AN ORIENTATION COURSE FOR HOME ROOM STUDY A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the School of Education University of Southern California In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Education by Lynn ¥• Fitzgerald August 1940 UMI Number: EP54012 All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion. UMI EP54012 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 48106- 1346 )? 6“£i T '/ u j thesis, w r it t e n u n d e r the d ir e c t io n o f t h e '^ ^ g C h a ir m a n o f the c a n d id a te ’s G u id a n c e C o m m itte e a n d a p p ro v e d by a l l m em bers o f the C o m m itte e , has been presented to a n d accep ted by the F a c u lt y o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a t io n in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f M a s t e r o f Science in E d u c a tio n . ...... Date..**®?: Dean Guidance Committee C . C . C r a w f ord Chairman M. M. Thompson D. Welty Lefever t a b u ; oe contents CHAPTER PAGE I. THE COURSE OE STUDY, ITS NEED AND PHILOSOPHY . . 1 The course of study and the home room.......... 2 Over-view of the course of study. . . . . . . 2 l^he selection of the home r o o m ........... 5 The need for orientation . . .................. 7 Youth and his present t r e n d s ........... . 7 The philosophy of the course of study.......12 II. PROCEDURE...................................... 17 The construction and recordingof the problems 17 The organization of the problems into chapters . . ............................ 18 The working out of daily lesson plans.......21 Selection of the references to be read by the pupil and those to be read by the teacher. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III. HOW TO GET STARTED . . . . . . .' . .' . . 1. MIDNIGHT OIL. 23 .. .. 2 6 How to s t u d y .............. 27 2. A MAN’S CASTLE. How to arrange your study room...................................... 28 3. TIME MARCHES ON. How to budget your study time......................... 4. OVERHEAD. 1• • . . . 29 How to take care of study equipment................’ ............ 30 • • • ni CHAPTER PAGE 5* ATTENTION, How to take notes advantageously. 31 6. OH! ' WHERE OH! WHERE CAN IT BE? How to keep assignments..................... . . . . . . 7. UNDER MY SEAL. 32 How to write assignments. . . 33 8. SCHOOL POWERHOUSE. How to use the library. . 34 9. THE REASURE CHEST. How to use the dictionary. 35 10. THE DEATH HOUSE. How to pass your tests. . . 36 11. SIMONIZING THE CITRUS. How to cooperate with your teachers........................... 37 12. PARTIALITY. How to evaluate yourwork. . . . 38 13. HOW’M I DOIN’? How to get along with your classmates...................................39 14. NO DOZE. How to participate in classroom discussion...................................40 15. THE FILTHY LUCRE. How to save your parents’ money by your school attendance............. 41 IV. HOW TO PARTICIPATE IN SCHOOL ACTIVITIES 1. PLEASURABLE PURSUITS. .... 42 How to choose an organization of your interest............... 43 2. THE SPARK PLUG. How to help make your organization successful 3. HEAD MAN. . . . . . . 44 How to conduct meetings...........45 4. A COG IN THE WHEEL. How to serve on a com mittee........................ . . . . . . . 46 iv CHAPTER PAGE 5. THE WRITTEN WORD. constitution. . 6. GETTING EVEN. How to write a ........................... 47 How to plan a club initiation. 48 7. ICE CREAM AND CAKE. How to plan school parties............................. .. 8. M.C.’S. How toc.plan student assemblies . . . 9. VOTING MACHINES. 49 50 How to plan school elections.............................. 51 10. V. A BIG SHOT. How to chose your sport.... 52 HOW TO FOSTER AND MAINTAIN SCHOOL SPIRIT . . . . 58 1. 54 UNITED WE STAND. 2. PUBLIC INVITED, How to build schoolspirit. How to sell your school to your parents and friends. * ............ 55 3. OUTSIDE CAPITAL. How to cooperate with the city’s business firms • • • • • • • 4. BROADCAST WHISPERS. ........ 56 How to act in school assemblies. • • ' • • « ........... 5. BOOHS. How to act at g a m e s ............... . 58 6. THE GANG’S ALL HERE. How to use school organizations............. 7. THE HECKLER’S HECKEL* plays . 57 59 How to act at school .......... ........................ 60 8. THE BAND: PLAYED ON. How to act at music concerts............................... . 6 1 V CHAPTER PAGE 9* SEETHING HUMANITY. How to set in the halls . 62 10. BRAINS UNINCORPORATED. How to act in the classrooms. . . . ................. 11. YOU LUCKY PEOPLE. 65 How to act on the campus . 64 12. A STRANGER IN TOWN. How to act when repre senting the school away from h o m e ......... . 6 5 13. VERBAL DAGGERS. How to treat visiting students. . . . . . ......................... 66 14. MASSED POWER. How to organize and conduct parades • • . • • • • • • 15. MOB SPIRIT. .......... .... 67 How to organize and conduct pep rallies............. 16. YOUR FRIEND GYM. 68 How to use gymnasium equipment................................... 69 17. A PERSONAL LOAN. VI. How to use school equipment 70 HOW TO DISPLAY PERSONAL ATTRACTIVENESS . . . . . 1. PALAVER PASTIME. How to converse interesting ly............. 2. FELLOW MEN. 3. DICTATORS. 4. CURLY CUES. 5. THE FEEDERS. 71 72 How to consider your classmates. 73 How to consider your elders . . . 74 How to care for your hair. . . . 75 How to care for your hands. . . 7 6 6. THE SHINING LIGHT. 7. CLOTHES HANGER. How to care for your face 77 How to dress to your ad vantage ................................. . . 7 8 CHAPTER PAGE 8* MIX WELL. How to make friends............... 79 9. LAUGH, CLOWN, LAUGH. How to keep your feelings to yourself........ . ............... 80 How to be taotful . ........... 81 10. NO ONE HURT. 11. THE COUNT OF 10. How to control your temper. 82 12. SOUND YOUR *Af. How to'be yourself......... 83 13. THE PEOPLE BELOW. How to be thoughtful of others................. 84 14. YOUR1RE WRONG. How to be a good sport. . . . 15. HIGH GOAL MAN. How to be self-confident. . . 86 16. THE BUILDER. 85 How to criticize constructively 87 17. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. How to regard the rights of oth er s................................... 88 VII. HOW TO ACQUIRE SOCIAL MANNERS AND COURTESIES . . 89 1. THE GUEST LIST. How to write and send invitations................................. 90 2. A RECIPE. (R. S. V. P.). How to answer invitations........................... 3. MAIN EVENT* How to give a p a r t y . ........... 92 4. DEAR EMILY POST. How to dress for the o c c a s i o n ............... 5. JITTERBUGS. 93 How to conduct yourself at a d a n c e ........... 6. M. I. KV 91 94 How to conduct yourself at the t a b l e ........................... 95 CHAPTER PAGE 7. WHATCHAGOT? How to order from a menu • • . 96 8. HO HUM, SILVER.. How to use table service . 97 9. KNOCKING KNEES. How to consider the girl or boy f r i e n d ...................... . 10. THE VIELCOME MAT. 11] .COME. AGAIN. How to treat your guest . 99 How to be a wanted guest . . .100 12. RUNNING INTERFERENCE. public. VIII. 98 How to escort in ......... - . .101 HOW TO BE SAFE AND MOT S O R R Y .......... .102 1. FOOLISH PRANKS. How to.prevent accidents about the school.................... ... 2. LIVE WIRES. .103 How to prevent accidents at 'home............................ .........104 3. GASOLINE GOOFS. How to drive 4. CHARRED BODIES. How to preventforest fires acarsafely.105 ................. 5. SKULL AND CROSSBONES. .106 How to prevent poisoning...................... . 6. A BREATH OF HgO. How to prevent accidents by drowning 7. EXIT. .107 . .108 How to prevent accidents in public buildings. . . . . . . 8. IT WASN'T LEADED. .................. .109 H0w to prevent accidents from the use of fire arms.......... . . .110 CHAPTER PAGE 9. WHITE LINES. 10. LEVEL HEAD. How to be a good pedestrian . . Ill How to act in case of accidents. 112. IX. HOW TO MAINTAIN AND BUILD H E A L T H .......... 1. HOT DOG. 115 How to prevent athlete’s foot . . . 114 2. HOT AND COLD. How .to tune up the body with a bath....................... 115 3. FOUR OUT OF FIVE HAVE IT. How to care for your t e e t h ......... Il6 4. HEALTHY, WEALTHY, AND WISE. How to get the most from your sleep....................... 117 5. EAT, DRINK, AND BE MERRY. How to. care for your digestive system . . 6. VITAMINS CALL. ................. 118 How to'maintain a balanced d i e t . ............... X. HOW TO FIND YOUR PLACE IN THE WORLD. 119 ..........120 1. BUSINESS ADDRESS. How to choose a vocation. . 121 2. HELP WANTED. How to apply for a job. . . . 3. THE INNER DOOR. 4. ON YOUR MARKS* 5. INSIDE DOPE. 6. STEAD WORK. XI. . 122 How to use an interview. . . 123 How to get a job............. 124 How to learn about job vacanciesl25 How to hold a job............... 125 THE USE OF THIS COURSE OF STUDY..................126 CHAPTER I THE COURSE OF STUDY, ITS NEED AND.PHILOSOPHY In this orientation course of study the writer has attempted to set up for the pupil a series of problems which in their answered forms, will be of practical use in the student’s daily life. As Dewey so aptly states: Anything which can be called a study, whether arithmetic, history, geography, or one of the natural sciences, must be derived from materials which at the outset fall within the scope of ordinary life-experience It is hoped that through such a course of study a closer relationship may be formed by the teacher and pupil. Also desired is a better understanding of present day standards and forms as viewed by youth and as interpreted by the adult The writer has attempted to bring together on common ground for the pupil and the teacher a situation in which problems to be answered and decisions to be made by the youth of to day may be presented and discussed freely. It is desired that the pupil in.going through the course of study find some enlightahment and something tangible to aid him in his daily school and social activities. Richmond 1Iohn Dewey, Experience and Education The Macmillan Co., 1938), pp. 86-7. V. Richmond, The Adolescent Boy Farrar and Rhinehart, 1933J, p. 208. 2 has summed (New York: (New York: 2 up the problems as follows: The choice and decisions which he must make, the faults.he must overcome, the degree of popularity he must win with his fellow and with the girls, the depths of his own nature which he must try to understand— these are the things of great moment, the business that must come first* This orientation course of study is intended, primarily to be used in the ninth grade home room for orienting those pupils in early adolescence* I. THE COURSE OF-STUDY AND THE HOME ROOM Where in our modern school system could we more conveniently place and use this course of study than in the home room? Pupils are placed together in classes to receive their formal instruction in academic work to meet the require ments for graduation. The home room, however, may act as a clearing house for school announcements and as a consulta tion period for the pupil or, as in some instances, another study period. The use of this course of study directed by a competent teacher will bring about profitable and bene ficial results. Over-view of the course of study,cThe"author has attempted to arrange the sequence of orientation in much the same order as problems arise with the first year high school pupil. The biggest problem the pupil has at the beginning of his high school career is how to get started properly in his school work. From his past school experience he has 3 gained little of the proper study habits, the practical budgeting of his time for a well-rounded education, and the wise use of his school facilities, such as the library, study hall, and the school plant in general* After he has made his initial start in this new en vironment, he becomes concerned about school activities. How to participate in school activities and social functions present problems which need to be answered for. his best freedom of enjoyment. Inadequacy of such knowledge dampens the spirit of the pupil for these desirable activities with his fellow pupils. While seeking to find his place in his school home, it is necessary that he has a good opinion of his school and what it stands for. Unless he becomes active in help ing to build for a better school, he is likely to become just a non-productive member of the student body. The only satisfaction he can derive from his school is that of just being around, instead of sharing his responsibility with his classmates in making the school a better one. How to foster and maintain school spirit is no small factor for his proper school adjustment. At this period of adolescence the personal character istics become a conscious factor with the pupil. more aware of his clothes and his personal habits. He becomes Perhaps some unfortunate experience has been encountered, either 4 embarrassing him or motivating him to be ;iaeater. We do not .want him to withdraw into himself gradually developing a complex, but, instead, the desirable end is the answering of his problems of how to display personal attractiveness. The pupil is desireus of making good impressions upon others. Through past and present experiences he is becoming conscious of behavior patterns, not only in the home and the school, but in the social sphere of which he is on the fringe as well. Being at the outer door of social life, problems, other than his desire for the proper personal qualifications, arise concerning themselves about social manners and court esies. His air of indifference and supposed sophistication will not permit him to admit that he is interested in such things. This mask of independence is east aside when, pro perly conducted in a proper atmosphere, he is given the opportunity to learn how to acquire social manners and courtesies. How to be safe and not sorry presents to the pupil a practical, usable knowledge. The many errors, which have ended with disastrous results to the uninformed, are problems which need answering for the pupil. Safety should not con cern the pupil alone, but he should be conscious of the welfare of others. This chapter takes up safety in the school, the home, the community, and the state. 5 The next step in orienting the pupil is that of how to maintain and build health. Far too frequently does youth subject his body and his health habits to unnecessary and harmful practices. Little does he realize at the time that his future physical fitness is dependent upon his present care and maintenance of his health. If, through his past and present experiences, pertinent problems can be freely discussed, the pupil may realize that which he thought was his own personal problem was, in reality, a problem common to the rest of his associates. Finally, as the last to be discussed in the orienta tion course, a chapter is arranged on vocations. The at tempt is made to consider the many problems pertaining to choosing a vocation, and the various steps necessary to find work in the pupil’s chosen field. The question, how to find his place in the world, is one of the most sought after by the pupils. It is believed that the eight chapter headings so chosen and viewed give the pupil a complete orientation in those problems with which he is continually faced; that the discussions and solutions are applicable in meeting his daily demands, both in school and on the outside. The selection of the home room. The acceptance and continuation of the home room in our secondary school systems have shown that it must be of some worth. If this were not 6 so their disuse and disappearance would have been felt and noticed long before now. Since the home room has been so widely accepted in our modern school system, the writer intends for this course to become a part of their programs. There is no other class in which the time can be taken more effectively to answer the many guestions of our perplexed youth. Their problems frequently need the guidance into proper channels by some older person. To quote Dewey: On the contrary, basing education upon personal experience may mean more multiplied and more intimate contacts between the mature and the immature than ever existed in the traditional school, and consequently more, rather than less, guidance by others.55 Who is better qualified than the public school teacher whose close daily contact with the pupil gives an insight and understanding of the pupil’s world? In no other school situation do we find a closer pupil-teacher relationship established than in the home room. The pupils have an opportunity to learn worth-while facts which are of practical value in our every day world. Optimum values may be realized, not only in proper guidance, but in the development of personalities and social amenities through the home room. The home room affords the best oppor tunity for developing desirable social attributes so valuable to successful and happy citizenship. fz . . . . John Dewey, Experience and Education The Macmillan Co., 1938), p. 8. (New York: 7 II. THE NEED FOR ORIENTATION It is not enough that public school teachers today merely teach their chosen subjects, but our teachers should be ever, willing to be of beneficial assistance to the pupils in their charge* To be of beneficial assistance, the teacher must help the pupil solve his social problems of everyday life* Those instances which to the adult seem trivial and unimportant?*! assume magnanimous importance to the adolescent pupil. Far too frequently are the pupil’s social questions cast aside in favor of more pedagogical ones. Youth and his present trends* Today, more than ever before, should our schools point the way and guide its pupils in helping them meet intelligently life’s demands. As Dewey points out: If schools are to recognize the needs of all classes of pupils, and give pupils a training that will insure their becoming successful and valuable citizens, they must give work that will not only make the pupils strong physically and morally and give them the right attitude toward the state and their neighbors, but that will as well give them enough control over their material environ ment to enable them to be economically independent. To understand better what we are to do, we must have an in sight to the nature of the pupil we are working with. We must realize that upon entrance to our secondary schools ^Jbhn Dewey, Democracy and Education E. P. Dutton and Co., 1915), p. 308. (New York: 8 these pupils are undergoing a gradual change from puberty to adulthood, during this change of growth, which we have termed the adolescent age, the pupil .is continually trying to keep an even balance against the many problems confront ing him. His reactions to these problems of adjustment and decisions should be as smooth as possible. It is the in tent of this orientation course of study to help the bewild ered pupil smooth out as many of these confronting problems as possible. The pupil’s need is ever present, but the em phasis to the pupil is upon these early years of adolescence. Oftentimes the inability of the pupil to cope with the problems confronting him has resulted in his seeking help and advice, not from someone capable of giving sound guid ance, but rather from someone who is totally unqualified. As Richmond states; There are so many things that he (the student) wants to know and the sources of reliable information are so few; his elders are so frequently embarrassed in the discussion of these questions that he prefers not to ask them;.books are usually very unsatisfactory; lectures are often even more so, while his contemporaries, for their show of knowledge, are as bewildered as himself.5 Through the lack of considerations for the pupil and his problems, teachers and parents have ignored what they have thought inconsequential for his proper development. Our well meaning but unhelpful emphasis has been placed in too 5 Richmond, o£. cit., p. 208. 