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Standardization of intramural point systems in California high schools

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STANDARDIZATION OP INTRAMURAL POINT
SYSTEMS IN CALIFORNIA HIGH SCHOOLS
A Thesis
Presented to
the Faculty of the School of Education
University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Science in Education
by
Earl Hill
June 1940
UMI Number: EP54039
All rights reserved
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UMI EP54039
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Ann Arbor, Ml 48106 - 1346
T h i s thesis, w r i t t e n u n d e r th e d i r e c t i o n o f th e
C h a i r m a n o f th e c a n d id a te 's G u i d a n c e C o m m i t t e e
a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l m e m b e rs o f th e C o m m i t t e e ,
has been p re s e n te d to a n d a c c e p te d b y th e F a c u l t y
o f th e S c h o o l o f E d u c a t i o n in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t
o f th e r e q u ir e m e n t s f o r th e d e g re e o f M a s t e r o f
S c ie n c e in E d u c a t i o n .
Date.A^^TT..A^..}?A}:.
Guidance Com m ittee
Pauline M. Frederick
C hairm an
Lloyd E. Webster
Wm. £. Campbell
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I,
PAGE
THE PROBLEM
............................
1
Purpose of the p r o b l e m .......................
1
Importance of the p r o b l e m ...................
2
Scope of the Investigation...................
3
Related investigations .......................
4
Method of p r o c e d u r e ............................ 11
Organization of remaining chapters . . . . . .
II.
13
TYPES OF POINT SYSTEMS IN U S E .................... 14
Enrollment of boys in intramural programs
Point systems for groups
. .
..........
Point systems for individuals
14
15
. . . . . . . .
20
S u m m a r y ......................................... 22
III.
PARTICIPATION AND AWARDS IN INTRAMURAL ATHLETICS
25
Stimulation of participation . . . . . . . . .
25
Classification of awards ...........
30
Other considerations .
........................34
Summary
IV.
ADMINISTRATION OF POINT SYSTEMS
Introduction
’. . . . .
36
...............
38
.............
Administrative organization
Student leaders
. . . . .
.
38
.................
39
..............................
40
Schedule m a k i n g ...................
44
CHAPTER
PAGE
Participation reports
V.
...........
47
Classification for competition . . . . . . . . .
48
Administrative difficulties
...................
53
..........
56
SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Summary
.................................... 56
Recommendations
.....................
BIBLIOGRAPHY .....................
APPENDICES
. . . . .
60
65
............................................. 70
LIST OP TABLES
TABLE
PAGE
I.
General Data on Intramural P r o g r a m s .......... 16
II.
Entry Points Given by Schools . .............. 17
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
Point Ratings for Team Scoring Systems
. . . .
Records of Contests Kept by S c h o o l s .......... 21
Point Rating for Scoring Individual Games . . .
............................ 26
VII.
Best Methods of Arousing Interest for Teams
VIII.
Distribution of Staff Responsibility in the
Intramural Program
...............
. .
. . . . .
.........................
41
46
School Units Used for Competition in Team
and Individual Activities ...................
XI.
27
Methods of Organizing Competition in the
Intramural Program
X.
23
Best Methods of Arousing Interest for
Individuals
IX.
18
Division of Competing G r o u p s ................ 54
50
CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM
Recently there has been a more pronounced attention
given to the intramural program as a supplement to or labora­
tory phase of the physical education program.
Although this
movement has developed within the last twenty years, it now
exists in most of the high schools of the State of Califor­
nia.
It is an endeavor to do away with the competitive pro­
gram for a few highly developed athletes, and in some in­
stances a more or less formalized program for the lesser
gifted, and to.offer instead an intramural program in which
all students may find a field in which to participate.
Even
a boy with poor physical coordination, who is convinced that
he has no athletic ability, may through limited participa­
tion in such a program gradually develop into an enthusias­
tic participant in several physical activities.
But there
should be some scheme for comparing the individual or team
work in order to show progress or relative abilities.
One
way of promoting efficiency and interest In such a program
would be to have a standardized point system.
A.. PURPOSE OP THE PROBLEM
In connection with the rapid development of intra­
mural athletics in the high schools a number of problems
2
have arisen.
One of these has to do with providing suitable
means of guidance to pupils in choosing their activities,
with stimulating participation on the part of the less
active, and with limiting the activity of those whose par­
ticipation has been excessive.
The purpose of this investi­
gation was to study the systems of points and awards now
used in intramural athletics in the senior high schools of
California, to analyze the current trends, to discover the
outstanding weaknesses, and suggest improvements, and fi­
nally to evolve a standardized point system suitable for all
senior high schools.
B.
IMPORTANCE OP THE PROBLEM
Although some form of intramural program has been In
existence for twenty years or more, no single recognized or
standardized point system has as yet been adopted.
But it
would seem in the guidance and stimulation of extracurricu­
lar activities that an adequate point system based on sound
principles and on educational values could be most advan1
tageously used. Lindwall, who has made an extensive study
of intramural sports, and who is considered an authority in
this field, stated that since band, debating, and public
speaking granted awards for achievement, it was a sound edu­
cational policy to grant awards In intramurals.
He further
**• Robert E. Lindwall, Intramural Activities (Manito­
woc, Wisconsin: Manitowoc Public Schools, 1933), p. 55.
3
said, wWe should devise point systems and activities where
..2
it is possible for even the poorest to share in the award.”
Standardized rewards are a regular feature of college in­
tramurals, and in most colleges there is a spirited compe­
tition for the all-round intramural championship.
The need for a standardized system of awards for the
intramural participants in secondary schools of California
is of real importance.
Since most participation in intra­
mural athletics is purely voluntary, it is essential to plan
a program so varied and so interesting that every student
possible will be found taking part in some regular branch of
competitive sports.
Point systems give individuals and
groups some chance of comparing their achievements at the
time and also with past records, and thereby often become an
incentive for increased efforts towards perfection.
C.
SCOPE OP THE INVESTIGATION
The present investigation covered only the senior high
schools in the State of California.
The study included the
organization and classification of data as to point systems
used in intramural sports gathered by means of a question­
naire study, a survey of book and periodical literature
directly related to the subject, and interviews with leaders
in the field.
This study does not include suggestions for
2 Ibid., p. 18.
4
organization and administration of intramural sports, nor
does it cover interscholastic competition or regular gym­
nasium classes.
.D.
RELATED INVESTIGATIONS
Investigations related directly to the problem of
this theses are unfortunately few in number.
There are a
number of research articles which have an indirect bearing
upon the problem but they seem to be of little practical im­
portance.
Several studies which bore a significant rela­
tionship to the present one were available, and brief sum­
maries of their findings are given here for the sake of
background.
JohnsonVs study of collegiate intramural organ!zations.
Johnson,
in 1932, completed a study of collegiate
intramural athletics including point systems and awards.
He investigated the organization and administration of col­
legiate intramural athletics very comprehensively and his
work furnished a model for later studies having a broader
scope.
The materials for Johnson’s thesis were secured from
four sources; (a) book and magazine literature which was
directly related to the subject, (b) returns from a ques-
® Ronald Lee Johnson, '’The Organization and Adminis­
tration of Intercollegiate Intramural Athletics,w (unpub­
lished Master’s thesis, University of Southern California,
Los Angeles, 1932), 149 pp#
5
tionnaire study of sixty-three college and university intra­
mural organizations,
(c) personal experience of the author
and knowledge gained from interviews with leaders in the
field, and (d) the results of a study of seventy-five book­
lets published by college and university intramural organi­
zations.
The following conclusions were reached:
1.
It would be impractical to present an ideal intra­
mural plan which would serve all organizations large and
small.
Programs are influenced by size of college, type of
student body, climatic conditions, and various other factors.
2.
Committees and officers consisted of about the
same group throughout the different organizations.
The com­
mittees varied in status and personnel in different systems,
but the final setup was quite uniform throughout all the
organizations•
3.
The outstanding weaknesses were as follows:
(a)
employment of directors on a part-time basis, that is em­
ployment of a man whose time is partly taken up by teaching
classes or coaching;
(b) laxity in demanding health examina­
tions for participants; and (c) poor functioning of the pub­
licity and announcement committees.
4.
The selection of sports according to facilities
and size and location of the school contributed greatly to
the success of a program.
5.
Faculty cooperation was needed and participation
in sports by faculty members was a general remedy.
6
6,
Student managers and participation were a direct
influence on the success of any intramural program,
Johnson found that awards and point systems were the
principal methods in common use for the stimulation of i n - •
tramural competition and participation.
He suggested in
conclusion that an interchange of literature among the vari­
ous intramural directors be made in order to keep up with
new ideas and methods.
The portion of Johnson's thesis
dealing with awards and point systems is of course directly
related to the problem of the present thesis#
Johnston's study on point systems.
The only detailed
study on the subject of point systems is that made by Johns4
ton in 1930. This survey covered high schools of many
states, the purpose being to ascertain the operating objec­
tives of point systems of extracurricular activities#
Two main lines of investigation furnished the material
presented in this study#
In order to determine current prac­
tice among senior high schools in the use of point systems,
a request was sent to six hundred high school principals for
copies of any point systems in use in the schools under their
administration, together with extracurricular record forms
used.
