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A comparative study of children from normal and broken homes

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A COMPARATIVE STUDY OP CHILDREN FROM NORMAL
AND BROKEN HOMES
A Thesis
Presented to
the Faculty of the School of Education
The University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Science in Education
Claire R. Scholl
June 1940
UMI Number: EP53921
All rights reserved
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and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed,
a note will indicate the deletion.
Dissertation Publishing
UMI EP53921
Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author.
Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC.
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unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code
ProQuest LLC.
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•
•
•
.
.
T h is thesisj w r it t e n u n d e r thh d ir e c t io n o f the
C h a ir m a n o f the c a n d id a te ’s G u id a n c e C o m m i t ­
tee a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l m em bers o f the C o m ­
m itte e , has been pre se n te d to a n d accep ted by
the F a c u lt y o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a t io n in p a r t i a l
f u l f i l l m e n t o f the re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f
M a s t e r o f Science in E d u c a t io n .
D a t e . J ?**:?....8*..IMP..........
Guidance Committee
D. Welty Lefever
Chairman
Louis P. Thorpe
C. C. Crawford
V
M
Dedicated
with love and appreciation
to
My Mother
ACiCNOWLEDGMBNTS
The author wishes to express appreciation to Mr*
Bert F. Steelhead, Principal, and Mr. John G. Meridith,
Vice Principal, and to the faculty of Anderson W. Clark
Junior High School for the assistance given in obtaining
data for this investigation.
Acknowledgments are also due Mrs. May Shaffer, Mrs.
Bertha Robinson, Mr. Neal Ramsay, Mr. Bertrand Foster, and
Master Robert De Ruff for their help in compiling data.
iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.
PAGE
THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITIONS OF T E R M S ........
1
The p r o b l e m .............
Statement of the problem
1
. ..............
1
Specific questions related to this investi­
gation
...............................
2
Importance of the problem
.
.
4
Procedure...............
. .
4
Related studies ...........................
Definitions of terms u s e d
.
6
A broken home . . ........................
6
A normal home * . ...........
7
Limitation of the p r o b l e m..................
7
Anderson W. Clark Junior High School
....
9
...
10
.......................
11
Arrangement of remainder of the thesis
Summary • • • • . «
II.
6
REVIEW OF THE L T T 1 R A T U R E ....................
A parallel investigation
. ................
Other s t u dies.............................
III.
METHOD OF PROCEDURE......................
Individual conferences
14
17
. .
Selection of cases through a questionnaire
13
.
...................
Sample of the questionnaire................
25 '
23
26
26
iv
CHAPTER
PACE
Subjects used in averaging scholarship
achievement marks . .■....................
26
Teachersf marks used to indicate scholarship
achievement.............................
26
Form I, Questionnaire concerning activities
and interests in school and out of school .
Method of averaging marks
Citizenship averages
. . .
27
...........
29
.............
29
Determining the reliability of the difference
between the m e a n s ...................
30
Source of records and data not found on the
questionnaire..........
..
Nationality...............................
31
Age of pupils
31
.............
Su m m a r y...................................
IV.
30
31
QUESTIONNAIRE FINDINGS AND COMPARISONS BETWEEN
BROKEN AND NORMAL HOMES G R O U P S ............
35
The h o m e .................................
33
Number of broken h o m e s .............
34
Types of broken h o m e s .....................
34
Causes of broken homes
36
. .
..............
Economic status of the home and working con­
ditions of the p a r e n t s ................
38
V
CHAPTER
PAGE
Citizenship.............................
Employment of parents
V.
.
.............
40
40
Types of occupations of fath e r s ............
46
Pupils plans and ambitions for the future . .
49
S u m m a r y ...................................
53
BATA CONCERNING ACTIVITIES OUT OF SCHOOL
. . .
Pupils working for p a y ...................
56
56
Membership in extra-curricular school organi­
zations and in community g r o u p s ..........
VI.
60
Hobby interests...........................
63
S u m m a r y ...................................
66
ANALYSIS AND COMPARISONS OF SCHOOL RECORDS IN­
CLUDING SCHOLARSHIP, CITIZENSHIP, AND INTEL­
LIGENCE ...................................
68
Classification of intelligence quotients
69
. .
Determining the reliability of the difference
between the means of intelligence scores of
normal and broken homes groups
..........
69
Scholarship-achievement study of pupils in
both g r o u p s .............................
74
Determining the reliability of the difference
between the means of scholarship marks of
normal and broken homes groups
..........
Citizenship comparisons, averages, and medians
80
83
CHAPTER
PAGE
Determining the reliability of the difference
between the means of citizenship marks of
normal and broken
homes groups
S u m m a r y...................................
VII.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS,AND RECOMMENDATIONS . . .
85
88
93
Conclusions...............................
101
Recommendations...........................
103
BIBLIOGRAPHY.................. ....................
105
vii
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
I*
II.
PAGE
Pupils in Normal and Broken Homes
........
Number and Percentage of Pupils from Each
Type of Broken H o m e ..........
III.
IV.
Causes of Broken Homes
35
. . . . . . . . . . .
.........................
42
Employment of Mothers in Normal and Broken
Homes G r o u p s ......... ..................
VI.
37
Employment of Fathers in Normal and Broken
Homes Groups
V.
25
44
Occupations of Fathers in the Normal Group
Compared to Occupations of Fathers in the
Broken Homes Group. . . • • • • • • • • .
VII.
47
Comparison of Normal and Broken Homes Groups
concerning Plans after High School Gradu­
ation .........
VIII.
50
Comparison of Normal and Broken Homes Groups
concerning Plans after completion of High
S c h o o l .......................
IX.
51
Comparison of Pupils in the Normal Group with
those in the Broken Homes Group Working for
Pay Outside of School H o u r s ....
X.
58
Comparison of Memberships of Normal and Broken
Homes Groups in Extra-Curricular School
Organizations, and
Community Organizations
61
viii
TABLE
XI.
PAGE
Comparison of Hobby Interests of Normal and
Broken Homes Groups..
XII.
..................
64
Classification of Intelligence Quotients of
Pupils in Anderson W. Clark Junior High.
School
XIII.
. . . . . .
. . . . .
70
Intelligence Average and Median for Pupils in
Each Grade Level in Normal and Broken Homes
G r o u p s .................................
XIV.
72
Determination of the Significance of the Dif­
ference Between the Mean Intelligence Quo­
tients for the Normal and Broken Homes
Groups
XV.
...................
75
Scholarship , Achievement Study of Pupils in
Normal and Broken Homes Groups Including an
Average for each and
XVI.
75
Scholarship Averages: Distribution and Fre­
quency.
XVII.
aGeneralMedian . . .
•
....................... . • • •
78
Determination of the Significance of the Dif­
ference Between the Mean Scholarship
Ratings for the Normal and Broken Homes
G r o u p s .................................
XVIII.
81
Citizenship Study of Pupils in Normal and
Broken Homes Groups including Average for
each Class and a GeneralM e d i a n ...........
83
ix
TABLE
XIX
PAGE
Citizenship Averages: Distribution and Fre­
quency
XX
.
...........................
•
86
Determination of the Significance of the Dif­
ference Between the Mean Citizenship
Ratings for Normal and Broken Homes Groups
87
CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED
Recent statistical studies relative to the prevalence
of Broken homes in different parts of the United States
point to the fact that the average percentage of broken
homes among the general population lies between eighteen and
twenty-five per cent.
The amount is as low as ten per cent
in some nationalities, but it is rarely less than that.1
The children of these broken homes are attending our
public schools as are the children of the unbroken homes.
The broken home as a factor for the teacher and the school
to take into account is a field in which little or nothing
has been done except after the young person has become de­
linquent .
I.
THE PROBLEM
Statement of the problem. The purpose of this study
was to consider several ordinary activities both in school
and out of school for a group of junior high school pupils,
and to discover what differences there were, if any, between
a group of children from broken homes and a group of chil-
1 Nehemiah Wallenstein, Character and Personality of
Children from Broken Homes -(New York: Bureau of Publications,
^721, Columbia UniversityT> 1937, p. 1.
2
dren from from normal, or unbroken, homes.
Based on the
percentages above as quoted by Wallenstein p in a normal un­
selected group the teacher would have seven to ten pupils
from broken homes.
The main objective of the study was to
discover if these children needed special assistance which
the school could give them through additional counseling and
guidance; and to discover if they differed in any way that
was measurable by the school from pupils who had not suffer­
ed the experience of being without either one or both parents.
Specific questions related to this investigation* An
attempt was made to answer the following questions:
1.
What was the average percentage of broken homes
among the general school population?
2.
Did these pupils as a group need special atten­
tion and assistance from the school?
3.
Did they as a group differ, in any way which was
measurable by the school, from pupils who lived in normal
homes?
4.
What percentage of employed fathers weaflef found in
broken homes as compared with the percentage of employed
fathers found in normal homes?
5.
Did more mothers work in the broken or in the
2 Wallenstein, loc. cit.
normal homes?
6.
factor
in respect to leisure time activities of pupils?
7.
school
Did the type of home appear to be a determining
What were the chief hobbies in the junior high
in which this investigation was made?
8.
Was there a difference between boys* and girls*
hobbies?
9*
Was there a difference between normal and broken
homes pupils as evidenced by membership in extra-curricular
and community groups?;
10.
In what types of occupations were the fathers and
mothers of this area engaged?
11.
Was there a difference between the normal and
broken homes groups regarding responsibilities and regular
duties at home?
12.
Were more pupils from broken homes employed out­
side school hours for pay?
13.- Was there a difference as shown by school records
between the two groups in (a) intelligence quotients, (b)
scholarship and achievement as evidenced by teachers* marks,
and (c) citizenship as evidenced by teachers* marks?
14.
What was the reliability of the difference between
the means of the two groups in intelligence, in scholarship,
and in citizenship?
What was the probable divergence of
this difference from the true difference?*
II.
IMPORTANCE OF THE PROBLEM
Anything which affects the life of the pupil outside
the school is apt to he reflected in some way in the school’s
relations with that pupil.
The broken home is quoted on
every side as the predominant factor in many of the studies
which are available concerning modern youth and his problems.
Most of these are based on studies of juvenile delinquency.
If the broken home has so much to do with molding the char­
acter of the children involved, surely its effect would also
be noticeably reflected in the school life of the child.
If
such is the case, school administrators, teachers, and coun­
selors need to be more fully aware of the problems of the
broken homes pupils in order that they may be given necessary,
intelligent help to counterbalance some of the maladjustments
caused by the home situation.
III.
PROCEDURE
A questionnaire made up of items concerning in school
and out of school activities of the pupils of Anderson W.
Clark Junior High School in La Crescenta, California, was
circulated by members of the faculty in the regular homeroom
period.
As a result of these answers two groups were made.,
one being the pupils who were not living with their ovm
father and mother, the broken homes group for the present
5
study;and the other group, the normal homes group made up of
pupils who were and always had lived with their own father
and mother*
A series of tabulations, charts, and comparisons were
made between the two groups including the follov/ing:
1.
Employment of fathers*
£.
Employment of mothers.
3*
Types of employment.
4*
Leisure time interests and hobbies of the pupils.
5*
Pupil membership in extra-curricular school or­
ganizations and in community organizations.
6.
Pupils who work outside school hours for pay*
7.
Future schooling and plans after high school.
8*
Intelligence by half grade levels; averages;
medians.
9.
Scholarship-aehievement survey, first by individu­
als, then by classes and groups.
10.
Citizenship-behavior survey, first by individuals;
then by classes and groups.
11.
Determining the reliability of the difference be­
tween the means of the two groups in intelligence, in schol­
arship, and in citizenship.
Three hundred seventy-three pupils, the enrollment of
the junior high school with the exception of four or five
absentees, formed the basis for the study.
Because of limit-
ed time and absence of data on them, it was not possible to
carry all comparisons into the B7 and A7 classes..
IV. RELATED STUDIES
No similar study was discovered in the files of the
library of The University of Southern California.
There
were many investigations of the broken home in relation to
delinquency; but the pupils in this study were not problems,
delinquents, truants, etc.
Chapter II gives information
concerning available materials.
V.
A broken
DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED
home.
There was wide
diversityof opinion
as towhat constituted a broken home; therefore for the pur­
pose of this study the broken home was defined as follows:
A broken
or both natural
home was one in which
the influence of one
parents was missing as a result of the death
of either or both parents, or of the separation, divorce, or
desertion of the parents.
A child who lived with mother only,
father only, stepfather and mother, stepmother and father,
relatives, or others was considered as coming from a broken
home.
Under "others” were considered foster parents, guardi­
ans who were not relatives, children who were placed in
boarding homes due to the dissolution of their own homes, and
orphans who were wards of the county.
It is not to be inferred that all of the types of
homes mentioned above would have a detrimental effect upon
the child*
It means merely that the normal home situation
had not prevailed throughout the life of the child; that at
some period he had new adjustments to make regarding the
absence of presence of one or both of his parents, with per­
haps the additional upsetting experience of living in a new
home with a stepfather, stepmother, or other persons.
A normal home.
The nonbroken or normal home was de­
fined in this study as a home where both natural parents
were alive and living together with their children.
,
The problem of both parents working was present in
each of the two types of homes.
This situation in relation
to the two groups was given consideration as a factor which
influences the life of the child.
Limitation of the problem. Because of the detail of
the data used in this study it was impossible to carry tabu­
lations in to the B7 and A7 grade for all of the compari­
sons.
The same questionnaire was filled by every student
and the intelligence averages and medians computed for all
classes, B7-A9.
The entire group was also used in'computing
the percentage of pupils living in broken and normal homes.
The two items mentioned concern data of 373 pupils, grades
B7-A9.
In the following comparisons data were collected and
8
tabulated for 265 pupils, grades B8-A9: comparison of em­
ployment of fathers in the broken and in the normal home;
comparison of employment of mothers in the two types of
homes; comparison of leisure time activities, hobbies, and
membership in school and community organizations of children
from the broken and the normal homes; comparisons of the
types of occupations of the fathers and mothers; pupil comi
parison regarding those who have regular duties at home and
those who do not; comparison of those pupils who work for
pay outside school hours; and expected future schooling of
the members of the two groups.