9 great a proportion on the gaining of facts from books, which, even when these facts are learned, are of little help to the pupil in his daily life* Granted that a meager beginning has been made in the secondary schools of our nation in helping the pupil orient himself, the fact is still very apparent that there remains the greatest amount of work to be done* The enrollment in four year high schools, given in the latest governmental survey6, in 1934, indicate that there were approximately 6,557,940 pupils* The task of educating these pupils was 7 done by 227,7B7 men and women teachers. Of this total of teachers only 1,385 were employed as specialist in counsel ing and guidance* This small group responsible for guidance and counseling represented approximately .6 per cent of the total number of teachers. In pupil-counselor ratio, there were approximately 2,027 pupils for each counselor. This, of course, is worked out on a hypothetical even distribution of pupils throughout the United States. It is appalling enough in itself, but when we consider that o only the larger schools, of which only 6.2 per cent0 of our ^Biennial Survey of Education in the United States. 1933-34. Bulletin, 1935, 0 1 Vol. V, Table 7, p. 24. (United States Department of the Interior, Office of Education). 7Ibicl., Vol. V., p. 16. 8Ibid.. Vol.V., p. 12. 10 total schools have in excess of one thousand pupils, employ special counselors. It is quite evident that a very small percentage receive any benefits of special counseling and guidance. Of the totals number of our secondary schools, 9 the largest number, 70.5 per cent , have enrollments of less than two hundred. This supports the contention that whatever guidance and counseling is to be done, it must come from the classroom teacher. Further need for an orientation course is shown by the number of high school graduates who go on to institu tions of higher learning and those who find their place in our work-a-day world. Only 25.1 per eent1^ of the graduating classes of 1934 went on with their education. The remain ing group, 74.9 per cent, sought*their places in whatever work they could secure. In view of these facts and figures, the need can be readily seen for a course of study which will help the pupil in his much needed orientation. The aforementioned group of non-college entrants are persistantly confronted with further adjustments and decisions to be made. The school can provide the proper requirements in helping the pupil gain a broad foundation for his daily needs outside of school. 9Ibid.. Vol. V., p. 6. lOlbid., Vol. V., p. 12. 11 In the past the main concernment felt for the pupil was that of preparing for the future. Our well meaning far-sightedness has completely overlooked the needs of the present. As Richmond states: Wei,; his parents and teaehers, seem to him so often occupied with his future, we are continually appealing to the man he will some day he; but for him it is the present that is of importance. And he is not far wrong, for out of the way he handles his problems now, will come the experiences and habits which will enable him to handle his problems in the future.11 The writer has attempted to choose problems which need the consideration of the average pupil. If, in any way whatsoever, some good can be derived from the study of such a course, it is felt that the original purpose has beeqfeccomplished. However, just realizing the pupil’s need and presenting what is considered a partial remedy is not enough. The administering teacher must have not only know ledge of the youth’s mental attitudes, but must, as well, have factual knowledge of his activities. Through a com plete understanding on the part of the teacher will it be possible to do the most effective work with the 'pupil. The teacher must try to be more than just someone who teaches a subject the pupil enrolls for, but she must attempt to gain his confidence and from such provide beneficial aid and guidance. To quote Richmond: n ------- W. V. Richmond, The Adolescent Boy The Macmillan Co., 1938), p. 208. 12Ibid., p. 175. (New York: 12 How little we often know, after all, of his own mental attitudes, and even of his activities; many of them, to he sure, he does not wish us to know, he has an instinctive feeling that we will not understand, and it is quite true that a disinterested person is often in a position to give him more help than those more closely connected with him; and so he takes counsel of his contemporaries or struggles with his problems alone; believing that they are peculiar to himself. Thus he finds the developmental period beset with difficulties which might be easily cleared away if he knew where to turn for aid and understanding.12 III. THE PHILOSOPHY BE THE COURSE OF STUDY With a course of study such as presented herein* unless, the administering teacher is imbued with the proper philosophy, the main point, as intended by this author, will be lost. Before any agreement can be reached by two or more parties, they first must have a common understanding of the problems confronting them. Only when such an understanding has been reached can any definite objective or goal be reached. If, at any time during the process from the be ginning to the final outcome, the ultimate objective is lost sight of, it is better to stop then and there rather than continuing blindly. As is seen from the problems worked out for daily use in the course of study, the writer has attempted to make everything as functional as possible for the learner. If through our class discussion we can arouse and stimulate the pupil in his decisions to be made, we have started him 13 functionally in our orientation* Following that, it is hoped from the formed decisions that the pupil will become more aware of how to do a particular thing rather than how not to do. It is much more desirable in this orientation course of study to build the positive approach instead of the negative. A pupil may learn how not to do or how not to act in a given situation and be a complete failure when asked how to do or how to act in the same situation. Motivation is a great asset in a strictly academic teacher-pupil study. However, in bringing lifelike problems into the classrooms for the pupil, it serves not only as a factor of motivation, but whets the intent of the pupil in his desire to learn. The desire or intent on the part of the learner assures learning; the only need is that of pro per guidance by the teacher. Kilpatrick states: If we wish our pupils to acquire good traits, we can only expect to succeed with them as they themselves wish to succeed. Thus again we must have actual life going on, not only to supply....... the occasions for exercise of desired traits, but also to supply ....... the conditions which make the proper success desired. Observation easily convinces that the social attitude of fellow pupils is ordinarily far more potent to induce a desirable attitude in a delinquent than anything the master alone can do. In fact only as the teacher can mobilize a favorable social attitude in the other pupils may he hope generally for success. The best learning conditions are present when teacher and pupils are joint cooperators in shared enterprise and each item and effort is judged by the way it works in the joint life rather than upon any word of external authority. The wise teacher will under such conditions seize every op portunity whereby the pupils may increase their wholesome 14 practice of valuable traits. 13 The teacher must be keenly aware of the learning process of the pupil. Regardless of how well prepared the teacher might be, unless a complete understanding is estab lished on common ground with the pupil that preparation is futile if the desirable ends are to be met. The course of study must be alive and vital, not to either the pupil or the teacher separately, but to each together. While the pupil may profit from the activity of his study, he is likely to have better success if that activity is shared with the teacher. * A teacher to completely understand the problems of the pupils can not be content to learn of these problems in a second hand way. hand manner. This knowledge must be gained in a first By associating with the pupils in as many of these situations from which problems arise as possible, the teacher can, not only see the cause, but can view the re action of the pupil as well. Herein lies the most success ful effectiveness of the teacher’s understanding and guidance of the pupil *s problems. It is not enough just to stimulate the attitudes and ideals of the pupil. 13 The pupil, after being so stimulated, ' William Heard Kilpatrick, Education for a Changing Civilization (New York: The Macmillan Co., 1926T, p. ICO. / 15 is desirous of seeing practical outcomes. There practical outcomes must be accomplished in a functional manner. Too many times in past school experience has the pupil been unable to see the practical application and outcomes of the subject being taught. As Dewey says: > Children should not leave school at fourteen, but should stay in school until they are sixteen or eighteen, and be helped to an intelligent use of their energies and to the proper choice of work. It is commonplace among teachers and workers who come in contact with any number of pupils who leave school at fourteen to go to work, that the reason is not so much financial pressure as it is lack of the conviction that school is doing tham any good*14 Dewey continues his remarks about the reasons that high school pupils drop and quit school by starting: But the commonest reason advanced by the pupils for leaving school is that they did not like it, and were anxious to get some real work to do. Not that they were prepared to go to work, or had finished any course or training, but simply that school seemed so futile and satisfied so few of their interests that they seized the first opportunity to make a change to something that seemed more real, something where there was a visible result,15 Too many times has the pupil in the classroom been in competition with his classmates for grades rather than seek ing informational knowledge. Far too frequently is the knowledge promptly forgotten in his quest for high marks set up as desirable standards to be attained! 14John Dewey, Schools of Tomorrow Dutton and Col, 1915), p. 310. 15Ibia.. p. 311. Heretofore the (New York: F. P. 16 pupil has studied, not for the benefits of the knowledge gained, but to try and best his associates* grades; and also has he studied because it was felt that in so doing he met the standards set up by the school. His mistakes have been corrected and pointed out; he has echoed back the material from the printed page in the approved manner. All of this has tended to make him passive and tolerated because it is what we have thought the best to offer. As no grades or artificial standards are given out or set up in the home room class * it is hoped that here learning may take place for its practical value rather than getting a higher mark than his neighbor. From the course of study it is hoped and intended that the pupil be able to see clearly, not only the value of its function to him, but the availability of its practical application to his daily needs. It is the intention of this writer that this course of study, as developed, will aid and benefit the pupil in his solutions of problems encountered not only in the begin ning of his high school career, but also give him the proper foundation of social manners and courtesies. If this course of study can help answer the many school and social problems it will then serve as intended. CHAPTER II PROCEDURE In gathering and compiling the various problems, the following steps were undertaken (1) the writing down of problems on separate slips of paper; (2) the organization of problems into chapters; (3) the writing out of daily lesson plans; and (4) finally the inclusion of the refer ences to be read by the pupil and those to be read by the teacher. The construction and recording of the problems. The pupils unknowingly forced the attention of this writer to their daily problems. In doing so, they showed their appar ent inadequacy to cope with their problems intelligently. Not only was this inadequacy shown in their class work and its many factors, but even more so in their participation in other activities of a social nature. Consequently, when this orientation course of study was begun, the writer had a definite idea of what he thought should be included. After securing several pads of white slips, size two and one-half by three and one-half inches, the procedure was to write down as many of the problems as could be thought of. During this procedure not only were problems recorded which had evolved from past experiences, but articles, books, 18 and magazines were read if their content was, in any way, connected to youth and his adjustments. The main proportion of the problems arose from past experiences of the writer, and the remaining from his readings. All of these problems were written on these white slips of paper. After the recording of as many of these problems as could be thogght * of, the writer proceeded to arrange them. The total number of problems first arranged was one hundred sixty-five. As is evidenced by the course of study, each problem was preceeded by a how to. By this means the author was able to keep the problems specific in their nature and insure the pupil of a definite understandable solution to meet his daily needs. The organization of the problems into chapters. Upon the completion of writing the problem down, the slips were carefully cheeked to eliminate any repetition. The first time this check was made about thirty of the problems were weeded out as they were too much like some of the others. The slips were next sorted into four groups. In group one those problems which pertained to the pupil's academic wel fare were included. Group two included all.of those problems in which the pupil's extra-curricular activities, both in school and out of school, demanded answering in a practical manner for use in a practical way. In group three were placed those slips whose problems 19 considered the pupil’s personality and any health problems which pertained to either him individually or his school, home or community. Groups four included those problems that when answered completely, would prove to be an aid and help to those pupils who find it necessary to leave school at the end of their first year. j&fter these four general groupings had been estab lished, the next step was to cheek carefully through each group. The first time through in checking the problems in each group the writer eliminated, those problems which were too remote from the general topic. The second time through the problems were divided into specific groups. The desire here was to band together those problems most closely associated with each other and whose application applied to the common interest of the pupil. The third time these problems were checked the author went through those which had been placed to one side the first time through. Xf, in this final "check, these problems could not he;fitted into any of the chosen topics and could not be changed without duplication, they were disposed of as un usable. The result of this checking and cataloguing of the problems brought about the organization of them into def inite chapter headings. These chapters, of which there were eight, are broad enough in their scope of problems in cluded to answer the many questions of the first year high 20 school pupil* The final chapter headings as decided upon * are (1) How to get started; (2) How to participate in school activities; (3) How to foster and maintain school spirit; (4) How to display persohal attractiveness; (5) How to ac quire social manners and courtesies; (6) How to be safe and not sorry; (7) How to maintain and build health; and (8) How to find your place in the world. The chapters are not of equal length. In grouping the problems the main consideration was to have them as closely related to one another as possible. It was not the intent of this writer to have as many under one head ing as the other-just for the sake of equalness. Some few of these chapters hold far more for the individual pupil than others, and from past experience the writer feels that he has grouped them to best meet the common needs of all. Also no attempt has been made to arrangecthe chapters in ■what might be their order of importance. Instead the attempt has been made to arrange the chapters in the most logical sequence from the pupil*s point of view. It is be lieved that the main consideration of the pupil just enter ing high school is how shall he fit himself into his new environment as easily as possible. The pupil is anxious to know how to go about his class work and just how much should he assert himself around the school and in the class room. Soon after his adjustment in this beginning he becomes 21 concerned with the many school activities. Since he cannot belong to all, he must decide upon the one which will meet his needs and desires the most. While engaged in his school activities the pupil becomes more interested in the schools background and tradition. He, perhaps, serves his school in some minor capacity and from these learns of school spirit and what it means. Through his association with the older pupils, he cannot but help notice their dress and other personal attractions; and in becoming conscious of his own personal self, he sees the need of good manners and the necessity of doing the right thing at the right time. Matters of group and personal safety are next, introduced, followed by a study in personal hygiene both being intro duced when the pupil is at the age when he is really con cerned with such things. And finally, just before the sem ester closes problems are answered which might help in help ing him secure either a part time job or permanent employment. The proceeding paragraph has been given to show the writer’s sequence of thought for the arrangements of the chapters. The problems within the eight chapters have been arranged in very much the same thought sequence. The working out of daily lesson plans. The proced ure in making out the daily