorative painting field.
Ann Brockman.
Ann Brockman was born in Alameda, Cali­
fornia, and spent her childhood in the western states.
the age of seventeen, she married the illustrator, William C.
McNulty and went to New York City where she soon gained suc­
cess in commercial art.
She studied for short periods of
time at the Art Students League with John Sloan and George
In 1929, Miss Brockman gave up all illustration and
advertising art and since has exhibited annually at the
Kleeman Galleries In New York City.
Miss Brockman, her artist husband, and Jon Corbino
have held art classes at Rockport, Massachusetts, for five
She excels in compositions of landscape, combined
with Rubenesque figures^ la a romantic style which has been
developed under the influence of Jon Corbino.
Jane Berlandina.
French-born Jane Berlandina was
trained at the Paris Ecole des Beaiur Arts and received critic­
ism from Matisse and Dufy.
An American by marriage, she
lives with her husband, Henry Howard Berlandina, in San
In addition to a mural at the White House, Wash­
ington, D. C., and numerous works in the region of San
Francisco, her work was seen at the Golden Gate Exposition
in the San Francisco Building and the Brazilian Favillion.
She received first prize at the San Francisco Society of
Women Painters Exhibition at California Palace of Legion of
Honor In 1933.
Recently, Mrs. Berlandina returned from a painting
trip to Mexico and exhibited six oils and 18 temperas at the
resident of Le Roy M. Backus, the Pacific Coast Director of
the Schaeffer Galleries of New York City.
Mrs. Berlandina1s work is in the permanent collections
of the San Francisco Museum of Art and the California Palace
of the Legion of Honor.
338 Infra, Plates 6 and 7, pp. 137-38.
*1*9 wsan Francisco: Mexicans by Berlandina,” Art
Digest, 38:14, December 23, 1939.
Erna Bottigheimer.
Erna Bottigheimer says, of her
work, that she paints still lifes to train herself in plastic
expression, but likes best to paint people who are typical
of a certain group.,
Dillard, King of the Cumberlands repre­
sents, for her, the fine type of person found in the Tennes20
see. Mountains.
Betty Jane Smith, seen in the Treasure
Island show, is the portrait of a young negro girl.
Miss Bottigheimer is civic-minded, being interested
in a peace group*s activities and in the promotion of the
City Manager form of government in Cincinnati, where she
She teaches a children’s class at the Cincinnati Art
Museum and a private class for children.
Luella Buros.
wEainting is my hobby.
I am a house-
wife, and sometimes an assistant in my husband’s office}*
writes Luella Buros.
Her paintings, intimate and personal,
are of subjects in her immediate surroundings.
Mrs. Buros was born in Canby, Minnesota; was a student
at Ohio State University; and studied art in the Fine Arts
Department at Columbia University, where Arthur Young had a
great influence on her work.
New Jersey College for Women, New Brunswick, New
Letter from Erna Bottigheimer, February 5, 1940.
21 Letter from Luella Buros, February 2, 1940.
Jersey, gave her a one-man exhibition in 1938.
She won
second prize in water color at the Columbus, Ohio, Art
League Exhibition in 1935, while her oils have had several
honorable mentions in exhibitions in New Jersey.
Luella Buros lives in Highland Park, New Jersey.
pictures Street Musicians, Gaspe Landscape, and Across the
Street are of local scenes.
Lila Copeland.
Lila Copeland, one of America1s most
promising young painters, is a member of the Woodstock Colo­
In 1937, she was awarded the Norman Wait Harris Bronze
Medal and prize of three hundred dollars at the Art Institute
of Chicago for her Railroad Bridge, the painting which rep­
resented her at the Golden Gate Exposition.
She considers
At the Swimming Hole, a figure composition with landscape
background, a finer picture, and Spring Landscape, among her
Her landscape The White Horse is in Doris Leefs col­
Dr. Bela Mittelmann owns Still-Life, and The S. S.
Ida is at Saugerties High School, in New York.
Regarding influences on her work, Miss Copeland writes:
At first I was influenced by Raphael Soyer, Alexander
Brook, and George Groz, all of whom heightened my interest
in characteristics of people. I consider my husband,
John Nichols, who is about to have his first one-man
show, the painter to whom I am most indebted for imparting
to me his researches for many years on the technique and
plastic meaning of the old masters.
Letter from Lila Copeland, January 13, 1940.
Marian Curtis.
Born in Los Angeles, Marian Curtis
studied for a. short time, each, with Phil Dike, Phil Para­
dise, and Ejnar Hansen.
She admires the work of Masaccio
and El Greco.
Miss Curtis won first prize at the San Diego Art
Center in 1938 and first prize at the California State Fair
in 1939.
She is represented in the permanent collection of
the San Diego Fine Arts Gallery.
The Novelist is in the
collection of Charles Muskavitch, conservator to Dallas
Museum of Fine Arts.
Although her chief occupation is painting, Miss Curtis
finds time for reading, botanical pursuits, and the compan­
ionship of her husband.
Virginia I. Cuthbert.
Schellhammer Family Reunion,
exhibited at the Treasure Island show and reproduced in the
catalog, is representative of the work of Virginia I. Cuth­
The picture is a character study of a group of people.
The same element of human interest is found in the artist1s
Miss Cuthbertfs training is varied and extensive.
She studied at the University of Pittsburg and Carnegie
Institute of Technology.
She took a Bachelor of Arts Degree
23 Infra. Plate 8, p. 139.
at the Syracuse University, 1930, which institution gave her
the Hazard Fellowship for study in Europe,
In Paris she
attended the Academie Colorassi de la Grand Chaumiere.
By 1935, a collection of her paintings were shown at the
Gulf Galleries, Pittsburgh,
After three years, she exhibited thirty paintings at
the Carnegie Institute and at Butler Art Institute, Youngs­
town, Ohio,
In the meantime, however, from 1934 on, Miss
Cuthbert had a canvas in every important show, including
Carnegie International, in 1937 and 1938, and had won seve­
ral prizes,
These included the cash prize at the Carnegie
Institute annual in 1934, the Pittsburgh Alumnae in 1935,
the Art Society Prize of one hundred dollars in 1937, and
First Prize from the Associated Artists of Pittsburgh in 1938,
Portrait of a Boy is owned by Syracuse University
College of Fine Arts, Portrait of Bob Crouch is in the per­
manent collection of One Hundred Friends of Pittsburgh Art;
while a United States Government mural was painted by Miss
Cuthbert in a Mount Lebanon Municipal Building, Pittsburgh,
Miss Cuthbert is the wife of Philip Clarkson Elliot,
an associate professor of fine arts*
Gladys Rockmore Davis,
native of New York City.
Gladys Roekmore Davis is a
As a small child her greatest
delight was to draw.
When she was nine years old, her
father1s business took the family into Canada, where they
moved frequently.
Finally returning to the United States,
they went to San Francisco where Gladys, then fourteen,
attended classes at the San Francisco School of Fine Arts,
After two years in the West, the family moved to Chicago,
The time spent in high school seemed to this talented young
girl wasted years, so anxious was she to enroll at the
Chicago Art Institute.
Important years followed.
At the Institute, Mrs.
Davis was a student for three years, during which time she
came under the influence of the late John Norton.
graduating in 1920, she entered the commercial art field In
Chicago, where she was an advertising and fashion artist for
eleven : years.
In 1925 she married Floyd Davis, a well
known Illustrator.
They now live in New York City.
ing their two children, Mrs. Davis says, wSo far they seem
to have made no difference in the scheme of things except to
contribute the added richness and flavor of living with two
very happy children.”^
The family spent the year 1932 in Europe where they
settled, temporarily, at Cannes and painted.
Upon returning
to America, Mrs. Davis discovered she had lost her facility
24 Letter from Gladys Roekmore Davis, January 6, 1940.
for turning out commercial art work; so she decided to enter
the Art Students League for more study*
During this time
George Groszfs intelligent interest was a great influence on
her work.
Since 1937 the paintings^ of Gladys Rockmore Davis
have attracted steadily increasing attention.
She received
the William R. French medal in Chicago, 1937; the Purchase
Consideration Prize, Richmond, Virginia, in 1938; Third
Honorable Mention at the Corcoran Biennial, Washington, D.
C*, in 1939; and Honorable Mention at the Pennsylvania
Museum in 1938.
Perhaps her best paintings are Venus,
August Afternoon, and Morning Papers.
Eleanor de Lalttre.
Eleanor de Laittre was born in
Minneapolis and studied at the Boston Museum School of Fine
Arts, and in Hew York with George Luks and John Sloan.
work, ranging from expressionism to abstraction, has been
seen in many important national exhibitions.
She has had
one-man exhibitions in Minneapolis and Chicago.
Her first
one-man show in New York City was at the Gallery of the
Contemporary Arts in December, 1939.
latest exhibition are:
Some titles in the
Sailboats in Harbor, Buildings,
25 Infra, Plate 10, p. 141, The Pink Skirt, won
recognition in the Carnegie International, 1938.
Infra, Plate 9, p. 140.
Twilight, Chimney Tops, Pleasure Boats, Sea Grass, and City
Desert Storm was in the Golden Gate Show.
picture is a characteristic canvas, full of pleasurable
excitements, having quite arbitrary and fantastic symbols
held together by a diffusion of pink throughout the compo­
In Chicago, where she and her husband live, Miss de
Laitre, in addition to painting, has produced some very fine
ceramic pieces.
Helen Dickson.
In May, 1939, Helen Dickson joined In
an exhibit by seven New England artists at the Marie Harriman Gallery In New York City.^®
She showed Waterfall, ^
which combines a serene distant landscape with the headlong
rush of water from a bursting daM, and Spring Planting, which
has a singing color quality.
Miss Dickson was trained In several New England art
schools, chiefly the Massachusetts School of Art.
teachers have been George Demetrlos, Charles Hopkinson, and
Harold Zimmerman.
She has exhibited widely at museums and
at the two World1s Fair shows.
Her River, Cherryfleld, in
2^ Letter from Eleanor de Laittre, December 28, 1939.
28 r,New Yorkers Meet New England,w Art Digest, 13:14,
May 1, 1939.
------ ---29 Infra, Plate 11, p. 142.
the San Francisco exhibit, has the color, grace, and move­
ment which characterize her canvases,
Ronnie Elliot,
An exhibition of Ronnie Elliotfs
paintings at the Delphic Studios, New York City, was the
result of a two-year stay in Honolulu.
Still lifes, land­
scapes, flower compositions, and portraits comprise the
Since Miss Elliot is chiefly concerned with
plastic form, she finds subject matter in her surroundings,
which can be utilized in that way.
Having been a student of Alexander Brook, Yasuo Kuniyoshi, Raphael Soyer, and Zorach, Ronnie Elliot feels that
she is guided by Zorach*s teaching more than by any of the
She does sculpture and stone carving; she was
awarded first prize for a large stone torso by the Arts and
Crafts Club in New Orleans, Louisiana, in 1935.
Miss Elliot’s paintings are in private collections in
every section of the country:
New Orleans, Washington, D. C,,
Philadelphia, New York City, Los Angeles, Berkeley, and
She painted on the easel division of the Federal
Arts Projects in New York City.
Says Miss Elliot, WI live, breathe, and think only
painting; it is my chief thought and very life.11
30 Letter from Ronnie Elliot, December 27, 1939.
Helen Forbes*
Of her education, Helen Forbes writes:
All the teachers with whom X studied had their share
of influence* Van Sloun in the San Francisco Art School
days, Hansen at Monterey, The Academy at Munich with its
technical specialists: Doerner for murals, Groeber for
drawing, Miller for anatomy; then L fHote as a modern in
Paris and Ernest Leyden in Holland, I had to be away
from them all quite a while before I worked out a style
for myself.31
Although Miss Forbes is known more widely as a muralist than as a painter, she has won singular distinction as an
easel painter*
She took first prize at the San Francisco
Society of Women Artists in 1930; first prize for a landscape,
Storm, Death
at the California State Fair, 1934;
and first prizes from the San Francisco Women Artists in 1934
and from the Chinese Outdoor Art Show, 1939, for Afternoon
She is represented In the permanent collections of
the San Diego Museum and of Mills College, California*
Forbes painted two oil murals on canvas, called The First
Garden, for the San Francisco Golden Gate Exposition*
tant murals, all of which are in tempera, are at the Fleishhacker E'oo Mother House and at the Post Offices in Merced,
Susanville, and Monrovia, California, where she is now work­
Miss Forbes explains her interest in murals by saying
that decorative works of all kinds are much more in demand
31 Letter from Helen Forbes, October 14, 1939.
Shown at Golden Gate Fair, 1939.
than easel pictures*®®
Helen Forbes taught for one semester at the Univer­
sity of California.
Of this experience she writes:
It took all my time and energy and I did nor painting.
This seems to be the case with others and it is my
belief that teachers should be relieved every three or
four years to renew their ideas. I do no teaching at
present and little writing*
. . . I have spent probably
an average of six hours a day at my work for the past
six years sometimes working S u n d a y s .
For diversion Miss Forbes spends a bit of time at the
piano and attends concerts of quartette music at least once
a week.
Lauren Ford.
ticut the year round.
Lauren Ford lives on a farm in Connec­
As a child she showed marked talent
and finally studied at the Art Students League with George
Bridgman and Frank V. Du Mond*
Her pictures, poetic and
mystical, are reminiscent of Blake.
They have in them the
essential meaning of renewed life and kinship of all created
children, flowers, birds, animals, the sun, and the
Because Miss Ford is a modest person and has never
been dependent upon her art for a living, she did not exhibit
Forbes, loc. cit.
£ 2 °* clt»
35 Infra. Plates 13 and 23, pp. 144 and 154.
her art until 1928.
Since then she has become well known
andcher paintings are owned by many private collectors as
well as the Metropolitan Museum, Corcoran Gallery of Art,
and Art Institute of Chicago.
Lauren Ford has written and illustrated A Little Book
About God.
Esther Galley.
Esther Galley was born in Mr. Pleas­
ant, Pennsylvania, where she now lives.