Since the tabulations for the scholarship-achievement
average and the citizenship average involved from three to
six semesters* grades^this portion of the study was limited
to grades A8, B9, and A9, which totaled slightly over 200
pupils.
With the exception of pupils who entered after the
B7 year the tabulations were uniform; for A 9 fs the individu­
al’s grades for six semesters were averaged; for B9 pupils
five semesters of grades were averaged, and for A8 pupils,
four semesters.
The study was restricted to one school, the Anderson
W. Clark Junior High.
There were no standardized measuring
devices which could be substituted for the use of teachers*
marks in scholarship and citizenship.
In homes where one parent had remarried it was not
determined for what length of time the pupil lived under
broken home conditions or what age he was at the time the
home was broken.
Anderson W. Clark Junior High School.
This school
with an enrollment of approximately four-hundred pupils is
located seventeen miles from Los Angeles in a semirural
valley known as La Crescenta.
Although surrounded by roll­
ing hills, the climate is more comparable to a desert sec­
tion.
This has a distinct effect upon the school in that
the majority of the pupils or their parents live in this
vicinity because it is so beneficial to those who are suffer
ing from asthma or lung diseases.
This affects attendance
and school progress and increases guidance responsibilities.
Due to the equitable climate and the comparatively low price
of real estate, the low wage earner and the unemployed are
attracted.
Following the devastating flood-on New Years Eve
1934, government engineering projects of flood control popu­
lated the valley with families whose chief support came from
W. P. A., S. E. R. A., etc.
These groups on the whole are
transients. • At the other extreme are pupils, small in ma­
jority, who come from above middle class residential areas
surrounding the Oakmont Country Club in Glendale.
The jun­
ior high draws its entollment from four elementary schools
located in the valley.
All of these schools are under the
10
supervision of the city of Glendale, located seven miles
away,
TiFhen pupils graduate from the ninth year in this
school, they continue their high school grades at Glendale
High where they are transported by busses-su*
VI.
ARRANGEMENT OF REMAINDER OF THE THESIS
Chapter II reviews related investigations; Chapter
III goes fully into the procedures followed and sets forth
plainly the two groups involved in the present study; a
copy of the questionnaire from which certain data were taken
is attached.
Chapter IV is divided into two parts; the
first section is devoted to an analysis of the home situ­
ations, the numbers, types, causes, and percentage of broken
homes involved in the present study.
The second part sur­
veys the employment of the parents, the types of occupations
followed and the pupils* future educationsl plans are given
in the latter part.
Chapter V concerns itself with three
out-of-school activities; namely, working outside school
hours for pay, interests and hobbies, and membership in
organizations of the school or the community.
Chapter VI
is the study of school progress and achievement as measured
by teachers* marks; a general intelligence study of the
school; and the citizenship-behavior analysis and comparison
between the two groups.
Chapter VII
gives a general sum­
mary, the conclusions, and recommendations.
11
VII *
1*
SUMMARY
The problem of this study was to compare two
groups of pupils in several normal, ordinary activities both
in school and outside of school.
The group was unselected
except for the following classification.
One group was com­
posed of pupils from broken homes and the other group was
from normal or unbroken homes.
2.
The purpose was to discover what differences
there were, if any, between the two groups in an effort to
determine if the broken home was as significant a factor
among non-delinquent boys and girls as investigations stated
it was among delinquents.
3.
The problem was important because any study which
further contributed to the school’s understanding of the
individual pupil and his problems was worthwhile; also, the
broken home in relation to the non-delinquent child was a
field in which there had been little investigation.
4.
The normal home was defined as a home where both
natural parents were alive and living together with their
children.
The broken home was defined as one in which the
influence of one or both natural parents was missing as a
result of the death of either one or both parents, or of the
separation, divorce, or desertion of the parents.
5.
The groups were selected by means of a question-
12
naire given to 373 pupils of the .Anderson W. Clark Junior
High School, La Crescents.
There were 103 pupils making up
the broken homes group, and the remainder, 270 pupils com­
posed the normal group.
Comparisons were made between the
groups in ten typical in school and out of school situations.
CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
There apparently have been few investigations dealing
with the non-delinquent child from the broken home in re­
lation to his home and school life.
Careful checking of the
library files, Education Index, Reader’s Guide, and Bibli­
ography of Research Studies in Education 1936-1937 revealed
only one investigation which was similar to the present one.
Research studies on the delinquent boy and girl were
so extensive it was impossible to review them in a paper of
this length.
If the broken home entered the picture as a
significant factor, such findings had some bearing on the
present study.
Certain investigations of this nature will
be cited.
Wallenstein,'1* who made a careful study of the litera­
ture in this field stated that there were three types of
treatises on the subject: (a) the essay type, mostly based
on speculative thinking or general observation; (b) the sta­
tistical study based on various degrees of objective re­
search; and (c) the clinical study based on case investiga­
tion.
He pointed out that the philosophical works on the
1 Nehemiah Wallenstein, Character and Personality of
Children From Broken Homes (New York: Bureau of Publica­
tions , #7El, Columbia University, 1937), p. 7.
subject and the clinical ease studies tended to view with
alarm the deleterious effect of the broken home on the char­
acter of children, whereas the more scientific investiga­
tions based on statistical findings tended on the whole to
minimize the broken home as a source of maladjustment for
children.
A parallel investigation. Ambler’s study2 attempted
to determine the correlation between two groups of selected
pupils, one group from broken homes and the other group from
normal homes.
In his study the child from the broken home
was not necessarily a "dependent,* a "truant," or a "delin­
quent" child.
Progress of the child at school as indicated
by teachers’ marks in scholarship and citizenship were
correlated by groups to determine if the broken home was a
factor.
Two groups from the ninth grade of Edison Junior High
School, Los Angeles, were selected, studied, and compared.
The questionnaire and individual conference methods were
used to obtain data of a personal nature.
Intelligence quo­
tients and school records from the counselor’s office gave
additional desired information to complete the investigation.
2 Samuel Charles Ambler, "The Relationship Between
Broken Homes and School Progress as Indicated by School
Records," (unpublished Master’s thesis. The University of
Southern California, Los Angeles, 1951} pp. 1-80.
15
The "broken home was defined as one in which the in­
fluence of one or both parents is missing, and a normal one
as a home in which both parents are living with their child
or children.
The findings, summary, and conclusions stated brief­
ly were as follows:
1.
Pupils from the broken homes group came from five
different types of homes.
2.
Such factors as excessive interest in sports or
lack of interest in studies may be as important in influ­
encing school progress as the home conditions.
3. .The ambitions of the pupils for higher education
were practically the same except that a few more boys and
girls from broken homes expected to go to work after finish­
ing junior high school.
4.
More of the mothers in the broken homes group
were working.
Practically all of the fathers in the normal
homes group were working, while only sixty-two per cent of
the fathers in the broken homes group were employed.
5.
The intelligence quotients revealed a difference
of 1.5 in favor of the pupils from normal homes, their
average intelligence being 101.8 compared to 101.3 for those
from broken homes.
In determining whether this was a re­
liable difference or not, (that is, if further studies were
made what would the chances be that students in normal homes
16
would have higher average intelligence than phpils in broken
homes) it was found that there are ninety-nine chances in
one hundred that the pupils from normal homes would have on
the average a higher intelligence quotient.
6.
The difference between the averages in academic
work was very slight, the chances being only fifty-five in
one hundred that pupils from normal homes would receive a
higher average than would pupils from broken homes.
7.
The citizenship records of the two groups showed
an even closer agreement in the results, fifty-four chances
in one hundred, that the broken homes group would have a
slightly higher average in "Cooperation."
The average marks
for the two groups in "Effort" showed complete agreement
(average 2.15) so the reliability of difference could not be
measured.
According to the results of Ambler’s study there was
no great difference between the school records of the pupils
living in normal homes as compared with the group living in
broken homes.
Apparently, if the type of home remained a
good influence and the child received the necessary super­
vision, one type of home tended to have as good results as
any other type.
This study was apparently quite carefully executed.
An evident attempt was made to match the two groups in sex,
nationality, age, intelligence quotient, and other influ­
ential factors.
Distinction was made between the different
types of broken homes.
The study involved school children
in actual attendance and not institutional or delinquent
cases.
Certain weaknesses might be mentioned: (a) it was
impossible to match and equate the compared groups exactly
with reference to influential factors: (b) no information
was given regarding the period of time since the home was
broken; (c) of necessity the scholarship and citizenship
data were of the unstandardized and subjective type; and (d)
no measures of character and personality were used.
Due to
existing conditions these weaknesses are apparent also in
the present investigation.
Other studies. Studies of delinquent children, and
particularly the part the home plays in such delinquency,
are of fairly recent origin in this country.
The first step in the solution of delinquency was
taken in 1899 when Cook County, Illinois, enacted a law
which recognized the delinquent child as a "ward in chancery"
and not as an accused or convicted criminal.
Breckinridge,^
collaborating with Abbott, made a study of the delinquent
child and the home, based on records of Juvenile Court from
1899 to 1909 in Cook County, Illinois.
Approximately thirty-
3 S. P. Breckenridge, Delinquent Child and the Home.
{New York: William Fell Company,1912), pp. 1-345.
18
five per cent of the cases during the ten year period came
from homes where abnormal conditions existed.
In the forty year period since this investigation was
made the home has encountered important social and economic
changes.
The norma], as well as the broken home may present
problems in lack of supervision, disorganized family life,'
and lack of proper guidance, due partly to the fact that a
large percentage of mothers are employed outside the home.
Van Waters commented on the part the home played
in producing delinquency by saying that wthe home where
interests of childhood are secondary to those of business,
pleasure, or personal ambition, is potentially a delinquent4
producing home.11
5
Thrasher in a study of boys mentioned deficient
family life and lack of proper and adequate guidance by the
school and home for leisure and spare time activities as
two of the four important factors which contributed to gang
development and delinquency.
Improper methods of training the child may exist in
either the normal or the broken home.
In either case such
lack of training may result in delinquency.
Van Waters re-
4 Miriam Van Waters, Youth in Conflict (New York:
Republic Publishing Company, 1926), p. 63.
5 Frederick M. Thrasher, The Gang (Chicago: Universi­
ty of Chicago Press, 1926), pp. 491-3.
19
ferred to a study of 250 problem children in which sixtythree per cent of the cases could be traced to improper
methods of training and discipline.®
Blanchard stated that
All the studies of children with undesirable be­
havior patterns indicate the socialising process breaks
down within the family more frequently than in any other
place.7
A discussion of the delinquent child in relation to
his family, himself, to industry, to the church and the com­
munity, to the State and the municipality was presented in a
careful, unbiased study by the White House Conference on
Q
Child Health and Protection.
Almost five hundred pages in
length, it contained valuable information for all who handle
children regardless of the child’s age.
9
Shaw and McKay compared the records of each of two
groups of delinquent boys with the records of a group of
boys in the public schools for incidence of broken homes.
One of the delinquent groups consisted of 1,675 cases and
the other of 1,596 cases; the non-delinquent group compris-
6 Van Waters, o]5. cit.. p. 269.
7 Phyllis Blanchard..■The Child and Society (New York:
Longmans, Green and Company, 1928), P • 283.
® Frederick P. Cabot, Delinquent Child. Chairman,
White House Conference on Child Health and Protection (New
York: The Century Company, 1932), pp. 1-490.
^ Clifford Shaw and H. D. McKay, "Are Broken Homes a
Causative Factor in Juvenile Delinquency?” Social Forces,
10:514-524, 1932.
20
ed 7,276 children.
No very significant differences were
found between the rate of broken homes in the delinquents
and in the control group.
In spite of the fact that the
differences found in the two comparisons were not very
large, they were, nevertheless, above five times their re­
spective probable.errors, indicating that they were statis­
tically significant, and that the broken home was a factor
in delinquency.
Burt10 did not incline to lay delinquency at the door
of any one agency.
He concluded, in common with nearly all
students of delinquency problems, that there was no one
cause of youthful misbehavior, and that treatment to be ef­
fective must cover the whole field of school, home, and
society.
Although only a limited number of studies have been
mentioned a certain common agreement seemed to exist among
the theses and studies reviewed.
Perry stated that these
included the following points:
1. When a normal child becomes delinquent, the home,
the school, and society as a whole are about equally
at fault.
.
2.
Truancy is the highroad to delinquency.
3. Nearly all of the misdemeanors of the adolescent
may be traced to certain normal desires, such as the de-
10 Gyrii Burt, The Young Delinquent {New York: D.
Appleton and Company, 192b), pp. 1-695.
21
sire for play, the desire to appear well before his
mates, the youthful desire for adventure, etc.
4. Congested urban localities are fruitful fields
for the development of delinquency and crime.
5. Youthful delinquency and crime appear to be on
the increase, and so’
ciety, for its own sake, if not out
of regard for these young offenders, must take steps to
check it and to eliminate those conditions which are
conclusive to i t . H
For the best bibliography found on broken homes and
related problems the book of Wallenstein’s is recommended.
l?
A number of recent local studies of delinquents in and
around Los Angeles may be found in the thesis library at the
University of Southern California.
However,-these were of
little value to the present study because the factor of
broken homes was not made the subject of inquiry except in
an incidental manner.
The investigations dealt exclusively
with institutional and delinquent cases, and there were no
so called "normal” control groups used for comparison.
SUMMARY
1.
With the exception of two studies all of the in-
1^ H. M. Perry, "A Study of Factors Contributing to
the Behavior of Boys Committed to Los Angeles Welfare
Centers, 1930-1934,” (unpublished Master’s thesis, The Uni­
versity of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1938), pp. 1-9.
12 Rehemiah ?/allenstein, Character and Personality of
Children from Broken Homes (Hew York: Bureau of Publications,
#721, Columbia University), 1937, pp. 85-86.
22
vestigations found concerned the effect of the broken home,
employment factors, etc., after the child had become a de­
linquent in some stage or degree.
2.
The present study differed from other studies in
that it concerned the normal school population of a junior
high school in which the pupils could not be classed as "de­
pendents/* "delinquents," or "truants."
