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An evaluation of the present status of physical education in the junior high schools of northwest Texas

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AN EVALUATION OP THE PRESENT STATUS OP PHYSICAL
EDUCATION IN THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS OF
NORTHWEST TEXAS
A Thesis
Presented to
the Faculty of the School of Education
The University of Southern California
In Partial*Fulfillment
of the Requirement for the Degree
Master of Science in Education
by
Lovic H« Liston
August 1940
UMI Number: EP54064
All rights reserved
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a note will indicate the deletion.
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UMI EP54064
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unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code
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789 East Eisenhower Parkway
P.O. Box 1346
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T h is thesis, w r i t t e n u n d e r the d ir e c tio n o f the
C h a ir m a n o f the c a nd id a te ’ s G u id a n c e C o m m itte e
a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l m em bers o f the C o m m itte e ,
has been presented to a n d accepted by the F a c u l t y
o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a t io n in p a r t i a l f u lfillm e f n t
o f the re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f M a s t e r o f
Science in E d u c a tio n .
D ean
Guidance Com m ittee
Pauline M. Fr©<iei ^
C hairm an
Wm. R. LaPorte
P. J. Weersing
/& £ .,
Dedication
There is one who has always been
ready to give encouragement and good
cheer all along the road of educational
pursuit. I dedicate this work to her—
my Mother.
L.H.L.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
I wish to take this opportunity to acknowldege
indebtedness to several persons who have rendered assis­
tance in making this study possible*
To Dr. Pauline Frederick, I wish to express my
gratitude for her faithful supervision, good-natured patience,
and sincere interest.
Without her loyal support and her
steady guidance this work would have been impossible.
To Dr. E. C. Davis, Pennsylvania State College, who
worked so patiently with me through physical education
practicums, I am deeply indebted.
To Miss Marie Miles, Lubbock, Texas> who offered
helpful criticisms and suggestions in English usage, and
who did the final typing, I wish to express my sincere
thanks•
To the members of the University of Southern
California Library staff who have rendered kind assistance
to the preparation of this study, I wish to show my appre­
ciation.
Lovic H. Liston
Los Angeles, 8 August 1940
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.
PAGE
INTRODUCTION
. .
......................
1
The problem............................
2
Statement of the p r o b l e m ............
2
Nature and purpose of the study.......
3
Importance of the problem.............
4
Scope of the investigation...........
7
Related investigations
.............. •
•
Methods of p r o c e d u re ..................
Organization of the remaining chapters
II.
8
12
.
•
15
PLAN OF STATE ORGANIZATION FOR PRODUCTION .
.
17
*
17
Educational thinking on physical education
revision
...................... .
State committees for production • • • • • •
Work of the production committees • • • •
Functions of the study organizations
•
...
The suggested areas of content material •
III.
28
30
31
.
33
ORGANIZATION OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAM
IN NORTHWEST T E X A S ....................
State requirements of physical education
35
•
35
Time allotment to physical education and
pupil participation .......
Assignment of students to classes.......
36
47
V
CHAPTER
IV,
PAGE
ORGANIZATION OF CLASSES FOR INSTRUCTION . . .
51
The instruction p e r i o d ............
51
Size of classes........................
55
Program activities for instruction and
time allotment
.......
.........
58
.....
67
The use of a core program.............
69
The corrective p r o g r a m ...............
69
The intramural p r o g r a m .........
72
Routine organization
...............
73
Regular use of the gymnasium.........
75
Requirement of gymnasium suits
77
Squad organization
•
•• • •
Requirement of daily s h o w e r s .........
Marking and grading . . .
.............
State requirements and suggestions
V.
•• • •
PERSONNEL OF TEACHING STA FF ...............
Academic preparation.........
79
79
85
89
92
Membership in professional organizations
and use of professional literature
VI.
...
95
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS..................
102
F i n d i n g s .............................
102
Conclusions.........
106
Recommendations........................
107
Recommendations for further study •
110
•• • •
vi
CHAPTER
PAGE
BIBLIOGRAPHY.........
112
A P P E N D I X .....................................
122
LIST OP TABLES
TABLE
I*
II*
III.
PAGE
Years of Required Physical Education . . . • •
44
Methods of T e a c h i n g ...........* .........
52
Core and Elective Activities and Time
Allotment
....................
60
IV.
Other Activities Offered . . . • • • • • • • •
62
V.
Program for the Junior High S c h o o l s .......
66
VI.
Classified Athletic Games of Low Organization.
68
VII.
VIII.
*••••
Items Used in Grading
..............
82
Course of S t u d y ...................
87
IX.
Types and Use of Course of Study • • • • • • •
87
X,
Studies in College: Majors and Minors • • • •
94
Professional Association Membership
96
XI.
XII.
• • • • •
Publications Read by Instructors • • • • • • •
97
LIST OP FIGURES
FIGURE
PAGE
1.
Daily Class Periods of Physical Education
. • •
38
2*
Class Periods of Physical Education Per Week • •
40
3*
Length of Class Periods
• • • • • • • • • • • •
42
*4.
Credit Granted in Physical Education . . . . • •
46
6.
Method of Assignment to C l a s s e s .............
48
6*
Average Size of Classes
57
7.
Tabulation of Activities Offered by Schools
. •
63
8.
Core Program • • • • • • • •
• •
70
9*
Squad Organization
• .
74
• • • • • • • • • • • •
10*
Regular Use of Gymnasium • • • • • • • • • • • •
76
11.
Requirement of Gymnasium Suits
78
12.
Requirement of Daily Showers • • • • • • • • • •
80
13.
Physical Education Teachers in Schools • • • • •
91
14.
Rating on Phases of Physical Education Program • 100
15.
Individual School Rating
.
••••
101
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
The education of society seems to be undergoing a
series of rapid changes*
These changes present a crucial
problem to the schools of our country*
This problem is
whether or not the present offerings of formal education
provide profitable activities for an increasing number of
students with an expanding range of interests, capacities,
and needs*
New ideas and practices in education are reluctantly
accepted by the public school systems.
Sandlin substantiates
this view in his statements
The general public is sometimes skeptical of the
value of a physical education program and this places
an unfair burden on those who are trying to achieve
educational ends through this type of work*l
In the present trend toward a modern curriculum, too
often the importance of physical education has been overlook­
ed*
Educators are prone to relegate the subject to a minor
place far down the list of essentials*
This tendency, it
seems, is due in part to the newness of physical education
in the public school curriculum, and also to the lack of
seeming importance as compared with the traditional subjects*
1 R. N. Sandlin, State Supervisor of Physical Education, Physical Education and Suggestions (Austins State
Department of Education Bulletin Number 289, July, 1931), p.7*
2
Educators are beginning to realize that physical
education is no longer a trailer subject in education, but
an integral part of it.
LaPorte expresses the idea clearly
in this statement:
If the individual is to realize the maximum develop­
ment of his native capacities, both physically and
mentally, and bring about a fine adjustment between these
skills, it is essential that physical education be re­
organized as an integral and essential part of the basic
education'program, and not merely as a special subject.^
As has been pointed out and will be discussed further
in Chapter II, physical education is on an unsettled basis.
Any investigations which serve to emphasize the shortcom-^
ings of such a viewpoint would have some weight in remedy­
ing the situation.
I.
THE PROBLEM
Statement of the problem. It was the purpose of this
study (1) to investigate the present status of physical
education programs in the junior high schools of Northwest
Texas, (2) to collect data concerning those programs, (3)
to tabulate and evaluate the findings in terms of the stand­
ards set up by the Committee on Curriculum Research, (4)
to interpret these data in the form of an evaluation, and (5)
2 Wm. Ralph LaPorte, "Physical Education Contributions
to the Seven Cardinal Principles," Journal of Health and
Physical Education, IV (March, 1933), p . 10.
3
to make recommendations for the *improvements or any needed
changes as shown hy the data collected.
Nature and purpose of the study. The state of Texas
has been in the process of curriculum revision since 1934.
Prior to the time of this revision work, hundreds of teachers
were carrying oninstruction according to their own dictates
of what constituted a ’’modern” program.
The programs were
made to fit the physical facilities of the school plant and
not the physical needs of the pupils in a given situation.
Since the inception of the developmental curriculum had
reached only about one-tenth of the teachers of the state,
there was no uniformity in the programs offered in the
schools.
It was felt by many people in the state, that if the
methods, teaching techniques, facilities, teacher qualifica­
tions, and the program as a whole were summarized and present­
ed in an organized form, this material would prove of value to
the physical education teachers.
The place of physical education in such an evaluation
is of importance because of the tendencies toward under­
emphasis of the program.
This point is corroborated by
Davis in his statement:
There seems to be yet, however, a lack of apprecia­
tion of health and physical education in quarters where
such an attitude is least expected— among school men
themselves. All of them will admit that health and
4
physical education should he one of the foremost factors
in the development of any educational program, yet some
of them maintain that instruction in these courses should
be extra-curricular rather than curricular.3
Since Texas is a pioneering state in the field of
physical education this investigation should be of value
to the curriculum committee in setting up standards for the
future physical education programs of the state.
Standards,
definitely, are a curriculum need in the public schools.
Importance of the problem. Article 2663a, Instruction
in Physical Education, provide#:
Section I: Instruction in physical education shall
be established and made part of the course of instruc­
tion and training in the public elementary and secondary
schools of the State by September 1, 1930.
Section II: The State Superintendent of Public
Instruction shall prepare course of Instruction for
the public schools of the State for the purpose of
carrying out his act.4
Obviously, no curriculum or program in physical educa­
tion has ever existed that could not be revised.
The empha­
sis of a dynamic changing world demands such revision, even
though many educators fail to recognize its importance.
Texas has not lagged behind in an attempt to keep up to date
Wl E. c. Davis, Health and Physical Education Survey
Techniques in Public Schools, (Bureau of Publications,
Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, 1931), p. 12.
4 J. C. Hinsley, editor, The Handbook of Texas
School Law» (Austin, Texas: The Steck Company, 1929),
p. 96. (Acts 1929, 41st Legislature, p. 466, Ch. 216.)
5
a recently established state program.
In any event, an
investigation, such as this, will aid in suggesting construc­
tive changes which may be incorporated into the state pro­
gram.
The act^ providing physical education in the public
schools of Texas has not been received with the greatest of
support.
The school officials, it seems, are unable to justi­
fy the program of physical education in the public school
curriculum.
This investigation, as well as similar ones,
should help discover whether or not there is value from
such a program in the schools*
A great deal of support has been given physical educa­
tion in Texas by the larger school systems.
There are some
people, however, who are not ready to admit that physical
education deserves a place of equal rank with the other
subjects in the program of studies.
Bristow makes this
point clear in his statement:
There are those, however, who maintain that instruc­
tion in health and physical education should be incidental
rather than an integral part of the school curriculum.
Consequently, there are many secondary school pupils who ,
are receiving little or no instruction in well developed r
programs of health and physical education.6
5
Lo c. cit.
6 W. H. Bristow, 11The Problem of the Administration
of Health and Physical Education in Secondary Schools,n
Journal of Health and Physical Education, II (November, 1931),
pp. 3-5.
6
The recency of compulsory physical education in Texas
is probably one of several reasons for the laxness in its
enforcement.
The stereotyped belief of many of the educa­
tors that it is an added evil or an unnecessary expense has
slowed the progress of normal growth.
This idea is uniquely
summed up by LaPorte in the following statements:
Physical educatiouls not a panacea for ills . . .
not a mischief preventive . . . not an energy release
mechanism . . . not a promoter of military precision
. . . not a health insurance.7
It might be said, however, that it does have a purpose.
Its
ultimate aim Is to so develop and educate the individual
through the medium of wholesome and interesting physical
activities that he will realize his maximum capacities, both
physically and mentally, and will learn to use his powers
intelligently and co-operatively as a good citizen even
under violent emotional stress.
This investigation is not a state-wide project, due
to the fact that Texas is a large state, therefore includ­
ing too many schools.
Delimiting the area of research
serves to emphasize the character of thjs particular section
of the state.
Such localization is the suggestion of many
educators:
““ “
LaPorte, ’’Physical Education Contribution to the
Seven Cardinal Principles,” op. cit., p. 48.
7
• . . each community as it takes on size shows
within itself characteristics with which differently
located schools must reckon* And it is within this
local situation that each school will find its centers
of organization as it begins upon the problem of
orienting the student in his environment in order that
he may take part in the life there with an understand­
ing that breeds security and stability* 8
Teachers, who are trained professionally to teach
physical education, are constantly facing the task of mak­
ing a profession of their work*
To the investigator, it
seems important that some guide or measuring rod be furnished
them in order that they might know whea.progress haeibeen
made*
*
.
To the teacher who makes noticeable improvements in
her work should be given a ranking that may permeate an en­
tire school system.
Scope of the investigation* This evaluation was made
in an area herein called Northwest Texas*
Such a territory
includes all of the MPanhandle” of Texas and that section
known as the “South Plains11• This will include fifty-two
counties, and an approximate population of 674,816 people*
The1map in the appendix of this thesis illustrates the
counties and cities used in this investigation.
This study was also limited to the sixth, seventh,
and eighth grades of the area described above.
These grades
8 William H. Kilpatrick, editor, The Educational
Frontier,(New York: D. Appleton-Century Company, 1933), p* 167.
8
represent the junior high school in the state where eleven
grades constitute the whole system.
The field of health and physical education "being a
rather broad field, the investigator felt that a much better
study could be made if only the physical education division
were studied.
This division, again, is limited to the evalua­
tion of the school program of physical education, time allot­
ment, class size, teacher load, the content of the course of
study, daily teaching situations, professional training of
the teachers, and professional interest.
RELATED INVESTIGATIONS
The most recent study done in this field is by
Mr. C. C. Walden, Amarillo, Texas, "An Evaluation of the
Physical Education Programs in the Elementary Schools of
West Texas."
This study is in process and will not be com­
pleted so that reference can be made to it here.
There have been many studies of thos.nature done
in the field of physical education, but after searching
the card catalogues of the University of Southern California,
the graduate theses of the same university, and the Library
of Congress and Educational Research, the investigator has
not found a study of the nature that has been done for
Northwest Texas.
9
Lawrence W. Hostetler In his thesis, ,fA Critical
Survey of Physical Education in the Secondary Schools of
q
Oregon,■ gives a survey of the entire field of physical
education.
The purpose that he attempted to justify was
an analysis of the status of the existing programs in that
state, with the intention of evaluating those programs.
Recommendations for remaking the programs along with a
constructive criticism about the practices that existed in
the state were given.
Since most of the physical education
was taught by the coaches, practically all the information
was secured from them.
This work was a questionnaire study
combined with an interview.
The areas of the field covered
were training, time allotment of coaches* duties, and re­
muneration for the work.
The conclusions he made are (1) facilities are not
being used to fullest extent, (2) initate a drive to enforce
physical education requirements, (3) require bachelor of
arts degree for teachers, (4) shift emphasis from gate re­
ceipts, and (5) give athletes free medical service.
A thesis, 11The Objective Rating of Physical Education
Programs for Boys in Los Angeles County, *’ written by George
9 Lawrence W. Hostetler, "A Critical Survey of Phy­
sical Education in the Secondary Schools of Oregon,*1 (Un­
published Master*s thesis, University of Southern California,
Los Angeles, California, 1935)•
10
Gilson^0 was an evaluation in relation to national standards
for scoring physical education programs.
The California
score card was used as a scientific means of making the
evaluation.
method.
Gilson secured the data by the questionnaire
After tabulating the data he applied it to the
score card, and made the recommendations from that compari­
son.
Anne Pearson made an interesting study in the state of
Utah.
The title of the study is nA Comparative Survey of
Physical Education in State Industrial Schools with a Proposed Program for the Utah State Industrial School•.. 11 The
study was an evaluation of 35 Utah industrial schools, and
again the California score card was used as the means of
evaluation.
This was a questionnaire study.
The major
factors covered in the questionnaire were physical examina­
tions, corrective physical education, class periods, teachers,
activities, and equipment.
Sixty questionnaires served as
the basis for the information.
The recommendations: (1)
securing a physical education teacher> (2) increasing the
10 William George Gilson, nThe Objective Rating of
Boys* Physical Education programs in Los Angeles County,1’
(Unpublished Master*s thesis, University of Southern Cali­
fornia, Los Angeles, California, 1932)*
11 Anne Peason, ”A Comparative Survey of Physical
Education in State Industrial Schools with a Proposed Program
for the Utah State Industrial Schools,” (Unpublished Master*s
thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles,
California, 1937).
number of activities without additional cost, (3) a track
be built around the football field, and (4) install flood
lights for evening classes*
Another study made in Utah was made by Heed Swenson
under the title "The Organization and Administration of
High School Physical Education for Boys in Utah."^
was also a questionnaire study.
This
Chafers three and five are
especially related to the present study*
They cover the
organization of the program and the classes*
Kenneth Walter Ryan made a study of the junior high
schools in Utah, "Evaluation of the Physical Education Program for Boys in Twenty Utah Junior High Schools.1113 This
study comes more nearly paralleling the study made by this
investigator than any one read.