A brief questionnaire accompanying the request sought
information concerning details of organization not readily
^ Edgar G,. Johnston, Point Systems
Barnes Company, 1930), 156 pp#
(Hew York: A#. S.
7
discoverable from the system itself.
In the selection of
schools for study an effort was made to discover schools
which had some plan for guiding, stimulating, or limiting
pupil participation in extracurricular activities.
The first step was a survey of'- the high school hand­
books on file in the library of Teachers College, Columbia
University.
Of the 157 schools represented, sixty-seven
had some type of point systems in use.
These schools formed
the nucleus of the list; to them were added the names of
schools known to the author to have developed point systems.
Additional schools were selected from theroster of
the National Association of Secondary School Principals.
While no attempt was made in this selection to represent a
proportionate geographical distribution, care was taken to
include at least one school from each state and to include
schools of various sizes.
High schools known to have an
extensive program of student activities were in every case
included.
Replies were received from 350 schools, of which 145
had some plan in force for extracurricular control and stimu­
lation, and eighty-one others granted credit for some acti­
vities not provided for in the curriculum.
There were 124
schools that had no system of guidance, simulation, or limi­
tation, and did not offer credit for activities.
Pacts pre­
sented were based upon the results of these returns.
A second line of investigation was carried on in co­
8
operation with the Columbia High School of South Orange,
New Jersey, a coeducational high school of one thousand
pupils*
A survey was made of pupil participation in extra­
curricular activities in this school, and a point system
5"
developed for it.
In summary Johnston states:
In connection with the rapid development of extra­
curricular activities in high schools, a number of
problems have arisen, One of these has had to do
with providing suitable means of guiding pupils in
their choice of activities, of stimulating participa­
tion on the part of the less active, and of limiting
the activity of those whose participation has been
judged excessive. As an aid in solving this problem,
many schools have developed point systems for extra­
curricular activities.®
In his recommendations Johnston says, nA specific
type of point system must be used: limit participation,
stimulate participation, guide participation, and administer
7
the point system.M
Hermle*s study of junior high school intramural atho
letics. In a thesis presented in 1932, Hermle0 made a very
comprehensive study of the intramural sports in Los Angeles
junior high schools.
He brought out the relative values of
interscholastic and intramural games in order to justify the
® Loc. cit.
6 Ibid., p. 151.
7 Loc• cit>
® Otto Barnes Hermle, wThe Present Status of Intramural
Sports in the Los Angeles Junior High Schools,’1 (unpublished
Master!s thesis, University of Southern California, Los
Angeles, 1932), 99 pp*
use of the latter system of competition in the junior high
schools*
He also presented the extent of intramural acti­
vities in the Los Angeles junior high schools and offered
suggestions for the future administration of intramural
sports in these schools.
Material for this study was obtained from question­
naires sent to the various schools, and from investigations
of a file of the Los Angeles School Journal showing the
frequency of articles related to the problem*
Hermle of­
fered the following recommendations for intramural sports
in the Los Angeles junior high schools:
1,
Each boy should take physical education regularly
preferably once a day,
2.
Corrective exercises should be given where neces­
3.
Letters or other recognition should be given,
4,
The administration of sports should be such as
sary*
to realize the aims of play, and play should be for play’s
sake •
Hermle’s finding in regard to recognition is of in­
terest to the present thesis,
Palfrey1s study of intramural activities*
Palfrey
g
studied intramural activities in the rural high schools of
^ Ernest R. Palfrey, ttA Critical Survey of the Intra­
mural Program in the Rural High Schools of California,11 (un­
published Master’s thesis, University of Southern California
Los Angeles, 1935), 143 pp.
10
California to determine the nature and extent of their pro­
gram and changes necessary to make it more satisfactory.
Questionnaires were sent to the 125 schools in California
having an enrollment of 125 to 500 pupils.
From the data
obtained from the seventy-two respondents the following con­
clusions were stated*
1.
The athletic coach instead of a senior student
athletic manager was frequently in charge of the program.
2.
Physical education classes were the most common
competing units, but frequently only school classes formed
units in the smaller schools.
3.
Round-robin tournaments were used in 62 per cent
of the schools.
4.
Less than half the schools had organized point
systems for unit scoring, and a wide variation of ratings
was shown in the point systems used.
It was common prac­
tice to keep records of participation and equipment.
The outstanding weakness in this part of the program,
however, lay in the fact that some schools lacked suffi­
cient equipment to carry on the work properly, some
schools did not require a health examination before
participation in the games, and some schools had no
well-organized point system for scoring.^0
Brammell' s study of intramural and inter scholastic
11
athletics. Brammell
studied 327 schools by questionnaire
^ Ibid., p. 72.
11
P. R. Brammell, Intramural and Interscholastic Ath­
letics, National Survey of Secondary Education Monograph No.
2V, Bulletin No. 17, 1932.
11
and personal interview to discover the best means of admin­
istering, supervising, and financing intramural programs,
and their relation to other activities in physical educa­
tion,
He concluded as.follows;
1.
The intramural programs which came into prom­
inence after 1925 were not expensive,.
2.
The majority of schools recognized the close
kinship between intramural sports and the general physical
education program.
3.
The size of the school was an important factor
in determining the program to be set up.
4.
As a rule larger uchools were more inclined to
include sports having a carry-over value.
5.
The common competitive units were physical edu­
cation classes, school grades, and home rooms,
Brammell further decided from the data obtained that
the program should be under supervised student leadership,
have a close connection with the health program, be an
extracurricular activity, and be financially supported by
the respective school boards.
E.
METHOD OP PROCEDURE
The material for this thesis on point systems in
intramural athletics was gathered from various sources;
(1) .a library study of books, magazine articles, pamphlets,
and theses on the subject; (2) personal interviews with
12
workers in the field; and (3) data obtained from a ques­
tionnaire sent to fifty-two senior high schools in the
•State of California.
The library study revealed what was being done in
intramural athletics as reported by various writers, and
also the opinions in regard to the need for recognition of
achievement•
After a careful study of the literature and inter­
views with a number of workers in the field, a tentative
questionnaire was formed.
This was presented to a summer
seminar group in Physical Education at the University of
Southern California for criticisms and suggestions.
Elim­
inations and additions were then made to the original ques­
tionnaire.
The information deemed necessary seemed to be
divided logically under five headings as follows: general
questions, administration of point systems, methods of
arousing interest, types of point systems in use, and in­
stallation of point systems.
The questions were direct and
explicit so that the recipients of the questionnaire could
check them very quickly or insert numbers where such were
required.
Only one question necessitated a statement; this
concerned reasons for dissatisfaction with point systems,
A copy of the questionnaire may be seen in the Appendix.
After completion the questionnaires were sent to
160 senior high schools chosen at random throughout the
State of California.
Fifty-two responded with marked ques­
tionnaire s, and some sent pamphlets or "bulletins showing
what they were doing.
The distribution of those answering
the questionnaire gave adequate geographical coverage of
the State.
All data received from questionnaires and'
printed materials were carefully tabulated and presented
in this thesis together with materials gained from library
research and personal interview.
F.
ORGANIZATION OF REMAINING CHAPTERS
Chapter II presents the types of point systems for
the group and Individual participants as revealed by the
questionnaire data.
Chapter III considers the stimulation
of participation, the use of awards or other means of
arousing interest, and the classification of recipients.
Chapter IV gives the administrative setup for point sys­
tems, including selection of leaders and schedule making.
Chapter V presents a summary and recommendations.
CHAPTER II
TYPES OF POINT SYSTEMS IN. TJSE
This chapter is directly concerned with some of the,
data compiled from the questionnaire as to the size of the
schools, number of participants, and the types of point
systems in use for individuals and groups.
A.,
ENROLLMENT OF BOYS IN INTRAMURAL PROGRAMS
Of the one hundred sixty schools receiving the ques­
tionnaire, fifty-tv/o responded with the information re­
quested.
The total enrollment of these schools was 17,740
and the average enrollment per school was 341, as recorded
in Table I.
Of the total of 17,740 boys, 8,643 partici­
pated in intramural athletics, an average of 166 per school.
The average participation was thus 49 per cent.
Some schools neglected to answer the question as to
how long the intramural program had been in use in their
schools; no doubt because of the shifting of instructors in
small high schools there was no positive way of determining
this.
However, of the eleven schools responding, one re­
ported twelve years, another ten, another eight, and two
each reported six, five, four, and three years.
One inter­
esting note was that in general there was little correlation
between the length of time that schools had had intramural
15
plans and the completeness of point systems used by those
schools.
.Point systems were used for team scoring in thirteen
schools, and for individual scoring also in thirteen
schools.
This would indicate that comparatively few
schools had organized point systems of scoring.
B.
POINT SYSTEMS FOR THE GROUP
Participation.
The points given for entering a team
in competition varied from five to one hundred.
Points
given for perfect attendance varied from five to fifty,
with five points being the number usually deducted for ir­
regular team attendance.
The differences in the point
system ratings are shown in Table II.
Team games.
siderably.
In the team games, points varied con­
Ten schools gave entry points as compared with
thirteen schools which did not.
