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An evaluation of physical education programs in the elementary schools of West Texas

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AN EVALUATION OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS
IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF WEST TEXAS
A T h e s is
P re s e n te d to
t h e F a c u l t y o f t h e S c h o o l o f E d u o a tio n
U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a
In P a r t i a l F u lfillm e n t
o f t h e R e q u ire m e n ts f o r t h e D eg ree
M a s te r o f S c ie n c e i n E d u c a tio n
by
C la u d is C. W alden
F e b ru a ry
1940
UMI Number: EP53951
All rights reserved
INFORMATION TO ALL USERS
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UMI EP53951
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P.O. Box 1346
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This thesis, written under the direction of the
Chairman of the candidate’s Guidance C o m m i t ­
tee and a p p r o v e d by all members of the C o m ­
mittee, has been presented to and accepted by
the Faculty of the School of Education in partial
fulfillment of the requirements f o r the degree of
M a s t e r of Science in Education.
j2ate
January 30, 1940
Guidance Com m ittee
Wm. E. LaPorte
Chairman
Pay Adams
Pauline Frederick
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.
PAGE
THE PROBLEM . . . . .................................................................
S ta te m e n t a n d a n a l y s i s o f
t h e p ro b le m
. . . .
1
....................
3
S u rv e y o f r e l a t e d s t u d i e s ......................... . . • .
5
I m p o rta n c e o f th e s t u d y . . . . . .
II.
M ethod o f p r o c e d u r e a n d s o u r c e s o f d a t a . . .
10
O r g a n i z a t i o n o f c h a p t e r s ............................
19
EQUIPMENT STANDARDS IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS
OF WEST TEX A S.........................................................................
23
A t h l e t i c f i e l d s .......................................................... . .
24
In d o o r f a c i l i t i e s
.................................................
26
G e n e r a l a c t i v i t y s u p p l i e s .......................................
30
F i r s t a id s u p p lie s
31
C h a p te r summary
III.
1
•
. . . . . . . .
....................
.......................
33
CONTENT OF THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAM IN
THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF WEST TEXAS
. . . .
37
S ta n d a r d s f o r e v a l u a t i n g a c u r r i c u l u m i n
p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n
.................................................
37
S t a t e a n d l o c a l c o u r s e s o f s t u d y ....................
38
D e ta ile d s c h e d u le s
39
P ro g ra m o f a c t i v i t i e s
in c lu d e d in th e f i r s t ,
seco n d , and t h i r d g ra d e s
. . . • • . • •
P ro g ra m o f a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e d i n t h e f o u r t h ,
43
ii
CHAPTER
PAGE
f i f t h and s ix th g rad e s
. . . . . . . . .
C h a p te r s u m m a ry ...............................................................
IV .
43
47
ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF THE PHYSICAL
EDUCATION PROGRAM IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS
OF WEST TEXAS
................................................
E x te n t o f p ro g ra m . . . . .......................................
51
Time a l l o t m e n t
.................................................
52
S iz e o f c l a s s e s ...............................................................
54
T e a c h e r l o a d s . . .........................................................
56
M arks o r g r a d e s
............................................
57
. . . . . ........................
58
The p h y s i c a l - m e d i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n ....................
59
C h a p te r s u m m a ry ............................. ......................... .
60
R e s tric te d a c t i v i t i e s
V.
50
THE TEACHING PERSONNEL OF THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION
PROGRAM IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF WEST
TEXAS .
........................................................................ . .
P re r e q u is ite tr a in in g re q u ire d o f a p p lic a n ts
62
62
D e te r m in a tio n o f minimum q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r
te a c h e rs
.
.................... . . . . . . . . . .
65
P r o f e s s io n a l e d u c a tio n re q u ire m e n ts . . . .
67
R e q u ire m e n ts r e g a r d i n g e x p e r i e n c e ....................
68
Minimum a n d maximum a g e r e q u i r e m e n t s
71
T e a c h e rs' s a la r ie s
• .
C h a p te r s u m m a r y ........................
. . .
.......................................
71
74
iii
CHAPTER
V I.
PAGE
INTEGRATING THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAM
WITH HEALTH, SAFETY, AND OTHER SCHOOL SUB­
JECTS IN THE ELEMENTARYSCHOOLS OF WEST TEXAS
78
D e f i n i t i o n s o f te r m s Mi n t e g r a t i o n ” a n d
Hc o r r e l a t i o n 1 1 ............................
• .
78
S ta n d a r d s s e t up i n The P h y s i c a l E d u c a tio n
C u r ric u lu m f o r e v a l u a t i n g a n i n t e g r a t e d
p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p ro g ra m
................................
81
I n t e g r a t i n g t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p ro g ra m
w i t h h e a l t h , s a f e t y , an d o t h e r s c h o o l
s u b je c ts
V II.
.........................................................
82
C h a p te r s u m m a r y ..............................................................
84
GENERAL SUMMARY CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
86
G e n e r a l summary • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
86
C o n c lu s io n s • • » . . • • •
• • • •
91
. . . . . . . .
96
R ecom m endations .............................
B IBLIO G RA PH Y ............................................................................................
101
A P P E N D IX ......................................................................................................
110
LIST OP TABLES
TABLE
I.
PAGE
A re a s o f A t h l e t i c F i e l d s i n S ix ty - tw o C i t i e s
o f W est T ex as . . . . . . .................................
* II.
. . .
T ypes o f I n d o o r F a c i l i t i e s P r o v id e d i n S i x t y two C i t i e s o f West T e x a s ........................
III.
27
Amount o f G e n e r a l A c t i v i t y a n d F i r s t A id Sup­
p l i e s i n S ix ty - tw o C i t i e s o f W est T ex a s . . .
IV .
25
32
P ro g ra m o f A c t i v i t i e s T a u g h t i n t h e F i r s t ,
S e c o n d , a n d T h ir d G ra d e s o f t h e S ix ty - tw o
C i t i e s R e p o r t i n g ...............................................................
V.
42
P ro g ra m o f A c t i v i t i e s T a u g h t i n t h e F o u r th ,
F i f t h , a n d S i x t h G ra d e s o f t h e S ix ty - tw o
C i t i e s R e p o r tin g
V I.
......................... . . . . . . . .
46
P r e r e q u i s i t e T r a i n i n g R e q u ir e d o f A p p l i c a n t s
i n S i x t y - tw o C i t i e s o f W est T e x a s .......................
V II.
Amount o f P r o f e s s i o n a l T r a i n i n g o f E le m e n ta ry
T e a c h e rs i n S ix ty - tw o C i t i e s o f W est T exas
V III.
64
.
66
Type o f C r e d e n t i a l R e q u ir e d o f a n d H e ld by
E le m e n ta ry T e a c h e rs i n S ix ty - tw o C i t i e s o f
W est T ex a s
IX .
................................................. . . . . . .
69
E x p e r ie n c e R e q u ir e d o f A p p l i c a n t i n S ix ty - tw o
C i t i e s o f W est T e x a s
......................................
70
V
TABLE
X.
PAGE
Age R e s t r i c t i o n i n S i x t y - tw o C i t i e s o f
W est T e x a s . . . • • • • • • • ............................... •
X I.
S a l a r y S c h e d u le o f F i f t y P r i n c i p a l C i t i e s
o f W est T e x a s
X II.
72
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
75
I n t e g r a t i n g t h e P h y s i c a l E d u c a tio n P ro g ra m
w ith H e a l t h , S a f e t y , a n d O th e r S c h o o l Sub­
j e c t s i n t h e S ix ty - tw o C i t i e s R e p o r ti n g
. . .
83
CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM "
S chool h o a rd s and s c h o o l s u p e r in te n d e n ts p e r i o d i c a l l y
f a c e t h e p ro b le m o f e v a l u a t i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s .
In s p i t e o f th e f a c t th a t th e g r e a t e s t o f c a re and ex p en se
may h e u s e d i n m ak in g t h i s e v a l u a t i o n d u r i n g t h e s e p e r i o d s ,
many o f t h e c a r e f u l l y w o rk ed o u t p ro g ra m s f a i l t o f u n c t i o n ,
w h ile o n ly a few m eet t h e n e e d s o f a c h a n g in g s o c i a l o r d e r .
The p r e p a r a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s f o r t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e d u t i e s
i n t h e f i e l d o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n h a s h e e n so m e a g e r, a n d
t h e r e q u i r e m e n ts o f e le m e n ta r y s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a so v a r i e d ,
t h a t t h e r e s u l t h a s h e e n a h e te r o g e n e o u s p ro g ra m o f a c t i v i ­
t i e s i n t h e e le m e n ta r y s c h o o l .
The p ro b le m o f e v a l u a t i n g th e
e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p ro g ra m h a s becom e a n
•1
a d m in is tra tiv e ta s k of g re a t d i f f i c u l t y . M
I.
STATEMENT AND ANALYSIS OF THE PROBLEM
S ta te m e n t o f t h e p r o b le m .
A lth o u g h t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l
t e c h n i q u e s f o r t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f p ro g ra m s i n g e n e r a l w h ic h
1 J . F . W illia m s , a n d C l i f f o r d L . B r o w n e ll, The A dm l n i s t r a t l o n o f H e a l t h a n d P h y s i c a l E d u c a tio n ( P h i l a d e l p h i a :
W. B. S a u n d e rs Company, 1 9 3 4 ) , p . 6 3 .
a r e i n common u s e a t t h e p r e s e n t t im e , i t
th is
i s th e p u r p o s e o f
i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o make a s p e c i f i c s t u d y o f c r i t e r i a f o r
t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a ti o n p ro g ra m i n t h e e l e ­
m e n ta r y s c h o o l s , i n c l u d i n g :
(1 ) th e minimum e q u ip m e n t
s t a n d a r d s n e c e s s a r y f o r a w e l l- r o u n d e d p ro g ra m ; (2 ) t h e con­
t e n t o f a c o u r s e o f s tu d y t o m ee t t h e n e e d s o f p h y s i c a l e d u ­
c a t i o n i n t h e e le m e n t a r y s c h o o l s ;
(3 ) t h e tim e a l l o t m e n t f o r
p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n t h e e le m e n ta r y s c h o o l s ;
(4 ) t h e sc o p e
o f a c t i v i t i e s f o r e le m e n ta r y t e a c h e r s i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e
g rad e s;
(5 ) t h e s i t u a t i o n c o n c e r n in g t h e t r a i n i n g a n d c e r t i ­
f i c a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s a s i t now i s i n t h e s i x t y - t w o r e p r e ­
s e n t a t i v e c i t i e s o f T e x a s ; (6 ) t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f a g e , ex­
p e r i e n c e , a n d m e d ia n s a l a r i e s p a i d e le m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s ;
(7 ) a s t a te m e n t o f a n y o u t s t a n d i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s ;
(8 ) t h e
p r o p e r i n t e g r a t i o n o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a ti o n w i t h a l l s u b j e c t s ;
a n d (9 ) s u g g e s te d im p ro v e m e n ts w hich may b e made f o r f u t u r e
p ra c tic e s .
A n a ly s is o f t h e p r o b le m .
The p ro b le m may b e m ore
c l e a r l y p i c t u r e d by d i v i d i n g t h e m a jo r p ro b le m
i n t o a num­
b e r o f a s p e c t s s t a t e d i n t h e fo rm o f q u e s t i o n s t h a t w i l l
n e e d t o b e a n s w e re d i n t h i s s t u d y .
s t o o d a n d so r e c o g n i z e d i n t h i s
I t i s g e n e r a lly u n d e r­
in v e s tig a tio n th a t th e e le ­
m e n ta r y s c h o o l i n c l u d e s g r a d e s one t o s i x i n c l u s i v e l y .
1*
What i s t h e e x t e n t o f t h e o u t d o o r p la y g r o u n d a n d
i t s e q u ip m e n t?
2.
A re p l a y , l o c k e r , a n d r e s t room s p r o v i d e d ; a n d
w h at i s t h e i r e q u ip m e n t?
3#
What a c t i v i t i e s a r e i n c l u d e d i n g r a d e s o n e , tw o ,
and th re e ?
4.
What a c t i v i t i e s a r e i n c l u d e d i n g r a d e s f o u r , f i v e ,
and s ix ?
5.
What tim e i s a l l o t t e d t o t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n
p ro g ra m , e x c lu s iv e o f r e c e s s p e rio d s ?
6.
A re p la y g r o u n d a s s ig n m e n ts i n c l u d e d a s p a r t o f
t h e r e g u l a r t e a c h i n g lo a d ?
7.
What p r e r e q u i s i t e t r a i n i n g i s r e q u i r e d o f t e a c h e r s ?
8.
What am ount o f p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g h a s h e e n r e ­
c e iv e d h y te a c h e rs ?
9.
What i s t h e m ed ian s a l a r y p a i d e le m e n ta r y t e a c h ­
10*
To w h at e x t e n t i s t h e h e a l t h a n d p h y s i c a l e d u c a ­
e rs?
t i o n p ro g ra m i n t e g r a t e d w ith o t h e r s c h o o l s u b j e c t s ?
II.
IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY
I n v ie w o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , I n v e s t i g a ­
t i o n o f c r i t e r i a f o r t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f e le m e n ta r y s c h o o l
p ro g ra m s i n a n y s p e c i f i c f i e l d a ssu m e s c o n s i d e r a b l e im­
p o rta n c e *
(1 )
E q u ip m en t s t a n d a r d s f o r a m odern p h y s i c a l e d u c a ­
t i o n p ro g ra m i n t h e e le m e n t a r y s c h o o ls e m p h a s iz in g m o d if i e d
gam es o f low o r g a n i z a t i o n r e q u i r e e x t e n s i v e p l a y a r e a s .
In
many s c h o o l s gym nasium s a n d e v e n p l a y room s a r e n o t a v a i l ­
a b l e ; h e n c e t h e e n t i r e p ro g ra m m ust b e c o n d u c te d o u t - o f d o o rs.
P la y g r o u n d s , a c c o r d i n g l y , s h o u ld b e e q u ip p e d w i t h
a r e a s s u i t a b l e f o r a l l fo rm s o f a t h l e t i c gam es o f lo w o r g a n i ­
z a tio n .
An a d e q u a te am ount o f a c t i v i t y s u p p l i e s , s u c h a s
b a l l s a n d b a t s , w h ic h a r e so e s s e n t i a l t o p r o p e r c l a s s i n ­
s t r u c t i o n , w ould a s s i s t i n im p ro v in g th e s i t u a t i o n .
(2 )
B e c a u se o f t h e l a c k o f an o r g a n i z e d p ro g ra m o f
c o n te n t, d e f in ite
in s tr u c tio n in a c t i v i t i e s is n e ith e r
a v a i l a b l e t o e v e r y s t u d e n t n o r r e q u i r e d o f h im .
I n many i n ­
s ta n c e s d e t a i l e d s c h e d u le s and le s s o n p la n s have n o t b e e n
w o rk e d o u t ; t h e r e s u l t h a s b e e n c o n f u s io n a n d i n e f f i c i e n t
p ro c e d u re s.
Now t h a t " p h y s i c a l e d u c a ti o n i s no l o n g e r c o n ­
s i d e r e d a s a t r a i l e r o r addendum t o e d u c a t i o n , b u t a s a n i n ­
t e g r a l p a r t o f e d u c a t i o n , 1,2 i t i s t h e d u ty o f t h o s e r e s p o n ­
sib le
f o r t h e p ro g ra m c o n t e n t t o make c h a n g e s i n t h e l i g h t
o f sound e d u c a tio n a l o b je c tiv e s *
(3 )
The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o ­
gram i n t h e e le m e n t a r y s c h o o l s o f v a r i o u s c i t i e s o f t h e
W illia m R. L a P o r te , "T he C h an g in g C o n c e p tio n o f
C o l le g e P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n ," A m e ric an P h y s i c a l E d u c a tio n
R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , I I (M a rc h , 1 9 3 1 ), p . 5 .
s ta te
i s n o t u n if o r m .
An o b j e c t i v e s tu d y s e t t i n g f o r t h n o t
o n ly o u t s t a n d i n g p r a c t i c e s , b u t a l s o t h e v ie w s o f l e a d i n g
e d u c a t o r s w ould a s s i s t i n im p ro v in g th e s t a n d a r d s f o r a so u n d
e d u c a t i o n a l p ro g ra m o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y .
(4 )
The p ro b le m o f t h e t e a c h i n g p e r s o n n e l h a s a lw a y s
b e e n a n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p ro b le m o f c o n s i d e r a b l e im p o r ta n c e .
T h is c o n s t i t u t e s a p a r t i c u l a r l y v a l i d ty p e o f s tu d y a t t h e
p r e s e n t tim e .
A n a l y s i s o f a p p l i c a t i o n fo rm s u s e d b y many
c i t i e s show s t h a t e d u c a t i o n a n d e x p e r i e n c e a r e t h e tw o ite m s
a p p e a r i n g m ost f r e q u e n t l y .
P e r h a p s m ore e m p h a s is s h o u ld b e
g iv e n t o t h e k i n d o f e d u c a t i o n r e c e i v e d b y t h e a p p l i c a n t a n d
l e s s a tt e n t i o n p a id to h is e x p e rie n c e .
III.
SURVEY OF RELATED STUDIES
S e v e r a l s t u d i e s h a v e b e e n made d u r i n g r e c e n t y e a r s
w h ic h a r e r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y t o t h e p ro b le m o f
p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n t h e e le m e n t a r y s c h o o l .
The r e l a t e d
i n v e s t i g a t i o n s w ere c a r e f u l l y a n a ly z e d i n o r d e r t o d e te r m in e
w hat h a d b e e n a c c o m p lis h e d r e l a t i v e t o e q u ip m e n t s t a n d a r d s ,
c o n te n t o f th e p ro g ram , o r g a n iz a tio n and a d m in is tr a tio n ,
te a c h in g p e rs o n n e l, and I n t e g r a ti o n .
Upon i n v e s t i g a t i o n i t was fo u n d t h a t many a u t h o r s
made s t u d i e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e e le m e n ta r y p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n
p ro g ra m , b u t t h e s e s t u d i e s p r e s e n t e d p ro g ra m s f o r a n i d e a l
s itu a tio n .
T h e re a r e few i d e a l s i t u a t i o n s ; h e n c e t h e r e i s
a n e e d f o r f u r t h e r s tu d y t o d e te r m in e how a p r a c t i c a l p ro g ra m
fittin g
t h e e d u c a t i o n a l n e e d s o f t h e m a j o r i t y may b e w o rk e d
o u t*
I n s u r v e y in g t h e f i e l d , t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r fo u n d ma­
t e r i a l r e l a t i n g b o th d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y to th e p r e s e n t
p r o b le m .
T h is m a t e r i a l f a l l s
i n to f iv e g ro u p s:
g a t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h e q u ip m e n t s t a n d a r d s ;
(2 )
(1 )
in v e s ti­
in v e s tig a tio n s
c o n c e r n i n g c o n t e n t o f t h e p ro g ra m ; (3 ) i n v e s t i g a t i o n s p e r ­
ta in in g to o rg a n iz a tio n and a d m in is tra tio n ;
(4 ) i n v e s t i g a ­
t i o n s i n v o l v i n g t h e t e a c h i n g p e r s o n n e l ; a n d (5 ) i n v e s t i g a ­
tio n s r e l a t i n g to in te g r a tio n of s u b je c t m a tte r.
O rg a n iz a tio n an d a d m in ls tr a tio n » 5 A s tu d y e n t i t l e d ,
MA J o b A n a l y s i s o f t h e R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e E le m e n ta r y
T e a c h e r t o t h e P h y s i c a l E d u c a tio n P r o g r a m ,11 was made b y
E l s i e A n n ls .
The s t u d y i s a Jo b a n a l y s i s o f t h e d u t i e s a n d
r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e g e n e r a l e le m e n ta r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r i n
t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p ro g ra m , i n th e l i g h t o f w hat i s a c ­
t u a l l y b e in g ta u g h t in th e s c h o o ls .
th e i n v e s ti g a t i o n a r e :
P o i n t s o f e m p h a s is i n
w hat a c t i v i t i e s s h o u ld b e t a u g h t ;
w h at t h e tim e a l l o t m e n t f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n s h o u ld b e ;
w hat t h e p ro g ra m c o n t e n t s h o u ld b e ; a n d w hat e d u c a t o r s f e e l
3 E l s i e A n n is , rfA J o b A n a l y s i s o f t h e R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s
o f t h e E le m e n ta ry T e a c h e r t o t h e P h y s i c a l E d u c a tio n P r o g ra m ^ ’
( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s te r* s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i ­
f o r n i a , L os A n g e le s , C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 5 ) , 131 p p .
i s s t i l l la c k in g i n th e te a c h in g o f p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n .
The
p l a n o f p r o c e d u r e was t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f d a t a t h r o u g h a
q u e s t i o n n a i r e w h ic h p e r t a i n e d t o s t a t e l e g i s l a t i o n a f f e c t i n g
h e a l t h a n d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a n d t o t h e e x a m in a tio n o f
c o u r s e s o f s tu d y i n t h e v a r i o u s s t a t e s t o d e te r m in e w hat i s
e x p e c te d o f t h e c la s s r o o m t e a c h e r i n t h e t e a c h i n g o f p h y s i c a l
e d u c a tio n .
S in c e t h i s s tu d y p e r t a i n e d d i r e c t l y t o t h e p ro g ra m
o f a c t i v i t i e s t a u g h t i n t h e e le m e n ta r y s c h o o l a n d t o t h e tim e
g iv e n t o s u c h a c t i v i t i e s , i t was in d e e d v a l u a b l e i n t h e
p r e s e n t s tu d y .
M a r g u e r ite S e a v e r p r e p a r e d a s tu d y e n t i t l e d ,
" P h y s ic a l
A b i l i t y A ch iev e m e n t E x p e c ta n c i e s B ased upon T e s t s o f 1 7 2 ,5 9 3
P u p i l s i n t h e Los A n g e le s C i ty S c h o o l s ." 4
The p l a n o f p r o ­
c e d u r e was t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f d a t a from t a b u l a t i o n s on c h a r t s
w h ic h c o n t a i n e d r e c o r d s o f p u p i l s i n p r e s c r i b e d a t h l e t i c
u n its .
T hese c h a r t s h a d b e e n f i l e d by t h e D e p a rtm e n t o f
P h y s i c a l E d u c a tio n s i n c e 1 9 2 1 , a n d t h e y c o n t a i n e d th o u s a n d s
of re c o rd s.
I n o r d e r t o make t h e w ork p r a c t i c a l , a l l c h a r t s w ere
e l i m i n a t e d e x c e p t t h o s e f o r t h e s c h o o l y e a r 1 9 2 5 -2 6 .
T h ese
c h a r t s w ere s e l e c t e d b e c a u s e t h e y r e p r e s e n t e d t h e w ork o f
4 M a r g u e r ite S e a v e r , "A S tu d y o f P h y s i c a l A b i l i t y
A c h ie v e m e n t E x p e c ta n c i e s B a se d Upon T e s t s o f 1 7 2 ,5 9 3 P u p i l s
i n t h e L os A n g e le s C i ty S chools," ( u n p u b l is h e d M a s t e r 's t h e s i s ,
U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , C a l i f o r n i a ,
1 9 3 3 ) , 169 p p .
t h e t e a c h e r s a f t e r t h e y h a d becom e som ew hat e x p e r i e n c e d i n
t e a c h i n g a n d m e a s u rin g t h e e v e n t s , a n d t h a t o f t h e c h i l d r e n
a f t e r c o n s id e ra b le p r a c t i c e .
C h a r ts made b y t e a c h e r s whom t h e s u p e r v i s o r b e l i e v e d
t o b e c a r e l e s s o r i n a c c u r a t e w ere th ro w n a s i d e ; t h e r e f o r e
o n ly 1 7 2 ,5 9 3 r e c o r d s w ere l e f t f o r u s e .
The p u r p o s e o f h e r
s tu d y was t o d e v e lo p A c h ie v e m e n t E x p e c ta n c y T a b le s a n d t o s e t
up g o a l s i n t h e p e rfo r m a n c e o f v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s o r game
s k ills ,
i n o r d e r t h a t t h e c h i l d m ig h t know t h e d e g re e o f
s k i l l t h a t he c o u l d e x p e c t t o a t t a i n i n a n y g iv e n a c t i v i t y .
T h is s t u d y was h e l p f u l i n f o r m u l a t i n g t h e m a t e r i a l on o r g a n i ­
z a tio n and a d m in is tr a tio n .
C o n te n t o f t h e p ro g ra m .
I n WA C r i t i c a l S u rv e y o f
P h y s i c a l E d u c a tio n i n t h e S e c o n d a ry S c h o o ls o f O r e g o n ,” 5
L aw re n ce W. H o s t e t l e r made a s u r v e y o f t h e e n t i r e f i e l d o f
p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n .
The p r im a r y p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was
t o a n a l y z e a n d e v a l u a t e t h e s t a t u s o f t h e e x i s t i n g p ro g ra m s
o f th e s t a t e .
R ecom m endations f o r re m a k in g t h e p ro g ra m s a n d
a c o n s tru c tiv e c r itic is m
t h e s t a t e w ere m ade.
o f th e p r a c tic e s th a t e x is te d in
S in c e m o st o f t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n
w as t a u g h t b y c o a c h e s , p r a c t i c a l l y a l l t h e i n f o r m a t i o n was
5 L aw rence W. H o s t e t l e r , ”A C r i t i c a l S u rv e y o f P h y s i ­
c a l E d u c a tio n i n t h e S e c o n d a ry S c h o o ls o f Oregon,” (u n p u b ­
l i s h e d M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a ,
L os A n g e le s , C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 5 ) , 94 p p .
s e c u r e d fro m them *
T h is was a q u e s t i o n n a i r e s tu d y c o m b in ed
w ith an in te r v ie w .
The a r e a s o f th e f i e l d c o v e r e d w ere
t r a i n i n g , tim e a l l o t m e n t o f c o a c h es*
f o r t h e w ork.
H is c o n c l u s i o n s w e re:
n o t b e in g u se d t o th e f u l l e s t e x te n t;
d u t i e s , a n d r e m u n e r a tio n
(1 ) t h a t f a c i l i t i e s a r e
(2 ) t h a t a d r i v e t o e n ­
f o r c e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n ts s h o u l d b e i n i t i a t e d ;
(3 ) t h a t t h e B a c h e lo r o f A r t s d e g re e s h o u ld b e r e q u i r e d o f
a l l te a c h e rs ;
(4 ) t h a t e m p h a s is s h o u ld b e s h i f t e d fro m g a te
r e c e i p t s ; a n d (5 ) t h a t a t h l e t e s s h o u ld b e g iv e n f r e e m e d ic a l
s e rv ic e .
H o s t e t l e r * s c o n c l u s i o n s a n d re c o m m e n d a tio n s h a v e
b e e n o f v a lu e t o t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y .
T e a c h in g p e r s o n n e l .
A s tu d y e n t i t l e d ,
rtA T e a c h e r s
C o lle g e P r o f e s s i o n a l P ro g ra m i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a tio n f o r th e
G e n e r a l C la ssro o m T e a c h e r ,11® was p r e p a r e d b y F r a n c e s
B l a c k w e ll .
The o b j e c t o f h e r s tu d y was t o d e te r m in e j u s t
w h at i s b e in g e x p e c t e d o f t h e g e n e r a l c la s s r o o m t e a c h e r i n
th e m a tte r o f h e a l t h and p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n and to f i n d out
w h at t h e o u t s t a n d i n g men an d women i n t h i s
f i e l d c o n s id e r
a d e q u a te t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s t o b e t t e r p r e p a r e t h e g e n e r a l
c la s s r o o m t e a c h e r t o m eet t h e dem ands made b y a c h a n g in g
s o c ia l o rd e r.
A n o th e r a s p e c t o f th e p ro b le m was t o d e te r m in e
6 F r a n c e s B la c k w e ll, MA T e a c h e r s C o lle g e P r o f e s s i o n a l
P ro g ra m i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a tio n f o r t h e G e n e r a l C la s sro o m
T e a c h e r , “ ( u n p u b l is h e d M a s te r* s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e rn
C a l i f o r n i a , L os A n g e le s , C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 4 ) , 91 p p .
th e c o n te n t o f th e c o u rs e s o f f e r e d p r o s p e c tiv e te a c h e r s and
t o f i n d o u t i f t h e r e was a n y u n i f o r m i t y i n w hat i s b e i n g
ta u g h t.
The p l a n o f p r o c e d u r e w as t o make a s tu d y o f t h e
a im s a n d o b j e c t i v e s o f h e a l t h a n d p h y s i c a l e d u c a ti o n a d v o ­
c a t e d b y a u t h o r i t i e s i n t h e f i e l d an d t o make i n v e s t i g a t i o n s
t h r o u g h q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w h ic h w e re s e n t t o h e a d s o f t h e d e ­
p a r tm e n t o f h e a l t h a n d p h y s i c a l e d u c a ti o n i n s t a t e t e a c h e r s
c o l l e g e s and s u p e r v i s o r s o f h e a l t h a n d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n
c i t y s c h o o l s y s te m s .
T h is s t u d y was h e l p f u l i n f o r m u l a t i n g
t h e m a t e r i a l on t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g .
O th e r r e l a t e d s t u d i e s p e r t a i n i n g d i r e c t l y t o e q u ip m e n t
s t a n d a r d s a n d i n t e g r a t i o n o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r w h ich m ig h t h a v e
b e e n v a l u a b l e t o t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r i n t h i s s u rv e y c o u ld n o t b e
fo u n d .
IV.
METHOD OF PROCEDURE AND SOURCES OF DATA
M ethod o f p r o c e d u r e .
The c r i t e r i a u s e d to e v a l u a t e
t h e p ro g ra m o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n t h e e le m e n ta r y s c h o o l s
w ere t a k e n fro m t h e H e a lth a n d P h y s i c a l E d u c a tio n S c o re C ard
f o r e le m e n t a r y s c h o o l s , fo u n d i n t h e P h y s i c a l E d u c a tio n C ur­
ric u lu m .
The P h y s i c a l E d u c a tio n C u rric u lu m i s b a s e d u p o n
t e n y e a r s o f r e s e a r c h b y t h e N a t i o n a l C om m ittee o f t h e
C o lle g e P h y s i c a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c i a t i o n , a s s i s t e d b y h u n d re d s
o f r e p r e s e n ta t iv e p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n s u p e r v is o r s th ro u g h o u t
t h e U n ite d S t a t e s .