In her own words:
I live in the bituminous coal district. The industry
of coke manufacturing by the beehive process surrounds
my home town. This method of making coke is on the
decline being replaced by the by-product ovens. Mt.
Pleasant is surrounded by twelve operating and non­
operating coke plants. I have always had a keen Inter­
est in them and enjoy painting them.®®
Mr. McKinney saw her Central Coke Ovens at the Acad­
emy of Fine Arts, Philadelphia, liked it, and invited her to
exhibit at Treasure Island.
She entered Humprey1s Coke
Ovens, which is truly an American Scene canvas.
In 1934, Miss Galley exhibited with a group of five
at the Warwick Gallery, Philadelphia.
She has won first,
second, and third prizes at the Greensburg Art Club.
Miss Galley has been Invited to send biographical material
to Who*s Who in American Art, but she writes t
f,I have never
felt worthy of such honor and therefore have never submitted
®® Letter from Esther Galley, December 26, 1939.
i n f o r m a t i o n . g ^ © teaches art and crafts in the Mt.
Pleasant public schools.
Anne Goldthwaite.
Anne Goldthwaite*s professional
training has been varied and extensive.
In 1907, after a
period of study with Walter Shirlaw and at the National
Academy in New York City, she left for Paris, where she
worked for six years at the Academy of Paris with such mas­
ters as Othon Friesz and Charles Guerain.
For five years
she was president of the American Women*s Association of
Paris, and, for two years, vice-president of the British and
American Women*s Society.
She belonged to the Academie
Moderne and the artist colony at Isle-des-Moines.
She ex­
hibited at Salons de Paris and Gallerie Roderique.
In 1914, Miss Goldthwaite returned to America where
she had her first one-man show in America at the Whitney
She sold three paintings.
Since this date she has
exhibited annually, and has become widely known.
Anne Goldthwaite has done as many water colors as
oils, about eight lithographs, many etchings, and several
murals of glazed terra cotta.
Her work Is in all the leading
art museums of the country, including:;
Baltimore, Brooklyn,
Cleveland, Montgomery, Alabama, New York, Providence, and
Washington, D. C.
She has been a member of the faculty of
the Art Students League since 1922.
Prom a distinguished southern colonial family, Anne
Goldthwaite was born in Montgomery, Alabama.
Her ancestors
were prominent planters, lawyers, and politicians.
Her work
has the dreamy quality of the South, Is very feminine, and
has a decided style of Its own, ° showing at times the In­
fluence of Cezanne.
She says that Walter Shirlaw has had
influence on her work.
Jean Goodwin.
Born in Santa Ana, California, Jean
Goodwin has done most of her work in her native state.
very young, she studied with Anna Hills at Laguna Beach.
After high school, she studied two years at Pomona College,
three years at the Chicago Art Institute, and part time, for
four months, at the New York National Academy.
Miss Goodwin
took her Bachelor of Education degree at the University of
California at Los Angeles and her Master of Pine Arts at the
University of Southern California.
her education as follows:
Miss Goodwin comments on
wThe wordless Instruction of some
of the old masters* reproductions have influenced me more
than teachers.
Plate 24, p. 155.
Letter from Anne Goldthwaite, November 15, 1939.
40 Letter from Jean Goodwin, December 28, 1939.
After teaching art in the public schools four years
and part time during her graduate study residence and at
Summer Session at the University of Southern California, Miss
Goodwin began a full-time career of creative work.
That her painting has a definite feminine quality may
be seen in Summer on the Shore, exhibited at Treasure Island.
Prior to this showing, the picture won first prize at the
annual Laguna Beach Art Association Exhibition.
Of this
painting, Miss Goodwin says, ,fThis type of subject matter
lends itself to the delicate lyrical line I so enjoy and
stimulates me to explore the loveliness of subtle^
A versatile artist, Miss Goodwin has done three litho­
graphs, a ceramic mosaic at Huntington Beach, an underglaze
painted ceramic mural at the University of Southern Cali­
fornia, egg tempera murals at the San Diego Civic Center,
and block print book illustrations, all of which have won
her singular distinction.
According to Miss Goodwin,
l,Ceramic sculpture and bookbinding are my hobbies.
I read
and love to walk or ride in the country, enjoy friends, good
food, and clothe s .
Ruth Grotenrath.
One of the younger women painters,
Ruth Grotenrath was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, where she
Letter from Jean Goodwin, December 28, 1939.
Loc. cit.
now lives.
Graduated from the Milwaukee State Teachers
College, she has since painted a mural there.
Miss Grotenrath won first prize in the Wisconsin
Painters and Sculptors exhibit at the Milwaukee Art Institute
in 1935.
Her Sleeping Girl is in the Instituted permanent
In 1937, in the Chicago and Vicinity Art
exhibition, she was awarded the Chicago Woman fs Aid Prize.
Johanna K. W. Bailman.
Wealthy, widowed Johanna K.
W.. Hailman, Pittsburgh artist, lives in a huge mansion on
Penn Avenue, long after the Mellons and Carnegies have moved
to more fashionable sites.
Al member of the National Assoc­
iation of Painters and Sculptors and of the Associated
Artists of Pittsburgh, she has exhibited in nearly every
Carnegie International since 1910.
At an Associated Artists
exhibit in 1911, she won second prize, and was awarded a
silver medal for painting at the Pan Pacific Exposition art
exhibit in 1915.
Mrs. Hailman1s Dusquesne, in the San Francisco show,
is a well composed canvas, revealing a controlled and re­
fined use of color.
Nora Houston.
Born in Richmond, Nora Houston was a
pupil at her mother1s private school until the age of ten,
43 Time, September 19, 1938, pp. 30-32..
when she entered a local art school.
In 1905, she went to
the Art Students League to study with William Merritt Chase,
Douglas Connah, Robert Henri, and Kenneth Hayes Miller.
From 1907 to 1909 she worked in Paris with a group of artists
allied with the conservative wing of the impressionist move­
Hpon returning to her native city, Miss. Houston taught
at the Richmond Art Club, and later helped organize an art
She has been active in the art affairs of St. Joseph
Villa and the Catholic Women1s Club; she is now supervisor
of Works of Art Unit of the Virginia Art Project.
Miss Houston exhibited thirty-six portraits, figurecompositions, and landscapes in a one-man show at the Ander­
son Art Gallery, Richmond, in 1936.
In the same year she
won first award in the Virginia artists* exhibition.
She was
invited by Mayor La Guardia to send a picture to his National
Exhibition of American Art.
Her painting, Jubilate Deo,
Omnes Terra, is an Allegheny Mountain landscape.
Marie Atkinson Hull.
Well known in the deep south as
m painter and teacher, Marie Atkinson Hull was the pupil of
John T. Carlson, Robert Reid, and George Elmer Browne, with
whom she studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts
and the Art Students League.
By 1920, she was exhibiting.
Letter from Nora Houston, January 30, 1940
In that year she won the Mississippi Art Association gold
Further recognition followed in 1926, when the South­
ern States Art Association gave her first prize.
In 1929,
in the Davis Wildflower Competition at San Antonio, Texas,
she was awarded the second prize of twenty-five hundred
Share Croppers, by Mrs. Hull, exhibited in the San
Francisco Fair show, reveals a strong sense of social indig­
nation and, though it may be propaganda, it is also art in
the finest sense.
Marie Atkinson Hull is the wife of the architect,
Emmett Johnson Hull.
They live in Jackson, Mississippi.
Grace Veronica Kelly.
Grace Veronica Kelly, a writer
and teacher as well as painter, for years has been art critic
for the Cleveland Plain Dealer.
That Cleveland appreciates
her native daughter is evident in that five of her paintings;
are In permanent collections in the city.
Sunset on the
Cuyahoga River is in the Cleveland Heights School; Backyard
Activities is owned by the city; After the Flurry, White
Mists of Keel, and Frovincetown Having its Morning Fog are
in the Cleveland Museum of Art.
One of her more recent paintings, Meson San Calletano,
San Salvador, is in the Treasure Island exhibit.
The Cleveland Museum of Art awarded Miss Kelly second
prize for water color in 1924 and second prize for landscape
and honorable mention for water color in 1925•
Georgina Klitgaard.
Mrs, Klitgaard remarks concern­
ing her estimation of painters and their influence:
For intensity of feeling and justness and subtlety of
abstract composition I find El Greco most stimulating,
for humanity Rembrandt, for joy in life and color, Renoir,
for taste Bra&^jre and Matisse. Picasso seems to have
Known chiefly for her landscapes of the Catskills,
depicting the woods in the changing seasons,
her work is
sensitive in style, rich and forceful in color , ^ and sym­
bolic in character; however, with etjual skill, she paints
figure-composition subjects and portraits, often using as
models her own two sons.
Georgina Klitgaard was born and educated in New York
City where she received her Bachelor of Arts degree from
Barnard College.
In 1933 she traveled in Europe on a Gug­
genheim fellowship.
Later she painted a mural, The Hamble-
tonian Horserace, in the postoffice of Goshen, New York.
Now she is working on a commission for a mural showing the
town, Hudson River, and river boats of 1840 for the
Poughkeepsie postoffice in New York State.
The Metropolitan,
Letter from Georgina Klitgaard, December 5, 1939.
46 Infra, Plate 25, p. 156.
Infra, Plate 26, p. 157.
Whitney, and Brooklyn Museums, the Chicago Art Institute,
and the Dayton Art Institute have her paintings in their
Mrs. Klitgaard is the wife of the writer, Kaj Klit­
She paints in and around Woodstock, where they have
lived for seventeen years.
Doris Lee.
Doris Lee*s Noon,4® seen in the San
Francisco show, was inspired by various Woodstock farm
scenes where the artist now lives. She turns to rustic
which recall her childhood days on a farm near
her birthplace, Aledo, Illinois.
Having been graduated from Rockford College, in 1927,
where she was a student instructor in fine arts, Doris
Emerick married Russell Werner Lee, a chemical engineer.
They went to Paris where she studied with Andre L fHote for
five months.
Returning to America, she studied with Ernest
Lawson in Kansas City and with Arnold Blanch in San Francisco.
In 1931 she and her husband went to live in Woodstock.
Mrs. Lee has been represented in all the leading ex­
hibitions in the United States.
It was her Thanksgiving,
winner of first prize and the Logan Gold Medal at the Chicago
48 Infra. Plate 30, p. 161.
Infra, Plates 27-31, pp. 158-621.
Art Institute, the Phillips Memorial Museum, and the Rhode
Island School of Design.
She has painted a mural for the
new post office in Washington, D. C.
Recently Life commis­
sioned her to paint Showboat in the pageant of America
Molly Luce. * Molly Luce, painter of people In land­
scape studied with Kenneth Hayes Miller at the Art Students
League, Hew York City.
Exhibitions of her work were seen at
the Whitney Studio Club in 1924, Artist’s Gallery in 1926,
Montross Gallery in 1927, New York Society of Women Painters
and Sculptors in 1930, Walker Galleries, 1936, and at Grace
Horne’s in Boston in 1935, 1936, and 1939, as well as at
Wheaton and Bowdoin Colleges.
She is represented In the
permanent collections of the Metropolitan and Whitney Museums*
of Art.
Miss Luce writes, nI garden, keep house, criticize my
husband’s manuscripts.
With five hours painting that makes
a day."51
Molly Luce and her author husband, Alan Burroughs,
live at Belmont, Massachusetts.
pain-fc pageant of America for ’Life’,” Art
Digest, 13:16, May 15, 1939.
51 Letter from Molly Luce, October 23, 1939.
Virginia Armitage McCall.
Says Virginia Armitage
My art education began with a month’s thorough train­
ing in impressionism by Hugh Breckenri&ge, then two
years at the Academy of Fine Arts in Philadelphia and
one at Chester Springs. That great Philadelphian Thomas
Eakins taught me the beauty of sincerity and intelli­
gence. After two summers of study and travel abroad, I
settled down to steady work, on my own, and have never
stopped. First a period of landscapes, then still lifes
for a few years followed by portraits and figure compo­
sitions .52
The paintings of Vincent Van Gogh have had a profound
influence upon her.
Mrs. McCall has had two one-man shows of oils and
water colors at the Mellon Galleries.
Her pictures are
owned by the Whitney Museum of American Art and the Pennsyl­
vania Academy of Fine Arts, Philadelphia.
She has exhibited
in every important show in the country since her first oneman show.
Agnes Pelton.
When Agnes Pelton came to America from
her birthplace, Stuttgart, Germany, she studied with the late
Arthur Dow, W. L. Lathrop, and H. E. Field.
Eight years ago,
after living for several years in New York City, Miss Pelton
came to live in Cathedral City, near Palm Springs, Califor­
She is a member of the Transcendental painting Group
in Santa Fe, of the Riverside Art Association, and of many
52 Letter from Virginia Armitage McCall, January 1,
other organizations#
Her work comprises desert landscape
subjects, and abstract and decorative paintings,
Agnes Pelton has exhibited for several years in gal­
leries all over the country.
One-man exhibitions have been
held at the following places:
Honolulu, 1924; Grace Nichol­
son Galleries, Pasadena, 1929; Jake Zeitlin Gallery, Los
Angeles, 1929; Montross Gallery, Argent Gallery, Delphic
Studios, all in New York City, in 1929, 1930, and 1932,
respectively; Desert Inn Gallery, Palm Springs, yearly since
nineteen hundred thirty-two; Fine Arts Gallery, San Diego,
nineteen hundred thirty-four; and the Art Association Gallery
in Laguna Beach, California, in 1936,
Louise Pershing,
Louise Pershing is a mural and
portrait painter living in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania,
studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts and at
Carnegie Technical Institute,
since 1930,
She has been exhibiting
Her first one-man exhibition was at the Gulf
Galleries, Pittsburgh, in 1935; the next one, at Argent Gal­
leries, New York City, in 1937; and a third at Craft Avenue
Galleries, Pittsburgh, during January and February, 1940.
Her oils are, for the most part, realistic documents of a
dreary aspect of American life.