Ryan*s problem was to
investigate the programs of Utah junior high schools to de­
termine the weaknesses and strength of the programs.
After
he made the investigation by the questionnaire method, the
data were evaluated using the John Muir Junior High School
as a standard.
The said junior high school is in Los Angeles
^
12 Reed Swenson, "The Organization and Administration
of Physical Education in High Schools for Boys in Utah,"
(Unpublished Master*s thesis, University of Southern Cali­
fornia, Los Angeles, California, 1935)•
13 Kenneth Walter Ryan, "Evaluation of the Physical
Education Program for Boys in Twenty Utah Junior High Schools
(Unpublished Master*s thesis, University of Southern Califor­
nia, Los Angeles, California, 1935).
12
In connection with the questionnaire the investiga­
tor used personal interview and a limited amount of observa­
tions.
The writer of this thesis-uses tables in large numbers
to illustrate and emphasize points.
were made.
Thirty recommendations
They are too lengthy to give in full, so summa­
tion of all will be included.
The programs should be specific
but offer opportunity for change; the program should be changed
to meet standards, as to time allotment, teacher training,
equipment, marking, qualifications of teachers, and records.
Corrective work, follow up work, intramurals, and interscholastic programs should be given place in the curriculum*
METHODS OF PROCEDURE
The approach to a problem to be investigated seems
to be a limiting factor of what an investigator wants in
the way of results*
This problem necessitated collecting a great volume
of data from over a large area.
With this fact in view, the
normative survey method of procedure was selected for this
study.
Koos states that the questionnaire is very often used
(1) to ascertain the state of practices in some field of
activity, (2) to secure data, (3) to secure opinions and
13
judgments, and (4) to find out preferences and attitudes
of individuals.'*’4
Some authorities in research seem to think that the
questionnaire type of study has been overworked in the past
few years.
However, there are problems in the. field of re­
search that are worth attacking which do not suit other
types of attack.
If this be true, then the questionnaire
15
method is plausible.•
In the present study a questionnaire was used.
methodseemed to be the most advisable means to
collecting data that occur in a frequency.
Good,^ the collection of such data
This
use for
According to
interview or personal
observation might be so cumbersome and time-consuming as
to be prohibitive.
The questionnaire used in this study was constructed
of aseries of questions that
were answered by either a
check mark or a one-work answer.
The questionnaire was
first tried out in the physical education department of the
Lubbock junior high school.
It was then revised, eliminating
14 Leonard V. Koos, The Que stionnaire In Education,
(New York: The Macmillan Company, 1928), pp. 50-51•
15 Ward G. Reeder, How to Write a Thesis (Blooming­
ton Public School Publishing Company, 1925|, p. 63.
16 Garter V. Good, How to Do Research in Education
(Baltimore: Warwick and York, 1928J7 P* 133.
14
outstanding weaknesses, and mailed to thirty junior high
17
schools in Northwest Texas*
Twenty-eight schools returned
the questionnaire forms*
The data, since it came from twenty-
eight different sources, will he a frequency occurrence study
of the various items asked for in the study*
A copy of this
questionnaire is found in the appendix.
A master chart was used to tabulate the frequency of
occurrence of items checked, and from that tabulation, the
tables and figures that occur in this study were formed*
The score card formulated by the Committee on Curriculum
Research, The Physical Education Curriculum, compiled by
LaPorte, 1 ft
was used as the criteria for evaluating the infor­
mation received for this study*
This national program of physical education is the
result of nine years of intensive study by the Committee
on Curriculum Research of the College Physical Education
Association, judged by hundreds of leading physical education
supervisors.
The major purposes of the curriculum are: first, to
set the standards for a sound education program of physical
activity that can be made available to every child in the
United States;
17
and second, tomake it possible for children
See Map, Appendix, p.
18
Wm* Ralph LaPorte, The Physical Education Curri­
culum (Los Angeles: The Caslon Printing Company, 193777
’
p# 3*
15
to transfer from one school, city, or state, to another,
without excessive loss or embarrassment due to lack of
19
uniformity of programs*
ORGANIZATION OF REMAINING CHAPTERS
The remainder of this study was organized under the
following major headings;
Chapter II;
Plan of the State Organization for
Curriculum Production*
This chapter presents general
educational thinking along lines of physical education
revision*
The Texas state plan of revision is^given.
This
plan is organized on a state-wide scale, and was divided
into committees for work.
Each of the committees acted
as a localizing unit for collection of the materials to he
studied*
Chapter III;
Organization of the Physical Education
Program in Northwest Texas.
The material in this chapter
covers the state requirements for physical education, time
given to the program, percentage enrollment in program, and
assignment of students to classes*
Chapter IV;
Organization of Classes for Instruction,
This chapter is a treatment of the instructional period,
size of classes, activities for instruction, time allotment
19
Loc. cit*
16
of the activities, methods used in marking, supervision,
and state requirements and suggestions*
Chapter Vs
The Present Training of teaching Staff*
This chapter surveys the professional preparation of the
teachers now in service, the professional interest in various
organizations, experience of the teachers, and the use of
professional literature*
Chapter VI:
Summary and Conclusions.
chapter, the findings in this study are given*
In the final
Prom these
findings conclusions are formulated and presented*
In the
light of the conclusions, major weaknesses of the physical
education program in Northwest Texas are noticed arid
recommendations are suggested*
Recommendations for further
study on problems revealed by this study are listed.
CHAPTER II
PLAN OF STATE ORGANIZATION FOR PRODUCTION
One of the purposes of this study was to tabulate
and evaluate the findings in terms of the standards set up
by the Committee on Curriculum Research.
To be able to do
this, it seems feasible that discussion should be given
concerning educational thinking finally inculcated in these
standards used as criteria.
A brief resume of educational thinking along lines
of physical education revision is also necessary in order that
recommendations for the improvements of programs in North­
west Texas might be made.
The opinions of the jury of experts
in the field of physical education will help to keep the
suggested changes in line with the generally accepted poli­
cies and suggestions.
Several years prior to the actual work on curri­
culum revision in physical education, educators in many
parts of the United States were thinking very seriously
concerning the present status of this subject in the schools.
Their thinking was concerned chiefly with, What is the
present day program in our schools accomplishing? What are
the faults of the program? and How can the schools best
meet the new needs of physical education to fit the child
into a rapidly changing world?
18
They were, in the majority, convinced that there was
some good in the program as set up#
Their early conception
of physical education in lieu of revision was not to fit the
child to live in a world that will he but into one that may
be, because they were assured that changing economic con­
ditions in this courtry would bring about an unstable social
life*
No longer can the schools predict from generation to
generation what the economic, political, and social conditions
of a country will be*
Coleman states:
f,Our schools cannot
bind boys and girls to one way of thinking; the development
of open-mindedness is one essential of education* 20
Nash summarizes very forcibly the problem that educa­
tors faced in instituting physical education in the modern
school curriculum;
Although physical education is now one of the recognized
arms of educational administration, it received little or
no recognition during the rapid growth of schools and
universities in the latter part of the nineteenth century*
Physical education had no place in the development of the
elementary schools because it did not contribute directly
to skills in the three "Rts" and because the benefits of
physical education activities were received as a natural
by-product of life in the open. Likewise physical educa­
tion had little or no place in the development of colleges
and universities that prided themselves upon their interest
in what they termed "cultural" subjects and "profession­
al" training*
20 Mary Charming Coleman, "Physical Education in Our
Schools Tomorrow," Journal of Health and Physical Education,
VI (April, 1935), pp. 6-7.
21 Jay B* Nash, The Administration of Physical Educa'
tion (New York: A. S. Barnes Company, 1932), pp. 40-41.
19
After the inception of physical education into the
school curriculum came the changing attitude toward the
purpose of a school program,
Wayman epitomizes this
idea, ’’One big tendency of our modern program is to make
the curriculum child centered instead of system or subject
or teacher centered*
22
Petree
23
adds that stress was taken
from sports— major, minor, or just sports— and the para­
mount factor became THE BOY who sought this outlet for his
capabilities,
Williams24 fosters the same idea of the new concep­
tion of physical education when he says that education exists
for the child and not the child for education; that though
the subjects be many, the child is one, and therefore what­
ever education is given to it, that education must be a whole
in itself.
The thought that all school functions should be
centered upon the child himself is, also, sponsored by
Williams and Brownell,
OK
22" Agnes R. Wayman, uTrends and Tendencies in Physical
Education,” Journal of Health and Physical Education, IV
(February, 1933j, pp, 16-19,
23 Noel H, Petree, ’’Fitting Athletics of the Junior
High School Boy,” Journal of Health and Physical Education,
III (February, 1932), pp* 22-25;60-62,
24 Jesse Feiring Williams, The Principles of Physical
Education (Philadelphia: W. D, Saunders Company, 1932), p, 267,
25 Jesse Feiring Williams and Clifford Lee Brownell,
The Administration of Health and Physical Education (Phila­
delphia: W, B, Saunders Company, 1937), p. 293*
20
Contemporary with the espial of the deficiencies of
the existing program came a new worry to the minds of physi­
cal education teachers all over the country.
That problem
was the necessity of justifying the physical education pro­
gram in the schools.
Maroney amply presents it:
Physical education has progressed, and up to the time
of the depression, with its curtailment of finances for
school purposes, few, if any, would have thought of ques­
tioning the need for directed physical activity in any
school system. But, now, with the challenge of tax
payers* leagues, chamber of commerce proposals, the
"get back to the fundamentals” advocates, and the 11teach
them the three »R*st,r critics, we are in a position where
we must hold fast to the place we have earned in the
educational family, and we must look ahead in public
school physical education and plan for the future.2®
A great period of eliminating the non-essentials and
Mfrills” from the school curriculum was felt everywhere, due
to some retrenchment in educational expenditures.
One of the
fields most frequently questioned was physical education.
In
retaliation to the question ”Is physical education non-essen­
tial, or is it indispensable? the National Committee of
Physical Education struck a most significant note in its
rallying to the support of physical education:
1. Human vitality is partly hereditary and partly
developmental. The power of vital organs is therefore
dependent upon the developmental physical activities of
the young. In a sedentary and industrialized society
physical education is peculiarly indispensable for the
26 P. W. Maroney, ’’Physical Education Looks Ahead,”
Journal of Health and Physical Education, V (October, 1934),
pp. 3-6.
21
development of the vital organs of children and for the
adequate functioning of these same organs in adults*
II* Leisure time has increased tremendously in the
last decade, and every indication points to a shortening
of the working day* There will he leisure in amounts
undreamed of a generation ago* This calls for types of
education that will serve the play time of the whole
population* Therefore, in our modern world physical
education for leisure time becomes indispensable*
III* Physical education is indispensable also for the
normal growth and development of youth* When children
and young people are denied the growth and health that
comes from physical activities in education institutions
or in community life, the saving in such expenditures
will be more than offset by the increase of costs for
hospitals, reformatories, and jails.
IV* At one time education was merely a training of
the mind, but the idea is everywhere gaining ground that
education must deal with the whole man and not with just
part of him* Out of this conception has come the con­
viction that the good life exhibits play, laughter,
recreation, and joy, not as competitors with mental
accomplishments, but as essential elements in full and
fine living. For this physical education is indispensa­
ble.
Therefore, if we expect to train youth for complete
and worthy living, schools and educational institutions
must not abandon such essential services. In this machine
age with its daily monotony of routine labor, its empha­
sis upon mechanical efficiency, and its trend toward
vicarious emotional life, physical education has become
increasingly a necessity. To neglect the education of
all youth in functional motor skills or to fail in main­
taining their interest in wholesome play is to court
serious social problems in the years that lie ahead. d l
The same feeling of vindication of physical education
po
in the public schools is espoused by Williams and Brownell. °
27 National Committee on Physical Education, "Phy­
sical Education Today," Journal of Health and Physical Educa­
tion, IV (March, 1933), p. 4.
28
Williams and Brownell, ojo* cit*, pp. 31-32.
22
The indispensability of physical education is based upon
the fact that physical education is the sole source
for the
development of vitality and the sole organized means for the
development of neuromuscular skills.
It is, also, the most
important agency to develop attitudes toward play and to set
up standards for sportsmanship#
A similar tone of feeling for physical education is
expressed by Williams,
OQ
who maintains that physical education
is life and living#
To substantiate further the definite stand taken by
educators to justify the place of physical education in the
school curriculum the opinion of a public school superintend­
ent is very fittingly given;
If physical education is to stay and prosper, it must
command respect. It must establish itself, not as a fad
or a frill, but as an effort to do a job demanded by
child nature. It must establish itself as an avenue
whereby we give concreteness to our assertion that we are
educating the whole child. Physical education must prove
that it is not educating the physical so much as it is
educating through the physical. It must show in definite
terms that a child is educated through motor activities
and rhythmic experiences as well as through the three R^s.
It must be shown that physical education aims to protect
children from disease as well as ignorance, from sluggish
heart as well as from a sluggish mind, and from crudeness
of body as well as from crudeness of manners.50
29
Williams, op. cit.5 p. 250#
30 H. H. Kirk, !,A Superintendent Looks at Physical
Education,11 Journal of Health and Physical Education, IX
(November, 1938), pp. 538-40#
23
Stress on the part physical education plays in
educating the whole man is further voiced by Williams and
31
Brownell
when they say that the modern spirit in physical
education seeks the education of man through physical
activities as one aspect of the social effort for human
enlightenment •
Mary Channing Coleman32 assertains that physical educa­
tion is a very definite unit in the pattern of our schools*
She gives as the objectives of physical education the
,!Seven Cardinal Principles of Education,11 not one of which
can be achieved without the program of physical education.
With reference to the objectives of physical education
in relation to the school curriculum, the opinion of Nash
seems very pertinent;
Whether we set up seven cardinal principles, seventyseven ^principles or seven hundred and seventy-seven
principles, there will always be one more as long as life
is life. However, physical education subscribes to these
objectives and sets up none beyond those of general education.33
34
Wayman .furthers the opinions of the above educators
when she suggests that the physical education program be
based upon sound scientific and education principles.
31
Williams and Brownell, ojd. cit., p. 33*
32
Coleman, ojs. cit., pp. 6-7.
33
Nash, op. cit., p. 23.
34
Wayman, <op* cit., pp. 16-19.
The
24
trends are toward physical education as education; toward
physical education as a way of education*
It should not be
conceived as an American system of physical education, but
an American program of physical education*
Joy, happiness,
and satisfaction in participation arethh;>keynotes of this
American program*
In addition to realizing the needs of physical educa­
tion programs and being forced to justify the physical educa­
tion program in the schools on the basis of its educational
value, educators were faced with another problem based on an
economic factor beyond the control of the school*
That prob­
lem was free time of the modern Americans and how that free
time was to be spent*
During the depression and later during
the time of mass unemployment Americans were faced with the
fact that everyone was going to have eight hours or more
a day that were not needed for work.
School people acknow­
ledged that they could no longer disapprove of leisure
time, but that they must highly approve it, recognize it, and
35
therefore educate for it*
Nash admits the importance of leisure time in America,
and concedes the place it holds in the life of Americans in
the following statements;
35 Rosalind Cassidy, “Physical Education Trends and
Progress,“ Journal of Health and Physical Education, VI
(February, 1935), pp* 14-16*
25
If there is to be a wise use of leisure it must be
based upon wide participation in activities largely dur­
ing the years of childhood. Leisure time needs should
be a guide to curricular construction in our public
schools, which must be a doing process.
Every indication at the present time is that with ex­
cessive leisure man will turn out to be a spectator, a
listener, a watcher of somebody else doing things, mere­
ly because it is the easiest thing. Spectatoritis has
become almost synonymous with Americanism. We are in
the gladiatorial stage of Rome with few participants and
many seats for the spectators. Manfs survival depends
upon his participating in vigorous activities.®®
Williams 37' inexorably faces the situation of leisure
time and emphasizes the value of education for leisure hours.
He says that to have leisure and not know how to use it is
a u . individual and social disaster.
Cassidy quotes Dr. George A. Rice, Principal of
University High School, Oakland, California, who not only
recognizes the importance of leisure time, but makes sugges­
tions as to how this problem should be met:
Physical education is not so far advanced as other
subjects in the high school. We must place more emphasis
on the health and development of each individual pupil,
as well as the social outcomes and character development
for each child. There must be increased opportunity for
choice of activities and we must see clearly to the
development of games and activities for the future.38
To show a closer connection of the resume of education­
al thinking in America before the curriculum revision work
36
Nash, ojd. cit.3 p. 124.
37
Williams, ojq. cit., p. 241.
38
Cassidy, o£. cit., pp. 14-16.
26
with that of the present study, a fortuitous remark or two
concerning athletics in the junior high school might not he
amiss.
Petree 39 is of the opinion that every child in junior
high school should he enrolled in physical activities and
that the extra-athletic activities of an intramural or inter
scholastic nature should he the culmination of training re­
ceived hy all physically fit students in regular class
instruction.