lesson plans necessitated four main steps for each one. These four steps are as follows: (1) activities to do; (2) decisions to decide; (3) books to read by the pupil; and (4) books to read by the teacher* The writer has attempted to keep each daily lesson plan in the same form as the preceding one. In these daily lesson plans, the pupil is first confronted with the activ ities to do. For the most part, the activities are con fined to the class room and with that in mind the writer has included class discussions, outside speakers on special subjects, a listing of the more important items to be re tained, demonstrations, and individual talks by members of the class. However, there are several problems in which it was necessary to have the pupil do certain activities outside of class.. Such activities would be visiting bus iness firms who specialize in certain appliances or commod ities, interviewing of individuals in specialized fields, the studying of some community project, observing things which are pertinent to the problem, and soliciting of ma terials which will help in class work. From these activities certain decisions will have to be made by the pupil. He cannot make these decisions to best fit his needs if he has not fully worked out the activities. From the activity the pupil is able to see the direct application of the activity to his daily life, and in turn be mentally prepared from the decisions he has reach ed to actively solve these problems when they arise in his 23 experiences. The decisions to be made by the student are all built around the foundational stone— evaluation. One of the main purposes of these decisions is to have the pupil evaluate the issue, when possible, in three different lights. If the pupil can apply one of the three, how to, when to, and where to, to any of his decisions, he is more likely to reach the desired specific point rather than ending with some broad generality. This writer has attempted, in the issues and their decisions to be reached, to include each one of the three. This was done in hopes that through some variety in reaching the decision the pupil would not form the same approach for each decision. As no two experiences are identical in each detail and no two individuals react in the same manner in a like experience, it is all the more reason that we teach our pupils to think through their own decisions they are making in their own way and not to rely upon some fixed plan or cure all for,every situation. The writer also has tried to coordinate the activities and their outcomes to the decisions and their outcomes. It is desired that the activity* as experienced by the pupil, materially help in forming his decisions. Selection of the references to be read by the pupil and those to be read by the teacher. For a course of this 24 nature to be the most successful, it is very necessary for good reference material to be available not only for the students but for those who teach it as well. The writer of this course of study has utilized only those references which are avilable in the school’s library and those in the city’s library. Only those books whidh apply directly to the problems under consideration were chosen and the writer attempted to use as recent books as possible. The card catalogues in the school library and in the city library were checked through and all books which gave any indication of being helpful to either the pupil or the teacher were written down. Time was then taken to go through each book carefully and if certain chapters were use ful or the entire book satisfactory it was marked down as a book to be used. After a satisfactory list had been com piled the writer checked with the libraries to find out how many copies of each book were available, m some particular instances when an exceptionally useful book was found, the writer sent in a requisition to the superintendent’s office asking for more copies of the book. The writer also arranged with the two librarians to send to him any advanced litera ture of new books which might be useful in the course. three instances the writer found magazine articles which were worthwhile reading by the pupils for added material In 25 in the references* The writer had these mimeographed and placed them in the hands of the pupils. The writer has attempted to show in this chapter the procedure which was used in preparing this orientation course of study for ninth grade pupils. Everyday problems confronting the pupil were written down on small slips of paper. These problems were later organized into eight chapters and the chapters were arranged in the best thought of manner. After the problems had been arranged and their sequence in the chapter decided upon, daily lesson plans for each problem was worked out. These plans included activities for the pupil to do, decisions for them to make, and books to be read as.references and further help. included were references books for the teacher. Also CHAPTER III HOW TO GET STARTED The pupils who enter any typical high school for the first time come from a wide variety of grade schools, and consequently have just as varied experiences. It is the purpose of this first chapter to attempt to coordinate these varied experiences.in an effort to give all of these ■beginning pupils an equal opportunity in getting the right start. While this unification will be carried throughout the entire course, it will not be mentioned again as the course itself cannot but help gather or unify the thought of those taking it. It is thought that the greatest bene ficial aid is that of helping the pupils gain an insight of what is expected of them in their new work and the answer ing of their most fundamental problems. This first chapter deals primarily in helping the pupil gain the correct approach in his academic work. Other considerations include the use of the school’s library facilities and the student’s participation in the classroom. 27 1. MIDNIGHT OIL. How to study To do; 1. Divide into committees of five, Each committee is to make a list of the 10 most important procedures of good study. The committee chairman must be able to defend this list in a class panel discussion. 2. The committee chairman will present to the class the list his committee has chosen and defend it against any arguments from the class, Blace a class list of the best twenty on the black board. 3. Copy the list from the black board and paste it in the front of your notebook as a continual reminder of how to do your assignments in the best manner. To decide; 1. How can you best arrange your study habits to get the most from your lesson and attain the most success? 2. How can you get the most, financially and scholastically, from your textbooks? 3. Is it better to buy your own books or share in the buying of them with soneone else? 4. Canyou keep up in your class work by taking a chance of using the textbooks in the library or borrowing fromsome one else? 5. How can you best studywith one or 6. How can you best studyalode? more classmates? To read; 1. Charles Bird: Effective Study Habits (Century, 1931)♦ 2. Ruth MeKoane: The Way to Learn 3. Carol Hovious: (Allyn and Bacon, 1931) Following Printed Trails (D. C. Heath, 1936), 88 2. A MAN’S CASTLE• How to arrange your study room To do; 1. Compare pictures of good and poor study rooms. 2. Make a list of the characteristics of a good study room and a poop study room. 3. Make a list of reasons to be used as arguments with your parents as to why you need a study room. 4. Have a talk by a lighting engineer on modern home light ing. 5. Demonstrate a light meter. 6. Make a«.list of the improvements you can make on your study room at home. 7. Give your arguments as to why there should be quiet during your study hours. 8. Visit an electrical shop and compare types of study lamps. 9. Arrange your study room to your best advantage. To decide: 1. How to get a study room at home? 2. How can you get the family to cooperate in keeping your room quiet during,study hours? 3. What shall be the best arrangement of your study room? 4. How will you arrange your room in relation to lighting facilities? 5. How can you improvise desirable artificial light? 6. How can you keep your working materials in order? To read: 1. Charles Bird: Effective Study Habits 2• Ruth MeKoane: The Yfay To Learn 3. Carol Hovious: (Century, 1931) (Allyn and Bacon, 1931) Following Printed Trails (D.C.Heath, 1936) 29 3# T3ME MARCHES ON. How to budget your study time To do; 1. Make a graphy showing how much time you give to household’ chores, recreation, and school assignments. Compare yours with others in a class discussion. 2. Tell the class how many ways you have seen students waste time in the classroom and study hall* 3. Demonstrate how your books and working materials can be arranged to save time* 4. Make a list of the things you can do to save yourself time and do better studying* 5. Write on the black board study faults most common to the members in class and discuss how each can be overcome. To decide: 1. How much time should be put in on an assignment? 2. Which, assignments should be studied first and why? 3. How much outside work can you do and still keep up in your assignments? 4* How late at night should you study? 5. Which is better: to break your study into several periods or to do it all at once? 6* How can you be most economical with your study time? To read: 1. Charles Bird: Effective Study Habits 2. Ruth McKoane: The Way to Learn (Century, 1931) (Allyn and Bacon, 1931) 3. Carol Hovious: Following Printed Trails (D. C. Heath, 1936) 4* OVERHEAD* How to take care of study equipment To do: 1. Divide the class into four groups* Group I ,to make a list of the advantages of taking care of study equip ment, and Group II to make a list of therresulting effects, when study equipments is not taken care of. Group III to make a list of how to keep lockers clean, neat, safe, and sanitary* Group IV prepares a list of must do*s to he ready for written work at all times. £♦ Upon the completion of the list each group selects a member to present that group’s list for discussion* Choose the best 3 or 4 items of each list, except II, and put them on the blackboard to be copied and pasted in notebooks. 3. Make a list of the advantages of taking care of your study equipment. To decide: 1* How can you find books and equipment when you need them? £. How will you arrange your books and equipment in your locker so as to find what you want easily when you want it? 3. What are the advantages of keeping your books in good bondition? 4. How can you be prepared for written work in class, study hall, and home? 5. In what way can you cover your books best to insure good protection? 6. Have can you save time and money by being careful? To read: 1. Charles Bird: £. T* H. Pear; Effective Study Habits The Art of Study (Century;, 1931) (B* P. Dutton, 1930) 31 5* ATTENTION* How to take notes advantageously To do: 1* Discuss the advantages of keeping a note book, and how you can profit in your school work by it* 2. Demonstrate a good way to arrange your notebook into sections* 3* Demonstrate a good way to take notes in outline form* 4. Make a list of the factors whieh aid in keeping a note book neat and readable. Check your notebook against this list and make the necessary corrections* 5* Compare notebooks and make a list of the various advan tages of each type. To decide: 1. How can you arrange your notebook so as to have a section for each class? 2. How canyou arrange your class notes to show at a glance what is most important and what is secondary in importance? 3. Which is better: to try and take down as much as possible of what is said, or to outline briefly?. 4. How canyou improve your work by taking and using your class notes? 5. How can you keep- your notebook in order and be.able to find anything in it which might be needed? 6. What kind of notebook is best for your needs? To read: 1. Charles Bird: Effective Study Habits 2* Ruth McKoane: The Way to Learn 3. Carol Hovious: (Century, 1931) (Allyn and Bacon, 1931) Following Printed Trails (D. C. Heath, 1936) 32 6. OHl WHERE OEt WHERE CAN IT BE? How to keep assignments To do i 1* Tell the class, either a personal experience or one ob served, of a disastrous result of failing to find a poorly recorded assignment. 2. Make a list of the ways you believe best to keep assign ments. Present them to the class and discuss the merits of each. If any are presented which you believe better than yours write it down. Edit your list and choose the ones best fitted for your needs. 3. Have an open class discussion on the questions How can I profit by keeping a neat, concise record of assignments? To decide: 1. How should your assignments be written down? 2. Where should your assignments be writter down? 3. How can you keep a permanent record of your assignments for each class? 4. What are the chief advantages of keeping assignments? 5. How can a permanent record of assignments help for better grades? To read: 1. Charles Bird: Effective Study Habits 2. Ruth McKoane: The Way to Learn (Century, 1931) (Allyn and Bacon, 193J.) 33 7. UNDER MY SEAL. How to write assignments To do: 1. Block out a^aper showing the name, title, margin, and paragrap'h indention and list your reasons for the place ment of each* 2. Pick out the three best arranged papers and put them on the blackboard. As a class choose the best points of each and make a copy of it in your notebooks. Keep this as a guide for your future work. 3. List the main reasons for doing neat work and how you think they will affect you. 4. List the advantages to be gained in doing a written assignment. 5. Discuss: The written report vs. the oral report. To decide: 1. ‘ What kind of paper should assignments be written on and why? 2. What are the advantages of writing all class work as neatly as possible? 3. What are the main things which make a paper appear neat? 4. Why should you use good grammar and correct punctuation in your written work and not for English classes alone? 5. Which papers should you do in ink and which for pencil? 6. What are the main reasons for correcting your mistakes or returned papers and filing them for future reference? To read: 1. Charles Bird: Effective Study Habits (Century, 1931) 2. William E. Book: Learning How to Study and Work Effectively (Ginn and Co., 1926) 34 8. SCHOOL POWERHOUSE♦ How to use the library To do: 1. Invite the school librarian or one of her assistants to explain the arrangement of the school library; how the card catalogue is arranged; and why books are so numbered, 2, Make a list oh the blackboard of the Dewey classification of books, 4, Relate to class difficulties you have encountered in using the library. 5, Visit the city library and familiarize .yourself with its arrangement. To decide: 1. How can you save time and energy by being familiar with the arrangement of your library? 2. How can you profit by knowing the Dewey classification of books? 3. How can you aid your fellow students when you are in the library? 4. What can you do to aid the librarian? 5. How can the library help you? 6. How can you show your appreciation for the use of the school and city libraries? To read: 1. C. C. Crawford: 1928) 2. Charles Bird: 3. R. L. Sandwich: Co., 1929) Technique of -Study Effective ^tudy Habits Study and Personality (Houghton Mifflin Co., (Century, 1931) (D, C. Heath" and 35 9. THE TREASURE CHEST. How to use the dictionary To do: 1. As many as possible bring dictionaries to class. Make a list on the blackboard of the sections in.the dictionary not defining words# 2. Discuss the list on the board and how you can profit from it. 3. Divide the class in ahalf and have a contest looking words up dictated by the chairman# 4# Discuss synonyms and antonyms. To decide: 1# How canyou make better grades by using the dictionary? 2. How canyou profit by knowing how a dictionary is composed? 3. How canyou determine the eorrec t manner of pronuunciation? 4# How canyou find spelling aids in the dictionary? 5. How up? canyou increase your vocabulary when looking words 6# How/: should you judge a good dictionary if you were buying one? 7# What information other than definition and pronounciation is given about each word?/' To read: 1. C. C. Crawford: Co., 1928) Technique of Study 2# Richard L# Sandwich: and Co., 1929) (Houghton Mifflin Study and Personality ---------- -------- (D. C. Heath 36 10* THE DE4TH HOUSE* How to pass your test To do; 1* In a class discussion discuss how you can profit from a test* 2. Make a list of procedures of how you would study for a test* 3* Compare your list with the rest of the class. Choose the procedures you believe to best fit your needs. 4. Discuss study review. To decide: 1. How can you check up on yourself while reviewing for a test? 2. What are the advantages of proper review? 3. What are the advantages of not failing to hand in all assignments? 4. How can you best use your time during a test? 5. How can you help yourself in time and energy by saving your returned assignments? 6. What kind of an attitude should you have during a test? To reads 1. C. C. Crawford: 1928) 2. Charles Bird: Technique of Study Effective Study Habits (Houghton Mifflin Co., (Century, 1931) 37 11. SIMONIZING THE CITRUS. teachers How to cooperate with your To do: 1. Prepare and hand in a short paper on: means to me or Cooperation, Its place What cooperation in the school. 2. Discuss in elass the value of cooperation and how it affects daily living and learning in the classroom. 3. Make a list onthe hoard of the essential qualities of cooperation in the classroom. 4. Check up on yourself to see if you exhibit the essentials of cooperation from the list on the board. To decide: 1. How can you aid your companions by cooperating? 2. Does cooperation bring about a better understanding among pupils and teachers? 3. How can you help your teachers by cooperating? 4. How can you aid yourself by cooperating? 5. How can you gain added respect of your classmates by cooperating? 6. What can you do to better cooperate §t all times? To read: 1. Harry C. McKown: Hr>me Room Guidance 2. Richard L. Sandwich: and Co., 1929) (McGraw-Hill, 1934) Study and Personality (D. G. Heath 12. PARTIALITY• How to evaluate your work To do: 1* Make a list on the hoard of the steps necessary in evaluating work before it is handed in. 2. Discuss the importance of following such a list before work is handed in. 3. Copy the list from the board in your notebook and add any points you believe will help you. 4. Evaluate arecently returned assignment and see if you could have avoided some mistakes had you evaluated your paper before handing it in. To decide? 1. How canyou raise your grades by evaluating your own work before handing it in? 2. How canyou 3. How canyou work? form better habitsthrough self-evaluation? improve your studyhabits by evaluating your 4. Other than better grades what are the advantages of being able to evaluate work? 5. How can you carry this habit of evaluation over to other things advantageously? 