In 1931, Miss Pershing won the Portrait Prize, and,
in 1932, the third prize of the Associated Artists Exhibition,
in Pittsburgh; in 1936, the Vera Hurd Memorial Prize from
the Wichita Art Museum, Wichita, Kansas; and, in 1936, the
Cooper Prize in the National Association of Women Painters
and Sculptors Annual, New York City*
After a full day of painting, Miss Pershing enjoys
the companionship of her husband and young son.
Mar Horie Phillips.
Marjorie Phillips* Locust Trees
in Spring, exhibited at the San Francisco Fair, is a quiet
scene, well designed throughout.
Joyous color combined with
a technically refined use of the medium achieve a picture
which is as professional a piece of painting as any in the
Mrs. Phillips was born in Bourbon, Indiana*
She is a
student of Kenneth Hayes Miller, Boardman Robinson, and Gif­
ford Beal.
In private life, Marjorie Phillips Is Mrs. Duncan
She and her husband live in Washington, D. C.,
where she is a member of the Society of Washington Artists.
The Phillips Memorial Gallery of Y/ashington, D. C.,
the Yale
University Gallery of Fine Arts, and the Whitney
Museum of American Art, New York City, each have one of Mrs.
Phillips* paintings in its private collection.
Constance Coleman Richardson.
**Painting occupies the
Letter from Louise Pershing, January 15, 1940.
best hours of my day, but I also keep house and believe that
a house must be well-kept,lt5^ writes Constance Richardson,
who lives in Detroit, Michigan, with her husband, E. P.
Mrs* Richardson*s work
does not show the influence
of.the Instructors at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts,
where she matriculated*
Likewise, one summer at Gloucester,
Massachusetts, with the late Hugh Breckenridge, has had
little permanent influence on her painting.
Although very young, Mrs* Richardson was represented
in the following shows:
Chicago Art Institute, 1936; the
third National Exhibition of American Art at the Rockefeller
Center in 1938; and both World*s Fairs, 1939.
four one-man exhibitions:
She has had
Artist*s Market, Detroit, In 1934,
and 1938; John Herron Art Institute, Indianapolis, 1938;
and, in the same year, at the Schaeffer Galleries in New
York City*
She won Honorable Mention at the Indiana Artists
Show at the John Herron Institute in 1931, in addition to
various local prizes.
Mrs. Richardson*s picture Street Light is owned by the
John Herron Art Institute, while Shatton Mountain, Equinox:
from Simpson* s . and Picnic at My Pond are privately owned in
Letter from Constance Coleman Richardson, December
4, 1939.
55 Infra, Plate 32, p. 163.
Detroit and Hew York*
Margot King Rocle.
Margot King Rocle and her artist
husband live at Chula Vista, California.
Born in Watkins,
Hew York, she was the pupil of Robert Henri, Bredin, and
Wiles at the Academy.
won local honors.
Since coming to California she has
Peasants Threshing, a decorative compo­
sition of people in a landscape, won first honorable mention
for oil painting in the Sixth Annual Exhibition of Southern
California Art at the Pine Arts Gallery in San Diego in 1931.
Her entry received second prize at the Santa Cruz: Annual
in 1933.
Mrs. Rocle is represented in the permanent collec­
tions of the Baltimore Museum of Art and the San Diego Fine
Arts Gallery.
Doris Rosenthal.
The paintings and drawings of Doris
Rosenthal reflect her knowledge of the social significance
of the school room.
Born in Riverside, California, Miss
Rosenthal graduated from the University of California at Los
Angeles, where she taught a short time.
Later, after study­
ing with John Sloan, she taught in the Hew York City Schools,
where her Pertaining to Art series is now in use.
In February, 1938, Doris Rosenthal held her most
56 Infra. Plate 33, p. 164.
important one-man show at the Midtown Galleries in New York
It was composed almost entirely of paintings of Mexi­
can children from her travels in Mexico for a year on a
Guggenheim fellowship.
Sacred Music is a children’s chorus
rehearsing with an organist.
At the Blackboard
and Two
58 depict the earnestness and poverty of children who
are to build a new Mexico,
She has had one-man exhibitions
at the Midtown yearly since 1936 and plans a show in Los
Angeles In 1940,
Miss Rosenthal received her first Guggen­
heim fellowship in 1932.
Doris Rosenthal spends most of her time painting and
teaching in New York City, where she and her husband live.
Helen Alton Sawyer.
An oil and water color painter
and lithographer, Helen Alton Sawyer has exhibited in oneman shows in New York City over a period of years and in
many invited shows in other parts of the country.
Her litho­
graph Amanda was included in Fine Prints of the Year, edited
by Campbell Dodson; she was elected Associate National Acade­
mician in the winter of 1937.®^
Miss Sawyer won first prize
for landscape in the Hudson Valley ArtAssociation exhibit
57 Infra, Plate 34, p. 165.
58 Infra, Plate 35, p. 166.
Letter from Helen Alton Sawyer, November 17, 1939.
in 1935, and first prize for portrait in 1936♦
She received
first honorable mention for landscape in the Art Institute
of Chicago Annual in that same year*
Helen Alton Sawyer was born in Washington, D. C., and
studied at the National Academy of Design with Johansen,
Sawyer, and Hawthorne.
She is the wife of the distinguished
artist, Jerry Farnsworth.
Katherine Schmidt.
A student of Kenneth Hayes Miller
andogrounded In the principles of structural design, Katherine
Schmidt’s work is that of a trained craftsman who uses paint
quality, surface texture, and harmonious color to build a
Mr. Broe Waits His Turn,^
the portrait of a popu­
lar model, fully reveals her craftsmanship.
This picture
was shown in the Whitney Museum1s 1937 annual.
An intelligent and prodigious painter, who has risen
in a few years to a high place among American painters, Misa
Schmidt was born in Venia, Ohio.
In 1916, she entered the
Art Students League in New York City.
In 1923 and again
in 1925 she presented her work In one-man exhibitions at the
Whitney Club.
Yearly, for three years, following 1927, she
exhibited at the Daniel Gallery, New York.
A period of work
preceded another show at the Downtown Gallery In 1934.
Plate 36, p. 167.
exhibition at the Downtown Gallery in 1939 takes on a new
significance, in that many of her canvases contain social
One of her pictures is in the permanent collection
of the Whitney Museum of American Art.
Katherine Schmidt is married to Irvine T. Shubert, a
They live in Hew York City.
Martha Simpson.
Martha Simpson, a pupil of H, G.
Keller, was born in Kansas City, Missouri.
Although Miss Simpson had entered her paintings in
exhibitions and won awards for her water colors in Cleveland
and San Francisco, she did not give a one-man show until 1935
at the Midtown Gallery, New York City.
Another one-man ex­
hibition followed in 1936.
Her Lusita is owned by the Ward Fund in Cleveland,
Ohio; Hills is owned by Mills College, Oakland, California.
She painted a mural for the Young Women’s Christian Associa­
tion on Sutter Street in San Francisco.
Anna Katherine Skeele.
Monrovia, California.
Anna Katherine Skeele lives in
She is a member of the Laguna Beach
Art Association and the San Diego Fine Arts Association.
Miss Skeele was born in Wellington, Ohio.
in Paris with Andre L ’Hote and Felice Carena.
She studied
In 1930, her
exhibit at the Dudensing Galleries, Hew York City, received
much favorable comment from the critics.
In the same year,
she won an award in the San Diego Pine Arts Gallery exhibi­
tion and at the Sacramento State Pair,
In 1931 the Los
Angeles Painters and Sculptors gave her an award; the Los
Angeles County Pair gave her honorable mention in 1932.
same honor was conferred on her at the Santa Cruz Annual
exhibit In 1933.
The Los Angeles Museum has one of Miss Skeelefs
paintings in its permanent collection.
Elizabeth Sparhawk-Jones.
As a young girl, Elizabeth
Sparhawk-Jones painted brilliantly In the manner of Chase
and Sargent.
In her later work she still depends upon the
lyricism of color rather than structural composition and
strength of values.
Burial of a Poet,61 mysterious and
imaginative, is dedicated to the late Edwin Arlington Robin­
son, noted American poet.
Miss Sparhawk-Jones lives in Philadelphia.
She re­
ceived her art training at the Pennsylvania Academy of Pine
Arts where she is a member of the Fellowship.
In 1912, she
was awarded the Mary Smith prize of the Academy.
When she
_ fell ill two years later, she did not paint for twelve years;
however, since 1926, when she was awarded the Kohnstamm prize
at the Chicago Art Institute, she has been working quietly
61 Infra. Plate 38, p. 169
and steadily.
In 1937 her exhibit at the Rehn Galleries in
New York was the result.
Her pictures Two and Shop Girls are owned by the
Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts and the Chicago Art Insti­
tute, respectively.
Peggy Strong.
Peggy Strong took private painting
lessons throughout high school in Tacoma, Washington.
was an art major at the University of Washington, having
been graduated in 1931.
She studied with Marc Toby in
Tacoma, Sarkis Sarkisian in Detroit, Michigan, from 1935
to 1937, and Frederic Taubes in 1939.
Peggy Strong*s first one-man show was at the Tacoma
Country Club in 1935.
Two years later she showed at the
College of Puget Sound Galleries under the auspices of the
Tacoma Art Association.
She is preparing another show at
the Seattle Art Museum in 1940.
the following awards and honors:
Miss Strong has received
first honorable mention in
oils, Twenty-third Northwest Annual, Seattle Art Museum,
in 1937; first prize In oils for Mountain Merry-Go-Round in
the Twenty-fourth Northwest Annual in 1938; first prize in
oils for Walter at the National Junior League Biennial,
Memphis, Tennessee, 1939; State of Washington representative
in the all-state show at the New York Museum of Modern Art,
in 1938; and an award from the United States Treasury Depart­
ment, Public Works Administration, of a twenty-six-hundred-
dollar mural for the Postoffice in Winatchee, Washington,
in 1939.
Miss Strong says, "Definitely, painting is my full
time occupation."
Florence Allston Swift.
Although better known as a
muralist than an easel painter, Florence Allston Swift*s
Still Life in the Treasure Island show is a fine piece of
It has the qualities of an abstractionist, with traces
of her study with Hans Hoffman and her great admiration for
Picasso clearly discernable.
One of her mosaics is on the Art Building at the
University of California in Berkeley.
with Helen Bruton in mosaic work.
She has collaborated
In private life she lives
with her husband, Henry Swift, and son in Berkeley.
Mrs. Swift has shown in Hew York and has won awards
in the Sacramento State Fair and San Francisco Art Associa­
tion exhibits.
Madge Tennent.
Born in London, Madge Tennent left
England with her parents for South Africa when she was five.
Later she spent a few years in a French convent.
studied at the Cape Town School of Art and with William Bougereau and Jean Paul Laurens at the Academie Julian, Paris.
Letter from Peggy Strong, January 30, 1940*
In Cape Town in 1912, Mrs. Tennent founded an art
school which continued until she married and went to New
There she was head of the Invercargill School of
Then she spent six years in British Samoa, and moved
on to Honolulu with her husband and two sons.
lived there for the past sixteen years.
They have
Because of the dif­
ficulty in securing paints where she had lived, Mrs. Tennent
had been able to paint very little and only made innumerable
In Honolulu, however, she was introduced to the
reproductions of Gaugin, Van Gogh, Daunier, Renoir, Cezanne,
and Seurat.
The French Impressionists also have had a last­
ing influence on her work.
She has had these one-man shows:
Ferargil Galleries, New York, 1930; Palace of Legion of Honor,
San Francisco, 1932; Wertheim Gallery, London, 1936 and 1937;
and Berheim-Jeune, Paris, in 1936.
Her paintings are in the
collections of the Cape Town Municipal Art Gallery, the
Pretoria Municipal Art Gallery, the Honolulu Academy of Arts,
a nd the Cleveland and.Salford Museums.
In 1936 Mrs. Tennent
painted two murals, Woman Preparing Luau and Lei Queen Fan­
The following year she painted Group of Lei Women on
the walls of the private residence belonging to a trustee of
the Honolulu Academy of Arts.
Letter from Madge Tennent, January 2, 1940.
Mrs* Tennent accepted invitations to exhibit at the
Three Arts Club, New York, and at the Chicago International
in 1951; and at the Oakland Museum, San Francisco, in 1952.
Margit Varga*
Hungarian-born Margit Varga, baffled
by the lack of interest of New York art dealers in the work
of young artists, launched the opening of the Painters and
Sculptors Gallery in 1951 when she was twenty-three years
Then, on reorganization in 1956, Life Magazine asked
her to edit its art pages.
She has been on Life staff ever
She reserves, however, three days* leave each week
to paint at her nearby Connecticut farm.
Since her first exhibition in 1934 at the Midtown
Galleries, twelve museums have shown Miss Varga*s work.
Road to Danbury is one of thirty pictures selected from the
San Francisco Fair*s contemporary painting exhibit to tour
Canada this winter*
She held a second one-man show at the
Midtown in 1938*
Margit Varga received high literary praise for the
biographical sketches she wrote for Boswell*s book, Modern
American Painting.
Besides writing, this gifted woman does
woodcarving as a side-line to her main interest--painting.
Dorothy Varian*
Dorothy Varian, Woodstock artist,
showed a group of fifteen oils at the Midtown Galleries dur­
ing December, 1937.
Her work had never shown to better
advantage; Aa?t critics lauded it as autob iographical because
they said wshe paints with such genuine taste and feeling
and ^enters so completely into whatever she paints•”
five-year lapse ensued between exhibitions.
Previously, she
had shown her work at Durand-Ruel Galleries, Paris, the
Whitney Studio Club, the Whitney Galleries, and the Downtown
Galleries; and, recently, at the Art Students League and in
The Whitney Museum of American Art owns her Fruit on
3tehle . Plants and Artichokes, and Still Life; Phillips
Memorial Gallery in Washington, D. C., owns Red Plums.
Other work is in the permanent collections of Dartmouth Col­
lege and Fiske University, Nashville, Tennessee.
Miss Varian1s latest work shows more interest in
figure composition
and offers variety in contrast to her
still lifes and landscapes.