.Ambler’s study of
school progress in relation to the broken home had certain
similarities to that portion of this study which compared
scholarship, citizenship, and intelligence of the groups.
However, the present investigation concerned itself with
several other items also.
Wallenstein’s study was of non­
delinquent children but it concerned itself only with char­
acter and personality traits.
3.. Most authorities in summing up the influence of
the broken home indicated that it was a significant factor;
however, they did not incline to lay delinquency at the door
of any one agency.
Effective treatment must cover the whole
field of school, home, and society.
CHAPTER III
METHOD OF PROCEDURE
Selection of cases through a. questionnaire. After
consulting with the administrators of the school in which
this investigation was made, a questionnaire seemed to he
the most feasible and accurate way of indirectly determining
which pupils were living in broken homes.
Since that was
only one of the items of information desired, it was deemed
inadvisable to lay any particular stress on this question.
A copy of the questionnaire as Form I appearing later shows
how this item was included in the completed form.
The questionnaire itself was formulated after consul­
tation with members of a university seminar group.
Especial­
ly discussed at some length were the kinds of information
which would be comparable between the two groups, broken
homes and normal homes.
The wording was revised several
times in order to simplify the types of answers and yet have
enough complete details to make further analysis accurate
and worthwhile.
The faculty of the school was presented with the
questionnaire at a faculty meeting, where each question was
read and discussed fully.
of answers were explained.
Possible limitations and types
The questionnaire was used as a
homeroom project although it was agreed that the entire
first hour of fifty-five minutes could he used if necessary.
Certain specific instructions as to presentation of the
questionnaire to the group, and the accuracy and correctness
of answers were stressed.
The investigator went from room
to room to clear up any points which arose.
The Adminis­
trators gave their wholehearted approval to the venture, and
the teachers completed their part in homeroom the next day
in an enthusiastic manner.
Special stress is laid upon this
point, because the willingness.of teachers to cooperate in
such an investigation has a definite influence upon the atti­
tudes of pupils concerned, and on the whole these were all
that could be desired.
Another factor which entered at this
point was that no pupil was forced to answer any question
although it was explained that it was desirable to have a
response to each one.
There was a large percentage of ans­
wers to each question as is shown in Table I.
All pupils present in the 7th., 8th., and 9th.,
grades were given the questionnaire.
Those who indicated
that they were living with persons who were not their own
parents were selected for scrutiny and further data were
secured from school records to verify the fact that they
came from broken homes.
This constitutes the broken homes
group for the present investigation.
The normal homes group was comprised of the remainder
of the 7th., 8th., and 9th., grade pupils, no effort being
25
TABLE I
PUPILS IN NORMAL AND BROKEN HOMES
Percentage of
pupils in
Number of pupils in
Grade
level
Normal homes
Broken homes
Total
Normal
homes
Broken
homes
B7
32
9
41
78
22
A7
51
16
67
76
24
B8
46
14
60
77
23
A8
46
26
72
64
36
B9
41
10
51
80
20
A9
54
28
82
66
34
270
103
373
72
28
Totals
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: In the
B7 grade there are forty-one pupils, thirty-two or 78 per
cent of whom live in a normal home, and nine or 22 per cent
of whomo live in a broken home.
26
made to select or segregate them.
Individual conferences.
Individual conferences were
held with members of the broken homes group.
The purpose of
this was to verify or complete certain items on the question­
naire.
A verbal check was also made on the cause of the
broken home which are shown in Table III, page 23.
Sample of the questionnaire. The questionnaire used
in the study appears on the following pages as Form I.
Subjects used in averaging scholarship achievement
marks..
To obtain a scholarship achievement average marks
in the following subjects were used: English, social studies,
science, mathematics, foreign language, art, regular music,
typing, shop, and home economics.
Physical education,
orchestra, and instrument training marks were omitted since
it was thought that these involved special abilities which
made the group a selective one.
The number of semesters in­
volved in the average depended upon the half grade of the
pupil.
Teachersf marks used to indicate scholarship achieve­
ment . Although teachersf marks were subject to certain
valid criticisms because they were more or less subjective
and unstandardi^ed, they were the basis of evaluation used
to record the pupil’s achievement in his subjects at school.
27
FORM I
QUESTIONNAIRE CONCERNING- ACTIVITIES AND INTERESTS
IN SCHOOL AND OUT OF SCHOOL
Name
last
_________
, first
___________
homeroom
______
grade
___
age
Answer each question as correctly as you can. There
is no correct answer, and there are no questions that will
make any difference in your grade or in your promotion.
This will he used to help in choosing your course in school.
1.
What academic classes do you. like best in order of
preference? lst.______________ 2nd.__________________
3rd._________________ .
2.
What other subjects do you like best in order of prefer­
ence? 1st.__________
2nd.______ 3rd.__________
3.
Do you spend time studying on homework?
.. Under­
line the word which most accurately tells how much
time each day you spend in home study: Never, very
seldom, just before tests, once or twice a week, every
evening.
4.
Do you have regular duties around the house? _____
What are they?
5*
Are you living with your own parents (father and mother)?
________
Mother only?_________ Father only?_________
Stepfather and your mother?________ Stepmother and
your father? ______ Relatives?
*Others;?
6. Do you expect fo
finish high school? _______
7. What do you want to do after high school, Work? ___
Go to college?________
Go to trade school?______
Go to some other type of school? ____ , or What?_
8.
Is your father employed full time? _____ Part time?
Unemployed? _____ Retired?______
What kind of work is he doing? __________________
28
FORM I.
(continued)
Is your mother employed full time?
Part time?
or is she a Housewife only? ____ _
If she is employed, what kind of work is she doing?
9.
Do you belong to any of the following? Underline: Boy
Scouts, Sea Scouts, Campfire Girls, Girl Scouts, Honor
Society, Service Club, G. A. A., Desert Rats, Sunday
School Glass, other church group, or other community
group?
10.
Do you work outside school hours for pay? _____________
Wheret at home? ______ for others? _____ both at home
and for others? ______ oryou do not wor& for pay any­
where? _______ .
*
11.
What trade or profession do you think now that you want
to enter upon completion of your schooling? _________
12.
How do you usually spend the time intervening between
the dismissal of school and your bedtime? Name the
thing you do most here ________;
______________________
______________________
. Name the thing that you
do next most often here _____________________________
13.
How many different schools have you attended as follows:
Elementary schools? _____________ .
Junior high
schools? _____________________ . In how many different
states, including California?
14.
Do you have a hobby?
or a chief interest?
Describe it briefly ____________________________ ]
29
As such, they were recorded on the pupil’s permanent card,
and it was from these that grades were obtained.
Method of averaging marks.
The pupil’s grades were
tabulated on the second sheet of the *questionnaire in the
following manner: from each pupil’s permanent record card in
the counselor’s office the number of A ’s, the number of B ’s,
the number of C ’s, B ’s, and F ’s were counted separately and
were written on his questionnaire.
The number of grades
counted were checked against the number of semesters the
pupil had been in school, thus serving as a check on accur­
acy..
The letter grades were converted into numerical grades
thus: The value of one was used for the grade A; two for the
mark B; three for the mark C; four for D; and five for F or
failure.
The number of marks A, B, C, D, and F were multi­
plied by the numerical equivalents, the total added, and at­
tached to the pupil’s individual questionnaire.
Citizenship averages.
In Anderson W. Clark school
numerals are used to mark citizenship.
1, indicates excel­
lent; 2, satisfactory; and 3, unsatisfactory.
These were
added directly from the permanent record card and the total
placed on the second sheet of the questionnaire.
The number
of citizenship marks involved was placed as the divisor in
computing the average.
As was done in the subject grades,
the citizenship marks were also checked against the semesters
30
the pupil had been in school; and in both scholarship and
citizenship averages the subjects of physical education,
orchestra, and instrument training were elimated for reasons
previously explainedi
Determining the reliability of the difference between
the means.
In order to make the comparison of school records
— ------(?Dif f ’
{the difference (D) divided by the standard deviation of the
of more statistical significance the formulae
difference ( (jDiff ) was used.)
Intelligence quotients,
scholarship marks, and citizenship marks were thus compared.
In each case the figures from normal homes group were com­
pared with figures from broken homes group.
The standard deviation of each group was determined;
the standard error of the mean, the standard error of the
difference between the means, and the critical ratio were
computed.
If the critical ratio was three (3) or more, it
was concluded that based on the data provided there was a
statistically significant difference between the groups com­
pared.
If the result was less than three (3), the two
groups showed no statistically significant difference.
The
nearer the result approached zero the more alike the two
groups appeared to be.
Source of records and data not found on the ques­
tionnaire.
The cumulative pupil record cards in the coun­
31
selor’s office supplied data on scholarship, citizenship, and
intelligence.
For intelligence tests, the Otis S. A., and Quick
Scoring, Intermediate Examination, were the tests used.
It
was necessaty to administer forty-four additional tests in
order to bring intelligence records up to date.
Nationality. Nationality was not considered a sig­
nificant factor in the present study, because there were no
negroes, no Japanese, and no other races in the school with
the exception of four Mexican children, all from one family
and living in the normal homes group.
Age of pupils. Retardation and acceleration studies
of the two groups would offer interesting comparisons.
How­
ever, they were eliminated in this study in favor of other
items on which the school did not have available information
at present.
SUMMARY
1.
A questionnaire was given to 373 pupils at Ander­
son W. Clark Junior High School, La Crescenta, California.
From this group two smaller divisions were made, one com­
prised 103 pupils living in broken homes, and the other was
made up of 270 students from normal or unbroken homes.
was discovered that twenty-eight per cent of the school
It
population lived in broken homes.
2.
To obtain a scholarship-achievement average
teachers’ marks were taken from permanent records in the
counsellor’s office.
These marks were averaged individual­
ly, then by class and by group with averages and medians
used for comparisons.
3*
The same procedures were followed to obtain citi­
zenship averages and medians.
4.
Comparisons of school records in intelligence,
scholarship and citizenship included analysis of data with
reference to the reliability of the difference between the
D
The standard deviation
means of the two group"
for each group was determined.
The standard error of the
mean, the standard error of the difference between the
means, and the critical ratio were computed.
The critical
ratio must be three (3) or more to show a statistically re­
liable difference.
The nearer the result approached zero
the more alike the two groups appeared to me.
5.
Since there were only four Mexican children and
the remainder whites, nationality was not considered sig­
nificant as a factor for comparison.
6.
Retardation and acceleration comparisons were not
included in the present study.
They were eliminated in
favor of data on which the school did not have much infor­
mation.
CHAPTER IV
QUESTIONNAIRE FINDINGS AND COMPARISONS BETWEEN
BROKEN AND NORMAL HOMES GROUPS.
The teacher who attempts to conduct an effective pro­
gram within her classes must know as much of the physical, .
social, moral, and economic factors which exist as is possi­
ble.
It was the purpose of this section to analyze certain
data concerning the activities and interests of pupils both
in and out of school.
Such data from the broken homes group
was compared with the corresponding data from the normal
homes group.
Cox*** said that sympathetic understanding required
frank recognition that pupils1 out of school lives were fre­
quently, perhaps generally, more significant controls of be­
havior and attitudes than was the school.
In light of this
study an attempt was made to ascertain whether children from
broken homes differed from children from normal homes in
regard to certain out of school activities.
The home.
Specialists in child study emphasized the
tremendous importance of the home as a medium for proper
growth and development of the child.
It was apparent that
1 Philip W. L. Cox, Guidance and the Classroom Teachext
{New York: Prentice-Hall Incorporated, 1938), p. 78.
34
any variation occurring in the elements constituting the
normal was likely to affect, favorably or unfavorably, the
conditions making for the proper adjustments of the members
of the family.
It is supposed then that the child living in
a normal home has a feeling of security, of belonging to an
intact, protective group.
It is reasonable then to conclude
that the child of a broken home suffers certain disturbances
which may or may not become the immediate factor in setting
off present or future complications.
Wallenstein presented
this viewpoint:
In the sense that the home is the immediate agency
which culturally, socially, and economically prepares
the children for general society, the broken home is
analogous to the field with a broken fence which pro­
vides lessened protection for those inside, so that they
are likely to fall out or go astray.2
Humber of broken homes. Replies on the questionnaire
disclosed the fact that of the 373 pupils in grades B7-A9
103 were living in some type of broken home.
This was
twenty-eight per cent of the group involved.
In other words
one pupil out of every three or four came from a broken home.
Types of broken homes.
The types of broken homes and
the percentage living in each type are shown in Table II.
2 Nehemiah Wallenstein, Character and Personality of
Children from Broken Homes (New York: Bureau of Publications,
#721, Columbia University, 1937), p. 3.
TABLE II
NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE OE PUPILS FROM EACH TYPE OF BROKEN HOME
Number of pupils and
grade level
Type of home
B7
A7
B8
A8
B9
A9
Total
Per cent
Living with mother only
.........
4
6
6
7
3
9
35
34
Living with father only
.........
0
0
1
3
8
0
6
6
z
4
Z
8
4
9
89
28
Living with stepmother and father
z
3
0
4
0
0
9
9
Living with relatives
1
1
4
0
1
3
10
10
0
Z
1
4
0
7
14
13
9
16
14
86
10
88
103
28
Living with stepfather and mother
*
...........
Living with others....... . . . •
Total living in broken homes
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: Of the pupils living in broken
homes with the mother only, four are in the B7 class, six are in the A7, six are in
the B8 class, seven are in the A8, three are in the B9, and nine are in the A9 class,
which makes a total of thirty-five pupils living with their mother only; this is
thirty-four per cent of the total group.
56
The numbers and percentages are as follows:
There are
thirty-five pupils living with their mother only, which is
thirty-four per cent of the total; there are six living with
the father only, which is six per cent of the total; there
are twenty-nine pupils living with a stepfather and their
mother, which is twenty-eight per cent of the total; there
are nine pupils living with a stepmother and their father,
which is nine per cent of the total; there are ten pupils
living with relatives, which is ten per cent of the total;
and -there are fourteen pupils living with others, which is
thirteen per cent of the total.