In the scoring of team
games the points varied from five to forty points for first
place.
However, the most commonly used plan gave five for
first place, three for second, two for third, and one for
fourth.
See Table III, page IB.
Tournaments.
In tournaments, the points given for
entering varied from five to one hundred forty.
The ques­
tionnaire indicated that six schools gave entry points
16
TABLE I
GENERAL DATA ON THE INTRAMURAL PROGRAMS
Item
Number of schools reporting
Total enrollment of boys
Average enrollment per school, boys
Total number of intramural participants
Average number of participants per school
Average participation, per cent
Number
52
17,740
341
8,643
166
49
17
TABLE II
ENTRY POINTS GIVEN BY SCHOOLS
Schools Not
Giving En­
try Points
No
Ans­
wer
10
13
29
6
12
34
9
13
30
10
13
29
Schools Giving
Entry Points
Group Competition
Team games
Tournaments
Individual Competition
Tournaments
All-school meets
18
TABLE III
POINT RATINGS FOR TEAM SCORING SYSTEMS
Number of
Points Given
Number of Schools Responding
Second . Third
First
Four th
Place
Place
Place
Place
i
4
1
*
1
2
6
6
3
4
5
6
8
10
12
15
20
25
40
Median Points
1
6
1
6
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
3
2
1
•1
5
Note: This table should be read as follows: Teams
scoring first place in competition were awarded forty
points by one school, twenty points by two schools, twelve
points by one school, etc. The median number of points
for first place was five points, for second place three
points, etc.,
19
while twelve schools did not.
.In scoring the tournaments
the most widely used plan gave five points for first place,
three for second place, two for third place, and one for
fourth place.
Additional points.
It was interesting to note that
hut four out of fourteen schools responding gave additional
points to high-point men.
However, in pamphlets received
concerning their programs, practically every school gave
from ten to fifty additional points for winning.
One
school gave one hundred and fifty points for winning.
Forfeits.
Of the fourteen schools responding to this
question, six penalized the group forfeiting a game by loss
of points, seven by loss of the game, and one by the loss
of credit.
This indicated a considerable lack of uniformity
in practice.
Keeping records.
According to Johnson
1
it is essen­
tial to have a suitable plan for the keeping of records,
one of the best ways of popularizing the intramural pro­
gram being to show the results by participation records.
' 2,3
Other writers
are also of the opinion that no intra-
Ronald Lee Johnson, rtThe Organization and Adminis­
tration of Intercollegiate Intramurals,w (unpublished Master’s
thesis, University•of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1932),
p. 72.
2 Robert E. Lindwall, Intramural Activities (Manito­
woc, Wisconsin; Manitowoc Public Schools"^ 19'33), p • 63.
20
mural program could function efficiently without the aid
of records, hoth temporary and permanent.
Twenty-two schools kept team records and nineteen
schools did not keep these records according to Table IV.
Permanent records were kept by sixteen schools, while
twenty-three made no provision for permanent records.
C.. POINT SYSTEMS FOR INDIVIDUALS
Participation. The points given for participation
by an individual in an event varied from two to fifty.
Points given for perfect attendance varied from five to
twenty, with one to five points being deducted for ir­
regular attendance..
Tournaments.
In totirnaments, points given for
entry ranged from one to fifty; additional points were
given in the majority of cases for perfect attendance.
Nine schools gave entry points and thirteen gave no entry
points.
Meets.
In scoring the individual meets, such as
track and field meets, a wide variation of points was dis­
covered.
The most common scoring, hov/ever, was five points
3 Ernest R. Palfrey, nA Critical Survey of the Intra­
mural Program in the Rural High Schools of California1' (un­
published Master!s thesis, University of Southern California,
Los Angeles, 1935), p. 42.,
21
TABLE IV
RECORDS OP CONTESTS KEPT BY SCHOOLS
m
^ _
_
Type of Records
Schools
Keeping
Records
Schools Not
Keeping
Records
Schools
Not
Replying
Individual
18
26
15
Group
22
19
22
Permanent
16
23
26
22
for first place, three for second., two for third, and one
for fourth.
In the individual all-school meets the questionnaire
showed point scores,ranging from five to forty points for
first place.
Here too, however, the allotment of five
points for first place, three for second, two for third,
and one for fourth was most frequently used.
Forfeits.
See Table V.
Of the fourteen schools responding to
this section of the questionnaire, six penalized the indi­
vidual by loss of points in the case of a forfeit, while
seven penalized him by the loss of the game, and one by
loss of credit.
These schools were the same In each case
as those providing penalties for forfeits In group compe- .
tition.
Records.
Eighteen schools kept Individual records,
while twenty-six did not.
Permanent records were kept by
sixteen schools, while twenty-three failed to keep permanent
records,.
D.
SUMMARY
Less than half of the boys in the high schools
covered by the questionnaire study were participating in
intramural sports.
About a third of the sehools kept in­
dividual records, and two-fifths kept group records.
Most
23
TABLE V
POINT RATING FOR SCORING INDIVIDUAL GAMES
Number of
Points Given
Number of Schools Responding
First
Second
Third
Fourth
Place
Place
Place
Place
0
1
1
1
2
14
3
14
4
1
5
15
10
1
25
40
Median Points
15
1
1
1
1
1
3
2
1
1
5
Note; This table should be read as follows; Indi­
viduals .scoring first place were awarded forty points by
one school, ten points by one school, five points by fif­
teen schools, etc. The median number of points awarded
for first place was five, for second place three, etc.
24
of the schools that kept any records at all of competition
preserved these records permanently.
The majority of the schools had not developed com­
plete point systems in their intramural programs.
As a
general rule,, points were given for the entrance of groups
and individuals in competition; no standard practice was
evident, however, as regards penalties for irregular at­
tendance or forfeits.
Points given for individual and group competition
in games and tournaments varied considerably, although
most schools favored the system giving five points for
first place, three for second place, two for third place,
and one for fourth place.
CHAPTER III
PARTICIPATION AND AWARDS IN INTRAMURAL ATHLETICS
This chapter is concerned with reviewing the extent
of voluntary participation in intramural athletics and the
methods used to arouse interest in the intramural program,
as revealed by the questionnaire data.
A.
STIMULATION OP PARTICIPATION
To the question of voluntary participation, thirtysix of the fifty-two schools responding to the question­
naire checked voluntary, seven compulsory, and nine failed
to answer the question.
Evidently over two-thirds of the
schools stressed voluntary participation on the part of the
boys.
Thirteen per cent compelled boys to participate in
at least one event.
Tables VI and VII, on the following pages, show the
data revealed by the questionnaire returns on the best
methods of stimulating interest for individuals and teams
respectively.
It is interesting to note that five methods
accounted for over seventy per cent, of the totals for both
teams and individuals, and also preserved the same order
in both classifications.
These were in the order of utili­
zation: achievement, public recognition, social approval,
school letters, and plaques.
The use of cups and medals
26
TABLE VI
BEST METHODS OF AROUSING INTEREST FOR INDIVIDUALS
Method
Achievement
Social approval
Public recognition
Honor society
Badges
Gups
Emblems
Medals
Plaques
Pennants
School letters
Ribbons
Prizes
First Second Third Fourth Fifth
Place Place Place Place Place
17
1
2
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
3
1
0
1
8
5
0
0
0
1
0
2
1
4
0
0
1
2
6
■1
0
0
1
0
2
0
2
2
1
1
1
3
2
0
1
1
0
2
0
4
0
0
2
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
2
0
Total
22
13
17
4
0
1
5
0
7
2
13
5
1
Note* This table should be read as follows; Achieve­
ment as a means of arousing interest for individuals was
ranked in first place by 17 schools, in second place by 1
school, etc. Social approval was ranked in first place by 1
school, in second place by eight schools, etc.
27
TABLE VII
BEST METHODS OP 'AROUSING INTEREST FOR TEAMS
Me thod
Achievement
Social approval
Public recognition
Honor society
Badges
Cups
Emblems
Medals .
Plaques
Pennants
School letters
Ribbons
Prizes
First Second Third Fourth Fifth
Place Place Place Place Place
18
2
2
2
0
1
1
1
3
1
3
0
0
3
10
4
0
0
2
0
2
3
1
5
0
0
2
4
9
1
0
2
2
2
0
0
1
1
1
3
1
2
1
0
1
2
1
2
2
4
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
3
0
1
2
1
1
3
0
Total
27
18
18
5
0
9
5
7
10
5
14
4
1
Note; This table should be read as follows; Achieve­
ment as a means of arousing interest for teams was ranked in
first place by eighteen schools, in second place by three
schools, etc. Social approval was ranked in first place by
two schools, in second place by ten schools, etc..
28
received considerable mention for team stimulation but al­
most none for individuals#.
Ribbons, emblems, and honor
society recognition were minor factors in stimulating
interest for both classifications; while other factors were
almost negligible.
In studying the literature in regard to classifying
recipients for awards, it was found that in general there
were three policies followed in making awards; to reward
the group as a whole, to reward individual members of the
group, and to reward certain individuals who did not have
a group connection.
Which plan is followed is determined
largely by the permanence of the group.