T h is s c o r e c a r d i s i n t e n d e d a s a
m e a s u r in g d e v ic e f o r p u r p o s e s o f e v a l u a t i n g t h e p h y s i c a l edu­
c a t i o n p ro g ra m a n d t h e g e n e r a l h e a l t h , r e c r e a t i o n , a n d s a f e t y
p r o v is io n s o f an e n t i r e s c h o o l.
The p u r p o s e i s t o c e n t e r a t ­
t e n t i o n upon t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a g o o d p ro g ra m a n d t o
p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a s c h o o l t o com pare i t s o f f e r i n g s
som ew hat o b j e c t i v e l y w i t h t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .
a t i o n s h o u ld s e r v e t o d i s c l o s e
The e v a lu ­
s i g n i f ic a n t w eaknesses t h a t
a r e s u b j e c t t o im p ro v e m e n t, r a t h e r t h a n t o p r e s e n t m e r e ly a
c r i t i c a l r a t i n g o f th e s c h o o l.^
ELEMENTARY SCHOOL SCORE CARD8
HEALTH AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION SCORE CARD
No. 1
FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS
G ra d e s l - 6 l
NAME OF SCHOOL______________________ ADDRESS_______________
P r i n c i p a l __________________
R a te d b y ______________
R a ti n g f o r s c h o o l y e a r _____________ D a te ___________________
Number o f s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d : b o y s
g i r l s ___________
Maximum
S c o re
A c tu a l
S c o re ^
■^In s c o r i n g t h e E ig h t - Y e a r E le m e n ta ry S c h o o ls t h e
s e v e n t h a n d e i g h t h g r a d e s s h o u ld b e r a t e d on t h e
S e c o n d a ry S c o re C a rd .
2E ach ite m i s t o b e s c o r e d 1 , 2 , 3 , o r m o re, a c c o r d ­
in g to s c a le s in d ic a te d in p a r e n th e s e s .
In th e s u b je c tiv e
s c o r e s ( f a i r , g o o d , a n d e x c e l l e n t ) , r a t e r s s h o u ld make
u n p re ju d ic e d e v a lu a tio n s .
I f c o n d i t i o n s a r e a p p ro x im a te
b u t n o t e x a c t , g iv e e s t i m a t e d e q u i v a l e n t s c o r e .
7 W illia m R a lp h L a P o r te , The P h y s i c a l E d u c a tio n C ur­
ric u lu m .
S eco n d E d i t i o n , R e v is e d an d E n la r g e d !
( Los A n g e le s:
The C o lle g e P h y s i c a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 3 8 ), p . 6 5 .
® I b i d . , p p . 6 6 -7 1 .
12
S c o re C ard Summary
I . P ro g ram o f A c t i v i t i e s . . • . 3 0
I I . O u td o o r A r e a s ................ .......
24
........................... 24
I I I . I n d o o r A re a s
.
IV . O r g a n i z a t i o n a n d A d m i n i s t r a t i o n
o f C la s s P ro g ra m s ‘ . . . . . 3 6
V. M e d ic a l E x a m in a tio n s a n d
H e a l t h S e r v ic e . . . . . . .
36
T o t a l P o s s i b l e S c o re
150
T o ta l
A c tu a l
P e r c e n t a g e S c o re ( A c tu a l *■ 1*5)
I.
P ro g ram o f A c t i v i t i e s
Maximum S c o re s 3 0 .
A c t u a l S c o re a
1 . C o n te n t o f P r im a r y P ro g ra m ( g r a d e s 1 -3 ) i n c l u d e s :
(1 ) r h y t h m i c a l a c t i v i t i e s , (2 ) h u n t i n g g a m e s,
(3 ) r e l a y s , (4 ) s t u n t s a n d s e l f - t e s t i n g , (5 ) a t h ­
l e t i c gam es o f low o r g a n i z a t i o n .
(T h re e a c t i v i t i e s = 2 ; f o u r a c t i v i t i e s = 4 ; f i v e
a c t i v i t i e s = 6)
S c o re _________
2 . C o n te n t o f E le m e n ta r y P ro g ra m ( g r a d e s 4 -6 ) i n ­
c lu d e s : (1 ) a t h l e t i c gam es, (2 ) r h y t h m i c a l a c t i v i ­
t i e s , (3 ) h u n t in g g a m e s, (4 ) i n d i v i d u a l a t h l e t i c
e v e n t s , (5 ) p o s t u r e t r a i n i n g , (6 ) r e l a y s ,
(7 ) s t u n t s .
(T h re e a c t i v i t i e s = 2 ; f i v e a c t i v i t i e s = 4 ; s e v e n
a c t i v i t i e s = 6)
S c o re _________
3 . A w e l l - p l a n n e d a n d d e t a i l e d y e a r l y p ro g ra m ( c o u r s e
o f s tu d y , in c lu d in g s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s ) , f o r each
g r a d e , i s on f i l e i n t h e p r i n c i p a l 1s o f f i c e .
(P r im a r y o r e le m e n t a r y o n ly - 2 ; b o t h p r im a r y a n d
e le m e n ta r y - 3)
S core_
__
4 . A C o u rse o f S tu d y C om m ittee g i v e s c o n s i d e r a t i o n , a t
l e a s t a n n u a l l y , t o n e e d e d r e v i s i o n s i n t h e p ro g ra m .
( P a i r c o m m itte e = 1 ; g o o d = 2 ; e x c e l l e n t = 3)
S c o re
13
5 . D a ily p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c l a s s i n s t r u c t i o n p e r i o d
i s r e q u ire d o f a l l c h ild re n .
OTwenty m in u te s d a i l y ( e x c l u s i v e o f r e c e s s ) = 2 ;
t w e n t y - f i v e m in u te s = 4 ; t h i r t y m in u te s o r
more = 6 J
Score___________
6 . P r o v i s i o n i s made f o r a d e q u a te m a in te n a n c e a n d
s a n i t a t i o n o f s c h o o l g ro u n d s, p l a n t , an d c l a s s ­
ro o m s; a n d f o r t h e c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f h e a l t h i n ­
s tr u c tio n in s ,ll g ra d e s.
( F a i r = 1 ; good » 2; e x c e l l e n t » 3)
S c o re __________
7 . A c o m p re h e n s iv e s a f e t y e d u c a t i o n p ro g ra m i s
s p o n s o r e d i n a l l g r a d e s , e m p h a s iz in g s a f e t y
h a b it s a n d p r a c t i c e s , s a f e ty c o d e s , and s a f e ty
s ta n d a rd s .
( F a i r s 1 ; good = 2; e x c e l l e n t « 3)
S c o re ___________
II.
O u td o o r A re a s
Maximum S c o re s 24,
1* T o ta l a v a i l a b l e
c l u d e s fro m one
o f s c h o o l.
(Minimum o f one
each added u n it
a d d itio n a l a cre
w ith a d d i t i o n a l
A c t u a l S c o re -
p la y g r o u n d s p a c e o r f i e l d a r e a i n ­
to f i v e a c r e s , a c c o rd in g to s iz e
a c r e , w ith a n a d d i t i o n a l a c r e f o r
o f 500 s t u d e n t s = 2; m inim um, w ith
f o r e a c h 400 s t u d e n t s = 4 ; minimum,
a c r e f o r e a c h 300 s t u d e n t s s 6)
S c o re
'
2m F i e l d a n d c o u r t a r e a s a r e s u r f a c e d w i t h m a t e r i a l s
t h a t a re n o n a b ra s iv e , r e s i l i e n t , n o n s lip p e ry ,
firm , and a s n e a r ly d u s tle s s a s p o s s ib le (h a rd
p a c k e d d i r t o r c l a y , c a lc iu m c h l o r i d e , g o o d t u r f ,
e t c e t e r a ) ; and have s u ita b le s lo p e f o r good
d r a i n a g e i n r a i n y w e a th e r .
( F a i r s u r f a c e s 2 ; g o o d s 4 ; e x c e l l e n t = 6)
S c o re ___________
3 . F i e l d a r e a s a r e k e p t c le a n a n d w e l l m a rk e d , a n d
a re w ith o u t h a z a rd o u s o b s tr u c tio n s ; and a p p a ra tu s
i s p r o t e c t e d b y s a w d u s t, s a n d , o r s h a v i n g s .
( F a i r c o n d i t i o n s 1 ; good = 2 ; e x c e l l e n t = 3)
S c o re ____________
14
4* A l l p l a y a r e a s a r e f e n c e d o f f fro m s t r e e t s , w ith
s u b d i v i s i o n f e n c e s w h ere n e c e s s a r y f o r s a f e t y an d
c o n t r o l ; a n d a r e made a t t r a c t i v e b y v i n e , t r e e ,
o r sh ru b b e ry b o r d e r s ,
( S t a n d a r d s a p p r o x i m a t e ly m et * 1 - 2 ; f u l l y m et * 3)
S c o re ____________
5.
III.
P la y g r o u n d i s k e p t o p en a f t e r s c h o o l h o u r s a n d on
S a tu r d a y s f o r g e n e r a l p l a y o f s c h o o l c h i l d r e n ,
u n d er s u p e rv is io n o f tr a in e d te a c h e r o r p la y
d ire c to r,
( S t a n d a r d s .a p p r o x i m a t e ly m et a 2 - 4 ; f u l l y m et s 6)
S c o re ____________
In d o o r A re as
Maximum S c o re = 2 4 .
A c t u a l S c o re »
1.
Oneo r m ore in d o o r r e c r e a t i o n h a l l s o r p l a y room s
( s i z e p r o p o r tio n a te to c la s s e s an d e n ro llm e n t)
a re p ro v id e d f o r c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s and f o r r a in y
w e a t h e r , w ith c e i l i n g h e i g h t a t l e a s t s i x t e e n
f e e t ; w ith n o n s lip p e r y f l o o r s , l i n e s p r o p e r ly
p a i n t e d ; w a l ls sm o o th a n d c l e a r ; r a d i a t o r s a n d
d rin k in g f o u n ta in s re c e s s e d ; an d l i g h t , h e a t,
v e n t i l a t i o n , and a c o u s tic s p ro p e rly c a re d f o r .
( S t a n d a r d s a p p r o x im a te ly m et a 2 - 4 ; f u l l y m et a 6)
Sc o re
________
2.
A r e s t room e a c h f o r b o y s a n d g i r l s i s p r o v i d e d
fo r use in in ju ry o r i ll n e s s o r f o r r e s t p e rio d s ,
e q u ip p e d w ith c o t s , p a d s , a n d b l a n k e t s .
(One c o t f o r e v e r y 200 b o y s o r g i r l s a 1 ; one c o t
f o r 150 a 2 ; one c o t f o r 100 = 3)
S c o re ____________
3 . W e ll- e q u ip p e d r e s t room s f o r i n s t r u c t o r s a r e
p ro v id e d .
( P a i r room s a 1 ; g o o d a 2 ; e x c e l l e n t « 3)
S c o re
4.
H e a l t h o f f i c e s e q u ip p e d f o r m e d ic a l e x a m in a tio n s
and f i r s t a id a r e p ro v id e d e i t h e r a d jo in in g th e
p r i n c i p a l 1s o f f i c e o r a s a p a r t o f s p e c i a l
In s tru c to r’s o ffic e .
( F a i r a 1 ; good = 2 ; e x c e l l e n t a 3)
Score
15
5* D r e s s in g a n d sh o w er room s a r e p r o v i d e d f o r
g ra d e s 4 -6 ( a d jo in in g r e c r e a t io n h a l l ) , w ith f r e e
f l o o r s p a c e ( e x c l u s i v e o f l o c k e r s ) a d e q u a te t o
c a re f o r peak lo a d o f u se ,
(P e a k l o a d e q u a l s
l a r g e s t num ber o f s t u d e n t s d r e s s i n g i n a n y one
c la s s p e rio d .)
(D re s s in g a r e a , 8 -1 2 sq . f t . p e r
p u p i l ; s h o w e rs , t h r e e t o f i v e s t u d e n t s p e r
, s h o w e r .)
( S t a n d a r d s a p p r o x i m a t e ly m et « 2 ; f u l l y m et = 3)
S c o re ____________
6 . T o i l e t f a c i l i t i e s a r e a v a i l a b l e im m e d ia te ly a d ­
j o i n i n g d r e s s i n g room s a n d a c c e s s i b l e d i r e c t l y t o
p la y g r o u n d ; c o n t a i n i n g a d e q u a te b o w ls , u r i n a l s ,
w a s h b a s in s , h o t a n d c o ld w a t e r , l i q u i d s o a p d i s ­
p e n s e r s , d r i n k i n g f o u n t a i n s , m i r r o r s , w a s te ­
b a s k e t s , a n d p a p e r to w e ls o r d r y i n g m a c h in e s .
( S t a n d a r d s a p p r o x i m a t e ly m et * 1 - 2 ; f u l l y m et => 3)
Sc o re ____________
7 . An e q u ip m e n t a n d s u p p ly o f f i c e , s u i t a b l e f o r u s e
by c o n s u ltin g p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n s u p e r v is o r , i s
e q u ip p e d f o r s t o r i n g a n d i s s u i n g c l a s s a n d p l a y ro u n d s u p p l i e s .
F a i r o f f i c e - 1 ; g o o d = 2 ; e x c e l l e n t = 3)
Sc o r e
•
f
IV . O r g a n iz a t i o n a n d A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f C la s s P ro g ra m s
Maximum S c o re = 3 6 . A c t u a l S c o re =
1» A d e q u a te s u p p ly o f p l a y e q u ip m e n t ( 2 -5 b a l l s f o r
e a c h c l a s s a t p e a k lo a d ) f o r c l a s s i n s t r u c t i o n i n
a l l a c t i v i t i e s o f f e r e d i s k e p t in a lo c k e d box o r
o ffic e c a b in e t.
( F a i r e q u ip m e n t = 2 ; go o d = 4 ; e x c e l l e n t * 6)
S c o re ____________
2 . A d e q u a te f a c i l i t i e s f o r h a n d l i n g i n d i v i d u a l a c ­
t i v i t y (c o rre c tiv e ) cases a re a v a ila b le e ith e r
w ith in th e sc h o o l o r in a c e n t r a l , c o r r e c tiv e
c e n te r a c c e s s ib le to s e v e r a l s c h o o ls ( o r th e
e q u iv a le n t) .
( F a i r f a c i l i t i e s = 1 ; good * 2 ; e x c e l l e n t = 3)
S c o re ____________
3 . A l l c la s s r o o m i n s t r u c t o r s h a v e h a d s p e c i a l t r a i n ­
in g c o u r s e s i n h e a l t h a n d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a c ­
t i v i t i e s o r a re ta k in g su ch c o u rs e s in e x te n s io n
16
o r summer s c h o o l s ; i n l a r g e r s c h o o l s y s te m s
s p e c i a l l y t r a i n e d p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n s u p e r v is o r s
a r e a s s i g n e d , on a c o n s u l t a n t b a s i s t o one o r more
s c h o o ls .
( S t a n d a r d s a p p r o x i m a t e ly m et = 2 - 4 ; f u l l y m et s 6)
S c o re ____________
4* T r a i n e d l e a d e r s h i p i s a v a i l a b l e f o r i n d i v i d u a l
a c t i v i t y ( c o r r e c t i v e ) c a s e s fro m t h e r e g u l a r s t a f f ,
fro m a c o n s u l t a n t s u p e r v i s o r , o r fro m a p h y s i o ­
th e ra p y c l i n i c .
( S t a n d a r d s a p p r o x i m a t e ly m et = 1 - 2 ; f u l l y m et = 3 )
S c o re ____________
5* A p p r o p r i a t e a c t i v i t i e s a r e p r o v i d e d f o r s t u d e n t s
I n c a p a c i t a t e d f o r n o rm a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n o r n e e d in g
s p e c ia l p o s tu r a l o r o rth o p e d ic c o r r e c tio n
( c l a s s e s B and C ); w ith r a d i c a l l y r e s t r i c t e d c a s e s
a s s i g n e d t o r e s t a t a p p r o p r i a t e p e r i o d s d u r i n g th e
day.
( F a i r p ro g ra m « 1 ; good a 2 ; e x c e l l e n t = 3)
S c o re ____________
6 . I n g e n e r a l c l a s s i n s t r u c t i o n , e m p h a s is i s p l a c e d
upon e n t h u s i a s t i c , jo y o u s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a l l
a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e d i n t h e p ro g ra m , w ith i n s t r u c ­
t i o n a n d p r a c t i c e i n p e rfo r m a n c e f u n d a m e n ta ls ,
game r u l e s , game s t r a t e g y , a n d s o c i a l c o n d u c t
s ta n d a rd s •
( S t a n d a r d s a p p r o x im a te ly m et * 1 - 2 ; f u l l y m et = 3)
Sc o r e ____________
7 . I n i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t y i n s t r u c t i o n , e m p h a sis i s
p l a c e d upon p r a c t i c i n g t h e d i r e c t e d e x e r c i s e s a t
home f r e q u e n t l y , w i t h t h e c o - o p e r a t i o n o f p a r e n t s ;
upon m a i n t a i n i n g g o o d p o s t u r a l a lig n m e n t a t a l l
t i m e s ; a n d upon p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n m o d if ie d s p o r t
a c t i v i t i e s f o r w h ic h t h e y a r e f i t t e d .
( S t a n d a r d s a p p r o x im a te ly m et « 1 - 2 ; f u l l y m et = 3)
S c o re ____________
8 . The n o o n - h o u r a n d r e c e s s p e r i o d s a r e w e l l o r ­
g a n iz e d w i t h c a r e f u l l y l i m i t e d a c t i v i t i e s t h a t
a r e p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y d e f e n s i b l e ; a n d w ith s e v e r a l
i n s t r u c t o r s a s s ig n e d each day to c a r e f u l s u p e r­
v is io n o f th e p la y g ro u n d an d r e c r e a t i o n h a l l .
( F a ir o rg a n iz a tio n an d s u p e rv is io n s 1; good = 2;
e x c e l l e n t s 3)
S c o re ____________
17
9 . No s t u d e n t i s p e r m i t t e d t o s u b s t i t u t e c l e r i c a l
w o rk , j a n i t o r w o rk , o r to w e l d i s p e n s i n g i n p l a c e
o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s a c t i v i t y ( e x c e p t d u r in g
v e r y te m p o r a r y d i s a b i l i t y ) .
( F a i r * 1 ; good = 2; e x c e l l e n t s 3)
S c o re ____________
10. I n te r s c h o o l c o m p e titio n
o rg a n iz e d p la y days a re
a d e q u a te l e a d e r s h i p .
(P la y d ay s f o r g i r l s o r
days f o r boys an d g i r l s
i s n o t a p p ro v e d , b u t w e l l s ta g e d p e r i o d i c a l l y u n d er
b o y s s e p a r a t e l y - 2; p l a y
j o i n t l y s 3)
S c o re ____________
V. M e d ic a l E x a m in a tio n s a n d H e a lth S e r v i c e
Maximum S c o re = 3 6 . A c t u a l S c o re 1 . M e d ic a l e x a m in in g , a d v i s o r y , a n d e m e rg en c y s e r v i c e
i s p r o v i d e d b y s c h o o l p h y s i c i a n s , w ith c o - o p e r a t i v e
a r r a n g e m e n ts f o r h a n d l i n g h a n d ic a p p e d a n d p ro b le m
c a se s in sc h o o l o r p u b lic c l i n i c s , o r by p r iv a te
m e d ic a l p r a c t i t i o n e r s .
(A d e q u a te v o l u n t e e r s e r v i c e by com m unity
p h y s i c i a n s = 4 ; p a r t - t i m e p a i d s c h o o l p h y s i c i a n s 6)
S c o re ____________
2m T r a in e d s c h o o l n u r s e s e r v i c e i s p r o v i d e d f o r b o th
s c h o o l a n d home v i s i t a t i o n p u r p o s e s , b y e i t h e r
p a r t- tim e o r f u l l - t i m e n u r s e s , a c c o rd in g to s iz e
o f s c h o o l.
( F a i r s e r v i c e = 2; g o o d s e r v i c e = 4 ; e x c e l l e n t
s e r v i c e = 6)
S c o re ____________
3 . A c o m p re h e n s iv e p h y s i c a l - m e d i c a l e x a m in a tio n b y
th e sc h o o l p h y s ic ia n i s r e q u ir e d o f e v e ry s tu d e n t
a t l e a s t o n ce i n e a c h s c h o o l l e v e l (e x a m p le : e a c h
t h r e e y e a r s ) ; a n d i n c l u d e s a t l e a s t a c a r e f u l c h ec k
f o r o rth o p e d ic and p o s tu r a l d e f e c ts , v is io n , h e a r­
i n g , n o s e , m o u th , t h r o a t , t e e t h , h e a r t , l u n g s ,
n u t r i t i o n , s k i n , n e rv o u s c o n d i t i o n , a n d p o s s i b l e
h e rn ia .
(Once i n s c h o o l l e v e l - 4 ; tw o o r more t im e s i n
s c h o o l l e v e l = 6)
_____
S core
18
4 . A s sig n m e n t t o r e s t , r e s t r i c t e d , o r i n d i v i d u a l a c ­
t i v i t y , o r e x c u s e fro m r e q u i r e d n o rm a l p h y s i c a l
e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t y ( f o r o t h e r t h a n te m p o ra ry i l l ­
n e s s ) i s a p p ro v e d b y t h e s c h o o l p h y s i c i a n , i n
c o n s u lta tio n w ith p r i n c i p a l o r p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n
in s tru c to r*
(S c o r e = 3 )
Score____________
5 . A p e r m a n e n t, c o n t i n u o u s , p r o g r e s s i v e h e a l t h r e c o r d
i s m a i n t a i n e d a n d p a s s e d on f o r e a c h c h i l d a n d i s
u s e d a s b a s i s f o r a d v ic e a n d f o l lo w - u p h e a l t h
s e rv ic e .
( F a i r * 1 ; good = 2 ; e x c e l l e n t s 3)
S c o re ____________
6 . On b a s i s o f m e d ic a l e x a m in a tio n , c h i l d r e n a r e
c l a s s i f i e d in to th r e e d iv is io n s , o r e q u iv a le n t:
A, a v e r a g e n o rm a l f o r u n l i m i t e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n ;
B, s u b n o r m a l, w i t h te m p o r a r y o r p e rm a n e n t l i m i t a ­
t i o n t o r e s t r i c t e d a c t i v i t y ; C, o f f e r e d i n d i v i d u a l
o r c o r r e c t i v e t r e a t m e n t , s u p p le m e n tin g n o rm a l
p ro g ra m .
( F a i r = 1 ; good = 2 ; e x c e l l e n t ■ 3)
S c o re ____________
7 . S t u d e n ts r e t u r n i n g a f t e r i n f l u e n z a o r o t h e r s e r i o u s
I l l n e s s a r e a p p ro v e d b y p h y s i c i a n o r n u r s e b e f o r e
b e in g p e r m itte d to p a r t i c i p a t e in s tre n u o u s a c ­
tiv itie s .
( S t a n d a r d s a p p r o x i m a t e ly m et = 1 - 2 ; f u l l y m et - 3)
__
S c o re
8 . A p h y s i c a l - m e d i c a l e x a m in a tio n i s made b y t h e
sc h o o l p h y s ic ia n o f a l l te a c h e r a p p lic a n ts ;
f o l lo w e d b y a p e r i o d i c e x a m in a tio n e v e r y t h r e e
y e a rs t h e r e a f t e r ; and a c a r e f u l in s p e c tio n o f a l l
t e a c h e r s r e t u r n i n g t o d u ty a f t e r i l l n e s s o f two
w eeks o r m o re.
( S t a n d a r d s a p p r o x i m a t e ly m et - 2 ; f u l l y m et = 3)
S c o re ____________
9 . N o n m e d ic a l t e a c h e r s o r s c h o o l o f f i c e r s a r e n e v e r
p e r m i t t e d t o d ia g n o s e o r t r e a t h e a l t h d i s o r d e r s .
(S c o re s 3)
Score
19
An i n q u i r y b l a n k b a s e d u p o n t h e s e c r i t e r i a was s e n t t o
t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s o f one h u n d r e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c i t i e s i n
W est T exas*
The i n q u i r y b l a n k a n d l e t t e r o f t r a n s m i t t a l may
b e f o u n d i n t h e A p p e n d ix .
S o u rc e s o f d a t a .
D a ta w ere r e c e i v e d fro m s i x t y - t w o
c i t i e s o f T e x a s , r e p r e s e n t i n g 6 2 .0 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l
num ber o f c i t i e s t o whom t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w ere s e n t*
I m p o r ta n t t o t h i s s tu d y h a v e b e e n t h e many a r t i c l e s
a n d b o o k s w h ic h w ere w r i t t e n i n f o r m e r y e a r s c o n c e r n in g
te a c h e r s e le c tio n .
A ls o , a u t h o r i t i e s i n t h i s f i e l d h a v e b e e n
c a r e f u l l y s t u d i e d , a n d t h e i r v ie w s h av e c o n t r i b u t e d much t o
th e p r e s e n t in v e s tig a tio n *
The c o n c l u s i o n s a n d re c o m m e n d a tio n s o f t h i s s t u d y w ere
draw n fro m a n a n a l y s i s o f t h e t a b l e s b a s e d u p o n t h e in f o r m a ­
t i o n g a t h e r e d on t h e i n q u i r y b l a n k , an d a l s o fro m th e o p i n io n s
o f th o s e a u t h o r i t a t iv e
in t h i s f i e l d .
In th e p r e p a r a tio n o f t h i s
i n v e s t i g a t i o n , th e o r i g i n a l
s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n was t h e d a t a r e c e i v e d fro m t h e i n q u i r y
b la n k .
V.
ORGANIZATION OF CHAPTERS
The r e p o r t o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s o r g a n i z e d i n s e v e n
c h a p te rs .
C h a p te r One h a s d e a l t w i t h a s t a t e m e n t o f t h e p r o b ­
le m , t h e im p o rta n c e o f th e s t u d y , t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e p ro b le m ,
20
a b r i e f s u rv e y o f r e l a t e d s t u d i e s , t h e m eth o d o f p r o c e d u r e
an d so u rc e s o f d a ta , and an o u tlin e o f c h a p te r o rg a n iz a tio n *
I n C h a p te r Two a r e p r e s e n t e d d a t a on t h e e q u ip m e n t
s t a n d a r d s o f t h e e le m e n t a r y s c h o o l s i n W est T exas*
a re lim ite d to th e a t h l e t i c
fie ld s ,
The d a ta
in d o o r f a c i l i t i e s ,
g e n e r­
a l a c t i v i t y s u p p lie s , and f i r s t a id s u p p lie s .
The p u r p o s e i n C h a p te r T h re e i s t o make a s t u d y o f
t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e a c t i v i t y p ro g ra m s e t down by t h e s i x t y tw o c i t i e s i n g r a d e s one th r o u g h s i x a n d t o d e te r m in e , i f i t
i s p o s s i b l e , w hat c i t i e s a r e p l a c i n g e m p h a s is on t h e s e
minimum r e q u i r e m e n t s .
C h a p te r F o u r i s l i m i t e d t o
m in is tr a tio n o f th e
th e o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d a d ­
e le m e n ta r y s c h o o l p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n
p ro g ra m i n t h e s i x t y - t w o c i t i e s o f W est T e x a s .
In th is
c h a p t e r a r e g iv e n t h e f i n d i n g s a s c e r t a i n e d fro m s c h o o l s
a n s w e r in g t h e i n q u i r y b l a n k , s u c h a s c l a s s s i z e , tim e
a l l o t m e n t , t e a c h e r l o a d , t e s t s , g r a d e s , a n d p h y s i c a l exam­
in a tio n s .
A c o m p a ris o n o f t h e p r o c e d u r e s u s e d b y t h e s i x t y -
tw o c i t i e s
i n W est T ex as w i t h th o s e g iv e n i n The P h y s i c a l
E d u c a ti o n C u rric u lu m (A N a t i o n a l P ro g ram )
i s made i n t h i s
c h a p te r.
C h a p te r F iv e
i s d e v o te d t o
th e p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n
p ro g ra m i n
s i x t y - t w o W est T ex as c i t i e s .
th e te a c h in g p e rs o n n e l o f
th e e le m e n ta r y s c h o o l s i n
T h is c h a p t e r g i v e s t h e f i n d i n g s
a s c e r t a i n e d fro m s c h o o ls a n s w e r in g t h e i n q u i r y b l a n k , s u c h
21
a s n e c e s s a r y t r a i n i n g , c e r t i f i c a t i o n , a n d m e th o d s a n d t e c h ­
n iq u e s u se d ,
A c o m p a ris o n o f t h e p l a n s u g g e s t e d i n The
P h y s i c a l E d u c a tio n C u rric u lu m (A N a t i o n a l P ro g ram ) w i t h
t h o s e o f t h e s i x t y - t w o c i t i e s i n W est T ex as i s made i n t h i s
c h a p te r.
C h a p te r S ix h a s t o do w i t h i n t e g r a t i n g t h e p h y s i c a l
e d u c a t i o n p ro g ra m w i t h h e a l t h ,
s a f e ty , and o th e r sc h o o l
s u b j e c t s i n t h e e le m e n ta r y s c h o o l s o f West T e x a s .
T h is
c h a p t e r i s l i m i t e d t o th e i n t e g r a t i o n a n d c o r r e l a t i o n o f t h e
h e a l t h p ro g ra m , t h e s a f e t y p r o g ra m , an d t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a ­
t i o n p ro g ra m w ith a l l o t h e r s u b j e c t s .
An e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e
f i n d i n g s a s c e r t a i n e d fro m s c h o o l s a n s w e rin g t h e i n q u i r y b l a n k
i n te r m s o f t h e c r i t e r i a s e t up i n The P h y s i c a l E d u c a tio n
C u r r ic u lu m (A N a t i o n a l P ro g ram )
i s made i n t h i s c h a p t e r .
I n t h e s e v e n th c h a p t e r , t h e f i n a l c h a p t e r o f t h e
t h e s i s , a g e n e r a l summary a n d c o n c l u s i o n s b a s e d on t h e
f i n d i n g s a n d re c o m m e n d a tio n s r e v e a l e d a n d s u p p o r te d , b y t h i s
s tu d y a r e p r e s e n te d .
The B i b li o g r a p h y f o l l o w s C h a p te r S e v e n .
I t c o n s is ts
o f s e l e c t e d s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s u s e d i n d e v e l o p in g t h e s t u d y .
The A p p e n d ix f o llo w s t h e B i b li o g r a p h y a n d c o n t a i n s a
co p y o f t h e i n q u i r y b l a n k s e n t t o one h u n d re d c i t i e s o f W est
T exas.