This latter group consists
of three children living with foster parents, two orphans,
and nine who are in permanent boarding homes.
Causes of broken homes. The two main causes of broken
homes were found to be separation and the death of the father.
The types of broken homes and the causes for them are given
in Table III.
Of thepupils living with the mother
of the homes are broken by the death
only, eighteen
of the
father while
seventeen are
broken by some type of separation. Of the
pupils living
with father only, four of the
homesare broken
by the death of the mother and two by separation*
Of the
pupils living with a stepfather and their mother, eleven
homes are broken by the death of the father and eighteen by
37
TABLE III
CAUSES OF BROKEN HOMES
Father
dead
Mother only
17
18
0
0
35
Father only
2
0
4
0
6
Stepfather and
mother
18
11
0
0
29
Stepmother and
father
3
0
6
0
9
Relatives
7
1
1
1
10
12
0
0
2
14
59
30
11
3
103
57
Z9
11
3
Others
Totals
Percentage of ■
the
group
Mother
dead
Both
dead
Separation
Type of home
Number
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: Of the
thirty-five pupils living with the mother only, the homes of
seventeen were broken by separation, eighteen by death of
father, none by the death of mother, and none by the death
of both parents.
38
separation.
Of the pupils living with a stepmother and their
father, six are broken by the death of the mother and three
by separation.
Of the pupils living with relatives, one
home is broken by the death of the father, one by the death
of both parents, one by the death of the mother and seven
by separation.
Of the pupils living with others, two homes
are broken by the death of both parents and twelve by separa­
tion.
This makes a total of fifty-nine homes broken by
separation, divorce, or desertion, which is fifty-seven per
cent of the total; thirty homes broken by the death of the
father, which is twenty-nine per cent of the total; eleven
homes broken by the death of the mother, which is eleven per
cent of the total; and three homes broken by the death of
both parents, which is three per cent of the total.
Economic status of the home and working conditions of
the parents.
Both of these conditions may have a far reach­
ing effect upon the children of the home.
During the past
twenty years the picture in many American homes has been a
dark one.
The pupils in the present study, ranging in age,
from approximately twelve years to sixteen years, have lived
during the current period of economic strife*
They have
been called upon to make new social adjustments, and no
doubt in some cases, have borne some of the burden and worry
of feeding, clothing, and sheltering themselves and other
39
members of the family.
The following quotation sets forth
that the crisis may produce serious social consequences:
Those who do not face poverty and destitution imme­
diately tend to fall victims to what is worse, a hope­
lessness and despair which slowly destroys mental stami­
na and moral fiber . . . .
Their plight may not come to
the attention of the relief worker, but in the long run
this decay of the middle class induced by the present
economic depression may be of tremendous social signifi­
cance .3
This throws an added responsibility on the character
building agencies of the school and the community.
Often it is necessary for both parents to work in
order to meet the expenses of the family.
This must of ne­
cessity leave the child with varied periods of time when he
is unsupervised.
In relation to the present study such
facts are significant only if such lack of supervision re­
sults in an overburden of home duties, long hours of employ­
ment outside school hours, or general disorganization of the
home which affects the health and nervous system of the
child, thus lessening his school interest and progress.
We
may expect to find such conditions in both normal and broken
homes at the present time.
It is probably safe to assume,
however, that in no other type of home would this be felt
so keenly as in the broken home where either the mother only
or the father only is attempting to support the family and
also play a dual parent role.
3 E. Francis Brown, "The Unemployment Crisis,"
Current History. 36:413, April-September, 1932.
40
Citizenship♦
The economic status may have a definite
effect on the citizenship and behavior of the pupil.
Pover­
ty-stricken children often reflect the lack of confidence in
society in general and with teachers and the school in.par­
ticular.
Disrespect for authority is another evidence some­
times exhibited*, although this trait is not confined to
children of the lower socio-economic status.
A review of studies showed that there was a definite
relation between economic status and delinquency.
Perry
investigated 3,550 unadjusted boys who had been transferred
to welfare centers in Los Angeles in the years 1930-1934.
He said:
1. Families in the low economic brackets furnished
the largest number of delinquent boys.
2. When the average monthly income per family drops
below $150.00 per month, the number of delinquencies
move sharply upward, indicating a definite relation be­
tween youthful behavior and the economic background of
the problem case.4
Employment of parents.
The school is well aware of
the importance of the economic status of the home in its
relation to both the mental and physical well-being of the
occupants of that home.
As has already been mentioned, it
4 H. M. Perry, ftA Study of Factors Contributing to
the Behavior of Boys Committed to Los Angeles Welfare
Centers, 1930-1934,” (unpublished Master1s thesis. The Uni­
versity of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1938), p. 19.
41
is frequently necessary for both, the mother and the father
to have outside employment in order to provide necessities
for their family*
The effects of such a situation upon the
children of the home is difficult to measure.
It is be­
lieved, however, that many problems within the school de­
velop outside school hours when the pupil is with the wrong
kind of associates or in undesirable forms of recreation and
amusement.
Under ordinary conditions the mother who works
is not able to give the supervision to her family that the
non-employed mother is.
Tables 17 and V compare the working conditions of the
mothers and fathers of the two groups .
In the normal, group.,
eighty^one—per cent of the, fathers .and nine per cent^of the
mother.s_are employed full time..
In the broken homes group
only fifty-two per cent of the fathers have full .time em­
ployment , which is about thirty per cent fewer than in the
normal homes group.
There is a decided increase in the
mothers who_w,ork in the broken homes group making a total of
twenty-three per cent^with full time employmwnt.
This of
necessity is to be expected since this survey shows that in
thirty-four per cent of the broken homes in question there
is no father living with the family.
There are ten per cent
of the fathers of normal homes working part time compared to
eight per cent in the broken homes.
The re _are-mo.re-mot hers,
employed part time in the mormal homes group, twenty-three
TABLE IV
EMPLOYMENT OF FATHERS IN NORMAL AND BROKEN HOMES GROUPS
(Grades B8-A9)
NORMAL HOMES GROUP
Grade
level
Number of pupils
Full time
Part time
Unemployed
Retired
B8
46
41
3
2
0
A8
46
36
6
1
3
B9
41
31
2
7
1
A9
54
43
7
4
0
187
151
18
14
4
81
10
7
2
Totals
Per cent of group
if*
w
TABLE IV (continued)
EMPLOYMENT OF FATHERS IN NORMAL AND BROKEN HOMES GROUPS
(Grades B8-A9)
BROKEN HOMES GROUP
Grade
level
Number of
pupils.
Full time
Part time
Unemployed
Retired
Living with Mother
only
B8
14
5
1
8
0
6
A8
86
17
8
0
0
7
B9
10
6
0
1
0
3
A9
38
13
3
3
0
9
Totals
78
41
6
6
0
85
58
8
8
0
38
Per cent of group
NOTEjKEn the normal homes group, forty-one of the parents of forty-six pupils
in B8 class^have full time employment; three, part time; two unemployed; and none
retired.
In the broken homes group, twenty-five pupils, or 38 per cent are living with
the mother only. The fathers who are alive in this group are not accounted for in
their employment.
Comparison of total percentages reveals that 81 per cent of the normal group
fathers are employed full time, and 58 per cent of the broken homes fathers are em­
ployed full time.
TABLE V
EMPLOYMENT OF MOTHERS IN NORMAL AND BROKEN HOMES GROUPS
(Grades B8-A9)
NORMAL HOMES GROUP
Grade
level
Number of pupils
Full time
Part time
Housewife
only
Living with Father
only
B8
46
4
8
34
0
A8
46
7
4
35
0
B9
41
0
6
35
0
A9
54
5
6
43
0
187
16
34
147
0
Per cent of group
9
13
78
0
Totals
TABLE V (continued)
EMPLOYMENT OF MOTHERS IN NORMAL AND BROKEN HOMES GROUPS
(Grades B8-A9)
■
BROKEN HOMES GROUP
i
Grade
level
Number of pupils
Full time
Part time
Housewife
only
Living with Father
only
B8
14
1
2
10
1
A8
26
9
2
12
3
B9
10
1
3
4
2
A9
28
7
2
19
0
Totals
78
18
9
45
6
Per cent of group
23
12
58
7
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: In the normal homes group, four
mothers of forty-six pupils in B8 class have full time employment; eight, part time;
and thirty-four are housewives only.
In the broken homes group six pupils or 7 per cent are living with the father
only. The mothers who are alive in this group are not accounted for in the employ­
ment survey.
Comparing the totals, 9 per cent of mothers in the normal group have full time
employment, and 23 per cent in the broken homes group have full time employment.
46
per cent, than in the broken homes, which is twelve per cent.
The unemployed fathers, constituting seven per cent of the
normal homes group, is slightly less than the eight per cent
found in the broken homes group.
In the mothers’ group
those not employed full or part time are classified as "house
wives only."
The_iiormal,-grGup-rfarrexceeds the broken homes
group,_in_this, nemely_seyenty^eight per cent and fifty-eight,
per cent respectively, who are housewives.
Types of occupations of fathers.
The economic status
and the social status of the home are closely allied with
the standards of living reflected by the school group as a
whole and by the community at large.
In the district in­
volved in this study there was a range of conditions from
those who were practically destitute and who were receiving
aid from social welfare agencies and from the welfare de­
partment of the school to those who were more comfortably
fixed.
It was believed by the investigator that this lat­
ter group was the minority group of the school.
Table VI attempts a classification of the types of
employment of the fathers based on pupils’ replies*
The
occupations are classified thus: (1) professional; (2) public
service; (3) commercial; and (4) trades, unskilled labor, and
industry.
The professional group included such occupations
as accountant, engineer, lawyer, nurse, physician, and
TABLE YI
OCCUPATIONS OF FATHERS IN THE NORMAL GROUP COMPARED TO OCCUPATIONS OF
FATHERS IN THE BROKEN HOMES GROUP
(Grades B8-A9)
NORMAL GROUP
Classification
Number
reporting
BROKEN HOMES GROUP
Per cent of
group
Number
reporting
Per cent of
group
Normal and broken
homes groups
Number
.Per cent
Professional
19
9,0
7
17.0
26
10.0
Public Service
16
7.5
5
12.0
21
8.0
Commercial
48
22.5
12
28.0
60
24.0
128
>61.0
18
43.0
. 146
198.0
211
100.0
42
100.0
253
100.0
Trades, unskilled
labor, industry
Totals
NOTE: This table is to be read as follows: Nineteen of the fathers in the
normal group, which is 9 per cent, are occupied in professional types of work; and
seven of the fathers in the broken home group, which is 17 per cent, are occupied
in professional types of work.
48
teacher.
The professions rank third in type of employment in
the normal homes group and third in the broken homes group.
However, there are seventeen per cent professional fathers
in the broken homes group compared to nine per cent of the
normal groups1 fathers.
The public service group included
employees in federal, state, county, or city positions.
This ranks fourth as a type of employment in both the normal
and broken homes groups.
The commercial classification in­
cluded such occupations as advertising, banker, secretarial,
druggist, clerk, theater employee, and salesman.
It is in­
teresting to note that twenty-two per cent of the normal
groups1 fathers, forty-eight in number, in the commercial
division, are salesmen; and six of the twelve fathers in the
broken homes are salesmen.
The commercial occupations as a
whole rank second in both groups, with the broken homes group
leading in percentage.
In the trades, unskilled labor, and
industrial group were found over sixty different kinds of
work including such fields as auto construction, auto paint­
ing and repair, barber, butcher, mason, gardener, painter,
plasterer, ranch worker, stock clerk, teamster, construction
work, and carpenter.
In ranking, this classification is
first, exceeding the next ranking division by forty per cent
in the normal group and by fifteen per cent in the broken
homes group.
In the grand total 146 fathers or fifty-eight
per cent are thus engaged.
49
Pupils plans and ambitions for the future. These
were scrutinized from two angles:
(1) as related to com­
pletion of high school grades; and (2) after high school*
Somewhat closely associated with the, social and economic .
status of the home and the type of employment of the parents
is the child’s own future plans*
In the poorer homes the
children frequently want to educate themselves for something
which will lead to improvement over their present surround­
ings.
Sometimes in the professional or upper middle class
home the child is not ambitious because he is accustomed to
the usual comforts and conveniences and does not realize
what it would be to not have them.
Tables VII and VIII summarize replies concerning
pupils’ future plans.
The fact that ninety-eight per cent
of the normal groups and ninety-nine per cent of the broken
homes groups expect to graduate from high school is not sur­
prising in view of the stringent attendance laws in the
state of California.
Plans following high school show more variety.
There
is one per cent less in the broken homes group than in the
normal group who want to go immediately to work following
completion of the period of formal schooling.
Approximately
sixteen per cent more of the normal group intends to go to
college or university while eight per cent more in the broken
homes group will seek more practical and probably more quick-
TABLE VII
COMPARISON OF NORMAL AND BROKEN HOMES GROUPS CONCERNING PLANS AFTER
HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION
(Grades B8-A9)
BROKEN HOMES GROUP
NORMAL GROUP
Planning
to finish high
school
183
Not planning to
finish high
school
4
Not planning to
finish high
school
Total
Planning
to finish high
school
187
77
1
99.0
1.0
Total
78
Percentage
98.0
2.0
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: Of the 187 pupils in the normal
group, 183 pupils or 98 per cent of the group expect to finish high school; of the
seventy-eight pupils in the broken homes group, seventy-seven, or 99 per cent of the
group expect to finish high school. In the normal g roup there are "four pupils or
£ per cent of the total group who do not expect to finish high school; in the broken
homes group there is one pupil or 1 per cent of the group who does not expect to
finish high school.
^
o
51
TABLE VIII
COMPARISON OF NORMAL AND BROKEN HOMES GROUPS
CONCERNING PLANS AFTER COMPLETION
OF HIGH SCHOOL
(Grades B8-A9)
Type of activity planned
after high school
graduation
Per cent
Group
Normal
homes
Broken
homes
Normal
homes
Broken
homess
40
16
2115
20.5
Expect to attend junior
college, or university
100
29
53.45
37.0
Expect to attend trade or
some other type of
school
46
26
25.0
33.5
1
7
187
78
Expect to work
Do not know
Totals
.05
100.0
9.0
100.0
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: After
high school graduation or completion of a portion of the
high school grades (3 per cent of the two groups) forty
pupils or 31.5 per cent of the normal group expects to go
to work, and sixteen pupils or 20.5 per cent of the broken
homes group expects to go to work.