Group awards. A unit that has a strong and permanent
organization can be presented a team trophy in the form of
a cup, pennant, plaque, or shield#
The fact that a group
has a common and frequent meeting place means that the
trophy can be displayed in such a way that all the members
will share a mutual interest in it.
In high schools the
home room or class, whichever unit may be used, possesses
this advantage of a chance for both members and supporters
of the winning team to enjoy a common trophy.
1 E. C#, Blom, wCorrelating Business Activities of
Newspaper Boys with School Work,” School Executives Maga­
zine , 51:251-3, February, 1932.
Hendry
2
found that the most coveted award to the
school championship contest group was in the form of a
cup, shield, or some similar award previously voted a
permanent trophy.
He believed that this award could be
made in the manual training department, of wood in vari­
ous designs, and that one should be made for each type of
activity in each division.
Each plaque should be labeled
for its activity with spaces provided for panels to desig­
nate the winners from year to year.
These awards he
deemed better for the group in track, field, and swimming
events.
To a lesser degree units such as the gymnasium
classes and military units can be interested in a cup or
other trophy, but it is quite true that these units offer
only a casual and temporary affiliation.
is not so strong.
The group spirit
Therefore the team trophy might be sup­
plemented by individual awards to the various team members
Lastly, there is the type of group which affiliates
but temporarily and does not have any members other than
the players themselves.
The independent unit arid the arbi
trary unit furnish examples.
Here a common trophy such as
a cup is not suitable, for the team breaks up when the
particular competition is finished, and a cup would be
^ G. E* Hendry, wWhyNot Try Real Rewards?•* Reli­
gious Education, 27:43-9, January, 1932.
30
me an ingle ss,;as there would be no significant place to dis­
play it permanently.
For teams of such nature, individual
awards in the way of charms or medals are the proper
things.
The team as a whole is not considered.
Individual awards.
There may be some method for re-.
warding individuals when they compete without a group con­
nection.
It may be the case In the individualistic sports
such as track, swimming, tennis, handball, wrestling, etc.,
that they are not conducted as class affairs but rather as
open tournaments or meets for all eligible persons In
school.
In general the types of awards follow the same
description as those used for individual members of winning
teams.
The school letter or emblem has long been used in
the field of intramural athletics; it preferably should be
an inexpensive one.
B.
CLASSIFICATION OF AWARDS
Giving of awards. It is a well known fact that
human beings naturally seek personal achievement and social
approval.
Then awards In intramural athletics should be
merely some symbol of achievement.
Draper and Smith5 main­
tain that ;
3 Edgar M. Draper and George M, Smith, Intramural
Athletics (New York; A. S. Barnes and Company, 1930),
p. 75.
31
If the Ideal was not to he considered, and produc­
tion was the aim, then perhaps the most effective award
would be that which the person most desired. If, how­
ever, the award was to recognize past achievement and
stimulate further effort, and also to train and de­
velop the ideal, then obviously that which one most
desired could not be an expensive award because it
would center the goal within Itself Instead of being
the means to an end, A good award, then, should not
attract because of the value itself, but it should be
a stimulation to further effort. When there Is group
activity there should be group awards. The persons
who participate in a group should be rewarded as a
group.
Broome^ claims that there should be a definite rela­
tionship between the award and the activity reward.
The one should suggest the other so that each time
the award is seen the achievement in the activity it
represents should be recalled, and where is the harm
if one Is ruffed up in reminiscence? The need for
further awards to stimulate the activity they repre­
sent is ever present. It would seem that objective
awards are soon outgrown if the recipient reaches new
heights or realizes the ideal reward of satisfaction.
The usefulness of an award should be a factor in con­
sidering its selection. It is extravagance to put ex­
pense into something which will soon be thrown aside
as of no use.,
Broome further states:
The final capacity alone can be measured and re­
warded. ’’Effort’* never has been or never can be re­
warded. The unfairness which seems to creep in every
competition would undoubtedly be removed if effort
could be measured. It Is on this argument that the
persons who object to awards base their belief in the
unfairness of giving awards. Their indictment is
usually summed up as follows: Prizes at best are of
doubtful benefit. They usually fall to the one who
has the greatest natural ability and not to the one
4 E. C. Broome, ’’Prize Competitions in the School,’1
Journal of Education, 3:609, June, 1930.
32
who makes the greatest effort. They oftentimes arouse
hitter envy and jealousy, and are apt to estrange the
closest friends. They encourage pupils to work hard­
est for material returns rather than for the higher
hut less tangible benefits.5
g
Campbell
believes there are many psychological argu­
ments against any award plan, but that one need do but lit­
tle reflective thinking to realize that practically our
entire life plan is based on some form of award.
Who can tell the value to the individual of an
award which in itself is not of intrinsic value,
save that it represents to the individual some as­
sociation which is pleasant? The symbol is not the
reward, it is mere stimulus. The reward is the
pleasant emotional state set up in the individual.
There are a great many factors over which one has
no control, such as social approval, satisfaction,
applause, etc., all of which have bearing on the
individual,
As Cook*7 says, it is difficult to draw the line and
determine by what means a person is stimulated.
Thus, if ■
all tangible prizes and tokens were taken away, there would
still remain those intangible rewards which cannot be taken
away#
Those who argue that awards should be taken away
must replace this form of encouragement by another#
There is a great variance in the kinds of awards that
are presented to winning teams and individuals, and local
customs should be taken into consideration in making selec-
5 E. C.. Broome, loc. cit#
6 T. A. Campbell, wAwards,11 Mind and Body, 40:422,
March, 1934.
M. E#. Cook, f,tAn Intramural Program for Elementary
Schools,n Journa1 of Health and Physical Education, 4:46,
October, 1933#
17
33
tions.
8
Class Insignia. According to McCuen
numerals
awarded should represent the highest honor that it is pos­
sible for the intramural department to confer.
The award
should therefore be one which Is open to any student of
the school.
The size, color, and shape of the insignia is
entirely a local concern.
Cups. The questionnaire indicated that no schools
Issued cups as awards; this Is probably due to the expense
attached to.the purchase of loving cups.
In some cases
where cups might be deemed advisable as trophies, the
trophy catalogues of various firms provide a wide range of
selection in style and design.
Medals.
Kilpatrick^ explains that the most popular
types of awards under this category are three In number;
the small solid ball shaped like the balls used in the vari­
ous sports, the flat type used in many cases for track
events, and the flat medal which can be worn as a charm.
The third type is the one most favored in intramural pro­
grams as It does not conflict with the interscholastic type
of award. '
® T. L. McCuen, ’*A Program of Intramural Sports for
a Small High School,w American Physical Education Review,
4;46, October, 1933.
9 W. H. Kilpatrick, l*The Scaffolding of Character
Building,1* Woman1s Press, 43:584-6, August, 1934*
Trophy boards.
According to Roop-^ a very good
method that can he used to recognize either group or indi­
vidual merit permanently is to display trophy hoards on
the walls of various places.
On these hoards the names
of the sports are painted or burned, and the names of the
various winners can be inserted later.
Separate hoards
are needed for team and for individual sports.
This type
of award can usually be made in the manual training depart
ment for a. very nominal fee.
Other awards. Other types of awards issued are of
minor importance.
The report indicated that of these, rib
hons, emblems, and intramural school letters ranked high­
est.
Prizes, badges, pennants, etc. were used very little
G.
OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
Limitation of awards.
The problem of limitation of
awards was not discussed in the questionnaire sent to the
intramural directors, but in their programs It was noted
by the writer that only a few schools had limitations on
awards.
This was due to the lack of time, space, and num­
ber of men competing to limit awards to any extent.
Where
awards are so numerous it is, however, a factor worth men-
^ J., E. Roop, nNew Intramural Program,11 Journal
of Health and Physical Education, 3:23, March, 19327
35
tioning, not only from the standpoint of expense hut also
to prevent the awards from becoming so common as to lose
much of their value in the estimation of the students.
Limitations made on each sport will eliminate the using of
substitutes by a winning team merely to get them awards.
Soliciting of prizes.
Schools which give a large
number of awards sometimes attempt to save expense by
soliciting financial aid from local business men.
How-
ever, only in a very few cases is it desirable to solicit
awards according to Mitchell
gated this question.
11
who has carefully investi­
He says, *The custom of soliciting
the business people of the community for prizes and tro­
phies is one that should be discouraged.n
This does not
mean that help should never be secured in this way, but the
point to be remembered is not to seek help to the extent
that it will be considered as a nuisance and prejudice
people against the intramural idea itself.
Therefore, it
is well to concentrate on one drive and secure important
trophies that can be rotated from year to year.
Range of points.
The range of points mentioned by
the various respondents to the questionnaire was consider­
able.
One school gave as high as 1000 points for a winner,
Elmer D. Mitchell, Intramural Athletics
York; A. S. Barnes Company, 1925), p. 170.
(Hew
36
although the average was about 200 points.
As stated in
Chapter IX, many of the schools gave entry points and
points for each additional win, etc.
In the larger schools
the programs were divided into from one to three groups
for the different sports, and a variation of points was
used for each group.
The Oakland City Schools returned a
pamphlet with a very fine range of points; this gave 100
points for participation in all contests and 50 points for
winning, giving a possible total of 150 points.