Jean Watson.
A serious painter, Jean Watson*s rapid
rise to recognition has been well deserved.
She was a fel­
lowship student at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts.
Although she has been painting for several years, she did not
64 nAutobiographical Art at Downtown Gallery,” Art
Digest, 12:11, December 1, 1937.
66 infra, Plate 39, p. 170.
try to exhibit until January, 1 9 3 5 . ^
At this time the
Philadelphia Plastic Club showed her paintings.
They gave
her a Gold Medal in that year and a Silver Medal in 1938 in
group shows.
She won the Philadelphia Sketch Club Medal
in 1936 and two honorable mentions at the Germantown Art
League in 1938 and 1939.
Her work has passed the jury of
such national shows as Pennsylvania Academy Annuals, Corcoran
and Virginia Biennials, Cincinnati Annual, National Academy
of Design Annual, and the 1939 New York World Pair.
Having been victorious in a United States Government
forty-eight-state competition for a postoffice mural, Miss
Watson is now at work at Stroughton, Massachusetts.
lives at Germantown, Pennsylvania.
Nan Watson.
Nan Watson, wife of art critic Forbes
Watson, was born in Edinburgh, Scotland.
She studied with
Girardot and Prinet in Paris and with Chase in America.
Mrs. Watson spends the summer months painting at
their cottage in Harbor Springs, Michigan; she lives in New
York City during the winter.
Painter of flower studies and
portraits, she showed her work at the Kraushaar Galleries,
New York, through April, 1932.
Daphne« Hodgson, a portrait,
February, and Yellow Rose with Fruit, shown at that time, are
6*7 better from Jean Watson, October 14, 1939.
paintings depending more upon lyrical color than on form for
their success*
Harriet Whedon*
Born in Connecticut, Harriet Whedon
studied with Hay Boynton and Otis Oldfield at the California
School of Fine Arts in San Francisco from 1925 to 1930*
1932 she gave an exhibition of her work at the San Francisco
Art Center and, in two years, had done enough new work to
give another show.
Possessed of administrative ability1
, Mrs* Whedon
directed a San Francisco art gallery for five years and was
the Bay City representative for the Foundation of Western
Art, Los Angeles, for three years.
Continuing to paint, she
showed a group of her pictures at the San Francisco Museum
of Art in 1939.
The Art Association of that city gave her
an award in a competitive exhibit that same year.
Mrs* Whedon has only a casual interest in anything
except painting.
She likes to paint people in landscape;
however, about one-half of her canvases are of still life.
Bay Street Eating House is a picture well chosen as repre­
sentative of her work.
Florence Standish Whitney.
Although better known for
her murals than for her easel pictures, Florence Standish
Whitney, Philadelphia artist, is represented in the permanent
collections of the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts and the
Allentown Museum School of Pine Arts at the University of
She has had two traveling scholarships and a
fellowship from the Pennsylvania Academy where she was a
pupil of Earle Horter and Henry MacCarter.
A picture entered
in the Philadelphia Plastic Club exhibit in 1931 won her a
gold medal.
She showed her paintings annually in Philadelphia
from 1920 to 1925.
Miss Whiting has two murals in the Philadelphia public
schools and many in private homes.
She is a serious painter
who spends some time teaching.
Esther Williams.
Pupil of Philip L. Hale in Boston
and Andre L7Hote in Paris, Esther Williams does not paint as
she was taught.
She paints personal interpretations of the
life around her.
Although very young, she is represented in
the permanent collections of the Pennsylvania Academy of Pine
Arts, Worcester Art Museum, Boston Museum of Fine Arts, Met­
ropolitan Museum of Art, and the Whitney Museum of American
They include a lithograph and oils.
The Pennsylvania Academy awarded Miss Williams the
Lambert Purchase Prize, in 1935, for her picture Circus
Horses; the Worcester Art Museum gave her the Purchase Prise
in the same year for Between the Acts— Downie* s Circus.
next year, this institution presented a group of her pictures
in a one-man show.
Again, in 1938, she received the Norman
Walt Haines bronze medal and money award in a competition at
the Chicago Art Institute#
According to Esther
a continual and ever fresh
Williams, "The great masters
source of inspiration."6**
Spending the most important hours of every day paint­
Miss Williams has her residence in New York City.
Henrietta Wyeth#
Daughter of the artist, N. C*Wyeth,
and wife of an artist, Peter Hurd, Henrietta Wyeth was rep­
resented in the San Francisco show by The Rocking Horse .69
The picture received much favorable recognition, having been
reproduced in the Los Angeles Times’^
and in the Ladies Home
in the criticisms of Fair art.
Miss Wyeth has won many awards.
The Wilmington So­
ciety of Fine Arts gave her first prize in four successive
annuals following 1933.
The Chester County Art Association
awarded her first prize in' their annual in 1934.
She re­
ceived the Mary Smith prize from the Pennsylvania Academy of
Fine Arts annual in 1937.
Her picture The White Dahlia is
6** Letter from Esther Williams, January 4, 1940.
Infra. Plate 40, p. 171.
£°s Angeles Sunday Times. August 13, 1939.
71 ^The Journal1s Selection of Modern American Paint­
ings from the San Francisco Fair," Ladies Home Journal,
56:15, July, 1939.
owned by the Wilmington Society of Pine Arts.
Residing in Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania, Henrietta
Wyeth is a member of the Wilmington Society of Pine Arts and
the Chester County Art Association.
The lives of the painters have shown
certain idiocyncracies in common with those of the members
of any other professional group.
Approximately 70 per cent
of them were full-time painters.
Economic factors undoubted­
ly interfered in the case of the others.
At the time of
writing, Esther Galley was the only full-time teacher, while
Lucille Blanch was Resident-Artist at Converse College.
Some have done government murals, while several others have
been on the Easel Division of the Federal Art Project.
Margit Varga earned her living as art editor of Life, reserv­
ing three days a week to paint.
The private lives of the group appeared to be com­
parable to those of other professional groups, whether com­
posed of men or women.
Fifty-five per cent were married; 13
per cent had children; two were.widows; one was a divorcee;
and one had been divorced and remarried.
Thirty-seven per
cent of the husbands were artists; 1 0 per cent were writers;
and one was represented in each of these professions:
professor of Fine Arts, an architect, and a documentary
Two women who married artists were also
daughters of artists.
Some of the women were active in professional organi­
zations or civic enterprises.
One had helped instigate a
new movement to foster interest in abstract art; one was
director of an art gallery; another lectured on art and
citizenship and lobbied for welfare legislation; one has
worked with a peace group and has helped promote the city
manager form of government in her city; occasionally one
has written; another worked in her city*s art center; and
one has been a member of the board of directors at Woodstock.
Various others were active as members of professional
Twenty-seven per cent did no community ser­
vice, no club work, no teaching— nothing whatsoever which
would interfere with painting many hours every day.
Since no attempt had been made to analyze the unique
part the woman painter has had in the rise of American art
during the twentieth century, the purpose of this study was
to survey the influences In the development, the character­
istics in style, the tendencies in selection of subject
matter, and the contribution to American art of a selected
group of American women painters living In the twentieth
The biographies of this group comprised the chief
source of data*
The problem.
The sixty-four women who exhibited at
the Golden Gate International Exposition on Treasure Island
In San Francisco were selected for a survey.
This group was
considered representative of women in American art*
most valuable source of Information regarding these women
was obtained through personal correspondence with thirtyfive of them.
Each was sent a questionnaire, a copy of
which, together with tables summarizing the data, appears
in the Appendix .1
^ Infra, pp* 120, 128-29.
Previous Related Studies*
Books of narrative biogra­
phy were reviewed in order to obtain background for the
None was extant regarding the woman painter in the
twentieth century.
Cecilia Beaux* autobiography gave the
most vivid portrayal of woman in the art world during the
past generation.
Two books on woman*s place in the social
organism helped to clarify the problems which were encoun­
tered in this study, or, in fact, in any study of the
achievements of women.
Influences in the development of women painters.
Educational opportunities, professional recognition, and
patronage, both public and private, were the most important
factors influencing women painters.
A comparison of the educational opportunities, both
general and technical, of the past and present revealed
that, while there were no opportunities for higher education
of women in the past, at the present the opportunities for
higher general education and education in the professional
field of painting were open alike to men and women.
A discussion of the discrimination against women in
the matter of professional recognition revealed that there
might still be a trace of discrimination where appointments
to higher teaching positions in the field of art and the
giving of commissions and awards were concerned.
It was
observed that the aims and needs of professional organizations
had changed as women gained more recognition in their chosen
The significance of patronage in the development of
fine arts in general, and of the women painters in particu­
lar, was reviewed with an emphasis upon the impetus given
American art by government patronage•
Commissions for
government murals were given on a basis of work submitted
by the artists in competition.
Women were found to have had
a fair share of these commissions, which has led to the
conclusion that their work has been recognized in America on
the same basis as a man 1s.
Both public and private patron­
age were found to have greatly stimulated women painters
toward greater achievement.
Women1s Work in the professional field of painting.
Women professional painters 1 work was analyzed through the
media of style characteristics and choice of subject matter
in order to determine, first, the contribution made to
American art as to style; and, second, the relationship
between the choice of subject matter of the group and that
of other American artists•
Prom a discussion and comparison of the style of this
group of women painters and other artists, their contribu­
tion was found to be identical with that of the men, and the
chief characteristics in style in all American painting were
present in the work of these women.
A few were found to
have marked feminine or equally marked masculine characteris­
tics in their work; investigation indicated that this may be
true of the work of many artists, regardless of sex.
The tendencies of both men and women artists in the
selection of subject matter was investigated.
As a result,
a marked similarity was discerned between that of men and
women in similar environments.
Many of the women painted in
that school known as the American Scene.
subjects were chosen by a few.
Social protest
Others, rebelling at con­
forming to reality, allied themselves with the abstraction­
ists and surrealists.
Some of the subjects were more per­
sonal and emotional than others.
In all, their choice of
subject matter seemed to indicate a sensitiveness to con­
temporary spirit.
The biographies of the group, gathered
through the media of questionnaires and personal correspon­
dence of the writer, were collected.
The data appear in the
form of short biographies of fifty-four v/omen painters.
Concluding the chapter are certain inferences which might be
drawn from a perusal of their lives.
The investigation of the selected group of American
women painters led to certain conclusions regarding the
future of women in this professional field.
First, although discrimination against women is on
the wane, its continued presence serves to maintain the only
real difference in their work and the work of men, namely:
There were fewer full-time women painters than
men, with the result that women*s work differed in extent.
Second, continued government patronage should be
instrumental in the improvement of the quantity and quality
of women*s painting, as well as men’s.
Finally, there should be an ultimate removal of clas­
sification of painters into groups of women and groups of
As a group, the women painters in this study were
typical democratic citizens.
Many had overcome unfavorable
economic conditions; they had the usual family ties and
adhered to the exacting requirements of their profession as
closely as any other citizen, regardless of sex, sincerely
interested in the advancement of his chosen field.
Barnes, Earl, Woman in Modern Society.
Huebsch, 1912. ^57 pp.
Hew York:
B. W.
Beaux, Cecilia, Background with Figures. Boston and Hew
York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1930. 354 pp. 27 il­
lustrations and reproductions.
Boswell, Peyton, Jr., Modern American Painting. Hew York:
Dodd, Mead and Company, 1939. 200 pp. 8 8 color repro­
ductions •
Includes the biographies of Ann Brockman, Gladys Rockmore Davis, Lauren Ford, Georgina Klitgaard, Doris
Emerick Lee, and reproductions of their work.
Cahill, Holger, Hew Horizons in American Art.
The Museum of Modern Art, 1936. 171 pp.
Hew York:
_______ and Barr, Alfred H., Jr., Art in America in Modern
Times. Hew York: Reynal and Hitchcock, 1934•
Clement, Clara Erskihe (Waters), and Lawrence Hutton, Artists
of the 19th Century. Boston and Hew York: Houghton,
H T f H T n and Company, 1879, 1884, 1907. 373 pp.
Dunlap, W., The History of the Rise and Progress of the Arts
of Design in United States. Vol. I, 391 pp. Vol. II,
1CJ3 pp. VoT. Ill, 4l8 pp. Boston:: C. E. Goodspeed and
Company, 1918.
Ellet, Elizabeth Tries, Women Artists in All Ages.
Harper and Brothers, 1856. 369 pp.
Hew York:
Fielding, M., Dictionary of American Painters, Sculptors,
and Engravers. Philadelphia: Printed for the Sub­
scribers . 433 pp.
Flelshhacker, Herbert, Chairman, Contemporary A r t .
Francisco: H. S. Crocker Company, Inc., 1939.
82 pp.
Includes 62 reproductions of United States art. Pro­
duces work of following women artists: Cuthbert, Davis,
Rosenthal, Robins, Schmidt, Whiting, and Wyeth.
Gordon, Jan, Modern French Painters,
1936. 190 pp.
Lane, 1929,
Chapter XVI, The Woman Painter, pp. 161-74. Contains
analysis of place of woman in field of professional
Hall, W. S., Eyes on America. New York:
tions, Inc., 1939# 146 pp.
The Studio Publica­
Contains 222’reproductions, 17 of which are of women
artists 1 paintings 5: commentary by author,
Howes, Durward, American Women, Vol. Ill, 1083 pp. Los
Angeles: American Publications, Inc., 1939-40.
Mallett, Daniel Trowbridge, Mallett*s Index of Artists.
York: R. R. Bowker Company, 1935. 493 pp.
McGlauflin, Alice Coe, Ed., American Art Annual. Vol. XXXIV,
698 pp. Y/ashington, D. C.: The American Federation of
Arts, 1938.
_______ , Who’s Yvho in American Art. Vol. I, 1935-37, 565 pp.
Vol. II, 1938-39, 715 pp. Washington, D. C.:i The
American Federation of Arts. Revised and Reissued
National Art Association, American Art Today. New York
Y/orld’s Fair, New York: Blanchard Press, 1939. 342 pp.
Spencer, Anna Garlin, Woman’s Share in Social Culture.