52
ly remunerative types of education in trade or other similar
types of schools.
Lack of security for the future may ex­
plain partly why nine per cent of the broken homes groups as
compared with .05 per cent of the normal groups has no
future plans as yet.
SUMMARY
This chapter was concerned with certain home problems
which might have an influence on the home and the school
life of the pupil.
The physical, moral, social, and economic
factors that exist strongly affect the pupil in the class­
room; and the more the school knows of each individual pupil
just in that degree can the school carry on a really effect­
ive program of guidance.
1.
Specialists in child study emphasized the home as
a medium for proper growth and development of the child.
The child living in a normal home has the security of a
united, protective group, which the child in the broken home
may not have.
2.
Answers on the questionnaires disclosed the fact
that of the 573 pupils in grades B7-A9 there were 103 living
in some type of broken home.
This was twenty-eight per cent
of the total group, which was considerably higher than the
figures of ten to twenty-two per cent, which were quoted by
Wallenstein for the nation at large.
5.
Six major types of broken homes were found: chil­
dren living with mother only; with father only; with step­
father and mother; with stepmother and father; with rela­
tives; with others*
This latter group consisted of three
children living with foster parents, two orphans, and nine
children who lived permanently in boarding homes.
Practi­
cally one-third of the group or thirty-four per cent lived
with the mother only.
Six per cent of the whole, who were
living with the father only, made up the smallest.of the
broken homes groups.
In types of broken homes living with
stepfather and mother ranked second in size.
4.
The two main causes of broken homes in the present
study were (1) separation; and (2) death of the father.
The
large number in the latter group may be due to the fact that
fathers have a higher death rate than mothers due to more
dangerous types of occupations.
Also, the district in which
Anderson W. Clark school is located has a climate which is
very beneficial to sufferers from asthma, and certain lung
ailments.
Numbers of families move to the vicinity yearly
in order to improve the health of some member of the family.
This reason might contribute to the death rate of the fa­
thers.
There is a large government sanitarium for veterans
not far from the school, and some of the fathers have been
or are patients.
In all there were fifty-nine homes broken
by separation, divorce, or desertion, which is fifty-seven
54
per cent of the total; thirty homes were broken by the death
of the father, which was twenty-nine per cent of the total*
5.
It was stated that the economic status of the
home and the working conditions of the parents had a far
reaching effect upon the children of the home*
Perry found
that economic status was a distinct' factor in delinquency.
There was approximately thirty per cent less full time em­
ployment of fathers in the broken homes group than in the
normal group.
There was fourteen per cent more mothers
working full time in the broken homes group.
This was to be
expected since in thirty-four per cent of broken homes there
was no father living in the home.
Seventy-eight per cent of
mothers in normal homes as compared with fifty-eight per
cent in broken homes devoted their full time to the home as
housewives.
6.
Types of occupations were classified as (1) pro­
fessional, (8) public service, (3) commercial, and {4)
trades, unskilled labor, or industrial.
In ranking, this
latter classification exceeded the next ranking division by
forty per cent in the normal group and by fifteen per cent
in the broken homes group.
The professions ranked third in
type of employment in both groups.
Salesman was the largest
single type of occupation in any classification.
7.
Only five of the pupils in grades B8-A9 did not
intend to complete high school.
Four of the five were from
55
the normal homes group.
8.
Following high school, about one in five pupils
in both groups wanted to go to work immediately.
Slightly
over half of the normal homes group intended to attend col­
lege or university as compared with slightly over one-third
of the broken homes group.
However, eight per cent more in
the broken homes group indicated that they would seek practi­
cal and perhaps more quickly remunerative types of employ­
ment through education in trade and other vocational schools.
Pupils in the broken homes group may have realized that they
were more f,on their own” than the normal homes group, and
that long expensive years of schooling were out of the ques­
tion.
CHAPTER V
DATA CONCERNING ACTIVITIES OUT OF SCHOOL
Calculating six hours a day for attendance at school,
ten hours sleep$ which is probably more than most junior
high school pupils regularly have, there is a remainder of
eight hours each day left for activities outside of school.
That these hours are of major significance in the life of
the individual is being increasingly recognized by the school
and the community.
In the questionnaire three of the questions were de­
signed to obtain information on three different types of
leisure time activities, leisure time in this case being in­
terpreted to mean those hours when the pupil was not in
school; (1) pupils who work for pay outside school hours;
(2) membership in extra-curricular school organizations or
in community groups; and (3) lesiure time {free time) inter­
ests and hobbies.
Pupils working for pay.
To earn money children may
work either at home or for others outside the home.
Although
work outside the home for pay denotes, or may denote, a type
of economic need, that did not seem the only significant
fact involved in replies concerning outside employment for
pay.
Any pupil who will faithfully Scarry out the routine of
57
a "job” whether it be at home or outside the home suffi­
ciently well to receive money for it, ordinarily has certain
dependability, ambition, and industry.not found in the boy
or girl who does not or will not accept such responsibility.
One consideration which must be taken into account is that
there are a large number of pupils who would work if they
could find employment.
It will be noted in the questionnaire that particular
care was taken to distinguish between work at home for pay
and the nonremunerative ordinary or regular duties at home,
which in a more or less degree are a part of the life of any
child.
Questions ten and four pertained to these items.
Table IX presents figures concerning pupilsf employ­
ment.
The difference of four per cent more pupils who do
not work in the normal groups is not surprising.
In the
broken homes division there is probably more of an economic
need for employment by all members of the family.
Sub­
stantiating this contention, there are sixty-two per cent of
the broken homes group working for pay and only forty-eight
per cent of the normal homes group.
Of the group who works
in the normal homes, twelve per cent indicated that they
worked in both places, while only two per cent of the broken
homes group does.
It might be that the child in the broken
home had more home duties and responsibilities; therefore he
could not devote all of his time to remunerative employment.
TABLE IX
COMPARISON OF PUPILS IN THE NORMAL GROUP WITH THOSE IN THE BROKEN HOMES
GROUP WORKING FOR PAY OUTSIDE OF SCHOOL HOURS
(Grades B8-A9)
NORMAL GROUP
Grade
level
Number of pupils
Work at home or
outside for
pay
Number
Per cent
Work at home and ,
outside for
Do not work
pay
Number
Per cent
Number
Per cent
B8
46
20
43.0
11
25.0
15
32.0
A8
46
23
50.0
:.3
7.0
20
43.5
B9
41
17
41.0
3
8.0
21
51.0
A9
54
29
54.0
6
11.0
19
35.0
187
89
48.0
23
12.0
75
40.0
Totals
1
00
TABLE IX (continued)
COMPARISON OF PUPILS IN THE NORMAL GROUP WITH THOSE IN THE BROKEN HOMES
GROUP WORKING FOR PAY OUTSIDE OF SCHOOL HOURS
(Grades B8-A9)
BROKEN HOMES GROUP
Grade
level
Number of pupils
Work at home or
outside for
pay
Number
Per cent
Work at home and
outside for
pay
Number
Per cent
Do not work
Number
Per cent
B8
14
9
64.0
0
0.0
5
36.0
A8
26
16
32.0
2
7.0
8
31.0
B9
10
7
70.0
0
0.0
3
30.0
A9
28
16
57.0
0
0.0
12
43.0
Totals
78
48
62.0
2
2.0
28
36.0
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: Of the forty-six pupils in class B8
twenty, or 43 per cent of the normal group work for pay outside school hours.
Of the fourteen pupils in Class B8, nine of the broken homes group, or 64 per
cent work for pay outside of school hours.
Comparing the totals, eighty-nine pupils or 48 per cent of the normal homes
group work, while forty-eight pupils or 62 per cent of the broken homes group are
employed for pay.
oi
to
60
Membership in extra-curricular school organizations
and in community groups.
The junior high adolescent with.
the normal social interests and adjustments should express
these interests by being a member of one or more of the
various school and community organizations.
If it is true
as has been suggested by various authorities that the broken
home leaves its mark on the character and personality of its
occupantsf this might be reflected by the presence or ab­
sence of social interests.
Question nine was concerned with
such interests and the results are given in Table X,
In tabulating answers it was kept in mind that one
pupil might belong to several groups, therefore membership
of several hundred would not necessarily mean that several
hundred pupils each belonged to one.
Scrutiny of. the ques­
tionnaires revealed two distinct groups; those who belonged
to no outside groups, and those who belonged to one or more.
Interests as reflected in memberships are three per
cent less in the broken homes group.
In both groups slight­
ly less than three-fourths of the total are members of any
organization.
The percentage would be considerably less
than this number if the Sunday School had been omitted, for
forty of the fifty-four pupils in the broken homes groups
indicated it as a group to which they belonged.
Although
the percentage was not so high in the normal groups, it was
the top ranking organization with fifty-three pupils indi-
TABLE X
COMPARISON Of MEMBERSHIPS OE NORMAL AND BROKEN HOLES CROUPS IN
EXTRA-CURRICULAR SCHOOL ORGANIZATIONS AND
COMMUNITY ORGANIZATIONS
(Grades B8-A9)
NORMAL GROUP
Grade
level
Number of pupils
Members
Class per cent
Not members:
Class per cent
B8
46
31
67.0
15
33.0
A8
46
33
71.0
13
29.0
B9
41
32
79.0
9
21.0
A9
54
35
64.0
19
36.0
Totals
187
131
70.0
56
30.0
Cfc
H
TABLE X (continued)
COMPARISON OF MEMBERSHIPS OF NORMAL AND BROKEN HOMES GROUPS IN
EXTRA-CURRICULAR SCHOOL ORGANIZATIONS AND
COMMUNITY ORGANIZATIONS
(Grades B8-A9)
BROKEN HOMES GROUP
Grade
level
Not members
Class per cent
Number of pupils
Members
Class per cent
B8
14
8
58.0
6
42.0
A8
26
21
81.0
5
19.0
B9
10
6
60»0
4
40.0
A9
28
19
68.0
9
32.0
Totals
78
54
67.0
24
33.0
NOTE: This table is to be read as follows: In the B8 class of the Normal group
composed of forty-six pupils, thirty-one or 67 per cent belong to some outside organi­
zation in the school or community; fifteen pupils or 33 per cent do not belong to any
such groups* Compared to this is the broken homes group B8 class of fourteen pupils,
eight of whom or 58 per cent belong while six or 42 per cent do not.
63
eating membership out of the total of 131 who belonged to
any organization*
Hobby interests*
The hobby in this ease was inter­
preted to be any absorbing interest to which the pupil de­
voted his time as frequently and as long as he could.
Au­
thorities agree that the pupil with such an interest is apt
to be happier and more contented than the child who must
constantly rely on his friends to devise ways and means of
entertainment.
The boy with a good hobby is not going to
the picture show several times each week, neither will he be
hanging around street corners trying to find something to
do.
Sometimes the origin or continuance of a hobby is de­
pendent upon interest and encouragement on the part of the
parents.
Whether the considerable difference of sixteen per
cent less pupils in the broken homes group having any sort
of chief interest or hobby is due to the difference in the
stability of the homelife, or in the time and interest which
the parents can devote to such activities for the child can­
not be determined*
Table XI shows the Interest expressed in hobbies.
In
both groups the A9 class has the highest percentage interest­
ed in hobbies.
In the group of collections named, both boys
and girls ranked Stamp collecting first.
In the girls1 ans­
wers the collecting of moving picture stars1 pictures ran a
TABLE XI
COMPARISON OE HOBBY INTERESTS OE NORMAL AND BROKEN HOMES GROUPS
(Grades B8-A9)
NORMAL GROUP
Grade
level
Number of pupils
Number having
a hobby
Per cent
Number not having
a hobby
Per cent
B8
. 46
36
78.0
10
22.0
A8
46
32
70.0
14
30.0
B9
41
22,
54.0
19
46.0
A9
54
46
85.0
8
15.0
187
136
73.0
51
27.0
Totals
O)
TABLE XI (continued)
COMPARISON OF HOBBY INTERESTS OF NORMAL AND BROKEN HOMES GROUPS
(Grades B8-A9)
-
BROKEN HOMES GROUP
Grade
level
Number of pupils
Number having
a hobby
Per cent
Number not having
a hobby
Per cent
B8
14
8
57.0
6
43.0
A8
26
13
50.0
13
50.0
B9
10
•5
50.0
5
50.0
A9
28
19
70.0
9
30.0
Totals
78
45
57.0
33
43.0
NOTE: This table is to be read as follows: Of the forty-six pupils in the B8
class of the normal group, thirty-six or 78 per cent have hobbies; and of the fourteen
pupils in the B8 broken homes group, eight, or 57 per cent have hobbies. Comparing
the totals, 136 pupils , or 73 per cent of the normal group have hobbies, and fortyfive pupils, or 57 per cent of the broken homes group have hobbies.
66
a close second, while the boys expressed chief interests in
sports, model airplanes, and making things.
It will be noted that no suggested list was given in
question, No* 14.
Another question, No. 12, asked how the
pupil generally spent the time intervening between dismissal
of school and bedtime.
In approximately one-third of the
answers the hobby was named as a regular almost daily part
of the child*s life.
A table giving answers to this latter
question was not included in the present study*
SUMMARY
Three different types of lesiure time activities were
compared in this chapter.
Leisure time in this case was
interpreted to mean those hours when the pupil was not in
school.
1.
Fourteen per cent more pupils from broken homes
worked for pay than did pupils from normal homes.
Of the
normal homes group that did work, twelve per cent indicated
that they worked both at home and outside, while only two
per cent of the broken homes group did this.
Possibly the
large number of mothers employed in the broken homes group
gave additional home duties and responsibilities to the chil­
dren, so they could not devote so much time to working out­
side the home.
2.
It was thought that a survey of memberships in
school and community organizations would indicate something
of the normal social interests and adjustments of the two
groups*
The presence of certain social interests, or the
lack of them, should have certain significance.