This instruction should include health infor­
mation that cultivates healthful habits and puts them into
operation.
The curriculum should include experiences that
hear a very close resemblance to experiences that the boy
or girl will meet as an older citizen.
To furnish inspira­
tion for and practice in leadership should he the aim of the
physical education instruction.
The conclusions of Petreefs study of physical educa­
tion in the junior high school are very forceful, in light
of the new, revised curriculum:
1.
Athletics in the junior high school should he
confined to games which a large percentage of the boys
could play.
2* In interscholastic schedules too much time was
involved in travel, and the added responsibilities were
too great for a limited staff to assume.
3.
Highly specialized training has no place in phy­
sical education:in the junior high school.
39
Petree, op. cit., pp. 22-25;60-62.
27
4. Every boy should have the same advantages of
skilled instruction.
5. Interscholastic competition does not furnish the
best incentive for leadership among junior high school
boys..
6. A sbhool letter should constitute the only award,
and It should be awarded on (a) basis of a competition
in many sports, (bl scholarship, and (c) establishments
of health habits. ^
Petree!s idea of the scope of the physical education
program in the school is also sanctioned by the editors of
High School Curriculum Reorganization:
All pupils in the high school are entitled to the
benefits that accrue from work offered in health and
physical education. This work should provide both for
those who are and for those who are not physically able
to participate in activities normal for the group.41
To continue discussion of the work by the members of
the North Central Association Committee on Standards for Use
in the Reorganization of Secondary School Curricula, result­
ing from twelve years of effort, a consideration of the
qualitative standards of the conformity of physical education
to general education is apropos at this point:
Health building aspects should be emphasized in the
minds of instructors in contrast to stress placed on
formal gymnastics as ends in themselves.
Certain phases of the work should be adjusted to the
differing physiological needs and interests of boys and
girls.
40
Loc. cit.
41 L. W. Webb, chairman, High School Curriculum Re­
organization (Ann Arbor, Michigan: The North Central Associa­
tion of Colleges and Secondary Schools, 1933), p. 343.
28
Individual differences in physical traits, needs, and
handicaps should be clearly recognized and provided for*
Adequate provision should be made for careful physical
examinations of pupils and for the necessary follow-up
work*
Health and physical education should be made an inte­
gral part of the whole educational program, not merely
sandwiched in. This field should have equal recognition
with other subjects in scheduling pupils*
High school administrators should aggressively assist
in providing suitable equipment for health and physical
education.
Adequate provision should be made for the maintenance
of health and for the participation in activities by high
school teachers as well as by pupils*
The members of the department of health and physical
education should cooperate fully with the high school as
a whole, and with the community, in the prevention, con­
trol, and cure of disease, in community hygiene and
safety measures, and in the promotion of all kinds of
wholesome recreational activities.42
It is needless to point out that physical education
teachers took weight of the foregoing situations and circum­
stances and began the planning of many and various individual
school programs.
In addition to those planned in separate
schools, there were programs set up by the various state
departments and the national program.
STATE COMMITTEE FOR PRODUCTION
The revision of the physical education curriculum of
Texas took shape along with the broader curriculum revision
42
Loc. cit*
29
of the entire educational system of Texas*
A curriculum
committee known as the Executive Committee was appointed
November 29, 1933*
This body is composed of a representative
of the State Department of Education, permanent chairman of
the Executive Committee, a representative of the State Board
of Education, the Chairman of the Commission of Curriculum
of the Texas State Teachers Association, the President of the
Texas State Teachers Association, and a general curriculum
consultant selected by the Executive Committee*
The University of Texas sponsored a conference on
curriculum the first term of the summer session at the
University of Texas in 1934.
Plans were also executed to
call a conference of the presidents of, and heads of depart­
ments in, all senior colleges and universities of Texas con­
cerning the offering of curriculum courses in the summer
sessions of 1934 in these institutions of higher learning.
The purpose of the present revision program in Texas
was:
A.
study
The development and installation of courses of
B.
Unificationcof various school programs
C.
The improvement of professional outlook of teachers
D. Development of a basis for continuous program
of curriculum making
30
E.
Increasing knowledge and interest on part of
citizens.43
Two desirable results of the movement were set ups
A.
The improvement of classroom teaching
B.
Improvement of the State educational system44
WORK OP THE PRODUCTION COMMITTEES
The proposed plan of curriculum revision for Texas
was divided into a four-year period.
The first year was
devoted to the study for orientation, the second, the
beginning of production, the third, trying out of courses in
selected schools, and the fourth, the installation of courses
45
and setting up of a permanent curriculum organization.w
To carry out the plan of orientation!in Texas, the
twenty-two districts already organized for state supervision
were also designated as curriculum revision districts.
Each
district consisted of a district chairman, district adviser,
deputy state superintendent, and section or county chairman.
Each of these members of the district committee was designat­
ed specific duties to perform concerning various phases of
the curriculum revision.
43 W.V A. Stigler, Handbook for Curriculum Study
(Austin, Texas; State Department of Public Instruction,
Sept., 1934), pp. 16-17...
44
43
Ibid., p. 18.
. pp. 20-24
31
The principles governing curriculum revision were:
A. The curriculum shall provide educative experiences
adapted to the fundamental needs of each child of whatever
race, type, or mental aptitude
B. The curriculum shall provide educative experiences
for effective participation in social life and which will
serve to perpetuate and improve the ideals and practices
of our democratic society
C. The curriculum shall he conceived as a body of
dynamic experiences
D. The curriculum shall he conceived as a program of
study and activity subject to teacher guidance
E. The curriculum revision program shall he conceived
as an experimental program
F. The curriculum shall not he subverted to special
interests46
As a basis for division of work, the Executive Commit­
tee designated ten fields or areas of effort:
Social Studies
Science
Commerce
Mathematics
Physical and Health Education
Language Arts
Foreign Language
Pine Arts
State Committees on production were appointed in each
of the above fields*
FUNCTIONS OP THE STUDY ORGANIZATIONS
The members of the production committees were given
the following assignments:
46 W.J A. Stigler, Handbook for Curriculum Develop­
ment (Austin, Texas: State Department of Public Instruction,
1936), pp. 13-18.
47. Ibid., p. 19.
32
A. Prepare a statement of major aims, objectives
or goals
B.
Prepare a framework, outline, or scope
C. Select leaders from the various portions of the
State in all types and on all levels of school work
D. Divide work among the leaders for development
of units
E. Prepare suggestions to leaders as to methods of
procedure^©
In addition to the above duties, the committee mem­
bers assisted those in charge of the organization for study
in the stimulation of teacher efforts*
The following sugges
tions were offered for this phase of the work:
A* Call upon or correspond with those selected as
production leaders
B.
Make available for use by leaders and teachers
in general, helpful suggestions which may be obtained
from various sources
C* Report to the State Department Director teacher
activities which may furnish valuable suggestions for
other teachers
D. Attend meetings of production committees for the
purpose of discussing program and formulating further
plans of action
E. Advise Executive Committee on phases of the pro­
gram as a whole
P* Together with the State Director, arrange with
superintendents of schools and districts for intensive
work on the curriculum in such districts which may be
designated as "experimental” or "laboratory” schools
G.
Receive and study during spring term, material
sent in by classroom teachers
48
Ibid*, p. 22*
33
H.
Complete plans for assimilation of classroom
material and the formulation of courses of study^S
THE SUGGESTED AREAS OP CONTENT MATERIAL
The suggested areas of physical and health education
from the point of view of content material, are:
!•
Study and Practice in Health Problems
A.
B.
C*
D.
E.
P.
II.
Study and Participation in Sports and Games
A.
B.
C.
D.
III.
B.
C.
D.
49
Studying Skills Involved in Specific Games
Studying Possibilities of Various Games
Studying Principles, Practices, and Bene­
fits Involved in Play and Games
Using Equipment for Sports and Games
Diagnosis of Physical Handicaps and Use of
Correctives
A.
IV*
Studying Problems Relative to Disease and
Its Control
Studying Health Habits
Studying Problems of Safety
Using Environment, Food, and Clothing
Studying Mental, Emotional, and Spiritual
Aspects of Health
Using Instruments and Mechanical Equipment
That May Be Useful Relative to Health
Problems
Studying Personal Make-Up and Diagnosis of
Personal Handicaps and Weakness
Studying Relation of Mental, Spiritual, and
Emotional Conditions to Physical Condition
Studying Possibilities of Preventives and
Correctives
Using Instruments and Equipment Useful in
Corrective Problems
Rhythmic Activities
Ibid.. pp. 22-23
34
A#
B.
C.
V.
Individual Activities
A.
B.
C.
VI.
Studying Skills and Possibilities Involved
in Specific Activities
Studying Principles, Practices, and Bene­
fits Involved in Individual Activities
Using Equipment Relative to Individual
Activities
Outing Activities
A*
B.
C.
50
Studying Skills and Possibilities Involved
in Specific Activities
Studying Principles, Practices, and Bene­
fits Involved in Rhythmic Activities
Using Equipment Relative to Rhythmic Activi­
ties
Studying Skills and Possibilities Involved
in Specific Activities
Studying Principles, Practices, and Bene­
fits Involved in Outing Activities
Using Equipment Relative to Outing Activi­
ties5^
Ibid.a pp# 82-91.
CHAPTER III
ORGANIZATION OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAM
IN NORTHWEST TEXAS
It is the purpose of this chapter to present the
organization of the physical education programs in the schools
of this study in the light of the state requirements of phy­
sical education and the evaluation "by the Health and Physical
51
Education Score Card No. II.
State requirements of physical education. As pre­
viously stated the state law of Texas provides that instruc­
tion in physical education shall be made part of the course
of instruction and training in the public schools of the state.
By the action of the accrediting agencies of the
State Department of Education and the Committee on Classifified and Accredited Schools, the following regulation has
been authorized:
No high school shall be carried as a fully accredit­
ed institution unless each grade in the system from the
primary through the senior high school?is given a well
organized physical education program.
51 Wm. Ralph LaPorte, Health and Physical Education
Score Card No. II (Los Angeles: The University of Southern
California Press, 1938)•
52 J. W. 0!Banion, Texas Public Schools, Standards
and Activities ;of the Division of Supervision (Austin:
State Department of Instruction, 1937-38), p* 66.
36
It is believed by the writer that a more correlated
study with the state program can be made if the state re­
quirements are given in connection with each phase of the
study in Northwest Texas,
study
For that reason the course of
prescribed by the state has not been segregated.
Time allotment to physical education and pupil parti­
cipation, The standard as to time allotment to physical
education classes given by the Score Card is:
Daily participation in physical education class
instruction periods of from 45 to 60 minutes is
required of all students,
(Two days a week = 1; four days = 2;
five days = 3)53
According to the above standard, the rating for schools
in this study on time allotment is a score of 1,08,
A number of important characteristics of the physical
education program are included under this single standard.
It seems advisable to discuss the findings of each separately.
In considering the opportunities offered students
for daily participation in physical education classes, it
was found that schools in this study offer physical education
instruction from only one class period of the day to as high
53 LaPorte, Health and physical Education Score Card
No, II, op, cit,, p, 3,
37
as each class period in a 9-period-a-day ‘schedule,^4 as
shown in Figure 1.
Two schools have only one period of the ’
school day devoted to physical education, one school has three
periods a day, and one school has four periods a day.
Twelve
schools, or 46 per cent of the schools, offer instruction
six periods a day.
Most of the schools in the latter group
operate on a six-period schedule, thus a class in physical
education is available for each period in the school day.
With this arrangement it is possible and convenient to
schedule each child in the school in a physical education
class.
In schools offering less than the average six periods
per day, one school, which schedules only three periods of
physical education for 275 students, would have an average
enrollment of 91 students.
It is evident, that this number
of students could not be handled effectively in one class
period.
This situation, probably, is partially responsible
for the tendency of schools to schedule physical education
classes every other day, three'days a week, and possibly
four days a week, alternating it with some other subject
in the school program.
54 One' school is forced by lack of building facilities
to handle its students in three shifts during the day. This
means that there are a total of nine class periods in the
school day. A class of physical education is offered each
period.
38
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
II
II
FIGURE 1
DAILY CLASS PERIODS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION
NOTE: This figure should be read as follows: two
schools have only one class period devoted to physi­
cal education; one school has three periods, etc.
39
For an example of schools having six periods a day,
one school accommodates 252 students, averaging 42 students
per period.
According to the Score Card standard, four schools
are not offering sufficient opportunity for student enroll­
ment.
Also they are not meeting the state requirement which
requires that all elementary school students receive 150
minutes per week of class instruction in physical education
each year.
Recess periods shall not be considered as a part
of the 150 minutes.
Also a minimum of 15 minutes per day,
or its equivalent, shall be devoted to special health instruc­
tion.
ts
The fact that there are not sufficient arrangements
for daily participation of students is further substantiated
in Figure 2, which gives the periods offered per week by
schools in this study.
Two schools have only five periods
of physical education per week, one has ten periods per
week, and one school has forty-five periods per week.
Twelve schools, or 46 per cent, offer thirty periods per
week for a total of 38,105 student-periods per week, or,
theoretically, 106 students per period in each school.
How­
ever, ten of these schools have two teachers in the physical
education department and two schools have four teachers.
55
OfBanion, ojd. cit., p. 67.
40
12_
11
10
9
8
Fre­
quency
of
schools
3_
2_
1
Periods
Per
week
■ ■!
10
15
20
25
30
FIGURE 2*
CLASS PERIODS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION PER WEEK
NOTE: This figure should he read as follows: two schools
in this study offer classes in physical education five
periods per week; one school, six periods per week, etc.
41
In relation to the length of class periods as
suggested by the Score Card standard, the findings in schools
in this study are given in Figure 3.
Two schools operate
on the thirty-minute class period, one on forty minute
periods, and fifteen schools conduct their classes on the
hour schedule.
This last group constitutes the majority,
or 55.5 per cent.
That means for the schools in this
group that 10,782 students have hour periods for physical
education when they are in class.
The forty-five minute to
an hour period is conducive to more thorough healthand
physical education teaching as it affordssufficient
time
for dressing, showers, and general health education.
The state requirement in this instance is that the
physical education class periods must be of at least the
56
same length as the regular academic period.
57
Most educators
are agreed that the desired length of
class period be from forty-five minutes to sixty minutes.
56
OfBanion, op. cit., p. 68.
57
Nash, op. cit., pp. 278-9.
LaPorte, The Physical Education Curriculum, op. cit.,
p. 44.
N. P. Neilson, "Essentials of Physical Education in
Secondary Schools," Journal of Health and physical Education,
VII (April, 1937), p. 212.
Bernice Moss and W. H. Orion, "The Public School
Program in Health, Physical Education, and Recreation,"
Journal of Health and Physical Education, IX (October, 1939),
p . 438•
42
15_
14_
13_
12_
H_
10_
9_
8_
Frequency
of
schools
7_
6_
5_
4_
3_
2_
1
Minutes
per
day
I ■ la
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
FIGURE 3 LENGTH OF CLASS PERIOD
NOTE: This figure should be read as follows
two schools have 30-minute periods for physi­
cal education; one school has 40-minute peri­
ods, etc.
45
Another factor considered in time allotment to
physical education was the matter of requirement of daily
participation.
It was found that six schools, or 22.2 per
cent, do not require daily participation in physical
education activities*
These schools are breaking the state school law
which requires that all students take part in physical and
health education programs* 58
It is, also, the consensus of opinion of many of the
jury of experts59 in the field of physical education that
participation in physical education activities be required
of all students.
Daily participation in physical education class
instruction is further hampered by the school requirement of
physical education for graduation.
In Table I it is seen
that three schools do not require any physical education
participation on the part of their students.
But eleven,
or 41 per cent, of the schools require two years in the junior
high school, and thirteen schools, or 50 per cent, require
three years.
'
58
OfBanion, o£. cit., p. 69.
59 LaPorte, The Physical Education Curriculum, op. cit.,
pp. 44-45.
Williams and Brownell, op. cit., p. 273.
Jackson R. Sharman, The Teaching of Physical Educa­
tion (New York: A. S. Barnes and Company, 1936), p. 65.
44
TABLE I
YEARS OF REQUIRED PHYSICAL EDUCATION
Years Required
Frequency
0
3
1
0
2
11
3
13
NOTES This table
should be read as follows:
a total of three schools do
not require physical educa­
tion as a requisite for
graduation; no schools re­
quire one year; eleven, re­
quire two years; and thirt­
een, require three years*
45
In schools of the last two groups, especially, it
has been necessary to resort to some unorthodox means of
handling the students.
It was found that 66.6 per cent of
all schools have adopted the plan of offering physical educa­
tion classes on every other day, three days a week, or four
days a week.
That plan allows more students to participate
in physical education instruction when each group reports
two, three, or four times a week, but it is a definite detri­
ment to the physical education program.
In schools where physical education is not a required
school subject, the fact that credit is given in the course
is sometimes an important factor in pupil attendance.
As
shown in Figure 4, nine schools, or 33.4 per cent, do not
give any credit on physical education participation.