London, Chicago, and Philadelphia: J. P. Lippincott
Company, 1912, 1925. 413 pp.
Thieme, TJ., and F. Becker, Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden
Kunstler von der Antike bis zur Gegenvart. 28 vol.;
Leipzig, 1907-34.
& Yfo-Q1s Y/ho In German Art.
Watson, Forbes, American Painting Today. Washington, D. C.r
American Federation of Arts, 1939. 248 pp.
> Mary Cassatt.
Art, 1932. 60 pp.
New York:
Contains 20 reproductions.
Whitney Museum of American
"Art of Mary Cassatt is Shown in Retrospect," Art Digest,
9:15, March 1, 1935. II.: Jeune Mere et Ses Deux
Boswell, Peyton, 11American Art as it is Today," The Studio
(American Edition), 13:4-6, January, 1937.
Buchalter, Helen, "Carnegie International, 1939,11 Magazine
of Art, 32*628-37, November, 1939.
"Director Treks 30,000 Miles to Get Best TJ. S* Art for
Golden Gate Fair," Life, 6:36, February 13, 1939.
"'•Feminine Foresight , 1 Women Artists Hold Annual ,11 Art
Digest, 13:45, June 1, 1939.
"Four Artists Bought Through Lambert Fund," Art Digest, 14:10,
March 1, 1940.
Three of the four artists were women, including Helen,
Alton Sawyer, a painter in this study.
Grafly, Dorothy, "In Retrospect— Mary Cassatt," American
Magazine of Art, 18:305-12, June, 1927. Illus.
"Mary Cassatt," The Index of 20th Century Artists, 2:1-8,
October, 1934.
MeCsusland, Elizabeth, "Living American Art," Parnassus,
11:16-25, May, 1939.
"New York Women Artists Hold Their Annual," Art Digest, 10:16,
January 1, 1936.
"pictorial Art in Handwork," Fortune, 15:103-10, June, 1937.
"San Francisco Presents One Man*s Opinion of Living American
Art," Art Digest, 13*27-32, March 15, 1939.
"Two American Shows," Magazine of Art, 30:742, December, 1937.
Watson, Forbes, "Philadelphia Pays Tribute to Mary Cassatt,"
The Arts, 11:289-97, Illus. and 1 pi.
"Whitney Annual," Magazine of Art, 31:230, April, 1938.
"Women Artists at Work,"A Workmanlike Group of Canvasses
by 29 Women Painters ,11 Art News, 37:14, January 21, 1939*
Mentions Doris Rosenthal, Doris Lee, Anne Goldthwaite,
Isabel Bishop, and Lucile Blanch* Contains illustration,
Winter in the Catskills, by Doris Lee*
Women Artists Mark Their 50th Anniversary," Art Digest, 13:5,
September 1, 1939.
Abercrombie, Gertrude
"Slaughter House Ruins at Aledo," Art Digest, 12:12.
£______ , Art News, 36:18, March 26, 1938.
"Still Life," Parnassus, 9:14, April, 1937.
"There on the Table," Magazine of Art, 19:194, March, 1936.
Berlandina, Jane
"Exhibition, Brummer Galleries," Art News, March 15, 1930.
_______ , Arts Weekly, 1*49, March 26, 1932.
_______ , The Arts, 16*508, March, 1930.
"Exhibition, Passdeoit Galleries," Art News, 30:11,
January, 1934.
_______ , Parnassus, 6:13, January, 1934.
"San Francisco: Mexicans by Berlandina," Art News,
38:14, December 23, 1939.
Bernstein, Theresa
“Exhibition, Grand Central Art Galleries,” Art Digest,
4:16, May 1, 1930.
_______ , Art Newsy ~"28t!2, April 26, 1930.
_______ , International Studio, 96:74, June, 1930.
Nelson, W. H. de B., “Theresa Bernstein,” International
Studio, 6 6 ssup 97-102, February, 1919. 7 repro­
“Prof. Michaelis,” Art Digest, 10:16, January 1, 1936.
Bishop, Isabel
“Exhibition, Midtown Galleries,t,! Art Digest, 10:16,
March 1, 1936.
, Art News, 37::11, January 21, 1939.
, Magazine of Art, 32:53, January, 1939.
Seated Nude.
“Museumized:: Noon Hour by Isabel Bishop Bought by
Springfield,^ Art Digest, May 1, 1939. II.: Noon
“New York Types at Midtown Galleries, New York,” Art
Digest, 10:19, February 15, 1936.
“Philadelphia Buys an Oil by Isabel Bishop,” Art News,
36:18, February 26, 1938. II.: Young Woman.
Sayre, A. H., “Substantial Technique in Isabel Bishop’s
Work; Exhibition, Midtown Galleries ,11 Art News, 34:8,
February 22, 1936.
“Combing Her Hair,” Art Digest, 7:13, October 1, 1932.
"Combing Her Hair,” Art Digest, 7:5, January 15, 1933#
"Office Girls," Magazine of Art, 32:631, November, 1939,
"Seated Nude,” Art Digest, 13:44, June, 1939,
"School Girls," Art Digest, 13:20, April 1, 1939.
"Sleeping Girl," Parnassus, 5:28, April, 1933.
"Two Girls," American Magazine of Art, 29:245, April,
_______ , Parnassus, 8:23, March, 1936.
"Two Girls With a Book," Parnassus, 1:39, February, 1939.
"Waiting," Magazine of Art, 32:157, March, 1939.
"Womanfs Head," Creative Art, 12:284, April, 1933.
, The Arts, 17:428, March, 1931.
"Young Woman," Art Digest,12:5, March 1, 1938.
_______ , Magazine of Art, 31:246, April, 1938.
_______ , Parnassus, 10:29, March, 1938.
Blanch, Lucile
"Deserts the Circus for the Florida Jungles," Art Digest,
12:14, October 15, 1937. II.: Deserted Quarry.
"Lucile Blanch," The Index of 20th Century Artists, 3:311
and supp., JuTy7 M T -------------- --------"More Purchases for Nebraska; Rondout by Lucile Blanch,"
Magazine of Art, 32:310, May7 1939.
"Mountain Landscapes by Lucile Blanch acquired by Minne­
apolis," Minneapolis Institute Bulletin, 28:66-67,
April 1, 1939.
"New Experiments in Figure Painting," Art News, 36:15,
October 30, 1937.
Afternoon in Spain,” Art Digest, 12:14, May 15, 1938.
”August Landscape,” Art Digest, 7:4, January 15, 1933.
_______ , Parnassus, 5:12, February, 1933.
“City,” American Magazine of Art, 29*739, November, 1936.
“Farmyard ,11 Creative Art, 11:148, October, 1932.
”Florida Wildflowers,” Art News, 36*16, January 1, 1938.
”Fruit and Flowers,” Creative Art, 6*sup92, April, 1930.
”Mine in Clinch Mountains,” Art Digest, 14:13, October 1,
”Wilson Farm,” American Magazine of Art, 29:30, January,
Botke, Jessie Arms
Articles *
Daniels, M., ”New Mural Room, St. Francis Hotel, San
Francisco,” California Arts arid Architecture,
48:14-16, December, 19351
“Exhibition, Grand Central Galleries,” Art News, 32:8,
March 10, 1934. II.: White Peacocks, p. 2.
”Demoiselle Crane,” Art News, 32:2, August 18, 1934.
“Flamingo Screen,” Art Digest, 6 *8 , November 1, 1931.
Brockman, Ann
”Ann Brockman Delves into Genesis,” Art Digest, 14*16,
February 1, 1940.
w!Atnn Brockman Turns Toward Romantic,n Art Digest, 12:15,
March 15, 1938. II.: Pigeon Hill Picnic.
“Eclectic Landscape Scenes at the Kleeman Galleries,”
Art Hews, 36*15, March 15, 1938.
“Exhibition Kleeman Galleries ,11 Art News, 34*8 ,
January 25, 1936.
“One-man Exhibition, Kleeman Galleries, Magazine of
Art, 31*714, December, 1938. II.: Squall (wcTT
“Painting for Social Room PWA. Housing Project at Stam­
ford, Connecticut,” Pencil Points, 17:625, November,
“Nude,” Life, 5*35, September 19, 1938.
“Northeaster,” Parnassus, 5:4, December, 1933.
“Pigeon Hill Picnic,” Magazine of Art, 31:167, March, 1938.
Cuthbert, Virginia I.
O ’Connor, J., Jr., “Presenting Virginia Cuthbert, Thirty
of Her Paintings at Carnegie Institute,” Carnegie
Magazine, 12:75-77, June, 1938. II.: Self-Portrait,
’38, February Animal Sale, Memorial Day at Boiling
Springs, Portrait.
“Phillip Elliot,” Carnegie Magazine, 10:277, February,
“Portrait Study,” Carnegie Magazine, 7*261, February, 1934.
“Schellhammer Family Reunion,” Ladies Home Journal, 56*14,
July, 1939.
“S e l f - P o r t r a i t , Carnegie Magazine, 8*279, February, 19355.
“Slum Clearance on Ruch’s Hill,”'Magazine of Art, 32*636,
November, 1939.
“Ziggie’s Barber Shop,”
February, 1938*
Carnegie Magazine, 11*257,
Davis, Gladys Kockmore
”Lute,” Art Hews, 36*10, November 27, 1937,
MMorning Papers ,11 Art Digest, 13*5, April 1, 1939.
• _____ , Magazine of Art, 32:€297, May, 1939.
”pink Skirt,” Life, 6*36, February 13, 1937.
, Magazine of Art, 31*646, November, 1938.
“Reclining Figure,” Art Digest, 13*5, November 15, 1938.
de Laittre, Eleanor,
f,Split Rock Lighthouse,” Parnassus, 6*26, December, 1934.
Dickson, Helen
Reproductions t
“The Waterfall,” Art Digest, 13*14, May 1, 1939.
Dresser, Aileen King
”Too Many Committees, Hearn’s Store Exhibition,” American
Magazine of Art, 28*245-47, April, 1935. 11.7 The
Forbes, Helen Katherine
Reproductions *
“Antelope Group,” Homes of the West, 5*36-39, February,
"Jimson Flower ,11 Art Digest, 5*15, December 15, 1930.
Ford, Lauren
"Anecdotal Scenes by Ford," Art Hews, 26:13, May 14, 1938.
II.* Paradis Terrestre.
"Benton and Ford now in Metropolitan," Art Digest, 8:10,
December 15, 1934.
"Exhibition, Ferargil Galleries,"* Art Digest, 4*18,
April 15, 1930.
_______ , Art Digest, 6$18, May 1, 1932.
___, Art News, 28:12, April 5, 1930.
_______ , International Studio, 96$98, May, 1930.
"Lauren Ford Paints her own Connecticut,1" Life, 5*26,
July 4, 1938. II.* Ho Room in the Inn, Sketch. Color*
O ’Connor, J., Jr., "Presenting Lauren Ford," Carnegie
Magazine, 12:297-98, March, 1939.
"The Boyhood of Jesus," Life, 5*28-29, December 26, 1938.
II.: 8 color, 2 others.
"The Fantasy and Realism of Lauren Ford," Art Digest,
12*10, May 15, 1938. II.* Little Boy Blue.
Watson, Forbes," Exhibition, Ferargil Galleries," Arts,
16:579, April, 1930*
"Choir Practise," Parnassus, 7*33, May, 1935.
"Country Doctor," Art Digest, 12:7, March 15, 1938.
_______ , Art News, October 29, 19381
_______ , Life, 3*28, December 20, 1937.
"Dinner’s Ready," Art Digest, 9*32, November 15, 1934.
e p i p h a n y ,11 Llturg Arts, 7:17, February, 1939.
f,jSt• John,” Atelier, l(Studio 101):376, May, 1931.
^Vision of the Innocents ,11 Art Digest, 8:32, June, 1934.
, Arts and Decoration, 42:34, December, 1934.
Goldthwaite, Anne
A. C., ”Works by Anne Goldthwaite,” Art News, 14:6,
October 23, 1915.
Goldthwaite,” The Index of Twentieth Century Artists;,
2:15-16, and supp., October, 1934.
”Comment on the Arts,” Arts, 2:52, October, 1921.
Defries, A. D., ”Anne Goldthwaite as a Portrait Painter,”
International Studio, 59:3-8, July, 1916.
Exhibition, Baltimore Museum of Art,” Baltimore Museum
News Record, 3:6, January, 1931.
Exhibition, Brummer Galleries,”'Art News, 29:12,
February, 1931.
Exhibition, Downtown Galleries,” Arts, 15:431, January,
1929. II.: portrait, p. 40.
”New York Season ,”1 Art Digest, 5:17, March 1, 1931.
Schnakenberg, Henry E., ”Anne Goldthwaite,” Arts, 17:427,
March, 1931.
”Walter Shirlaw Memorial Exhibition at Brooklyn Museum,”
Art News, 28:12-13, December 28, 1929.
”Whitney Shows Self-Portraits,” Art News, 32:5, January
20, 1934.
”An American Boy,” International Studio, 59:7, July, 1916.
”Cardinal Gibbons,” International Studio, 59*6, July,
”Girl on Sofa,” Catalog, Exhibition, Anne Goldthwaite's
Recent Works, Downtown Galleries, New York, January
2 -2 1 , 1929, cover.
”Her Daughter,” Art News, 37*9, October 29, 1938.
”0n Tenth Street ,11 Brooklyn Museum Quarterly, 19*18,
January, 1932.
”Portrait,” Arts, 15*40, January, 1929.
_______ , Arts and Decoration, 5*36, November, 1915.
"Seated Figure,” Creative Art, 9:;390, November, 1931.
”Self-Portrait,” Art News, 28*12, December 28, 1929.
_______ , Art News, 32:3, January 20, 1934.
_______ , Milwaukee Institute Bulletin, 5:3, May, 1932.
Parnassus, 6:9, February, 1934.
”Selma,”! Parnassus, 5:5, May, 1933.
”Sofa,” Art Digest, 13*10, May 15, 1939.
”Sugar Cane,” Arts and Decoration, 41:50, September, 1934.