Eleven
school and community organizations were listed.
Interests
as reflected in memberships were three per cent less in the
broken homes group.
However, it would be considerably less
if the Sunday School were omitted, for seventy-four per cent
of the broken homes pupils listed it.
This may have
indi­
cated that they did not have the same kind of recreational
interests and opportunities as did the child who had a
father and mother to plan with and for him.
In both groups
slightly less than three-fourths of the total belonged to
any organization.
3.
A pupil with a hobby was apt to be happier and
more contented than the one who constantly relied on friends
to devise ways and means of entertainment •
In both of the
groups the A9 class showed more interest in hobbies.
Six­
teen per cent fewer pupils in the broken homes group had a
chief interest or hobby.
Whether this difference was due
to the stability of the homelife, the expense, or what was
undetermined.
The school through the establishment of clubs
or groups having similar interests could encourage more
social participation.
CHAPTER VI
ANALYSIS AND COMPARISONS OP SCHOOL RECORDS INCLUDING
,SCHOLARSHIP, CITIZENSHIP AND INTELLIGENCE
School progress, school achievement, and school citi­
zenship or behavior were the most indicative measures which
could be obtained to indicate adjustment or maladjustment
as regards the school life of the pupil.
It was assumed
that the home exerted an influence on the child in relation
to his schoolwork, his interest, attendance, punctuality,
honesty, leadership, etc.
The question in the present study was whether or not
the broken home was reflected in any measurable way in the
school life of the pupil*
Four phases were selected for further consideration:
(1) general intelligence comparisons between pupils of the
normal and the broken homes groups as shown by class aver­
ages and class medians; (2) scholarship-achievement averages
for the individual members of the two groups, compiled to
give a picture of the situation through the use of class
averages or means and class medians; (3) citizenship and
behavior marks compiled, first individually, then for each
of the two groups by class averages and class mediansj and
(4) determining the reliability of the difference between the
means in intelligence, scholarship, and citizenship.
69
Clas sifi oat ion of intelligence quotients.
In Table
XIi:.are the intelligence quotient distributions for the entire
junior high school.
and medians.
segregated.
Table XIII states intelligence averages
The two groups compared in the present study are
With the exception of the B7 normal group and the
B9 broken homes group the class medians are above one hundred.
In the normal groups the lowest intelligence median is 99.7
for the B7 grade, andthe highest median is 112 for
grade.
In the broken
homes group
the lowestmedian
for the B9 grade, andthe highest is 108 for
There is a wider range in
the A7
the medians of
is 98.0
the A9 grade.
thenormal homes
group than in the medians of the broken homes group.
The
median for the entire broken homes group is 106.5, which is
one point plus over the class median of 105.8 of the normal
group.
Class averages or means were also determined.
The
class average of the normal group is one point higher than
the mean of the broken homes group.
In approximately fifty per cent of the cases in both
groups the intelligence quotients were found to be within the
range that Terman calls the normal group (90-110).
There is
a higher percentage of quotients falling above 110 than there
are falling below 90.
There are none in either group above
140 I. Q.
Determining the reliability of the difference between
70
TABLE XII
■ CLASSIFICATION OF INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENTS OF PUPILS
IN ANDERSON W. CLARK JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL
(Grades B7-A9)
NORMAL GROUP
Intelligence
levela
-
Grade and distribution •
B7
A7
B8
A8
B9
A9
Near genius
(above 140)
0
0
0
0
o
0
0
0.0
Very superior
(120-140)
2
9
3
4
3
3
24
9.2
Superior
(110-120)
5
20
7
8
6
21
67
26.0
Normal
( 90-110)
17
16
27
25
21
25
131
50.0
Dullness
{ 80- 90)
3
6
6
4
6
3
28
11.0
Borderline
( 70- 80)
1
0
3
2
1
2
9
3.0
Feeble-minded
(below 70)
1
0
0
0
1
0
2
.8
Totals
29
'51
46
43
38
54
261
100.0
Total
Per cent
71
TABLE XII (continued)
CLASSIFICATION OF INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENTS OF PUPILS
IN ANDERSON W. CLARK JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL
(Grades B7-A9)
BROKEN HOMES GROUP
Intelligence
levela .
Grade and distribution .
B7 ’ A7
B8
A8
B9
A9
Total
Per cent
Near genius
(above 140)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.0
Very superior
(120-140)
0
0
0
2
0
0
2
2.0
Superior
(110-1B0)
2
4
5
9
3
11
54
33.5
Normal
{ 90-110)
5
10
3
12
3
16
49
48.5
Dullness
(80- 90)
0
2
2
2
2
1
9
9.0
Borderline
(70- 80)
2
0
3
0
2
0
7
7.0
Feeble-minded
(below 70)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.0
Totals
9
16
13
25
10
28
101
100.0
a Classification of intelligence quotients is taken
from Lewis M. Terman, The Measurement of Intelligence
(Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1916T, p. 79.
72
TABLE XIII
INTELLIGENCE AVERAGE AND MEDIAN FOR PUPILS IN EACH
GRADE LEVEL IN NORMAL AND BROKEN
HOMES GROUPS
NORMAL GROUP
Grade level
B7
A7
BQ
A8
B9
A9
Totals
Number of
pupils
Intelligence
average of
boys and
girls
Boys
13
96.0
Girls
16
103.0
Boys
28
108.0
Girls
23
110.0
Boys
32
99.0
Girls
14
105.0
Boys
25
10J.0
Girls
18
107.0
Boys /
15
97.0
Girls
23
103.0
Boys
25
102.0
Girls
29
108.0
261
Intelligence
average of
class
Class
median
100.0
99.7
109.0
112.0
100.0
100.6
104.0
106.2
100.0
104.4
105.0
107.2
104..0
(103.53)
105.8
73
TABLE XIII {0ont inue d )
INTELLIGENCE AVERAGE AND MEDIAN FOR PUPILS IN EACH
GRADE LEVEL IN NORMAL AND BROKEN
HOMES GROUPS
BROKEN HOMES GROUP
Grade level
B7
A7
B8
A8
B9
A9
Totals
Number of
pupils
Intelligence
average
boys and
girls
Boys
4
98.0
Girls
5
95.0
Boys
8
105.0
Girls
8
105.0
Boys
8
92.0
Girls
5
103.0
17
108.0
Girls
8
107.5
Boys
5
107.0
Girls
5
84.0
Boys
16
104.0
Girls
IS
106.5
Boys
101
Intelligence
average of
class
Class
media:
96.0
101.5
105.0
107.3
97.0
101.0
108.0
107.8
95.5
98.0
105.0
108.0
103.0
(102.93)
106.5
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: In the
B7 class of the normal group the boys have an average in­
telligence of 96.0, the girls 103.0, making a class average
of 100.0. The median for the B7 class is 99.7.
74
the means of intelligence scores of normal and broken homes
groups. An analysis of the data with reference to the re­
liability of the difference between the mean intelligence
quotients is given in Table XIV.
The standard deviations of
the two groups indicate that the normal group is more vari­
able.
The difference between the means of the two groups is
•60 in favor of pupils from normal homes.
The next problem
is to determine if the difference is a reliable one; in
other words, would further research alor^g this line result
in approximately this same difference, or what is the prob­
able divergence of this difference from the true difference
between the intelligence quotients of pupils from normal
homes and from broken homes?
The standard error of the mean
for the broken homes group is 1.25, and for the normal homes
group it is •82*
The critical ratio for this difference is
•40, which indicates a negligible difference, since the
chances are only 65 in 100 that the difference is greater
than zero.
Scholarship-achievement study of pupils in both
groups.
Tables XV, and XVI show scholarship, marks, medi­
ans, and averages.
Keeping in mind the letter interpreta­
tions of the numerals: "A* (1.00-1.99);
"C" (average; 3.00-3.99);
(2.00-2.99);
(4.00-4.99); and "F* (5.00-
5.99), it is noted that the scholarship median of the normal
75
TABLE XIV
DETERMINATION OF THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCE
BETWEEN THE MEAN INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENTS FOR
THE NORMAL AND BROKEN HOMES GROUPS
0 B = IS.64
M B - 10S.93
F B
(JiT. 13.28’
M N - 103.53
N N = 261
r—
^
-.£11—
* \/m
V B
a
_<nr
m
13.28
I
VN N
~
C. R.
Dlff
(j diff
Z -\-
101
12.64 _ 1.25
~
10.04
Standard error of
‘
t3ie meak> broken
homes group
13.28
Standard error of
the mean, normal
homes group
~
V 261
(Fdlff = 'Z (pTb
,/
v
12.64 _
/
’~
V 101
r
.82
"
16.15
(jM N 2 = V (1.25)24- (.82)2 =
1.56 -f-
.67
_ M F - M B
(Jdiff"
a J
v
2.23 = 1.49
_ 105.53 - 103.93
1.49
Standard error
of the dif­
ference be­
tween the
means
.60
1.49
_.40
RatiQ0^
76
TABLE XV
SCHOLARSHIP ACHIEVEMENT STUDY OF PUPILS IN NORMAL AND
BROKEN HOMES GROUPS INCLUDING AN AVERAGE FOR
EACH GRADE AND A GENERAL MEDIAN
(Grades A8-A9)
NORMAL GROUP
Grade level
B9
A9
Boys
26
2.51
Girls
20
2 *07
Boys
15
2.59
Girls
24
2.42
Boys
25
CO
CO
A8
Number of
pupils
Scholarship
average of
boys and
girls
Girls
28
2.24
Scholarship
average of
class
Class
median
2*32
2.49
2.52
2.48
2.*44
2.48
u
Totals
138
77
TABLE XV (continued)
SCHOLARSHIP ACHIEVEMENT STUDY OF PUPILS IN NORMAL AND
BROKEN HOMES GROUPS INCLUDING AN AVERAGE FOR
EACH GRADE AND A GENERAL .MEDIAN
(Grades A8-A9)
BROKEN HOMES -GROUP
Grade level
Number of
pupilst
Boys
Scholarship
average of
boys and
girls
15
2.92
8
2.48
Boys
<5
2.55
Girls
4
2.23
Boys
14
2.63
Girls
12
2.38
A8
Girls
B9
A9
Totals
Scholarship
average of
class
2.77
2.30
58
Number of
pupils
Totals of
Normal group • • . • •
Broken homes group .■
Class
Median
138
58
2.52
2.65
2.58
2.65
Class
average
2.44
2.58
Class
Median
2.48
2.65
NOTE: This table is to be read as follows: Of the
forty-six pupils of class A8 of the normal group, the boys
have a scholarship average of 2.51, and the girls 2.07, thus
making an A8 scholarship average of 2.32 for the group. In
the broken homes group this is to be compared with the boys’
average of 2.92, the girls’ average of 2.48, and the class
average of 2.77
TABLE XVI
SCHOLARSHIP AVERAGES: DISTRIBUTION AND FREQUENCY
(Grades A8, B9, A9)
NORMAL HOMES
BROKEN HOMES
Totals
Scholarship
marks
"A" to T,B”
"B" to MC”
Numerical
equivalents
Number of pupils in
each average
Number of pupils in
each average
A8
B9
A9
A8
B9
A9
1.00-1.25
2
0
1
3
0
0
1
1
1.26-1.49
1
3
2
6
1
1
1
3
1.50-1*75
5
3
4
12
0
1
0
1
1.76-1.99
1
3
4
‘*8
1
1
0
2
2.00-2.25
9
2
6
17
1
1
5
7
2.26-2.49
9
5
1
26
4
1
5
10
2.50-2.75
10
7
4
21
3
3
7
13
2.76-2.99
4
10
6
20
3
0
3
6
Total
.
Normal
homes
Broken
homes
Total
29
7
■ 84
36
>3
0)
TABLE XVT (continued)
SCHOLARSHIP AVERAGES: DISTRIBUTION AND FREQUENCY
(Grades A8, B9f A9)
BROKEN HOMES
NORMAL HOMES
Totals
Numerical
equivalents
Number of pupils in
each average
Number of pupils in
each average
A8
B9
A9
A8
B9
A9
3.00-3.35
4
6
5
15
7
1
1
9
3.26-3.49
1
0
6
7
2
0
3
5
3.50-3.75
0
0
3
3
1
0
0
1
3.76-3.99
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
25
15
"D" to tfF”
4.00-4.99
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
up i
5.00-5.99
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
46
39
53
138
23
9
26
58
138
58
Scholarship
marks
"C" to nDtf
Totals
.
Total
Normal
homes
Broken
homes
Total
NOTE: This table is to be read as follows: In the "A" to wBrt 1.00-1.25 aver­
ages there are three normal homes and one broken homes pupils. In the entire "A"
group there are twenty-nine normal and seven broken homes pupils.
>3
<0
80
group, which is 2.48 is approximately a B-, while the median
of the broken homes group, which is 2*65 more nearly approaches
the *tCn or average mark; thus making a difference of .17 by
which the pupils of the broken homes group are lower in
scholarship-achievement median than are the pupils in the
normal group.
This has added significance in view of the
fact that the intelligence median of the broken homes group
was 1.3 higher than that of the normal group.
This further
substantiates the fact that other things such as home con­
ditions, work outside school hours, interest on the part of
parents in school accomplishment, etc., may have considerable
effect on school progress, regardless of intelligence.
Even though the intelligence medians of the AS and A9
grades in the broken homes group were approximately the same,
107.8 and 108.0jthe A8 class in scholarship average more
nearly approaches the "C* mark by .25 than does the average
of the A9 class.
In the normal groups, A8, B9, and A9 there
was approximately one point difference among them in intelli­
gence medians, but in scholarship mean the A8 class approaches
by
.20 the
“B* more closely than does the A9 class.
Determining the reliability of the difference between
the means of scholarship marks of normal and broken homes
groups.
Table XVII presents the analysis of the data with
reference to the reliability of the difference between the
81
TABLE XVII
DETERMINATION OF THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCE
BETWEEN THE MEAN SCHOLARSHIP RATINGS FOR THE
NORMAL AND BROKEN HOMES GROUPS .
(j B - .54
U B = S.58
N B =
(j~N £ .58
M N = 2.44
N N = 138
3
ss
ii
'
Ob.
f^ 7
52!