The A p p e n d ix a l s o c o n t a i n s a c o p y o f t h e l e t t e r o f
t r a n s m i t t a l s e n t w i t h t h e i n q u i r y b l a n k a n d t h e nam es o f
t h e s i x t y - t w o T ex a s c i t i e s r e p l y i n g .
By d e v e l o p in g t h e c h a p t e r s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p l a n w h ic h
h a s b e e n p r e s e n te d , th e w r i t e r hopes t o e v a lu a te th e p h y s ic a l
e d u c a t i o n p ro g ra m o f th e e le m e n t a r y s c h o o l a n d t o a f f o r d a
b a s i s f o r f u r t h e r o b je c tiv e stu d y in t h i s f ie ld *
CHAPTER I I
EQUIPMENT STANDARDS IN
THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF WEST TEXAS
It
p le te
i s t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s c h a p t e r t o p r e s e n t a s com­
i n f o r m a t i o n a s p o s s i b l e c o n c e r n i n g t h e e q u ip m e n t
s t a n d a r d s i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s o f West T e x a s , a n d t o
e v a lu a te th e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s tu d y in term s o f th e s ta n d a r d s
s e t up i n The P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n C u r r i c u l u m .
I n o r d e r t o o b t a i n a n i d e a o f t h e e x t e n t t o w h ic h
s t a n d a r d s s e t up i n The P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n C u r r i c u l u m com pare
w i t h t h o s e o f t h e s c h o o l s i n West T e x a s , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o
se n d t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e m en tio n ed i n th e f i r s t c h a p te r t o a
r e p r e s e n t a t i v e g r o u p o f West T e x a s c i t i e s f o r a c o m p a r is o n .
The form o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d e s i g n e d t o b r i n g
o u t a l l f a c t o r s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f West T e x a s s c h o o l s , a s
w e l l a s a n y a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r s w h ic h s h o u l d b e c o n d u c iv e t o
go od p r a c t i c e s .
B rie fly ,
its
fo rm n e c e s s i t a t e s i t e m s t o a f ­
f o r d i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s :
sta n d ard s;
( 1 ) e q u ip m e n t
(2) c o n t e n t o f t h e p r o g r a m ; (3 ) o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d
a d m in istra tio n ;
(4 ) t h e t e a c h i n g p e r s o n n e l ; a n d (5 ) i n t e g r a ­
tio n .
T h ro u g h o u t t h i s c h a p t e r , a n d t h o s e t h a t f o l l o w , t h e r e
w i l l b e n o t e d a c o n s t a n t v a r i a t i o n e x i s t i n g b e tw e e n t h e t o t a l
24
n um ber o f s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s a n s w e r i n g t h e i n q u i r y b l a n k a n d
th o se re p ly in g to in d iv id u a l ite m s.
P e rc e n ta g e s a re b ased
up on t h e num ber o f s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s a n s w e r i n g t h e p a r t i c u l a r
q u e s t i o n r a t h e r t h a n upon t h e nu m ber o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r s r e ­
p o rtin g .
A th le tic f ie ld s .
L a P o rte f i n d s t h a t
The t o t a l f i e l d a r e a s a l s o d e p e n d on t h e s i z e o f
th e sch o o l and th e sch o o l l e v e l .
The e l e m e n t a r y
s c h o o l s n a t u r a l l y r e q u i r e l e s s a r e a b e c a u s e t h e y do
n o t i n c l u d e t h e h i g h l y o r g a n i z e d g am es.
S ta n d a rd s
o f a r e a s f o r s c h o o l g r o u n d s v a r y , w i t h some s t a t e s
h a v in g s p e c i f i c re q u ire m e n ts and o th e r s none. A f a i r
e s t i m a t e o f t h e r a n g e s o f minimum s t a n d a r d s , how­
e v e r , w i l l be a p p ro x im a te ly a s fo llo w s .
T h ese a r e
e x c lu s iv e of b u ild in g s , and r e f e r to a c tu a l p la y
areas:
E le m e n t a r y s c h o o l s o r r u r a l s c h o o l s — f o u r t o
seven a c re s .
J u n i o r H ig h S c h o o l— s e v e n t o t e n a c r e s .
S e n i o r H ig h S c h o o l— t e n t o f i f t e e n a c r e s . 1
On t h i s b a s i s , t h e n , a n a n a l y s i s o f T a b l e I show s t h a t
f o r t y - e i g h t s c h o o ls , o r 7 7 .4 p e r c e n t o f th e s ix ty - tw o sc h o o ls
r e p o r t i n g , r e q u i r e a minimum o f f o u r a c r e s i n t h e i r p l a y i n g
fie ld s.
F o u rte en s c h o o ls , o r 2 2 .6 p e r c e n t o f th e s e s c h o o ls ,
r e q u ir e l e s s th a n f o u r a c re s in t h e i r p la y in g f i e l d s .
Of
th e f o u r t e e n sc h o o ls f a l l i n g in t h i s l a t t e r gro u p , s i x r e ­
p o rte d th r e e a c re s in t h e i r p la y in g f i e l d ; and e ig h t re p o rte d
W illia m R a lp h L a P o r t e , The P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n C ur­
ric u lu m .
Second E d i t i o n , R e v i s e d a n d E n l a r g e d (L os A n g e l e s ,
C a l i f o r n i a : The C o l l e g e P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n ,
1 9 3 8 ), p p . 39-4 1 .
25
TABLE I
AREAS GF ATHLETIC FIELDS IN SIXTY-TWO
CITIES GF WEST TEXAS
Number o f
S c h o o ls
P er cent
F o u r a c r e s o r more
48
7 7 .4
L ess th a n fo u r a c re s
14
2 2 .6
A rea
NOTE: T h i s t a b l e s h o u l d b e r e a d a s f o l l o w s :
A t o t a l o f f o r t y - e i g h t s c h o o ls , o r 7 7 .4 p e r cen t o f th e
s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , h a v e f o u r a c r e s o r m ore i n t h e i r
p la y in g f ie ld s .
26
o n l y tw o a c r e s *
The f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e a r e s t r i c t e d p r o g r a m
in th e s e p a r t i c u l a r sc h o o ls.
In th e m u ltip le use o f a r e a s X a P o r te a ls o f in d s t h a t
F o rtu n a te ly , i t i s p o s s ib le w ith p ro p e r c o n s tr u c tio n ,
t o u s e c e r t a i n a r e a s f o r a num ber o f d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i ­
t i e s a t d i f f e r e n t tim e s.
F o r e x a m p le , t h e t e n n i s c o u r t
a r e a c an b e u s e d f o r b a d m i n t o n o r p a d d l e . t e n n i s , a n d ,
b y b u i l d i n g a b a c k s t o p a c r o s s one e n d o f t h e c o u r t s ,
i t c a n be u s e d s u c c e s s f u l l y f o r one w a l l h a n d b a l l , a n d
f o r m o d i f i e d s q u a s h . Many o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s c a n b e
a d a p t e d t o t h e same a r e a , i f n e c e s s a r y . 2
T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n shows t h a t i n f i f t y - s e v e n s c h o o l s ,
o r 91*9 p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , p r o v i s i o n i s made
f o r m u ltip le use o f p la y in g a r e a ; t h a t i s ,
a r e a d a p t e d t o t h e same a r e a ,
sev eral a c tiv itie s
F iv e s c h o o ls ,
o r 8 .1 p e r cen t
o f t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , make no p r o v i s i o n f o r m u l t i p l e u s e
of p la y in g are a.
Indoor f a c i l i t i e s .
The C u r r i c u l u m R e s e a r c h C om m ittee
b e lie v e s th a t
Where gym nasium f l o o r a r e a s a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e p r o ­
v i s i o n s h o u l d b e made a t l e a s t f o r d r e s s i n g ro o m s,
s h o w e r room s, a n d o f f i c e s , w i t h c o r r e s p o n d i n g h e a l t h
s e r v i c e a r e a s , r e s t room s a n d n e c e s s a r y t o i l e t
fa c ilitie s.
Even e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s s h o u l d h a v e e i t h e r
a s m a l l gymnasium o r a p l a y room , w i t h c e l l i n g h e i g h t
a t le a s t six te e n f e e t.
I n many s c h o o l s t h i s n e e d i s
f u l f i l l e d by a c o m b i n a t i o n g y m n a s iu m - a u d ito r iu m a n d i n
a few c a s e s t h e gym nasium , a u d i t o r i u m , a n d c a f e t e r i a
. a r e co m b ined.
E ith e r o f th e se p lan s i s p r a c tic a b le i f
p r o p e r l y s c h e d u l e d a n d h an d le d * * 5
^ I b id . , p . 3 9 .
S Ibid*_, p . 4 1 .
27
TABLE I I
TYPES OF INDOOR FACILITIES PROVIDED IN SIXTY-TWO
CITIES OF WEST TEXAS
T ypes o f
fa c ilitie s
Number o f
S c h o o ls
P er cent
Gymnasium o r p l a y room
41
6 6 .1
L o c k e r room s
31
5 0 .0
Show er room s
43
6 9 .4
T o ile t and la v a to ry
57
9 1 .9
Wash b a s i n s
43
6 9 .4
Hot w a t e r
36
5 8 .1
L iq u id soap d i s p e n s e r s
28
4 5 .2
T ow el d i s p e n s e r s
38
6 1 .3
D rin k in g f o u n ta in s
33
5 3 .2
M irro rs
28
4 5 .2
W aste b ask ets
53
8 5 .5
R e s t room f o r women t e a c h e r s
24
3 8 .7
NOTE: T h i s t a b l e s h o u l d b e r e a d a s f o l l o w s :
A t o t a l o f f o r ty - o n e s c h o o ls , o r 6 6 .1 p e r c e n t o f th e
s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , h a v e gym nasium s o r p l a y ro o m s.
28
The d a t a s e t f o r t h i n T a b l e I I show t h a t a t o t a l o f
f o r t y - o n e s c h o o ls , o r 6 6 .1 p e r c e n t o f th e s c h o o ls r e p o r t i n g ,
h a v e gym nasium s o r p l a y room s w i t h c e i l i n g h e i g h t a t l e a s t
six te e n fe e t.
I n tw e n ty -o n e s c h o o ls , o r 3 3 .9 p e r c e n t o f
t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , gym nasium s o r p l a y room s a r e n o t
a v a ila b le .
T h issu rv e y
i n d i c a t e s t h a t o n ly f o r ty - o n e sc h o o ls,
o r 6 6 .1 p e r
c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , m eet r e c o g n i z e d
s t a n d a r d s in t h i s r e s p e c t , w h ereas th e re m a in in g tw e n ty -o n e
s c h o o ls , o r 3 3 .9 p e r c e n t o f th e sc h o o ls r e p o r t i n g , f a i l to
do s o .
A t o t a l o f t h i r t y - o n e s c h o o ls , o r 5 0 .0 p e r c e n t o f
t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , h a v e l o c k e r ro o m s; h o w e v e r, o n l y
tw e n ty -tw o o f th e s e sc h o o ls have f l o o r sp a ce o f a t l e a s t
n in e sq u are f e e t p e r p u p il f o r th e l a r g e s t c la s s d re s s in g a t
a n y one t i m e .
In t h i r t y - o n e s c h o o ls , o r 5 0 .0 p e r c e n t o f
t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , l o c k e r room s a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e .
Shower room s
a re p ro v id e d in f o r t y - t h r e e sc h o o ls, or
i n 6 9 . 4 p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g ; h o w e v e r, o n l y
t h i r t y - s i x o f t h e s e s c h o o l s p r o v i d e a minimum o f e i g h t
s q u a r e f e e t o f f l o o r s p a c e p e r show er h e a d .
MThe s i z e o f
s h o w e r rooms d e p e n d s upon e n r o l l m e n t , w i t h fro m e i g h t t o
t w e l v e s q u a r e f e e t o f f l o o r a r e a a l l o w e d f o r e a c h sh o w e r
h e a d . A
t o t a l o f n in e te e n s c h o o ls , o r 3 0 .6 p e r c e n t of
4 I b id . . p . 4 2 .
29
t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , do n o t f u r n i s h sh o w e r ro o m s.
L a P o r te * f i n d s t h a t
^
T o ile t and la v a to r y f a c i l i t i e s sh o u ld be a d jo in in g
t h e d r e s s i n g o r l o c k e r ro o m s.
They s h o u l d b e a c ­
c e s s i b l e from t h e p l a y - g r o u n d s . They s h o u l d h a v e
a d e q u a t e b o w ls a n d u r i n a l s , w ash b a s i n s , h o t a n d c o l d
w a te r , l i q u i d soap d i s p e n s e r s , e i t h e r p a p e r to w e l
d i s p e n s e r s o r d r y in g m a c h in e s, d r in k in g f o u n t a i n s ,
m ir r o r s and w a s te b a s k e ts .5
A t o t a l o f f i f t y - s e v e n s c h o o ls , o r 9 1 .9 p e r c e n t o f
th e s c h o o ls r e p o r t i n g , p ro v id e , a d e q u a te t o i l e t and l a v a t o r y
fa c ilitie s.
F iv e s c h o o ls , o r 8 .1 p e r c e n t o f th e s c h o o ls
r e p o r t i n g , do n o t p r o v i d e a d e q u a t e t o i l e t a n d l a v a t o r y
fa c ilitie s.
They a r e a c c e s s i b l e fro m t h e p l a y g r o u n d i n o n l y
f i f t y - t w o s c h o o l s , o r 8 3 .8 p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g ,
w h ile i n t e n s c h o o ls , o r 1 6 .2 p e r c e n t o f th e s c h o o ls r e ­
p o rtin g ,
t h e y a r e n o t a c c e s s i b l e fro m t h e p l a y g r o u n d .
A
f u r t h e r stu d y o f T ab le I I i n d i c a t e s t h a t f o r t y - t h r e e s c h o o ls ,
o r 6 9 .4 p e r c e n t o f th e s c h o o ls r e p o r t i n g , have a d e q u a te
w ash b a s i n s .
N i n e t e e n s c h o o l s , o r 3 0 .6 p e r c e n t o f t h e
s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , do n o t h a v e a d e q u a t e w ash b a s i n s .
T h irty -
s i x s c h o o ls , o r 5 8 .1 p e r c e n t o f th e sc h o o ls r e p o r t i n g ,
p ro v id e h o t w a te r.
T w en ty -six s c h o o ls , o r 4 1 .9 p e r c e n t o f
t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , do n o t p r o v i d e h o t w a t e r .
T w e n ty -
e ig h t s c h o o ls , o r 4 5 .2 p e r c e n t o f th e sc h o o ls r e p o r t i n g ,
have l i q u i d soap d i s p e n s e r s .
® L oc. c i t .
T h i r t y - f o u r s c h o o ls , o r 5 4 .8
30
p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , do n o t h a v e l i q u i d s o a p
d isp e n se rs.
T h i r t y - e i g h t s c h o o ls , o r 6 1 .3 p e r c e n t o f th e
s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , p r o v i d e p a p e r to w e l d i s p e n s e r s , w h i l e
t w e n ty - f o u r s c h o o ls , o r 3 8 .7 p e r c e n t o f th e s c h o o ls r e p o r t ­
i n g , do n o t p r o v i d e p a p e r t o w e l d i s p e n s e r s .
T h irty -th re e
s c h o o l s , o r 5 3 .2 p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , make
p ro v is io n s fo r d rin k in g f o u n ta in s .
T w e n ty - n in e s c h o o l s , o r
4 6 . 8 p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , make no p r o v i s i o n s
f o r d rin k in g fo u n ta in s .
T w e n ty -e ig h t s c h o o l s , o r 4 5 .2 p e r
c e n t o f th e sc h o o ls r e p o r t i n g , have m i r r o r s , w h ile t h i r t y f o u r s c h o o ls , o r 5 4 .8 p e r c e n t o f th e s c h o o ls r e p o r t i n g ,
h a v e no m i r r o r s .
F i f t y - t h r e e s c h o o ls , o r 8 5 .5 p e r c e n t of
th e s c h o o ls r e p o r t i n g , p ro v id e a d e q u a te w a s te b a s k e ts .
N in e
s c h o o l s , o r 1 4 .5 p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , do n o t
p r o v id e a d e q u a te w a s te b a s k e ts .
B e s t room s f o r women t e a c h e r s
a d e q u a te ly e q u ip p e d w ith b o w ls , h o t and c o ld w a te r , b a s i n s ,
e t c . , a r e p ro v id e d i n tw e n ty - f o u r s c h o o ls , o r 3 8 .7 p e r c e n t
of th e sc h o o ls r e p o r t i n g , w h ile t h i r t y - e i g h t s c h o o ls , o r
61*3 p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , make no s u c h p r o v i ­
sio n s.
G eneral a c t i v i t y s u p p l i e s .
Im p o rta n c e o f a d e q u a te a c t i v i t y
. L a P o rte em p h asize s th e
s u p p lie s in th e fo llo w in g
sta te m e n t:
A c t i v i t y s u p p l i e s su ch a s b a l l s and b a t s w i l l depend
up on t h e s c h o o l l e v e l a n d t h e p a r t i c u l a r p r o g ra m
31
se le c te d *
An a d e q u a t e s u p p l y o f s u c h e q u ip m e n t i s
e s s e n tia l fo r p ro p er c la s s in s tru c tio n .
F o r e x a m p le ,
a c l a s s o f f o r t y b e in g i n s t r u c t e d i n th e fu n d a m e n ta ls
o f b a s k e t b a l l s h o u l d b e e q u i p p e d w i t h fro m f o u r t o
e i g h t b a l l s i n g o o d c o n d i t i o n i n o r d e r t h a t t h e t im e
may b e s p e n t e f f e c t i v e l y i n l e a r n i n g how t o h a n d l e t h e
b a ll.
Many c a s e s o f i n e f f e c t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n a r e due
to in ad e q u ate s u p p lie s .
One b a s k e t b a l l i n a c l a s s o f
f o r t y w ou ld mean t h a t a g i v e n s t u d e n t w o u ld h a v e t h e
b a l l i n h i s p o s s e s s i o n l e s s t h a n one m in u t e o f a c t u a l
tim e d u r i n g t h e e n t i r e c l a s s p e r i o d . 6
T a b l e I I I shows t h e num ber o f s c h o o l s w h ic h h a v e a n
a d e q u a t e am ount o f b o t h a c t i v i t y a n d f i r s t a i d s u p p l i e s .
A
t o t a l o f f o r t y - o n e , o r 6 6 .1 p e r e e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t ­
i n g , h a v e a n a d e q u a t e amount o f g e n e r a l a c t i v i t y s u p p l i e s ,
such a s b a t s , p lay g ro u n d b a l l s ,
b a lls
s o c c e r , v o l l e y , and b a s k e t ­
(one t o e a c h s i x s t u d e n t s ) .
T w en ty -o n e s c h o o l s ,
or
3 3 . 9 p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , do n o t ha v e a n a d e ­
q u a t e am ount o f g e n e r a l a c t i v i t y s u p p l i e s .
T h ese f i n d i n g s
i n d i c a t e t h a t i n tw e n ty -o n e s c h o o ls , o r 3 3 .9 p e r c e n t o f th e
sc h o o ls r e p o r tin g ,
i n s t r u c t i o n a p p e a rs to have been i n ­
e f f e c t i v e b ecau se o f in ad e q u ate s u p p lie s .
F ir s t a id su p p lie s.
.h a P o rte says t h a t
A d e q u a te f i r s t a i d s u p p l i e s s h o u l d b e k e p t on h a n d
a t a l l t i m e s i n i n s t r u c t o r s o f f i c e s a n d i n t h e e q u ip m e n t
o f f ic e s i f a fu ll- tim e n u rse i s not a v a ila b le .
T h ese
sh o u ld in c lu d e a b so rb e n t c o tto n , ad h esiv e ta p e , v a rio u s
s i z e d gauze b a n d a g e s, a n t i s e p t i c s , s c i s s o r s , e t c . ”
6 I b i d . , p p . 43-44.
7 I b i d . , p . 44.
£2
TABLE I I I
AMOUNT OF GENERAL ACTIVITY AND FIRST AID SUPPLIES IN
SIXTY-TWO CITIES OF WEST TEXAS
Number o f
S ch o o ls
Per cent
G eneral a c t i v i t y
41
6 6 .1
F irs t a id
56
9 0 .3
S u p p lies
NOTE: T h i s t a b l e s h o u l d b e r e a d a s f o l l o w s :
A t o t a l o f f o r t y - o n e s c h o o l s , o r 6 6 .1 p e r c e n t o f t h e
s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , h a v e a n a d e q u a t e am ount o f g e n e r a l
a c t i v i t y su p p lie s.
53
An a n a l y s i s o f T a b le I I I shows t h a t a t o t a l o f f i f t y s i x s c h o o l s , o r 90*3 p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , h a v e
a n a d e q u a t e l y s u p p l i e d f i r s t a i d b o x i n t h e e q u ip m e n t o f f i c e ,
c o n ta in in g a b so rb e n t c o tto n , a d h e siv e ta p e , v a rio u s s iz e d
gauze b a n d ag e s, a n t i s e p t i c s ,
sc isso rs, e tc .
S ix s c h o o l s , o r
9 . 7 p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , do n o t p r o v i d e a d e ­
q u a te ly su p p lie d f i r s t a id b o x es.
The g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n i s
t h a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s o f W est T exas r a n k h i g h i n t h i s
re sp e c t.
C h a p t e r sum m ary.
The c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e p r e s e n t
p r a c t i c e s r e l a t i v e t o e q u ip m e n t s t a n d a r d s a r e a s f o l l o w s :
1.
At t h e p r e s e n t t i m e f o r t y - e i g h t s c h o o l s , o r 7 7 . 4
p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , r e q u i r e a minimum o f f o u r
a c re s fo r p la y in g f i e l d s .
F o u rte e n s c h o o ls , o r 2 2 .6 p e r cen t
o f th e sc h o o ls r e p o r tin g , r e q u ir e l e s s th an fo u r a c r e s f o r
p la y in g f i e ld s .
W ith s u c h l i m i t e d f a c i l i t i e s t h e e f f e c t i v e ­
n e ss o f th e i n s t r u c t i o n and o f th e s u p e r v is io n i s re d u c e d .
2.
F i f t y - s e v e n s c h o o l s , o r 9 1 .9 p e r c e n t o f t h e
s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , make p r o v i s i o n s f o r m u l t i p l e u s e o f p l a y ­
in g a r e a s .
F iv e s c h o o l s , o r 8 . 1 p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s
r e p o r t i n g , make no p r o v i s i o n f o r m u l t i p l e u s e o f p l a y i n g
area.
T h is i n d i c a t e s t h a t f i v e s c h o o ls , o r a p p ro x im a te ly
8 p e r c e n t o f th e s c h o o ls r e p o r t i n g , have r e s t r i c t e d t h e i r
program s.
54
5.
I n f o r t y - o n e s c h o o l s , o r 66*1 p e r c e n t o f t h e
s c h o o l s s t u d i e d , gym nasium s o r p l a y rooms a r e a v a i l a b l e *
In
t w e n t y - o n e s c h o o l s , o r 3 3 .9 p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s s t u d i e d ,
gym nasium s o r p l a y room s a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e .
T h ese f i n d i n g s
i n d i c a t e a l a c k o f i n t e r e s t on t h e p a r t o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r s
and o f sc h o o l b o a rd s , f o r a l l sc h o o ls sh o u ld have e i t h e r a
s m a l l gym nasium o r a p l a y room , w i t h c e i l i n g h e i g h t a t l e a s t
six te e n f e e t.
4.
T h i r t y - o n e s c h o o l s , o r 5 0 .0 p e r c e n t o f t h e
s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , p r o v i d e d r e s s i n g ro o m s .
T h irty -o n e
s c h o o l s , o r 5 0 . 0 p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , make no
such p r o v is io n .
5.
F o r t y - t h r e e s c h o o l s , o r 6 9 .4 p e r c e n t o f t h e
s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , f u r n i s h sh o w e r ro o m s.
N in e te e n s c h o o ls ,
o r 3 0 . 6 p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , do n o t f u r n i s h
sh o w e r ro o m s.
6.
In f i f t y - s e v e n s c h o o ls , o r 9 1 .9 p e r c e n t o f th e
s c h o o ls r e p o r t i n g , a d e q u a te t o i l e t and l a v a t o r y f a c i l i t i e s
a re p ro v id ed .
In f i v e s c h o o ls , o r 8 .1 p e r c e n t o f th e
s c h o o ls r e p o r t i n g , a d e q u a te t o i l e t and l a v a t o r y f a c i l i t i e s
a re n ot p ro v id e d .
T hey a r e a c c e s s i b l e fro m t h e p l a y g r o u n d
in f i f t y - t w o s c h o o ls , o r 8 3 .8 p e r c e n t o f th e sc h o o ls r e ­
p o rtin g .
They a r e n o t a c c e s s i b l e from t h e p l a y g r o u n d i n t e n
s c h o o ls , o r 1 6 .2 p e r c e n t o f th e s c h o o ls r e p o r t i n g .
7.
F o r t y - t h r e e s c h o o l s , o r 69*4 p e r c e n t o f t h e
s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , h a v e a d e q u a t e w ash b a s i n s .
N in e te e n
s c h o o l s , o r 3 0 . 6 p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , do n o t
h a v e a d e q u a t e wash b a s i n s .
T h i r t y - s i x s c h o o ls , o r 5 8 .1 p e r
c e n t o f th e sc h o o ls r e p o r t i n g , p ro v id e h o t w a te r.
T w en ty -six
s c h o o ls , o r 4 1 .9 p e r c e n t o f th e sc h o o ls r e p o r t i n g ,
p ro v id e h ot w a te r.
do n o t
T w e n ty -e ig h t s c h o o ls , o r 4 5 .2 p e r c e n t
o f t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , h a v e l i q u i d so a p d i s p e n s e r s .
T h i r t y - f o u r s c h o o ls , o r 5 4 .8 p e r c e n t o f th e s c h o o ls r e p o r t ­
i n g , do n o t h a v e l i q u i d so a p d i s p e n s e r s .
T h irty -e ig h t
s c h o o l s , o r 6 1 .3 p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , p r o v i d e
p a p e r to w e l d is p e n s e rs .
T w en ty -fo u r s c h o o ls , o r 3 8 .7 p e r
c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , do n o t p r o v i d e p a p e r t o w e l
d isp e n se rs.
T h i r t y - t h r e e s c h o o l s , o r 5 3 .2 p e r c e n t o f th e
s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , make p r o v i s i o n s f o r d r i n k i n g f o u n t a i n s .
T w en ty -n in e s c h o o ls , o r 4 6 .8 p e r c e n t o f th e s c h o o ls r e p o r t ­
i n g , make no p r o v i s i o n s f o r d r i n k i n g f o u n t a i n s .
T w e n ty -e ig h t
s c h o o l s , o r 4 5 .2 p e r c e n t o f th e sc h o o ls r e p o r t i n g , have
m irro rs .
T h i r t y - f o u r s c h o o l s , o r 5 4 .8 p e r c e n t o f t h e
s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , h a v e no m i r r o r s .
F if ty - th r e e sc h o o ls, o r
8 5 .5 p e r c en t of th e sc h o o ls r e p o r t i n g , p ro v id e a d e q u a te
w a steb a sk e ts.
N ine s c h o o l s , o r 1 4 .5 p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s
r e p o r t i n g , do n o t p r o v i d e a d e q u a t e w a s t e b a s k e t s .
8.
F o rty -o n e s c h o o ls , o r 6 6 .1 p e r c e n t o f th e s c h o o ls
r e p o r t i n g , h a v e a n a d e q u a t e am ount o f g e n e r a l a c t i v i t y
36
su p p lie s.
T w en ty -o n e s e h o o l s , o r 3 3 .9 p e r c e n t o f t h e
s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , do n o t h a v e a n a d e q u a t e am ount o f g e n e r a l
a c tiv ity
su p p lie s.
T h ese f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t t w e n t y - o n e
s c h o o ls , o r a p p ro x im a te ly 3 4 .0 p e r cen t o f th e s ix ty -tw o
s c h o o ls r e p o r tin g , a llo w i n e f f e c t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n b e c a u se o f
in a d e q u a te s u p p lie s .
9.
F i f t y - s i x s c h o o l s , o r 90*3 p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s
r e p o r t i n g , p ro v id e a d e q u a te ly s u p p lie d f i r s t a i d b o x e s , w h ile
s i x s c h o o l s , o r 9 . 7 p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , do n o t
p ro v id e a d e q u a te ly su p p lie d f i r s t a id b o x es.
CHAPTER I I I
CONTENT OF THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAM IN
THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF WEST TEXAS
S ta n d ard s f o r e v a lu a tin g a c u rric u lu m in p h y s i c a l
e d u c a tio n *
The s t a n d a r d s w h ic h were u s e d i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n
o f a p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p ro g ra m f o r t h e e l e m e n t a r y s e h o o l s
o f W est T exas r e s u l t e d fro m a n i n e - y e a r s t u d y made by t h e
C om m ittee on C u r r i c u l u m R e s e a r c h . 1
T h is s tu d y r e s u l t e d in a
g ra d e p lac em en t o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a tio n a c t i v i t i e s ,
in th e
e v a l u a t i o n and r a n k in g o f e a c h , and i n a tim e a ll o t m e n t in
p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l tim e g i v e n t o p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a c ­
tiv itie s .
C o m p ariso n o f a p r o g r a m i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n w i t h
t h e a c t i v i t i e s l i s t e d a t t h e same l e v e l b y e x p e r t s i n t h e
f i e l d i s one o f t h e b e s t m eans o f j u d g i n g t h e v a l u e o f a c ­
t i v i t i e s o ffered .
T hese s t a n d a r d s w h ic h a r e s c i e n t i f i c a l l y
so u n d a n d e d u c a t i o n a l l y d e f e n s i b l e a r e o f g r e a t h e l p i n t h e
e v a lu a tio n of any co u rse o f stu d y .
I t i s th e purpose o f t h i s c h a p te r,
t h e r e f o r e , t o make
a s t u d y o f t h e p r a c t i c e s i n p ro g ra m c o n t e n t s e t down b y t h e
s e v e r a l d i t i e s and to d e te rm in e , i f i t
i s p o s s i b l e , w hat
1 W illia m R a lp h L a P o r t e , The P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n Cur­
r i c u l u m . S econ d E d i t i o n , R e v i s e d a n d E n l a r g e d ( Los A n g e l e s ,
C a l i f o r n i a : The C o l l e g e P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 3 8 ) ,
p p . 16-23.