Grotenrath, Ruth
”Paintings by Ruth Grotenrath,” Milwaukee Institute
Bulletin, 12 *3, January, 1938. II.:; Still Life.
Hailman, Johanna K.
”September,” Carnegie Magazine, 6:40, May, 1932.
Hull, Marie Atkinson
Reproductions :
"Texas Wildflowers,“ American Magazine of Art, 20:344,
June, 1929•
Kelly, Grace Veronica:
Milliken, W. M . , “Gift from Cleveland Art Association;
1After the Flurry 1 by Grace Veronica Kelly,“ Cleve­
land Museum Bulletin, 22:120, June, 1935.
Klitgaard, Georgina
Abbott, Yarnall, “The Carnegie International Exhibition,“
Art and Architecture, 28*217, December, 1929.
“First Show of Reborn fAmerican Society 1 Hailed by Critics
Art Digest, 6:3-4, February 15, 1932.
“Georgina Klitgaard,“ American Magazine of Art, 28:246,
April, 1935.
_______ , Art News, 30:9, March 19, 1932.
, Arts Weekly, 1*49, March 26, 1932.
, Rehn Galleries, Magazine of Art, 32:181, March,
______ , The Index of Twentieth Century Artists, 3:315-16
and supp., July, 1936.
“Klitgaard amd Detail,“ Art Digest, 6:2, April 15, 1932.
“Pennsylvania Academy*s 128th Annual Makes Strong Showing,
Art Digest, 7:3, February 15, 1933.
“San Francisco*s Annual Presents Nation-wide Cross Section
of Art,“ Art Digest, 5::6, May 15, 1931.
“San Francisco*s 54th Annual Shows Modernism in the
Ascendency,“ Art Digest, 6:4, May 15, 1932.
"Symbolism Marks Klitgaard Landscapes at Rehn Galleries,”
Art Digest, 9:19, March 15, 1935* II*: Farm and
Horse chestnut.
"Buttermilk Bay,” Town and Country, 87:38, September 1,
"Farm and Horse chestnut, ” American Magazine of Arti
28:246, April, 1935.
"In the Winter Sun,” Art Digest, 13:20, June 1, 1939.
"Landscape with Fog,"‘American Magazine of Art, 20:685,
December, 1929.
_______ , Art and Architecture, 28:215, December, 1929.
_______ , Art Digest, 6*3, February 15, 1932.
"Luther*s Farm,” Americans by Edward Alden Jewell, Alfred
A. Knopf, Hew York, 1930, #46, London Studio, 4:254,
November, 1932.
"May,” Parnassus, 5:3, January 1933.
"Spring Morning,” Arts 'Weekly, 1:56, March 26, 1932.
"View of Kingston,” Life, 5:25, August 22, 1938.
^Walker’s, Johnny Place,” Arts, 16*120, October, 1929.
"Winter in Bearsville,” American Magazine of Art, 25:64,
January, 1932.
"Winter Wheat,” American Magazine of Art, 26:11, January,
, Art Digest, .7:3, February 15, 1933.
"Yankeetown Mill,” Art Digest, 6:4, May 15, 1932.
Lee, Doris Emriek
Benson, E. M., "Exhibition, Walker Galleries,” American
Magazine of Art, 29:333-34, May, 1936.
"Doris Lee: An American Painter with a Humorous Sense of
Violence," Life, 3:44-47, September 20, 1937. II.:
"Doris Lee*s Americana Show in Hew York Walker Galleries,**
Art Digest, 10::20, March 15, 1936. II.: Noon.
Sayre, A. H., "Esdiibition, Walker Galleries ,11 Art News,
34:12, April 4, 1936.
"To Paint Pageant of America for *Life*,w Art Digest,
13:16, May 15, 1939.
"Unusual Popular Choices at Cincinnati Show; Landscape
with Fisherman,** II., Art Digest, 9:27, July 15, 1935.
"Landscape with Fisherman," Parnassus, 8*30, April, 1936.
"Maytime,** London Studio, 13(Studio 113):20, January, 1937.
"Noon," Art Digest, 36:12, January 29, 1938.
"Pastoral," Life, 5:25, August 22, 1938.
"Rural Landscape," American Magazine of Art, 29:119,
February, 1936•
"Showboat," Life, 6*25, November 27, 1939.
"Strawberry Pickers," Art News, 36*18, May 21, 1938.
"Washington Square," American Magazine of Art, 27:15,
January, 1934.
_______ , Art Digest, 13:45, June 1, 1939.
"Winter in the Catskills," American Magazine of Art,
27:547, October, 1934.
_______ , Art News, 37:15, January 21, 1939.
_______ , London Studio 16(Studio 116):124, August, 1938.
"Woman Sewing," American Magazine of Art, 28:676,
November, 1936.
Luce, Molly
"Exhibition, Walker Galleries," Art Digest, 10:16,
Marcli 15, 1936#
Sayre, A. H., "Exhibition, Walker Galleries," Art News,
34:9, Marcli 7, 1936. II.:; Route U. S. 7.
"Lobster Boats," London Studio 14(Studio 114):162,
September, 1937.
"South East Storm," London Studio 13(Studio 113);166,
Marcli, 1937.
McCall, Virginia Armitage
"Self-Portrait,11 Art Digest, 10:52, June 1, 1936,
_______ , Art Digest, 11:28, July 1, 1937.
- *
"Waldron Academy, Overbrook," Art Digest, 6:3, February
1, 1932.
_______ , American Magazine of Art, 24:199, March, 1932.
Pelton, Agnes
"Exhibition, Argent Galleries,tl? Art News, 29:10,
February 21, 1931.
"Surrealistic," Art Digest, 5:8, March 1, 1931.
Lotus for Leda.
Thieme, U., and F. Becker, Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Kunstler yon der Antike bis zur Gegenwart.
Leipzig, 1907-1934. 28 vol.
"Ecstasy," Creative Art, 10:401, May, 1932.
Pershing, Louise
Women,n Art Digest, 11*16, January 1, 1937.
II.: Extra Ground.
Peterson, Margaret
ttArtist!s Drawings Expose that Villain on the Flying
Trapeze ,11 II., Art Digest, 9:9, October 1, 1934.
Phillips, Marjorie,
^Exhibition, Kraushaar Gallery,” Art Hews, 28:^20,
March 22, 1930.
,fBowl of Fruit,” w0pen Road,” Art and Understanding,
1:261, March, 1930.
nChildren on the Beach,” Art and Archaeology, 31:12,
January, 1931.
”Red Kite,” Arts, 16:634, May, 1930.
Richardson, Constance Coleman
Landscapes,” Art News, 56::14, April 2, 1938.
of Cambridge, Hew York.
Rocle, Margaret King
^Peasants Threshing,” California Arts and Architecture,
40:6, July, 1931. ~
Rosenthal, Doris
Bird, p., “Studies of Little Mexicans; Exhibition, Mid­
town Galleries ,11 Art News, 35*23, February 13, 1937#
“Doris Rosenthal1s Americanism is Praised,” Art Digest,
5:12, January 15, 1931. II.* Provincetown interior.
”D. R. Returns from Mexico; Exhibition, Midtown Galleries
Art Digest, 12*17, February 15, 1938. II. r At the
ttExhibItion, Friends of Art House in Baltimore,” Art
Digest, 8*29, January 1, 1934.
“Shows Fruits of a Scholarship in Mexico,” II., Art
Digest, 8:29, January 1, 1934.
“That Structural Element— The Drawing,” Art Digest, 13:16
August 1, 1939. II .t Marla Margarita.
”Between Two Screens,” Art News, 36:12, January 29, 1938.
”Garret Studio,” Arts, 16*344, January, 1930.
“Girl wigh Estrellas,” Parnassus, 9:18, June, 1936.
“Interior, Mexico,” Art Digest, 10*16, June, 1936.
”Lively Tune,” Arts, 15:125, February, 1929.
”Maria Margarita,” Art Digest, 13:16, August 1, 1939.
“School Children,” Art News, 38*13, October 28, 1939.
“Summer Breezes,” American Magazine of Art, 26:753,
November, 1936.
”Two Boys,” Art Digest, 12:6, March 15, 1938.
Sawyer, Helen Alton
“Exhibition, Ferargil Galleries,” Art News, 29*12,
March 14, 1931.
“Exhibition, Ferargil Galleries,“ International Studio,
19:86, May, 1951.
“Exhibition, Grand Central Galleries/* Art Hews, 30:9,
April 23, 1932.
“Who is Henka, who Performs an Art Flip-Flop,** Art News,
6 :8 , April 15, 1932.
II.* Tea Party.
Schmidt, Katherine
Burroughs, E., “Pen Portraits: Katherine Schmidt,“
Creative Art, 9:72-73, July, 1931. II.* Dawn, SelfPortrait.
“Classic Art in Modern Garb; Exhibition of Drawings,
Downtown Galleries,** Art Digest, 10:7, April 15, 1936.
“Exhibition, Daniel Gallery,** Art News, 29:10, February
21, 1931.
, Arts, 15*250, April, 1929.
and Sugar Doll, p. 259.
White Pitcher
“Exhibition, Downtown Galleries ,11 Art News, 32:14,
April 7, 1934.
“Katherine Schmidt and the New Realism,** II., Art Digest,
8*12, April 15, 1934.
“Katherine Schmidt Reveals New Interest,** Art Digest,
13:51, March 15, 1939.
“Nott New Innocents Misled,** American Magazine of Art,
29::43-44, January, 1936.
“Rental Issue,** Art Digest, 10:11, October 15, 1935.
“Rental Policy,’* Art Digest, 10*26, March 1, 1936.
Sayre, A. H., “Exhibition of Drawings, Downtown Galleries,**
Art News, 34;:10, April 11, 1936.
Schnakenberg, H. E*, “Exhibition, Daniel Gallery,** Arts,
17:425, March, 1931. II.: Railroad Bridge.
"Alraedais Daughter," Art Digest, 13:20, June 1, 1939.
"Americana," Cleveland Museum Bulletin, 17:120, June, 1930.
"Fruit," Cleveland Muse-urn Bulletin, 16:114, June, 1929.
"Interior," Cleveland Museum Bulletin, 18:115, June, 1931.
. Creative Art, 6 :sup. 121, May, 1930.
"Mr. Broe Waits His Turn," Magazine of Art, 30:741,
December, 1937.
"Railroad Bridge," The Arts, 17:425, March, 1931.
"Self-Portrait," "Dawn," Creative Art, 4:sup. 52, April,
"Waterfront Scene," Life, 7:39, July 3, 1939.
Simpson, Martha
Breuning, M., "Midtown Galleries," American Magazine of
Art, 29:746, November, 1936.
"Exhibition, Midtown Gallery," Art Digest, 10*18,
November, 1935.
"Good Joke," Brooklyn Museum Quarterly, 23*68, April, 1936.
Skeele, Anna Katherine
"Exhibition, Dudensing Gallery," Art News,.29*13,
November 15, 1930.
Sparhawk-Jones, Elizabeth
"Imaginative Paintings of Sparhawk-Jones; Exhibition,
Rehn Gallery," Art Digest, 11:17, April 15, 1937.
II.* Burial of a Poet.
Swift, Florence Allston
"Bringing Mural Art-into the Home; fresco for a bathroo room designed and painted by Mrs. H. Swift for her
house in Berkeley," by D. S. Ross. II. t Callfornlai
Arts and Architecture, 50:21, September, 1936.
California, Mosaics by H. Bruton and F. Swift," Art
Digest, 11:9, November 15, 1936.
"Panel of Mosaic Decoration, Berkeley Art Gallery,w
Magazine of Art, 30:622, October, 1937.
Tennent, Madge
Articles :
"Exhibition, Ferargil Gallery,11 Art News, 29:12,
November 29, 1930.
1-Exhibition, Ferargil1s," Art Digest, 5;20, December 1,
1930. II*» Young Girl, New Guinea Type.
Varga, Margit
''Hungarian Artist to Open Gallery," Art News, 30:24,
October 10, 1931.
"Urban Art, Exhibition, A. C. A. Gallery," Art Digest,
9:14, November 1, 1934.
"Varga Presents Critic H. V. D.," II., Art Digest, 9:9,
September 1, 1935.
"Road to Danbury,"’Art Digest, 13:32, March 15, 1939.
Varlan, .Dorothy
"Autobiographical Art at Downtown Gallery," Art Digest,
12tll, December 1, 1937. II.: Sandra in a Pink
"Dorothy Varian, Joy in Color; Exhibition, Downtown
Gallery,11 Art Hews, 36:0.2, December 4, 1937V*
Exhibition, Downtown Gallery,” Art News, 31:50,
October 29, 1932.
_______ , Creative Art, 11:;314, December, 1932.
_______ , Parnassus, 4:10, November, 1932.
Exhibition, Whitney Studio Gallery,” Arts, 15:175-76,
March, 1929. II. s Plants and Artichokes.
E a r m in Winter,” Creative Art, 12:62, January, 1933.
"Flowers on Red Table Cloth,” Art News, 28:27, February
1, 1930.
_______ , Arts, 16:418, February, 1930.
"Summer Pasture," American Magazine of Art, 27:173,
Watson, Jean
"La Cathedrale," Beaux Arts, p. 4, May 18, 1934.
"La Plage," Beaux Arts, p.; 2, November 2, 1934.
"Maisons-Laffitte," Beaux Arts, p.,7, May 13, 1938.
"Paysage," Beaux Arts, p. 12, June 3, 1938.
Watson, Nan
"Bibelot," Magazine of Art, 31*36., January, 1938#
"February,11 Arts Weekly, 1*175, April 30, 1932.
"Flowers," Parnassus, 2:24, March, 1930.
"Overmantle, Flowers and Fruit," Arts, 16:573, April,
"Portrait of Miss Henrietta Herz," American Magazine of
Art, 28:208, April, 1935.
"Tulips and Anemones," Arts, 15:254, April, 1938.
"Yellow Rose with Fruit," Arts Weekly, 1:170, April 30,
Williams, Esther
"Worcester Exhibition," Art Hews, 34:15, April 11, 1936.