QM
.5 4
V .5 8
_
\[® n
.5 8
V138
Jdiff -\l Qm b 2
/
.005
.086
"
C. R. - M-B■Q diff
.5 4
Standard error of the
mean, broken homes
group
.05
Standard error of the
mean, normal homes
group
1 1 .7 4
N 2 =
+
.07
7 .6 1
.5 8
.002
58
\
= n/ .007
Standard error of the difference between
the means
H N _ 2.58 - 2.44 - .140 - 1.62
5 ------- “--- “
.086
.086
Critical
r
atlo
82
mean scholarship marks of the two groups*
The difference
between the standard deviations is slight, .04 in favor of
the normal homes group.
The difference between the means of
the two groups is .14 in favor of the broken homes group.
The next problem was to determine if the difference was a
reliable one, or what was the probable divergence of this
difference from the true difference between the scholarship
marks of pupils from normal homes and from broken homes?
The standard error of the mean for the broken homes group is
♦07, and for the normal group it is .05.
The critical ratio
for this difference is 1.62, which indicates a negligible
difference since the chances are only 94 in 100 that the
difference is greater than zero.
Citizenship comparisons. averages« and medians.
Prac­
tically all of the studies referred to in the earlier part
of this study stated that the broken home had a strong,
detrimental effect upon the behavior of children who became
delinquents.
the
Whether or not it would affect in any way '
citizenship-behavior marks of the nondelinquent child
was the question uppermost in this portion of the present
study.
Citizenship marks are given in Table XVIII.
Keep­
ing in mind that nl" indicated excellent rating in citizen­
ship marks, that
n2V indicated
average or satisfactory, and
that w3ft was unsatisfactory or failing, certain differences
83
*
TABLE XVIII
CITIZENSHIP STUDY OF PUPILS IN NORMAL AND BROKEN
HOMES GROUPS INCLUDING AVERAGE FOR EACH
CLASS AND A GENERAL MEDIAN
(Grades A8-A9)
NORMAL GROUP
Grade level
Number of
pupils
Citizenship
average of
boys and
girls
Boys
26
1.80
Girls
BO
1.49
Boys
15
1.85
Girls
B4
1.61
Boys
35
1.90
Girls
28
1.54
A8
B9
A9
Totals
138
Citizenship
average of
class
Class
median
1.66
1.70
1.71
1*69
1 *68
84
TABLE XVIII (continued)
CITIZENSHIP STUDY OF PUPILS IN NORMAL AND BROKEN
HOMES GROUPS INCLUDING AVERAGE FOR EACH
CLASS AND A GENERAL MEDIAN
(Grades A8-A9)
BROKEN HOMES GROUP
Grade :
level
Number of
pupils
Citizenship
average of
boys and
girls
Boys
15
2.04
Girls
8
1.68
Boys
5
1.87
Girls
4
1.52
Boys
14
1.89
Girls
12
1.52
A8
B9
A9
Totals
Citizenship
average of
class
Class
median
1.92
1.71
58
1.72
1.77
1.78
1.77
Number of
pupils
Class
average
Class
median
138
58
1.69
1.78
1.68
1.77
Totals of
Normal group . . . .
Broken homes group .
NOTE: This table is to be read as follows: In the A8
class of the normal group the boys have a citizenship aver­
age of 1*80,. and the girls have an average of 1.49, thus
making an A8 class citizenship average of 1.66. This is to
be compared with the boys average of 2.04, the girls average
of 1.68 and the class average of 1.92 of the A8 broken homes
group.
85
will be noted between the two groups.
In computing the
average, each interval was divided as is indicated in Table
XIX.
In the three point scale the range was not wide;
therefore, even though only slight differences resulted, they
had certain significance.
The broken homes group median in citizenship is .09
lower than that of the normal homes group.
Peculiarly
enough, the citizenship group average is also .09 points
lower.
It should be kept in mind that the majority of
pupils in any normal school situation would not be the prob­
lem or unsatisfactory type; therefore most of the citizen­
ship grades would be "2".
The broken homes group more near­
ly approaches this mark than does the normal group.
The A9
grade in the broken homes group, which had the highest
scholarship average and intelligence median, ranks second in
citizenship.
In each of the three classes the broken homes
groups are lower in citizenship class average than are the
three corresponding classes in the normal groups.
This dif­
ference varies from .01 in the B9 and A9 classes to .26 in
the A8 classes.
Determining the reliability of the difference between
the means of citizenship marks of normal and broken homes
groups.
Table XX presents the analysis of the data with
reference to the reliability of the difference between the
TABLE XIX
CITIZENSHIP AVERAGES: DISTRIBUTION AND FREQUENCY
(Grades A8, B9, A9)
BROKEN HOMES
N0RMAL HOMES
Grade
averages
••I" to "2*
M2” to *3*
tt3»
Totals
Numerical
equivalents
Number of pupils in
each average
A8
B9
A9
1.00-1.25
1.26-1.49
1.50-1.75
1.76-1.99
8
8
7
12
10
5
6
5
6
10
17
7
2.00-2.25
2.26-2.49
2.50-2.75
2.76-2.99
8
3
0
0
9
3
1
0
3.00-
0
46
Total
Number of pupils in
each average
Normal
homes
Broken
homes
A8
B9
A9
24
23
30
24
3
0
7
3
2
0
3
2
6
I
6
7
11
1
16
12
101
40
8
3
2
0
25
9
3
0
5
2
2
1
1
1
0
0
3
2
1
0
9
5
3
1
37
18
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
39
53
138
23
9
26
58
138
58
.
Total
Totals
NOTE: This table is to read as follows: In the "1" to "2" interval in citizen
ship there are eight normal homes pupils and three broken homes pupils in the first
quarter interval 1.00-1.25* In the total group there are 101 normal homes pupils and
forty broken homes pupils with grades ranging ”1" to tf2n .
oo
Qi
Q?
TABLE XX
DETERMINATION OF THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCE
BETWEEN THE MEAN CITIZENSHIP RATINGS FOR
NORMAL AND BROKEN HOMES GROUPS
O b
0
= .45
M B
=
1.78
N B =
- .40
M N
=T
1.69
N N = 138
^5
=
Cl M
^
B
^®
/■Y^ B
-
*45 =
r~ ~~
V 58
(Jdiff = V U M B 2
1/.0035
.07
c. R.
t l)M jj »
f
.0012
.059 Standard error
of the mean.
broken homes
group
7.61
n m ~~ (j~N
.40 _
.40
“
-- " ---- ~ -------V W N
v 138
11.74
_
“
= j/(06)2
= \j .0047
58
.034 Standard error
of the mean,
normal homes
group
^ (,03) 2
=
Standard error of difference between the means
Piff
=
M B - M y
(Miff
Q diff
=
=
1.78 - 1.69
‘O’7
1.30 Critical Ratio
=
.09
-O’7
88
mean citizenship marks of the two groups*
The difference
between the standard deviations, .05, indicates slight vari­
ability in the broken homes group.
The difference between
the means of the two groups is .09 in favor of pupils from
the broken homes.
The next problem was to determine if the
difference was a reliable one, or what was the probable di­
vergence of this difference from the true difference between
the citizenship marks of pupils from normal and from broken
homes?
The standard error of the mean for the broken homes
group is .059, and for the normal homes group it is .034.
The critical ratio for this difference is 1.30, which indi­
cates a negligible difference, since the chances are only
90 in 100 that the difference is greater than fcero.
SUMMARY
This chapter compared scholarship and citizenship
through the use of averages and medians obtained from teach­
ers f marks.
General intelligence scores based on the Otis
and in a few cases the Terman Group tests were obtained from
the counselor.
The statistical significance of the differ­
ences between the means was determined.
1.
On the whole there was little real difference be­
tween the two groups in scholarship, citizenship, and intel­
ligence.
However, there was a difference in each factor
measured, the significance of which was determined by fur­
89
ther statistical calculations,
-auh
(J'Ddiff
.
In everything the
broken homes group was the lower of the two.
The degrees of
difference were:
a.
Intelligence. With the exception of the B7 normal
homes group and the B9 broken homes group the class medians
were above 100.0.
In the normal homes groups the lowest median was 99.7
in the B7 grade, and the highest was 113.0 for the A7 grade.
In the broken homes group the lowest was the B9 median of
98.0 and the highest was 108.0 for the A9 grade.
The median
for the entire broken homes group was 106.5 which was one
point plus over the median of the normal homes group.
In distribution, approximately fifty per cent of both
groups fell in what Terman called the "normal” group.
A
higher percentage of intelligence quotients were above 110
than were below 90.
The intelligence quotient average of 102.93 of the
broken homes group was .60 less than that of the normal
homes group.
Analysis of the data with reference to the reliabili­
ty of the difference between the mean intelligence quotients
of the two groups showed the difference to be negligible.
According to Garrettfs^ table the critical ratio of this
^ Henry E. Garrett, Statistics in Education and Psy­
chology (Hew York: Longmans, Green and Company, 1937), p. 470.
90
difference, which was .40, indicated that the chances were
only 65 in 100 that the difference was greater than zero.
It was concluded that in respect to intelligence the two
groups were approximately the same.
b.
Scholarship-achievement* Recalling the letter
interpretations of the numerals explained in Table XVI it
will be noted that the median of the broken homes group,
which was 2.65, more nearly approached the average mark, C,
than did the 2.48, B-, of the normal homes group, thus making
a difference of .17 by which the broken homes pupils were
lower than were those from normal homes.
This had added
significance in view of the fact that the intelligence median
of the broken homes group was 1.3 higher than that of the
normal group.
The scholarship averages showed .14 differ­
ence in favor of the normal homes group, the numbers being
2.44 (®-) Tor the normal groups and 2.58 (C 4 ) ^or bhe
broken homes group*
Analysis of the data with reference to the reliabili­
ty of the difference between the mean scholarship marks of
the two groups showed the difference to be negligible.
2
cording to Garrett’s
Ac-
table the critical ratio of this dif­
ference, which was 1.62, showed that the chances were only
94 in 100 that the difference was greater than zero.
2 Ibid. p. 470.
It was
91
concluded that in respect to scholarship marks the two groups
were approxinately the same.
c*
The citizenship median of the broken homes group
was .09 lower than was the median of the normal homes group.
The average was also .09 lower.
Keeping in mind that the
citizenship marking scale of 1, 2, or 3 limited to a very
narrow range, even a small difference was of some signifi­
cance .
It should be kept in mind that the majority of pupils
in any school are not the problem type; therefore they would
not receive 3 ’s in citizenship.
The group most nearly ap­
proaching the 1 mark would have the best citizenship.
In
each of the three grades the broken homes groups were lower
in citizenship class average than the three corresponding
classes in the normal homes groups.
The difference varied
from .01 in the B9 and A9 grades to .26 in the A8 grade.
Analysis of the data with reference to the reliabili­
ty of the difference between the mean citizenship marks of
the two* groups showed the difference to be negligible.
Ac-
cording to Garrett’s table the critical ratio of this dif­
ference, which was 1.030, showed that the chances were only
90 in 100 that the difference was greater than zero.
concluded that in respect to citizenship marks the two
groups were approximately the same.
3
Garrett, loc. cit.
It was
CHAPTER VTI
SUMMARY,
CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The purpose of this study was to consider several in
school and out of school activities for a group of junior
high school pupils, and to discover what differences there
were, if any, between a group of children from broken homes
and a group of children from normal, or unbroken homes.
Purpose. Authorities on juvenile delinquency stated
that the broken home had an important bearing on the youth
who became involved in trouble.
In view of this fact it
was reasonable to suppose that any period of home adjustment
would also affect the nondelinquent.
If such was the case,
the school needed more information concerning the effects
of the broken home in order that it could give intelligent
help to counterbalance some of the maladjustments caused by
the broken home situation.
Definitions. A broken home was defined as one in
which the influence of one or both parents was missing as a
result of the death of either one or both of the parents, or
of the separation, divorce, or desertion of the parents.
A normal or unbroken home was defined as a home where both
natural parents were alive, and living together with their
children.
93
Procedure and data*
The two groups were selected by
means of a questionnaire given to 373 pupils of Anderson W.
Olark Junior High School, La Crescenta, California.
The
total of 103 pupils found living in broken homes constituted
the broken homes group for this investigation.
ing £70 were the normal group for the study.
The remain­
With the ex­
ception of intelligence quotients and teachers’ marks, Which
were used for scholarship and citizenship comparisons, re­
plies from the questionnaire supplied necessary data.
The
remaining data came from permanent record cards in the coun­
selor’s office.
Tables, averages, and medians were the means
by which the broken homes group was studied and compared
with the normal homes group.
For scholarship marks, citizenship marks, and in­
telligence quotients the differences between the means were
computed in order to determine the significance of such
differences.
Related literature. No similar study was discovered
in the library files.
There were many investigations of the
broken home in relation to delinquency; but the children in
this study were not so-called problems, delinquents, or de­
pendents as defined by juvenile courts.
The present study differed from two other studies,
which approached in certain lines the problem with nondelin­
94
quent children*
.Ambler*s study included only school prog­
ress in scholarship, citizenship, and intelligence while the
present study concerned itself with several other items also.
Wallenstein*s study concerned itself only with character and
personality traits*
Most authorities in summing up the influence of the
broken home indicated that it was a significant factor; how­
ever, they did not lay delinquency at the door of any one
agency*
Effective treatment of the problem must cover the
whole field of school, home, and society.
Obtaining scholarship and citizenship averages*
Teachers* marks were taken from the counselor’s record
cards.
The following subjects were used: English, social
studies, science, mathematics, foreign language, art, music,
typing, shop, and home economics*
The number of grades in­
cluded in the average was based on the number of semesters
the pupil had been in junior high school.
The grades were
tabulated on the second sheet of the questionnaire, each one
being counted separately.
The letter values were converted
into numerical grades thus: value of one equalled A; two, B:
three, C; four, D; and five, F or failure*
The number of
marks was multiplied by the numerical equivalent, added and
attached to the individual’s questionnaire*
Citizenship marks were already in numerals 1, 2, and
95
3f
These were added and the total was placed on the ques­
tionnaire*
The number of marks involved was placed as the
divisor in computing the average*
Averages -for each individual, then for each class,
and finally for each of the two groups were computed.