38
c i t i e s a r e p l a c i n g e m p h a s is on t h e s e minimum r e q u i r e m e n t s .
S ta te and l o c a l c o u rs e s o f s tu d y .
S ta te m e n ts o f t h i s
t y p e e m p h a s iz e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a c o u r s e o f s t u d y i n h e a l t h
a n d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t o m ee t t h e n e e d s o f t h e g r o u p s c o n ­
cerned.
L a P o r te s a y s ,
The d e t a i l e d c o u r s e o f s t u d y s h o u l d i n c l u d e a t l e a s t
t h e f o l l o w i n g i t e m s : (1 ) g e n e r a l a n d s p e c i f i c o b ­
j e c t i v e s to be a t t a i n e d a t d i f f e r e n t sc h o o l l e v e l s ;
(2 ) t h e v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s t o b e t a u g h t a n d t h e o r d e r
i n w h ic h t h e y s h o u l d a p p e a r , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e am ount
o f tim e t o b e d e v o t e d t o e a c h ( p r e f e r a b l y i n t h e fo rm
o f an an n u al sc h e d u le f o r e ac h grade o r c y c le , i n d i ­
c a t i n g t h e a p p r o x i m a t e num ber o f w eeks f o r e a c h a c ­
t i v i t y ) ; (3) s u g g e s t i o n s on a p p r o p r i a t e t e a c h i n g a n d
m o tiv a tin g te c h n iq u e s f o r th e v a rio u s ( a c t i v i t i e s and
d i f f e r e n t a g e s ; (4 ) s u g g e s t i o n s on t e s t i n g a n d m e a s u r i n g
t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e t e a c h i n g ; (5) d e f i n i t e p r o v i s i o n f o r
a d j u s t e d program s f o r th o s e r e q u i r i n g r e s t r i c t e d o r
c o r r e c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s ; a n d (6 ) a d e q u a t e r e f e r e n c e
m a te ria ls and te a c h in g h e l p s .*
I t seems o b v i o u s t h a t s u c h c o u r s e s o f s t u d y s h o u l d b e
a v a i l a b l e to te a c h e r s a t a l l tim e s .
T h is s t u d y sh o w s, how*
e v e r , t h a t t h e s t a t e c o u r s e o f s t u d y was a v a i l a b l e t o t e a c h e r s
o f o n ly f i f t y - s i x s c h o o ls , o r 9 0 .3 p e r c e n t o f th e sc h o o ls
re p o rtin g .
I t was n o t a v a i l a b l e t o t e a c h e r s o f s i x s c h o o l s ,
o r 9 .7 p e r cen t of th e sc h o o ls r e p o r tin g .
T h is s t u d y a l s o
show s t h a t t h e l o c a l c o u r s e o f s t u d y was a v a i l a b l e t o t e a c h e r s
o f o n ly t h i r t y - f i v e s c h o o ls , o r 5 6 .4 p e r c e n t o f th e s c h o o ls
r e p o r t i n g , w h ile i n tw e n ty -s e v e n s c h o o ls , o r 4 3 .6 p e r c e n t
2 I b id . . p . 33.
39
of th e sc h o o ls r e p o r tin g ,
i t was n o t a v a i l a b l e t o t e a c h e r s .
The f i n d i n g s seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t h e s t a t e
co u rse o f stu d y i s c o n s id e re d im p o rta n t, f o r f i f t y - s i x
sc h o o ls,
o r 9 0 .3 p e r c e n t o f th e s c h o o ls r e p o r t i n g , p la c e
a prem ium upon t h i s f a c t o r .
The f i n d i n g s a l s o i n d i c a t e t h a t
t h e s t a t e c o u r s e o f s t u d y a p p e a r e d t o b e more i m p o r t a n t t h a n
t h e l o c a l c o u r s e o f s t u d y , f o r i t was a v a i l a b l e i n t w e n t y - o n e
more s c h o o l s , o r i n a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 4 .0 p e r c e n t more o f t h e
sc h o o ls r e p o r tin g .
D e ta ile d sc h e d u le s.
: h a P o r te s t r e s s e s th e im p o rtan c e
o f d e t a i l e d s c h e d u le s , y e a r ly prog ram s, and le s s o n p la n s i n
th e p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n c u rric u lu m .
The f i r s t s t e p i s t o p r e p a r e a c o m p l e t e y e a r l y p ro g r a m
f o r each g ra d e , in d ic a t i n g a l l im p o rtan t a c t i v i t i e s to
b e i n c l u d e d a n d t h e am ount o f tim e t o b e d e v o t e d t o e a c h
one.
The s e c o n d s t e p i s t o a r r a n g e a d e t a i l e d m o n th l y ,
w e e k ly , a n d d a i l y s c h e d u l e sh o w in g t h e p l a c e m e n t o f t h e
a g r e e d upo n a c t i v i t i e s i n e a c h g r a d e .
T h is s h o u ld n o t
be r i g i d and i n f l e x i b l e , b u t a p p ro x im ate and s u g g e s tiv e ,
to in s u r e in c lu d in g a l l d e s i r e d a c t i v i t i e s w ith a
r e a s o n a b le tim e a ll o t m e n t t o e a c h .
The t h i r d s t e p d o e s
n o t p r o p e r ly a f f e c t th e c o u rs e o f s tu d y , b u t sh o u ld be
c a r r i e d o u t by t h e i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r .
I t in v o lv e s th e
p re p a ra tio n of d e ta ile d d a ily le sso n p la n s f o r th e v a r i ­
ous a c t i v i t i e s .
T h is r e p r e s e n t s t h e f i n a l s t e p i n
p r e p a r a t i o n f o r s y s t e m a t i c a n d e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g . A g a in
i t s h o u l d b e e m p h a s iz e d t h a t l e s s o n p l a n s s h o u l d b e
f l e x i b l e and a d ju s ta b le .
The s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r o r
s u p e r v i s o r who i n s i s t s upon some s u c h s y s t e m a t i c p r o g r a m , .
s c h e d u l e , a n d l e s s o n p l a n s may e x p e c t s u p e r i o r r e s u l t s ,
p ro v id ed h is te a c h e rs a re w e ll tr a in e d , e n th u s ia s tic
and o r i g i n a l i n t h e i r h a n d lin g o f m a t e r i a l s and c h i l d r e n . 3
® I b id . , p p . 3 3 - 3 6 .
40
In t h i s stu d y a t o t a l o f t h i r t y - f o u r s c h o o ls , o r
54#8 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , d i d n o t k e e p a
w e e k ly d e t a i l e d s c h e d u l e on f i l e
in th e o ffic e *
The g e n e r a l
c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s o f West T e x a s do
n o t c o n s i d e r s i g n i f i c a n t d e t a i l e d s c h e d u l e s sh o w in g t h e
p la c e m e n t o f th e a g re e d upon a c t i v i t i e s i n e ach g r a d e .
P ro g ra m o f a c t i v i t i e s
and t h i r d g ra d e s.
In c lu d e d in th e f i r s t , se c o n d ,
A t a b u l a t i o n o f th e f in d in g s g iv e n i n th e
i n q u i r y b l a n k o f t h e s i x t y - t w o West T ex a s c i t i e s r e p o r t i n g
was made I n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e a c t i v i t i e s t a u g h t a t e a c h
l e v e l i n t h e v a r i o u s c i t i e s a n d , i n so f a r a s p o s s i b l e , t o
d is c o v e r th e g e n e r a l te n d e n c ie s and w eaknesses o f th e c i t y
pro g ram s.
An a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s a n d t h e i r e s ­
s e n t i a l e le m e n ts sh o u ld s e r v e a s th e b a s i s f o r a b e t t e r
p l a n n e d a c t i v i t y p r o g ra m .
The l i s t o f a c t i v i t i e s g i v e n i n The P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n
C u r r i c u l u m was u s e d a s a c r i t e r i o n f o r e v a l u a t i n g t h e p ro g ra m
o f a c t i v i t i e s fou n d in th e sc h o o ls r e p o r t i n g .
TABLE I I 4
PROGRAM FOR THE PRIMARY LEVEL ( G r a d e s 1 - 3 )
1 . R h y th m ic a l A c t i v i t i e s .................................. . . . . .
F a rm e r i n t h e D e l l , Looby Loo, M u lb e rry
B u sh, Chimes o f D u n k i r k , O ld R o g e r i s D ead,
4 I b i d . . p . 26.
25$
41
TABLE I I
(c o n tin u ed )
PROGRAM FOR THE PRIMARY LEVEL (G rad es 1 -3 )
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
The Sw ing, C a r r o u s e l , J o l l y i s t h e M i l l e r ,
O a ts, p e a s , b e a n s , e t c .
M im e tic s a n d S t o r y P l a y s
20$
A nim al i m i t a t i o n s , m e c h a n i c a l i m i t a t i o n s ,
d r i v in g a u to m o b ile , c i r c u s , n u t t i n g , fire m e n ,
cow boys, g a t h e r i n g wood, a e r o p l a n e s , e t c .
H u n tin g Games . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20$
C at a n d m ic e , J a c k b e n i m b l e , s q u i r r e l i n
t r e e s , c a t a n d r a t , h o u n d a n d r a b b i t , m id­
n i g h t , lam e f o x a n d c h i c k e n s , e t c .
R e l a y s ............................................................................
15$
C ro s s o v e r r e l a y , b e a n b a g p a s s i n g r e l a y ,
sto o p and s t r e t c h r e l a y , e r a s e r r e l a y , t a g
th e w a ll r e l a y , e t c .
S t u n t s a n d S e l f T e s t i n g A c t i v i t i e s ................................ 10$
Duck w a l k , r a b b i t h o p , human r o c k e r , c r a b
w a lk , f o r w a r d r o l l , f r o g h a n d s t a n d , e t c .
A t h l e t i c Games o f Low O r g a n i z a t i o n . . . . . . .
10$
B o u n d ary b a l l , dodge b a l l , h a n d p o l o , k i c k
b a l l , bound b a l l , e tc .
T o t a l * 100$
A t a b u l a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n shows
t h a t each o f th e six ty -tw o c i t i e s r e p o r tin g in c lu d e s in i t s
a c t i v i t y p ro g r a m f o r t h e f i r s t ,
s e c o n d , a n d t h i r d g r a d e s one
o r m ore o f t h e f o l l o w i n g a c t i v i t i e s :
fre e e x e rc ise s,
g y m n a s t i c gam es, m a r c h in g g a m e s, s t u n t s a n d s e l f t e s t i n g
e x e r c i s e s , r h y t h m i c a c t i v i t i e s , h u n t i n g g a m e s, s t o r y p l a y s ,
a n d a t h l e t i c games o f low o r g a n i z a t i o n .
A to ta l of f if ty -
sev en s c h o o ls , o r 9 2 .0 p e r c e n t of th e s c h o o ls r e p o r t i n g ,
h a v e f r e e e x e r c i s e s i n c l u d e d i n t h e i r a c t i v i t y p r o g r a m , w h ile
42
TABLE IV
PROGRAM OF ACTIVITIES TAUGHT IN THE FIRST, SECOND,
AND THIRD GRADES OF THE SIXTY-TWO
CITIES REPORTING
Number o f
S c h o o ls
P e r c e n t U s in g
A c tiv ity
F re e E x e rc is e s
57
9 2 .0
G y m n a s tic games
37
5 9 .7
M a r c h i n g games
41
6 6 .1
S t u n t s and s e l f t e s ti n g e x e rc ise s
37
5 9 .7
R h y th m ic a c t i v i t i e s
50
8 0 .6
H u n t i n g games
37
5 9 .7
S to ry p la y s
49
7 9 .0
A t h l e t i c games o f
lo w o r g a n i z a t i o n
53
8 5 .5
A c tiv itie s
NOTE: T h i s t a b l e s h o u l d b e r e a d a s f o l l o w s :
A t o t a l o f f i f t y - s e v e n s c h o o ls , o r 9 2 .0 p e r c e n t o f th e
s c h o o ls r e p o r t i n g , have f r e e e x e r c i s e s in c lu d e d in t h e i r
a c t i v i t y p r o g ra m .
f i v e s c h o o l s , o r 8 . 0 p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , do
n o t in c lu d e f r e e e x e r c i s e s i n t h e i r a c t i v i t y program .
T h is
seem s t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e g r e a t e s t num ber o f s c h o o l s i n ­
c lu d e f r e e e x e r c i s e s in t h e i r program .
A to ta l of t h ir ty -
sev en s c h o o ls , o r 5 9 ,7 p e r c e n t o f th e s c h o o ls r e p o r t i n g ,
h a v e g y m n a s t i c g a m e s, s t u n t s a n d s e l f t e s t i n g e x e r c i s e s , a n d
h u n t i n g games i n c l u d e d i n t h e i r a c t i v i t y p r o g r a m , w h i l e
tw e n ty -fiv e sc h o o ls,
o r 4 0 .3 p e r c e n t of th e sc h o o ls r e p o r t ­
i n g , do n o t i n c l u d e t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e i r p r o g ra m .
The
g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t t h e l e a s t num ber o f s c h o o l s
i n c l u d e g y m n a s t i c gam es, s t u n t s a n d s e l f t e s t i n g e x e r c i s e s ,
a n d h u n t i n g games i n t h e i r p r o g r a m .
t io n of th e v a rio u s a c t i v i t i e s
P ro g ra m o f a c t i v i t i e s
and s ix th g ra d e s .
program a c t i v i t i e s ,
The c o m p le te d i s t r i b u ­
i s shown i n T a b le IV.
in c lu d e d in th e f o u r t h , f i f t h ,
For e v a lu a tin g p u rp o ses a l i s t of th e
t o g e t h e r w i t h tim e a l l o t m e n t s i n p e r ­
c e n ta g e s f o r th e f o u r t h , f i f t h ,
and s i x t h g ra d e s,
is g iv en
fro m The P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n C u r r i c u l u m .
TABLE I I I 5
PROGRAM FOR THE ELEMENTARY LEVEL ( G r a d e s 4 - 6 )
1 . A t h l e t i c Games o f Low O r g a n i z a t i o n . . . . . . . . 25$
B a s k e t b a l l Type: c a p t a i n b a l l , c a p t a i n
b a s k e tb a ll, co rn er b a l l , lin e b a s k e tb a ll,
5 I b id ., p . 27.
44
TABLE I I I
(co n tin u ed )
PROGRAM FOR THE ELEMENTARY LEVEL (G rades 4 - 6 )
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
n i n e - c o u r t b a s k e t b a l l , newcomb, s i x - c o u r t
b a s k e t b a l l , s i x h o le b a s k e t b a l l , q u a d ru p le
dodge b a l l .
P l a y g r o u n d B a l l T ype: b om bardm ent, b a t
b a l l , c i r c l e s t r i k e , end b a l l , fongo, h i t
p i n b a s e b a l l , l o n g b a l l , one a n d two o l d
c a t , t r i a n g l e b a l l , a n d work u p .
S o c c e r Type: a d v a n c e m e n t, c i r c l e s o c c e r ,
co rn er k ic k b a l l , f i e l d b a l l , k ic k b a ll,
punt back, ro ta tio n soccer, sim p lifie d
s o c c e r , s o c c e r dodge b a l l , a n d s o c c e r k e e p
away.
V o l l e y b a l l Type: b o u n d b a l l , f e a t h e r b a l l ,
n e t b a l l , s c h o o l room v o l l e y b a l l , a n d
sp o n g e b a l l .
R h y th m ic a l A c t i v i t i e s ( i n c l u d i n g s o c i a l gam es) .
Broom d a n c e , D u tc h c o u p l e d a n c e , Pop g o e s
t h e W e a s e l, B l e k i n g , V i r g i n i a R e e l ,
S e l l e n g e r s Round, Ace o f D iam onds,
G u s t a f ’ s S k o a l , S ev en Ju m p s, N o rw eg ian
M o u n ta in M arch, L o t t i e i s Dead, e t c .
H u n tin g G a m e s ...........................................
B ears and c a t t l e , c i r c l e c h a s e , g a th e r in g
s t i c k s , two a n d t h r e e d e e p , c a t c h o f f i s h ,
l a s t man, pom pom p u l l a w a y , a l l s t a n d , c l u b
s n a t c h , c r o s s t a g , d a r e b a s e , d u c k on a r o c k ,
p ris o n e r’s base, e tc .
I n d i v id u a l A t h l e t i c E v en ts ( s e l f t e s t i n g )
. . .
B a ttin g f o r a cc u ra c y , b ase ru n n in g , b a s e b a ll
th r o w f o r a c c u r a c y , b a s k e t b a l l p a s s f o r
accu racy — f o r g o a l— f o r d is ta n c e , p u ll up,
p u s h u p , b r o a d jum p , h i g h jtirap, s o c c e r k i c k
fo r g o a l— f o r d is ta n c e , e tc .
M im e tic s a n d F r e e E x e r c i s e s
S p o r t s i m i t a t i o n s , s u c h a s a r c h e r y , r o p e jum p­
i n g , s k a t i n g , b r o a d ju m p , h i g h jtimp, b a t t i n g ,
b a s e b a l l th r o w , b a s k e t b a l l th r o w e t c .
R e l a y s ................................................
A rc h b a l l r e l a y , h o p p i n g r e l a y , s t u n t r e l a y s ,
a ll - u p In d ia n c lu b r e l a y , o ver and under r e l a y ,
s h u t t le r e la y , s t r i d e b a l l r e la y , sk in th e
snake r e l a y , e t c .
20$
15$
10$
10$
10$
45
TABLE I I I
(c o n tin u ed )
PROGRAM FOR THE ELEMENTARY LEVEL ( G r a d e s 4 - 6 )
7 , T um bling S t u n t s ..................................... .............................. 10$
Head s t a n d , f o r w a r d r o l l , b a c k w a r d r o l l ,
c a r t w h e e l , h e e l c l i c k , wooden man, Jump
t h e s t i c k , I n d i a n w r e s t l e , E skim o r o l l ,
f r o n t f o o t f l i p , knee and to e w r e s t l e ,
h a n d w r e s t l e , k n e e s p r i n g , e l e p h a n t w a lk ,
t r ip le r o l l , e tc .
T o ta l
100$
A s t u d y o f T a b le V shows t h a t e a c h o f t h e s i x t y - t w o
c itie s
r e p o r t i n g i n c l u d e s i n i t s a c t i v i t y p ro g ra m f o r t h e
fo u rth , f if th ,
a c tiv itie s:
stu n ts,
a n d s i x t h g r a d e s one o r m ore o f t h e f o l l o w i n g
fo lk dances, fre e e x e rc ise s,
tu m b lin g and
tra c k and f i e l d e v e n ts , p o stu re t r a i n i n g , a t h l e t i c
gam es o f low o r g a n i z a t i o n , m i m e t i c s , a n d r h y t h m i c a l a c t i v i ­
tie s.
A t o t a l o f t h i r t e e n s c h o o ls , o r 2 0 .9 p e r c e n t o f th e
sc h o o ls r e p o r tin g ,
i n c l u d e m im e ti c s i n t h e i r a c t i v i t y
p r o g r a m , w h i l e f o r t y - n i n e s c h o o l s , o r 79*1 p e r c e n t o f t h e
s c h o o ls r e p o r t i n g , f a i l e d t o in c lu d e m im e tic s in t h e i r
p rogram .
From t h e s e f i n d i n g s ,
nu m b er o f s c h o o l s i n c l u d e t h i s
p rogram .
i t is e v id e n t t h a t th e l e a s t
ty p e o f a c t i v i t y in t h e i r
F i f t y - s i x s c h o o l s , o r 9 0 .3 p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s
r e p o r t i n g , have f r e e e x e r c i s e s in c lu d e d i n t h e i r a c t i v i t y
p ro g ra m , w h ile s i x s c h o o ls ,
o r 9 .7 p e r c e n t o f th e sc h o o ls
r e p o r t i n g , le a v e o u t f r e e e x e r c i s e s i n t h e i r program .
T h is
46
TABLE V
PROGRAM OF ACTIVITIES TAUGHT IN THE FOURTH,
FIFTH, AND SIXTH GRADES OF THE SIXTY-TWO
CITIES REPORTING
Number o f
S c h o o ls
P e r Cent U s in g
A c tiv ity
F o lk d an ces
19
3 0 .6
F ree e x e r c is e s
56
9 0 .3
T u m b lin g a n d s t u n t s
22
3 5 .5
T rack and f i e l d e v e n ts
53
8 5 .5
P o stu re tr a in in g
44
7 0 .9
A t h l e t i c games o f
low o r g a n i z a t i o n
55
8 8 .7
M im e tic s
13
2 0 .9
R h y th m ic al a c t i v i t i e s
38
6 1 .3
A c tiv itie s
NOTE: T h is t a b l e s h o u l d b e r e a d a s f o l l o w s :
A t o t a l o f n in e te e n s c h o o ls , o r 3 0 .6 p e r c e n t o f th e
sc h o o ls r e p o r tin g , have f o lk dances in c lu d e d in t h e i r
a c t i v i t y p r o g ra m .
47
i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e g r e a t e s t num ber o f s c h o o l s i n c l u d e t h i s
ty p e o f a c t i v i t y in t h e i r p rogram .
A t h l e t i c games o f low
o r g a n iz a tio n a re a c lo s e second to f r e e e x e r c is e s in th e
p e r c e n t o f sc h o o ls u sin g th e s e ty p e s o f a c t i v i t i e s ,
fifty -fiv e
fo r
s c h o o ls , o r 8 8 .7 p e r c e n t o f th e sc h o o ls r e p o r t ­
i n g i n t h i s s t u d y , i n c l u d e a t h l e t i c games o f low o r g a n i z a t i o n
i n t h e i r a c t i v i t y p rogram .
C h a p te r summary.
The m a t e r i a l s p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s
c h a p t e r c o n c e r n i n g t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e p r o g r a m may b e sum­
m arize d as fo llo w s:
1.
A to ta l of fif ty - s ix
s c h o o ls , o r 9 0 .3 p e r c e n t o f
t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , k e e p t h e T exas C o u rs e o f S tu d y on
file
i n th e o f f i c e , w h ile i n s i x s c h o o ls , o r 9 .7 p e r c e n t o f
t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , t h e T ex a s C o u rse o f S tu d y i s n o t
a v a ila b le .to te a c h e rs.
2.
In t h i r t y - f i v e s c h o o ls , o r 5 6 .4 p e r c en t o f th e
sc h o o ls r e p o r tin g , th e lo c a l co u rse o f stu d y i s a v a ila b le
t o t e a c h e r s , w h ile i n tw e n ty -s e v e n s c h o o ls , o r 4 3 .6 p e r c en t
o f t h e s c h o o ls - r e p o r t i n g , t h e l o c a l c o u r s e o f s t u d y i s n o t
a v a ila b le to te a c h e rs.
The g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t a p ­
p ro x im a te ly 5 0 .0 .p e r cen t o f th e sc h o o ls r e p o r tin g f a i l to
m eet re c o g n iz e d s ta n d a r d s i n t h i s r e s p e c t .
3.
T w e n ty -e ig h t s c h o o ls , o r 4 5 .2 p e r c e n t o f th e
s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , k e e p a w e e k ly d e t a i l e d s c h e d u l e on f i l e
48
i n th e o f f i c e , w h ile a t o t a l o f t h i r t y - f o u r s c h o o ls , o r
5 4 . 8 p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , do n o t k e e p s u c h a
sc h e d u le *
T h ese f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t 5 4 . 8 p e r c e n t o f
t h e sc h o o ls r e p o r t i n g la c k a s y s te m a tic p rogram , s c h e d u le ,
and le s s o n p la n s and t h a t p o o r and i n e f f e c t i v e te a c h in g i s
th e r e s u l t .
4.
In th e six ty -tw o sc h o o ls r e p o r tin g f o r th e f i r s t ,
s e c o n d , a n d t h i r d g r a d e s , one o r more o f t h e f o l l o w i n g a c ­
t i v i t i e s a r e i n e l u d e d i n t h e i r a c t i v i t y p r o g ra m :
c is e s ,
g y m n a s ti c g a m e s, m a r c h in g gam es,
f r e e ex er­
s t u n t s and s e l f
t e s t i n g e x e r c i s e s , r h y t h m i c a c t i v i t i e s , h u n t i n g g a m e s, s t o r y
p l a y s , a n d a t h l e t i c games o f lo w o r g a n i z a t i o n . -
H ow ever, no
one s c h o o l in c lu d e s a l l o f th e s e a c t i v i t i e s i n i t s p rogram .
T h e s e f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t no s c h o o l , o f t h e s i x t y - t w o
s c h o o l s s t u d i e d , m e e ts r e c o g n i z e d s t a n d a r d s e n t i r e l y ,
sin c e
8 . 0 p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s do n o t i n c l u d e f r e e e x e r c i s e s ;
4 0 . 3 p e r c e n t , g y m n a s t i c g am es; 3 3 .9 p e r c e n t , m a r c h in g
g a m e s; 4 0 . 3 p e r c e n t , s t u n t s a n d s e l f t e s t i n g e x e r c i s e s ;
1 9 .4 p e r c e n t, rh y th m ic a c t i v i t i e s ; 4 0 .3 p e r c e n t, h u n tin g
ga m e s; 2 1 . 0 p e r c e n t , s t o r y p l a y s ; a n d 1 4 . 5 p e r c e n t ,
a t h l e t i c games o f lo w o r g a n i z a t i o n .
5.
In th e six ty -tw o sc h o o ls r e p o r tin g f o r th e
f o u r t h , f i f t h a n d s i x t h g r a d e s , one o r more o f t h e f o l l o w i n g
a c t i v i t i e s a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e i r a c t i v i t y p ro g ra m :
fo lk
d a n c e s , f r e e e x e r c i s e s , tu m b lin g and s t u n t s , t r a c k and f i e l d
49
e v e n t s , p o s t u r e t r a i n i n g , a t h l e t i c games o f lo w o r g a n i z a t i o n ,
m im e tic s , and r h y th m ic a l a c t i v i t i e s .
in c lu d e s a l l of th e se a c t i v i t i e s
H ow ever, no one s c h o o l
in i t s program .
T hese
f in d in g s i n d ic a t e s i g n i f i c a n t w eaknesses t h a t a re s u b je c t
t o im p ro v e m e n t, f o r no s c h o o l , o f t h e s i x t y - t w o s c h o o l s
s t u d i e d , m e e ts r e c o g n i z e d s t a n d a r d s , s i n c e 6 9 . 4 p e r c e n t o f
t h e s c h o o l s do n o t i n c l u d e f o l k d a n c e s ; 9*7 p e r c e n t , f r e e
e x e r c i s e s ; 6 4 . 5 p e r c e n t , t u m b l i n g a n d s t u n t s ; 1 4 .5 p e r c e n t ,
t r a c k an d f i e l d e v e n ts ; 2 9 .1 p e r c e n t , p o s t u r e t r a i n i n g ;
1 1 . 3 p e r c e n t , a t h l e t i c games o f low o r g a n i z a t i o n ; 7 9 . 1
p e r c e n t , m im e tic s ; and 3 8 .7 p e r c e n t, r h y th m ic a l a c t i v i t i e s *
CHAPTER IV
ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF THE PHYSICAL
EDUCATION PROGRAM IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF WEST TEXAS
It
p le te
i s th e p urp o se of t h i s
c h a p t e r t o p r e s e n t a s com­
in fo rm a tio n a s p o s s ib le co n ce rn in g th e b e s t p r a c t i c e s
in th e o rg a n iz a tio n and a d m in is tr a tio n of th e p h y s ic a l educa­
t i o n program in th e e le m e n ta ry sc h o o ls a c c o r d in g t o le a d in g
e d u c a to r s and a u t h o r i t i e s i n t h e f i e l d , and t o e v a lu a te th e
f i n d i n g s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t e r m s o f s t a n d a r d s s e t up
i n The P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n C u r r i c u l u m .
Today h e a l t h a n d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a r e c o n s i d e r e d a
v e r y v a l u a b l e p a r t o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s , a n d n o t m e r e ly
a r e m e d i a l p ro g ra m a s h a s b e e n t h e c a s e i n t h e p a s t .
In a sense p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n is s t i l l an educa­
tio n a l in fa n t.
I t s g r o w th h a s b e e n s p o t t y a n d i r ­
re g u la r.
U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i n many s c h o o l s b a s e b a l l o r
p l a y g r o u n d b a l l c o n t i n u e s t o b e t h e one m a j o r a c t i v i t y
r e p e a t e d y e a r a f t e r y e a r fro m t h e t h i r d g r a d e t h r o u g h
h i g h s c h o o l w i t h no a t t e m p t t o p r o v i d e a b a l a n c e d
program o f v a r i e d a c t i v i t i e s .
I n many c a s e s a p h y s i ­
c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s c o n s i s t s m e r e ly o f a p e r i o d o f
. s u p e r v i s e d p l a y w i t h no t h o u g h t o f i n s t r u c t i o n o r
p ro g re s s iv e le a r n in g or of a d a p tin g a c t i v i t i e s a c c o rd ­
i n g t o p h y s i c a l o r p h y s i o l o g i c a l n e e d s b a s e d on h e a l t h
e x a m in a tio n s .!
^ W illia m R a lp h L a P o r t e , The P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n
C u r r i c u l u m . S econd E d i t i o n , R e v i s e d a n d E n l a r g e d (L os A ngeles*
C a lifo rn ia :
The C o l l e g e P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 3 8 )r
p . 58.
51
E x te n t o f p ro g ram ,
A stu d y o f th e f i e l d of o rg a n iz a ­
t i o n a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y g r a d e s shows t h a t
many a u t h o r i t i e s a g r e e on t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f e a c h i n . t h e a d ­
ju s tm e n t o f th e i n d i v i d u a l t o h i s e n v iro n m e n t.
E d u c a to rs
and p h ilo s o p h e rs have re c o g n iz e d th e f a c t t h a t th e r i g h t
d i r e c t i o n o f p l a y s a n d games o f c h i l d r e n i s a f u n d a m e n ta l
f a c t o r i n e d u c a tio n and c h i l d d ev elo p m en t.
T h is f a c t i n ­
f l u e n c e d t h e c l a s s room t e a c h e r i n t h e s o c i a l s t u d i e s ,
la n g u a g e a r t s , an d o t h e r f i e l d s o f a c t i v i t y ,
A p ro g ra m o f d e f i n i t e i n s t r u c t i o n i n a c t i v i t i e s
s h o u ld be a v a i l a b l e and r e q u i r e d f o r e v e r y s t u d e n t .
A llo w a n c e s s h o u l d b e made f o r t e m p o r a r y a c c i d e n t o r
i l l n e s s , a ssig n m en t to m o d ifie d o r r e s t r i c t e d a c t i v i ­
ty , and f o r a f t e r - s c h o o l a t h l e t i c s d u rin g th e seaso n .