Eigh­
teen schools, or 66.6 per cent, give some credit on the phy­
sical education program.
Of this 66.6 per cent that give
credit, thirteen schools, or 72.5 per cent, give one-fourth
unit of credit; three schools, or 16.6 per cent give one-half
unit of credit; and two schools, or 5.5 per cent, give one
unit of credit.
There is a difference of opinion expressed by educa­
tors concerning the granting of credit for physical education.
PO
Nash
is of the opinion that all necessary incentives for
children to take part in physical education activities are
Nash, ojd. cit., p. 379*
46
15_
12.
11
10.
9_
8_
Frequency
of
schools
7_
6_
5_
4_
5_
2_
1
Credit
granted
None
j- Unit
•j- Unit
i
1 Unit
FIGURE 4
CREDIT GRANTED IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION
NOTE: This figure should he read as
follows: nine schools give no credit
on physical education participation;
thirteen schools give ^ unit of cred­
it; three schools give i unit; and
two schools give one unit of credit*
47
inherent in the activities themselves, and that no further
incentives are necessary.
But Williams and Brownell
main­
tain that accreditment for high school physical education
may result in marked progress in programs, equipment, and
staff. LaPorte 62 asserts that credit should he given on
physical education on the same basis as other academic sub­
jects.
Assignment of students to classes. The standard of
the Score Card for assignment of students to classes is;
Assignment to activity classes is based on age,
physical condition, skill development, need and
interest.
(Assignment at random to free period =0;
by grades * 1 ; by medical diagnosis, degree
of development and skill, need and interest
= 3 )63
According to the above standard, the rating for
Northwest Texas schools on assignment of students to classes
is a score of 1.08.
Data on methods of assigning students to classes are
given in Figure 5.
Eight schools, or 30.7 per cent, use no
method of assignment to classes, thirteen schools, or 50 per
cent, assign students by their school grade, and five schools,
61
Williams and Brownell, op. cit., p. 288.
62 LaPorte, The Physical Education Curriculum, op. cit.,
pp. 47-48.
63 LaPorte, Health and Physical Education Score Card
No. II, op. cit., p. 18.
48
13.
12.
H.
1°_
9_
Frequency
of
schools
8
7
6_
5_
4_
3_
2_
1
Method of
assignment
Random
assignment
School
grades
Physical exam,
development and
skill, need
and interest
FIGURE 5.
METHOD OF ASSIGNMENT TO CLASSES
NOTE: This figure should he read as follows:
eight schools assign students to classes at
random; thirteen schools assign students by
school grade; and five schools assign students
on basis of physical examination, degree of
development and skills, need and interest.
49
or 19 per cent, base assignment to classes on medical exami­
nation, degree of development and skill, need and interest.
The state course of study discourages the scheduling
of physical education in 11off11 periods, or at random:
Regular class periods for health and physical educa­
tion must be placed on the daily program of the school
as well as on the daily schedule of the students. The
practice of arranging the academic program first and
then assigning students to physical education at their
11off” period is to be discouraged.
Pupils should be grouped as far as possible accord­
ing to their physical abilities and needs as shown by
medical examinations and physical tests.®4
Sharman65 stresses the point that students should not
choose the academic course and then schedule physical educa­
tion in an off-period, but that pupils should be assigned
to classes on the basis of the results of health examination
and battery tests.
Neilson66 also emphasizes the use of medical examina­
tion and needs of the pupil as bases for assignment of students
to classes.
Helpful suggestions concerning the use of methods
for assigning students to classes are given in The Physical
64
0 fBanion, op. cit., p. 71.
65 Jackson R. Sharman, Introduction to Physical Educa­
tion (New York: A. S. Barnes and Company, 1934), p. 217.
66
Neilson, op. cit,, p, 213.
50
Education Curriculum*67
Tests to be used in determining
classification for assignments are discussed.
. 67 LaPorte, The Physical Education Curriculum,
op. cit., p. 46.
CHAPTER IV
ORGANIZATION OP CLASSES FOR INSTRUCTION
The purpose of this chapter is to present the organi­
zation of classes for instruction as employed by the twentyeight Northwest Texas schools.
The organization includes the
instructional period, size of classes, activities for instruc­
tion and time allotment, methods of marking and grading, and
the state requirements and suggestions.
THE INSTRUCTIONAL PERIOD
The Score Card standard for the method of teaching in
the physical education class is:
Instructors stress co-ordinated teaching, combining
with performances fundamentals, the necessary rules,
team strategy, social and ethical standards, health
and safety factors, and attempt to adapt program to
outside recreational needs and interests.
(Pair * 1; good =2; excellent = 3)
According to the above standard, the rating for North­
west Texas schools on the instructional period is a score
of 2 .0 1 .
The method of teaching in Northwest Texas was studied
from several different standpoints.
In Table II is tabulated
~68 LaPorte, Health and Physi cal Education Score Card
No. II, op. cit., p. 17.
52
TABLE II
METHOD OF TEACHING
Schools
1.
2.
5.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
Skill
Game
Per cent Per cent
taught be­taught as class per­ class per­
fore game a whole iod used iod used
to teach in playskills
*££..game.
25
.
__
V
2
2
1
1
2
3
3
3
3
3
2
2
-
50
25
--25
25
50
35
50
50
50
25
50
75
100
100
75
75
50
65
50
50
50
• 75
•X-X-
—
•it-
■X~
■X&
-X-
7»“
3<5*
•M.
X
—
20
20
15
50
50
20
25
—
■ X-
- -
‘it
1
0
3
3
3
3
1
3
1
1
3
2
3
33
35
25
'X*
■it-
*
-X—
2
•X—
- x~
—
-X-X-X-
75
100
100
80
80
85
50
50
80
75
100
67
65
75
•X*
Total Rating
Rating
1
2.01
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: school
one teacheB skills before playing the game, does not teach
the game as a whole, spends 25 per cent of the class period
to teach skills, spends 75 per cent of the period playing
the game, and has a rating of 2; etc. The final rating
according to the Score Card standard is 2.01.
53
information concerning:
skills taught before the game, game
taught as a whole, per centof class period used to teach
skills, and the per cent of class period used in playing the
game.
Twenty schools, or 76.9 per cent of all schools re­
plying, teach skills before playing the game*
Seventeen
schools, or 65*4 per cent of schools, teach.the game as a
whole*
The per cent of the class period used to teach skills
ranges from 15 per cent to 50 per cent*
The per cent of
class period used in playing the game ranges from 15 per cent
to 100 per cent.
Five schools, or 28.3 per cent, spend the
entire class period in playing the game.
Twenty-three schools,
or 95.7 per cent, spend between 50 and 100 per cent of the
time in actual playing.
69
The state course of study
does not specify any defi­
nite plan to follow in classroom teaching.
The whole and the part method of teaching are discussed by LaPorte.
70
He thinks that the best teaching combines
selected elements from both methods.
The instruction pro­
cedures should be adapted to the individual needs of the
child, combining the methods that seem to assure the most
rapid learning with the greatest degree of pleasure and
satisfaction.
69
OfBanion, op. cit.
70 LaPorte, The Physical Education Curriculum,
op. cit., p. 49.
54
An effective plan of instruction for a given class
period is suggested in the following outline:
1. Review practice of fundamentals learned in the pre
ceding class period.
2. Description of new fundamentals for the dayfs
lesson, such as the basketball dribble and pivot, with
proper demonstration and explanation of their relation
to the game as a whole. ,
3. Practice of the new skill, individually, in mass
formation.
4.
Practice of the new skill by squads.
5. Practice of the new skill.and preceding ones in a
natural game situation using only those fundamentals'that
have already been presented and properly learned. This
last part should introduce the learner to the completed
act in the total game situation with the usual attendant
pleasure and satisfaction growing out of game partici­
pation.71
The procedures of LaPorte are followed rather closely
by Sharman in The Teaching of Physical Education7^ in his
discussion of the instruction period.
However, in The
Introduction to Physical Education. Sharman73 discusses the
various types of method, such as the ”pouring-in method”,
"the play method”, ”the project method”, ”the big-unit meth­
od”, and the "activity method”• He says that it is a fallacy
to consider any one method the best.
71
The method should vary
Loc« cit.
72 Sharman, The Teaching of Physical Education.
op. cit.. p. 111 .
73 Sharman, The Introduction to Physical Education,
op. cit., p . 170.
55
as the situation, content, and previous experiences of the
pupils vary*
The method of teaching is determined to a
great degree “
by the outcomes sought.
A different slant on method is presented by Williams;
(a)
Proceed from the known to the desired unknown.
(b) Correlate with the child*s studies in the class­
room and proceed in harmony with the child’s school
and life experience.
(c) Proceed in relation to the child’s motor sense
and kinesthesia.
(d) Secure a concept of the relation of motor acts
an(^ Mental attitudes, and progress in asking for good
standards of. work, for efficiency, for thoroughness
according to the motor development of the child.”4
Oberteuffer, 75 in presenting the content of the physi
cal education program, gives a very instructional general
discussion of teaching techniques.
He says that the best
instruction is that in which all students receive training
similar to that given on the football field.
SIZE OP CLASSES
'P*16 Score Card standard for size of classes is:
Instructional classes for normal students are limited
in size for effective instruction purposes.
74
Williams,
ojd.
cit., p. 399.
75 D. Oberteuffer, "The Content of a Modern Program
of Physical And Health .Education," Journal of Health and
Physical Education, IV (March, 1933), p p . 46-47.
56
(Maximum 48 students per instructor = lj
42 students per instructor = 2; 36 students
per instructor = 3)”®
According to the above standard, the rating for the
Northwest Texas schools on size of classes is a score of
i
1
*"
The size of classes iirf schools in Northwest Texas
tv
t
;
used in this study is given in Figure 6 . Seven schools,
or 25 per cent, have average enrollment of forty pupils per
class.
Fifteen, or 62 per cent, have thirty-six or less
students per class.
■ ’ *h^s
I an average enrollment
One1 school?
of forty-five students jier class, and one school has an
average enrollment of'fift-jr-flve students per class.
- j ’ '• !77
The state.
course Tof study jplaces the same require»
*
ments as to number of-classes per day and the pupil periods
' ■ ; i
1 ;
i
.■■
per week applied to, teachers ,of iphysical education as apply
|
to otherteachers in the school. No teacher is expected to
I-
|
^
li,
4
have more than 750 pupil-periods
•
per week.
On thefive-period
schedule, the average class enrollment according to this
statement would be thirty pupils per class.
According to the Score Card standard and the state
course of study requirement, only one school in this study
exceeds the maximum enrollment.
76 LaPorte, Health and Physical Education Score Card
No. II., op. cit., p. 17.
77
0 !Banion, ojd. cit., p. 69.
57
Frequency
of
schools 3
I
Students
per
class
FIGURE 6
AVERAGE SIZE OF CLASSES
NOTE: This figure should he read as follows:
one school has an average enrollment of twen­
ty pupils per class; two schools have an en­
rollment of twenty-five students per class,
etc.
In relation to size of classes, Williams and Brownell
consider several factors influencing class size instead of
setting a minimum or maximum number for class enrollment:
Glass size varies with a number of factors. In the
first place, the kind of activity is of major influence.
A teacher may lead hundreds in marching but can teach
scarcely more than twenty of a restricted group. Mass
games favor large numbers; swimming in a pool restricts
somewhat the size of the group.
Secondly, facilities may limit or expand what is
usually regarded as normal elsewhere. Large, airy, quiet
places favor the use of large groups. Small badly venti­
lated and noisy areas are never suited for large classes
and even may be undesirable for small ones.
Thirdly, some teachers do excellent work with small
groups and fail with larger ones. Others more adept in
organization succeed with masses but fail to appeal in
the personal, intimate relations that small groups favor.
The administrator may find it desirable to assign certain
teachers to large and other ones to small classes.”®
PROGRAM ACTIVITIES FOR INSTRUCTION
AND TIME ALLOTMENT
The Score Card standard on activities for instruction
Content of core and elective programs is distribut
ed over gymnastic, rhythms, aquatics, individual
sports (including defense activities), and team
sports.
(Not less than 6$ of the time to each of the
five types * 1; not less than 9$ = 2; not
less than 12$ = 3 )*^
78
Williams and Brownell,
ojd.
cit.,
p.
286.
79 LaPorte, Health and physical Education Score Card
No. II, oj^» cit., p. 5.
59
According to the above standard, the rating of schools
in Northwest Texas on activities for instruction is 1.4.
Data on core and elective activities offered, time
allotment, and rating by schools are given in Table III.
The activities listed in this group appeared om the question­
naire for study*
It was suggested to the teachers who filled
out the blanks that they list in a separate group any other
activities which were included in their school program.
The
latter group of activities is given in Table IV.
The activities in Table III participated in by most
schools are softball, 6.8 weeks, basketball, 6.2 weeks,
volleyball, 4.5 weeks, touch football, 5.3 weeks, soccer
ball, 4.4 weeks, track and field, 3.1 weeks, and table tennis,
6.3 weeks.
No schools In this study have participation in swim­
ming.
The public schools in that section of Texas are not
equipped with swimming facilities and very few of the towns
have city or community swimming pools.
The fact that there
is no swimming offered in the schools of this study is a
major weakness of the physical education program in North­
west Texas.
Hiking-camping activities are not sponsored a great
deal because of the topography of the rolling plains of
Northwest Texas.
There are canyons in parts of that sec­
tion which would afford sport and interest to the students
60
TABLE III
CORE AND ELECTIVE ACTIVITIES AND TIME ALLOTMENT
Activity
Fre­ Time in
quency Weeks
Gymnastics
Gymnasium drills • 13
6
Apparatus
Tumbling-pyramids
13
Total
32
Rhythms
10
Aquatics
—
Swimming
Individual Sports
Track and field
15
Boxing
8
Wrestling
4
Handball
3
—
Hiking-camping
Horseshoes
8
Table tennis
11
—
Horseback riding
—
Golf
Total
49
Team Sports
Basketball
25
Softball
26
15
Soccer
Speedball
11
Touch football
23
Volleyball
24
124
Total
Grand Total
Rating
215
33
8
46
87
40
57
22
11
8
-19
69
Average Per cent
Rating
Time
Time in
Spent
Weeks
2.5
1.3
3.6
7.4
4.0
8.7
4.0
1
0
—
_ _
0
3.1
2.7
2.7
2.7
-2.7
6.3
—
—
—
- -
186
20.2
18.6
3
155
178
66
47
122
109
677
6.2
'6.8
4.4
4.9
5.3
4.5
32.1
67.7
3
1,000
63.7
99.0
7
1.4
TiTA m m ITl'U -t jr. 4NOTE:
This
table should be read as follows: gymnas
tics, consisting of gymnasium drills, used in 13,schools,
with a total of 33 weeks, or an average time of 2.5 weeks,
apparatus, used in 6 schools, 8 weeks, or an average of 1.3
weeks, and tumbling-pyramids, used in 13 schools, 4.1 weeks,
or an average time of 3.6,weeks, with a total time spent
8.7 weeks, is given a rating of 1.0. Rhythms has no rating
because it was taught in 10 schools, 40 weeks, or an average
of 4.0 weeks," and 4 per cent of the time was devoted to it.
61
but they are located far from the cities and are not easily
accessible.
They are state, nationally, or privately owned
and assess a fee for entrance.
Horseback riding is participated in by some of the
rural children, perhaps, but none of the schools own equip­
ment for this sport.
Golf is not included in the school programs, because
no school in that section has a school golf course, and few
of the smaller towns afford country club or city golf courses.
Here, again, the green fee makes this sport prohibitive even
where there are city or community courses.
Other more noticeable non-conformities to the standard,
perhaps, are in gymnasium drills, marching, apparatus and
rhythms, which have a total of 7.8 weeks allotted to them in
comparison to the total of 24 weeks suggested for these acti­
vities.
In Table IV appear other physical education activi­
ties found in the schools studied.
Games of low organization
are used in three schools; two schools use shuffleboard; and
dominoes, ,,42lf, checkers, Chinese checkers, parlor games,
health and physical education silent and sound movies, dodge
ball, marching, pin ball, tennis, goal hi, paddle badminton,
and deck tennis are listed once each.
The number of activities-distribution for all the
schools is presented in Figure 7.
This figure indicates
TABLE XV
OTHER ACTIVITIES OFFERED
j— 1
Time in Average
• i
Frequency Weeks
Time
Activity
Low organized games
3'%
-f'
'1 $
Dominoes
”42“
Checkers
'*1
Chinese checkers
1
Parlor games
1
<
Health and physical education
silent and sound films
1 !i
Shuffleboard
2 .
Dodge ball
■ r
i
1 "
2
2 *
* r ^
I *
*■
Marching
'
*
1 *
1
i
2
Pin ball
1
2
2
Tennis
1
18
18
Goal hi
1
3
3
Paddle badminton
1
3
3
1
3
Deck tennis
3
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: activi­
ties other than those in the suggested core and elective
programs are listed here. Games of low organization are used
by three of the schools, with no definite time in weeks
stated. Shuffleboard is used by two schools, with two weeks
time devoted to it, or an average of one week, etc.