6. Does evaluation always make for better work? To read: 1. Richard Bird: 2. C. C .. Crawford: 1928) Effective Study Habits Technique of Study (Century, 1931) (Houghton Mifflin, 39 13. HOW*M I DOINf? How to get along with your classmates To do: 1. Make a list of the qualities you like to see in others. 2. Make a list of qualities you do not like to see in others. 3. In class discussion using your list compile on the board the outstanding factors of likes and dislikes* 4. Discuss how these items affect our getting along with others. 5. Copy the list from the board in your notebook as a reminder of that which is good and bad. To decide: 1. How can you further develop those good qualities which you possess? 2. How can you eliminate those which are not good? 3. H0w can one bad quality over shadow the many good ones you have? 4. How can you get along with your classmates and still not agree with them on everything? 5. Why should you make the effort to be agreeable with your classmates? 6. How can you assure >;your classmates of your sincerity in getting along with them? To read.: l.Iill Edwards: 1935) Personality Pointers 2. Richard L. Sandwich: and Co., 1929) (Bobbs-Merrill Co., Study and Personality (D. C. Heath 4G 14. NO DOZE. How to participate in classroom discussion To do: 1. Discuss in class the necessity of controlled discussion and the best ways to attain it. 2. List elements of character and good manners which are brought out in discussion. 3. Discuss.Lnumber 2 and arrange items from most important to least important. 4. Observe classmates in your classes and their manner of participating in discussion. To decide? 1. How do good manners present themselves in classroom discussion? 2. What' can you do to keep the discussion interesting and mov ing? 3. How can you help others intelligently discuss problems? 4. In what ways can a discussion be helpful or harmful? 5. How can you show good manners and courtesy in a class room discussion? 6. How can you gain from classroom discussion? To read: 1. Richard L. Sandwich: and Co., 1929) £>tudy and Personality 2. Milton Wright: Managing Yourself 3. Milton Wright: The Art of Conversation (D.G.Heath (McGraw-Hill, 1938) (McGraw-Hill, 1936J 41 15* THE FILTHY LUCRE. How to'save your parents1 money by your school attendance To do: 1. Invite your school principal or a. member of the school board to explain how schools are financed. 2. Take notes during his explanation of the most important points to you. 3. Have ah open discussion or question-answer at the end of his talk. 4. Make a list on the board of the things you can do to make the school money go farther. To decide * 1. How can you save your parents' money by regular attendance? 2. How can you economize in your use of school facilities? 3. In what ways can you help your classmates save? 4. How can you familial*ize your parents with what is being done with their tax money? 5# What can you do to show the community you realize what is being done for you? 6. How can you best return the investment of money your parents and friends must pay each year? To reads 1. Your Children and Their Schools Education, 19371 (Los Angeles Board of CHAPTER IV HOW TO PARTICIPATE IN SCHOOL ACTIVITIES The only means the school has of broadening the pupil’s outlook is through the extra-currieular program.. A program of straight academic work does not present to the pupil a life-like situation. That is, if we compare class work to a man’s working day and the extra-curricular activities to his recreational activities. To be able to fit into any group in our organized social world, the pupil must first know how to get along with his fellow men. He must learn to work for the common interest of the group a M accept his responsibility. In the pupil’s present environment, the school is the main socializing agency. Thus, it falls to the school to provide, not only academic situations, but also to provide the more informal social ized extra-curricular activities which will prepare him to be a more effective member of society. 43 1. PLEASURABLE PURSUITS. your interest. How to choose an organization of To do: 1. Have members of the various school organizations give talks explaining what their particular club does, the amount of extra time, it takes, and what extra expense is necessary .for dues, parties, etc. 2. As a class prepare two lists on the blackboard of the beneficial and the detrimental factors resulting from joining a club. Discuss each list and decide if there are enough benefits derived from joining or if it is balanced the other way. 3. Tell the class of any elub experience you have had, and whether you gained from it or not. To decide: 1. How dan you be sure of getting into the right club of your interest? 2. Whatare the main things you expect to get from your elub of a beneficial nature and why do you expect such? 3. What are the advantages of belonging to a school club? 4. How many school clubs or organizations should you belong to? 5. How much time should you give to your school clubs? 6. What added expense wijl joining a club necessitate? 7. What additional time will you have to take for field trips away from your work and home?. To read: 1. Harry C. McKown: School Clubs (The Macmillan Co., 1S29) 2. Harry C. McKown: Co., 1927) Extra-curricular Activities (The Macmillan - 44 2. THE SPARK PLUG. successful How to help make your organization To dps 1. Have a member of one of the cities service clubs give a talk on what qualifications are necessary for a good club member. 2. Make a list of the main factors that you can do to help , make your club more successful. Present these to the class for discussion. 3. In a class panel discuss the personal traits necessary which aid in successful club work. 4. Divide the class in half and have a debate on what should be done with the non-cooperative elub members. How can their ways be corrected for the club’s best interest? 5. Interview each other in class and find out what individ ual steps he takes to make his elub more successful. To decide!; * 1. What are the chief factors necessary for a successful organization? 2. What characteristics of an individual are necessary in making a club successful? 3. How can you aid your club? 4. How can your club aid you? To read: 1. Harry C. McKown: 2. S. Blackburn: 1927) School Clubs (The Macmillan Co. , 1929) Our High School Clubs (The Macmillan Co., 45 3. HEAD MAN* How to conduct meetings. To do ; 1* Make a list on the blackboard of the proper procedure in conducting a meeting. 2. Choose representatives from the class to conduct a meeting showing the correct manner. Point out any fault when you think something has been done incorrectly. 3. Discuss ways and means of keeping a meeting on the issue being discussed and not wandering off to unimportant conversation. 4. Discuss common courtesies expected at a meeting from the club members. 5. Take turns during the school year in conducting home room meetings. To decide: 1. How can you get your meeting started smoothly? 2. What should be done after the opening eerimonies? 3. How can you get the preliminary reports out of the way? 4. In what manner should you dispose of old business? 5. How can you gain the club’s approval of new business? 6. When should you officially close the meeting? To read: 1. Harry C. McKown: School Clubs (The Macmillan Co., 1929) 2. E. V. Thomas, Tindal and J. D. Meyers: School Life (The Macmillan Co., 1924) Junior High 46 4. A COG IN THE WHEEL* How to serve on a committee To do; 1* Discuss the place and need of committees in an organization* 2. Plan a party. The chairman will divide the elass to all will be on a eopaittee* 3. Meet with your committee and make a list of your objectives in making the party a success. 4. Set a definite date and give a party. #7) (See Chapter IV, To decides 1. Can you do good work en a committee of 2* How much time should strangers? you spend with acommittee? 3. How can you best help your committee? 4* How important is any committee? 5. What is the main purpose of having a committee? 6. How much does the welfare of any organization depend upon good committees? To read* 1. Harry C. McKown: Extra-currioular Activities Macmillan Col, 1927] (The 2. J. 1. Vinegard: Student Participation in School Govern ment (The Macmillan Co., 1933) S* frn WBITTSB WOED* How to write a constitution. jo do t 1* Study your school constitution* Z, Outline on the board the fundamental section of a • constitution*. 3* Divide .into committees and draw up a constitution govern lug home rooms* 4* Discuss with the class each committee *s constitution# To decide; 1* How do you profit by our national constitution; state constliution; school constitution? 2m Whet are the advantages of having a good constitution? 3. Why should your school have a constitution? 4* What is the most important section in the school consti tution? 5# How would you proceed to'make a change in your school constitution? 0* How can you best display your understanding of your school constitution* state constitution, and national constitution? To read; 1. Harry 0. Melown; School Olnba (The Macmillan Co*, 1929) 2* Jm '3* .•?!negard; ■ Student Participation in School Government (The H 8 m O T a B ^ o T 7 l ^ S S T W' 48 S* GETTING EVEN. How to plan a club initiation To do: 1. Discuss the need for both formal and informal initiations. 2. List on the board the desired outcomes of a formal initiation. 3. Discuss the items in number 2. 4. List on the board as many items as possible for informal initiation. an 5. Discuss the items in number 4 and eliminate any which are not practical or might be embarrassing. To decide: 1. How can you make your club a better one by having a nice formal initiation? 2. What elements of club unity should be shown in a formal initiation? 3. In what ways can an informal initiation be distasteful to new members? 4. Do initiations make some, students not desirous of be coming club members? 5. How can you help your club in holding initiations? 6. Why should initiations be given? To read* 11 ,Harry G. McKown: School Clubs (The Macmillan Co., 1929) 2. J. I. Vinegard: Student Participation in School Government (The Macmillan Co., 1935) 49 7. ICE CREAM AND CAKE. How to plan school parties To do: 1. Have a committee report on the date of party and the necessary procedure to gain permission for a school party. 2. Make a list on the board of what any home room, club, or organization must do to have official permission. 3. Discuss the necessity for having to secure official permission 4. Have a final check up of committees for party as started in lesson 4 of this chapter. To decide: 1. How can you help your school when you give a school party? 2. Why should you invite your principal and one or two teachers? 3. How can you be sure your school parties will be a success? 4. What are the advantages of being able to have a party at school? 5. Why is it important that you follow school regulations at a school party? 6. Why should you know how to arrange for anp: give a party? To read: 1. Harry C. McKown: Extr a-curr icular Activities Macmillan Co., 19271 (The 2. Willard B. Canopy: The High School Stunt, Show, and Carnival (T. S. Denison, 19291 50 8* M. C.fs. How to plan student assemblies To do s 1. List on the board those factors you think a good program should have. 2* Pick out the most essential through class discussion and plan how much time is to be given to entertainment, talks and announcements. 3. Appoint committees to arrange for entertainments and talks. 4. Arrange in class the order of the programs checking them against item number one. 5. Make the proper arrangements to present the program to the school. To decidet 1. How should a program be properly balanced to be most enjoyed by the students? 2. What kind of entertainment and how much should be arranged for? 3. How much time should be given to talks, announcements and school yells? 4. Should any centralized theme be carried through out ; the programs? 5. What is a good arrangement for an enjoyable program? To read: 1. Harry McKown: School Clubs (The Macmillan Co., 1929) 2. J". iT. Vinegards Student Participation in School Government (The Macmillan Co., 19331 51 9. VOTING MACHINES. How to plan school electi6ns To do; 1. Have that portion of your school constitution read which governs elections. 2. Invite your class counsel member to give a talk explaining the electoral board. 3. Invite your student body president to explain qualifica tions necessary to run for a school office* 4. Discuss with your counsel member and student body president how you ean best help at the coming school election. To decide: 1. How can you best help your class counsel member? 2. How can you best help the electoral board of your school? 3. What is the similarity between your class counsel member and your state representative or senator? 4. What cap you do to vote intelligently at your school elections? 5* What do you have to do to trun for a school office? 6. How can you be sure of properly qualifying for the job you want? To read: 1. Harry McKown: School Clubs (The Macmillan Co., 1929) 2. J. I. Vinegard: Student Participation in School Government (The Macmillan Co., 1933) 52 10* A BIG SHOT# How to chose your sport To do: 1* Have a talk by the school coach or the director of one of the various sports. 2. Find out from him how much time is necessary, what physical demands each sport makes, and if you are handicapped what would be the best sport for you. 3. Observe people playing various sports and try the ones that interest you. To decide* 1. What are the benefits from participating in school sports? 2* What physical requirements do the various sports require? 3. For what sport are you best suited? 4. How can your physical characteristics limit your choice of a sport? 5* How much time should you plan to give to a sport? To read: 1. Harry McKbwn: School Clubs (The Macmillan Co., 1929] 2* Louis Persby: Adventures in Sport (Gain, 1937) I CHAPTER V HOW TO FOSTER AND MAINTAIN SCHOOL SPIRIT The fundamental objective of this chapter is to aid the pupil in his extra-curricular participations and through it instill the main concepts of his obligations to his school and classmates. The attitude and manner in which he holds his school and its organizations while he is in school will determine to a large extent his future regard of any organization of which he might be a part. By calling his attention to what has been done in the past in his school, the pupil will be more concerned as to what he can do to perpetuate "the standards and traditions. The pupil’s experience in learning how to organize and direct large groups; his training in securing the cooperations of people and firms outside the school; and his desire for wanting to do the right thing are all foundational structures of his enjoyment for after school years. This chapter intends to bring about those thing which, not only deal with those things the pupil is actively interested in now, but prepares him more roundly and fully for society’s demands when he is through his schooling. 54 1. UNITED WE STAND. How to build school spirit To do; 1 . In two columns on the board list the contributing and building factors of school spirit and those things which limit school spirit and tear it down. 2. Discuss how you can help in building school spirit. 3. Discuss what can be done to eliminate the undesirable factors listed in column two on the board. 4. Have a talk bya senior student has meant to him. on what>his school 5. Tell the class of what your school means to you now. and what you want it to mean in the future. To decide: 1. How does a good school spirit make for a better school? 2. How should you look upon school spirit in the light of your community, home and self? 3. What are the contributing factors which make up school spirit? 4. How does your approval or disapproval of school activities effect school spirit? 5. How does your interest and participation in activities affect school spirit? 6. How can you, through the proper school spirit, make your school a better one? To read: 1. Harry McKown: School Clubs 2. Walton-B. Bliss: (The Macmillan Co., 192-9) Your.School and You (Allyn and Bacon) 55 2. PUBLIC INVITED. and friends How to sell your school to your parents To do: 1. List on the board the reasons for having the interest of your parents and friends in your school. 2. Appoint a committee to meet with the other freshman home rooms to arrange for an assembly honoring parents and friends. 3. Discuss with your committee the outstanding qualities of your school you would like to have brought out at the assembly. 4. Discuss in class what you will do to further interest your parents and friends. To decide: 1 . What can you do to interest outsiders in your school? 2. How can you best display the best qualities of your school? 3. How can you best eliminate those qualities hot desired? 4. How can you make your school more interesting at home? 5. How can you further support the schools teams and activ ities? 6. Do you think your parents and friends should be interested in your school? Why? To read: 1. Harry McKown: School Clubs (The Macmillan Co., 1929) 2. Barry MeKown: Home Room Guidance (McGraw-Hill, 1934) 3. OUTSIDE CAPITAL. firms How to cooperate with the city’s business To do: 1. Make a list of the business firms and after each firm tell how they can aid in school activities. 2. From the list of business firms tell the class how you can materially show your appreciation for their help;* 3. Discuss the necessity of having good cooperation between the school and the business firms in town. To decide; 1. What are the main reasons of having the good-will of the city’s business firms? 2. How can you show them that you can help their business through your school? 3. What are the best ways to acknowledge aids and held which have been given by the business men? 4. What is the best procedure in securing the cooperation of the business firms for a school activity? 5* How much help should be asked for the business firms and what should the nature of that help be? To read: 1. Diemer and Mullen: Public Citizenship (World, 1930) i 2. W. G. Hunter: 1922) Civic Science in the Community (jlmerican, 57 4. BROADCAST WHISPERS. How to act in school assemblies' To do: 1. Invite your principal to talk and explain his views of assembly behavior. 2. Write down what you believe to be the most important points. 3. Discuss your list with the rest of the class. 4. List the best points of the entire class on the board and copy in your notebook. 5. Compare assembly behavior with behavior in shows and other public gatherings. To decide: 1. How should you politely ask classmates to refrain from talking? 2 . If you set an example for others to follow would it prove helpful? 3. What are the chief sources of annoyance in assembly? 4. How can you avoid and help others avoid annoyances? 5. Should the same manners be exemplified in assembly as in church? 6. What kind of an attitude should you have toward assemblies? 