No s t u d e n t , h o w e v e r , s h o u l d b e d e p r i v e d o f a c t i v i t y
i n s t r u c t i o n , e v e n t h o u g h i t m ust b e o f a v e r y
r e s t r i c t e d ty p e ; and sh o u ld n e v e r be p e rm itte d to
s u b s t i t u t e c l e r i c a l w ork o r t o w e l d i s p e n s i n g i n p l a c e
o f th e p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n c la s s p e r i o d . 2
T h e re seem s t o b e a g e n e r a l a g r e e m e n t among a u t h o r s
in th e f i e l d o f h e a l t h and p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n th a t
A d e f i n i t e and w e ll- o r g a n iz e d c o u rs e o f stu d y in
h e a lth in s tru c tio n is e s s e n tia l.
W ith o u t t h i s im­
p o r t a n t i n s t r u m e n t t h e t e a c h i n g i s l i k e l y t o be
f a u l t y w ith r e s p e c t to th e s e l e c ti o n and o rg a n iz a tio n
of p r e c i s e o b j e c ti v e s , a d e q u a te m a t e r i a l s , a p p r o p r ia te
m e th o d s o f p r e s e n t a t i o n , s u f f i c i e n t r e f e r e n c e s f o r
b o t h t e a c h e r s a n d p u p i l s , a n d a c c u r a t e means o f
m e a su rin g a c c o m p lish m en t.
From a n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o i n t o f v ie w , t h e n , h e a l t h
te a c h in g in v o lv e s:
(1 ) An u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t k n o w le d g e
i s im p o rtan t a s i t i s r e f l e c t e d in th e l i v e s o f i n d i ­
v i d u a l s f o r p e r s o n a l a n d s o c i a l b e t t e r m e n t ; (2) d i r e c t
^ I b i d . , p p . 44-45.
52
t e a c h i n g o f h e a l t h i n t h e s c h o o l p r o g ra m a n d u t i l i z i n g
in t h i s d ir e c t a tta c k th e v a rio u s o p p o rtu n itie s fo r
i n c i d e n t a l o r c o r r e l a t e d i n s t r u c t i o n ; (3 ) t h e u s e o f
a p p r o p r i a t e t e x t b o o k s a n d o t h e r fo rm s o f p r i n t e d o r
v i s u a l a i d s t o e n r i c h i n s t r u c t i o n ; (4 ) a n a p p r e c i a t i o n
o f t h e n e e d f o r home c o o p e r a t i o n ; (5 ) t e a c h e r s who a r e
t r a i n e d t o t e a c h h e a l t h e f f e c t i v e l y ; a n d (6 ) a c o u r s e
o f s t u d y c o n t a i n i n g an o r g a n i z e d b o d y o f m a t e r i a l a n d
s u g g e s t i v e m e th o d s b a s e d u p o n t h e n o r m a l l i f e e x ­
p e r ie n c e s o f p u p i ls in th e sc h o o l and c o m m u n i t y . 3
A t a b u l a t i o n o f f a c t s shown i n t h e i n q u i r y b l a n k
b r i n g s t o l i g h t some v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g f i g u r e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e
e x te n t o f th e p rogram .
A t o t a l o f o n ly t h i r t y - e i g h t sc h o o ls
o f th e s ix ty - tw o s c h o o ls r e p o r t i n g have a program o f d e f i n i t e
i n s t r u c t i o n a v a ila b le to and r e q u ir e d o f ev ery s tu d e n t.
T w e n ty - o n e c i t i e s r e p o r t e d “ N o , 11 a n d t h r e e f a i l e d t o a n s w e r
th e q u e stio n .
F i f t y - f i v e s c h o o l s make a l l o w a n c e s f o r
tem p o rary a c c id e n t o r i l l n e s s
i n t h e i r p r o g r a m s ; two s c h o o l s
f a i l t o make s u c h a l l o w a n c e s , a n d f i v e d i d n o t a n s w e r .
T h ese f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h e l a c k o f a d e f i n i t e a n d w e l l o r g a n i z e d p ro g ra m o f i n s t r u c t i o n , a n d t h e e v i d e n c e s a r e n o t
in c o n fo rm ity w ith good e d u c a tio n a l p r a c t i c e .
Time a l l o t m e n t .
The p u r p o s e o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f
t h e t im e a l l o t m e n t f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n was t o d e t e r m i n e
t h e minimum am ount o f t im e g i v e n t o t h e p e r i o d , e x c l u s i v e o f
r e c e s s p e r i o d s , in th e e le m e n ta ry s c h o o ls , w ith th e hope t h a t
^ J e s s e F. W il l ia m s a n d C l i f f o r d Lee B r o w n e l l , The
A d m in is tr a tio n of H e a lth and P h y s ic a l E d u c a tio n (P h ila d e lp h ia :
W. B. S a u n d e rs Company, 1 9 3 4 ) , p . 271.
53
a d m in is tr a to r s w i l l be in flu e n c e d , a t l e a s t t o a s l i g h t de­
g re e , by th e fin d in g s of t h i s stu d y .
S t a t e m e n t s o f t h i s t y p e e m p h a s iz e t h e im p o r t a n c e o f
o ur need f o r a b e t t e r o r g a n iz a tio n of our program s.
MeCloy s a y s ,
We m ust f i g h t f o r m ore t im e f o r o u r p r o g r a m s .
The
a l l t o o f r e q u e n t l y p r e v a i l i n g two p e r i o d s a w eek,
e ac h p r o v id in g ab o u t tw e n ty - f iv e m in u te s o f a c t i v i t y
tim e , a re f a r to o in a d e q u a te .
C h ild re n n eed a t l e a s t
a n h o u r a day o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , a n d a t l e a s t
a n o t h e r h o u r a week i n t h e c l a s s room , w h e re t e c h ­
n i q u e s , r u l e s , a n d s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s m ig h t b e d i s ­
cussed. 4
L a P o r te e m p h a s i z e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t i m e a l l o t m e n t
in th e fo llo w in g sta te m e n t:
C l a s s i n s t r u c t i o n s h o u l d be on t h e b a s i s o f a
d a ily p e rio d , i f p o ss ib le *
Most p r o g r e s s i v e s t a t e s
t o d a y r e q u i r e a minimum o f t w e n ty m i n u t e s a d a y i n
c l a s s i n s t r u c t i o n f o r e le m e n ta ry s c h o o ls and th e
e q u i v a l e n t o f one p e r i o d p e r day o f fro m f o r t y t o
s i x t y m in u t e s e a c h , i n t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s .
It
i s common p r a c t i c e a t p r e s e n t t o u s e t h i s a c t i v i t y
p e r i o d one d a y p e r week f o r i n s t r u c t i o n i n h e a l t h f u l
l i v i n g o r h e a l th e d u c a tio n .
W herever p o s s i b l e , how­
e v e r , th e a c t i v i t y sh o u ld be o f f e r e d f i v e days p e r
v/eek, a n d t h e h e a l t h i n s t r u c t i o n b e g i v e n a s an
a d d i t i o n a l s u b j e c t a t some o t h e r p e r i o d , p r e f e r a b l y
two o r t h r e e t i m e s a week on a l t e r n a t i n g t e r m s .
G l a s s e s m e e t i n g o n l y o n c e a week se ld o m a r e v e r y
su c c e ss fu l.
R e g u l a r c l a s s room a s s i g n m e n t s s h o u l d
b e made f o r s u c h c l a s s e s , w i t h t h e n e c e s s a r y a l t e r ­
n a t i n g s c h e d u l e s , i n p l a c e o f r e q u i r i n g th em t o
m eet i n l o c k e r ro o m s, c o r r e c t i v e ro o m s, o r b l e a c h e r s ,
a s i s so commonly t h e c a s e . 5
4 C. H. M eCloy, “ F o r g o t t e n - O b j e c t i v e s o f P h y s i c a l
E d u c a tio n ," J o u r n a l o f H e a lth and P h y s ic a l E d u c a tio n , 8 :5 1 2 ,
O c t o b e r , 1937.
5 L a P o rte ,
o jd .
c i t •, p . 45.
I n a s t u d y made by A n n is r e g a r d i n g t h e t i m e a l l o t m e n t
p e r week f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s ,
was shown t h a t f i f t e e n
it
s t a t e s g a v e a n a v e r a g e o f 1 1 1 ,6 7
m i n u t e s p e r week t o i n s t r u c t i o n .
The t im e a c t u a l l y g i v e n t o
I n s t r u c t i o n v a r i e d b e tw e e n a minimum o f s i x t y m i n u t e s a n d a
maximum o f one h u n d r e d f i f t y m in u t e s .®
A stu d y o f th e f in d in g s in th e in q u iry b la n k i n d ic a t e s
t h a t f o r ty -o n e sc h o o ls of th e s ix ty -tw o sc h o o ls r e p o r tin g r e ­
q u ir e t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n a l p e r io d s be g iv e n d a i l y , w ith a
minimum o f t w e n t y m i n u t e s t o t h e p e r i o d e x c l u s i v e o f r e c e s s
p e rio d s.
E i g h t e e n s c h o o l s h a d no s u c h r e q u i r e m e n t s , a n d
th r e e s c h o o ls f a i l e d to answ er th e q u e s tio n .
S iz e of c l a s s e s .
The h e a l t h s t a t u s o f e a c h c h i l d ,
in ­
c lu d in g h i s s t r e n g t h and w e a k n e sse s, i s o f p rim a ry im p o rtan c e
i n th e . p r o c e s s of d ia g n o s is by th e te a c h e r .
t e n tio n to c h ild re n by te a c h e r s i s
In d iv id u a l a t ­
im p o ssib le u n d e r p r e s e n t
c o n d i t i o n s o f l a r g e c l a s s e s , a n d t e r m p r o m o t i o n s a t w h ic h
p u p i l s a r e g i v e n t o a n o t h e r t e a c h e r J u s t when t h e i r p r e s e n t
t e a c h e r i s b e g i n n i n g t o know t h e m . 7
® E l s i e K a t h e r i n e A n n i s , nA J o b A n a l y s i s o f t h e R e­
s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e E le m e n t a r y T e a c h e r t o t h e P h y s i c a l
E d u c a t i o n P r o g r a m ,” ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r 1s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y
o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 5 ) , p . 4 2 .
7 R u th S t r a n g , “H e a l t h E d u c a t i o n a s G u id a n c e ,* 1 J o u r n a l
o f H e a lth and P h y s ic a l E d u c a tio n , 8 : 8 , J a n u a r y , 1937.
55
Lowman, C o l e s t o c k , a n d C o o p er recom mend t h a t s t u d e n t s
in c o r r e c t i v e and r e s t r i c t e d grou ps he l i m i t e d to t h i r t y
n u m b er.8
in
How ever, i n a c t u a l p r a c t i c e i t h a s b e e n f o u n d t h a t
th e t e a c h e r c o u ld n o t g iv e a d e q u a te i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n
a n d s u p e r v i s i o n t o m ore t h a n t w e n t y s t u d e n t s .
The s t a n d a r d s s e t f o r t h i n The P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n
C u r r i c u l u m w e re u s e d i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e s i z e o f c l a s s e s .
T hey a r e a s f o l l o w s :
F o r s y s te m a tic i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e fu n d a m e n ta ls o f
h ig h ly s k i l l e d a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t i v e l y sm a ll c la s s e s
are n ecessary .
I t i s w id e ly re c o g n iz e d t h a t a c t i v i t y
i n s t r u c t i o n c la s s e s sh o u ld n o t exceed f o r t y - f i v e in
e n r o l l m e n t , a n d i n no c a s e s h o u l d o r g a n i z e d c l a s s e s
b e p e r m i t t e d t o go b e y o n d s i x t y f o r one i n s t r u c t o r .
C la s s e s l a r g e r th a n t h i s , even w ith good t e a c h e r s ,
r e s u l t m e re ly i n o r g a n iz e d p l a y w ith o u t d e t a i l e d i n ­
stru c tio n .
S tu d e n ts i n t h e c o r r e c t i v e and r e s t r i c t e d gro u p s
r e q u i r e more d e t a i l e d i n s t r u c t i o n a n d g u i d a n c e , h e n c e ,
s h o u l d b e o r g a n i z e d i n s m a l l e r c l a s s e s , v a r y i n g fro m
f i f te e n to tw e n ty -fiv e .
I n no c a s e s h o u l d s u c h a
c l a s s be p e r m itte d to ex ceed t h i r t y . 9
The f i n d i n g s o b t a i n e d fro m t h e i n q u i r y b l a n k r e v e a l e d
t h a t f i f t e e n s c h o o ls , o r 2 4 .2 p e r c e n t o f th e sc h o o ls r e ­
p o r t in g , p e rm it a c t i v i t y i n s t r u c t i o n c la s s e s to exceed
fo rty -fiv e p u p ils .
T h i s shows t h a t p r a c t i c a l l y o n e - f o u r t h
o f t h e s c h o o l s do n o t m e a su re up t o r e c o g n i z e d s t s - n d a r d s .
® C h a r l e s L. Lowman, C l a i r e C o l e s t o c k , a n d H a z e l
C o o p e r, C o r r e c t i v e P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n f o r G ro ups (New Y ork:
A. S. B a r n e s a n d Company, 1932V, p7 3 2 0 .
9 L a P o rte , o p . c i t . , p . 4 7 .
56
F o r ty - s e v e n s c h o o ls , o r 7 5 .8 p e r c e n t o f th e s ix ty - tw o
sc h o o ls r e p o r tin g ,
do n o t a l l o w a c t i v i t y i n s t r u c t i o n c l a s s e s
to exceed f o r ty -f iv e p u p ils .
I n answ er t o th e q u e s t i o n ,
"Do c o r r e c t i v e a n d
r e s t r i c t e d groups exceed t h i r t y p u p i l s , " f i f t y - s e v e n o f th e
s i x t y - t w o s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g a n s w e r e d "N o," w h i l e f i v e o f t h e
s c h o o l s r e p o r t e d "Yes" t o t h e same q u e s t i o n .
The i n d i c a t i o n
h e r e i s t h a t t h e s c h o o l s o f West T e x a s , i n g e n e r a l , m eet
re c o g n iz e d s ta n d a rd s p e r t a in i n g to c o r r e c t i v e and r e s t r i c t e d
group s o f p u p i l s .
Teacher lo a d s .
Teacher lo a d s, in c lu d in g a l l p la y ­
ground and e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a s s ig n m e n ts , sh o u ld n o t exceed
e i g h t e e n h u n d r e d m i n u t e s p e r w eek; a n d e a c h t e a c h e r s h o u l d
h a v e one p e r i o d p e r d a y a v a i l a b l e f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n a n d i n d i ­
v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s . 10
A t o t a l o f f o r t y - e i g h t s c h o o ls , o r 7 7 .4 p e r c e n t of
t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , do n o t p e r m i t t h e i r t e a c h e r l o a d s ,
in c lu d in g a l l p la y g ro u n d and e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a ssig n m e n ts , to
e x c e e d e i g h t e e n h u n d r e d m i n u t e s p e r w eek.
F o u rte en s c h o o ls ,
o r 2 2 . 6 p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , do p e r m i t s u c h
excess in te a c h e r lo a d s.
T h irty -o n e s c h o o ls , o r 5 0 .0 p e r c e n t o f th e sc h o o ls
r e p o r t i n g , p r o v i d e i n t h e i r s c h e d u l e s f o r e a c h t e a c h e r one
10 I b i d . , p . 4 7 .
57
p e r i o d p e r day a v a i l a b l e f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n an d i n d i v i d u a l
co n feren ces.
T h irty -o n e s c h o o ls , o r 5 0 .0 .p e r cent o f th e
s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , make no s u c h p r o v i s i o n .
Marks or grades.
There is little doubt among leading
educators that the use of objective tests has improved the
evaluation of certain educational results concerned with
specific knowledge and skills.11
Grades should be based upon the four major items of
performance skills, knowledge of rules, social attitudes,
and posture and bearing.
should be allowed.
Twenty-five per cent for each
Physical education credit should be re­
quired for graduation on the same basis as other academic
subjects; and teachers should be required to work out
practical skill, knowledge, social attitude, and posture
tests that can be administered without too great an expendi­
ture of time and effort.3.2
Findings from the inquiry blanks indicate that fortythree schools base their grades upon the four major items
of performance skills, knowledge of rules, social attitudes,
and posture and bearing.
Nineteen of the schools reporting
do not base their grades upon these items.
11
In thirty-two
Hollis L. Caswell and Doak S. Campbell, Curriculum
Development (New York: American Book Company, 19351, p. 368.
12
L a P o rte , 0 £ . c i t . , p . 4 8 .
58
s c h o o l s o f West T e x a s t h e t e a c h e r s w ork o u t p r a c t i c a l t e s t s
t h a t can he a d m in is te r e d w ith o u t to o g r e a t an e x p e n d itu re
o f tim e and e f f o r t .
T w e n ty - s e v e n s c h o o l s o f t h e s i x t y - t w o
c i t i e s r e p o r t i n g do n o t work o u t s u c h p r a c t i c a l t e s t s .
T h re e
s c h o o ls d id n o t answ er t h i s I n d i v id u a l ite m .
R e stric te d a c t i v i t i e s .
The p ro g ra m sh o u ld , b e a d a p t e d
t o t h o s e s t u d e n t s w hose m e d i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n r e s t r i c t s
th e ir a c tiv itie s .
I f th e c h i l d i s a b le to a t t e n d s c h o o l, he
sh o u ld be a b le to p a r t i c i p a t e
in such a c t i v i t i e s a s c ro q u e t,
h o rs e s h o e s , p in g pong, a rc h e ry ,
a c tiv itie s .
s h u f f l e b o ard , and s i m i l a r
T hose s t u d e n t s who f a l l i n c o r r e c t i v e g r o u p s
s h o u ld b e g iv en th e a d d i t i o n a l o p p o r tu n ity o f d e v e lo p in g a c ­
tiv ity
s k i l l s u s a b le b o th a t th e p r e s e n t tim e and i n t h e
fu tu re .
T h irty -o n e s c h o o ls , o r 5 0 .0 p e r c e n t o f th e s c h o o ls
r e p o r t i n g , do n o t a d a p t t h e i r p r o g ra m t o t h o s e s t u d e n t s whose
m ed ica l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n r e s t r i c t s t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s .
P erhaps
t h i s i s d ue t o t h e f a c t t h a t many s c h o o l s i n West T e x a s do
n o t r e q u i r e a m ed ica l e x a m in a tio n o f ev ery s tu d e n t a t l e a s t
once i n e ac h sc h o o l le v e l*
T h is s u r v e y f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e s
t h a t t h i r t y - o n e s c h o o ls , o r 5 0 .0 p e r c e n t o f th e s c h o o ls
r e p o r t i n g , do n o t g i v e t h o s e s t u d e n t s t h a t f a l l i n c o r r e c t i v e
g ro u p s th e a d d i t i o n a l o p p o r tu n ity t o d e v elo p a c t i v i t y s k i l l s
^
I b id . , p . 52.
59
u s a b le b o th a t th e p r e s e n t tim e and in th e f u t u r e .
The p h y s i c a l - m e d i e a l e x a m i n a t i o n .
The f u n c t i o n s o f
th e h e a l t h e x a m in a tio n , a c c o r d in g t o W illia m s and B ro w n e ll,
a re o u tlin e d in th e fo llo w in g q u o ta tio n :
The e x a m i n a t i o n o f s c h o o l c h i l d r e n s e r v e s s e v e r a l
fu n c tio n s:
(1 ) To d e t e r m i n e t h e p r e s e n c e o f d e f e c t s ;
(2 ) t o a c q u a i n t p a r e n t s w i t h t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s e d e ­
f e c t s ; (3) t o s e c u r e c o r r e c t i o n o f r e m e d i a l d e f e c t s ,
a n d (4) t o d e v e l o p a s c i e n t i f i c a t t i t u d e to w a r d
d i s e a s e and b o d i l y d i s t u r b a n c e s .
L a P o r te b e l i e v e s t h a t
A m e d i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d a n d r e ­
q u i r e d o f e v e r y s t u d e n t a t l e a s t once i n e a c h s c h o o l
l e v e l , v i z . , upo n e n t r a n c e t o t h e P r i m a r y , t h e E l e ­
m e n t a r y , t h e J u n i o r H ig h , a n d t h e S e n i o r H ig h s e g m e n t s .
I f a t a l l p o s s i b l e , i t sh o u ld be g iv en a n n u a lly . . * .
B o th t h e h a z a r d s t o t h e c h i l d a n d t h e l e g a l l i a b i l i t y
t o th e sc h o o l j u s t i f y su ch e x a m in a tio n even th o u g h
t h e c o s t may b e c o n s i d e r a b l e . 15
A s t u d y o f t h e i n q u i r y b l a n k s shows t h a t t h i r t y - t h r e e
s c h o o l s , o r 5 3 .2 p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , do n o t
r e q u i r e a p h y s ic a l e x a m in a tio n o f each c h i l d a t l e a s t tw ic e
in th e e le m e n ta ry s c h o o l.
T h e se f i n d i n g s a p p e a r t o s u b ­
s t a n t i a t e t h e g e n e r a l o p i n i o n t h a t p ro g r a m s f o r c o r r e c t i v e
g r o u p s a r e j u s t i f i e d o n l y when t h e p h y s i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n shows
t h e n e e d f o r s u c h g r o u p s ; h e n c e s c h o o l s w h ic h do n o t r e q u i r e
p h y s i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n s make no p r o v i s i o n s f o r c o r r e c t i v e g r o u p s .
W illia m s a n d B r o w n e l l , o p . c i t . , p . 1 4 8 .
15
L a P o rte, op . c i t . , p . 4 5 .
60
C h a p t e r sum m ary.
I t was f o u n d i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n
t h a t a t o t a l of t h i r t y - e i g h t s c h o o ls , o r 6 1 .3 p e r c e n t o f
t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , h a v e a p r o g ra m o f d e f i n i t e i n s t r u c ­
t i o n a v a i l a b l e to and r e q u ir e d o f e v ery s t u d e n t, w h ile
tw e n ty - f o u r s c h o o ls , o r 3 8 .7 p e r c en t o f th e sc h o o ls r e p o r t ­
i n g , h a v e no s u c h p ro g r a m .
E ig h te e n s c h o o ls , o r 3 0 .5 p e r c e n t o f th e s c h o o ls
a n s w e r i n g t h e q u e s t i o n , do n o t r e q u i r e t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n a l
p e r i o d s w i t h a minimum o f t w e n t y m i n u t e s t o t h e p e r i o d ,
e x c lu s iv e o f r e c e s s p e r i o d s , be g iv en d a i l y .
A p p ro x im ately 2 5 .0 p e r c e n t o f th e s c h o o ls r e p o r t i n g
p e rm it a c t i v i t y i n s t r u c t i o n c la s s e s to exceed f o r t y - f i v e
p u p ils.
F iv e s c h o o l s , o r 8 . 0 p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s r e ­
p o r t i n g , p e rm it c o r r e c t i v e and r e s t r i c t e d g ro u p s t o e x c e e d
t h i r t y p u p ils .
A t o t a l o f f o r t y - e i g h t s c h o o ls , o r 7 7 .4 p e r c e n t of
t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , do n o t p e r m i t t h e i r t e a c h e r l o a d s ,
in c lu d in g a l l p lay g ro u n d and e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a ssig n m e n ts,
t o e x c e e d e i g h t e e n h u n d r e d m i n u t e s p e r w eek , w h i l e f o u r t e e n
s c h o o l s , o r 2 2 . 6 p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , do
p e rm it such ex ce ss in te a c h e r lo a d s .
G ra d e s a r e b a s e d upo n t h e f o u r m a j o r i te m s o f p e r ­
fo rm an ce s k i l l s ,
k n o w led g e o f r u l e s ,
so c ia l a ttitu d e s ,
and
p o s t u r e and b e a r i n g in f o r t y - t h r e e s c h o o ls , o r 6 9 .4 p e r c e n t
o f th e sc h o o ls r e p o r tin g .
P r a c t i c a l t e s t s h a v e b e e n w o rk e d
61
o u t b y t h e t e a c h e r s i n t h i r t y - t w o s c h o o l s , o r 5 1 .6 p e r c e n t
o f th e sc h o o ls r e p o r t i n g .
A p p r o x i m a t e l y 5 0 .0 p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s do n o t
a d a p t t h e i r p r o g r a m s t o t h o s e s t u d e n t s w hose m e d i c a l c l a s s i ­
fic a tio n r e s tric ts th e ir a c tiv itie s .
No p r o v i s i o n s a r e made
i n 5 0 . 0 p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s f o r s t u d e n t s who f a l l i n
c o r r e c t i v e g r o u p s t o d e v e lo p a c t i v i t y s k i l l s u s a b l e b o t h a t
t h e p r e s e n t tim e a n d i n t h e f u t u r e .
A p h y s ic a l e x a m in a tio n o f each c h i l d a t l e a s t tw ic e
i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l, i s n o t r e q u i r e d i n t h i r t y - t h r e e
s c h o o ls , o r 5 3 .2 p e r c e n t o f th e s c h o o ls r e p o r t i n g .
CHAPTER V
THE TEACHING PERSONNEL OF THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION
PROGRAM IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF WEST TEXAS
A u th o r itie s ag re e t h a t h e a l th and p h y s ic a l e d u o a tio n
i s im p o rta n t in th e a d ju stm e n t o f th e i n d iv i d u a l to h i s en­
v iro n m e n t.
P r o p e r s u p e r v i s i o n o f p l a y s a n d games o f c h i l d r e n
i s a fu n d am e n ta l f a c t o r in t h e e d u c a tio n o f th e c h i l d .
P h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i s a p a r t o f t h e w hole e d u c a t i o n p r o j e c t ,
and th e p r o p e r and a d e q u a te t r a i n i n g o f t e a c h e r s in p h y s i c a l
e d u c a tio n i s a p ro b lem o f g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e .
The c h i l d h a s
a n i n t e r e s t i n games o r o t h e r p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s t h a t i s
s p o n t a n e o u s , b u t he s h o u l d h a v e a d u l t g u i d a n c e a n d s u p e r ­
v i s i o n t o d i r e c t h i s p l a y i n t o w holesom e c h a n n e l s .
T h is c h a p t e r g i v e s t h e f i n d i n g s a s c e r t a i n e d fro m
s c h o o l s a n s w e r i n g t h e i n q u i r y b l a n k , a n d a c o m p a r is o n o f t h e
t e c h n i q u e s u s e d w i t h t h e o n e s s u g g e s t e d i n The P h y s i c a l
E d u c a tio n C u rricu lu m .
P re re q u is ite tra in in g re q u ire d of a p p lic a n ts .
S in ce
a c a d e m ic t r a i n i n g v a r i e s n o t o n l y i n q u a l i t y b u t i n q u a n t i t y ,
i t h a s b e e n n e c e s s a r y f o r many s t a t e b u l l e t i n s t o i n s e r t t h e
c l a u s e “ r e c o g n i z e d i n s t i t u t i o n s . H R e c o g n iz e d i n s t i t u t i o n s
a re th o s e o rg a n iz a tio n s r e q u ir in g in t h e i r co u rse of stu d y
63
c e r t a i n minimum r e q u i s i t e s t h a t s a t i s f y s t a t e a u t h o r i t i e s .
On t h i s b a s i s , t h e n , a n a n a l y s i s o f T a b le VI shows t h a t a l l
s c h o o l s o f West T exas r e p o r t i n g r e q u i r e , o v e r a n d a b o v e h i g h
sch o o l g ra d u a tio n , a t l e a s t fo u r y ears of te a c h e r c o lle g e
tra in in g .
S i x t y - o n e a n d t h r e e - t e n t h s p e r c e n t o f t h e West
Texas c i t i e s r e q u i r e f o u r y e a r s o f e d u c a tio n .
T h is i n v e s t i ­
g a t i o n shows t h a t a B a c h e l o r 1s d e g r e e i n e d u c a t i o n , o r i t s
e q u iv a le n t, i s a p rim a ry p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r te a c h in g in th e
e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s o f t h e s i x t y - t w o c i t i e s o f West T e x a s .
P r o f e s s io n a l re q u ire m e n ts in th e e a r l y s ta g e s ,
o th e r
t h a n a k n ow ledg e o f a c a d e m ic m a t t e r , w ere v e r y r e m o t e .
W ith
t h e a d v e n t o f t h e n o r m a l s c h o o l , a n e f f o r t was made i n t h e
d i r e c t i o n o f r e q u i r i n g a t e a c h e r t o h a v e a k n o w le d g e o f
m e th o d s o f t e a c h i n g h i s t o r y a n d o f t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f e d u c a ­
tio n . ^
A more m odern t r e n d i n p r e r e q u i s i t e t r a i n i n g r e q u i r e d
o f t e a c h e r s i s s t a t e d i n The P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n C u r r i c u l u m i n
th e fo llo w in g p a ra g rap h s:
A ll te a c h e r s o f p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n sh o u ld be c e r t i ­
f i e d by th e s t a t e , sin c e p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n i s a v ery
t e c h n i c a l f i e l d and in c lu d e s th e h a n d lin g o f a c t i v i t i e s
w h ic h a r e more o r l e s s i n h e r e n t l y h a z a r d o u s .
I t i s im­
p o r t a n t t h a t th ey be u n d e r t h e l e a d e r s h ip o f t r a i n e d
t e a c h e r s , h e n c e , t h e p e r s o n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r them s h o u l d
h a v e a t l e a s t a m in o r a n d p r e f e r a b l y a m a j o r i n p h y s i c a l
e d u c a tio n in h i s c o lle g e program .
I n t h o s e s m a l l e r c o m m u n itie s w here t h e r e a r e no s u c h
t r a i n e d te a c h e rs a v a ila b le , th e p r i n c i p a l o r
1 A le x an d e r I n g l i s , P r i n c i p l e s o f S eco n d ary E d u c a tio n
( B o s t o n : H oughton M i f f l i n Company, 1918 7, P* 1 3 2 .
64
TABLE VI
PREREQUISITE TRAINING REQUIRED OF APPLICANT IN
SIXTY-TWO CITIES OF WEST TEXAS
Texas
c itie s
P e r cent
F o u r-y ear
te a c h e r c o lle g e
13
21.0
B. S. i n
e d u c a tio n
25
4 0 .3
M. S. i n
e d u c a tio n
2
T r a in in g re q u ire m e n t
T h ree-y ear
norm al
x • oc,
*
O th e r t r a i n i n g
No s p e c i f i c a t i o n
22
T o ta ls
62
3 5 .5
100
NOTE: T h i s t a b l e s h o u l d b e r e a d a s f o l l o w s :
A
t o t a l o f t h i r t e e n s c h o o l s , o r 2 1 . 0 p e r c e n t , hav e f o u r y e a r s
of te a c h e r c o lle g e tr a in in g .