Compara­
tively few schools had a diversified point system; as a
general rule 50 points was the minimum for participation,
and 150 points the minimum for the winner in group or in­
dividual activities.
D.
SUMMARY
Over two-thirds of the schools responding to the
questionnaire employed voluntary participation in the intra­
mural program, and only 13 per cent required boys to parti­
cipate in at least one event.
The high percentage of de­
pendency on voluntary competition carries with it the prob­
lem of stimulation, whether by tangible awards or by other
means.
Awards in general follow the pattern of competition;
that is, they may be given to groups as a whole, to individ­
ual members of a group, or to individuals not having a
group connection.
Which plan is followed is determined
largely by the permanence of the group and by the expense
Involved,
Considerable variance in the kinds of awards
exists, but the most popular are class Insignia, cups,
medals, trophy boards, and school letters.
Only a few
schools had limitations on the extent of competition and
the number of awards.
CHAPTER IV
ADMINISTRATION OP POINT SYSTEMS
A.
INTRODUCTION
The principles which should und.erlie the administra­
tion of a point system for intramural athletics are the same
as those appropriate to a sound policy of educational admin1
istration in general* As Johnston says,
The point system is a scheme for making more pro­
bable the attainment of certain aims of education*
As such, its administration is subject to the same
criteria as may be applied to classroom instruction
or the business administration of the school*
A system of administration must be adequate to achieve
the purposes for which it is installed.
According to Hamil-
ton, 2 in the case of the point system this means that the
application of the limitation features should be prompt and
effective, that sufficient administrative machinery should
be provided to bring the opportunities of intramural acti­
vities to the attention of all pupils, and that records
should be accurate and complete*
A further principle is that a system of administra­
tion should be as simple as is consistent with the achieve-
1 Edgar G. Johnston, Point Systems and Awards
York; A. S. Barnes and Company, 19SOT, p* 1T5•
(New
F* C*. Hamilton, WA Plan for Intramural Organiza­
tion,
American Physical Education Review, 34;422, Sep­
tember, 1939.
39
ment of its purposes.
is never desirable.
Unnecessary complication of machinery
Records which are unnecessary antagon­
ize all those who come in contact with them.
Wherever possible, administration should itself
afford education experience.
Delegation of administrative
details to pupils is not primarily a matter of economy, but
one of education.
The primary aim is to develop coopera-
tion and initiative among the students.
Thus, as Lindwall
3
maintains, the administration of the point system may well .
be an educational project.
Returns from the questionnaire
of this thesis indicated that no two schools had point
systems which were identical.
This gave room for indi­
viduals to employ all their originality towards the better­
ment of existing programs.
At the same time, however, advantage’s that might
follow from a standardized system of points should not be
overlooked.
Administrative devices representing.a dis­
tinct economy of time or energy, or a more effective record
of participation may well be made general throughout the
schools of California.
B.
ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATION
Data covering several phases of the administration*
3 Robert E. Lindwall, Intramural Activities (Manito­
woc, Wisconsin: Manitowoc Public Schools^ 1933), p. 88..
40
of the point system were collected from the schools in this
investigation, .Table VIII shows the organization for super­
vision of participation in the high schools,.
It is obvious that the appointment of a single ad­
ministrative officer or teacher to the administration of
a point system makes for simplicity of organization and
efficiency of performance.
It may, however, result in re­
ducing the number of those interested in the system.
In
several interviews with leaders in the field of intramural
activities the writer learned that in most cases the leaders
or directors were overloaded with regular school activities
and had little time for heading an intramural program.
In
some of these cases it is possible that a competent student
manager or a student council could have administered the
point systems.,
C.
STUDENT LEADERS
In a large number of cases in which the home room
and similar groups acted as administrators of the point
systems, literature showed the trend toward the appointment
of room or club leaders.
The groups, meeting on a regular
schedule, present an easy method of keeping in constant
touch with a pupil’s program and providing a continuous
survey of participation.
This method of participation on
the part of the student is being increasingly recognized
41
TABLE VIII
DISTRIBUTION OP STAFF RESPONSIBILITY IN
INTRAMURAL PROGRAMS
Supervisor of the Intramural
Program
Number of
Schools
Per Cent
of Total
Coach
16
34
Coach and physical education
director
11
23
Physical education Instructor
14
30
Coach and faculty member
3
7
Facility manager
1
3
Student manager
1
3
46
100
Total
Note; This table should be read as follows: The
position of supervisor of the intramural program was filled
by the coach in 16 schools, or 34 per cent of the number
responding to this part of the questionnaire; etc*
as an important instrument for citizenship training.
It was disappointing to note that but ten schools
out of the forty-two reporting on this question had a
student 'manager in any capacity in their organization.
This is the most important post in the department to be
filled by a student, and it is generally true that the
position is most efficiently filled by a senior.
A man­
ager^ position is one of leadership; he should be de­
pendable, cooperative, and prompt.
Alert managers anti­
cipate the wishes of supervisors and perform a desired
task before it is suggested as necessary.
Several methods are used in the selection of man4
agers, Johnson having summarized those in common use. A,
frequent method is to have a committee of three, con­
sisting of the intramural supervisor, the athletic coach,
and the outgoing manager,
select the new manager.
schools where the supervisor and
In
the coach are the same
person, the principal may act as the third member.
An­
other plan is for the new manager to be chosen by popular
vote of the student body*.
In the larger schools the graduate plan is used.
The number of intramural managers needed in this type of
4 Ronald Lee Johnson, 11The Organization and Adminis
tration of Intercollegiate Intramurals,11 (unpublished
Masterfs thesis, University of Southern California, Los
Angeles, 1932), p. 99.
43
extensive program is a qiiestion which must be decided ac­
cording to the size and type of the student body and of
the intramural program*
As a general rule the most popu­
lar numbers are eight, ten, or twelve managers chosen by
their length of service from their freshman to senior
years in school.
The chief duties of a student manager were outlined
by Little^ as follows:
1* Have a team entered in every sport and have an
eligibility list in before the closing date.
2.
Notify all team members as to place, date, and
time of contests, and see that they are there on time.
3.
Find out where postponed games are to be played.
4. Be familiar with the rules governing all sports,
and especially with the eligibility rules.
5. Keep a record of the sports participated in by
individuals and the number of times each one partici­
pates.
6. Be on hand at all games played by your team,
and write the names and classes of each player in
the score’book.7. Notify the scorer or any changes to be made in
the lineup.
8. Demand and set a high standard of sportsmanship
for your group. Remember that these sports are carried
on for the fun and enjoyment and friendly contacts that
may be made in games. Take losses and victories in a
spirit of good sportsmanship..
In the matter of awards to the Intramural manager, It
5 George Little, ^Intramural Athletics for Boys,n
Junior-Senior High School Clearing House, 5:134-9, November,
1930'.
Is generally felt that an award of some nature Is of great
value.
Some schools award small keys which can be worn on
watch chains.
Intramural numerals are used In some schools
and medals or sweaters in others.
Any award of suitable
form tends to create an incentive for the managers to do
their work well.
Different awards may be used in differ­
ent organizations, but they all serve a purpose and their
use is a common and popular practice.
D.
SCHEDULE M A K I NG
It was very disappointing to note that but few
schools in California had a definite means of organizing
competition.
In Interviewing several of the directors in
the field it was noted that schedule making was one of the
most difficult problems encountered by the directors.
Some
of the schools used two or more methods of schedule organi­
zation, as shown in Table IX.
Round-robin tournaments♦ Round-robin tournaments
are the most suitable for organizing competition because
they allow each team In the league to meet every other one
at least once.
Sometimes this method is not possible in
schools where the time and facilities are limited, but 64
per cent of the questionnaire respondents having organized
games for competition used this form.
45
Double-elimination tournaments.
Double-elimination
tournaments are perhaps the better of the elimination types
of competition because they allow each team to be defeated
twice before being put entirely out of the running.
This
type may also be run as a consolation when the winners play
the winners and the losers play the losers, and in the
finals the winner and loser on each side of the bracket
play for the championship.
The system takes considerably
more time than the single-elimination type of tournament,
but 36 per cent of the questionnaire respondents having
organized games for competition utilized it to some extent#
Single-elimination tournaments.
Single-elimination
tournaments are the least desirable because they discour­
age the poorest players and place undue emphasis on winning.
Once a team or individual is eliminated in this type of com­
petition, he has no chance to be reinstated or prove it was
an 11off dayn when he or his team played.
This type of
tournament was used to some extent by 28 per cent of the
questionnaire respondents having organized games for com­
petition.
Ladder or perpetual tournaments,
Ladder or perpetual
tournaments are used for individual sports such as golf,
tennis, etc.
They give players a constant rating and are
especially suited to small schools where the players know
46
TABLE IX
METHODS OP ORGANIZING COMPETITION IN
' THE INTRAMURAL PROGRAM
Method
Number of
Schools
Per
Cent
Round-robin tournaments
9
64
Double-elimination tournaments
5
36
Single-elimination tournaments
4
28
Ladder tournament s
4
28
Note; This table should be read as follows: Roundrobin tournaments were used by nine schools, or 64 per cent
of those responding to this section of the questionnaire;
etc. It will be noted that several schools used more than
one method of competition in their intramural programs.