7/ Do your attitudes and manners cause assemblies to be good or poor? To read: 1. Helen Halter: 2* Sophie Hadida: Society in Action (Inor, 1936} Manners for Millions (Doubleday Doran, 1933) 58 5. BOOHS# How to act at games To do: 1# Invite one of the coaches in to explain the student’s part in attending games♦ 2. Discuss: How organized cheering helps the team and makes a more interesting event for your parents and friends. 3. List on the hoard those qualities which are desirable at games. Also list those qualities which are not desirable but ones you have noticed. 4. Discuss the good and bad qualities noticed at games and try to reach some definite conclusion as to eliminating the poor ones. Put the conclusion on the board and copy in your notebook. 5. For a week talk up behavior at games. of the school in this drive. Interest the rest To decide: 1. Whyis it better to have organized cheering sections? 2. How can you help your parents and friends to enjoy attending the games? 3. Why do some students insist upon bringing attention to themselves at games? 4# How can you help correct the show offs at games? 5* How can you get the. most enjoyment from a game? 6. How does your :behavior affect a team representing your school? To read: 1. Helen Halter: Society in Action (Inor, 1936) 2. Elizabeth Woodard: Personality Preferred (Harpers, 1935) 59 6. THE GANG’S AXL HERE. How to use school organizations To do: 1. List on the board those organizations in school which might be used to advertise games, plays, shows, etc. 2. Appoint committees to interview the heads of the organ izations listed on the board. 3. Discuss in class what part each organization can fill a and how many students involved and how much notice you must give to secure their services. 4. Discuss the need of these school organizations and the support they should have* To decide: 1. How canyou secure aid from a school organization for a parade, a play, or a tea? 2. How canyou become a member of one of these organizations? 3. In what way do these organizations help the school, the community? 4. How can you best aid your school organizations? 5* How much time and effort are you willing to put in for a school organization? 6. How can good organizations make for a better school? To read: 1. Harry C. MclCown: School Clubs (The Macmillan Go., 1929) 2* Harry C. MclCown: Co., 1929) Extra-curricular Activities (The Macmillan 60 7. THE HECKLER’S HECKEL. How to act at school plays To do: 1. Invite your drama coach to explain how plays and cast are chosen, and how much time is spent rehearsing* £• List on the board the outcomes of participating in a dramatic production* 3. List on the board those qualities of behavior which should be eliminated at plays. 4. Discuss constructive criticisms versus ridicule* 5. Discuss the advisability of making it a class project to foster better behavior at plays* To decide: 1. How can you get the most for your money at a school play? 2. How can you help others to enjoy the plays? 3* How much time would you be willing to give in order to help foster a play? 4. What kind of treatment or courtesy would you expect from the audience? 5* What are the three most important benefits from play experience? To read: 1. Elinor Aimes: £• Sophie Hadida: 1933) Modern Etiquette (W* of Block, 1935) Manners for Millions (Doubleday Doran, 61 8 . THE BAND PLAYED ON. How to act at music concerts To do: 1. Invite your musical director to explain how to listen to music. 2. Make a list on the hoard of the outstanding points of the musical director’s talk. 3. Discuss these points and copy them in your notebook. 4. Listen to records as chosen by the musical director. To decide: 1. How can you enjoy music by knowing how to listen? 2. How can you help the performers on the stage? 3. How can you show your understanding of good performance? 4. Whyis music called the universal language? 5. How does music affect your life? 6. How can you help further music? To read: 1. Helen Halter: 2. Bauer: Scoiety in Action Twentieth Century Music (Inor, 1936) (Putman, 1933) 62 9. SEETHING HUMANITY. How to act in the halls To do: 1. Make a list of good manners to be recommended and used in the halls. 2. Make a list of the common faults of students in the halls with suggestions of how they can be eliminated. 3. Tell the class of same occurrence in the hall which you believe unmannerly and impolite pnd see if they agree with you. 4. Write out five advantages and their outcomes of the development of good manners in the halls. 5. Plan a drive for better manners in your school halls. Appoint committees to carry out the necessary work of making the school aware of the need and what should be done about it. 5. Have new students tell of the way halls were managed in previous schools they have attended. To decide: 1. How can your actions and the action^ of others cut down on congestion and unnecessary waiting on the stairways? 2. What can you do to prevent unnecessary talkingand shouting in the hall? 3. How much consideration, shouldyou give toothers? 4. How can you aidothers in the hall? 5. What kind of rules of the road should be observed in the halls? To read: 1. Sophie Hadida: 1933) 2. Helen Halter: Manners for Millions (Doubleday Doran, Society in Action (Inor Publishing Co., 1936) 63 1G. BRAINS UNINCORPORATED. How to act in the classrooms. To do: 1. As a class compile a list of those qualities desired for good behavior in the classrooms. 2. Each member of the class make two copies of their list and at the direction of your chairman post them in the classrooms assigned to you. 3. Discuss in class how better classroom behavior might result in higher grades. 4. Tell an experience or observation wherein poor behavior has brought on bad results. To decide: 1. What can you do to act better in the classroom? ♦ 2. How does classroom action affect grades? 3. How does the classroom behavior of others affect your work? 4. How can you help others to strive for better classroom behavior? 5. In what ways will classroom work become easier and more enjoyable? 6. How can your teacher be of more help to a class which behaves well than to one which does not behave so well? To read: 1. Helen Halter: 2. R. B. McKoane: Society in Action The Way to Learn (Inor, 1936) (Allyn and Bacon, 1931) 64 11. YOU LUCKY PEOPLE# How to act on the campus To do: 1. Relate to the class an example of poor campus behavior you have observed. 2# Make a list oh the board of these outstanding observa tions of the class. 3. Discuss what you might do individually and as a class to help foster better campus bbhavior. 4. Discuss how good campus behavior makes a better school to attend and how it will help make you a better citizen. To decide: 1. How can you improve your campus behavior? 2. How can you help improve the campus behaviorof others? 3. In what way does campus behavior reflect upon the entire school? 4. How can friendliness be fostered by good campus behavior? 5. Why should desired campus behavior be a partof your responsibility? 6. What life-like situation might be compared to campus behavior? To read: 1. Elizabeth Woodward: Personality Preferred (Harpers, 1935) 2. R. L.Ashley: The Practice of Citizenship in the Home, School. Business and Community (The Macmillan Co., 1923) 65 12* A STRANGER.IN TOWN; How to act when representing the school away from home To do: 1. Discuss in class the desirability of creating good im pressions when away from home. 2. Tell of observations you have made when students from other schools have visited your school. 3. Make a list on the board, of the good observations and those which are not desirable. 4. Copy the list in your notebook for future reference. To decide; 1. How can you be sure you will create a favorable impres sion where you visit another school? 2* Do you-expect the same treatment when visiting that you give to visitors? 3. Why is it always a pleasure to visit certain schools many times while to visit other schools once is suf ficient? 4. How can 5. How can schools? you make yourself wanted again? you broaden your personality byvisiting other 6. How does making new friends broadennyour scope of learning? To read: 1. Helen Halter: 2. W.. 0. Stevens: Society in Action The Correct Thing (Inor, 1936) (Dodd-Mead, 1934) 66 13. VERBAL DAGGERS# How to treat visiting students To do s 1. Discuss the need of promoting better school spirit among schools# 2# Discuss the desirability of creating favorable impressions on your visitors. 3. List the desired outcomes of visiting, students to your school. 4. Invite an outstanding student of some neighboring school to visit and explain what he likes and dislikes about your school. To decide: 1. Can politeness in sports be obtained among rival schools? 2# How can you help visiting students during their visit? 3. Why should you be desirous of creating a pleasant stay for outside visitors? 4# How can these qualities formed now be of help later in life? 5. How can you be sure outside visitors will want to return? 6# Should you plan any party or reception for visitors from other schools? To read: 1. W* 0. Stevens: The Correct Thing 2. Elizabeth Woodward: (Dodd-Mead, 1934) Personality Preferred (Harpers, 1935) 67 14. MASSED POWER. How to organize and conduct parades To d o : 1. Invite your city’s mayor, chief of police or a council member to explain your city’s policy regarding parades. 2. Discuss with your speaker the reason for the city’s ordinances in regard to parades, also what procedure is necessary to gain their permission for parades. 3. From class discussion list on the board how a parade should be organized and the reasons for a planned line of march. 4. List on the board those organizations whose help you need to make a parade a success. 5. Appoint committees to contact and make arrangements for a parade. To decide: 1. What place do parades have in school activities? 2. How can you profit from organizing a parade? 3* How can you help your school in a parade? 4. In what ways can a parade bring the community and school together? 5. In what ways can a school parade be of help to the community? 6. How can you be sure your parade will be successful? To read: ?There is no material written for such activities”— quote: P. C. Conn, U.S*C. Band Director. Suggest you visit the Director of Music in your school. 68 15. MOB SPIRIT. How to organize and conduct pep rallies To do: 1. Discuss in class what the desired outcomes of a pep rally are and how a pep rally affects school spirit. 2. Outline on the board the course of events for a peprally. 3. Divide into committees and contact all speakers and organizations wanted for your pep rally. 4. Set a date and get out announcements for the coming pep rally. To decide: 1. How can you through a pep rally show appreciation to your teams? 2. In what ways does a pep rally help form school spirit? 3. How can participation in organizing a pep rally be of help in later life? 4. How does a pep rally make your school mean more to you? 5. Hoiv important is a pep rally to winning teams? 6. How can you profit from a pep rally? To read: 1. "There is no material written for such activities" quote: P. C. Conn, director of U.S.C. Band. 2. Suggest you see your high school coach or band director. 69 16. YOUR FRIEND GYM. How to use gymnasium equipment To do: 1. List the gym equipment you use and the advantages you receive from it. 2. Place the approximate price on the equipment you use, taking everything into consideration and compare this with your home equipment. 3. Tell.the class what you consider the main reason for the disappearance of equipment and what should he done to stop it. 4. Have a demonstration of the variou uses of some of the equipment. To decide; 1. How should equipment be checked out and returned? 2. How should equipment be taken care of, whenit belongs to you, your friend or the school? 3. How can you respect the of equipment? rights of others byyour use 4. How important is it that all equipment bechecked in and not taken from the school? 5. How can you aid in keeping equipment fromleavingthe school? 6. How can you help prevent accidents in the showers? To read: 1. Brown and Adams: Co., 1935) Conduct and Citizenship 2. Walton B. Bliss: Your School and You (The Macmillan (Allyn and Bacon) 70 17. A PERSONAL LOAN* How to use school equipment To do: 1* Make a list on the board of school equipment provided for your use and the benefits you derive from it. 2. Discuss the list on the board and what you can do to properly take care of it. 3. Invite your school principal to explain the expense involved in such school equipment and how it , is provided for your use. : 4. Relate any abuses of school equipment you have observed and what should be done to avoid repetition in the future. To decide: 1. How can you save your parents money in the use of school equipment? 2. How can you be considerate of your classmates in the use of school equipment? 3. What should be your action be if you observe a classmate abusing school equipment? 4. Would it be better if students had to furnish their own equipment or be assessed for the use of school equipment? 5. How can you best use school equipment? 6. How does poor working equipment affect student body spir it? To read: 1. Walton B. Bliss: Your School and You (Allyn, and Bacon) 2. Brown and Adams: Co., 1935) Conduct and Citizenship (The Macmillan CHAPTER VI * HOW TO DISPLAY PERSONAL ATTRACTIVENESS This chapter ahtieipates the questions of the pupil. Such questions are seldom ever asked by the adolescent boy or girl of this age, yet the desire for an answer weighs heavily in his mind. The desire to do the right thing at the right time is fundamental in seeking society’s approval. Often times;the choice is influenced by a group leader or someone who is looked upon in admiration. Consequently the younger pupil is apt to mimic manners of some older pupil whom he admires and unknowingly be incorrect because of his admirer’s lack of knowledge. Also it is not the intention of this writer to infer that there is no home training along this line, but it is the intention to accentrate that which has taken place in the home. Such material coming from an outside source is often received more warmly and openly than from somermember of the immediate family. The units included are by no means a complete train ing but are considered only a foundation upon which a more completecsocial personality can be constructed. 72 1. PALAVER PASTIME. How to converse interestingly To do: 1. From a list of suggested topics on the board converse, when called upon, with your classmate on your right. • 2. Make a list on the blackboard of common faults of conversation and how they can be corrected. 3. From the list just completed add the most desirable traits of a good conversationalist and check your faults against them. 4. Tell of ways by which you are going to try and correct your own faults. 5. Tell the class of some observation of poor conversation heard in or out of school. 6. Tell of instances when your ability to converse interest ingly might be of great importance. To decide: 1. How to find out what topic of conversation is most interesting to your friends. 2. How can you change the subject without hurting anyone’s feelings? > 3. How to be a good listener. 4. How to be a good talker. 5. What factors are important in your talking? 6. How can you disagree and still be polite? To read: 1. Elizabeth Woodward: 2. Dick Carlson: Bureau, 1933) Personality Preferred Personal Development (Harpers, 1935) (Personal Research 73 2. FELLOW MEN. How to consider your classmates. To do: 1. Make a list of those things you expect of others in their consideration for you. 2. Make a list of the considerations you try to give to others. 3. Discuss these lists in class and place the best of each • on the board. 4. List on the board various situations in which special consideration should be given to others. To decide: 1. How does your consideration of others affect their consideration of you? 2. Why is it necessary to give some consideration to others? 3. How can you improve your personality in the consideration of mothers? 4. Should you give the same consideration to your classmates in the class room as on the campus? 5. How can consideration improve school spirit? 6. How can you profit by being always considerate to others? To read: 1. Helen Halter: Society in Action 2. Elizabeth Woodward: (Inor, 1936) Personality [Preferred (Harpers, 1935) 74 3. THE DICTATORS. How to consider your elders To do: 1 . Discuss in class qualities of respect you believe should be given to your elders, 2. Discuss whether more pespect should be given your parents than your adult friends or teachers. 3. Relate to the class instances of disrespect you have observed in Others. 4. List on the board all items of proper consideration which should be given to your elders. To decide; 1. How can you increase your personality and friendships by being more considerate of your elders? 2. What are the advantages of being known as a person who is considerate of his elders? 3. What should be the differences, if any in your con sideration of your parents and other adults? 4. How much older should a person be to be considered your elder? 5. How can you help your classmates and school by always being respectful? 6. In what ways is respectfulness noticeable in your class mates? To read: 1. W. 0. Stevens; The Correct Thing (Dodd-Mead, 1934) 2. Beatrice Pierce: It *s More Fun When You Know the Rules (Farrar and Rinehart, 1935) 75 4. CUBLY CUES. How to care for your hair To do: 1. Discuss in class how harmful results might occur in caring for your hair. 2* List these on the hoard. 3. Discuss how benefits are acquired by proper care of the hair. 4. List on the board the aids to use in proper care of the ha ir. 5. Discuss care of the hair from a health standpoint. -. 6. Invite a beautician to talk to the class about caring for the hair. To decide; 1. How can you be sure the hair preparations you use are not harmful? 2. How can you improve your personal appearance by knowing how to properly care for your hair? 3. Why is it important to take proper care of your hair? 4. How can well eared for hair be to your advantage? 5. What have you observed in others in their care of their hair which you do not like? 6. How can you help others profit by your knowledge of proper care of the hair? 7. How can your health be jeopardized by improper hair care? To read: 1. Phillips; Skin Deep 2# Wheat-Fitzpatrick: 1935) (Consumer’s Research, 1936) Everyday Problems in Health (American, 76 5. THE FEEDERS. How to care for your hands To do: 1. Discuss the reasons for caring for your hands. 2. List these reasons on the hoard. 3. Discuss the proper care of the hands in regards to health and sanitation. 4. List in your notebook things you have observed in others in their care of their hands which you do not like. Explain why you do not like them. 5. Discuss othe use of nail polish as seen inschool, at parties and dances, and on the street. 6. Invite a qualified person to explain how to properly care for the hands. To decide: 1. Why should your hands be as clean as possible at all times? 