65
s u p e r in te n d e n t sh o u ld i n s i s t t h a t th e ones a s s ig n e d to
t h i s work a r r a n g e t o t a k e s p e c i a l c o u r s e s i n t e a c h e r
t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s d u r i n g t h e summer s e s s i o n o r i n
e x t e n s i o n , u n t i l t h e y m ee t t h e minimum r e q u i r e m e n t s o f
a m in o r o f fro m t w e l v e t o f i f t e e n s e m e s t e r u n i t s . &
D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f minimum q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r t e a c h e r s .
Minimum e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s may h e d e t e r m i n e d b y a t
l e a s t f o u r a g e n c ie s:
(1) s t a t e
d e p artm e n ts o f e d u c a tio n ,
w h ic h a r e a s s u m in g l a r g e d e g r e e s o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e
c e r t if i c a t io n of te a c h e rs;
(2 ) a c c r e d i t i n g a g e n c i e s , w h ic h
r e q u i r e a minimum p r e p a r a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s a s a p r e r e q u i s i t e
to th e re c o g n itio n o f sc h o o ls;
(3 ) l o e a l b o a r d s o f e d u c a t i o n ,
w h ic h may p r o m u l g a t e s t a n d a r d s a n d minimum q u a l i f i c a t i o n s
above th e l e v e l r e q u i r e d e i t h e r by s t a t e d e p a rtm e n ts o f edu­
c a t i o n o r b y a c c r e d i t i n g a g e n c i e s ; a n d (4) t e a c h i n g e x p e r i ­
ence,
The am ount o f p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g o f e l e m e n t a r y
s c h o o l t e a c h e r s i n s i x t y - t w o c i t i e s o f W est T exas i s shown i n
T a b le V II.
O nly f o u r t e e n t e a c h e r s i n t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g
t e a c h on a c r e d e n t i a l w h ic h i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e y h a v e l e s s
t h a n a B a c h e lo r 's d e g re e in e d u c a tio n .
te a c h e rs in t h i s
,As a w h o le , t h e
s t u d y a r e w e l l t r a i n e d c o m p a re d w i t h t h e
s t a n d a r d s a n d re c o m m e n d a tio n s s e t up b y t h e N o r t h C e n t r a l
A s s o c ia t io n o f C o lle g e and S econdary S c h o o ls .3
A lth o u g h th e
^ W il l ia m R a lp h L a P o r t e , The P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n C u r­
r i c u l u m . S econd E d i t i o n , R e v i s e d an d E n l a r g e d (L os A n g e l e s :
The C o l l e g e P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 3 8 ) , p . 4 8 .
3 N o rth C e n tr a l A s s o c ia t io n Q u a r t e r l y , 8 :8 1 , J u n e A p r i l , 1 9 3 3 -1 9 3 4 .
66
TABLE V II
AMOUNT OF PROFESSIONAL TRAINING OF ELEMENTARY
TEACHERS IN SIXTY-TWO CITIES OF WEST TEXAS
P ro fe ss io n a l
tra in in g
T ex a s
c itie s
P er cent
C re d e n tia l
o n ly
14
2 .6
B a c h e l o r 1s
d eg ree
427
7 9 .7
L ess th a n
fo u r y ears
33
6 .2
F if th y ear, but
n o t h ig h e r
37
6 .9
H ig h e r deg ree
25
4 .6
T o ta l
536
100
. NOTE: T h i s t a b l e s h o u l d b e r e a d a s f o l l o w s :
Two a n d s i x - t e n t h s p e r c e n t o f t h e T exas s c h o o l s h a v e a
c r e d e n t i a l o n ly .
67
a b o v e c o m p a r is o n shows t h a t t h e s e t e a c h e r s a r e w e l l t r a i n e d
a c a d e m i c a l l y , t h e y may be c o n s i d e r e d p o o r l y t r a i n e d a s
te a c h e r s o f p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n , p ro v id e d t h a t th ey have n o t
met t h e minimum r e q u i r e m e n t s o f a m in o r o f fr o m t w e l v e t o
f i f t e e n se m e ste r u n i t s in th e f i e l d o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a tio n .^
P r o f e s s io n a l e d u c a tio n re q u ire m e n ts .
I n many s t a t e s
c e r t i f i c a t i o n re q u ire m e n ts f o r te a c h e r s n o t o n ly p r e s c r i b e
t h e n u m b er o f h o u r s o f a c a d e m ic t r a i n i n g b u t a l s o s p e c i f y
t h e n u m b er o f h o u r s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e
h ig h e s t c la s s of t e a c h e r 's c r e d e n t i a l .
Bachman r e p o r t s t h a t
o f t h e f o r t y - f i v e s t a t e s r e q u i r i n g a g i v e n num ber o f h o u r s
o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e h i g h e s t a c a d e m ic c e r t i f i ­
c a te ,
t h i r t y - t h r e e r e q u i r e b e tw ee n f i f t e e n a n d e ig h te e n
se m e ste r h o u r s .5
The d a t a s e t f o r t h i n T a b le V I I I s p e c i f y
t h a t 6 7 . 7 p e r c e n t o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s o f West T e x a s
r e q u i r e a g e n e r a l e le m e n ta ry c e r t i f i c a t e t o te a c h i n t h e i r
sc h o o ls.
The g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t i n o r d e r t o t e a c h
i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s o f W est T e x a s , a t e a c h e r m u st h a v e
a g e n e r a l e le m e n tary c e r t i f i c a t e .
4
L a P o rte ,
o jd .
c i t . , p . 48.
5 F r a n k P . Bachman, T r a i n i n g a n d C e r t i f i c a t i o n o f H ig h
S c h o o l T e a c h e r s ( G e o rg e P e a b o d y C o l le g e o f T e a c h e r s F i e l d
S tu d y No. 2 . N a s h v i l l e , T e n n e s s e e : D i v i s i o n o f S u rv e y s
a n d F i e l d S t u d i e s , G eorge P e a b o d y C o l le g e o f T e a c h e r s , 1 9 3 0 ) ,
p . 18.
68
T a b le V I I I shows t h a t 33 p e r c e n t o f t h e t e a c h e r s o f
West T e x a s h a v e a g e n e r a l e l e m e n t a r y c e r t i f i c a t e .
The
g e n e r a l s e c o n d a r y i s t h e m o st p o p u l a r c e r t i f i c a t e i n t h e
West T e x a s c i t i e s ,
f o r 4 4 .2 p e r c e n t o f th e t e a c h e r s have
t h i s ty p e of c re d e n tia l*
The p r i m a r y c e r t i f i c a t e i s t h e
t h i r d m ost p o p u l a r one i n t h e West T ex a s c i t i e s , a s i t
h e l d b y 1 1 .2 p e r c e n t o f t h e t e a c h e r s r e p o r t i n g .
seco n d ary i s th e l e a s t d e s ir e d , f o r i t
is
The s p e c i a l
i s h e ld by o n ly 2 .8
p e r cent of a l l te a c h e r s .
R e q u ir e m e n ts r e g a r d i n g e x p e r i e n c e .
T h e r e was a t im e
i n t h e A m e ric a n e d u c a t i o n a l s y s te m when t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e
r a t e d a s a more i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r t h a n s c h o l a s t i c
a tta in m e n t,^
b u t t h i s th e o ry in l a t e y e a rs has been r a p i d l y d e c re a s in g .
T h i s q u e s t i o n was d e s i g n e d t o c h e c k on t h e c o n s e n s u s o f
o p i n i o n among c r i t i c s .
S t a t i s t i c s show i n T a b l e IX t h a t 14*5 p e r c e n t o f t h e
c itie s
s t i l l r e m a in i n sy m p a th y w i t h t h i s p o l i c y .
E ig h ty -
f i v e a n d f i v e - t e n t h s p e r c e n t o f t h e s i x t y - t w o West T ex a s
c i t i e s r e p o r t i n g do n o t r e q u i r e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e a p p l i c a n t .
T h re e a n d two t e n t h s p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s r e q u i r e one
y e a r of tea ch in g e x p e rie n c e .
C o n se q u e n tly , e x p e rie n c e i s n o t an Im p o rta n t ite m
S ta te s
6 E llw o o d P . C u b b e r l e y , P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d
(B o s to n : H o u g h to n M i f f l i n Company, 1 9 1 9 ) , p . 5 1 7 .
69
TABLE V I II
TYPE OF CREDENTIAL REQUIRED OF AND HELD BY ELEMENTARY
TEACHERS IN SIXTY-TWO CITIES OF WEST TEXAS
Type o f
c re d e n tia l
TYPE OF
CREDENTIAL REQUIRED
TYPE OF
CREDENTIAL HELD
Texas
c itie s
T exas
c itie s
Per
cent
Per
cent
P rim ary
8
1 2 .9
56
1 1 .2
S p e c ia l
e le m e n ta ry
3
4 .8
27
5 .4
G eneral
e le m e n ta ry
42
6 7 .7
165
3 3 .0
17
3 .4
J u n io r h ig h
S p e c ia l
secondary
2
3 .2
14
2 .8
G eneral
secondary
6
9 .7
221
4 4 .2
N ot r e p o r t i n g
20
3 2 .3
T o ta ls
62
500
100
NOTE: T h is t a b l e s h o u l d b e r e a d a s f o l l o w s :
E ig h t
o f t h e V/est T ex a s b i t i e s r e q u i r e a t l e a s t a p r i m a r y e r e d e n t i a l ; 1 1 . 2 p e r c e n t o f t h e t e a c h e r s o f t h e W est T e x a s c i t i e s
have a p rim a ry c r e d e n t i a l .
70
TABLE IX
EXPERIENCE REQUIRED OF APPLICANT IN- SIXTY-TWO
CITIES OF WEST TEXAS
Texas
c itie s
Per
cent
53
8 5 .5
One y e a r
2
3 .2
Two y e a r s
6
9 .7
T hree y e a rs
1
1.6
E x p erien c e
No e x p e r i e n c e
Four y ears
F iv e y e a r s
More t h a n f i v e
y ears
T o ta ls
62
100
NOTE: T h i s t a b l e s h o u l d be r e a d a s f o l l o w s :
F ifty t h r e e West T e x a s c i t i e s r e q u i r e no e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e a p p l i ­
cant .
71
a s 8 5 . 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s do n o t p l a c e a prem ium upon
th is fa c to r.
O b v i o u s l y , a l l t e a c h e r s m ust b e g i n a s i n e x ­
p e rie n c e d te a c h e rs ;
th e re fo re ,
th e sch o o l has a s o c i a l o b l i ­
g a t i o n o f ’'b r e a k i n g i n " some i n e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s e a c h
year.
Minimum a n d maximum a g e r e q u i r e m e n t s .
Some s c h o o l
s y s t e m s h a v e s e t up minimum a n d maximum a g e r e q u i r e m e n t s i n
a n a t t e m p t t o e l i m i n a t e c a n d i d a t e s whom t h e y c o n s i d e r e i t h e r
t o o yo u n g o r t o o o l d .
A c c o r d i n g t o T a b le X, a p p r o x i m a t e l y
29 p e r c e n t o f t h e s i x t y - t w o West T ex a s c i t i e s r e p o r t i n g
h a v e r u l e s a s t o minimum a n d maximum a g e s a t w h ich a p p l i ­
c a n t s may b e a p p o i n t e d t o s c h o o l s y s t e m s .
The a g e r e q u i r e ­
m e n ts a d o p t e d b y t h e v a r i o u s s y s te m s d i f f e r r e l a t i v e l y
little
in l a r g e and sm a ll c i t i e s .
The minimum a g e r e q u i r e ­
m e n ts r a n g e fro m t w e n ty t o t w e n t y - t w o y e a r s .
The maximum
a g e r e q u i r e m e n t s ' r a n g e fro m t h i r t y - f i v e t o f i f t y - n i n e y e a r s .
The s c h o o l s i n t h i s
stu d y ta k e l i t t l e
a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n ag e
r e s t r i c t i o n s g o v e rn in g a p p l i c a n t s , f o r th e y a re p r o t e c t e d by
a minimum a g e r e q u i r e m e n t s e t down b y t h e T ex as S c h o o l
C o d e .7
T eachers1 s a l a r i e s .
The a v e r a g e y e a r l y s a l a r y o f
a p p ro x im a te ly n in e hundred th o u sa n d t e a c h e r s , p r i n c i p a l s ,
7
P u b l i c S c h o o l Law s, S t a t e o f T e x a s ( A u s t i n , T e x a s:
S t a t e D e p a rtm e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9317 7 p* 8 7 .
72
TABLE X
AGE RESTRICTION IN SIXTY-TWO CITIES OF WEST TEXAS
Age.
TEXAS CITIES
Minimum
Maximum
MINIMUM
20
7
21
9
22
2
No s p e c i f i c a t i o n
44
MAXIMUM
35-39
6
4 0 -44
4
45-49
50 a n d o v e r
T o ta l
2
62
NOTE: T h is t a b l e s h o u l d b e r e a d a s f o l l o w s :
The
minimum a g e o f t h e t e a c h e r s i n West T ex a s c i t i e s i s t w e n t y
years.
a n d s u p e r v i s o r s em p loy ed i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s o f t h e n a t i o n
i n 1928 was $ 1 , 3 6 4 . 0 0 .®
T h is g e n e r a l a v e r a g e i s n o t r e p r e ­
s e n t a t iv e f o r p a r t i c u l a r groups of te a c h e r s .
C l a s s room
t e a c h e r s o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s i n tow ns w i t h p o p u l a t i o n s
fro m 2 , 5 0 0 t o 5 , 0 0 0 r e c e i v i n g $ 1 , 2 1 2 . 0 0 y e a r l y i n 1 9 2 8 ,
w e re t h e l o w e s t p a i d o f t h e c i t y s c h o o l g r o u p .
The m e d ia n
s a l a r y i n 1931 o f c i t i e s w i t h . a p o p u l a t i o n o f t h i r t y t o one
h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d was $ 1 , 6 0 9 . 0 0 ; i n 1 9 3 3 , $ 1 , 5 2 6 . 0 0 ; a n d i n
1 9 3 5 , $ 1 , 4 1 2 . 0 0 ; fro m 1933 t o 1935 t h e s a l a r i e s o f e l e ­
m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s w ere r e d u c e d 7 . 4 7 p e r c e n t . 9
The q u e s t i o n o f t h e am ount o f s a l a r y a t e a c h e r o r
i n s t r u c t o r r e c e iv e s , o r is to re e e iv e in th e f u tu r e ,
i s one
t h o u g h t i n t h e m in d s o f t a x p a y e r s , t r u s t e e s , a n d a l l i n t e r ­
e s t e d i n s c h o o l s i n a n y way.
T r u s t e e s a n d p a t r o n s o f many
d i s t r i c t s w ant t o b e m ost r e a s o n a b l e i n t h e i r r e m u n e r a t i o n
o f s c h o o l e m p lo y e e s a n d i n t h e g e n e r a l s u p p o r t o f t h e b e s t
e d u c a t i o n a l s y s te m a n d p r o g r a m p o s s i b l e .
So, i n o r d e r t o
be g u id e d re a s o n a b ly in t h e i r a c t io n r e l a t i v e to th e s e t t i n g
o f f u t u r e s a l a r y s c h e d u l e s , many t r u s t e e s a n d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s
it
i s hoped, w i l l be in f lu e n c e d , a t l e a s t to a s l i g h t deg ree
b y t h e f i n d i n g s i n T a b le XI o f t h i s s u r v e y , w h ic h shows
® M a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , W hat1s A head f o r
T e a c h e rs * S a l a r i e s , n. d . , p . 8.
® N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia tio n , R e se arch B u l l e t i n
No. 2 , X I I I : 6 , M arch , 1 9 3 5 .
74
t h e minimum a n d maximum s a l a r i e s p a i d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d .
The maximum s a l a r y p a i d i n t h e f i f t y West T exas
c i t i e s r e p o r tin g i s $ 3 ,0 0 0 .0 0 .
t h e same s c h o o l s i s $ 7 2 0 .0 0 .
The minimum s a l a r y p a i d i n
T h is s tu d y s u b s t a n t i a t e s th e
g e n e r a l o p in io n t h a t th e s a l a r y o f e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l
t e a c h e r s i n c r e a s e s w i t h t h e s i z e o f t h e c i t y i n w h ic h t h e
t e a c h e r i s e m p lo y e d .
T h e re i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e am ount o f
o v e rla p p in g in th e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s a l a r i e s .
Some t e a c h e r s
in l a r g e r c i t i e s
re c e iv e lo w e r s a l a r i e s th a n th o s e in th e
sm a lle r c i t i e s .
The a n n u a l a v e r a g e s a l a r y o f t h e f i f t y
W est T ex a s s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g on t h i s i t e m i n t h e i n q u i r y
b l a n k i s $ 1 , 1 0 0 . 0 0 , w h ic h i s $ 3 1 2 .0 0 l o w e r t h a n t h e m ed ian
s a l a r y o f e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s t h r o u g h o u t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . 10
I n g e n e r a l , t h e s a l a r i e s o f W est T exas t e a c h e r s r e p o r t i n g i n
t h i s su rv e y a r e lo w e r th a n th o s e o f th e a v e ra g e e le m e n ta ry
t e a e h e r in th e U n ited S t a t e s .
C h a p te r sum m ary.
A t e a c h e r m aking a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a
p o s i t i o n i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s o f West T ex as s h o u l d have
th e e q u iv a le n t of fo u r y e a rs of te a c h e r c o lle g e t r a i n i n g ,
s i n c e 6 1 . 3 p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s r e q u i r e t h i s am ount o f
te a c h e r tra in in g .
The t e a c h e r s o f West T e x a s , gg a w h o l e , a r e w e l l
t r a i n e d co m p ared w i t h t h e s t a n d a r d s a n d re c o m m e n d a tio n s s e t
L oc. c i t .
75
TABLE XI
SALARY SCHEDULE OF FIFTY PRINCIPAL CITIES
OF WEST TEXAS
S a la ry
$2400
2300
2200
2100
2000
1900
1800
1700
1600
1500
1400
1300
1200
1100
1000
1000
Number o f C i t i e s
Minimum
S a la ry
and o v e r
t o 2400
t o 2300
t o 2200
t o 2100
t o 2000
t o 1900
t o 1800
t o 1700
t o 1600
t o 1500
t o 1400
t o 1300
t o 1200
t o 1100
and l e s s
Maximum
S a la ry
5
1
1
1
3
45
A verage
$900
G e n e r a l A v e rag e o f A l l C i t i e s :
$1100
5
2
1
8
4
6
18
$1300
up by t h e N o r t h C e n t r a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f C o l l e g e s a n d
S econdary S c h o o ls.
A lth o u g h t h e s e t e a c h e r s a r e w e l l t r a i n e d
a c a d e m i c a l l y , t h e y may b e c o n s i d e r e d p o o r l y t r a i n e d i n
p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , p r o v i d e d t h a t t h e y h a v e n o t met t h e
minimum r e q u i r e m e n t s o f a m in o r o f from t w e l v e t o f i f t e e n
se m e ste r u n i ts in th e f i e l d of p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n .
t o t e a c h in th e e le m e n ta ry sc h o o ls o f t h i s
In o rd er
stu d y , th e a p p l i ­
c a n t m ust h a v e a g e n e r a l e l e m e n t a r y c e r t i f i c a t e .
The
g e n e r a l s e c o n d a r y i s t h e m o st p o p u l a r c e r t i f i c a t e
in th e
West T ex as c i t i e s , w h i l e t h e p r i m a r y c e r t i f i c a t e
t h i r d m ost p o p u l a r o n e .
i s th e
The s p e c i a l s e c o n d a r y i s t h e l e a s t
d e s ire d of a l l .
The s c h o o l s i n t h i s
s t u d y seem t o s e n s e t h e i r s o c i a l
o b l i g a t i o n o f “b r e a k i n g i n 11 i n e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s , a s 8 5 .5
p e r c e n t o f them do n o t r e q u i r e an y t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e o f
an a p p lic a n t.
The T ex a s s c h o o l s a r e p r o t e c t e d b y a s t a t e
la w g o v e r n i n g t h e minimum a n d maximum a g e r e q u i r e m e n t s ;
t h e r e f o r e , th e sc h o o ls r e p o r tin g in t h i s
a c tiv e
stu d y ta k e l i t t l e
i n t e r e s t in age r e s t r i c t i o n s g o v e rn in g a p p l i c a n t s .
The s a l a r i e s o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s i n c r e a s e
w i t h t h e s i z e o f t h e c i t y i n w h ic h t h e t e a c h e r i s e m p lo y e d .
The maximum a v e r a g e s a l a r y p a i d i n t h e W est T exas c i t i e s
r e p o r t i n g i s $ 1 ,3 0 0 .0 0 .
The minimum a v e r a g e s a l a r y p a i d i n
t h e same s c h o o l s i s $ 9 0 0 .0 0 .
T h e re a r e some t e a c h e r s i n
t h e l a r g e r c i t i e s who r e c e i v e l o w e r s a l a r i e s t h a n t h o s e i n
77
s m a lle r sc h o o ls.
The a n n u a l a v e r a g e s a l a r y o f t h e f i f t y
West T e x a s s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g i s $ 1 , 1 0 0 . 0 0 , w h ich i s $ 5 1 2 .0 0
l o w e r t h a n t h e m e d ia n s a l a r y o f e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s t h r o u g h ­
o u t th e U n ited S t a t e s .
I n g e n e r a l , t h e s a l a r i e s o f T exas
t e a c h e r s r e p o r t i n g in t h i s s tu d y a re lo w e r th a n th o s e o f th e
a v e ra g e e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l t e a c h e r in th e U n ite d S t a t e s .
CHAPTER VI
INTEGRATING- THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAM WITH
HEALTH, SAFETY, AND OTHER SCHOOL SUBJECTS
IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF WEST TEXAS
I t i s th e p rim a ry co n cern o f t h i s p o r t io n of th e i n ­
v e s t i g a t i o n to stu d y th e p r a c t i c e s of th e sc h o o ls w ith r e ­
g a rd to i n t e g r a t i o n and c o r r e l a t i o n , and to e v a lu a te such
p r a c t i c e s i n t e r m s o f t h e s t a n d a r d s s e t up i n The P h y s i c a l
E d u c a tio n C u rricu lu m
D e f i n i t i o n s o f t e r m s HI n t e g r a t i o n *1 a n d 11c o r r e l a t i o n . H
The t e r m 11i n t e g r a t i o n ” a p p l i e d t o a c u r r i c u l u m o r t o a c h i l d ,
m u st b e d e f i n e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y , p e d a g o g i c a l l y , a n d s o c i o ­
lo g ic a lly :
1. P s y c h o lo g ic a lly , in te g r a tio n i s th e b lan k e t
t e r m e m p lo y ed t o d e n o t e t h e e d u c a t o r ' s c o n c e r n f o r
th e t o t a l p e r s o n a lity of th e le a r n e r .
2. P e d a g o g ic a lly , in te g r a tio n is used to d e sc rib e
a t e a c h i n g p r o c e d u r e w h ic h r e l a t e s v a r i e t i e s o f
s u b j e c t - m a t t e r t o u n i t s o f s tu d y o r t o p ro b lem ­
so lv in g s itu a tio n s ,
3. S o c io lo g ic a lly , in te g r a tio n is u t i l i z e d in
t h r e e d i f f e r e n t w ay s, n a m e ly :
a . To d e s i g n a t e t h e d e s i r e d r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n
an i n d i v i d u a l and o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s a s i n t e r a c t i n g
p e rs o n a litie s.
b . To d e s i g n a t e t h e d e s i r e d r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n
an in d iv id u a l and th e o rg a n iz e d i n s t i t u t i o n s o f
so c ie ty .
79
c.
To d e s i g n a t e t h e d e s i r e d r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n
one o r g a n i z e d i n s t i t u t i o n o f s o c i e t y ( t h e s c h o o l ,
f o r e x am p le ) a n d o t h e r s i t u a t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n t h e
co m p lex o f c u l t u r e . ^
The te r m “ c o r r e l a t i o n , " w i t h r e g a r d t o s u b j e c t m a t t e r ,
i s u s e d t o d e s i g n a t e a f u s i o n o r c o m b i n a t i o n o f two o r more
s u b j e c t s t o b e t a u g h t i n a l l t h e i r p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s t o one
a n o th e r.
a rise ,
S u b j e c t m a t t e r i s u s e d t o a n s w e r p r o b le m s w h ic h
j u s t a s i t was i n t h e i n t e g r a t e d c u r r i c u l u m .
The
d i s t i n c t i o n i s t h a t “ i n t e g r a t i o n " r e c o g n i z e s no b o u n d a r i e s
o f s u b je c t m a tte r in se ek in g th e s o lu tio n ;
" c o rre la tio n "
co n fin e s i t s e l f to d e f in ite s u b je c ts .
The t e r m " i n t e g r a t i o n , "
tio n ,
as i t a p p lie s to h e a lth educa­
i s e x p r e s s e d b y Rood, who s a y s ,
I n t e g r a t i o n , w h i l e a f a m i l a r te r m i n e d u c a t i o n ,
seem s t o be one w h ic h i s d i f f i c u l t t o a n a l y z e o r t o
d e f i n e . At t h e r i s k o f b e i n g a c c u s e d o f n a r r o w i n g
and lim itin g i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , th e w r i t e r w i l l
v e n tu re to d e fin e " in te g r a tio n " a s , in p a r t , th e
sum t o t a l o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n w h ic h o c c u r s when a n
I n d i v id u a l re s p o n d s w h o lly and p u r p o s e f u ll y t o a
p ro b lem in h i s e n v iro n m e n t.
The t e r m u s e d i n t h i s
s e n s e , seems t o a p p l y p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l t o t h e f i e l d
o f h e a lth e d u c a tio n , sin c e p r a c t i c a l l y a l l p h ases of
hom e, s c h o o l , a n d com m unity l i f e h a v e i n h e r e n t w i t h ­
i n t h e m s e l v e s , p ro b le m s w h ic h a r e r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y
o r i n d i r e c t l y t o h e a l t h p ro m o tio n and p r o t e c t i o n ,
s a n ita tio n , a c c id e n t p re v e n tio n , s a fe ty or f i r s t a id ,
a n d w h ic h p r e s e n t t h e m s e l v e s c o n s t a n t l y a n d p e r ­
s i s t e n t l y i n e n d l e s s n u m b e rs o f s i t u a t i o n s .
The
c h i e f p r o b le m e n c o u n t e r e d i n a t t e m p t i n g t o b r i n g
about a f u r th e r in g of u n d e rsta n d in g of in te g r a tio n
1 L. Thomas H op k in s a n d o t h e r s , I n t e g r a t i o n , I t s
M ean in g a n d A p p l i c a t i o n (New Y ork: D. A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y
Company, I n c . , 1 9 3 7 ) , p p . 2 1 - 2 2 .
80
i n a c t u a l p r a c t i c e seem s t o b e , how c a n t h i s i n t e ­
g r a t i n g p r o c e s s b e so c o n c r e t e l y i n t e r p r e t e d i n
term s of c h i l d i n t e r e s t s and a c t i v i t i e s , t h a t
t e a c h e r s w i l l s e e c l e a r l y i t s v a l u e , a n d w ork t o w a r d
m ak in g b r o a d e r i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s a d a i l y p a r t o f
t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p ro g ra m o f t h e c l a s s r o o m ? 2
The a n s w e r t o t h i s q u e s t i o n d e p e n d s u pon t h e c l a s s
room t e a c h e r .
I f she b e l i e v e s t h a t
The k e y w o rd s o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e c u r r i c u l u m a r e
g r o w t h , d e v e l o p m e n t , a n d im pro vem en t i n t h e l i f e o f
a l l I n d iv id u a ls c o n cern ed .
I f sh e i s c o n s t a n t l y
s t r i v i n g t o d e v e l o p a w id e v a r i e t y o f a c t i v i t i e s ,
and t o u t i l i z e a w e a lth o f m a t e r i a l s , how ever c ru d e ,
so t h a t a s s o c i a t e d l e a r n i n g s may t a k e p l a c e .
I f she
se rv e s as a g u id e , h e lp in g th e c h ild re n to d eal in ­
t e l l i g e n t l y w i t h p r o b l e m s w h ic h a r i s e , a n d t o s e n s e
t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e s e p r o b le m s t o l i f e a r o u n d
th e m . I f t h e p u p i l s i n t h e s c h o o l a r e d a i l y m ak in g
many w o r t h w h i l e c o n t a c t s b o t h w i t h i n a n d w i t h o u t
t h e c l a s s room ; i f t h e y a r e b u i l d i n g n e t w o r k s o f
a s s o c i a t i o n s , r a d i a t i n g o u t fro m h i g h p o i n t s o f i n ­
t e r e s t in th e l i f e of th e sch o o l th e te a c h e r i s
in d eed c o n tr ib u tin g g e n e ro u sly in b r in g in g about
i n t e g r a t i o n i n th e sc h o o l p ro g ra m .3
A v a l u a b l e i n v e s t i g a t i o n made by M cC reary i m p l i e s
t h a t t h e te a c h in g o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a tio n in t h e e le m e n ta ry
s c h o o l s i s done e i t h e r e n t i r e l y o r i n p a r t b y t h e c l a s s
room t e a c h e r .
T h i s s t u d y a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t one o f t h e
h a n d ic a p s o f th e e le m e n ta ry t e a c h e r i s th e i n a b i l i t y t o c o r ­
r e l a t e c l a s s w ork i n o t h e r s u b j e c t s w i t h p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . 4
^ Elma R ood, “H e a l t h E d u c a t i o n a n d I n t e g r a t i o n , "
K e n tu c k y S c h o o l J o u r n a l , 1 7 : 2 3 - 2 5 , M arch , 1 9 3 9 .
3 I b i d ., p . 23.
■ A aro n M c C rea ry , "The Minimum E s s e n t i a l s i n H e a l t h
a n d P h y s ic a l E d u c a tio n f o r a l l T eacher T r a in in g I n s t i t u t i o n s , H
( u n p u b lis h e d M a s t e r 's t h e s i s , U n iv e r s ity o f S o u th e rn C a li ­
f o r n i a , Los A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 2 9 ) , 87 p p .