A
comparison was made between medians. .. This was done for
scholarship, citizenship, and intelligence*
Comparisons of school records in intelligence,
scholarship and citizenship included analysis of data with
reference to the reliability of the difference between the
T)
means of the two groups — ■■— --- • The standard deviation
(/Biff
for each group was determined. The standard error of the
mean, the standard error of the difference between the
means, and the critical ratio were computed.
The critical
ratio must be three (3) or more to show a statistically re­
liable difference.
The nearer the result approached zero
the more alike the two groups appeared to be.
Number and percentage of broken homes.
Twenty-eight
per cent of the 373 pupils were living in some type of
broken home.
There were 103 pupils in broken homes and 270
in normal homes.
The largest percentage for one grade was
found in the A8 class which had thirty-six
in broken homes.
per cent living
The A9 class ran a close second with
thirty-four per cent.
96
Types of broken homes. Six types of broken homes
were found to cover the cases involved*
They were; pupils
living with mother only/living with father only, with step­
father and mother, with stepmother and father, with rela­
tives, and with others.
Almost one-third of the group or
thirty-four per cent lived with the mother only.
Pupils
living with stepfather and mother ranked second in size.
Those living with the father were the smallest in number
being only six per cent of the group.
Causes of the broken homes.
The two main causes of
broken homes were separation of parents and death of the
father.
Fifty-nine homes or fifty-seven per cent of the
total were broken by separation, divorce, or desertion;
thirty homes were broken by death of the father, which was
twenty-nine per cent of the total.
Employment of parents.
Ninety-one per cent of fathers
in the normal groups as compared with sixty per cent in the
broken homes groups had full or part time employment.
Ap­
proximately thirty per cent fewer in the broken homes groups
were employed.
Thirty-five per cent of mothers in the broken homes
group worked full or part time as compared with twenty per
cent employed mothers in normal homes.
There was fourteen
per cent more working full time mothers in the broken homes
97
group.
Seventy-eight per cent mothers in normal homes as
compared with fifty-eight per cent in broken homes devoted
full time to the home as housewives.
Types of occupations of fathers.
Types of occupations
were classified as (1) professional; (8) public service; (5)
commercial; and (4) trades, unskilled labor, or industrial.
In the school surveyed occupations fell primarily in the
latter group.
Of the 353 pupils that reported concerning
fathers employment 146 or fifty-eight per cent were in the
trades, unskilled labor, or industrial occupations.
The
professional group ranked third with ten per cent; however,
there were eight per cent more fathers in the broken homes
groups engaged in professions.
Salesman was the largest
single occupation in any classification.
Pupils* plans for completing high school.
The com­
parison between the two groups was approximately the same,
and in both cases practically all of the pupils intended to
graduate from high school, namely ninety-nine per cent in
broken homes and ninety-eight per cent in normal homes.
Pupils* plans following high school. About one in
five pupils in both groups wanted to go to work immediately.
More of the normal group intended to go to college, approxi­
mately one-half of them as compared with little more than
98
one-third of the broken homes group*
Eight per cent more in
the broken homes group indicated a desire to attend trade or
vocational school*
Pupils working for pay. A larger number of pupils
were employed for pay in the broken homes group.
The ma­
jority had occupations outside the home which might have
indicated an economic necessity for them to work.
per cent more worked in the broken homes group.
Fourteen
Twelve per
cent of the normal group who were employed worked both in
the home and outside, while only two per cent of the broken
homes group did this.
Membership in school and community organizations.
Three per cent fewer pupils in the broken homes group indi­
cated interest in the eleven organizations as measured by
memberships.
The Sunday School was the largest single
organization, especially in the broken homes group where
seventy-four per cent listed attendance.
This might have
indicated that less interesting activities were planned in
the home or that money was more scarce for other types of
recreation.
Hobbies and chief interests.
Sixteen per cent fewer
pupils in the broken homes group had a chief interest or
hobby.
In both groups the A 9 fs had the highest percentage
interested in hobbies.
In the hobby of collecting, stamp
collecting ranked first with both the boys and girls.
Boys
expressed chief interests in sports, model airplanes, and
making things.
The girls liked to play and to read*
Twenty-
seven per cent of the normal homes group and forty-three per
.cent of the broken homes group had no hobby.
Intelligence.
age in intelligence.
The groups as a whole were above aver­
With the exception of the B7 normal
group and the B9 broken homes group, the class medians were
above 100.
The normal group had more range in medians, the
lowest being 99.7 for the B7 grade and the highest 112 for
the A7 grade.
In the broken homes group the lowest median
was 98 for the B9 grade and the highest was 108 for the A9
grade.
The median for the entire broken homes group was
106.5 which was one point plus over the 105.8 median of the
normal homes group.
Fifty per cent of the intelligence scores fell in
what Terman called the normal group.
A higher percentage of
quotients were above 110 than were below 90.
none in either group above 140 I. Q.
There were
The grade averages in
intelligence showed little difference, 103 (102.93) in
broken homes groups and 104 (103.53) in normal homes groups.
Determining the reliability of the difference between
the mean intelligence quotients of the two groups,
D
.
(JDift
indicated that the difference was negligible.
The critical
ratio for this difference, .40, showed that the chances were
only 65 in 100 that the difference was greater than zero.
It was concluded then, that the groups were approximately
equal in intelligence*
Scholarshiu-achievement study.
There was a differ­
ence of .17 favoring pupils in normal homes groups in schol­
ar ship-achievement median.
The median of the broken homes
group, 2.65, more nearly approached the wCn or average mark
than did the 2.48 of the normal group.
to a f,B- ."
This was equivalent
This had added significance in view of the fact
that the broken homes group had an intelligence median 1.3
higher than the normal group.
The scholarship averages
showed .14 difference in favor of the normal group, the num­
bers being 2.44 (B-) for the normal group and 2.58 (C 4 )
for the broken homes group.
The reliability of the difference between the mean
scholarship marks of the two groups showed the difference to
be negligible, since the critical ratio for this difference
was 1.62, which indicated that the chances were only 94 in
100 that the difference was greater than zero.
It was con­
cluded that the groups were approximately equal in scholar­
ship.
101
Citizenship-frehavior study#
The group which most
neariy approached the 1 mark had the best citizenship.
The
broken homes group median of 1.77 was .09 lower in citizen­
ship than the 1.68 of the normal homes group.
showed the same difference, .09.
The average
The broken homes group
averaged 1.78 and the normal homes group 1.69.
Keeping in
mind that the marking scale of 1, 2, and 3 limited to a
narrow range, the small differences had some significance in
the general average.
In each of the three classes the broken homes group
was lower in citizenship average than the normal homes group.
In the A8 grade the difference was .26 and in the B9 and A9
classes .01.
The reliability of the difference between the mean
citizenship marks of the two groups showed the difference to
be negligible, since the critical ratio for this difference
was 1.30, Which indicated that the chances were only 90 in
100 that the difference was greater than zero.
It was con­
cluded then, that the two groups were approximately the same.
CONCLUSIONS
While there existed varying differences in the items
compared in this study, in all of which the normal group was
higher, these differences were relatively slight.
Percentages,
averages, medians, and the reliability of the difference be-
102
tween the means were used for purposes of comparison*
In determining the reliability of difference between
the means in intelligence, scholarship, and citizenship, the
critical ratio at no point approached three or more; there­
fore the differences were not statistically significant.
It
was assumed that the two groups were approximately the same
in their school records.
The school should make more efforts to counterbalance
the maladjustments which the character and personality of
the broken homes children may suffer as a result of their
experiences.
It was not possible to attempt any measurement
of these traits in the present investigation, but they may
be the ones which are most affected.
That many of the chil­
dren from the broken homes were very sentitive about the
situation was observed by the investigator in conversation
with the pupils individually.
Memberships in school and community organizations
should be encouraged since on the whole these are well
supervised.
There was a large percentage of both groups
that did not belong to any such organizations.
The school should form interest or hobby clubs in an
effort to encourage more pupils to enter into worthwhile
leisure time activities.
In a small community such as the
one in which the Anderson W. Clark High School is located,
there were very few recreational activities offered; there­
103
fore the student not happily occupied in his own interests
would he found on the streets.
This investigation seemed to indicate that for the
nondelinquent child the broken home was not such a detri­
mental factor as it was sometimes stated to he.
That other
influences such as employment of parents with resulting lack
of supervision, lack of harmony in the home, lack of moral
training and indifference to the childfs general welfare,
criticism of the school and teachers, and numbers of other,
factors which could be found in both normal and broken homes
were as significant in causing maladjustments, lack of prog­
ress in school, and poor school behavior, was the opinion of
the investigator.
RECOMvIENDATIONS
Some of the recommendations were included in the
conclusions.
It would be valuable to compare other normal
child activities to discover if differences existed between
the two groups.
Acceleration and retardation charts com­
paring the groups would be interesting.
In California where there is much moving about and
many transients^certain school problems would be explained
by awareness of the motility of the two groups; how many
different schools have the broken homes group attended and
in how many states as compared with the normal homes group?
104
How many and what percentage of the groups present
definite scholarship and behavior problems could be deter­
mined from a survey of the individual pupils f folders and
his cumulative record.
Additional names could be submitted
by teachers and administrators.
Case studies of these to
determine just what part was played by the broken home would
be valuable and would throw more difinite light on the prob­
lems which the broken home presents for the nondelinquent
child*
BIBLIOGRAPHY
106
A*
BOOKS
Blanchard, Phyllis, The Child and Society, New York: Long­
mans, Green and Company, 1928, 369 pp.
Stresses the place of the family in the socializing
process of the child; discusses proper care and training
of children; and stresses love on part of both parents
for well-balanced emotional development.
Breckenridge, S. P., Delinquent Child and the Home. New
York: William Pell Company, 1912. 355 pp.
In collaboration with Edith Abbott. It is a study of
the delinquent child and the home based on records of
the Juvenile Court of Cook County, Chicago, Illinois.
The records covered a period of ten years from 1899 to
1909, when the Juvenile Court first came into existence
in that county.
Burt, Cyril, The Young Delinquent, New York: B. Appleton
and Company, 1925. 619 pp.
A helpful book for teachers or those who work with young
people. Offers case studies and discusses causes of de­
linquency, remedial and preventive procedures, and a
constructive program for curbing delinquency.
Cabot, Frederick P., Delinquent Child (Chairman White House
Conference on Child Health and Protection.)
New York:
The Century Company, 1932. 499 pp.
Discusses the delinquent child in relation to himself,
to industry, to the church, to the community, to the
state and the municipality; contains valuable information
for all who handle children or young people, presenting
same in a careful and unbiased manner.
Cox, Philip W. L., Guidance and the Classroom Teacher.
New York: Prentice-Hall Incorporated, 1938. 535 pp.
Comprehensive discussion of some of the newer phases of
the guidance program, stressing the part of the class­
room teacher. Helpful guide for the teacher who wants
knowledge of procedures or for the administrator who
desires to set up such activities.
107
Garrett, Henry E., Statistics in Education and Psychology,
New York: Longmans, Green and Company, 1937. 493 p|l.
An excellent reference hook for statistics relating to
educational measurements.
Terman, Lewis M . f The Measurement of Intelligence.
Houghton Mifflin Company, 1916. 362 pp.
Boston:
One of the earliest and most thorough discussions of
intelligence testing in which Terman dwells particular­
ly upon his own work,
Thrasher, Frederick M., The Gang.
Chicago Press, 1926. 571 pp.
Chicago: University of
An interesting discussion of the youth problem, based on
a study of 1,313 gangs in Chicago* Suggests a preven­
tive and remedial program which could be carried on by
school, church, and community.
Van Waters, Miriam, Youth in Conflict. New York: Republic
Publishing Company, 1926. 372 pp.
Juvenile Court records and analyzed by the author to
show the conflicts of youth with the home, school, and
community. The adjustment of delinquency is discussed
in the second part of the book.
Wallenstein, Nehemiah, Character and Personality of Children
From Broken Homes* New York: Bureau of Publications,
#721, Columbia University, 1937. 86 pp.
Carefully executed study of the effect of the broken
home upon school children of grades 5B to 8B actually
in attendance, as compared with control groups from
normal homes. A wide variety of traits were measured.
A set of gross comparisons and a set of matched compari­
sons were made for each trait.
B.
PERIODICAL ARTICLES
Brown, E. Francis, "The Unemployment Crisis," Current
History. 36:411-16, July, 1932.
Emphasized social consequence in breaking down of
general morale for those unemployed or on relief.
io a
Shaw, Clifford, and H. D, McKay, "Are Broken Homes a Causa­
tive Factor in Juvenile Delinquency?" Social Forces,
10:514-524, 1932.
Comparison of records of two groups of delinquent boys
with records of group of boys in attendance at public
schools for incidence of broken homes. Although differ­
ences found were not large they point to the fact that
the broken home is a factor in delinquency.
C . UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS
Ambler, Samuel C., "The Relationship Between Broken Homes
and School Progress as Indicated by School Records."
Unpublished Masterfs thesis, The University of Southern
California, Los Angeles, 1931. 83 pp.
School records of one hundred 9th grade pupils from
broken homes. Ambler found little difference between
the two groups in scholarship, cooperation, or effort.
Gruner, Raymond, "Home and School Problems of Seventh and
Eighth Grade Pupils." Unpublished Master’s thesis, The
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1933.
185 pp.
Studies many features of home and school lives of
seventh and eighth grade pupils including home con­
ditions, leisure, extra-curricular activities, and
classroom problems.
Perry, H. M., "A Study of Factors Contributing to the
Behavior of Boys Committed to Los Angeles Welfare
Centers, 1930-1934." Unpublished Master’s thesis,
The University of Southern California, Los Angeles,
1938. 105 pp.
Approaches study of several thousand boys from be­
havior angle and analyzes behavior traits of the boy
who has gotten into trouble. In regard to the broken
home Perry states that he found only about fifty per
cent of the group came from broken homes.
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