2. In what ways can infection and disease be spread by your hands? ; 3. Why should you not let your nails become too long? 4. How should you trim your nails for the proper care of them? 5. When, where, and how much should nail polish be used? 6. Should you attempt to correct someone else if they are improperly caring for their hands? To read: 1. Wheat-Fitzpatrick: (American, 1935) 2. Phillips: Skin Deep Everyday Problems in Health (Consumer’s Research, 1936) 77 6. THE SHINING LIGHT. How to care for your face To do: 1. List on the board those things believed to be beneficial for proper care of the face. 2. List on the board those things which you believe to be harmful for the proper care of the face. 3. Discuss the use of face creams and lotions and what their effect is. 4. Discuss the use of lip stick, rouge, and eye shadow. 5. Discuss the practice of plucking the eye brows, curling the lashes. 6. Invite a doctor or qualified person to explain how to properly care for the face. To decide,:« 1. How can you best care for 2. your facet Why should you be carefulabout the use of face lotions? cosmetics and 3. In what way can you improve your natural looks and well being by;~properly caring for your face? 4. How-can you learn to properly apply and use cosmetics? 5. Where should you not wear the face be washed? howoften should 6. cosmeticsand How can you be sure in caring for your face to not risk infection? To read: 1. Wheat-Fitzpatrick: 1935) 2. Phillips: Skin Deep Everyday Problems in Health (Consumer’s Research, 1936) (American, 78 7* CLOTHES HANGER. How to dress to your advantage. To do: 1. Discuss the evolution of dress and compare today’s style with styles of years ago in regards to health and freedom. 2. List in your notebook the clothes you have for various occasions and compare with the rest of the class. 3. Discuss and list on the board the various functions which require different clothes. 4. Discuss the buying and wearing of clothes to fit your physical make up. 5. Invite a qualified person to explain how to dress to your best advantage. To decide: 1. How can you best buy your clothes to fit yourfigure? 2. In what way do stripes and checks affect tall and short people? 3. Why do certain colors look better than others on an individual? 4. How can you receive the most wear from your clothes? 5. Why should you know about shirt sizes, sleeve and collar, suit sizes, hose and shoe sizes? 6. Why do someappear sloppy even though their clothes are expensive? To read: 1. W. 0. Stevens: The Correct Thing 2. Elizabeth Woodward: (Dodd and Mead, 1934) Personality Preferred (Harpers, 1935) 79 8. MIX WELL. How to make friends To do i 1* List on the blackboard the qualities you desire in your friends. 2. Check through the [email protected] to see if you have the qualities you desire your friends to have. 3. What factors or qualities keep you from making friends with some people? List these and give suggestions telling how these might be overcome. 4. Make a list of what you believe are your bestqualities and compare your list with the desired qualities, already listed on the blackboard. 5. Demonstrate how to introduce people and what should be said in acknowledgement. 6. Tell of an experience where a fri&ndin need was freind indeed. a To decide: 1. In how many ways can you improve yoursblf by the right choice of companions? 2m What personal factors are most respected in us by our friends? 3. How can you meet a prospective friend and make him like you? 4. In how many ways can you be a good friend? 5. What are the main factors for making friends with people your own age? 6. What are the advantages of making friends with older people? 7. Yjfhat are the advantages of making friends with younger people? To read: 1. Helen Halter: 2. Society in Action Wheatley and Malltoy: (Ginn, 1935) (Inor, 1936) Building Character and Personality 80 9. LAIJGH CLOWH LAUGH. How to keep your feelings to yourself To do: 1. Relate to the class an instance when you did not care to hear or know the feelings of someone else. 2. Discuss in class the advisability of not telling your troubles to everyone. 5. List on the board the times when you should tell your feelings and the times when you should not. 4. Keep a record on yourself to see if you. are one who can not keep his feelings to himself. ♦ To decides 1. How can you keep your feelings to yourself and still solve your difficulties? 2. What are the reasons for telling someone else? 3. How can you help someone who confides his feelings to you? 4* In what ways can friendships be spoiled by not keeping personal feelings to oneself? 5. What type of person is usually not able to keep his feelings to himself? 6. How can you best get al&ng with everyone? To reads 1. Helen Halter: Society in Action 2. Elizabeth Woodward: (Inor, 1936) Personality Preferred (Harpers, 1935) 81 10. NO ONE HURT. How to be tactful To do; 1. List on the board all the meanings of the word tactful as given by the class. 2$ Discuss these meanings and choose the one best suited. 3. Relate to the class an instance where a tactful word or act was well performed. 4. Discuss with the class the benefits of being tactful. 5. In the situations explained by the teacher explain how you would be tactful. To decide: 1. How can you learn to be more tactful? 2* How can being tactful be to your advantage? 3. How can you tell when to be tactful and when not to be? 4. How can being tactful help you in your school and home life?, 5. When can being tactful be carried too far? 6. What type of person is said to be very tactful? 7. What positions call for very tactful people? To read: 1. Sophie Hadida: 1933) 2. Manners for Millions Elizabeth Woodward: (Doubleday Doran, Personality Preferred (Harpers, 1935) 82 11. THE COXJHT OF 10. How to control your temper To do: 1. List on the board the reasons why a person should never lose his temper. 2. List on the board what takes place within you when you lost your temper. 3. Discuss with the class how to control your temper. Make allist of the suggestions offered. 4. Copy the list of suggestions in your notebook for future personal check-up. 5. Invite a member of your police department to talk about temper control and some serious outcomes of people who did not control their tempers. To decide: 1. How can you help yourself to control your temper? 2. How can a person who can not control his temper get into trouble? 3. Why is an uncontrollable temper bad on a person*s physical well being? 4. What is the best nthing to do when you are around a person who loses his temper? 5. How Gan you make more friends by being able to control your temper? To read: 1. 2. Elizabeth Woodward: Wheatley and Mallony: (Ginn, 1936) Personality Preferred (Harper, 1935) Building Character and Personality 83 12. SOUED YOUR ’A ’. How to be yourself To do : 1. Discuss the reasons why some people pretend so much/. 2. List these reasons on the board and opposite each one list suggestions to help overcome such causes for pretending. 3. Discuss in class why pretending is bad and how a person’s personality can be affected by it. - 4. Tell of an instance when pretending got you or someone else in trouble or embarrassment. 5. Invite an outside speaker to discuss the necessity of being yourself and not a pretender. To decide: 1. How can you definitely be sure that you do not like to pretend and are always yourself? 2. How can you hurt yourself with your friends and associates by pretending? 3. In what way can pretending affect your personality? 4. Why is it important for people to know you as you are and not what you would like to be? 5. How can you be sure your friends are sincere and not pretending? 6. Why does a person who acts himself have more friends than one who pretends? To read: 1. Elizabeth Woodward: 2. Wheatley and Mallony: (Ginn, 1935) Personality Preferred (Harpers, 1935) Building Character and Personality ------- ----------------------- 84 15. THE PEOPLE BELOW. How to be thoughtful of others To do: 1. List on the board the little things which can be done to show others you are thoughtful of them. 2. Discuss with the class things you have noticed which resulted from thoughtfulness of tothers. 3. List on the board annoyances you have noticed at home, the theater, at parties, and in school. 4. List in your notebook ways in which thoughtfulness can be shown in the following: visiting sick friends, attending a show, playing the radio, attending public gatherings. To decide: 1. How can you show thoughtfulness of your parents and neighbors? 2. How can you show thoughtfulness when you areat home? 3. In what ways does thoughtfulness from others affect you? 4. How does thoughtfulness to others make better under standing and friendships? 5. How canthoughtlessness often be disastrous? 6. What isthe excuse for not being thoughtful of others? To read: 1. Helen Halter: 2. W. 0. Stevens: Society v in Action The Correct Thing (Inor , 1936) (Dodd^Mead, 1934) 85 14. YOUR*RE WRONG. How to be a good sport To do: 1. List on the board those qualities of a good sport. E. Discuss in class why being a good sport is one of the best abilities attainable* 3. With the class work out an all around definition of a good sport. 4. Invite your school coach to talk about sportsmanship in sports and being a good' sport in your daily life. 5. Take notes of the coaches* talk and file in your notebook. 6. Ask your speaker any question you might have regarding his talk. To decide: 1. How should you differentiate between sportsmanship in sports and being a good sport in your daily life? 5. How can you develop the sense of being a good sport within yourself? 3. How can being a good or poor sport affect your daily life? 4. Why is it so easy to see poor sportsmanship in others and not in yourself? 5-. Why do you enjoy having good sports for your friends? 6. How can you be a good sport when you do not like to lose or be defeated? To read: 1. Louis Persby: Adventures in Sport Broome and Adams: 1935) (Ginn, 1937) Conduct and Citizenship (The Macmillan^ 86 15. HIGH GOAL MAN. How to be self-confident To do s 1. Discuss in class the difference between confidence and conceit; confidence and arrogance; and confidence and bluff. 2. List in your notebook the ways in which confidence may be developed. 3. Discuss your list with the class. Put the list on the blackboard for further discussion. 4. Tell of an instance when self-confidence was really bluff. To decide: 1. How might being self-confident be interpreted as conceit or bluff? 2. How can you be self-confident and not conceited? 3. How can you through self-confidence do better work? 4. What place does self-confidence have in your daily life? 5. How can making good grades in all your classes develop self-confidence? 6. What are your main points of self-confidence? To read; 1. Elizabeth Woodward: 2. Wheat-Fitzpatrick: (American, 1935) Personality' Preferred (Harpers, 1935) Everyday Problems in Health 87 16. THE BUILDER. How to criticize constructively To do: 1. List on the board the benefits derived from constructive criticism. 2» Listen to short talks given by members of the class and offer constructive criticism. 3. Make a list in your notebook of the things you are most critical of an opposite each tell how you would con structively improve them. 4. Listen to a talk by a business man about constructive and destructive criticism in business life. To decide: 1. How can you constructively criticize something you are not familiar with? ■ 2. How much of your likes and dislikes are in your criticisms? 3. How should you receive constructive criticism from a friend, an adult, an outsider? 4. What are the fundamental items for good constructive criticism? 5. How can criticism improve you in your work and everyday life? 6* What is the most difficult thing in giving criticism? To read: 1. Elizabeth Woodward: 2. ( Personality Preferred (Harpers, 1935) Beatrice Pierce: It1s More Hun When You Know the Rules (Farrar and Rinehart, 1935) 88 17. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. How to regard the rights of others To do: 1. List on the hoard all occasions in which the rights of others must be taken into consideration. 2. Relate to the class ian instance you have observed in which the rights of others have been violated. 3. Write a short paper on: expect. What rights X have and should 4. Discuss in class what rights have been given by our Federal constitution and why were they included. 5. Visit a police court and observe cases in which the rights of others have been violated. To decide: 1. How can your knowledge of the rights of others increase added respect for you? 2* Why do jre have laws and courts to safeguard the rights of others? 3. How.do the rights of others affect your daily life? 4. What can you do to safeguard your own personal rights? 5. How should the pursuit of happiness be interpreted from our constitution? 6. When do your rights or the fights of others cease to exist? To read: 1. Sophie Hadida: 1933) 2. Helen Halter: Manners for Millions Society in Action (Doubleday Doran, (Inor, 1936) CHAPTER VII ‘HOW TO ACQUIRE SOCIAL MANNERS AND COURTESIES The knowledge of social manners and courtesies form the basis of life’s path of recreation and enjoyment* Perhaps at no time in our existence does it assume more mighty proportions than in adolescence. Problems and questions which have long become secondary or inconsequental to the adult become almost unconquerable obstacles to the younger person. Embarrassment from social fox paux not only cut deep into youth’s pride but often cause a retreat from the natural development of social graces and manners. Often times this retard results in serious consequence to the wellroUnded life we are desirous of living. If a pupil can overcome partially, at least, his earlier feats of doing the right thing he then will have some foundation to build his future social life upon. Guidance and help in social manners and courtesies are not only welcomed by the pupil but are often solicited. The units in this chapter are intended as a help and aid in laying the foundation for social partici pation. 90 1. THE GUEST LIST. How to write and send invitations To do: 1. List on the hoard the difference in invitations for different types of.parties. 2. For each different type listed on the hoard plan and write out an invitation. 3. List on the hoard the different ways in which an invita tion may he placed in the hands of the guests. 4. Write an invitation for a special holiday party you would like to give. 5. Discuss and constructively criticize the invitations which have heen written in class. To decide: 1. How can you profit hy knowing how to write a correct invitation? 2. How can your invitation he a part or suggestion of the party planned? 3. When should your invitations be funny or clever? 4. When should your invitations he formal and serious? 5. Should all invitations have an R. S. V, P. on them? 6. How can you best send or present your invitations to your guest? 7. What are the advantages of knowing about writing and sending invitations? To read: 1. Sophie Hadida: 1933) 2. W. 0. Stevens: Manners for Millions The Correct Thing (Doubleday Doran, (Dodd-Mead, 1934) 91 2# A RECIPE (R. S. V. B). How to answer invitations To do: 1. List on the board the various ways in which an invitation may be answered and discuss the need for each, 2# Write out an R.S.V#P. for each of the ways listed on the board# 3# Invite a member of the Woman’s Club to speak and discuss invitations# 4# Write down any questions you would like to ask fafter her talk is over. To decide: 1# Why should you answer an invitation in a correct manner? 2# How soon rupon the receipt of an invitation should you answer it? 3# When should your answer be telephoned or answered verbally? 4# When should you consider an R#S.V#P# unnecessary? 5# How can you be sure your R.S.Y#P# is correct in form? 6# What steps should be taken after an R,S.V#F, has been sent and you find it will be impossible to attend? To read: . 1. Sophie Hadida: 1933) Manners for Millions (Doubleday Acran, 2# Beatrice Pierce: It’s More Pun When You Know the Rules (Farrar and Rinehart, 1935) 92 3. MAIN EVENT. How to give a party To do: > 1. Relate to the class how one of the most interesting parties you ever attended was given. 2. List on the board the various types of party motifs and types of parties for special occasions. 3. From the list on the board choose one and plan how you would give a party. 4. List on the board clever stunts, games, and ideas you have seen at parties and explain for what type of party they are suitable. 5. Discuss fun at parties. To dec ide: 1. How can you get everyone easily acquainted at parties? 2. Where can you find sources of material on party games? 3. What is the best way to keep everyone occupied at a party? 4. How can you have a party in a small room or your home and still play games? . 5. What things can tend to make a party dull and uninteresting? To read: 1. Mrs. Herbert B. Linscotts (Ma erae-Smith, 1935) 2. Hazel C. Maxon: Parties Bright Ideas for Entertaining (E. P. Dutton, 1930) 93 4* DEAR EMILY POST# How to dress for the occasion To do: 1# List on the hoard the various school functions which call for a definite type of wearing apparel for the occasion. £. Discuss the advantage and necessity of knowing what to wear for the occasion. 3. Relate to the class an instance when you were embarrassed or handicapped by not dressing for the occasion. 4. Invite your home economics teacher to discuss dressing for the occasion. To decide: 1. What is the advantage of having the proper clothes on for the occasion? 2* How can you be sure you are appropriately dressed for a certain occasion? 3. By dressing correctly for the occasion how can you be economical or saving on your clothes? 4. What should you do if you find you are not dressed correctly for the occasion? 5# Why should your concern over being dressed properly be so important? 6# Why does society place demands on a person’s attirement? To read: 1. W. 0. Stevens: £. Helen Halter: The Correct Thing Society in Action (Dodd-Mead, 1934) (Inor, 1936) 94 5. JITTERBUGS. How to conduct yourself at a dance To do: 1. List on the board things you do not like to see boys and girls do at a dance. 2. Class discussion on these lists and make a list of proper conduct for any dance. 3. Explain to the class how you would do the following at a dance: Escort a girl to her seat; make introductions; and get dances. 4. List on the board all courtesies that should be thought of at a dance. To decide: 1. What can you do to learn to dance? 2. How can you be sure your conduct is proper at a dance? 3. How much should you talk during a dance and what should you talk about? 4. How often should you dance with your partner? 5. Should you visit the punchbowl with each new partner? 