47
each other well#
A good plan In this type of tournament is
to permit challenges only three or four places higher on
the ladder.
This prevents the leaders from heing con­
stantly challenged by unskilled players.
This type of
tournament was used to some extent by 28 per cent of the
questionnaire respondents having organized intramural corapetition#
Other types.
Several other plans for competition
were used to some extent, the outstanding being the meet
plan, the challenge plan, and the all-school meets#
E#
PARTICIPATION REPORTS
In interviewing several directors in the intramural
field It was the opinion of the'majority that the best way
to popularize intramurals is to show their results by par­
ticipation records.
It was frequently expressed that if
the high school officials could be taken into the intramural
office and shown intramural records there would be no
further need for debate#
The percentages of participation,
the competing units, and all other pertinent factors could
be shown to the officials at a moment1s glance.
In Table IV, page 21, it was indicated that a con­
siderable number of schools had not developed the record
phase of their intramural programs.
Eighteen schools, or
48
35 per cent, did keep records; while twenty-six schools, or
50 per cent, did not keep individual records.
Group rec­
ords were kept hy-twenty-two schools, or 42 per cent; and
only sixteen schools, or 30 per cent, kept permanent rec­
ords.
This appears to he a definite weakness.
There is no definite plan for the filing of intra­
mural records which can he used universally; however, the
libraries, hook stores, and office equipment firms have an
extensive amount of material on organizing and maintaining
records•
At the end of each season it is well to prepare a
summary of all competition, showing comparative standings
of the various organizations and student participators.
These records can he prepared by managers from the game
records, and they will help to stimulate competition as
well as build a name for the intramural department.
The
school newspaper is a valuable media for publicizing and
stimulating an intramural program.
F.
CLASSIFICATION FOR COMPETITION
In the successful intramural program one of the most
important factors is the organization of the competing
units.
The number and kinds of groups are dependent on the
enrollment and organization of the school.
For example,
some schools have a homeroom organization and much extra-
49
curricular activity, while others have very little or no
organized extracurricular work.
Classrooms.
Thirty-two supervisors, or 77 per cent
of those answering this part of the questionnaire, approved
of the use of the school classroom as a suitable competitive
unit.
In many schools the classes were the permanent divi­
sions and were therefore the only competing units.
In all
probability this was partly due to the fact that the intra­
mural program had not yet been organized to its fullest
extent.
Then, too, the natural rivalry of class groups
furnishes needed enthusiasm for the program.
G-ymnasium classes. When age and ability are con­
cerned, gymnasium classes form good competing units because
there is a wide range of students in each group.
The sport
fundamentals can be taught during the class period and part
of the competition carried on then.
This type of competi-
tion-~within the section--makes intramural activities a
part of the physical education program.
Where the pupils
are divided into sections for gymnasium work, regular
schedules of competition can be carried on within each
section and also among the different sections.
If desired, the selection of the champions of the
various sections can be followed up by an additional series
among the winners.
Table X shows that twenty-seven schools
50
TABLE X
SCHOOL UNITS USED FOR COMPETITION IN
TEAM AND INDIVIDUAL ACTIVITIES
Units
Number of
Schools
Per
Cent
Class teams
32
77
Gymnasium classes
27
65
Teams chosen by captains
13
30
Home rooms
3
8
Clubs
2
5
Color groups
1
2
Note: This table should he read as follows: Class
teams were used as units of competition by 32 schools, or
77 per cent of those resx^onding to this part of the ques­
tionnaire; etc. It will be noted that' several of the
schools used more than one type of competition unit in
their intramural programs.
51
■used the gymnasium classes as competing units.
Teams selected by captains. Although 30 per cent
of the schools permitted captains to choose the teams in
the competing units, most physical education teachers admit
there is a lessening of enthusiasm for participation based
on the ^pickup1* team idea, and interest has to be stimu­
lated artificially through such means as academic credit,
prizes, or emphasis on the health benefits of exercise#
In other words, while the competition itself is enjoyable,
it is hard to get the activities started and under way#
Units which carry with them a strong tie of loyalty are
the ones best able to overcome this difficulty..
Homerooms.
Homeroom groups were used by only
three schools of the group questioned.
These often prove
desirable and permanent units when the school has this
type of organization.
The scheme is found very popular
in some schools and the rivalry between the different ses­
sion rooms is easy to stir up because of the common
assembly place.
This makes a feeling of unity, facili­
tates the giving of announcements, and gives1
'more pride in
the possession of group trophies.
Clubs.
units.
Only two schools used clubs as competing
These groups enlarge and add variety to the intra­
mural program, but their size and stability is a limiting
52
factor in small schools.
Their existence is dependent very
largely upon the interest -shown Toy the’principal in extra­
curricular activities.
Some of the clubs commonly found
are- those in departments of science, art, and languages,
and the lettermen* s clubs^.
Color groups.
of competing unit.
Only one school designated this type
This would seem to indicate that the
scheme is losing ground and is perhaps used only in some
of the smaller schools.
Subdivisions.
In a successful intramural program
in high schools it is very essential to have a formula for
dividing individuals into classes to insure equalization
of competition.
On this part of the questionnaire, seven­
teen schools, or 45 per cent of the total, listed the ageweight-height system as the method of subdivision; while
fourteen, or 37 per cent, used the California four-point
system.
Three schools used large groups, apparently
selected at random, three used ability groupings, and one
used a three-point scale.
Table XI summarizes the find­
ings.
Age-welght-height system.
The age-weight-height
system and the California four-point system are the two
outstanding systems of subdivision, with the former being
used slightly more frequently.
These groupings are based
53
on the theory that all students should he classified in
different groups according to their capacities to enter
into different levels of graded activities.
This capacity
can best be determined by the aid of physical examinations .
and skill tests.
For fairness and safety it seems better
to classify individuals in all competitive events accord­
ing to units of height, weight, and age.
Any one of these
factors used by itself is generally unsatisfactory, but the
combination usually gives effective and equitable grouping.
California four-point system.
This classification
plan takes into consideration grade, age, height, and weight,
and has been the foundation for classification of high
school boys for interscholastic competition in California
since 1922.
Some schools have modified the plan to some
7
extent for use in intramural competition.
G.
ADMINISTRATIVE DIFFICULTIES
In interviewing the directors of various intramural
systems it was frequently pointed out that their greatest
administrative difficulty was the installation of an ade­
quate point system.
This was partly due in some cases to
lack of knowledge on the part of the director, yet the fact
6 See Robert E. Lindwall, _op. cit., p. 37.
*7 See N. P. Neilson and Winifred Von Hagen, A. Manual
for Physical Activities for Elementary Schools (Sacramento:
California State Printing Office, 1929), p'. 29..
54
TABLE XI
DIVISION OP COMPETING GROUPS
Basis for Division
Number of
Schools
Per
Cent
Age-weight-height plan
17
45
California four-point plan
14
37
Large groups
3
8
Ability
3
8
Three-point plan
1
3
Note: This table should he read as folloYJs; The
basis for division of competing groups was according to the
age-weight-height plan In seventeen schools, or 45 per cent
of the number responding to this section of the question­
naire; etc.
5-5 ■
that twenty-fcrnr schools, or 46 per cent of those responding
to this part of the questionnaire, were not satisfied with
their point systems is a direct challenge.
When replying in the negative to the question, wAre
you satisfied with your point system?1* the directors were
asked to state briefly why they were not satisfied.
In­
variably the answer was that their method of scoring was
inadequate.
All were of the opinion that a scoring system
was a fine incentive for a greater participation.
In read­
ing literature returned with some of the questionnaires it
was Indicated that in every case where a program was
flourishing, a point system was emphasized.
Some directors
insisted, however, that point systems must be local
devices developed for special circumstances at specific
schools.
CHAPTER V
SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS
A.
SUMMARY -
After studying the point systems of numerous high
school intramural programs throughout California by the use
of a questionnaire, examination of intramural publications,
a library study, and personal interviews, the writer be­
lieves that it is highly possible that a standardized sys­
tem of points could be set up which would be of service to
all school organizations, large or small.
In general, the
point systems found in California at the time of this
survey were inadequate.
The questionnaire brought out
decided weaknesses in most of the programs.
Some schools
had no point system at all, while others placed much empha­
sis on a well-rounded system of awards.
Since programs are
so greatly influenced by the size of the school, type of
students,-climatic conditions, and various other factors,
the writer will endeavor to present a point system which
is simple, flexible, and usable in any type of high school.
In reviewing the established point systems it was
noted that a wide variation of features of the range of
points existed.
In general, however, there were several
elements of similarity.
For example, most of the schools
57
favored a scoring plan for competition which gave five jjoints
for first place, three for second place, two for third
place, and one for fourth place.
Those schools which did
not have a workable system were eager to have a method they
could use.
It was a common practice among the larger
schools to have a well-organized plan for keeping records
and presenting awards on the basis of point systems.
The
outstanding weakness in the smaller high schools arose
directly from the fact that the schools were too small and
the director felt that he did not have time to ^bother1* with
an intramural program.