81
S t a n d a r d s s e t up i n The P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n C u r r i c u l u m
f o r e v a lu a tin g an in te g r a t e d p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n program .
The s t a n d a r d s s e t up i n The P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n C u r r i c u l u m
a r e in p a r t a s fo llo w s:
H e a l t h i n s t r u c t i o n . The p r o b le m o f e f f e c t i v e
h e a l t h i n s t r u c t i o n i s a m o st d i f f i c u l t o n e .
I t is
commonly h a n d le d , b y t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n d e p a r t m e n t ,
b y t h e home e c o n o m ic s d e p a r t m e n t , b y t h e g e n e r a l s c i ­
e n c e d e p a r t m e n t , by t h e b i o l o g y d e p a r t m e n t , b y t h e
s c h o o l n u r s e , a n d o c c a s i o n a l l y by o t h e r d i v i s i o n s o r
in d iv id u a ls .
I d e a l l y t h e p ro g ra m s h o u l d b e a c o r r e ­
l a t e d and i n t e g r a t e d o n e , w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e m a t e r i a l s
ta u g h t by te a c h e r s in c o n n e c tio n w ith a l l s u b j e c t s .
T h is i s b a s e d on t h e f a c t t h a t h e a l t h i s n o t a
s e p a r a t e s u b j e c t b u t r a t h e r an a t t e n d a n t a s p e c t o f
a l l le a r n in g and l i v i n g .
I t i s a n e d u c a t i o n a l shadow
a lw a y s d o g g in g t h e f o o t s t e p s o f t h e s t u d e n t a n d t h e
tea ch e r.
The h e a l t h c o - o r d i n a t o r . T h is i d e a l p l a n o f a n
i n t e g r a t e d a n d c o r r e l a t e d h e a l t h i n s t r u c t i o n p r o g ra m
r e q u i r e s a h e a l t h c o - o r d i n a t o r of a lm o st u n lim ite d
a b i l i t y and c a p a c ity .
H e n ce , i n m o st s c h o o l s a t t h e
p r e s e n t tim e i t i s n o t p r a c t i c a b l e .
As a s u b s t i t u t e ,
i n m ost c a s e s i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o e s t a b l i s h a w e l l p lan n e d , in te n s iv e co u rse o f i n s t r u c t i o n c o v erin g
th e o u ts ta n d in g fu n d a m e n ta ls o f h e a l t h .
T h is s h o u l d
b e t a u g h t b y t h e b e s t e q u ip p e d t e a c h e r r e g a r d l e s s
o f d e p a r t m e n t a l a f f i l i a t i o n , w i t h t h e e m p h a sis c o n ­
t i n u o u s l y on t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f p r a c t i c a l h e a l t h
h a b i t s r a t h e r t h a n t h e l e a r n i n g o f a l a r g e am ount o f
in fo rm a tio n a l d a ta about h e a lth . . . .
S a fe ty e d u c a ti o n . T h is i s a n o th e r e d u c a tio n a l
shadow a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y n e e d s c o r r e l a t e d p r e s e n t a t i o n
w ith p ro p e r i n te g r a t i o n w ith a l l s u b j e c t s .
S ch o o ls
a r e f in d in g i t e s s e n t i a l to g iv e g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n to
t h i s i n c r e a s i n g l y im p o rta n t p ro b lem .
The h a z a r d s o f
l i v i n g a r e g ro w in g a p a c e .
A p p r o x i m a t e l y one h u n d r e d
th o u sa n d d e a th s and t e n m i l l i o n i n j u r i e s a re t r a c e ­
a b l e a n n u a l l y t o a c c i d e n t s , a l a r g e m a j o r i t y o f w h ic h
c o u ld be p r e v e n te d by p r o p e r e d u c a tio n and t r a i n i n g .
A p p r o x i m a t e l y one t h i r d o f t h e s e o c c u r i n hom es, one
t h i r d i n a u t o m o b i l e a c c i d e n t s , a n d one t h i r d i n i n ­
d u s t r y , s p o r t s , and g e n e r a l sc h o o l s i t u a t i o n s .
82
w ith g e n e ra l school s u b j e c t s .
In ­
c r e a s in g ly in th e e le m e n ta ry l e v e l p h y s ic a l ed u ca­
t i o n a c t i v i t i e s a re b e in g in te g r a t e d w ith th e
g e n e ra l t o p i c a l m a te r ia l f o r a g iv en g ra d e .
T h is
c a l l s f o r m a te r ia ls d e a lin g w ith th e s o c i a l and
r e c r e a t i o n a l l i f e o f d i f f e r e n t p e o p le s and c o u n t r i e s .
P h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n s u p e r v i s o r s when c a l l e d upon t o
make a v a i l a b l e s u c h m a t e r i a l s , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , f i n d
v e ry l i t t l e a v a ila b le in t h i s f i e l d a t th e p re s e n t
t i m e . E v e r y e f f o r t s h o u l d b e made, h o w e v e r, t o
i n te g r a t e th e p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n a c t i v i t i e s w ith
t h e g i v e n u n i t o f w o rk , c e n t e r o f i n t e r e s t , o r
c u l t u r e a r e a b e in g s t u d i e d i n th e g e n e r a l program o f
th a t g ra d e .5
t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p ro g ra m w i t h
h e a l t h , s a f e t y , and o th e r sc h o o l s u b j e c t s .
T h is p o r t i o n o f
t h e s t u d y i s fo u n d i n T a b le X I I , w h ic h shows t h a t o n l y
t h i r t y - t h r e e s c h o o ls , o r 5 3 .2 p e r cen t o f th e s c h o o ls r e ­
p o rtin g ,
i n t e g r a t e and c o r r e l a t e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n w i t h
o th e r su b je c ts.
T h is t a b l e a l s o shows t h a t a t o t a l o f
f o r t y - s e v e n s c h o o ls , o r 7 5 .8 p e r c en t o f th e sc h o o ls r e p o r t ­
in g ,
i n t e g r a t e a n d c o r r e l a t e t h e s a f e t y p ro g ra m w i t h o t h e r
su b je c ts.
T h is seem s t o i n d i c a t e t h a t m ore e m p h a s is i s
p l a c e d upon t h e s a f e t y p r o g r a m t h a n i s p l a c e d upon e i t h e r
t h e h e a l t h o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a tio n program .
W ell p l a n n e d cam­
p a i g n s by n e w s p a p e r s , c i v i c c l u b s , a n d s i m i l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n s
® W illia m R a lp h L a P o r t e , The P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n
C u r r i c u l u m . S eco nd E d i t i o n , R e v i s e d a n d E n l a r g e d TLos
A n g e l e s : The C o l l e g e P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 3 8 ) ,
p p . 56-58.
83
TABLE X II
INTEGRATING THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAM WITH HEALTH,
SAFETY, AND OTHER SCHOOL SUBJECTS IN THE
SIXTY-TWO CITIES REPORTING
I n te g r a tio n and
C o rre la tio n
Number o f
S c h o o ls
P e r c e n t U s in g
I n t e g r a t i o n an d
C o rre la tio n
H e a l t h p ro g ram w i t h
o th e r su b je c ts
43
6 9 .3
S a f e t y p ro g ra m w i t h
o th e r su b je c ts
47
7 5 .8
P h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n
w ith o th e r s u b je c ts
33
5 3 .2
—
NOTE: T h i s t a b l e s h o u l d b e r e a d a s f o l l o w s :
A
t o t a l o f f o r t y - t h r e e s c h o o l s , o r 6 9 .3 p e r c e n t o f t h e
sc h o o ls r e p o r tin g , in te g r a t e and c o r r e l a t e th e h e a lth
p ro g ram w ith o t h e r s u b je c ts.*
84
c o n c e r n i n g s a f e t y may h a v e p r o d u c e d a s a f e t y c o n s c i o u s n e s s
among t h e p e o p l e .
T h is h a s r e s u l t e d i n t h e a d d e d e m p h a s is
t o w h ic h r e f e r e n c e h a s j u s t b e e n made.
I t i s f u r t h e r shown
in t h i s ta b le th a t a t o t a l of f o r ty - th r e e
p e r c en t of th e sch o o ls r e p o r t i n g ,
s c h o o l s , o r 6 9 .5
i n t e g r a t e and c o r r e l a t e
t h e h e a l t h p ro g ra m w i t h o t h e r s u b j e c t s .
T h is seem s t o im p ly
a l a c k o f e m p h a s is upon t h e i n t e g r a t i o n a n d c o r r e l a t i o n o f
h e a l t h w i t h o t h e r s u b j e c t s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s t a n d a r d s s e t up
i n The P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n C u r r i c u l u m .
C h a p te r sum m ary.
The c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e i n t e ­
g r a t i o n and c o r r e l a t i o n o f th e p h y s i c a l e d u c a tio n p ro g ram
w ith h e a lth ,
1.
s a f e t y , and o t h e r s c h o o l s u b j e c t s a r e a s f o llo w s :
The e d u c a t i o n a l c o n c e p t o f i n t e g r a t i o n i s r a t h e r
l o o s e l y u s e d ; h e n c e a d e f i n i t i o n o f t e r m s seems d e s i r a b l e .
E d u c a tio n does n o t se e k t o p ro d u ce i n t e g r a t e d
p e r s o n a l i t i e s who may f u n c t i o n s a t i s f a c t o r i l y i n a n
in te g r a te d so c ie ty , but r a th e r in te g r a tin g p erso n s
l i v i n g d y n a m ic a lly in an i n t e g r a t i n g s o c i e t y . 6
2.
One o f t h e h a n d i c a p s o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r i s
t h e i n a b i l i t y t o c o r r e l a t e c l a s s w ork i n o t h e r s u b j e c t s w i t h
p h y s i c a l e d u c a tio n *
3.
F o r t y - t h r e e s c h o o ls , o r 6 9 .3 p e r c e n t o f th e
sc h o o ls r e p o r tin g ,
i n t e g r a t e a n d c o r r e l a t e t h e h e a l t h p ro g ra m
w ith o th e r s u b j e c t s , w h ile n in e te e n s c h o o ls , o r 3 0 .7 p e r c e n t
6 H o p k in s, pp>. c i t . ,
p . 23.
85
o f th e sch o o ls r e p o r tin g ,
f a i l to i n t e g r a t e and c o r r e l a t e
t h e h e a l t h p r o g ra m w i t h o t h e r , s u b j e c t s .
4.
A s a f e t y p r o g ra m i s i n t e g r a t e d , a n d c o r r e l a t e d
w ith o th e r s u b j e c t s in f o r t y - s e v e n s c h o o ls , o r in 7 5 .8 p e r
c e n t o f th e sc h o o ls r e p o r tin g .
In f i f t e e n sc h o o ls,
o r 2 4 .2
p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , a s a f e t y p ro g ra m i s n o t
i n t e g r a t e d and c o r r e l a t e d w ith o th e r s u b j e c t s .
5.
A t o t a l o f o n ly t h i r t y - t h r e e s c h o o ls , o r 5 3 .2
p e r c e n t of th e sc h o o ls r e p o r tin g ,
i n t e g r a t e and c o r r e l a t e
th e p h y s i c a l e d u c a tio n program w ith o t h e r s u b j e c t s , w h ile
tw e n ty -n in e s c h o o ls , o r 4 6 .8 p e r c e n t of th e sc h o o ls r e p o r t ­
i n g , do n o t i n t e g r a t e a n d c o r r e l a t e t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n
program w ith o th e r s u b j e c t s .
CHAPTER V II
GENERAL SUMMARY CONCLUSIONS
AND RECOMMENDATIONS
T h is s t u d y , d e a l i n g w i t h a n e v a l u a t i o n o f p h y s i c a l
e d u c a ti o n program s in th e e le m e n ta ry s c h o o ls ,
i s a rev ie w o f
t h e p r a c t i c e s e x i s t i n g i n s i x t y - t w o West T ex a s c i t i e s .
T h is
c h a p t e r c o n t a i n s a g e n e r a l summary on s p e c i f i c i t e m s , a n d a
b r i e f r e v i e w o f t h e c o n c l u s i o n s w h ic h t h e r e s u l t s seem t o
w a rra n t.
F o llo w in g th e c o n c lu s io n s i s fo u n d a l i s t o f p r o ­
p o s e d re c o m m e n d a tio n s i n t e r p r e t e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e
d a ta g iv e n in th e p re c e d in g c h a p te rs .
I.
GENERAL SUMMARY
A g e n e r a l summary o f t h e m ost s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s i n
th e second, t h ir d ,
fo u rth , f i f t h ,
and s i x t h c h a p te rs fo llo w s:
E q uip m en t s t a n d a r d s i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s o f
West T e x a s .
F o r t y - e i g h t s c h o o ls , o r 7 7 .4 p e r c e n t o f th e
s i x t y - t w o s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , r e q u i r e a minimum o f f o u r a c r e s
in t h e i r p la y in g f i e l d s , w h ile f o u r te e n s c h o o ls , o r 2 2 .6 p e r
c en t of th e s e sc h o o ls , r e q u ir e l e s s th an f o u r a c r e s .
Of t h e
f o u r te e n sc h o o ls f a l l i n g in t h i s l a t t e r g ro u p , s i x r e p o r te d
t h r e e a c r e s i n t h e i r p l a y i n g f i e l d ; and e i g h t r e p o r t e d o n l y
two a c r e s .
87
A t o t a l o f fo r ty - o n e s c h o o ls , o r 6 6 .1 p e r c e n t of
t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , h a v e gym nasium s o r p l a y ro o m s, w h ile
i n tw e n ty -o n e s c h o o ls , o r 5 3 .9 p e r c e n t o f th e s c h o o ls r e ­
p o r t i n g , gym nasium s o r p l a y room s a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e .
D r e s s i n g room s a r e n o t p r o v i d e d i n t h i r t y - o n e
s c h o o l s , o r 5 0 .0 p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o ls r e p o r t i n g ; and in
n in e te e n sc h o o ls,
o r 3 0 .6 p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g ,
no sh o w e r rooms a r e f u r n i s h e d .
T h is s u r v e y i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n f i f t y - s e v e n s c h o o l s ,
o r 9 1 .9 p e r c e n t o f th e s c h o o ls r e p o r t i n g ,
a d e q u a te t o i l e t
and la v a to r y f a c i l i t i e s a re p ro v id e d , w h ile i n f i v e s c h o o ls ,
o r 8 .1 p e r c e n t o f th e s c h o o ls r e p o r t i n g , a d e q u a te t o i l e t
and la v a to r y f a c i l i t i e s a re n o t p ro v id e d .
T hese f a c i l i t i e s
a r e n o t a c c e s s i b l e fro m t h e p l a y g r o u n d i n t e n s c h o o l s , o r
1 6 .2 p e r cen t o f th e sc h o o ls r e p o r tin g .
A p p ro x im ately
t h i r t y - o n e s c h o o ls , o r 5 0 .0 p e r c en t of th e sc h o o ls r e p o r t ­
i n g , do n o t h a v e a d e q u a t e w ash b a s i n s , h o t w a t e r , l i q u i d
soap d is p e n s e r s ,
to w e l d i s p e n s e r s , d r in k in g f o u n t a i n s ,
m i r r o r s , and w a s te b a s k e ts .
F o rty -o n e s c h o o ls , o r 6 6 .1 p e r c e n t o f th e sc h o o ls
r e p o r t i n g , h a v e a n a d e q u a t e s u p p l y o f p l a y e q u ip m e n t f o r
c la ss
in s tr u c tio n in a l l a c t i v i t i e s o ffe re d .
T w e n ty -o n e
s c h o o l s , o r 3 3 .9 p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , do n o t
h a v e a n a d e q u a t e amount o f g e n e r a l a c t i v i t y s u p p l i e s .
F i f t y - s i x s c h o o ls , o r 9 0 .3 p e r c e n t of th e sc h o o ls
38
r e p o r t i n g , have an a d e q u a te ly s u p p lie d f i r s t a i d box i n th e
e q u ip m e n t o f f i c e , w h i l e s i x s c h o o l s , o r 9 , 7 p e r c e n t o f t h e
sc h o o ls r e p o r tin g ,
do n o t p r o v i d e a d e q u a t e l y s u p p l i e d f i r s t
a id boxes.
C o n te n t o f t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p ro g r a m i n t h e
e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s o f West T e x a s .
T w e n ty -e ig h t s c h o o ls , o r
4 5 . 2 p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , k e e p a w e e k ly d e ­
t a i l e d s c h e d u l e on f i l e
in th e o f f i c e , w h ile a t o t a l o f
t h i r t y - f o u r s c h o o ls , o r 5 4 .8 p e r c en t o f t h e sc h o o ls r e p o r t ­
i n g , do n o t k e e p s u c h a s c h e d u l e .
The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e t h a t no s c h o o l ,
o f t h e s i x t y - t w o s c h o o l s s t u d i e d , m e e ts r e c o g n i z e d s t a n d a r d s
i n i t s p ro g ra m o f a c t i v i t i e s
f o r th e f i r s t ,
second, and
t h i r d g r a d e s , s i n c e 8 . 0 p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s do n o t i n ­
c l u d e f r e e e x e r c i s e s ; 4 0 .3 p e r c e n t , g y m n a s t i c gam es; 3 3 . 9
p e r c e n t , m a r c h in g gam es; 4 0 . 3 p e r c e n t , s t u n t s a n d s e l f
te s tin g e x e rc ise s;
1 9 .4 p e r c e n t , rh y th m ic a c t i v i t i e s ;
4 0 . 3 p e r c e n t , h u n t i n g gam es; 2 1 . 0 p e r c e n t , s t o r y p l a y s ;
a n d 1 4 .5 p e r c e n t , a t h l e t i c gam es o f low o r g a n i z a t i o n .
The
same s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g f o r t h e f o u r t h , f i f t h , an d s i x t h
g r a d e s show t h a t 6 9 . 4 p e r c e n t do n o t i n c l u d e f o l k d a n c e s ;
9 .7 p e r c e n t, f r e e e x e r c is e s ;
stu n ts;
6 4 .5 p e r c e n t , tu m b lin g and
1 4 .5 p e r c e n t , t r a c k a n d f i e l d e v e n t s ; 2 9 . 1 p e r c e n t ,
p o stu re tra in in g ;
1 1 . 3 p e r c e n t , a t h l e t i c games o f low
89
o r g a n i z a t i o n ; 7 9 .1 p e r c e n t , m im e tic s ; an d 3 8 .7 p e r c e n t ,
rh y th m ic a l a c t i v i t i e s .
O rg a n iz a tio n and a d m in is tr a tio n of th e p h y s ic a l edu­
c a t i o n p ro g ra m i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s o f West T e x a s .
F o r t y - o n e s c h o o l s , o r 6 9 .5 p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s r e p l y i n g
to t h i s q u e s tio n , r e q u ir e t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n a l p e rio d s w ith a
minimum o f t w e n t y m i n u t e s t o t h e p e r i o d , e x c l u s i v e o f r e c e s s
p e r i o d s , be g iv e n d a i l y , w h ile e ig h te e n s c h o o ls , o r 3 0 .5 p e r
c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s a n s w e r i n g t h e q u e s t i o n , h a v e no s u c h
re q u ire m e n ts .
A t o t a l o f f i f t e e n s c h o o ls , o r 2 4 .2 p e r c e n t o f th e
sc h o o ls r e p o r tin g , p e rm it a c t i v i t y i n s t r u c t i o n c la s s e s to
ex ceed f o r t y - f i v e p u p i ls , w h ile f o r ty -s e v e n sc h o o ls,
o r 7 5 .8
p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , do n o t a l l o w a c t i v i t y
in s t r u c t i o n c la s s e s to exceed f o r ty - f iv e p u p ils .
C o rre c tiv e
and r e s t r i c t e d groups exceed t h i r t y p u p i ls in f i v e s c h o o ls ,
o r 8 .0 p e r cen t of th e sc h o o ls r e p o r tin g , w h ile f i f t y - s e v e n
s c h o o l s , o r 9 2 . 0 p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , do n o t
p e rm it c o r r e c t i v e and r e s t r i c t e d groups t o ex ceed t h i r t y
p u p ils.
F i n d i n g s fro m t h e i n q u i r y b l a n k s i n d i c a t e t h a t f o r t y e i g h t s c h o o l s , o r 7 7 . 4 p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , do
n o t p e rm it t h e i r te a c h e r lo a d s ,
in c lu d in g a l l p la y g ro u n d and
e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a ssig n m e n ts, to exceed e ig h te e n hundred
90
m i n u t e s p e r w eek, w h i l e f o u r t e e n s c h o o l s , o r 22*6 p e r c e n t
o f t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , do p e r m i t s u c h e x c e s s i n t e a c h e r .
lo a d s.
The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y a l s o i n d i c a t e t h a t
th ir ty - o n e sc h o o ls,
o r 5 0 .0 p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t ­
i n g , do n o t p r o v i d e i n t h e i r s c h e d u l e s f o r e a c h t e a c h e r a t
l e a s t one p e r i o d d u r i n g t h e d a y f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n a n d i n d i ­
v id u a l c o n feren ces.
A s t u d y o f t h e i n q u i r y b l a n k s shows t h a t t h i r t y th r e e s c h o o ls , o r 5 3 .2 p e r c e n t o f th e s c h o o ls r e p o r t i n g ,
do n o t r e q u i r e a m e d i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f e a c h c h i l d a t l e a s t
t w i c e i n t h e e le m e n tary ^ , s c h o o l , w h i l e t w e n t y - n i n e s c h o o l s ,
o r 4 6 .8 p e r c e n t o f th e sc h o o ls r e p o r t i n g , r e q u i r e su ch an
e x a m in a tio n .
The t e a c h i n g p e r s o n n e l o f t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n
p ro g r a m i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s o f West T e x a s .
T h is
su rv ey in d ic a te s t h a t th e s ix ty -tw o c i t i e s r e p o r tin g r e q u ir e ,
o v e r a n d ab o v e h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n , a t l e a s t f o u r y e a r s
of te a c h e r c o lle g e t r a i n in g .
T h i r t y - e i g h t s c h o o ls , o r 6 1 .3
p e r cen t o f th e sc h o o ls r e p o r tin g , r e q u ir e f o u r y e ars of
e d u c a tio n , w h ile tw e n ty -tw o s c h o o ls , o r 3 5 .5 p e r c e n t o f th e
s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , make no s p e c i f i c a t i o n .
The s a l a r i e s o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s i n c r e a s e
w i t h t h e s i z e o f t h e c i t y i n w h ic h t h e t e a c h e r i s e m p lo y ed ;
h o w e v e r , t h e r e a r e some t e a c h e r s i n t h e l a r g e r c i t i e s who
91
r e c e i v e lo w e r s a l a r i e s t h a n t h o s e i n s m a l l e r s c h o o l s .
The
maximum a v e r a g e s a l a r y p a i d i n t h e f i f t y West T ex as c i t i e s
r e p o r t i n g i s $ 1 , 3 0 0 , a n d t h e minimum a v e r a g e s a l a r y p a i d i n
t h e same s c h o o l s i s $ 9 0 0 .
The a n n u a l a v e r a g e s a l a r y p a i d i n
t h e s e s c h o o l s i s $ 1 , 1 0 0 , w h ic h i s $312 l o w e r t h a n t h e m ed ian
s a l a r y o f e le m e n ta ry te a c h e r s th ro u g h o u t th e U n ited S t a t e s .
I n t e g r a t i n g t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p ro g ra m w i t h
h e a l t h , s a f e t y , and o th e r sc h o o l s u b je c ts in th e e le m e n ta ry
s c h o o l s o f West T e x a s .
The o t h e r s u b j e c t s i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m
a r e n o t c o r r e l a t e d and I n t e g r a te d w ith p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n in
a t o t a l o f tw e n ty -n in e s c h o o ls , o r 4 6 .8 p e r c e n t o f th e
s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g ; n o r w i t h t h e s a f e t y p r o g ra m i n f i f t e e n ,
o r 2 4 .2 p e r c en t o f th e s c h o o ls r e p o r tin g ; n o r w ith th e
h e a l t h p r o g ra m i n n i n e t e e n , o r 3 0 . 7 p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s
re p o rtin g .
II.
CONCLUSIONS
On t h e b a s i s o f t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s
stu d y , th e fo llo w ­
in g c o n c lu sio n s a re o ffe re d :
1.
T h is i n v e s t i g a t i o n shows t h a t f o u r t e e n s c h o o l s , o r
a p p ro x im a te ly 2 5 .0 p e r c e n t o f th e sc h o o ls r e p o r t i n g ,
re q u ire
l e s s th a n f o u r a c r e s in t h e i r p la y in g f i e l d s , w h ile th e
minimum s t a n d a r d r a n g e f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s i s f o u r t o
seven a c r e s in f i e l d a re a .
The g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t
92
t h e s e s c h o o l s do n o t h a v e a d e q u a t e p l a y a r e a s .
2.
The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e
p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p ro g ra m o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s i n
W est T e x a s i s c u r t a i l e d i n s c o p e , e s p e c i a l l y i n r a i n y
w e a t h e r , in a s m u c h a s t w e n t y - o n e s c h o o l s , o r 3 3 .9 p e r c e n t
o f t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , do n o t h a v e gym nasium s o r p l a y
ro o m s .
3.
T h is s u r v e y shows t h a t t h e h e a l t h a n d p h y s i c a l
e d u c a t i o n p r o g ra m i n some o f t h e s c h o o l s s t u d i e d i s n o t
m o d e rn , b e c a u s e s u c h a p r o g r a m r e q u i r e s t h e s c h o o l t o p r o ­
v i d e a sho w er b a t h a f t e r e x e r c i s e s a n d a d e q u a t e means o f
c a r i n g f o r t h e s t u d e n t ' s p l a y room c o stu m e when i t
use.
i s n o t in
D r e s s i n g room s a r e n o t p r o v i d e d i n 5 0 . 0 p e r c e n t o f
t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , a n d sh o w e r rooms a r e n o t f u r n i s h e d i n
3 0 .6 p e r cen t o f th e sc h o o ls r e p o r t i n g .
4.
S t a n d a r d s a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y met r e g a r d i n g t o i l e t
and la v a to ry f a c i l i t i e s
in th e s ix ty -tw o sc h o o ls r e p o r t i n g ,
a n d t h e i r p o s i t i o n a n d a c c e s s i b i l i t y fro m t h e p l a y g r o u n d
m e e ts r e c o g n i z e d s t a n d a r d s i n 8 3 . 8 p e r c e n t o f t h e s e s c h o o l s .
In d o o r f a c i l i t i e s ,
s u c h a s w ash b a s i n s , h o t w a t e r , l i q u i d
soap d i s p e n s e r s , to w e l d i s p e n s e r s , d r in k in g f o u n t a i n s ,
m i r r o r s , and w a s te b a s k e ts a re in a d e q u a te i n a p p ro x im a te ly
5 0 .0 p e r c e n t o f th e sc h o o ls r e p o r t i n g .
T h is le a d s t o th e
c o n c l u s i o n t h a t p r i n c i p l e s o f p e r s o n a l c l e a n l i n e s s w h ic h
e n jo y th e su p p o rt o f le a d in g h e a l th e d u c a to rs cannot
93
be e f f e c t i v e l y ta u g h t in th e s e sc h o o ls.
5.
At t h e p r e s e n t - t i m e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 4 .0 p e r c e n t
o f t h e s i x t y - t w o s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g do n o t h a v e a n a d e q u a t e
am ount o f g e n e r a l a c t i v i t y s u p p l i e s .
S in c e an a d e q u a te sup­
p l y o f s u c h e q u ip m e n t i s e s s e n t i a l f o r p r o p e r c l a s s i n ­
s t r u c t i o n , th e g e n e r a l c o n c lu sio n i s th a t i n e f f e c t iv e
in ­
s t r u c t i o n becau se of in a d e q u a te s u p p lie s e x i s t s in th e
p e r c e n t a g e o f s c h o o l s g i v e n above*
6.
A t o t a l o f s ix s c h o o ls , o r 9 .7 p e r c en t o f th e
s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , do n o t p r o v i d e an a d e q u a t e l y s u p p l i e d
f i r s t a i d b o x i n t h e e q u ip m e n t o f f i c e .
The g e n e r a l c o n c l u ­
s i o n i s t h a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s o f W est T exas r a n k h i g h
in t h i s re s p e c t.
7.
T h is i n v e s t i g a t i o n shows t h a t t h i r t y - f o u r s c h o o l s ,
o r 5 4 .8 p e r c e n t o f th e sc h o o ls r e p o r tin g ,
program , sc h e d u le , and le s s o n p la n s .
la c k a sy s te m a tic
B ecause o f t h i s l a c k ,
i t may b e c o n c l u d e d t h a t i f t h e s e s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s o r
s u p e r v i s o r s do n o t i n s i s t up o n a d e t a i l e d p l a n n i n g o f t h e
w o rk , t h e y may e x p e c t p o o r a n d i n e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g a s a
re s u lt.
8.
T h is s t u d y i n d i c a t e s t h a t o n l y a v e r y few a c t i v i ­
t i e s r e p e a t e d y e a r a f t e r y e a r fro m t h e t h i r d g r a d e t h r o u g h
t h e s i x t h w i t h no a t t e m p t t o p r o v i d e a b a l a n c e d p r o g r a m o f
v a r i e d a c t i v i t i e s c o n tin u e to be th e program c o n te n t in th e
sc h o o ls of t h i s stu d y .
U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i n many e a s e s a
94
p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s c o n s i s t s s i m p ly o f a p e r i o d o f
s u p e r v i s e d p l a y w i t h no t h o u g h t o f p r o g r e s s i v e l e a r n i n g o r
of a d a p tin g a c t i v i t i e s a c c o rd in g to p h y s ic a l o r p h y s io lo g ic a l
n e e d s b a s e d on h e a l t h e x a m i n a t i o n s .
9.
D a ily p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f a l l c h il d r e n in th e c l a s s
i n s t r u c t i o n p e r i o d , w i t h a minimum o f t w e n t y m in u t e s t o t h e
p e rio d ,
e x c l u s i v e o f r e c e s s p e r i o d s , i s n o t r e q u i r e d i n 3 0 .5
p e r c e n t o f th e s c h o o ls a n sw e rin g t h i s q u e s t io n .
The. g e n e r a l
c o n c lu sio n i s t h a t th e s e sc h o o ls la c k a d e f i n i t e and w e llo r g a n i z e d p ro g ra m o f i n s t r u c t i o n ,
s i n c e c l a s s e s m e e ti n g o n ly
o n c e a week se ld o m a r e v e r y s u c c e s s f u l .
10.