63
8
quency
of
schools
Acti­
vities#
0
Elective Activities
Core Activities
FIGURE 7*
TABULATION OF ACTIVITIES OFFERED BY SCHOOLS
NOTE: This figure should be read as follows:
seven schools
do not have any elective activities in their program, six
schools have one elective activity, three schools have two
electives, three schools have three electives, one school
has four electives, and two schools have four activities
in the core program, etc.
64
that the number of activities in the core program offered
by the schools ranges from a minimum of 4 to a maximum of
12 in each school*
Eight schools, or 30*8 per cent, offer a
total of seven activities in the core program.
Only two
schools have as few as 4 different activities, and one school
offers a total of 12 activities.
With the activities offered in the elective program
the picture is somewhat different.
Seven schools, or
approximately 27 per cent, offer no elective activities.
Six schools, or 23 per cent, offer only one elective activity.
Seven schools have 2, 3, and 4 elective activities, and four
schools have 5 electives.
One school offers 9 activities
in the elective group.
The only state requirement80 concerning the activities
in any given program is that instruction in physical education
should be offered in at least five types of activities for
the sake of variety, present enjoyment, physiological demands,
and future usefulness.
According to the Score Card standard and the state
course of study, only one school does not offer sufficient
number of core activities, with the exception that no school
offers swimming.
The major weakness of the schools is that
they do not allot enough time to the various core and elec­
tive activities, as suggested by the Score Card standard.
80
OfBanion, 0£. cit., pp. 71-72.
65
That fact can he explained, in part, by the tendency of
schools to devote time to individual sports, such as boxing,
wrestling, horseshoes, table tennis, tennis, and others.
Numerous articles81 have been written discussing the
placement of activities and time allotment to ensure an
all-inclusive program of physical education in the public
schools.
The one that appears the most highly developed is
presented by LaPorte in The Physical Education Curriculum.^
A reproduction of this program appears in Table V.
The activities given here are listed under the head­
ings of The Core Program and The Elective Program. The time
allotments are in units or multiples of six weeks, on the
assumption that the average school will have 36 weeks a year,
or a total of 108 weeks in a three year period.
An activity
”"
Thomas Denison Wood and Rosalind Prances Cassidy,
The New Physical Education (New York: The Macmillan Company,
1927), pp. 156-181^ (Reference especially to junior high
school, pp. 172-173.)
Oberteuffer, op. cit., p. 48.
Sharman, Introduction to Physical Education.
op. cit., pp. 156-157.
Sharman, The Teaching of Physi cal Education,
op. cit., pp. 36-37.
N. P. Neilson and Winifred Van Hagen, Physical
Education for Elementary Schools (New York: A. S. Barnes and
Company, 1934), pp. 237-350.
82 LaPorte, The Physical Education Curriculum,
op. cit., p. 29.
66
TABLE V
PROGRAM FOR THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL (GRADES 7-9)*
I.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10 .
11 .
Core Program
Weeks
for
Boys
Basketball (elem.)• .
6
Basketball(9court)(el •) •
Gym.dri11s,marching,and
apparatus (Elem.) • 12
Rhythms (elem.) • • • 12
Softball(Playground)•
6
Soccer or speedball .
6
Swimming and diving . 12
Touch football (elem. ) 6
Track and field (elem.) 6
Tumbling and pyramids
6
Volleyball (elem.) . 6
Electives
Weeks
for
Girls
•
•
6
12
18
6
6
12
•
•
• •
6
6
78
. . . . 30
72
36
108
108
II.
Elective Program
(Boys--30 Weeks)
(Girls--36 Weeks)
1 . Badminton
2 . Boxing
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10 .
11 .
12 .
13.
14.
15.
Boating
Golf
Handball
Hiking and Camping
Horseshoes
Paddle Tennis
Riding
Skating
Skiing
Snow shoeing
Social games and
dances
Tennis
Wrestling
* The time allotments here again are approximate in
terms of relative values and are subject to minor adjustment.
They are listed in terms of weeks. A given activity can be
concentrated in one year with a specific number of weeks or
it may be split between two of the three years or distributed
equally between the three years according to preference of
a given school. If desired it is possible to schedule the
activities to fit seasonal sports. It is suggested that re­
lays, gymnasium or group games, and athletic games of low or­
ganization be used as preliminary preparation for the regular
games involving the same elements.
It is understood that this schedule is for class in­
struction purposes, to be supplemented by an opportunity for
extensive intramural participation by all students. Where
this extra laboratory period is not available, probably the
last fourth or third of the regular class period should be
devoted to enthusiastic participation in the activity or game
being studied. In any case sufficient participation should
be given in the class period to assure adequate motivation
and appreciation of the game as a unified whole.
67
that is allotted six weeks could be given continuously all
in a single year or it could be divided into two years,
three weeks to each year, or into three years, two weeks to
each year, according to the preference of the locality or
given school.
If the first plan were followed, a given
semester1s program on the average would consist of three
different activities of six weeks each.
In case swimming facilities are not available and
cannot be secured, as is the case in the schools in this
study, it would, of course, be necessary to eliminate it
from the program except for basic land drills.
This would
then release more time for the other phases of the program.
It will be noted that the elective program constitutes
nearly one-third of the total, thus giving reasonable free- *
dom for special activities of the individual or carry-over
type.
Following the presentation of this table, classifi­
cation of athletic games of low organization is given in
Table VI.
As is suggested by Table V, these games may be
used to supplement the program as suggested, in order that
students may have extensive intramural participation.
ROUTINE ORGANIZATION
Minor phases of physical education organization, the
use of a core program, the use of a corrective program, the
68
TABLE VI
CLASSIFIED ATHLETIC GAMES OF LOW ORGANIZATION
I. Basketball
Type
II. Playground
Ball Type
III. Soccer
Type
Captain Ball
Bombardment
Captain Basketball Batball
Circle strike
Cornerball
Endball
Line Basketball
Nine-court Basket­ Fongo
Hit Pin Baseball
ball
Longball
Newcomb
Six-hole Basketball One old cat
Six-court Basketball Two old cat
Triangle ball
Quadruple DodgeWork up
ball
IV. Volley­
ball Type
Boundball
Advancement
Featherball
Circle Soccer
Corner Kickball Netball
Schoolroom
Fieldball
Volleyball
Hand Polo
Spongeball
Kickball
Kick-over Ball
Pin Football
Punt Back
Rotation Soccer
Simplified Soccer
Soccer Dodgeball
Soccer Keep-Away
69
use of an intramural program, the use of squad organization,
the regular use of the gymnasium, and the requirement of
gymnasium suits and daily showers, merit some consideration
in this discussion of class organization.
The use of a core program. Data concerning the use
of a core program are pictured in Figure 8 . Only four
schools, or 14.4 per cent of the schools in this study, have
a core program.
The core program is definitely suggested
83
by the program for junior high schools, given in Table V.
The corrective program. The Score Card standard for
the use of a corrective program is:
Adequate modified and individual activity classes,
with limited enrollment, are provided for students
incapacitated for normal participation or needing
special postural or othopedic correction (classes
B and C)•
(Maximum of 25 students per instructor = 1;
20 students per instructor = 2; 15 students
per instructor = 3)84
According to the above standard, the rating for schools
in Northwest Texas on the use of the corrective program is
a score of 0*27.
From information concerning the use of the corrective
program it was found that only seven schools, or 27 per cent
133 Table V, Supra., p.
qq
84 LaPorte, Health and Physical Education Score Card
No. II, op. cit., p. 15.
70
No Core Program
85.6$
Gore
Program
14.4#
FIGURE 8
CORE PROGRAM
NOTE: This figure should be read as follows:
eighty-five and six tenths per cent of the
schools did not have a core program, and 14,4
per cent did have a core program.
71
of the schools replying, have a corrective program in their
physical education curriculum.
The state suggested curriculum sanctions the idea of
corrective works
Pupils who are unable to take part in the regular
physical education program on the basis of defects
revealed by the medical examination, should be given
_
special work as prescribed by the examining physician.®
The fact that corrective programs are not more general­
ly offered is a major weakness of the schools in Northwest
Texas.
This is not only a violation of the state school
law, but also of the Score Card standard.
The schools in
this study received their lowest rating on the use of the
corrective program.
Educators and laymen alike encourage corrective
work in physical education.
LaPorte classifies into a group,
"C11, all those students having physical conditions seemingly
susceptible of improvement in some degree, and calls them
corrective cases.
He says, concerning these cases:
The groups of students classified as !,Cff should be
given opportunity for correction of the specific defect
disclosed but at the same time should have opportunity
to develop a variety of usable activity skills for both
present and later life use.®®
85
O'Banion, 0£. cit., p. 71.
86 LaPorte, The Physical Education Curriculum.
op. cit.. p. 52.
72
The intramural program. The Score Card standard for
the use of the intramural program is:
Participation in intramural sports in addition to
class instruction is provided at least once a week
for each student.
(Each student once a week = 1; twice a week = 2;
three or more times a week = 3)^7
According to the above standard, the rating of schools
in Northwest Texas on the inclusion of an intramural program
is a score of 0.3.
Information on the intramural program in the schools
of Northwest Texas showed that only eight schools, or 30.8
per cent, have an intramural program.
The second lowest
rating received by the schools in this study was on the in­
tramural program.
It is very evident that the failure to
include intramural activities in the program of physical
education is a weakness on the part of these schools.
Modern trends in physical education curriculum con­
struction all favor the installation of an intramural program
in the physical education activities.
According to LaPorte,^® the intramural program is a
vital phase of the curriculum in physical education.
He ex­
plains the importance of the intramural activities in that
87 LaPorte, Health and Physical Education Score Card
No. II, op. cit., p . 6 .
88
p* 54.
LaPorte, The Physical Education Curriculum, op. cit.,
73
they furnish an opportunity for extensive participation in
activities already thoroughly taught and should be available
to one hundred per cent of the student body.
Sharman89 stresses the need for participation on the
part of all students in intramural sports.
He says that in
every school from the one-teacher rural school to the large
university that there should be provided an opportunity for
all pupils to participate in intramural athletics.
Williams and Brownell90 justify the intramural activi­
ties because such sports tend to make participators instead
of spectators out of the great mass of students.
SL
Nash maintains that this program offers the best
incentives for physical education activities in which the
entire student body can participate in classified groups.
The intramural method can be expanded almost to the point
of universality.
Squad organization. Squad organization as employed
by the schools in this study is presented in Figure 9.
Thirteen schools, or 46.4 per cent, use squad organization
of classes.
89 ~Sharman, Introduction to Physical Education,
op• cit♦, p. 160.
90
Williams and Brownell, o£• cit., p. 408.
91
Nash, 0£* cit., p. 385.
74
In
Use
46.4;
Not
In
Use
42 .9%
/ No \
Report
10.7#
FIGURE 9
SQUAD ORGANIZATION
NOTE: This figure should, be read as follows:
thirteen schools, or 46.4 per cent, use squad
organization. Twelve schools, or 42.9 per cent,
do not use squad organization. Three schools, or
10.7 per cent of the schools in this study, did
not report on squad organization.
75
It is generally conceded a good teaching technique
to employ organization of squads* Sharman92 suggests that
a permanent organization of each class into squads should
be perfected as soon as practicable after all pupils have
completed the placement tests.
net
Nash170 justifies the use of squad organization in that
it forms an excellent laboratory for training student
leadership.
Regular use of the gymnasium. In Figure 10 the fact
is revealed that only 23 per cent of the schools in this
study have regular use of the gymnasium.
04
T]:ie Score Card^
areas be available.
suggests that one or more gymnasium
95
The state course of study
also sug­
gests that there be a gymnasium at the disposal of the school.
However, not a great deal is said about the use of the
gymnasium.
It is evident that the gymnasium is a necessity
to the physical education program.
The problem in most of
the schools in Northwest Texas is that the boys1 physical
education classes and the girls* physical education classes
92 Sharman, Introduction to Physical Education,
op. cit., p. 224.
93
Nash, op. cit., p. 346.
94 LaPorte, Health and Physical Education Score Card
No. II, op. cit•, p . 8 .
95
0 *Banion,
ojd.
cit., p. 70.
76
No Regular Use
of
Gymnasium
n%
Regular
\ Use of
Gymnasium
25%
FIGURE 10
REGULAR USE OF GYMNASIUM
NOTE: This figure should he read as
follows: only 23 per cent of the schools
in this study have regular use of the gymnasium.
77
are forced to use the same gymnasium, alternating periods or
days for use.
This fact cannot be remedied, as it is seen
by the writer, until more gymnasium facilities and equip­
ment are furnished by the schools.
This irregular use of
the gymnasium is admittedly a weakness in the program in
Northwest Texas schools.
Requirement of gymnasium suits. The Score Card
standard concerning the requirement of gymnasium suits is:
All students wear appropriate uniforms in activity
classes.
(Uniforms furnished by themselves = 1; pro­
vided by school, and fee charged » 2 : pro­
vided by school without charge = 3)^6
According to the
in Northwest Texas is a
above standard,the rating of schools
score of 1.
The per cent of schools requiring gymnasium suits for
each pupil is given in Figure 11.
It is evidenced that
twenty sehools, or 71.4 per cent, require gymnasium suits.
The writer discovered by interview that no schools furnish
the gymnasium suits.
All students furnish suits themselves.
The requirement of a gymnasium suit for each student
97
is a part of the state course of study. Those schools
not requiring gymnasium
suits are breaking the
schoollaw.
"
LaPorte, Health and Physical Education Score Card
No. II, op. cit., p. 12.
97
0!Banion, op. cit., p. 70.
78
FIGURE 11
REQUIREMENT OF GYMNASIUM SUITS
NOTE: This figure should be read as follows:
seventy-one and four tenths per cent require
gymnasium suits; 21.5 per cent do not require
suits; and 7.1 per cent gave no report.
79
It is the opinion of the foremost educators
QQ
in the
field of physical education that a regular uniform be worn
by students enrolled in physical education classes.
Requirement of daily showers. Figure 12 shows that
nineteen schools, or 67.8 per cent of the schools replying,
require showers for all students after each participation
in physical activities.
It is a well-known biological fact that after finish­
ing the exercise of a class period, one should take a
complete bath and put on ordinary clothing.
MARKING AND GRADING
'®ae Score Card standard on marking and grading is:
Testing for final grade In activity classes is
distributed over (1 ) performance skills, (2 )
knowledge of rules and strategy, (3) social
attitudes (citizenship), (4) posture and bearing
(or equivalent), and possibly (5) health practices
and (6 ) regularity of attendance.
(Fair tests « 1; good * 2; excellent = 3 ) ^
98 LaPorte, The Physical Education Curriculum.
op. cit., p. 44.
Sharman, Teaching of Physical Education, op. cit.,
p . 50 .
Nash, op. cit.. p. 376.
Sharman, Introduction to Physical Education.
op. cit.. p. 222 .
99 LaPorte, Health and Physi cal Education Score Card
No. II, op. cit.. p. 17.
FIGURE 12,REQUIREMENT OF DAILY SHOWERS
NOTE: This figure should he read as follows:
eight schools, or 28,6 per cent, do not require
daily showers. Nineteen schools, or 67.8 per
cent, do require daily showers. One school, or
3.6 per cent, did not report.
81
According to the above standard, the rating of
schools In Northwest Texas on marking and grading is a
score of 2.5.
The phase of marking and grading in the physical
education programs of Northwest Texas was surveyed through
a list of items to be checked if used in evaluating grades.
The information from this section of the questionnaire has
been tabulated in Table VII.
Items listed in grading were:
attendance, attitudes, dress (costume), citizenship, know­
ledge tests, ability in skills, cooperation, and tests of
any kind.
In tabulating this material from the master chart
it was found that schools use all the way from two of these
items to eight in estimating grades.
Only two schools used
as few as two Items; five schools used the whole list of
items.
One school gives no grades in physical education
courses.
From Table VII it is learned that twenty-two schools,
or 88 per cent, use attitude as one of the determining
factors in grade computation.
Attendance, cooperation,
citizenship, knowledge tests, dress, ability in skills, and
different kinds of tests are used in the order named.
Of the
twenty-five schools replying on information in this table,
the smallest frequency of schools using any item was
thirteen schools, or 52 per cent, using tests.
82
TABLE VII
ITEMS USED IN GRADING
Frequency
Per cent
Attendance
21
84
Attitude
22
88
Dress (costume)
14
56
Citizenship
19
76
Knowledge tests
15
60
Ability in skills
14
56
Cooperation
20
80
Item
Tests (any kind)
52
13
NOTE: This table should be read
as follows? the item attendance was
used in grading by twenty-one schoo1 s,
or 84 per cent; attitude was used by
twenty-two schools, or 88 per cent, etc*
83
Much discussion concerning marking and grading in the
physical education program has been made by educators and
others.
Sharman'1’00 says that a great deal of the criticism
is justifiable, but that it has been directed toward eliminat­
ing the use of specific marks rather than toward the correc­
tion of the weaknesses and abuses of the subjective methods
which have been commonly used.