To some school directors the chief purpose in the
control of extracurricular activities has been the preven­
tion of overloading of individual pupils with outside in­
terests.,
Such overloading often results in a decline in
scholarship, or the students may develop slipshod habits
of performance of duties In the various activities under­
taken.
Some schools place a limitation on participation in
order that all-students may find a place.
This system is
called nsimple l i m i t a t i o n . I t requires a numerical limi­
tation on the points which an individual may accumulate*
A second type of system is the Mmajor and minor1*
^- Edgar G. Johnston, Point Systems and Awards
York: A. S* Barnes Company, 1950), pp. 1-2.
(New
58
system.
This is an attempt to recognize the fact that acti­
vities differ in the amount of time and energy which they
demand of the pupil and in importance to the eyes of the
student body.
This system divides the points among the ■
'
various types of sports.
For example, basketball may be
considered a major sport and a maximum of 100 points given
for winning, while ping pong may be considered a minor
sport and only 50 points given for winning.
The third type of point system is the point scale.
Here some number of points is assigned to each activity.
Where the system is used for limitation a number of points
is set which no pupil may exceed during a specified time.
On the other hand, forms of this system are used in many
cases with no purpose of limitation, but rather with stimu­
lation of activity as their aim, and with various awards
given*
Stimulating participation.
The questionnaire showed
that many methods of stimulating intramural sports existed,
but that the outstanding ones were point systems, recogni­
tion of achievement, and awards.
Of the total schools responding, 69 per cent had a
voluntary method of intramural participation, indicating
that the program must be made attractive to entice students
to participate.
Compulsory methods of participation were
employed by but 13 per cent of the schools, and these were
59
generally the smaller schools where intramural activities
were used as academic credits for physical education re­
quirements.
Extra points were given "by 19 per cent of the
schools for participation in team games for the group,
while 25 per cent of the schools did not.
In the tourna­
ment type of competition, 11 per cent of the schools gave
entry points and 23 per cent did not.
In the individual
type of competition for tournaments, 13 per cent of the
schools gave entry points, and 25 per cent did not.
And
in all-school meets 19 per cent of the schools gave indi­
vidual entry points while 25 per cent did not.
Use of awards. The directors of the various intra­
mural programs indicated that cups, pennants, emblems, and
school letters were the outstanding awards for group and
individual competition.
Achievement, social.approval, and
public recognition rated first, second, and third, as to the
best means of arousing interest.
Range of points.
The range of points ‘given for win­
ning an event was from 50 to 1000, with few schools at
either extreme.
Generally 200 to 250 points were given
winners of both individual and group sports.
Those schools
dividing their programs into major and minor sports gen­
erally gave 100 points for entering competition and 50
points for winning, making a possible total of 150 points.
60
With the exception of a few schools, point systems
and awards were the only means of arousing interest in the
various■programs. Where required participation was used
as a means of stimulation, point systems and awards were
minor, as the real goal was the academic credit given,
Administration of point systems.
In most cases it
was found that the coach was the intramural supervisor,
although the physical education director often had this
position.
In only one school was a student manager in
charge of the intramural program,
As regards records, 25 per cent of the schools kept
individual records, and 42 per cent kept group records.
Only 30 per cent of the schools kept permanent records.
It was disappointing to note that but ten schools
out of forty-two reporting had a manager for their point
systems.
No schools had a point system committee.
Only 14
per cent of the schools were entirely satisfied with their
existent form of point systems, indicating weakness again
on the part of organization and administration.
B . RECOMMENDATIONS
General recommendations.
This investigation has
shown that the point system phase of Intramural activities
is comparatively underdeveloped.
Leading authorities In
the field have pointed out that intramural athletics should
61
be an important part of the program in the fulfillment of
the l*play for alln objective of physical education.
That
many of the individual high schools of California have made
some progress in the development of point systems indicates
that they are moving in the right direction*
Motivation is especially important in promoting any
new activity such as intramural athletics*
The recognition
of achievement, social approval, and writeups in local
newspapers, school papers, year books, etc. are regarded
as the best means of creating interest.
Other methods
which are of considerable importance are the issuing of
school letters and other types of awards.
A H methods of stimulating intramural participation
mentioned were dependent on some method of rating the
achievement of individuals.
The questionnaire results
showed a decided weakness in this rating phase of most
programs.
A close scrutiny of the data, however, showed
that the lack of time and ability to establish a point sys­
tem were generally the chief causes of this weakness or
deficiency.
Specific recommendations.
After careful considera­
tion of the facts presented in this study, the following
recommendations are submitted:
1,
That an individual other than the regular ath­
letic coach be a supervisor of the intramural program and
point system.
2.
That the department personnel Include a student
senior manager for the program and point system,
3.
That pupils he allowed to take part in as many
sports as they wish during a season,
4.
That awards be given both groups and individuals
and that these awards be inexpensive.
5.
That the following proposed intramural point
system be tried in the high schools of California::
a.
An appropriate award should be given to the
group or individual scoring the highest number of points
according to this system throughout the school year.,
b.
The standing of each group or individual
participant should be determined on a point basis, and each
individual should have a running score kept throughout the
year to show relative standing in the different sports.,
c.
The intramural sports should be classified
into major, minor, and all-school divisions.
The major
sports should be those that are generally more popular,
such as baseball, basketball, touch football, etc.
Minor
sports are those that are not so popular in the majority
of schools and generally require a smaller number of en­
tries; examples are tennis, handball, horseshoes, etc.
All
school sports are those in which all organizations come to­
gether in one big meet; examples are cross-country runs,
swimming meets, track meets, etc.
63
d.
Po p
major sports, 50 points should he awarded
for entrance, and additional points totalling 100 for win­
ning the championship.
For minor sports the number of
points awarded for entrance should be 35, and for winning,
65 additional.
For all-school sports the award should be
40 points for entrance, and 20 points additional for win­
ning.
e.
The sports should be competed in under two dif­
ferent methods— tournaments and meets.
Tournaments are
events which last a considerable time and may be played
on either a percentage or an elimination basis.
The bet­
ter type for this is the double-elimination plan where a
group must lose twice before it is eliminated.
On the per­
centage plan each group plays each other group at least
once in each league, and the winner is the one with the
greatest total number of victories.
ment is an example of this plan.
A round-robin tourna­
Meets include events
where the championship is decided on the results of a day
or more of competition.
f.
If a tournament is conducted on the straight
elimination plan, 50 points should be given for entering a
team and 100 additional points given to the winning entry.
In order to determine points for second, third, and fourth
place winners, the percentage of games won should be applied
to the 100 points for the first place winner.
64
g.
In a meet, 50 points should he given for
entry of a required number of participants, and 100 points
additional given to the winning entry.
In order to deter­
mine additional points for second, third, and fourth place
winners, the score of the first place team should be
divided into 100, and then multiplied by the scores of the
other teams in turn.
It is felt that the foregoing recommendations, if
carried out, may help appreciably in overcoming some of the
problems currently facing high school intramural athletics,
and also increase the uniformity of competition and re­
wards •,
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BIBLIOGRAPHY
A*
BOOKS
Campbell,'William G., A Form Book for Thesis Writing# Los
Angeles: U n i v e r s i t y of 'Southern California Press,
1935. 75 pp.
An indispensable treatise on form for thesis writing.
Crawford, Claude C., The Technique of Research in Education.
Los Angeles: University of Southern California Press,
1928. 306 pp.
A comprehensive book on the details of research work.
Draper, Edgar M., and George M. Smith, Intramural Athletics♦
New York: A. S. Barnes and Company, 1930. 13*7 pp.
Sports are discussed in regard to reason and feasi­
bility, means of publicity, student managerial sys­
tems, scoring systems, etc.. This should be a hand­
book for the intramural director*
Fretwell, Elbert H., Extracurricular Activities in Secondary Schools. Cambridge; Houghton Mifflin Company,
T9S8~ 552~pp.
A complete treatise on the extracurricular activities
in secondary schools.
Good, Carter V., How to Do Research in Education. Balti­
more: Warwick and YorE," 1626. 2U£T pp.
A handbook of various phases of educational research.
Johnston, Edgar G., Point Systems and Awards.
A. S. Barnes and Company, 1930. 156 pp.
Hew York:
An investigation to determine the current practice
among senior high schools in the use of the point systems.
Koos, Leonard V., Questionnaires in Education.
The Macmillan Company, 1928. 176 pp.
New York:
A handbook for use in preparation of the questionnaire
for educational research.,
67
Lindwall, Robert E., Intramural Activities. Manitowoc, Wis­
consin; Manitowoc Public Schools, 1933. 88 pp.
A complete treatise on the
for junior and senior high
Mitchell, Elmer D., Intramural
Barnes and Company, 1925.
subject of intramural sports
schools.,
Athletics. New
191 pp.
York; A. S.
A comprehensive treatment of intramural sports in gen­
eral. Plans for organizing, scoring, administering,
and giving awards are discussed.
Staley, S. C., Individual and Mass Athletics. New York;
A. S. Barnes and Company, 1$S5'. 2~51 pp.
Eleven methods of scoring are listed.