A p p ro x im ately 2 5 .0 p e r c e n t o f th e sc h o o ls i n
t h i s su rv ey p e rm it a c t i v i t y i n s t r u c t i o n c la s s e s to exceed
f o r t y - f i v e in e n ro llm e n t.
T h is l e a d s t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t
o rg a n iz e d p la y i s s u b s t i t u t e d f o r d e t a i l e d i n s t r u c t i o n and
g u id a n c e in th e s e s c h o o ls , b e c a u se s y s te m a tic i n s t r u c t i o n in
t h e fu n d a m e n ta ls o f h i g h ly s k i l l e d a c t i v i t i e s r e q u i r e r e l a ­
tiv e ly
sm a ll c l a s s e s .
The s i z e o f c l a s s e s o f r e s t r i c t e d
g r o u p s i n t h e s c h o o l s o f t h i s s t u d y m eet r e c o g n i z e d s t a n d a r d s ,
s in c e o n ly 8 .0 p e r c e n t o f th e sc h o o ls r e p o r t i n g a llo w such
grou ps t o exceed t h i r t y p u p i l s .
11.
T e a ch e rs in 2 2 .6 p e r c e n t o f th e s c h o o ls r e p o r t i n g
in t h i s stu d y have a ssig n m e n ts f o r c l a s s i n s t r u c t i o n in ex­
c e s s o f s i x c lo c k h o u rs p e r day , o r e ig h t e e n h u n d red m in u te s
p e r w e ek .
The c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t t h e s e s c h o o l s do n o t t a k e
95
i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e p h y s i c a l a n d e m o t i o n a l s t r a i n on
t e a c h e r s , t h e n e e d o f a b e t t e r e m o t i o n a l e n v ir o n m e n t f o r
p u p ils ,
and th e p r o v i s i o n f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s .
I n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s a n d g u i d a n c e i s n o t c o n s i d e r e d im ­
p o r t a n t by th e sc h o o ls o f t h i s su rv e y ,
s i n c e o n l y 5,0.0 p e r
c e n t o f th em p r o v i d e f o r s u c h a p e r i o d .
12.
S i n c e 5 3 . 2 p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g do
n o t r e q u i r e a p h y s ic a l e x a m in a tio n o f each c h i l d a t l e a s t
tw ic e in th e e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l, th e g e n e ra l c o n c lu sio n i s
t h a t t h e s e s c h o o l s do n o t r e a l i z e t h a t b o t h t h e h a z a r d s t o
t h e c h i l d and t h e l e g a l l i a b i l i t y t o th e s c h o o ls J u s t i f y
s u c h e x a m i n a t i o n e v e n th o u g h t h e c o s t may b e c o n s i d e r a b l e .
I t i s f u r t h e r c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e s e s c h o o l s make no p r o v i s i o n s
f o r r e s t r i c t e d a n d c o r r e c t i v e g r o u p s , b e c a u s e p ro g r a m s f o r
t h e s e a r e j u s t i f i e d o n l y when t h e p h y s i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n shows
th e need f o r such g ro u p s.
13.
The c a n d i d a t e a p p l y i n g f o r a p o s i t i o n i n t h e
e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s o f West T e x a s s h o u l d h a v e a B a c h e l o r 1s
d eg ree in e d u c a tio n , o r i t s
e q u iv a le n t, as a p rim ary p r e ­
r e q u i s it e fo r te a c h in g .
14.
The g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n ; i s t h a t t h e s a l a r i e s o f
T exas t e a c h e r s r e p o r t i n g in t h i s s tu d y a r e lo w e r t h a n th o s e
o f th e av erag e e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l te a c h e r in th e U n ited S ta te s ,
f o r th e annual average s a la r y o f th e f i f t y
sch o o ls r e p o r tin g
i s l o w e r t h a n t h e m ed ian s a l a r y o f e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s
96
th ro u g h o u t th e U n ited S ta te s .
15.
The p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p ro g ra m i s c o r r e l a t e d
a n d i n t e g r a t e d w i t h g e n e r a l s c h o o l s u b j e c t s i n 5 3 .2 p e r c e n t
o f t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g ; w i t h t h e s a f e t y p r o g r a m i n 75*8 p e r
c e n t o f th e s c h o o ls ; and w ith t h e h e a l t h program in 6 9 .3 p e r
c e n t of th e sc h o o ls.
T h is seem s t o i n d i c a t e t h a t more
e m p h a s is i s p l a c e d upon t h e s a f e t y p ro g ra m t h a n i s p l a c e d
upon e i t h e r t h e h e a l t h o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o g ra m .
A
f u r t h e r i n d ic a t i o n i s t h a t a p p ro x im a te ly 2 5 .0 p e r c e n t of
t h e s e s c h o o l s a r e n o t awake t o m odern t r e n d s i n e d u c a t i o n ,
s in c e t h e i r p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n a c t i v i t i e s a re n o t b e in g in ­
t e g r a t e d w ith th e g e n e r a l t o p i c a l m a te r ia l f o r a g iv e n g ra d e .
III.
RECOMMENDATIONS
T h is s t u d y o f a n e v a l u a t i o n o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n
p r o g r a m s i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s o f West T e x a s h a s b r o u g h t
to l i g h t
some o f t h e e x i s t i n g d e f e c t s i n t h e m a c h in e r y s e t
up i n t h e i n t e r e s t o f t h e e x i s t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l p ro g r a m f o r
school c h ild re n .
T h e se re c o m m e n d a tio n s a r e o f f e r e d i n t h e
h o p e t h a t t h e y w i l l b e o f some d e f i n i t e v a l u e t o t h o s e who
a r e engaged i n th e f i e l d o f c u rric u lu m d ev elo p m en t.
1.
I t i s recom m ended t h a t e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s e s t a b ­
l i s h a n d m a i n t a i n a c t u a l p l a y a r e a s o f fro m f o u r t o s e v e n
acres;
t h a t p l a y a r e a s b e a s l e v e l a s p o s s i b l e , w i t h o u t ob­
s t r u c t i o n , and be s lo p e d f o r d ra in a g e ; and t h a t sand,
97
s h a v i n g s o r d i r t k e p t . s o f t b y f r e q u e n t d i g g i n g be p l a c e d
under f i e l d a p p a ra tu s.
2.
It
i s f u r t h e r recom m ended a n d p r o p o s e d t h a t e l e ­
m e n t a r y s c h o o l s h a v e e i t h e r a s m a l l gymnasium o r a p l a y room,
w ith a c e i l i n g a t l e a s t s ix te e n f e e t .
I n a few s c h o o l s t h i s
n e e d i s f u l f i l l e d b y re m o v in g t h e p a r t i t i o n b e tw e e n tw o a d ­
j o i n i n g ro o m s, a n d i n many c a s e s t h e gym nasium a n d a u d i t o r i u m
a r e c o m b in e d .
3.
T o ile t and la v a to ry f a c i l i t i e s
sh o u ld be a v a i la b l e
i m m e d i a t e l y a d j o i n i n g d r e s s i n g room s a n d a c c e s s i b l e d i r e c t l y
t o th e p lay g ro u n d s.
The m e e t i n g o f r e c o g n i z e d s t a n d a r d s i s
recom m ended f o r t h o s e s c h o o l s i n w h ic h s u c h f a c i l i t i e s a r e
in a d e q u a te .
4.
I t i s recom mended t h a t a n a d e q u a t e s u p p l y o f p l a y
e q u ip m e n t, such a s b a l l s and b a t s ,
(2— 5 b a l l s f o r each c la s s
a t p eak lo ad ) be p ro v id e d f o r c l a s s i n s t r u c t i o n in a l l a c ­
tiv itie s
5.
o ffered .
I t i s recom m ended t h a t s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n ­
s i s t up on y e a r l y p r o g r a m s , d e t a i l e d s c h e d u l e s , a n d l e s s o n
p la n s f o r each g ra d e .
The y e a r l y p ro g ra m s h o u l d i n d i c a t e
a l l a c t i v i t i e s t o b e i n c l u d e d a n d t h e am ount o f t im e t o b e
d e v o te d t o each one.
D e t a i l e d s c h e d u l e s s h o u l d show t h e
p l a c e m e n t o f t h e a g r e e d upon a c t i v i t i e s i n e a c h g r a d e a n d
s h o u l d i n c l u d e a l l d e s i r e d a c t i v i t i e s w i t h a r e a s o n a b l e t im e
a llo tm e n t to each .
L esson p l a n s , as w e ll as d e t a i l e d
98
s c h e d u le s , sh o u ld be f l e x i b l e and a d j u s t a b l e i f s u p e r i o r r e ­
s u l t s a re to be o b ta in e d .
6.
I n t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l p r o v i s i o n s s h o u l d be
made f o r a v a r i e t y o f a c t i v i t i e s s u i t a b l e t o t h e p r o p e r
g ra d e l e v e l and f l e x i b l e enough f o r a d ju s tm e n t to a lm o st
any s i t u a t i o n .
I t i s recom m ended t h a t i n t h e p r i m a r y a n d
e le m e n ta ry l e v e l s th e s tu d e n t be g iv e n a b ro a d ex p o su re to
a v a r i e t y o f a c t i v i t i e s i n a b a la n c e d p ro g ram o f rh y th m s,
g y m n a s ti c : a n d g r o u p gam es, s t u n t s , a n d a t h l e t i c games o f
lo w o r g a n i z a t i o n l e a d i n g up t o t h e more h i g h l y o r g a n i z e d
te a m gam es.
7.
I t i s recom m ended t h a t d a i l y p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e
c l a s s i n s t r u c t i o n p e r i o d w i t h a minimum o f t w e n t y m i n u t e s a
d ay , e x c lu s iv e o f r e c e s s p e r i o d s , be r e q u i r e d o f a l l c h i l d r e n .
A c t i v i t i e s s h o u l d b e o f f e r e d f i v e d a y s p e r w eek, a n d i n ­
s t r u c t i o n i n h e a l t h f u l l i v i n g b e g i v e n a s a n a d d i t i o n a l su b ­
j e c t a t some o t h e r p e r i o d , p r e f e r a b l y two o r t h r e e t i m e s a
w eek on a l t e r n a t i n g t e r m s .
8.
I t i s recom m ended t h a t a c t i v i t y i n s t r u c t i o n
c la s s e s not be p e rm itte d to exceed f o r t y - f i v e in e n ro llm e n t,
a n d i n no c a s e s h o u l d o r g a n i z e d c l a s s e s b e a l l o w e d t o go
b e y o n d s i x t y f o r one t e a c h e r .
C lasse s f o r s tu d e n ts in th e
c o r r e c t i v e and r e s t r i c t e d g ro u p s sh o u ld n o t exceed t h i r t y .
9.
I n o r d e r t h a t t e a c h e r s may do e f f i c i e n t w o rk , t h e
a s s i g n m e n t s f o r c l a s s i n s t r u c t i o n s h o u l d n o t be p e r m i t t e d t o
99
e x c e e d s i x c l o c k h o u r s p e r d a y , o r e i g h t e e n h u n d r e d m in u t e s
p e r w eek.
sib ilitie s,
T h is maximum s h o u l d i n c l u d e a f t e r - s c h o o l r e s p o n ­
e s t i m a t e d on a c l o c k h o u r b a s i s c o m p a ra b le t o
th e a ssig n m e n ts f o r th e r e g u l a r sc h o o l day.
10.
I t i s recom m ended t h a t a m e d i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n be
p ro v id e d and r e q u ir e d of e v ery stu d e n t a t l e a s t tw ice in
t h e e le m e n ta ry s c h o o l.
I t i s f u r t h e r recom m ended t h a t t h e
e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s a d a p t t h e i r p ro g ra m s t o t h o s e s t u d e n t s
w hose m e d i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s r e s t r i c t t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s by
p r o v i d i n g s u c h games a s c r o q u e t , h o r s e s h o e s , p i n g p o n g ,
a rc h e r y , s h u f f le b o ard , and s im ila r a c t i v i t i e s .
H ow ever,
a s so o n a s a s t u d e n t on r e s t r i c t e d w ork o v e rc o m es t h e r e ­
s t r i c t i n g c o n d i t i o n , he s h o u l d b e t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e r e g u l a r
g ro u p .
11.
S in ce t h e t e a c h i n g o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a tio n i n th e
e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s i s done e i t h e r e n t i r e l y o r i n p a r t b y t h e
c la ss ro o m t e a c h e r ,
i t i s recom m ended t h a t e l e m e n t a r y
te a c h e r s be r e q u ir e d to ta k e s p e c ia l c o u rs e s in te a c h e r
t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s in n e ig h b o rin g c o lle g e s o r u n i v e r s i t i e s
d u r i n g t h e summer s e s s i o n o r i n e x t e n s i o n u n t i l t h e y m eet
t h e minimum r e q u i r e m e n t o f a m in o r o f fro m t w e lv e t o f i f t e e n
se m e ste r u n i ts in th e f i e l d o f p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n .
12 .
tio n ,
I t i s f u r t h e r recom m ended t h a t h e a l t h i n s t r u c ­
s a f e ty e d u c a tio n , and p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n a c t i v i t i e s
b e c o r r e l a t e d a n d I n t e g r a t e d w i t h t h e g i v e n u n i t o f w o rk,
th e c e n te r of i n t e r e s t ,
o r th e c u lt u r e a r e a b e in g s t u d i e d
i n t h e g e n e r a l p ro g r a m o f t h a t g r a d e .
BIBLIOGRAPHY
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_________ , "The C h a n g in g C o n c e p t i o n o f C o l l e g e P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , " A m e ric a n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y ,
2 : 1 8 - 2 0 , M arch , 19 3 1 .
M a l l e r y , O t t o T . , "The E d u c a t i o n o f t h e Whole Man," J o u r n a l
o f H e a l t h a n d P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , V o l. 4 : 3 1 , May, 19 3 3 .
M cCloy, C. H . , " F o r g o t t e n O b j e c t i v e s o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , "
J o u r n a l o f H e a lth and P h y s i c a l E d u c a tio n , 8 :5 1 2 ,
O cto b er, 1937.
108
N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , R e s e a r c h B u l l e t i n , V o l. X I I I ,
No. 2 , M arch , 1 9 3 5 . 31 p p .
N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , R e s e a r c h B u l l e t i n , V o l . XV,
No. 2 , M arch , 1 9 3 7 . 27 p p .
N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , W hat1s Ahead f o r T e a c h e r s *
S a l a r i e s . N. D. 16 p p .
N e i l s o n , N. P . , "A S c o re C a rd f o r E v a l u a t i n g P h y s i c a l E d u ca ­
t i o n P ro g ra m s f o r H ig h S c h o o l B o y s , 11 B u l l e t i n No. E - 2 ,
S t a t e D e p a rtm e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , S a c r a m e n to , C a l i f o r n i a ,
2 : 4 5 , 1931.
N o r t h C e n t r a l A s s o c i a t i o n Q u a r t e r l y , Volume V I I I , J u n e A p r i l , 1 9 3 3 - 1 9 3 4 . 525 p p .
P u b l i c S c h o o l L aw s, S t a t e o f T e x a s , A u s t i n , T ex as:
D e p a r tm e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 3 1 . 160 p p .
S ta te
Rood, Elm a, " H e a l t h E d u c a t i o n a n d I n t e g r a t i o n , " K e n tu c k y
S c h o o l J o u r n a l , 1 7 : 2 3 - 2 5 , M arch, 1 9 3 9 .
S c o t t , Z e n o s, " P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n fro m a S u p e r i n t e n d e n t *s
P o i n t o f V ie w ," J o u m a l o f H e a l t h a n d P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n ,
V o l. 4 : 8 , May, 1 93 3.
S t r a n g , R u th , " H e a l t h E d u c a t i o n a s G u i d a n c e ," J o u r n a l o f
H e a lth and P h y s ic a l E d u c a tio n , 8 :8 , Ja n u a ry , 1937.
W e l l e r , G eorge C a r l , " S e l e c t i n g New T e a c h e r s , " S c h o o l
E x e c u t i v e s M a g a z in e , 5 3 : 2 1 4 - 1 5 , M arch , 1 9 3 4 .
W illia m s , J . F . , " C u ltu r a l A sp e c ts o f P h y s ic a l E d u c a tio n ,"
J o u r n a l o f H e a l t h a n d P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , V o l. 3 : 2 0 - 3 ,
N ovem ber, 1 9 3 2 .
109
0.
UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS
A n n i s , E l s i e K a t h e r i n e , "A J o b A n a l y s i s o f t h e R e s p o n s i b i l i ­
t i e s o f th e E le m e n tary T e a c h e r t o th e P h y s i c a l E d u c a tio n
P ro g ram * " U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r * s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f
S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 5 .
131 p p .
B l a c k w e l l , F r a n c e s , "A T e a c h e r s C o l le g e P r o f e s s i o n a l P ro g ra m
i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n f o r t h e G e n e r a l C la s s r o o m T e a c h e r . "
U n p u b lish e d M a ste r* s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i ty o f S o u th e rn
C a l i f o r n i a , L os A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 4 . 91 p p .
H o s t e t l e r , L aw re n ce W ., "A C r i t i c a l S u r v e y o f P h y s i c a l Educa­
t i o n i n t h e S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s o f O r e g o n ." U n p u b l i s h e d
M a s t e r * s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los
A n g e les, C a l i f o r n i a , 1935.
94 p p .
M c C re a ry , A aron M onroe, "The Minimum R e q u ir e m e n t s i n H e a l t h
and P h y s ic a l E d u c a tio n f o r A ll T each er T ra in in g I n s t i t u ­
tio n s ."
U n p u b lish e d M a ste r* s t h e s i s , U n iv e r s ity o f
S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 2 9 .
87 p p .
S e a v e r , M a r g u e r i t e , "A S tu d y o f P h y s i c a l A b i l i t y A c h ie v e m e n t
E x p e c t a n c i e s B a s e d Upon T e s t s o f 1 7 2 ,5 9 3 P u p i l s i n t h e
Los A n g e le s C i t y S c h o o l s , "
U n p u b lish e d M a s te r ’ s t h e s i s ,
U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e l e s ,
C a lif o r n ia , 1933.
169 p p .
APPENDIX
INQUIRY BLANK, LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL, AND
SIXTY-TWO TEXAS CITIES REPLYING-
ATTENTION PRINCIPAL: If you are unable to answer it com pletely, please have
the proper person in your school fill in the inquiry blank and return to
meat
your
earliest convenience.
INQUIRY BLANK
An Evaluation Of The Elem entary School Physical Education Program In W est Texas
D a t e ______________________________________
Name of school ----------------------------------------------
-------------------C i t y ------------------------------------------------------:-------------- „-----i
Person r e p o r tin g ____________________________________________ P o sitio n ______________________ ._____ ;__________________
In your official position as one in charge o f the physical education program,
preciate having you check the items pertaining to your school.
A.
B.
I should ap­
I. EQUIPMENT STANDARDS
Athletic Fields:
( 1) Has your playing field a minimum area of four a c r e s ? --------------- ----------------------------------------(2 )
If not, give approximate a r e a _____________ _______________________________________________ ___
(3 )
Is provision-made for multiple use o f playing area, that is, several activities adapted to the
same area? ________________________________________________________________.____ .____ _______
Indoor Facilities:
( 1) Have you a gymnasium or play room with ceiling height at least sixteen feet, and in size at
least 750 sq. f t . ? ______________________________ — -------------------------------------------------------------------( 2) If not, give approximate d im e n sio n s______________________— _________________________________
( 3) Are locker rooms p r o v id e d ? _________ — ______________________________________________________
( 4) If so, have they floor space of at least 9 sq. ft. per pupil for the largest class dressing at any
one t i m e ? ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------( 5 ) If not, give approximate r a t i o ______________
— ---------------------------------------- ___________
( 6) Are shower rooms provided? _________________ — ____________________________ ____ __________
( 7) If so, have they a minimum of 8 sq. ft. o f floor space per shower h e a d ?
_________________
(8 )
If not, give approximate ratio____________________— __ — ______________________________________
(9 )
Is the number of showers equal to at least 20% of peak lo a d ? ;---------------- --------------------------(1 0 ) If not, give approximate per c e n t
_______ :_______________________________________________
(11) Are toilet and lavatory facilities p ro v id ed ? _________________________________________________
(12) Are they accessible from the playground? ____ — __________ ^_________ ______________________
(13) Have they adequate bowls and urinals (one to each 25 s t u d e n ts )? ________________________ ,__
(1 4 ) If not, give approximate ratio__________________ — __:_______
-________________________________
(15) Have they adequate wash basins? __________________ —_______________________ _________ ______
(1 6 ) Is hot water p r o v id e d ? ______________________________— __________ ___________________________
(17) Do they have liquid soap dispensers?________________— _______________________
,_
(18) Have they paper towel d isp e n ser s?
_____________ ________________________________________
(19) Do they contain drinking fuuntains? ------------------------ -------------------------------------------------------------(20) Have they mirrors? ___________T____________________ ___________________________________________
(21) Have they w a steb a sk e ts? ____________________________ ____ ____________________________________
(22) Are rest rooms p r o v id e d ? _________________________ — ____ ____________________________________
(23) Are they equipped with cots, blankets, sheets, e t c . ? __________________________________________
(24) Have they at least one cot per 100 students? ________________________________
(25) If not, give approximate r a t i o _______________________ ____ ____________________________________
(26) Have you a rest room for women teachers adequately equipped w ith bowls, hot and cold water,
basins, etc.? ______________________________________________________________________ .___________
C.
General Activity Supplies:
( 1) Have you an adequate amount of supplies, such as bats, play ground balls, soccer, volley, and
basket balls (one to six students) ? -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
D.
First Aid Suplpies:
( 1) Have you an adequately supplied first-aid box in the equipment office containing absorbent cot­
ton, adhesive tape, various size gauze bandages, antiseptics, scissors, e t c . ? ___________________
II. CONTENT OF THE PROGRAM
Is a state course of study kept on file in the office? _________________________________________
Is the local course o f study kept on file in the o f f i c e ? ------------------------------------------------------------Is a weekly detailed schedule kept on file in the o f f i c e ? ______________________________________
Does the first, second, and third grade activity program include:
(a) Free exercises? ________________________________________________________________
(b) Gymnastic g a m e s ? ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------(c) Marching activities? __________________
— __________ ________ ._________
(d) Stunts and self tasting exercises? ------------------------------------------------- ;----------------(e) Rhythmic activities? _____________ ____ ____ _________ __________________________
(f) Hunting games? ------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------(g) Story plays? --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------(h) Athletic games of low organization? ---------------------------------------------------------------4) Does the fourth, fifth, and sixth grade activity program include:
(a) Folk d a n c e s ? _______________________
— ___________________________ __
(b ) Free exercises?
____________________
— _________________ ____________
(c) Tumbling and stunts? --------------------------------------------(d) Track and field events?
------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------(e) Posture training? __________________— ____ — _________________________________
(f) Athletic games o f low organization? _________________________ ,___ 1____________
(g) M im e tic s? ----------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------(h) Rhythmical activities? _____________ — --------------------------------------------------------------
;_____
(1 )
(2 )
(3 )
( 4)
(
.-----
112
(I)
( 2)
( 3)
( 4)
( 5)
(6 )
( 7)
( 8)
( 9)
(10)
(II)
(12)
III. ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF THE PROGRAM
Is a program of definite instruction available and required for every s tu d e n t? _______________
Are allowances made for temporary accident or illn e s s ?
.___________________ ______________
Are instructional periods given daily with a minimum of twenty minutes to the period exclusive
of recess periods?
-------------------------------------------------— ________
r________________________'_________________
Do any activity instruction classes exceed 45 p u p ils ? ________________________________________
Do corrective and restrictive groups exceed 30 pupils? ______________ .______________________
Do teacher loads, including all play ground and extra curricular assignments, exceed 1,800
m inutes per w e e k ? __________________________________
— ________________________ *____
Has each teacher one period per day available for consultation and individual c o n fer en ces? ____
Are grades based upon the four major items of performance skills, knowledge of rules, social
attitudes, and posture and bearing? _____________ ____ ____ ____________ _______________________
Do the teachers work out practical skill, knowledge, social attitude, and posture tests that can be
administered without too great an expenditure of time and e f f o r t ? ____________________________
Is the program adapted to those students whose medical classification restricts their activities?__
Are such students as fall in corrective groups given the additional opportunity to develop activ­
ity skills usable both in the present and in the future?
_
Does each child get a physical exam ination at least twice in the elementary sc h o o l? ___________
IV.
THE TEACHING PERSONNEL
Training and Certification
What pre-requisite training do you require of your applicant?---------------------------------------------------------------------------------( 1) 'Three year Normal Course
,___________________________________________________________ _____
( 2) . Four year State Teachers C o lle g e ______ ._______________________________________________________
(3 )
B.' S. in 'E d u ca tio n ____________________________________________________________________________
(4 )
M: S. in Education
___ :______________________________________________________________________
( 5) Any other pre-requisite training required:
Indicate by number of teachers, the amount of professional training they have received:
( 1) Normal School or Teachers College:
(a) Credential o n l y ______________________ _______________________ ___________
(b) Bachelor’s d e g r e e --------- --------------- ---------------------------------------------------------( 2) College or University:
(a) Less than four y e a r s ___________________________________________________
(b) Bachelor’s d e g r e e :______________ ._____________________ :_______________
(c) F ifth year but not higher_______________________________________________
(d ) Higher d e g r e e __________ ______________________________________________
What type of certificate do you require of your applicant?
;________________ ________
( 1) Primary _______________________________
( 2) Special E le m e n ta r y !______________________________________________________ :___________
( 3) General Elem entary _________ __________________________________________________________
( 4) Junior H i g h
!___________________________________________________________
:____
( 5) Special S e c o n d a r y ________ .____________ _______________________________________________
( 6) General S e c o n d a r y __________________________
.________
Mark the number of teachers teaching on each type o f certificate:
( 1) Primary ________________________________________ ____ __________________________________
( 2) Special E le m e n ta r y _____________________________ ____ ____ __________________ __________
( 3)
General E le m e n ta r y ___________________________________________________________________
( 4) Junior H i g h ___________________________________________________________________________
( 5) Special S e c o n d a r y _____________________________________________________________________
( 6) General Secondary j_________________________________________________________ ;__________
( 1)
( 2)
( 3)
A.
B.
Experience
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
SALARIES PAID
Minimum _____________________________________________________________________ ________
Maximum _____________________________________________________________________________
Median ________________________________________________________ ________________________
MISCELLANEOUS DATA
Required of Candidate:
1) No experience _________________________________________________
,________
2) One year _____________________________________ ________________________________________
3) Two y e a r s ______________________________________________________________________________
4) Three years ___________________________________________________________________________
5) Four y e a r s ___________________________ , ____________________________
6) Five y e a r s ______________________________________ ■______________________________________
7) More than five y e a r s ------------------------ --- ------------------------- -----------------------------------------------
Age Restriction:
( 1) What is the minimum age you employ an elem entary te a c h e r ? ________________________
( 2) What is the maximum age you employ an elem entary te a c h e r ? ________________________
( 3 ) No specification ______________________________ ________________________________________
V.
(1 )
( 2)
(3 )
INTEGRATING THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAM WITH HEALTH, SAFETY,
AND OTHER SCHOOL SUBJECTS
Is your health program integrated and correlated with all other s u b je c ts ? _____________
Do you correlate and integrate a safety program with all other s u b je c ts ? ____________
Do you correlate and integrate physical education with all other subjects?
^______
Please return this inquiry to:
C. C. WALDEN
1523 Travis Street
Amarillo, Texas
:____
113
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
1523 T r a v i s S t r e e t
A m a rillo , Texas
D a te
Name o f S c h o o l
Name o f S u p e r i n t e n d e n t
C ity and S ta te
D e a r Mr. ____________
I am m ak in g a s t u d y o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l p h y s i c a l
e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m i n a num ber o f s c h o o l s i n T e x a s , a n d y o u r
c o - o p e r a t i o n i n a n s w e r i n g t h e e n c l o s e d i n q u i r y b l a n k w i l l be
o f much a i d i n t h i s w o rk .
I t i s b e i n g s e n t t o you i n f u l l
r e a l i z a t i o n and a p p re c ia tio n o f th e f a c t t h a t your o f f i c e
r e c e i v e s many r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n .
These d a ta w i l l
e n a b l e me t o make a s e r v i c e a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e s t a t u s
of c u rre n t e d u c a tio n .
The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o r e c e i v e i n f o r m a t i o n
th a t w i l l a id th e a d m in is tra to r by p re s e n tin g n e c e ssa ry b a sic
re q u ire m e n ts f o r te a c h e r s e l e c ti o n , and th e b e s t p re s e n t
p r a c t i c e s in th e a d m in is tra tio n o f a p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n p ro ­
gram i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s .
You w i l l f i n d , I t h i n k , t h a t t h e a n s w e r s c a n be
checked very r a p i d l y .
Y our r e s p o n s e b y f i l l i n g t h i s o u t a t
y o u r e a r l i e s t c o n v e n i e n c e , a n d r e t u r n i n g i t t o me i n t h e e n ­
c l o s e d sta m p e d e n v e l o p e w i l l b e g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d .
I f you d e s i r e a copy o f t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s u r v e y ,
p l e a s e i n d i c a t e t h i s on t h e i n q u i r y b l a n k .
I w is h t o t h a n k you v e r y k i n d l y f o r y o u r i n t e r e s t a n d
c o -o p e ra tio n in t h i s m a tte r.
S in c e re ly y o u rs,
C. C. W alden
E nc. 2
SOURCES FROM WHICH INFORMATION ON THE INQUIRY BLANK
WERE RECEIVED
A b ilen e
G o o d n ig h t
Post
A m a rillo
Happy
Quanah
B re ck e n rid g e
H a sk e ll
R anger
B o v in a
H e d le y
R ot a n
Brownwood
H ereford
R u le
B u rk b u rn e tt
Jack sb o ro
Snyder
C an ad ian
K ress
Spur
C anyo n, T r a i n i n g S c h o o l
Lam esa
S w e e tw a te r
Canyon
Lockney
T e x lin e
C h ild re ss
L ub bock
T u lla
C isco
M a ta d o r
T h ro c k m o rto n
C lare n d o n
M enard
Vega
C la u d e
M erkel
V ernon
C o lo rad o
Miami
W hite D e e r
Comanche
M u lsh o e
W ic h ita F a l l s
C ro sb y to n
Munday
Wink
D im m itt
McLean
Dumas
O ln e y
E le o tra
O lto n
E l Paso
Pampa
F a rw e ll
P a n h a n d le
F o rt S to c k to n
P e rry to n
F rio n a
P la in v ie w
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