6. How should proper introductions be made? 7. What courtesy should be shown the host or hostess or chaperons at a dance? To read: 1. W. 0. Stevens; The Correct Thing 2. Elizabeth Woodward: (Dodd-Mead, 1934) Personality Preferred (Harpers, 1935) 95 6. M.I.K. How to conduct yourself at the table To do: 1. Relate to the class any poor mannerism you have observed in others while eating. 2. jList on the board all the items you can think of concern ing correct behavior at the dinner table. 3. Set up a table in class and demonstrate how you would assist someone to be seated and how you would pass dishes and ask for a dish to be passed to you. 4. Invite your home economics teacher to discuss correct manners and procedures at the table. To decide: 1. What 2. What can you learn by observation at the table? factors should you be constantly aware of when dining out? 3. What respect should be payed to the head of the table? 4. Why should you be attentive to the actions of the head of the table? 5. If you are head of the table what are you expected to to know and do? 6. How much time in conversation should you give to the person on your right, your left, and across the table? To read: 1. Elinor Aimes: 1935) 2. Sophie Hadida: 1933) Book of Modern Etiquette Manners for Millions (Walter J. Black, (Doubleday Doran, 96 7. WHATCHAGOT? How to order from a menu To do: 1. Bring to class a menu from one of the local restaurants. 2. Compare these menus in class and place on the board the general outline of their regular dinners. 3. Tell the class how you would order from your menu and accept any correction an$ correction the class might make. 4. Invite a local restaurant man to explain how you can best use a menu and save a waitress’ time. 5. Explain what you would do if you did not understand the names of foods on a menu. To decide * 1. What are the differences between a regular dinner and an a-la-carte ordering? 2. How can you best use amenu when with a large 3. What isthe entree and group? what does it generally include? 4. V/hat are the main factors in using and ordering from a menu? 5. In what sequence should you give your order to the waiter? 6. Under what circumstances should boys place his partner’s order? To read: 1. Wi 0. Stevens: The Correct Thing (Dodd-Mead, 1934) 2. Beatrice Pierce: It *s More Fun When You Know the Rules (Farrar and Rinehart, 1935) 97 q# HO SILVER. How to use table service To do: 1* Place a card table or any small table in front of the class and set it with complete service for.an agreed upon oeassion. 2. Explain to the class why the service is so arranged and the use of each article. 3. Relate to the class any instance of improper use of silverware at the table, that you have observed in others. 4. Discuss in class the use of table service at home and in public/ 5. Make a list in your notebook of the correct uses of table service. Check the list to see where you can Improve yourself. To decidei 1. How can you improve your use of table service? 2. What are the main things to remember in using table service? 3. Why should you try to be correct at home as well as away from home? 4. How can you be sure which fork or sp>oon to use?. 5. How important is it that you should receive seme training at home? 6. What things should the head of a table know? To read: 1. Elinor Aimes: 1935) 2. Sophie Hadida: 1933) Modern Etiuuette (Walter <T. Black, Manners for Millions (Doubleday Doran, 98 9• KNOCKING KNEES# How to consider the girl or hoy friend To do: 1. List on the board the school functions you will attend 1 when you will want to have or be an escort. 2* Opposite the above list show whether the functions are to be formal or informal and when corsages are proper. 3. Boys: List on the board any courtesies you should extend to the girl’s parents when you call for her. 4. Girls: List on the board any courtesies you should ex tend to. your escort when he arrives at your home* 5. Discuss in class about having treats downtown after the party and getting the girl home on time. To decides 1. How should you ask for a date or accept a date? 2. Why should a boy go inside the girl’s house when calling for her and why should a girl not keep the boy waiting? 3. How should you behave on a date? 4. How can you show your appreciation of having a good time? 5* What can you do to be sure to make a good impression? 6'. Why or why not have a treat after the party? To read: 1. Lucretia Hunter: The Girl Today. The Woman Tomorrow (Allyn and Bacon, 19321 2. Helen Halter: Society in.Action (Inor, 1936) 99 10. THE WELCOME MAT. How to treat your guest To do: 1. Relate to the class an instance when you have been a guest and something occured which embarrassed you. 2. Discuss what stepsshould be taken before any guest arrives to provide for their enjoyment. 3. List on the board the most important items brought out by the discussion. 4. Discuss ways of entertaining guests for the evening and guests for the week-end. To decide: 1. What can you do to assure the guest you are happy for his or her company? 2. How much time alone or privacy should a week-end guest have? 3. What can you do toentertain your guest for an evening? 4. What should you do or provide for the comfortof your guest or guests? 5. How can you be sure you are not a bore? 6. When should you repay a guest’s call? To read: 1. Beatrice Pierce: It’s More Fun When You Know the Rules (Farrar and Rinehart, 1935) 2. W. 0. Stevens: The Correct Thing; (Dodd-Mead, 1934) 10 0 11. COME AGAIN. How to be a wanted guest To do: 1. List on the board those things you should do and those you shouldn’t do when you are someone’s guest. 2* Discuss the above list and make a list of those qualities which make a person wanted as a guest. 3. Relate to the class an instance when someone did some thing either commendable or not commendable. 4. Explain and demonstrate to the class what courtesies should be shown by a guest upon arrival and departure. To decide: 1. What attributes of good manners should be shown a guest? 2. How should you conduct yourself when you are a guest? 3. How much consideration should you give your host and other guests? 4. Which is the best way to inform your host that you have to leave early? 5. How can you express your appreciation of having a good time? 6. How long should an evening’s visit be? To read: 1. ?/. 0. Stevens: 2. The Correct Thing Elizabeth Woodward: (Dodd-Meed, 1934) Personality Preferred (Harpers, 1935) 101 12, RUNNING INTERFERENCE• How to escort in public To do: 1* Make a list on the board of the situations which place definite demands on an escort in public? £• Discuss in class the above list and explain how each should be performed properly# 3* Demonstrate in class the correct way to properly escort in public the/situations listed on the board#. 4* Relate an instance when proper escorting avoided embarrass r r:mentt or avoided an accident. To decide: 1. Why should men always walk on. the outside going along the street? £• How should an intersection be crossed by an escort? 3* How should an-escort help in getting in and out of auto mobiles or street cars? 4. What is the correct procedure for an escort when attending a show and finding seats? 5. How should an escort help in going through doors and when sitting down to a table? 6# When in public should an escort be held on to? To read: 1. Helen Halter: Society in Action (Inor, 1936) 2. Broome and Adams: Conduct and Citizenship Macmillan Co*, 19351 (The CHAPTER VIII HOW TO BE SAFE AND NOT SORRY This chapter concerns not only the prevention of accidents in the home, but on the street, in public buildings, in the school, and wherever recreation might be sought by the pupil. The prevention of accidents is set up as the goal or standard but consideration and em phasis is also placed on what to do and how to do it in case an accident does occur. Training in what to do in an emergency may be put to practical use at anytime under varying circumstances. It is the hope that this chapter will bring out and impress upon the pupil that intelligent thinking is needed at all times in all conditions, especially those in which an emergency exists. It has been proved that clouded think ing or panic has resulted in instances of disaster wherein intelligent thinking and previous training would have greatly altered a serious situation. It is hoped that from the units to be worked in this chapter that at least a small foundation might be given and assimilated of practical use if ever needed. 105 1. FOOLISH PRANKS. How to prevent accidents about the school. To do: 1. Relate to the class instances you have observed, which resulted in an accident at school. 2. List on the board those places in which most accidents occur at school. 3. Discuss in class the list on the board and why such places are most frequently scenes of accidents. 4. Discuss in class what can be done to avoid accidents at school and how such a program of safety can be enforced at school. 5. Divide the class in committees to promote and carry out a safety program at school. To decide: 1. How can you promote .a safety at school? 2. In what ways are you affected by a poor safety record in school? 3. How can you make the other pupils safety conscious? 4. Why should you be desirous, of having an accident-free school? 5. What does safety at school mean to you? 6. Why is the community interested in safety at school? 7. What can you do to do your part in a school safety program? To read: 1*. Charles E. Dull: and. Co. , 1938) Safety First and Last 2* A Safety Program for High Schools Casualty and Surety Underwriters} (Henry Holt (National Bureau of 104 2. LIVE WIRES. How to prevent accidents at home To do: 1. List on the board the most common accidents which occur in the home. 2 . Discuss this list on the board and explain what emergency treatment should be given in each instance. 3. Discuss and list on the board what you can do to promote safety in your home. 4. Invite a qualified person to explain and demonstrate first aid in the home. To decide: 1. What can you do to make your home free, from accidents'? 2. How can you learn how to administer proper first aid for accidents in the home? 3* What can you do to make your brothers, sisters, and family careful about accidents at home? 4. What can you do to help your neighbors and friends to be free of anything which might result in an accident around the house? 5. In home safety and prevention of accidents what part do the following play; city water department; gas and electric company; health department; city disposal plant; and the street department? To read; 1. Charles E. Dull; and Co., 1938) 2. Walter Frank Cobb: Century Co., 1937) Safety First and Last (Henry Holt Everyday First Aid (D. Appleton- 105 3. GASOLINE GOOFS. How to drive a car safely To do: 1. Invite a member of the highway patrol to discuss safe driving and the laws set up to insure safe driving. S. Discuss with your guest speaker how to secure a driverfs license and the responsibility you assure in so doing. 3. Relate to the class the driver you do not like to ride with and tell why. 4. Relate to the class an observation of safe driving which impressed you. p. List on the board good habits of safe driving which you believe necessary. To decide: 1. What responsibilities do you assume when you drive a car? 2. How can you make sure you are a safe driver? 3. What should you have cheeked on the car before you start to drive? 4. How can you best be prepared to meet and overcome emergencies encountered when driving. 5. What rights should you concede to other drivers? 6. Why is it wise not to drive a borrowed car? To read: 1. Charles E. Dull: 1938) Safety First and Last 2. J. R. Hamilton and Louis L Thurston: (Doubleday, Doran and Co., 1937) (Henry Holt and Co., Safe Driving 106 4. CHARRED BODIES. How to prevent forest fires To do ? . . * ' 1. List on the board, the causes of most fires in the home and in the forests. 2. Tell the class what can be done to safeguard against fires in the homes and forests. 3. Discuss in class what should be done before the fire department arrives. 4. Invite the fire chief to explain how to safeguard against fires at home and what to do in case one starts. 5. Explain to the.class how to report a forest fire and how to extinguish your camp fire. To decide: 1. How can you make sure your house is not a fire hazard4? 2. What should you do in case your house is on fire, after calling the fire department? ,3. What type of fires should you not try to extinguish .with water? Why? 4. How should you properly extinguish your camp fire? 5. How can you best aid your forest service in preventing forest fires? 6., How do forest fires affect our present and future generations? 7. How can you extinguish a fire on a person’s clothing? To read: 1. William DuPuy: 1938) 2. Albright: The Nation’s Eorest ------------------- Oh Ranger (The Macmillan Co., (Stanford University Press, 1928) 107 5. SKULL AM) CKOSSBONES. How to prevent poisoning To do: 1. Make a list of all the ways a person might get poisoned. 2. Discuss your list with the rest of the class and how you would safeguard against each instance you have listed. 3. List on the board the best ways to prevent accidental poisoning in the home and outside and how to safeguard all concerned. 4. Invite your school physician to talk about poisons and its prevention and antidotes. To decide: 1. What can you do to safeguard your family against accidental poisoning? S. How do so many beenme careless in leaving poison around the house or garage? 3. What should you do if you are aware someone has accident ly taken poison? 4. What types of poisoning should you be careful of outside? 5. What is the difference between infection in a sore-and poison? 6. What is home hygiene and how does it affect you?. To read: 1. Walter Frank Cobb: Century Co., 1937) Everyday First Aid 2. Piener and Beauchamp: (Scott, 1932) (D. Appleton- Everyday Problems in Science 108 6. A BREATH OF KgO. How to prevent accidents by drowning To do: 1. List on the board the main causes of drowning and how each can be avoided* 2. Discuss in class' why a person should not enter the water right after eating. 3. Relate to the class either a personal experience or something observed that caused an accident in the water* 4. Demonstrate and explain to the class artificial respira tion. To decide; 1. Why should you follow the rules of safe swimming and how much should you insist on others doing the same? £. How can you learn and pass the requirements for junior and senior red cross life saving emblems? 3* Why are inflated innertubes and like devices dangerous in the water? 4. Why and how should you test the depth of a pool or river before diving in? 5. Beside the discomfort of sunburn why is it bad for the system? 6. How can you get a good tan without burning? 7. What is the best thing to do when you are swimming and get crmaps? To read; 1. Walter Frank Cobb: Century Co., 1937) g# Amercian Red Cross: Red Cross) Everyday First Aid Life Saving (D. Appleton- (Pamphlet by American 109 7. EXIT. How to prevent accidents in public buildings. To doa 1. Discuss in class your city’s regulation and ordinances in regards to the number of exits in a building, their lighting, and what you should do in case a hurried exit is necessary. 2. Visit a downtown building and record in your notebook the safety devices and the use of each. Report to the class your findings. .. 3. Invite a local insurance adjustor to discuss public building safety and your help in preventing accidents. 4. Take notes on his talk and ask any question on points you would like to understand more thoroughly. To decide: 1. How can you help prevent accidents in a public building? 2. Why should you always acquaint yourself with the exits when you first enter a theater or auditorium? 3. What is the best way to maintain order in ease of fire or accident in a public building? 4. What in the way of accident prevention does the law require public buildings to have? 5. What are the main causes of accidents in public buildings? 6. How can you secure training in public first aid and safety? To read: 1. Thomas Dougherty: Fire (G. P. Putman’s Sons, 1931) 2. Powers, Neumer, Bruner: Man’s Control of His Environ ment (Ginn and Co., 19351 110 8. IT WASN’T LEADED* of fire arms How to prevent accidents from the use To do s 1* Have available in class a rifle, shot gun, and revolver. Have a qualified person (army officer, policeman) explain and demonstrate the mechanical construction of each. 2. List on the board the correct way to check each gun to make sure it is not loaded and copy in your notebook. 3. Discuss with your guest speaker the correct way to load, handle, and carry each of the guns. 4. Have the guns passed around the class and have each pupil demonstrate his understanding of them* To decide: 1. What is the correct way to carry a rifle or revolver when hunting in an open country? 2. How long before a shot should the safety .be 3. Why should youknow how to inspect a gun correctly? and released? handleit 4. What dangers are involved in firing a rifle, .a shot gun, and a revolver? 5. How can you besure a gun is not loaded? 6. How old s ouldyou be to. properly handle a gun? 7* In what situation or circumstance are many injured with an unloaded gun? To read: 1* William Frank Cobb: Century Co., 1937) 2* 3*. H. Fitzgerald: Everyday First Aid Shooting (D. Appleton- (G. F. Book Co., 1930) Ill 9* WHITS LINES* How to be a good pedestrian To do: 1. Explain and discuss the white lines or pedestrian considerations (signals) used in your community. 2. Underline and read in class the state laws in your highway regulations governing pedestrians and discuss the advisability of each law. 3. Invite a state or city patrolman to discuss the rights of pedestrians in town and in the country. 4 . Be prepared to ask questions at the end of your speaker’s talk. To decide: 1. How can you help safeguard your pedestrian rights and the rights of others at crossings and on the highway. 2. How much right of way should you give the motorist? 3. How can you dress to protect yourself when walking at night on the highway? 4. Why is it dangerous to ask for er thumb a ride? 5. What are safety zones and how should they be used by the pedestrian? 6i Why should you be familiar with your state and city laws governing pedestrians and motorists? To read: 1. Charles E. Dull: and Co., 1938) Safety First and Last 2. J. R. Hamilton and Louis L. Thurstone,: (-^oubleday, Doran and Co. , 1937) (Henry Holt Safe Driving 112 10. LEVEL HEAD. How to act in case of accidents. To do: 1. Invite your school doctor or a person qualified to discuss the reporting of accidents and emergency first aid. 2. List on the board and copy in your notebook the correct procedure as given by your speaker in reporting accidents and administering first aid. 3. Discuss in class how fire alarm boxes are distributed in your community and how to identify them from a distance. 4. Demonstrate in class first aid bandaging, the placement turnequets, and carrying, when necessary, an injured person. To decide: 1. What is the first thing to do when you are the first one on the scene of an accident? 2. What pieces of wearing apparel can be used for bandages in emergency first aid? 3. What should you do in waiting for help to arrive? 