"Between the Acts, DownieTs Circus," Worcester Museum
Annual, 1:64, 35-36.
Wyeth, Henrietta
"Exhibition, Reinhardt Gallery, Art Digest, 12:29,
April 1, 1938.
_______ , Art News, 36:13, April 9, 1938.
"Henrietta Tifyeth Paints Noted Poet," Art Digest, 14:17,
JJanuary 1, 1940. II.: Portrait of Witter Bynner.
"The Clan Wyeth Presents its Famed Patriarch," Art
Digest, 14:8, December 15, 1939.
"Portrait of N. C. Wyeth," Magazine of Art, 32*635,
November, 1939.
ttThe Rocking Horse,” Art Digest, 13r34, March 15, 1939.
_________ Ladies Home Journal, 56*15, July, 1939.
Pletsch, Eva M., A. Study of Certain Characteristics of the
Women in Who1a Who in America (edition of 1930-31T.
Philadelphiaj Teacher*s Coliege, Temple University.
Lists 1,857 women, of whom 38 are painters.
Fiftieth Anniversary Exhibit of National Association of
Women Painters and Sculptors, Catalog, 1939.
McKinney, Roland J., director of Los Angeles Museum of
History, Science, and Art, August 10, 1939.
Abercrombie, Gertrude, October 31, 1939.
Alvarez, Mabel, November 9, 1939.
Bacharach, Elise W., February 11, 1940.
Bishop, Isabel, November 17, 1939.
Blakeslee, Sarah Jane, October 27, 1939.
Blanch, Lucile, December 3, 1939.
Botke, Jessie Arms, November 14, 1939.
Bottigheimer, Erna, February 5, 1940.
Buros Luelle, February 2, 1940.
Burroughs, Clyde H., March 1, 1940.
Copeland, Lila, January 13, 1940.
Curtis, Marian, January 14, 1940.
Davis, Gladys Rockmore, January 6, 1940.
de Laittre, Eleanor, December 28, 1939.
Edgell, George Harold, March 12, 1940.
Fleishhacker, Herbert, November 29, 1939.
Forbes, Helen, October 14, 1939.
Francis, Henry Sayles, March 15, 1940.
Galley, Esther, December 26, 1939.
Gardner, Paul, February 27, 1940.
Goldthwaite, Anne, November 15, 1939.
Goodwin, Jean, December 28, 1939.
Houston, Nora, January 30, 1940.
Jewell, Edward Alden, March 9, 1940.
Kelly, Charles Fabens, March 4, 1940.
Klitgaard, Georgina, December 5, 1939.
Luce, Molly, October 23, 1939.
McCall, Virginia Armitage, January 1, 1940.
McKinney, Roland J., December 5, 1939.
Morley, Grace L. McCann, December 5, 1939.
Organ, Violet, JlJanuary 31, 1940.
Pelton, Agnes, December 31, 1939.
Pershing, Louise, January 15, 1940.
Poland, Reginald, March 8* 1940.
Richardson, Constance, December 4, 1939.
Rosenthal, Doris, December 28, 1939.
Sawyer, Helen Alton, November 17, 1939.
Strong, Peggy, January 30, 1940.
Swift, Florence Allston, December 28, 1939.
Tennent, Madge, January 2, 1940.
Todd, Bianca, January 3, 1940.
Varga, Margit, November 28, 1939.
Varian, Dorothy, October 14, 1939.
Watson, Jean, October 14, 1939.
Wehle, Henry B., February 27, 1940.
Whedon, Harriet, January 4, 1940.
Whiting, Florence S., December 4, 1939.
Williams, Esther, January 4, 1940.
Writer’s Project, Works Project Administrati
ruary 27, 1940.
My dear Miss _______ s
I am working on a Master1s Degree in the College of
Fine Arts at the University of Southern California and have
chosen for my thesis topic Women Painters in America in the
Twentieth Century. It has seemed advisable to limit the
topic to the consideration of the sixty women who are repre­
sented in the Exhibition of Contemporary American Art at the
Golden Gate Exposition.
Since you arec one of the women who exhibited, I am
in need of certain information which you will be able to
give me. Will you please use the enclosed list of questions
for your answer and return it at an early date?
I shall be grateful for your interest in my problem
and shall appreciate any suggestions you may be able to
give me.
Sincerely yours,
My dear Miss_______ :
On November 10, I wrote you a letter asking for
certain information for my thesis Women Painters in America
in the Twentieth Century, which considers the sixty women
who exhibited in the Golden Gate Exposition show. Your
, was a worthy contribution to this
fine exhibition•
There is very little biographical or other material
in published form about you. Consequently, I am particu­
larly anxious to get the material suggested by the list of
questions I sent.
I realize that this is a busy season and shall more
than ever appreciate an early reply. In case the previous
letter is not at hand, please let me know and I shall send
Sincerely yours,
Mien and where have you had one-man shows?
Awards and honors:
4. Please name paintings and the permanent public collec­
tions in which you are represented.
In what private collections?
Please name paintings.
6 . Please explain your tendencies in selection of subject
7. Which great masters of painting do you find most stimu­
8 . Have you ever been discriminated against in getting a
commission or award or in exhibitions because you were a
9. Do you consider women1s contribution to American art in
any way different from a manfs? If so, in what way?
Where were you born?
Your education?
II. Name the teachers which have had the most influence on
your painting.
12. What is your opinion of the part played by the United
States Government in American art? of the future for women
In easel painting?
13. To what extent do you do community service, lecturing,
teaching, or writing?
What interests other than painting have you?
Is painting your chief occupation or a secondary one?
16. Indicate to what extent you do lithograph, blockprinting,
sculpture, water color, or craft.
Have you comments, additions, or remarks?
Dear Miss Penny,
I am so sorry to have delayed answering your letter,
and hope that any Information I am able to give you will be
of use in your thesis •
1. I have not yet had a one-man show. As I am only
twenty-seven years old (infancy for a painter) I have not
yet felt ready for one.
2. In 1937 I was awarded the wNorman Wait Harris
Bronze Medal” and prize for $300, at the Art Institute of
Chicago, for my painting Railroad Bridge--the one you saw at
the Golden Gate Exposition.
4. Landscape, The White Horse, collection Doris Lee.
Still-Life, collection Dr. Bela Mittelmann. Various others
by unknown collectors•
5. Usually the last one off the easel. First, At
the Swimming Hole (Figure composition with landscape back­
ground ); second, Railroad Bridge; third, Spring Landscape.
6 . Any subject matter that I choose to paint must
first have moved me visually (or plastically). I do not
have to have my subject in front of me while painting, but I
will not paint any subject that has only a literary or po­
litical motive behind It. I feel that the artistfs concern
is to create a deeply emotional, highly ordered and decoratively beautiful statement of some visual aspect of life.
If he (or she) does this sincerely and un-selfconsciously,
he will be fulfilling his mission in interpreting presentday America.
8 . Of the recent great masters— Renoir and Cezanne.
Going backward— Manet, Goya, Rembrandt, Breughel, Tintoretto.
9. No different. There seems to be as many diversi­
fied tendencies among women painters as men.
10. At first I was influenced by Raphael Soyer,
Alexander Brook and George Grosz, all of whom heightened my
interest in characterizations of people. I consider my
husband, John Nichols, who is about to have his first oneman show, (Peris Gallery— Feb. 5-Mar. 1), the painter to
whom I am most indebted for imparting to me his researches
for many years on the technique and plastic meaning of the
old masters.
11. Both the Treasury Relief Art project and the
W. P. A. have been a fine program for artists. But the
effect of this program, to be lasting, should be crystalized
into a Permanent Bureau of Fine Arts in Washington. Only
then can the present precariousness and uncertainty which
has played havoc with many of the artists be obviated.
The life of an easel painter— man or woman, seems to
afford about the same chances for recognition.
13. To date I have not attempted a mural. I have
worked with water-color and lithography, but prefer to be
Regarded as an oil-painter.
14. Painting is my chief occupation, although I
perform all my household duties, and expect to lead a full
life as a woman, nevertheless.
15. I would put the emphasis on the fact that for the
first time in civilization, women have equal opportunities
for study and exhibition of their work in the field of art,
and that their first efforts are most encouraging. I con­
sider Berthe Morisot and Mary Casatt two very fine painters,
surpassed by only a few men painters of their time.
I wish you luck in your thesis, and hope that any­
thing I have written may be in some way helpful or stimu­
lating. If there is some statement you would like clarified,
or expanded, I should be glad to do so.
Lila Copeland.
P. S. You might be interested to contact Ronnie Elliott, a
very fine woman painter who also exhibited at the Golden
Gate Exposition. She is sometimes mistaken for a man, because
__ St., New York City.
of the name, Ronnie. She is at ___
My dear Miss Penny,
Your thesis sounds most interesting, and now in reply
to your fourteen very comprehensive points, 1*11 offer the
following perhaps not very well thought out answers:
1. Two one-man shows, at the Rehn Galleries, 5th Ave.,
N. Y. C. One-man water color shows at Kenyon College, Ohio,
and at Columbus, Ohio.
Mural Competition, Poughkeepsie, N. Y., Post
Honorable Mention, Chicago Art Institute.
3. My preoccupation is landscape composition, land­
scape forms, and farm activity, with color problems imposed
by the changing seasons. I likewise paint figure compo­
sitions and children (mainly my own.).
4. For intensity of feeling and justness and subtlety
of abstract composition I find El Greco most stimulating,
for humanity Rembrandt, for joy in life and color, Renoir,
for taste Bracque and Matisse. Here one could on and on.
Picasso seems to have everything.
No teacher has been important.
6 . I would say probably--a little, though not much.
The men who largely compose juries, though fair for the most
part, tend to swap prizes with each other.
I am unable to answer.
I !d say offhand, Mno.M
8 . Much praise is due the U. S. government for its
support of artists especially in the field of decorating
public buildings where a percentage of the cost is given
over to murals. Valuable work has-been encouraged on the
art projects also, and works of art have been allocated to
many tax-exempt institutions, lectures given, and art centers
established among a hitherto unaware public, but one whose
response has been gratifying.
Perhaps women painters will just become painters I
I !ve done a little teaching.
11. Domestic, contemporary literature, education and
world politics and music.
12. I have painted two murals— one a horse race— the
Hambletonian for Goshen, H. Y. and the Poughkeepsie Post
Office showing the town, Hudson River and river boats, 1840.
I paint flowers and landscapes in water color.
Yes— two children— boys.
Wishing you success, I am
Sincerely yours,
Georgina Klitgaard
Dear Miss Penny:
In answer to your questionnaire as well as X can do
1. Hew York, Whitney Studio'Club, 1924; Artists
Gallery, 1926; Montross, 1927; H. Y. Society Women painters
and Sculptors, 1930; Walker Galleries, Inc., 1936. Boston—
Grace Homes, 1935, 1936, 1937. Also at Wheaton College
(Horton, Mass.) Bowdoin College within the last three
years. I*m sorry I fm sketchy about dates.
2. The only prize has been from San Francisco—
Women Painters and Sculptors, about 1932. I gathered that
the newspapers resented first prize going to an Easterner.
I have paintings in the Metropolitan in Hew York and the
Whitney Museum.
3. This I can»t answer. Any artist thinks his or
her last picture is the best, and now in retrospect it is
very hard to judge one!s own work. Furthermore, the best
thing out of every year is scattered about so that the artist
does not see them again, except by accident, long enough to
compare them.
4. I like landscape. I am interested in people.
Therefore I try to paint people in landscape influenced by
the landscape.
I do not know* I suppose so, since tradition
dies hard, and juries are usually men. But I do feel I have
been very well treated, on the whole*
6 * I do— and think it is important that it is so. I
think women artists as a whole have a more intimate approach
to their subjects. For example, take Kenneth Hayes Miller,
Reginald Marsh, and Isabel Bishop— all very good painters,
and all working on the same medium— all tempera— and in the
same locale* Mr. Miller is a classicist. To him the subject
and each detail of his picture is only an aesthetic unit.
He is completely impersonal* Mr. Marsh is interested in the
people he paints as types, and element in a design. He is
interested in humanity as a whole* But Miss Bishop paints
individuals with each subject. She looks at and is concerned
with what goes on for every model, a fact that can only be
accounted for by her being a woman as she is the least in­
timate person herself that anyone would ever meet.
7. I do no community service, if I can help it.
Once in a while I am cornered. I garden, keep house,
criticise my husband1s manuscripts and consider art history.
With five hours painting a day that makes a schedule.
I don’t except casually.
If there Is any other way in which I can help you,
please do not hesitate to call on me. Your subject is one
in which I, too, am profoundly interested.
Sincerely yours,
Molly Luce
(Mrs. Alan Burroughs)
My dear Mr. _______ ,
I am working on a Master’s Degree in the College of
Fine Arts at the University of Southern California and have
chosen for my thesis topic Women Painters in America in the
Twentieth Century. It is the purpose of this study (TJ to
survey tiie influences in their development and the contribu­
tion to American art of a selected group of American women
painters; (2) to discuss the characteristics in their style
and their tendencies in selection of subject matter; and (3)
to collect the biographies of this group through the medium
of questionnaire and personal correspondence. The topic is
limited to the sixty women who are represented in the Exhibit
of Contemporary American Art at the Golden Gate Exposition.
To continue the study I am in need of certain material
which you as a director of a leading museum will be able to
give me. Will you please use the enclosed list of questions
for your reply and return it to me at an early date?
I shall be grateful for your interest in my problem
and shall appreciate any help you may be able to give me.
Sincerely yours,
1. Do you consider the woman painter’s contribution to
American art in any way different from a man’s? If so, in
what way?
2 • What is your opinion of the future for women in the
professional field of painting in America? What is their
greatest handicap?
3. Discuss the influences in the development of women
painters in America in the twentieth century.
4. Please name what you consider to be the eight top women
painters in America today.
Please return this list of questions with your answer.
Letters written
54 women painters*** . . . . . . . . . . . .