He says that marks should
be reliable, specific, and discriminating.
They should be
used as measures of progress or achievement, and not as re­
wards or punishment.
They should be based exclusively on
the achievements of pupils that can be measured objectively.
Williams and Brownell
101
think that physical education
attainments should be graded as well as any other education
subject.
A sound grading system should be based upon a
number of items, such as objective tests or achievement in
a variety of activities and knowledge tests that cover the
areas of activity and that of general physical education,
including its aim, purpose, backgrounds and results.
LaPorte unreservedly states the following definite
items for grading:
It is recommended that the grades be based on the
following four major items, allowing about twenty-five
per cent for each:
100 Sharman, The Teaching of physical Education.
op. cit., p. 58.
101
Williams and Brownell, ojo. cit., p. 287.
84
(1)
Performance skills.
(2) Knowledge of rules, general performance and
strategy.
(3) Social attitudes including cooperativeness,
sportsmanship, leadership, etc.
(4)
Posture and bearing.
In some cases it may seem desirable to include other
items such as effort, improvement, regularity of attend­
ance, taking showers, costume, etc., but preferably
these should be considered a part of item (3) above or
as a separate citizenship grade. The student may be
interested in participating in the grading process both
for himself and for other members of his group. Some
teachers follow the practice of having members of a squad
grade each other according to agreed-upon standards,
counting this score as one half or more of the final
grade.1C2
Irene Williamson103 says that in the future grades in
physical education will consist of a score on the improvement
of performance in activities, a score on some test to measure
health habits and attitudes, and a score on some test or
measuring device for measuring the finer appreciations and
the cultural life developed through physical education.
Bookwalter 104 proposes a plan of marking based on
attendance, skill in decathlon and stunt tests, towel fee,
102 LaPorte, The Physical Education C u r r i c u l u m , ©p.
cit., p. 48.
103 Irene Williamson, "Grading in Physical Education,"
Journal of Health and Physical Education, VI (February, 1935),
pp. 20-21 .
104 Karl W. Bookwalter, "Marking in Physicll Education,"
Journal of Health and Physical Education, VII (January, 1936),
pp. 16-19.
85
uniform, lock requirements, hygiene inspections, posture
tests, new type tests on rules, and teachers! estimates
(citizenship).
For each of these factors a student will
be given a letter grade, carrying with it an equivalent
numerical grade.
The total letters, or numerical grades,
are averaged, and a standard of equivalents is set up where­
by this total can be computed into a final grade.
105
Helen M. Reily,
after presenting some nine methods
of grading and marking, each having advantages and dis­
advantages, sets up a plan similar to the one above.
It is
based on the A-B-C-D-E, or 1-2-3-4-5-system, considering
the technical skills, knowledge, and attitude in grading
physical education in elementary schools.
STATE REQUIREMENTS AND SUGGESTIONS
This phase of class organization for instruction is
dealing specifically with the course of study as followed by
the schools in Northwest Texas.
The Score Card standard on course of study iss
Detailed yearly program (course of study, including
specific objectives) for each grade level is on file
in principals office and activity schedules are
posted on gymnasium bulletin boards.
105 Helen M. Reily, "Basis for Grading in Physical
Education," Journal of Health and Physical Education, VI
(October, 1935), pp. 40-41.
86
(Pair program ■ 1; good = 2; excellent - 3)106
According to this standard, the rating for schools
in Northwest Texas on course of study is a score of 1.
To present data on the course of study collected from
the schools, two tables have been devised, Table VIII and
Table IX,
In Table VIII are given the frequency of schools
using a course of study and the kind of course of study#
Sixteen schools, or 66.6 per cent of schools replying, use
a course of study.
Of these sixteen schools using a course
of study, 2 schools have a printed course, 12 use a local
course of study, and 7 use a state course. It was noted
in compilation that three schools used both a local and
the state course of study.
Again basing computation on the sixteen schools
using the course of study, in Table IX is shown thatthirteen of these schools have an outlined course of study.
The
use of the course of study is required in 5 schools, elective
in 8 , and both required and elective in 4 schools.
107
The state requirementconcerning
the use of a course
of study is that all schools shall keep on file for inspection
an exhibit representing the work as taught in each year or
106 LaPorte, Health and Physical Education Score Card
No. II, op. cit., p. 6 .
107
0!Banion,
ojd.
cit., p. 69.
87
TABLE VIII
COURSE OF STUDY
Course of Study
Frequency
Printed
Do Use
16
Kind
Local
State
12
2
7
8
Do Not Use
NOTE: This table should be read as follows:
sixteen schools use a course of study* Of this sixteen,
two schools have a printed course, twelve, a local course,
and seven, a state course. Eight schools do not use a
course of study.
TABLE IX
TYPE AND USE OF COURSE OF STUDY
Outlined
Required
Elective
Both
13
5
4
8
NOTE: This table should be read as
follows: of the sixteen schools in Table VIII
that use a course of study, thirteen have an
outlined course, five require the course of
study, eight have elective use, and in four
schools the course of study is both required
and elective.
88
grade of the school.
As a part of this exhibit, a copy of
the course of study of the previous years for each grade and
an outline of the course of study for the current year must
be included*
From the previous discussions concerning the activities,
time allotment, and many other phases of the physical educa­
tion program it is evident that a definite course of study
should be followed in each school.
This course could be
state or local, but to ensure placement of activities, to
eliminate over-lapping, and to include all activities,
there should definitely be a course of study in written
form.
The course of study for a field is the series of
planned activities at various levels, and only through
organization and constant planning can efficient and effect­
ive teaching be carried on.
CHAPTER V
PERSONNEL OF TEACHING STAFF
The study of the personnel connected with any school
will, to a degree, throw some light on the type of policies
followed by that school, and on the general progress made
by that school toward educational advancement.
Of course,
the entire load of school success does not rest on the
teachers, but, surely, they, in a measure, shape the school*s
broader purposes, aims, and objectives.
For that reason they
should be well-chosen, well-qualified to fulfil the duties
of preparing people to live successfully in a democratic
society.
The teacher is the basic factor in the educational
process, and the quality of the teacher largely determines
the quality of the results.
In the case of the physical education teacher,
Sharman says, concerning the responsibilities and personal­
ities of teachers in this department:
The teacher is of the utmost importance in carrying
forward a sound and successful school program of physi­
cal education. Elaborate facilities and equipment, a
wide variety of activities, and a liberal time allot­
ment for physical education classes are relatively
insignificant in comparison with the importance of the
teacher in making a successful school program. A pleas­
ing and stimulating type of personality is highly desir­
able for a teacher. He should exhibit enthusiasm,
resourcefulness, sympathy, self-control, tact, and fairmindedness. His character and behavior on aU occasions
should be unimpeachable. Parents expect the teacher of
90
physical education to set a desirable model of personal­
ity and character for the boys and girls.108
It is the purpose of this chapter to consider the
physical education teachers in the schools in Northwest
Texas as to their academic achievements, the type of educa­
tional courses pursued, the membership in various associa­
tions, and the type of literature available for their
perusal.
The above items of consideration were chosen because
they are among the few objective, tangible factors that are
available for study.
The writer would like to have been
able to check on uenthusiasm, resourcefulness, sympathy,
self-control, tact, and fairmindedness,1,100 of these teachers,
but he admits his inability to do so because of lack of
means to measure these traits.
He further admits that
the facts that he has surveyed will not necessarily determine
the type of teachers in these schools at all.
He merely
presents this material only for the intrinsic value It may
have in helping to tender, inadequately, it is acknowledged,
a more complete panorama of the schools In Northwest Texas.
As is seen in Figure 13 the personnel of the physical
education departments in the schools of Northwest Texas
108 Sharman, The teaching of Physical Education,
op,cit., p. 47.
109
Loc. cit.
91
15.
14.
15
12.
H.
1 0 .
9.
Frequency
‘of
schools
8.
7.
6.
5.
4
3_
2_
1
Physical
education
teachers
ii
2 Part- Each
time
teacher
teachers
i
Regular Physical Education Teacher
FIGURE 13
PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS IN SCHOOLS
NOTE: This figure should he read as follows: two
schools have two part-time teachers. In two schools
each teacher in the school takes part in physical
education work. Fifteen schools have two regular
physical education teachers; two schools have three
teachers, and six schools have four teachers.
92
consists of some sixty regular teachers, four part time
teachers, and each teacher in the faculty of two schools.
The information tabulated in the following tables, is, how­
ever, based on the replies of twenty-seven teachers, from
the above mentioned groups, who answered the questionnaire.
ACADEMIC PREPARATION
The academic preparation of the teachers in schools
of this study has been considered under the college academic
degrees held by teachers and major and minor studies.
The Score Card standard on teacher preparation is:
All persons coaching teams, or handling physical
education classes, or community recreation activi­
ties under school supervision are properly certified
to teach in the state and have had extensive train­
ing and/or experience in physical education.
(All certified and experienced = 2; all with
a major or minor = 5)^0
According to this standard, the rating for schools in
the study of Northwest Texas is a score of 2.74.
Data on academic degrees held by teachers revealed the
fact that twenty-seven teachers, or the total number of teachers
replying, have either aB. A. or B, S. degree.
No teacher has
an irregular degree offered in physical education.
It is
noted, however, that no masters degrees are found among these
teachers.
110 LaPorte, Health and Physical Education Score Card
No. II, op. cit., p. 16.
93
Table X presents, in two parts, majors and minors
of teachers holding B. A. or B, S. degrees.
Of the twenty-
seven teachers offering data concerning majors and minors,
fourteen, or 51.8 per cent, are physical education majors.
Six teachers, or 22.2 per cent, are physical education min­
ors.
The total number of teachers having a major or minor
in physical education is twenty, or 74 per cent.
The state requirement Ill is that full-time teachers
must have twenty-four semester hours of college credit in
physical education.
The fact that schools are employing some teachers
to teach physical education classes who did not have a major
or a minor in this field during their college work is a
major weakness of schools in Northwest Texas.
It is generally agreed by experts 112 in the field of
physical education that teachers should have at least a
college degree, witha.major or minor in this field.
111
O^Banion, op. cit., p. 67.
112
Williams, op. cit., p. 365.
Wood and Cassidy, op. cit., pp. 281-2.
Sharman, Introduction to Physical Education, op.
cit., pp. 294;299.
LaPorte, The Physical hducation Curriculum, op.
cit., p. 48.
94
TABLE X
STUDIES IN COLLEGE
Majors
Major
Phy.
Educ.
Teach
ers
Per
cent
14
51.8
Soc. Educ • S. A. Math. Eng.
Sci.
4
3
14.8 11.1
Jour. Total
27
1
2
2
1
3.7
7.4
7.4
3.7
99.9
Eng.
Total
6
27
Minors
Minor
Teach
ers
Per
cent
Phy. Soc.
Educ. Sci.
Educ. B . A. Eco • Bio.
6
3
3
22.2
11.1
11.1
3
3
3
11.1 11.1
11.1
99.9
NOTEs This table should be read as follows!
fourteen teachers majored in physical education, four,
in social science, three, in education, etc#: six teach­
ers minored in physical education, three, in social science,
etc.
22.2
95
MEMBERSHIP IN PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS
AND USE OF PROFESSIONAL LITERATURE
The Score Card standard for judging teachers pro­
fessionally is:
Teachers are active in professional organizations
such as the American Association for Health and
Physical Education, attend professional meetings,
subscribe to professional magazines, and maintain
a good supply of late professional books in library.
(Fairly active = 1; active = 2; very active 3)113
According to this standard, the professional rating
for the schools in Northwest Texas is a score of 2.
Professional association membership is shown in
Table XI.
Twenty-three teachers belong to the Texas State
Teachers Association, seven to the Texas Physical Education
Association, four to local teachers associations, three to
the National Education Association, two to the Texas High
School Coaches Association, and two do not belong to any
association.
Data on current literature in the education field,
as read by teachers in this study, are presented in Table XII.
The Journal of Health and Physical Education is read by twentythree teachers, or 85 per cent of the teachers replying.
The Athletic Coach is read by fifteen teachers, or 55.5 per
113 LaPorte, Health and Physical Education Score Card
No. II, op. cit., p. 16.
96
TABLE XI
PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATION MEMBERSHIP
Organization*
Number of
teachers
Per cent
Other Associations
WTLA
THSCA
NEA
TSTA
TPEA
None
3
23
7
2
2
4
12.5
95.8
29.2
8.3
8.3
16.6
*NEA - National Education Association
TSTA - Texas State Teachers Association
TPEA - Texas Physical Education Association
THSCA - Texas High School Coaches Association
WTLA - West Texas and Local Association
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: three
teachers, or 12.5 per cent, belong to the National Educa­
tion Association; twenty-three teachers, or 95.8 per cent,
belong to the Texas State Teachers Association, etc.
97
TABLE XII
PUBLICATIONS READ BY TEACHERS
Magazine
JHPE PERQ AC SC Hygeia Health
23
5 15 15
3
Per cent
85
18.5 55 48
11
JHPE
PERQ,
AC
SC
-
1
1
3.7
3.7
1
.
to
Frequency
Reader1s Snorts None
man
Digest
4
14.8
Journal of Healthand Physical Education
Physical EducationResearchQuarterly
Athletic Coach
Scholastic Coach
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: twentythree teachers, or 85 per cent of all teachers, read the
Journal of Health and Physical Education; five teachers, or
18*5 per cent, read the Physical~~Educatlon Research Quarterly, etc.
98
cent of teachers replying*
The Scholastic Coach has a
reading public in Northwest Texas of thirteen teachers, or
48 per cent of the total*
Physical Education Research
Quarterly is read by five, or 18.5 per cent, of the teachers*
Hygiea, Readers! Digest, Health, and Sportsman are listed
under the professional magazines read by teachers*
Four
teachers, or 14.8 per cent, do not read any professional
magazines.
Professional books that are owned and used by the
teachers in this study are listed below, with the frequency
of appearance on the master chart:
Title
2*
3.
4.
5.
•
Q*
9.
12*
13.
14.
15.
16.
18.
19.
20.
Author
Frequency
Teaching of Physical Education, Sharman .........
Physical Education in the Elementary
Schools, Neilson and Van Hagen
.............
Introduction to Physical Education, Sharman • • •
Principles of Physical Education,Williams
•• •
Twelve Hours of Hygiene, Meredith • • • • • • • •
Healthful Living, Williams. • • • • • • • • • • •
Gift of Health, Swarthout....... • • • • •
Sports for Re ere ation, Mitchell...... .. • • •
Games and Recreational Method, Smith • • • • • •
Physical Education Manual, Brown ..............
Tumbling, Pyramid-Building, and Stunts
for Girls and Women, Cotteral
••••
Test and Measurement in Physical Education,
Bovard and C o z e n s ....................
Administration of Physical Education,
Williams and B r o w n e l l ......................
Athlete in the Making, W i l l i a m s ...............
Book of Games for Home, School, and
Playground, Fo'rbush and Allen • • • • • • • •
Education Through Physical Education, Wayman . •
Physical Training, Clark • • • • • • • .........
Posture and Health, McCollum • • • • • • • • • •
Military Training, Keepes
...
Games, Contests, and Relays, S t a l e y ...........
2
7
2
3
1
2
1
6
1
1
3
2
2
1
3
1
1
1
1
2
99
21.
22.
23.
A summary of the ratings on each standard received
by the schools in Northwest Texas is given in Figure 14.
The total rating scored by these schools is 1.46, based
on a perfect score of 3.0.
In Figure 15 is graphed the ratings by individual
schools, also based on a perfect score of 3.0.
seen here that one school has no rating.
It is
The highest
rating received by any school is a score of 2.04.
average rating for all schools is a score of 1.46.
The
H H H
44.
45.
W WrlHHHH
37.
38*
39.
40.
41 •
42.
43.
1
HrlWHHrlHH
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36 •
1
H H H i —IH
24.
25*
26.
27.
28.
How to Play Tennis , Tilden, Sr.................
Preventive and Corrective Physical
Education, Stafford .................. . . .
Corrective Physical Education for Groups,
Lowman, Cole stock, and Cooper
...........
Mental Hygiene of the School Child, Symonds . .
The Excellent Teacher, Avent • • • • • • • • •
Ring Games and Dances, Hinman
• • • • • • • •
Curriculum in Sports, Staley ...............
A Textbook of Physical Education,
Williams and Morrison.................. .
The Hew Physical Education, Wood and Cassidy •
Manual of PhysTcal Education, Keene . . . . . .
Physical Education in Elementary Grades, Holt •
Health Bulletin (Texas State) . • • • • • • • •
Better Basketball, Holman . . . ........... •
Winning Football, Oakes . . . ...............
Line Coaching, Oakes ......................
Play Activities for Girls in Junior and
Senior High Schools, Powdermaker . . . . . .
Activities for Elementary Schools, Andersen . •
Human Health, Thackston and Thackston . . . . .