Williams, J. P., Organization and Administration of Physica.1 Education. New York; The Macmillan Company,1950.
32U p p .
A standard textbook in the field of physical education.
B.
PERIODICAL ARTICLES
Blom, E. C., ^Correlating Business Activities of Newspaper
Boys with School Work.1’ School Executives* Magazine,
51;251-3, February, 1932.
Brammell, P. R., Intramural and Interscholastic Athletics.
National Survey of Secondary Education Monograph No. 27,
Bulletin No. 17, 1932..
Broome, E. C.., nPrize Competitions in the School.T* Journa 1
of Education, 3:609-11, June, 1930.
Buehler, J. B., f,Noon Hour Intramural Organization.11 Journal of Health and Physical Education, 3:34-6, October,
T532.
An article of practical ideas including a uniatie basis
for determining school championships.
Campbell, Thomas A., nAwards.n
March, 1934.
Mind and Body, 40:321-4,
An article justifying awards as a means of furnishing
Incentives.
68
Cohen, Gertrude, ”A Point System of Awards in Athletics for
Girls.11 High Points, 16:55-8, April, 1934,
Cook, M. E., ”An Intramural Program for Elementary Schools*1’
Journal of Health and Physical Education, 4:46, October,
1933.
Discusses experiments with systems of awards and point
systems•
Driftmier, Edna, ’’The Ladder Tournament.” Journa 1 of Health
and Physical Education, 2:36, October, 1931.
Hamilton, P. C., ”A Plan for Intramural Organization.” American Physical Education Review, 34:422-4, September,
A point system where individual achievement is stimu­
lated throughout the four-year school period.
Hpndry, Charles E., ”Why Not Try Real Rewards?”
Education, 27:43-9, January, 1932.
Religious
Six arguments for the use of awards.
Hinman, Strong, ’’Point Systems of Awards.” American Physi­
cal Education Review, 34:415, September, 1929•
An excellent, workable system of awards.
Kilpatrick, W. H., ’’The Scaffolding of Character Building.”
Woman1s Press, 43*584-6, August, 1924.
Types of awards found in use In high schools..
Lindwall, Robert E., ’’High School,Intramurals ,” Journal of
Health and Physical Education, 2:44-6, May, 1931.
Little, George, ’’intramural Athletics for Boys.” JuniorSenior High School Clearing House, 5:134-9, November',
1936.:
Discusses a point system of award which has been found
sufficient to create an intense interest in intramural
activi ties.
McCuen, T. L., ”A Program of Intramural Sports for the Small
High School.” American Physical Education Review, 34:
188-92, March, 1969.
69
An article on the three principal types of awards,
Roop, Joseph E., uNew Intramural Program.w Journal of
Health and Physical Education, 3;23, March, T9'32.
An article on the classes of trophies now in use.
Swackamer, G. E., nIntramural Athletics in Senior High
Schools.n Journal of Health and Physical Education,
3:40-4-2, June, 1932.
A treatise on the awarding of plaques, loving cups,
and individual medals.
Wagner, Miriam, ^Intramurals and the Women’s Athletic Asso­
ciation.11 American Physical Education Association
Research Quarterly, 2 ;206-13, March, I9'ST.
Wiggins, B. E., nHigh School Intramural Program.11 Journal
of Health and Physical Education, 2:22-4, January, 1931*
0.
UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS
Hermle, Otto Barnes, nThe Present Status of Intramural Sports
in the Los Angeles Junior High Schools with Special
Reference to Boys’ Activities.w Unpublished Master’s
thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles,
1927. 122 pp.
Johnson, Ronald Lee, f,The Organization and Administration
of Intercollegiate Intramurals.11 Unpublished Master’s
thesis, University of Southern Galifornia, Los Angeles,
1932. 99 pp.
Palfrey, Ernest R., 11A Critical Survey of the Intramural
Program In the Rural High Schools of California.w. Un­
published Master’s thesis, University of Southern Cali­
fornia, Los Angeles, 1935. 101 pp.
APPENDICES
APPENDIX A
Fresno, California .
To Departments of Physical Education:
The writer has undertaken a survey of the Stand­
ardization of Intramural Point Systems in California
High Schools.
I am working for my Master’s degree at the Uni­
versity of Southern California, attempting to standardize
a point system for Intramural athletics in the high
schools of California. Various solutions are no doubt
possible, but it Is desirable that a state survey be
made on the subject.
You will make a valuable contribution to this
survey by checking the enclosed questionnaire and re­
turning it at your earliest convenience.
Sincerely yours,
Earl Hill
72
APPENDIX B
QUESTIONNAIRE
STANDARDIZATION OP INTRAMURAL POINT SYSTEMS
IN CALIFORNIA HIGH SCHOOLS
(Please check the answers or fill in the blanks
with either the proper number or statement.)
I.
GENERAL QUESTIONS
1.
What is the average daily attendance of boys in your
school?
2.
How many boys compete each year in intramural
sports? __________ •
3.
How long have you had an intramural point system in
your school? __________ •
4.
Remarks
II.
ADMINISTRATION OP POINT SYSTEM
5.
Who Is in charge of your intramural program?
Coach
____________
FacultyMember____
P.E. Instructor
Other______________
6.
Do you
a.
b.
c.
d.
7.
Do you have a point system committee?
8.
By whom Is the participation record kept?
Students ___ Director ___ Principal____
9.
What are your classification bases for competition?
Class teams
Home rooms
keep:
Individual record cards? ______
Team record cards? ____________
Permanent record cards? _____
A point system manager? _______ .
Yes
No\
73
Gym classes _____
Classes______
Color groups
Others
Bus units _ _ _ _ _
Teams chosen by intramural supervisor
Teams chosen by leaders or captains.______
10,
What is your division within the larger group?
Age-weight-height ______
Hew York plan
____
Rodgers exponent
Reilly exponent
McCloy classification index _____
Brace’s motor ability tests
California four-point classification plan
Others
III.
METHODS OF AROUSING INTEREST
11.
Is participation voluntary?
12.
Is participation required for %
a. Academic credit Yes
b. Graduation
Yes _
13.
No
No
Amount ____
Amount __
List in order of rank, the five best methods of
arousing Interest In your program.
Team
Individual
Achievement
Social approval
Public recognition
___
Honor society
Badges
___
___
Cups
Emblems
___
___
Medals
___
__ _
Plaques
_
___
Pennants
___
___
School letters
Ribbons
Others
.
IV.
14-.
No ___ .
Yes
TYPES OP POINT SYSTEMS IN USE
Are entry points given
Individual sports
Team sports
All-school meets
Tournaments
for:
Yes
Yes
Yes __
Ye s
No
No
No
No
How
~ How
~ How
~■ How
many
many
many
many
74
15.
How many points are given for the following places in;
Individual meets
1st __ 2nd
3rd
4th________
Team meets
1st2nd __ 3rd
4th .
16.
In any one of the following scoring methods,
many points are given each?
a . Double elimination participant
tournament
b. Single elimination participant
tournament
c . Round robin
participant
tournament
d. Ladder
participant
tournament
how
match
match
match
match
17.
Do you give additional points for high point?
a. Team
Yes __
No ___ ■
How many _____
h. Individual
Yes __
No .
__
How many _____ .
18.
How do you penalize teams forfeiting in;
a. Individual events _____________________________
b. Group events _________________________ _____
c. Others ____ _____________________________ ____ _
19.
How many points are given:
a. Team major awards
minor awards____
b. Individual major awards
minor awards ___
20
.
Is there a limit to the number of points an individual
may earn?
Yes ___
No___ ____
Number .
21.
Please check the following sports in your program.
Badminton______ _____
Basketball _____
Baseball_______ _____
Boxing
_____
Touch Football _____
Handball
_____
Track and Field ____
Golf_______ ~____
Playground Ball _____
Ping Pong _____
Volley Ball____ _____
Soccer____ _____
Horseshoes_____ _____
Swimming
_____
Wrestling______ _____
Tennis
_____
Speedball______ ____
Others
_____
22.
How many points are given for;
a. Entering a team '
b. Perfect team attendance
c. Entering an individual event
d. Perfect individual attendance"
75
23.
How many points are deducted for;
a. Irregular team attendance
b. Irregular individual attendance
c. Unsportsmanlike conduct _____ .
V.
INSTALLING A POINT SYSTEM
24.
Are you satisfied with your present intramural
point system?
Yes ___
No
.
25.
If the answer to the above question Is no, briefly
state the reasons why you are dissatisfied with
your present program. ____________ ______ ________
26.
If you publish handbooks or folders concerning your
program, or if you have any forms of special Interest,
the writer would be very grateful to receive copies
of the same.
76
APPENDIX G
SPORTS USED IN INTRAMURAL PROGRAMS OP SCHOOLS
RESPONDING TO QUESTIONNAIRE
Sport
Number of Schools
Basketball
44
Baseball
37
Track and Field
35
Tennis
32
Boxing
23
Swimming
21
Handball
20
Horseshoes
20
Playground Ball
20
Football
20
Wrestling
16
Golf
15
Volley Ball
15
Soccer
14
Ping Pong
11
Speedball
11
Touch Football
11
Badminton
5
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