4. What places on the legs and arms can a turnequet be applied? 5. Why should you not attempt to move an injured person unless it is absolutely necessary? 6. How should an injured person be moved when it is neces sary to do so? To read: 1. William Frank Cobb: Century Co., 1937) Everyday First Aid 2. American Red Cross: Red Cross) Injuries in the Home (D. Appleton (American CHAPTER IX HOW TO MAINTAIN AND BUILD HEALTH It has been the observation of this writer that perhaps the most taken for granted asset youth has is his health* Not only taken for granted, as perhaps it should be, but frequently it is unknowingly abused. If we .as teachers can in a small way stimulate the pupil to an awareness of the rewards of proper care, then this chapter will have succeeded in its original purpose. The units'are constructed around either health in school or more generally those daily health habits in the home which should be thoroughly and clearly understood by the adolescent boy or girl. Far too frequently in the rush of the day’s activ ities the pupil is apt to slight himself in some personal habit. It is through the pupil’s awareness of that which is good or bad, right or wrong, healthful or unhealthful -that he can maintain and sustain the fine mechanisms .of the physical machine of which he is the controller and operator. 114 1* HOT DOG. How to prevent athlete’s foot To clo: 1. Discuss and list on the board the causes of athlete’s foot; cv ’ 2. Opposite the list on the board list how to treat at school and at home. 3. Discuss in class how the infection can spread to others and how a person can reinfect himself. 4. Invite your school nurse or doctor to explain the nature of athlete’s foot and its prevention. To decides 1. How can you make sure you will not get athlete’s foot? 2. What can you do to prevent infection to others and rein fection in yourself? 3. What causes athlete’s foot in some and not in others? 4. What safeguards should be taken in the home to prevent the 'Spreading of athlete’s foot? 5. How can you help others in school prevent athlete’s foot? 6. When should a doctor be consulted about athlete’s foot? To read: 1. Jean Broadhurst and Marion Serrigo: (Silver, Burdett and Co., 1931) Health Horizons 2. Ernest Steel and Ella White: Hygiene of Community. School»and Home (Harper Brothers, 1932J 115 2* HOT AND COLD. How to tune up the body with a bath To do: 1. List on the board in two columns the injurious affect of too hot a bath and the injurious affects of too cold a bath and explain each in class* 2. Discuss health in relation to bathing* 3. Discussthe advisability of always cooling the wat&r after a hot bath* 4. Invite your chemistry teacher to discuss soaps and other cleansing agents in regards to health and good skin cond it ion. To decide? 1* What is the best way to get the most from your bath to meaintain good health? 2. What affect does hot water have on the pores of the skin? What affeet does cold water have? 3. How can soaps and other cleansing agents have a bad affect upon the skin? 4* How can you maintain a clear skin condition from bathing? 5* How can you impair your health by bathing? 6* Which is more advantageous to health, a tub or a shower? To read: 1. Jean Broadhurst and Marion Lerrigo: (Silver, Burdette and Co., 1931) Health Horizons 2* Richard Kovacs:Nature» M. D. (D* Appleton-Century Co., 1934) 116 3. FOUR OUT OF FIVE HAVE IT. How to care for your teeth To do: 1. Discuss and list on the board the procedure of proper care of the teeth in regards to brushing and seeing your dentist. 2. List on the board those foods having beneficial vitamins for good teeth and gums. 3. Discuss and explain the use of the toothbrush, its size, and the use of dental cream or powder, and dental floes# 4. Invite a dentist to discuss the formation and care of the teeth. To decide: 1. How should a tooth brush be used to obtain the best results? 2. How important are the proper foods for good teeth and gums? * 3. How can you be sure condition? your teeth and gums are in good 4. What effect do poorly kept teeth have upon your general physical condition? 5. How can sweets effect teeth? 6. Why do the army and navy have requirements of healthy teeth for recruits? To read: 1Z Carl W. Adams: Co., 1932) Your Teeth and Their Care (The C. V. Mosby 2. Ernest Steel and •Ella White: Hygiene of Community School and Home (Harper Brothers, 1932) 117 4* HEALTHY, W EALTHY, AND WISE. How to get the most from your sleep To do: 1* Discuss with the class the importance of beds, springs, mattress, window location, and air circulation in regards to proper sleep. 2. List on the board the benefits obtained from good sleep. 3. Tell the class why you think regularity of sleeping hours should be maintained. 4. Discuss sleep in regards to number of hours, eating be fore retiring, and anything else which might be brought up. To decide: 1. What can you do to get better sleep and rest? 2. How do 3. Why do sleeping? regular sleeping habits maintain goodhealth? doctors inhist upon lots of fresh airwhen 4. What eventually takes place in the physical well-being of a person who does not get enough sleep? 5. How can sleep effect your school studies andgrades? 6. Why do older? some claim a person needs less sleep as he grows To read: 1. Richard Kovaes: . Nature, M._D. 1934) (Appleton-Century Co., 2. Ernest Steel and Ella White: Hygiene of Community. School and Home (Harper Brothers, 1932T 118 5. EAT, DRINK, AND BE MERRY* digestive system How to care for your To do: 1. List on the board the organs and their functions in the digestive system. 2. Discuss how this system can be interrupted in its work by improper food or care and the injurious effects that can result. 5. List on the board those foods which are beneficial in aiding the digestive system to function easily and properly. 4. Invite your school nurse or doctor to discuss the care of the digestive system. To decide: 1. How can you regulate yourself to insure a trouble-free digestive tract? 2. How are certain laxatives injurious to the digestive tract and system in general? 3. How does peoper chewing of food and slow eating aid the digestive system? 4. Why is excessive gum chewing harmful to the digestive system? 5. What foods are an aid in keeping the digestive system in good working condition? 6. How does irregular eating upset the digestive system? To read: 1. James Clerk: Picture of Health 2. Richard Kovacs: 1934) Nature, M . D. (The Macmillan Co., 1940) (Appleton-Century Co., - t 119 6* VITAMIHS CALL* How to maintain a balanced diet To do: 1. Liston tbe board the basic elements involved in nutri tion and what function each one has for physical well being. 2. Discusseach item make up each one. listed on the board and tell what foods 3. Discuss andlist on the board a well-balanced day for the average pupil in high school. menu for a 4. Invite your home economics teacher to discuss and balancing the diet. food values To decide: 1. What is water considered more necessary to the health of a person than solid food? 2. What nutritive food values are received from carbohydrates, cellulose, fats, ^minerals, fals, protein? 3. How can you help your mother in planning her menus? 4. Why are vitamins call regulators? 5. Why is it important now to know how to plan or choose a well-balanced meal? 6. How does too much candy upset a well-balanced diet and eventually prove harmful? To read: 1. Edith M. Barber: 1933) What Shall I Eat (The Macmillan Co., 2. Gove Hambidge: Your Meals and Y^ur Money Book Co., 1 934)---------------- ®------- (McGraw-Hill CHAPTER X HOW TO FIND YOUR PLACE IN THE WORLD The concluding chapter of this course of study deals primarily with the pupil’s problem of deciding which vo cational field he would like to enter. A practical appli cation of job interviewing, soliciting, and job holding is presented to create an awareness of what is to come and the preparation necessary to successfully qualify. The / majority of pupils at this age are still, partially if not totally, dependent upon their parents for the essentials and non-essentials in their daily and school life. It is the intention of these units to give an overview of the basic requirements of the work-a-day world and how they can be applied. By having a workable knowledge of the life they are to enter eventually, it is desired that the pupil be stimulated to develop more carefully those char acteristic traits and habits essential to the business world* 121 !• BUSINESS ADDRESS. How to choose a vocation To do: 1. List on the hoard the vocations the class is interested in. Discuss each one pointing out the average salary, the demand, and place in the economic and social world* 2. In your notebook list all the facts you know about the job 1 ') you would like to have considering mainly the preparr. ation required, chances of advancement, hours of work per day and week, and its place in the social and econ omic world* 3* Discuss with the class the educational preparation necessary to qualify for the job. 4. See your vocational director and take the test concern ing the vocation in which you are interested and find out if you are adept for the work you would like to do. To decide: 1. How do you know you really want the vocation you have chosen and how can you be sure it is not just wishful thinking? 2. What course of study must you follow in high school for preparation for your vocation? 3. How many years of schooling are necessary and where can you receive the best college or specialized training? 4. What costs are involved in securing the proper preparation? 5. How can you inform yourself about salary, hours of work, and the demand of workers in your chosen field? 6. How can you besure you will not change your desire of a vocation before you enter college and if you do what will you be able to do about it? To read: 1. Cottier-Brecht: 2. J. M. Brewer: Careers Ahead Occupations (Little Brown, 1935} (Ginn and Co., 1936) 122 2. HEU? WANTED. How to apply for a job To do: 1. Bring to class letters of application and discuss how they are constructed so as to provide all the information the employer might want. 2. List on the board in outline form what you should say in a letter of application. 3. Write a letter of application for a job you would like to have and let the class comment on it. 4. Discuss and find out from a business man in town what he likes to see in a letter of application and report your findings to the class. To decide: 1. How can you show your personality and educational know ledge in a letter or application? 2. How can you make sure your letter will receive the atten tion you want it to? 3. How should a letter of application be composed? 4. How should a letter of application be followed up? 5. What use should be made of the telephone, personal friends, or parents in securing a job? 6. What can you do to prove your interest in a job and at the same time not be a nuisance? To read: 1. Elizabeth McGibbon: Co., 1936) 2. ZuTavern, Bullock: Manners in Business Everyday Business (The Macmillan (Commercial, 1936) 123 3* THE i m m DOOR. How to use an interview To do: 1. Discuss with the class things to he considered in your personal appearancd when interviewing a person. 2. List on the hoard procedures for securing an interview and the personal qualities: an employer generally looks for during an interview. 3. iLrrange for an interview with some business man and relate to the class the outcome of it. 4. Discuss with the class how time should he utilized in an interview and what preparation, if any, you should do beforehand. To decide: 1. How can you make sure an interview will completely use the time asked for and he interesting? 2. What preparation should you mhke before an interview? 3. How much talking or questioning should you do during an interview? 4. How can you state your qualifications without appearing egotistical or conceited? 5. How should you begin and end an interview? 6. How should you dress for and act during an interview? To read: 1. Elizabeth Woodward: 1935) Personality Preferred 2. Elizabeth MeG-ibbon: Co., 1936) Manners in Business (Harpers, (The Macmillan 124 4. ON YOUR MARKS* How to get a job To do: 1* Relate to the class how you got a job or how you think a job should be -secured. 2. List on the board the procedures of job getting as mentioned by members of the class. Discuss and copy the best procedure in your notebook for future reference. 3. Invite some local business man who does extensive hiring to discuss with the class the best way to get a job. 4. Interview business men downtown about people getting jobs and the best way to approach or apply for a job. To decide: 1. What kind of a job are you best fitted for or would you like to do? 2. How can you wisely prepare yourself for your desired job? 3. How should ypu apply for a job in regard to your approach, dress, and personality? 4. What basic knowledge, if any, should you have for a job you want and should you try for the job if you are not properly equipped or trained? 5. How can you call upon your friends to aid you in getting a job? 6. What qualities of your daily school record are excellent references in getting a job? To read: 1. Barrett: 2# Logie: What About Jobs (McClure, 1936) Careers in the Making (Harpers, 1931) 125 5. INSIDE DOPE* How to learn about job vacancies To do: 1. List on tbe board all the ways you can think of in learn ing about openings for work. 2. Discuss the above list and choose the three or four best ways. 5. Bring to class newspapers and check through them for jobs offered and locations of employment offices. 4. Visit any business concern which might have the type of job you would like to have and find out if a vacancy exists or when there will likely be one. To decide: 1. Why is it better to make personal contacts in seeking s job than visiting employment offices or reading the papers? 2. What service can you perform if you locate an opening that you can not fill or do not want? 3. How canyou learn about vacanciesfromoutsiders,your friends, or from your school? 4. How canyou make certain good recommendationsby your record in school? 5. Which business concerns in your town offer the type of work you would like to do? 6. How can you show your interest in working for your chosen employer without being a nuisance? To read; 1. Barrett: What About Jobs 2. ZuTavern, Bullock: (McClure, 1935) Everyday Business (Commercial, 1936) 126 6. STEADY WORK. How to hold a job To do: 1. List on the board all of the desirable habits and qualities common to most jobs. 2. Discuss this list on the board with the class and explain how each desirable quality can be developed while you are in school preparing for a job. 3. Relate an instance when someone has lost a job by failing in one of the desirable qualities necessary for working permanance. 4. Invite a manager of some local business firm to discuss how to hold a job. To decide: 1. What factors of personality and personal care are necessary in holding a job? 2. What can you do to develop your personality and personal habits? 3. What kind of attitude should you hold toward your co worker, your employer, and your job? 4. What sort of treatment should you 'expect 'from a^ .employer in return for work done? 5. How can you best show your worth and desirability to get ahead without encouraging personal favoritism? 6. How far should personal feelings and friendship be carried to an employer? To read: 5-. Barrett: What About Jobs 2. Elizabeth Woodward: 1935) (McClure, 1936) Personality Preferred (Harpers, CHAPTER XI THE USE OF THIS COURSE OF STUDY Throughout the entire course of study, it will be noted that the writer has used a positive approach to all of the problems. This approach justifies itself in that the leaders in both school life and the business world are made up of those who know what to do and how to it rather than what not to do and why it shouldn’t be done. The teacher must impress upon the pupil the desirability of this attitude or approach in his working and solving the problems presented. It also should be stressed that first, the pupil must have a clear concept and understanding of what he is doing. Herein can the teacher lay the corner stone of learning for understanding to be applied in the pupil’s academic life as well as in his life outside. The problems provided in these units of study for the pupil are intended to furnish a practical and useful foundation upon which he can develop a well-rounded per sonality. This can be done only by letting the pupils work out or solve their problems by calling upon their past ex periences and observations. The teacher, however, can do much for the pupil by tactful guidance and direction in attaining the desired outcomes. 128 By keeping this course of study entirely functional for the pupil, it has been experienced by the writer that not only is it self-motivating but interest is maintained at a high pitch by the pupil. The working out of these problems together by the pupils uses the class as a clear ing house for ideas, experiences, and observations, and permits a choice to be made of only the best of the group* The pupil realizes that he is not alone in what little knowledge he holds of the problem. Shyness is mutual* Past embarrassments provide a common ground for learning and understanding with his classmates. As soon as the pupil learns that others have been faced with the same problems and have overcome them, his desire provides the proper motivation for continuance. Throughout the entire course of study, the teacher should assume the attitude of being a definite part of the class with the pupil and not the role of an outsider or uninterested spectator. By becoming a member of the class, the teacher not only can aid and direct the pupils but can gain a confidence and understanding from them which would otherwise not exist* Far too often is a teacher satisfied to teach subject matter and not personalities. To handle this course of study properly, the teacher must become a definite part of the group in her charge and develop from that group personalities which will be properly 129 equipped to meet the many problems of society in daily life. Through such guidance and direction a bond of common understanding and /appreciation is created. From such a bond the pupil-teacher relationship goes much deeper in mutual understanding of one another and creates a greater respect. The waiter has found from the application of these problems that in the usual thirty minute period alloted that it is necessary to eliminate any irrelevant discussion. The class through planned and thoughtful handling can accomplish a complete problem each day. It is suggested that the teacher be aware of the problems to be discussed by the class from week to week. By knowing in advance what is coming, the teacher can appoint or have appointed by the student chairman committees to contact and arrange for the various outside speakers for their discussion in advance of the problems to be studied.