Modern Principles of Physical Education, Sharman
Achievement Scales, Neilson and Cozens • • • •
Safety in Athletics, Lloyd, Deaver, and Eastwood
The Administration of Physical Education, Nash
An Athletic Program for Elementary Schools,
A n d e r s e n ..............................
1000 Games and Relays, Mitchell and Mason • • .
First Aid and Emergencies, Red Cross Bulletin •
3
100
Scores
Phases
of
Program#
FIGURE 14*
RATINGS ON PHASES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAM
#1.
Time allotment to physical education and pupil partici­
pation
2. Assignment of students to classes
3. The instructional period
4* Size of classes
5. Program activities and allotted time
6 . Corrective program
7. Intramural program
8 * Requirement of gymnasium suits
9. Marking and grading
10. Course of study
11. Academic preparation of teachers
12. Membership in professional associations and use of
professional literature
NOTE: This figure should be read as follows: Northwest
Texas schools rate 1.08 score on time allotment to physical
education; 1.08 score on assignment to classes of students,
2.01 score on the instructional period; etc. Perfect score
on each phase is 3.0.
Total rating for Northwest Texas schools is a score
of 1.46, based on a total perfect score of 3.0.
a
ys
v ixi
,s
m
No. 6201, U n iv e rs ity B o o k sto re, Los A ngeles
CHAPTER VI
SUMMARY AND CONSLUSIONS
Findings. The status of the physical education
programs existing in the schools of Northwest Texas is
presented below in summarized form:
1.
One school in this study has no physical education
activities of any kind in the junior high school.
2.
In 46 per cent of the schools, instruction in
physical education is offered six periods a day.
3.
Physical education classes are operated on the
hour (60 minute) basis in 55.5 per cent of the schools.
Only two schools have a period as short as 30 minutes.
4.
Three years of physical education in the junior
high school is required by 50 per cent of the schools.
Two
years is required by 41 per cent.
5.
Daily participation by all students in physical
education is required by 77.8 per cent of the schools.
6. Physical education is given on alternate days
with some other subject by 66.6 per cent of the schools.
7.
Credit on physical education work is granted by
66.6 per cent of the schools.
8. Eight schools, or 30.7 per cent, have no definite
method of assigning students to classes.
per cent assign students by grades.
Thirteen, or 50
Five schools, or 19
103
per cent, assign students to classes on basis of physical
examination, development and skills, need and interest*
9.
Skills before playing the game are taught by
76*9 per cent of the schools*
The game is taught as a whole
by 65.4 per cent of the schools*
The time spent in teaching
skills ranges from 15 per cent to 50 per cent.
The part of
the class period spent in playing the game ranges from
15 per cent to 100 per cent*
10.
An average enrollment of thirty-six or less
students is found in 62 per cent of the schools in North­
west Texas.
An average enrollment of 45 pupils per class
is found in 25 per cent of the schools*
11.
Activities included most frequently in the
physical education programs ares
softball, 6.8 weeks,
basketball, 6.2 weeks, volley ball, 4.5 weeks, touc;h foot­
ball, 5.3 weeks, soccer ball, 4.4 weeks, speedball, 4.9
weeks, track and field, 3.1 weeks, table tennis, 6.3 weeks.
Swimming, hiking-camping, horseback riding, and golf do not
appear in any programs in Northwest Texas.
12.
The number of different activities in the core
program offered in physical education programs by the schools
ranges from a minimum of four to a maximum of eight.
Seven
activities are offered by 30.8 per cent of the schools.
The
number of elective activities ranges from none to nine acti­
vities.
104
13*
Pour schools, or 14,4 per cent, have a core pro­
14.
Seven schools, or 27 per cent, have a corrective
gram.
program.
15.
The intramural program of physical education
activities is found in eight schools, or 30.8 per cent of
the schools.
16.
Squad organization is employed by 46.4 per cent
of the schools.
17.
The regular use of the gymnasium is scheduled
in 23 per cent of the schools.
18.
Gymnasium suits are required in 71.4 per cent
of the schools.
19.
Nineteen schools, or 67.8 per cent, require a
shower for all students after each participation in physical
activities.
20.
Items used in grading and their per cent of
frequency are:
attendance, 84 per cent;
attitude, 88 per
cent; dress, 56 per cent; citizenship, 76per
cent; knowledge
tests, 60 per cent; ability in
cent; coopera­
skills, 56per
tion, 80 per cent; tests, 52 per cent.
21.
A course of study is followed by 66.6 per cent
of the schools, twelve of them using a local course of
study, and seven using a state course.
105
22.
Two or more regular physical education teachers
are found in 85.2 per cent of the schools.
Two schools
have two part-time teachers, and two schools delegate the
physical education to each teacher in the system.
23.
All teachers replying, 27, hold either a B. A.
or a B. S. degree.
24.
A total of 74 per cent of teachers conducting
physical education classes have either a major or minor in
physical education*
25.
Seven teachers, or 28 per cent, belong to The
Texas Physical Education Association.
Twenty-three teachers,
or 92 per cent, belong to the Texas State Teachers Associa­
tion.
The Journal of Health and Physical Education is
read by twenty-three teachers, or 85 per cent of the
teachers replying.
The Athletic Coach is read by 55.5 per
cent of the teachers; the Scholastic Coach, by 48 per cent
of the teachers.
Pour teachers, or 14.8 per cent, do not
read any magazines.
27.
Of the list of physical education professional
books owned and read by teachers, seven teachers report
Physical Education in the Elementary Schools, by Neilson
and Van Hagen; six, Sports for Recreation, by Mitchell;
three, Principles of Physical Education, by Williams; three,
Tumbling, Pyramid-Building, and Stunts for Girls and Women,
106
by Cotteral; and three, Book of Gaines for Home, School, and
Playground5 by Porbush and Allen#
The reading list is
broad and varied#
Conclusions# Prom the findings, it is concluded
that:
1#
Some schools in Northwest Texas are not meeting
the State requirements for the physical education depart­
ment.
It will be noticed in many instances that the State
requirement parallels the suggestions by LaPorte in The
Physical Education Curriculum# Much better physical educa­
tion programs in these schools would result if the state
bulletin were followed#
2#
There is little uniformity in the schools con­
cerning the method of assigning students to classes.
The
methods that are used do not take Into consideration the
medical examination of students, development of skills,
or needs and interest of the student#
3#
Methods of teaching vary a great deal throughout
the schools#
There seems to be no standard or suggested
method to follow whereby teachers can efficiently divide
the physical education period between instruction and parti­
cipation#
« 4#
The schools are not teaching physical education
on the basis of the core, or required program, and the
107
elective program.
Many of them are not allotting sufficient
time to the core activities, and are not including all
activities in the core program.
There seems to bea tendency
to devote too muchtime on the elective activitiesat the
expense of the core groups*
5.
Schools in Northwest Texas are not taking care of
corrective students in their physical education programs*
6.
Intramural activities are not being carried on
to the extent that they should be*
7.
Too few schools use squad organization*
8*
There are not enough gymnasium facilities in the
schools of Northwest Texas to allow all classes to have
the regular use of the gymnasium that they should have*
9*
Teachers are fairly active in membership in the
Texas State Teachers Association, but they are not active
in their own physical education organization*
Recommendations*
Taking into consideration the status
of physical education as revealed by the summarized findings
and conclusions, and evaluating these findings in light of
The Health and Physical Education Score Card for Junior
High Schools, by LaPorte, and suggestions by other educators,
the following recommendations for the physical education
programs in Northwest Texas are submitted:
108
1.
That all junior high schools in Northwest Texas
maintain as part of the school curriculum a program in
physical education*
2.
That a class in physical education in each school
program be scheduled each period in the school day.
3.
That forty-five minute to an hour periods be
devoted to physical education in the junior high schools.
4.
That three years of physical education be re­
quired in the junior high school.
5.
That physical education not be alternated with any
other subject in the curriculum.
6.
That physical education courses be entered in the
regular school schedule to eliminate scheduling on "off”
periods.
7*
That schools grant credit on physical education
on the same basis as academic work.
8.
That all schools require daily participation by
all students in physical education activities.
9.
That there be set up some systematized manner
of assigning students to classes, on physical examination,
degree of development and skill, need and interest.
10.
That a partially systematized plan be adopted
for methods of teaching, i. e> how the period shall be
divided between teaching skills and fundamentals and play­
ing, etc.
109
11.
That all physical education classes limit enroll­
ment to thirty pupils, if possible.
12.
That swimming be included in the physical educa­
tion programs of Northwest Texas.
13.
That schools offer a wider range ofactivities
for pupil participation, that the activities fit the pupils
instead of the pupils fitting the activities, and that a
survey be made of pupil-interests before planning the
curri culum.
14.
That all schools have a core program of activi­
ties, and that more time be devoted to the following
activities:
gymnasium drills, apparatus, rhythms, soccer
ball, speedball, track and field, tumbling-pyramids, and
volley ball.
15.
That all schools schedule a corrective program
for students needing this type of work.
16.
That all schools make arrangement in
the physi­
cal education program for intramural activities at least
once a week, and preferably three times a week.
17.
That squad organization be employed in the
physical education programs to develop leadership and fellow­
ship among the students.
18.
That gymnasium facilities and equipment be en­
larged to the extent that physical education classes can
have regular use of the gymnasium for activities.
110
19*
That all schools require uniform gymnasium suits.
20.
That showers be required of all students.
21.
That there be set up a more uniform method of
giving grades, as to what shall be graded and the per cent
of total grade to be allotted to each item in the grading list.
22.
That all schools follow a written outlined
course of study, local or state.
23.
That all schools employ full-time physical
education teachers in the physical education departments.
24.
That teachers employed to conduct physical
education classes have a major or a minor in this field
of training.
25.
That all teachers become members of professional
organizations•
26.
That teachers be encouraged to keep up with
professional literature.
Recommendations for further study. Because of the
irregularity of treatment of various phases of the physical
education programs by the teachers in Northwest Texas, and
because of inadequate policies now in use, it is deemed
that the following problems are worthy of further study.
It is, therefore, recommended that:
1.
A further study be made on new types of examina­
tions in physical education activities.
Ill
2.
A study be made on more objective methods of
grading than are now in use.
3.
A study be made on more rational means of placing
students in the respective classes of physical education.
4.
A study be made on placement of activities with
time allotment to fit the physical education programs to
climatic, geographical, and seasonal conditions of North­
west Texas.
5.
A study be made on corrective work in physical
education.
6.
A study be made on the carry-over value of the
physical education programs now in use.
7.
A comparative study of similar nature be made of
other sections of Texas.
8.
A study be made on the aspect of granting
credit in physical education.
9.
A study be made on the methods of teaching
physical education.
10.
A study be made on intramural activities in the
junior high schools.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BIBLIOGRAPHY
A.
BOOKS
Bonser, P. G., Elementary School Curriculum# New York: The
Macmillan Company, 1920* 460 pp#
Description of the construction of the elementary school
curriculum# Excellent material on curriculum construc­
tion#
Bovard, John F#, and Frederick W# Cozens, Tests and Measure­
ments in Physical Education# Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders
Company, 1938. ^27 pp#
The purposes, theories, and results of testing in physi­
cal education are described in this book. Also a very
fine treatise on using statistics and their interpre­
tation in physical education#
Caswell, Hollis L., and Doak S. Campbell, Curriculum Devel­
opment# New York: American Book Company, 1935* 500 pp.
Good study on what should go into the public school
curriculum. The aims, purposes, principles, and scope
of curriculum building are discussed#
Davis, E. C., Health and Physical Education Survey Techni­
ques in Public Schools# New York: Bureau of Publication,
Teachers College, Columbia University, 1931.
Good, Carter V., How to Do Research in Education# Baltimore:
Warwick and York, 1928# 298 pp#
A discussion on the techniques and procedures of doing
research. The different kinds of research are explained.
Hinsley, J. C., The Handbook of Texas School Law# Austin:
The Steck Company, 1929# 96 pp#
Kilpatrick, William H#, The Educational Frontier# New Yorks
D. Appleton-Century Company, 1933. 325 pp#
The changing aspects of our civilization in relation
to public schools. How they may possibly be brought
together#
114
Koos, Leonard V., The Questionnaire in Education* New York:
The Macmillan Company, 1928* T78 pp#
Koos gives the weaknesses and strengths of the use of
the questionnaire in educational research. Why the
questionnaire is more suited to certain types of re­
search*
LaPorte, Wm. Ralph, Health a nd Physical Education Score Card
No. II. Los Angeles: The University of Southern California Press, 1938. 19 pp.
A score card for the evaluation of physical education
programs. Based on nine years of research by the
Committee on Curriculum Research of The College Physical
Education Association*
______ , The Physical Education Curriculum. Los Angeles:
The Caslon Printing Company, 1937. 61 pp.
A summary of the findings of the committee on curri­
culum research in physical education. An evaluation
of the practices to be used as standards in physical
education.
Nash, Jay B., Administration of Physical Education. New York:
A. S. Barnes and Company,"T932 • 473 pp.
A treatment of the implications of physical education,
and the background upon which the aims, objectives,
and principles are based. A very fine discussion on the
basic foundations of physical education.
Neilson, N. P., and Winifred Van Hagen, Physical Education
for Elementary Schools. New York: A. S* Barnes and
Company, 1934. 365 pp.
Classification and placement of activities through
grades one to eight.
OfBanion, J. W., Texas Public Schools, Standards and Activi­
ties of the Division of Supervision'll Austin: State De­
partment of Instruction, 1937-38. 222 pp.
State bulletin and suggested course of study.
Reeder, Ward G., How to Write a Thesis. Bloomington, Illi­
nois: Public School Publishing Company, 1925. 136 pp.
115
A study on the techniques of research and how to apply
them to writing a thesis.
Sharman, Jackson R., Introduction to Physical Education.
New York: A. S. Barnes and Company, 1934. 317 pp.
Aims and objectives of physical education, health in­
struction program, standards for physical education
program, content, method, and class organization.
______ , Modern Principles of Physical Education. New York:
A. S. fearnes and Company, 1937. 208 pp.
Developed from standpoint of various foundations of
physical education and presents underlying principles
of administration.
, The Teaching of Physical Education. New York:
A. S. Barnes and Company, 1936. 237 pp.
Textbook on teaching physical education. Splendid
reference for activity placement, methods of teaching,
and general discussion on teaching physical education.
Staley, Seward C., The Curriculum in Sports (Physical Educa­
tion) • Phi1adelphia: W • &• Saunders Company, 1935.
373 pp.
A new version of the physical education curriculum. What
should go into the construction of the physical educa­
tion program. The aims, objectives, principles, theories,
and practices of the new curriculum.
Stigler, W. A., Handbook for Curriculum Development. Austin,
Texas: State Department of Public Instruction, 1936.
200 pp.
Explanation of new curriculum and the work of the committee
during the first five years of revision.
______ , Handbook for Curriculum Study. Austin, Texas:
State Department of Public Instruction, September, 1934.
113 pp.
Texas State Handbook for curriculum study during time of
revision of state curriculum.
Webb, L. W., chairman, High School Curriculum Reorganization.
Ann Arbor, Michigan: The North Central Association of
Colleges and Secondary Schools, 1933. 395 pp.
116
Suggestions toward reorganization of curriculum in all
subjects in school programs.
Williams, Jesse Feiring, The Principles of Physical Educa­
tion. Philadelphia: W. D. Saunders (Company, 1932.
468 pp.
Textbook on underlying principles of physical education,
showing historical role of physical education in American
life, modern physical education in American Life, and
aims, objectives, and principles of physical education.
Williams, Jesse Feiring, and Clifford L. Brownell, The
Administration of Health and Physical Education. Phila­
delphia: W. 6 . launders Company, 1937• 598 pp.
A good discussion on how to administer a program of
health and physical education. There is a lengthy
discussion on the biological, the psychological, and the
philosophical basis of physical education.
Wood, Thomas Denison, and Rosalind Frances Cassidy, The
New Physical Education. New York: The Macmi11an Company,
1927. 457“pp.
General discussion of the place of physical education
in the education for life, grade placement, with illus­
trative lesson for each grade, the naturalized program,
measuring achievement and achievement scales, and the
matural method in physical education.
B.
PERIODICAL ARTICLES
Bookwalter, Karl W., "Marking in Physical Education,"
Journal of Health and Physical Education, 7:16-19,
January, 1936.
Splendid article on interpret^ion of marking, criteria
for marks, and review of past mistakes in marking. Sets
up a system of assigning marks in physical education
that seems feasible.
Bristow, W. H., "The Problem of the Administration of Health
and Physical Education in Secondary Schools," Journal
of Health and Physical Education. 2:3-5, November, 1931.
117
Brownell, Clifford L., ”Standards of Health and Physical
Education,” American Physical Education Association
Research Quarterly, 2:58, March, 1931.
Upon what should a program of health and physical educa­
tion he based as interpreted by standards. The minimum
and maximum were discussed,
Cassidy, Rosalind, ‘'Physical Education Trends and Progress,”
Journal of Health and Physical Education, 6:14-16,
February, 1935.