8 male museum directors
• • • ; • • • • •
1 art critic • • • • • • • . • • • • • • •
Violet Organ ..................
. . . . .
Herbert Fleishhacker . . . . . . . . . . .
Grace L. McCann Morley . . . . . . . . . .
Bianca Todd
. . • • • • • • • . . • • • •
Roland J. McKinney . . . . . . . . . . . .
Writer’s Project, San Francisco
24 follow-up letters to women painters
. .
Varga, art editor, Life Magazine . . . . .
Research Magazine and Book Company . . . .
^* The following women painters, for whom there was no
published biographical material available, could not be
located: Florence Miller, Louisa H. Robins, Margaret Peter­
son, Elizabeth Tracy, Aileen King Dresser, Kathleen Lawrence,
Dorothy Duncan, Beatrice Ely Wose, Allela Cornell, and Irma
Engel-Leisinger. These sources were consulted for their
addresses* City Directories, the art editor of Life, San
Francisco Museum, Los Angeles Museum of History, Science,
and Art, the Fair Committee, National Association of Women
Painters and Sculptors, and published data.
Names of women painters
in the Fair Exhibition
Abercrombie, Gertrude
Alvarez, Mabel
Bacharach, Elise W.
Berlandina, Jane
Bernstein, Theresa F.
Bishop, Isabel
Blakeslee, Sarah
Blanch, Lucile
Botke, Jessie A.
Bottigheimer, Erna
Brockman, Ann
Buros, Luella
Copeland, Lila
Cornell, Allela
Curtis, Marian
Cuthbert, Virginia I.
Davis, Gladys Rockmore
de Laittre, Eleanor
Dickson, Helen
Dresser, Aileen King
Duncan, Dorothy
Elliot, Ronnie
Engel-Leisinger,. Irma
Forbes, Helen
Ford, Lauren
Galley, Esther
Goldthwaite, Anne
Goodwin, Jean
Grotenrath, Ruth
Hailman, Johanna K.
Houston, Nora
Hull, Marie Atkinson
Kelly, Grace Veronica
Klitgaard, Georgina
Lawrence, Kathleen
Lee, Doris
Luce, Molly
City of
Los Angeles
New York City
San Francisco
New York City
New York City
New York City
Hollywood, California
New York City
Highland Park, New Jersey
New York City
New York City
Laguna Beach, California
Pitt sburgh
New York City
New York City
San Francisco
New York City
San Francisco
San Francisco
Rye, New York
New York City
Santa Ana, Califomia
Richmond, Virginia
Jackson, Mississippi
Bearsville, New York
Fort Worth, Texas
Woodstock, New York
Belmont, Massachusetts
Lester S.
Henry Howard Berlandina
.William Meyerowitz
Arnold Blanch
Cornelius Botke
William McNulty
Oscar R. Buros
John Nichols
Phillip Clarkson Elliot
Floyd Davis
Associate professor of art
James D.
Emmett Johnson Hull
Kaj Klitgaard
Russell Warner Lee
Alan Burroughs
Documentary photographer
TABLE I (continued)
Names of women painters
in the Fair Exhibition
City of
McCall, Virginia Armitage
Miller, Florence
Pelton, Agnes
Pershing, Louise
Peterson, Margaret
Phillips, Marjorie
Richardson, Constance C.
Robins, Louisa H.
Rocle, Margot King
Rosenthal, Doris
Sawyer, Helen
Schmidt, Katherine
Simpson, Martha
Skeele, Anna Katherine
Sparhawk-Jones, Elizabeth
Strong, Peggy
Swift, Florence Allston
Tennent, Madge
Tracy, Elizabeth
Varga, Margit
Varian, Dorothy
Watson, Jean
Watson, Nan
Whedon, Harriet
Whiting, Florence S.
Williams, Esther
Wose, Beatrice Ely
F/yetn, Henrietta
Havorford, Pennsylvania
New Mexico
Cathedral City, California
Pitt sburgh
Berkeley, California
Washington, D.C.
New York City
Chula Vista, California
New York City
North Truro, Massachusetts
New York City
San Francisco
Westtown, Pennsylvania
Tacoma, Washington
Berkeley, California
Cambridge, Massachusetts
New York City
Woodstock, New York
Washington, D.C-.
San Francisco
New York City
New York City
Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania^
Duncan Phillips
E. P. Richardson
Marius Rocle
Jerry Farnsworth
Irvine T. Shubert
Henry Swift
Hugh Cooper Tennent
Forbes Watson
Art critic
Peter Hurd
Names of women painters
in the Fair Exhibition
Abercrombie, Gertrude
Alvarez, Mabel
Bacharach, Elise W.
Berlandina, Jane
Bernstein, Theresa F.
Bishop, Isabel
Blakeslee, Sarah
Blanch, Lucile
Botke, Jessie A.
Bottigheimer, Erna
Brockman, Ann
Buros, Luella
Copeland, Lila
Cornell, Allela
Curtis, Marian
Cuthbert, Virginia I.
Davis, Gladys Rockmore
de Laittre, Eleanor
Dickson, Helen
Dresser, Aileen King
Duncan, Dorothy
Elliot, Ronnie
Engel-Leisinger, Irma
Forbes, Helen
Ford, Lauren
Galley, Esther
Goldthwaite, Arme
Goodwin, Jean
Grotenrath, Ruth
Hailman, Johanna K.
Houston, Nora
Hull, Marie Atkinson
Kelly, Grace Veronica
Klitgaard, Georgina
Lawrence, Kathleen
Lee, Doris
Luce, Molly
Name of painting
in Fair Exhibit
Who's Who in
’American Art
Painting chief
The Hill
Still Life
Southern Scene
Side Show
The White Sail
August Afternoon
White Peacock
Betty Jane Smith
Pigeon Hill Picnic
Street Musicians
Railroad Bridge
Wit's End
Schellhammer Family Picnic
The Pink Skirt
Storm Flight
River, Cherryfield
The Porch
Washington Square, South
Flowers and Books
Storm, Death Valley
Vision of the Innocents
Humphrey's Coke Ovens
Summer on the Shore
The White Pitcher
Jubilate Dea Monis Terra
Share Croppers
Meson San Calletano
Wet Street
Southeast Storm
B.F.A., B.E.
TABLE II (continued)
Names of women painters
in the Fair Exhibition
McCall, Virginia Armitage
Miller, Florence
Pelton, Agnes
Pershing, Louise
Peterson, Margaret
Phillips, Marjorie
Richardson, Constance C.
Robins, Louisa H.
Rocle, Margot King
Rosenthal, Doris
Sawyer, Helen
Schmidt, Katherine
Simpson, Martha
Skeele, Anna Katherine
Sparhawk-Jones, Elizabeth
Strong, Peggy
Swift, Florence Allston
Tennent, Madge
Tracy, Elizabeth
Varga, Margit
Varian, Dorothy
Watson, Jean
Watson, Nan
Whedon, Harriet
Whiting, Florence S.
Williams, Esther
Wose, Beatrice Ely
Wyeth, Henrietta
Name of painting
in Fair Exhibit
The Picnic
Smoke Fury
Two Women
Locust Trees in Spring
Shower Beyond Manchester
Tropical Night, Acapulco
Marius and Anthony
At the Blackboard
The Village Square
Tiger, TigerI
Cello Player
Lady in Green
Still Life
Local Color and Waking
The Time Between Sleep
Road to Danbury
Pink Daisies
Cape Anne Quarry
The Family Compote
Bay Street Eating House
The Haunted House
Picnic by the Pond
Roof Tops
The Rocking Horse
Who's Who in
American Art
Painting chief
Plate 1* Gertrude Abercrombie.
Slaughter House Ruln3 at Aledo.
Plate 2* Isabel Bishop.
The Noon Hour.
Plate 3.
Isabel Bishop.
The Kid
Plate 4
Lucille Blanch.
Afternoon in Spain.
Plate 5.
Lucille Blanch.
Deserted Quarry.
Plate 6.
Ann Brockman.
Pigeon Hill Picnic.
Plate 7.
Ann Brockman.
Plate 8
Virginia I. Cuthbert.
Shellhammer Family
Plate 9.
Gladys Rookmore Davis.
Morning Papers.
Plat© 10, Gladys Rockmore Davis*
Pink Skirt.
Helen Dickson*
The Waterfall
Plate 12,
Lauren Ford*
Paradis Terrestre*
Plate 13*
Lauren Ford.
Little Boy Blue.
Plate 14.
Lauren Ford.
The Country Doctor.
The Boyhood
of Je3 us
nam ed 'Nazareth, to a virgin espoused to a man whose name
was Joseph, of the N o u se of D a v id , and the virgin's name was
M a ry . And? the angel said unto her, Blessed art thou among
women. 7ear not, M a ry , fo r behold thou shalt bring forth a
shalt call his nam e Jesus. Tie shall be great and
be called the Son of the H ig h est: and th e Lord Qod
give unto him the 7 hrone o f his father, D avid. A n d he
reign over the house of Jacob fo re ve r, a n d o f his k in g ­
there shall be no end.
The Boyhood_of Jesug.
A n d it came to pass in those days, th a t there w ent out a
decree from Caesar A u g u stu s, that all the w orld should he
taxed. A n d all w ent to he taxed, every one into his ow n city.
A n d Joseph also w ent up from Q alike, out o f the c ity of
CMazareth, into Judaea, unto the c ity of D avid, w hich is
called B ethlehem to he ta xe d w ith A la ry, his wife. A n d so it
was, that, w hile th e y were there the days were accom plished
th a t she w ould he delivered. A n d she brought fo rth her firstborn
son, and w rapped him in sw addling clothes, and laid him tn a
m anger) because there was no room fo r them in the inn.
The Boyhood
of Jesuan
H is nam e was called Jesus, and th e y brought
Jerusalem, to present him to the Lord. A n d , behold, there
w as a man in Jerusalem, w hose nam e w as Sim eon. A n d it was
repealed unto him b v the H o ly Q host, that he should not see
death, before he had seen the Lord's Christ. A n d he cam e by
Spirit into th e tem ple. J h e n to o k he him up in his arms,
and blessed Qod, and said, Lord, now lettest thou th y servant
depart in peace, according to th y word. A n d Sim eon blessed
them . A n d w hen th e y had perform ed all things according to
the law of the Lord, th ey returned to (falilee.
The Boyhood
of Jeaus
Alow w hen Jesus w as born in Bethlehem of Judaea, tn the days
w ent before them , till it cam e and stood over where the young
of Jderod the king, behold, there
cam e wise m en from the east child was. A n d w hen th e y saw the y o u n g child w ith A la ry
to Jerusalem , saying, W h e re is he that is born 'King o f th e
his m other, and fell dow n, and w orshipped him-, and when they
Jews? fo r w e have seen his star
in th e east, and are com e to had opened their treasures, th ey presented unto him g ifts , gold,
worship him. A n d lo, the star, w hich th e y saw in the east,
and frankincense and m yrrh.
n w
*p*o£ twwuvj
5EI5F jo pBxpfoa
.4nd when tbe wise wen w ere departed, behold, the angel of
th e Lord appearetb to Joseph in a dream , saying, A rise and
ta ke the young child
and his m other, and flee into Egypt,
and be thou there until J bring thee w ord: fo r H erod will
seek the young child,
to destroy him. W h e n he arose, he
took th e y o u n g child and his m other b y night, and departed into E gypt: A n d was there until th e death o f H erod,
that it m ight be fulfilled w hich w as spoken of the Lord
by the prophet, saying, O u t of E gypt have J called m y son.
J h e n H e ro d was exceeding w roth.
h u t when H erod w as dead, behold, the angel o f th e Lord appeareth in a dream to Joseph in E gypt, saying, A rise, and ta ke
the young child and his m other, and go into the land o f Israel:
for th ey are dead w hich sought the young child’s life. A n d he
arose, and took the you n g child and his m other and cam e
into the land of Israel and dw elt in a city
th a t it m ight be fulfilled w hich w as spoken
H e shall be called a H azarcne. A n d the
w a xed strong in spirit, filled w ith w isdom /
o f Cfod was upon him.
called H a za rc th
by the prophets,
child grew, and
and th e grace
& , , '
ii it
The Boyhood
of Jesus
N o w his parents w ent to Jerusalem every y ea r at the feast o f
the passover. A n d w hen he was tw elve years old, th ey
w ent up to Jerusalem, after the custom of the feast. A s th ey
refnrn'id, the child Jesus tarried behind in Jerusalem , and
Joseph and his m other k n ew not of it A n d w hen th e y fo u n d
him not, th e y turned back again to Jerusalem , seeking him.
A n d it cam e to pass, that after three days th e y fo u n d him
in the tem ple, sittin g in the m idst of the doctors, both hearing
them , and asking them guestions. A n d all th a t heard him
were astonished at his understanding and answers
The Boyhood
of Jesus
A n d J e s u s i n c r e a s e d in w i s d o m a n d s t a t u r e , a n d in f a v o u r w i t h Cjod a n d m a n
Plate 23®
Lauren Ford.
J|o Room in the Inn,
Pl&te 24# Ann Goldthwaite•
St. Peter.
Plate 25 . Georgina Klitgaard.
Hors eche atnut.
Farm and
Plate 26.
Georgina Klitgaard.
View of Kingston
Hudson River Excursion
Plat© 28* Boris Lee,
Landscape with
Plate 29.
Doris Lee.
Winter in the Catskills
J L /\J i’JIB X1V0«
Loris Lee
Plate 52. Constance Coleman Richardson.
Cambridge, Hey; York.
View of
Plate 33. Margaret King Rocle.
Peasants Threshing,
Plat© 34 •
Doris Rosenthal.
At the Blackboard
Plat© 35,
Doris Rosenthal*
Two Boys
Plate 36. Katherine Schmidt*
Broe Walts 51s Turn.
Katherine '^Schmidt.
II".... ... .
Plate 57.
Plate 58. Elizabeth Sparhawk-Jones.
of m Poet.
Plate 39. Dorothy Varian.
Pink Slip.
Sandra In a
Plat* 40. Henrietta Wyeth*
Rooking Horse.
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