Discussion of free and leisure time and the part physical
education plays in fitting society for leisure time,
Coleman, Mary Channing, "Physical Education In Our Schools
Tomorrow,” Journal of Health and Physical Education,
6:6-7, April, 1935.
Reviewing future possibilities and responsibilities of
fitting physical education curriculum to the student.
Cozens, Frederick W,, and N, P. Neilson, "Marking in Physi, cal Education,” Journal of Health and Physical Education,
5:21, December, 1934,
Discussion on giving marks in physical education.
of objective grading in definite units,
Approves
Jackson, C, 0,, and W. 0. Alstrom, "Pupil Interest in Physi­
cal Education Activities,” Scholastic Coach, pp, 8-9;31,
November, 1936,
Report of two surveys made, one in 1934 and one In 1935,
on student interest in physical education activities.
Summary of a program set up in a high school whereby the
curriculum is chosen to fit the student interests,
Kirk, H. H,, "A Superintendent Looks at Physical Education,"
Journal of Health and Physical Education, 9:538-540,
November, 1938,
The viewpoint as seen by a high school superintendent
of the place of physical education in the curriculum,
LaPorte, Wm. Ralph, "Committee on Curriculum Research,”
a report, American Physical Education Association Re­
search Quarterly, 4:145-161, March, 1933,
118
A report of the findings done by the National Committee
in curriculum research.
______ , "Physical Education Contribution to the Seven
Cardinal Principles," Journal of Health and Physical
Education, 4:10, March, 1933.
How physical education meets the requirement of the
seven cardinal principles of education.
Maroney, F. W., "Physical Education Looks Ahead," Journal of
Health and Physical Education, 5:3-6, October, 1934.
Discusses the new philosophy of physical education in the
modern plan of education.
Moss, Bernice, and W. H. Orion, "The Public School Program
in Health, Physical Education, and Recreation," Journal
of Health and Physical Education, 9:438, October, 1939.
Presenting an efficient modern program in health, physi­
cal education, and recreation.
Neilson, N. P., "A Score Card for Evaluating Physical Educa­
tion Programs for High School Boys," Bulletin Number E-2,
State Department of Education, Sacramento, California,
2:45, 1931.
This is a score card to be used by schools for evaluating
the physical education program.
______ , "Essentials of Physical Education in Secondary
Schools," Journal of Health and Physical Education,
8:212, April, 1937.
An article similar to the one by LaPorte on curriculum,
in which standards for physical education programs are
set up. An excellent discussion.
Oberteuffer, D., "The Content of a Modern Program of Physical
and Health Education," Journal of Health and Physical
Education, 4:48, March, 1933.
A splendid article on placement of activities in secondary
schools. Program divided into seasonal activities, placed
in grades from one to twelve.
Petree, Noel H., "Fitting Athletics of the Junior High School
Boy," Journal of Health and Physical Education, 3:22-25;
60-62, February, 1932.
119
A* survey of the Toledo junior high school physical educa­
tion program, which gives suggestive placement of activi­
ties in the junior high school to fit the boy.
Reily, Helen M., ’’Basis for Grading in Physical Education,”
Journal of Health and Physical Education, 6:40-41, October,
1935.
Sets up a program similar to that of Bookwalter, based
on objective grading.
Sanders, Thomas E., ’’Junior High School Athletics,” JuniorSenior Hjgh School Clearing House, 5:5-6, November7 1930•
An article giving reasons why junior high school ath­
letics are good for students at that age. The social
and educational values gained through participation in
them are stressed.
Sandlin, R. N., ’’Physical Education and Suggestions,”
Bulletin Number 289, Austin, lexas: State Department
of Education, p. 7, 1931.
Wayman, Agnes R., ’’Trends and Tendencies in Physical Educa­
tion,” Journal of Health and Physical Education, 4:16-19,
February, 1933.
Presenting modern trends in physical education thinking.
Williamson, Irene, ’’Grading in Physical Education, ” Journal
of Health and Physical Education, 6:20-21, February, 1935.
A general discussion on nine different types of grading
and suggestions toward a satisfactory grading system.
C.
PUBLICATIONS OF LEARNED ORGANIZATIONS
LaPorte, Wm. Ralph, ’’The Ninth Annual Report of the Committee
on Curriculum Research of the College Physical Education
Association,” The Research Quarterly of the American
Physical Education Association, 8:96,"March, 1937.
Report which was later incorporated in The Physical
Education Curriculum.
National Committee on Physical Education, ’’Physical Educa­
tion Today,” Journal of Health and Physical Education,
4:4, March, 1933.
120
An article presented by the Committee giving reasons
why physical education is indispensable in the modern
school curriculum*
”A Study of Relative Values of Thirty Selected Activities
in Physical Education Programs for Boys," American
Physical Education Association Research Quarterly,
2j115-175, March, 1931.
The investigator of this problem made a study based on
the likes and dislikes of the boys to find what each
activity could possibly contribute to the physical educa'
tion program.
D.
UNPUBLISHED MATERIAL
Gilson, William George, "The Objective Rating of Boys1
Physical Education Programs in Los Angeles County,”
Unpublished Master*s thesis, The University of Southern
California, Los Angeles, California, 1932. 133 pp.
This was a study of the physical education programs of
Los Angeles County for the purpose of making an evalua­
tion of them. The rating was on an objective basis.
Hostetler, Lawrence W., ”A Critical Survey of Physical
Education in the Secondary Schools of Oregon,” Unpublish­
ed Master*s thesis, The University of Southern Califor­
nia, Los Angeles, California, 1935. 94 pp.
Hostetler surveyed all the secondary schools of the
state of Oregon, and made an evaluation of them. The
weaknesses and strong points were pointed out. Sugges­
tions for improving the Oregon programs were given.
Pearson, Anne, ”A Comparative Survey of Physical Education
in State Industrial Schools, with a Proposed Program
for the Utah State Industrial Schools,” Unpublished
Master*s thesis, The University of Southern California,
Los Angeles, California, 1937. 89 pp.
This study points out that the State Industrial Schools
are not methodically set up to give the proper kind of
physical education programs. Suggestions for improving
the programs are given.
121
Polkinghorn, Rena Isabella, ’'Physical Education Work in the
Los Angeles City Schools," Unpublished Master’s thesis,
The University of Southern California, Los Angeles,
California, 1923. 198 pp.
Study is a survey of the city school system and shows
what has been done in physical education in the city of
los Angeles. Recommendations for improvement are in­
cluded.
Ryan, Kenneth Walter, "Evaluation of Physical Education
Program for Boys in Twenty Utah Junior High Schools,”
Unpublished Master’s thesis, The University of
Southern California, Los Angeles, California, 1935.
210 pp.
This study was based on a questionnaire. It is pointed
out that the junior high schools are weak in the phy­
sical education program, and that much improvement should
be made.
Swenson, &eed, "The Organization and Administration of
Physical Education in High Schools for Boys in Utah,"
Unpublished Master’s thesis, The University of Southern
California, Los Angeles, California, 1935.
A survey study of physical education programs in Utah.
Organization of the program and classes is stressed.
APPENDIX
123
LUBBOCK PUBLIC SCHOOLS
W.B•Irvin,Superintendent
Lubb ock, Texa s
October 9, 1939
Mr* Lovic H* Liston
2207 14th Street
Lubbock, Texas
Dear Mr* Liston:
I have checked over your blank of inquiry for physi­
cal education and it has my approval* You should receive
some interesting information from its use*
With best wishes in your undertaking, I am
Very truly yours,
W. B. Irvin
Superintendent
WBI-E
end*
124
2207 14th Street
Lubbock, Texas
Dear Fellow Workers:
In the interest of physical education in the north­
west portion of the State of Texas, a study of ”The Present
Status of Physical Education” is being made.
This informa­
tion will be used to write a master’s thesis to be present­
ed to the University of Southern California.
No names will
be used.
Please fill in the enclosed blank and return as soon
as you can conveniently do so.
Your cooperation and promptness in this work will
be greatly appreciated.
Sincerely yours,
Lovic H. Liston
P.S.
I shall be glad to send you a digest of this study
if you so desire.
BLANK OF INQUIRY
for
PHYSICAL EDUCATION
N am e of in stru cto r r e p o rtin g -------------- -------------------------------------------------School r e p o r tin g _______________________________________________________
A.
Program Organization
N u m b er of stu d en ts in school
N u m b er of periods p e r day
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
N u m b er of periods p e r w eek
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
W hat length a re y o u r class periods (m inutes)
N u m b er of y ea rs of re q u ire d physical education
_
_
_
_
Do you alte rn a te w ith any o th er subject
_
_
_
_
_
N u m b er of teach ers of physical education in y o u r school
Do you give cred it for physical education
_
_
_
_
_
H ow m uch cred it p e r y e a r (as 1 unit, 1/4 unit)
_
_
_
_
Do you have re g u la r use of a gym nasium
_
_
_
_
_
B.
C heck m ethod of assigning pupils to classes:
1. C lassification index
_____
4. B y school grades
_____
5. Irre g u la r
__
6. A ny o th e r______
Do you re q u ire a gym suit of each pupil
_
_
Do you re q u ire a show er afte r each class
_
_
Do you use a squad organization in classes
_
_
Do you teach skills before playing th e gam e
_
Do you teach th e gam e as a w hole
_
_
_
W hat p ercen t of class period is used to teach skills
P erc en t used in playing th e gam e
_
_
_
C heck item s you use in grading:
1. A tten d an ce
2. A ttitu d e s
_
_
_
Class Organization
A verage size of classes in physical education
2. P hysical exam ination
3. S kill tests
-
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
____ ___
___
____ ___
____ ___
___
___
____ ___
-
-
5.K now ledge tests - 6.A bility in skills - _
3. D ress (costum e)
-
7.C ooperation - -
4. C itizenship
-
8.Tests (any k in d )--
-
_
Do you have a corrective program
----A re all pupils re q u ire d to particip ate in daily class
----Do you have an in tra m u ra l program
----------------------------------------------------------- ----C.
P ro g ra m A ctivities
C heck the activities in y o u r program and tim e given to each.
A ctivity
1. B asketball
_
_
_
_
_
__________
2. G ym drills
_
3. A p p a ratu s
_
_
_
_
_________
__________
_
_
_
______________
__________
4. R hythm s
-
-
-
-
-
-
______________
__________
5. Soft ball
-
-
-
-
-
-
______________
__________
-_______________________ __________
______________
_
_
_
_
_
______________
__________
__________
__________
6. Soccer ball
7. S peedball 8. Sw im m ing
9. Touch football
-
_
_
Tim e in w eeks
__________
-
-
-
-
______________
__________
126
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
T rack and field
T um bling-pyram ids
V olley ball
B oxing
W restling
H andball
H iking-cam ping
H orseshoes
T able tennis
H orse back riding
C orrective
Golf
L ist any others
-
D. Course of Study
Does y o u r school have a course of stu d y
K ind: P r i n t e d
, lo cal_______________ , state
Is it an outline course of studyIs th e use of th e course of stu d y re q u ire d
Is it e le c tiv e ______________ , or b o th ________________
Do you use a core program
-
E. Professional Training
C heck degree held: B a c h e lo rs
, M asters
H ig h er_______________ , A ny o th e r_______________ , N one_____
A re you a m em ber of:
1. N ational E ducation A ssociation
2. S tate T eachers A ssociation
3. S ta te P hysical E ducation A ssociation4. A ny others ________________________________________
Do you read:
1. J o u rn a l of H ealth an d P hysical E ducation
2. P hysical E ducation R esearch Q u a rte rly 3. A thletic Coach - - - 4. Scholastic Coach
5. L ist o t h e r s __________________________—______________
L ist th e physical education books th a t you ow n o r h av e use of:
1.
_______________________________________________________________________
2.
3.
4.
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
Is y o u r m ajor subject in y o u r p reparation:
1. P hysical education _______________________
2. O th er (nam e) ____________________ ________
W hat subject did you m inor i n : _______________________________
P lease re tu r n to: LO V IC H. LISTO N ,
L ubbock J u n io r H igh School,
L ubbock, Texas.
TEXAS
"SH ERM A N
H A N SFO RD
t jc h h t r e t "
t ip s c u m b I
S c a le o f M iles
&
(H A R T L E Y
#
MOORE
H U TCH IN SO N ROBERTS
POTTER
O
CA RSO N
0
W HEELER
ARM STRONG
Towns in Northwest Texas
Used in Study
I
DONLEY
COLLINGS
WORTH p
*
WILEY
MOTLEY
■
COTTLE
x
JO C H R A N
HOCKLEY
LUBBOCK
CROSBY
B ORDEN
StU R R Y
HASKELL
MONTAGUE
ARCHER
BAYLOR
dickens
STONEW ALL
DAW SON
100
4
ft 1
©
9
RANDALL
75
Boundary of Northwest Texas
GRAY
;
> E »f SM ITH
50
H EM PH ILL £
9
IlD H A M
25
GRAYSON
D ENTON'
THROCK­
M ORTON
RED R IV E * *
%
COLLIN
PARKER
T lS H E R "
SHACKEL
'u psh u r"
STE PH E N S
H ARRISON
[J O H N S O N
ANDREWS
M ITCHELL
TAYLOR
sterling'
R U N N ELS
EASTLAND
^HEN D ERSO N
tC H E R O K E T
LOVING
W INKLER
GLASSCOCK
SHELBY
COLEMAN
ia c o g d o c h e ?
TOM GREEN
REAGAN
CRO CKETT
[CONCHO
ANGELINA
" [S C H L E IC H E R
BU RN ET
w alker
SAN V
JACINTO
SU TTON
TERREL t
GILLESPIE
.OR AN G E
VAL VERDE
K E N D A ll
LAVACA
Ig a l v e s
\ TON
M E D IN A
ZAVALLA
LASALLE
H U D SPETH
PR ESID IO
KENEDY
CLEARTYPE
T
r
.
d
e
M
a
r
k
R
e
g
.
C O U N T Y O U T L IN E M A P
TEXAS
COPYRIGHT
AMERICAN M AP C OM PANY
N EW YORK
n o t ic e
128
COUNTIES IN NORTHWEST TEXAS
County
1. Armstrong
2. Baily
Area
(Sq. mi.)
Population
1938
309
3,329
1,030
6,500
3.
Briscoe
903
5,590
4.
Carson
893
7,745
5.
Castro
896
4,920
6.
Childress
733
16,044
7.
Cochran
869
4,250
898
14,461
%9 •
Cottle
1,012
9,395
H
O
•
8. Collingiswohth
Crosby
870
11,203
11. Dallam
1,532
7,830
12. Deaf Smith
1,549
5,979
Dickens
881
8,601
14.
Donley
906
10,262
15.
Ployd
1,011
12,409
16.
Foard
612
6,315
17.
Garza
870
5,586
18.
Gray
899
26,500
19.
Hale
1,036
20,198
Hall
901
16,966
21. Hansford
822
3,548
22. Hardeman
761
14,532
.
o
CM
13.
129
County
Area
(Sq. mi.)
Population
1938
23.
Hartley
1,507
2,185
24.
Haskell
923
17,720
25.
Hemphill
837
4,770
26.
Hockley
867
11,650
27.
Hutchinson
879
18,500
28.
Kent
875
3,851
29.
King
867
1,250
30.
Knox
862
11,368
31.
Lamb
1,022
18,500
32.
Lipscomb
888
4,512
33.
Lubbock
868
48,600
34.
Lynn
864
13,500
35.
Moore
921
2,950
36.
Motley
1,030
6,812
37.
Nolan
880
20,200
38.
Ochiltree
891
5,224
39.
Oldham
1,543
1,690
40.
Parmer
902
5,869
41.
Potter
934
51,500
42.
Randall
937
7,071
43.
Roberts
882
1,457
44.
Sherman
935
2,314
45.
Stonewall
852
6,220
46.
Swisher
898
7,343
130
County
Area
(Sq. mi.)
Populat
1938
47.
Taylor
908
44,500
48.
Terry
870
12,400
49.
Wheeler
895
15,500
50.
Wichita
604
78,500
51.
Wilbarger
928
24,579
52.
Yoakum
879
2,050
48,141
674,816
Total
131
SCHOOLS USED IN THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION SURVEY OF
NORTHWEST TEXAS
Lorenzo Junior High School
Clarendon Junior High School
Canyon Junior High School
Hale Center Junior High School
Burkburnett Junior High School
Central Junior High School - Amarillo
Sam Houston Junior High School - Amarillo
Horace Mann Junior High School - Amarillo
Wellington Junior High School
Sweetwater Junior High School
Plainview Junior High School
Pampa Junior High School
Abilene Junior High School
Big Spring Junior High School
Childress Junior High School
Wichita Falls Junior High School
Perryton Junior High School
Shamrock Junior High School
Odessa Junior High School
Dalhart Junior High School
Colorado Junior High School
Midland Junior High School
132
Slaton Junior High School
Levelland Junior High School
Lamesa Junior High School
Borger Junior High School
Vernon Junior High School
Lubbock Junior High School
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