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History of the organization of the adult education department of the Long Beach City Schools

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HISTORY OP THE ORGANIZATION OP THE ADTJLT EDUCATION
DEPARTMENT OP THE LONG BEACH CITY SCHOOLS
A Thesis
Presented to
the Facility of the School of Education
The University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Science in Education
by
Kathryn Dunkle Sylvester
June 1940
UMI Number: EP53940
All rights reserved
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In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript
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a note will indicate the deletion.
Dissertation Publishing
UMI EP53940
Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author.
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unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code
ProQuest LLC.
789 East Eisenhower Parkway
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io
8b
T h is thesis, w r it t e n u n d e r the d ir e c t io n o f t h e ^ ^ Q
C h a ir m a n o f the c a n d id a te ’s G u id a n c e C o m m i t ­
tee a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l m em bers o f the C o m ­
m itte e , has been p re s e n te d to a n d accep ted by
the F a c u lt y o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a t io n in p a r t i a l
f u l f i l l m e n t o f the re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f
M a s t e r o f Science in E d u c a tio n .
.......
D a te
D ean
Guidance Com m ittee
IrY.iRg..R„..MeIbQ.....
C hairm an
..Hull..........
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I*
PAGE
THE PROBLEM
Statement of the problem
♦ • .
• • • • . . . • • « •
Justification of the problem
2
Method of procedure and sources of data • • • •
2
Review of previous related studies
• • • • # «
3
• • • • • • • •
6
BEGINNINGS OF EVENING HIGH SCHOOLS AND SPECIAL
DAY ADULT CLASSES • • • « . « « * •
..........
8
Development of evening high schools • • • * . *
9
Development of special day adult classes
III*
1
• « « • • • • • •
The organization of the thesis
II.
1
• • •
17
Development of summer schools « . • • • * • • •
22
Summary • • • • • • * • • • * • • « • • • • • •
25
THE HOUSING OF ADULT CLASSES
Locations for evening high
. . * ............
27
schools
28
The use of centers for special day adult
classes
m
31
The use of other locations for adult classes
*
Summary • • • • . • • « • • • • • • • • • * • •
IV.
GROWTH OF THE STAFF . • . * « • « • • • • * . *
Administrators and supervisors
39
49
'•
51
« • • • * . • •
53
The certificated personnel
• « . * # • • • * ♦
64
Non-certiflcated personnel
• • • . « • • • • •
71
Summary
•
79
ill
CHAPTER
V.
PAGE
RELATIONS WITH COOPERATINGAGENCIES . . . # # ♦
*
78
Use of federal funds in the adult education
program 1 # « « • • « • • • • • « • « « • *
Forms of State cooperation
• # « • « • • • • •
Cooperation of community organizations
VI.
VII.
•
# # • •
79
87
91
Summary • « • • • • • • « • « • • • « # • • # •
104
FINANCING TEE PROGRAM • • • * • # • # * # . • • •
106
Federal funds • • • • • • • • • • • • # • • • .
106
State and county funds
111
• • # • « * • « # # • .
State enrollment and average daily attendance #
116
Income from local sources • # . • • • • « • • •
119
Expenditures of the Adult Education Department#
124
Summary • • « • # • • • • • • • # • « • • * « •
127
SUMMARY ANDRECOMMENDATIONS
BIBLIOGRAPHY. •
..............
130
135
LIST OP TABLES
TABLE
PA GE
I* Types of positions and numbers of persons
employed In the Adult Education Department,
each year, 1914-1939 • . . . • • • « • • • • •
II.
65
Total salaries of clerical workers paid by
funds from the National Youth Administration
and the Federal Forum Project
III.
• • • • • • • «
82
Number of forum-discussion classes held, total
attendance in each, number and per cent of
students actively participating, first tri­
mester, 1938-1939
IV.
88
State employees attending adult classes,
1936-1937
V.
•
. . . . . . . . . .
Percentage of annual Income from Federal, State,
County and local sources, 1931-1939
VI.
• • • • •
107
Total Adult Department income and expenditures,
annually, 1914-1939
VII.
90
. . . . . .
..........
.
108
Population of Long Beach, state enrollment, and
units of average daily attendance for the Adult
Department classes, 1914-1939
VIII.
• • • • • . . .
116
Yearly cost per unit of average daily attendance,
Adult Education Department, 1914-1939 « . . .
120
v:
TABLE
IX*
PAGE
Schedule of registration fees for adult students,
1914-1939............ .................... . •
X*
Hates of pay for hourly teachers in the Adult
Education Department, 1918-1939
XI.
122
• • • • • • • *
126
Salary totals of certificated and non-certificated
personnel in the Adult Education Department,
annually, 1914-1939
128
LIST OP FIGURES
FIGURE
1*
PAGE
Years in which each of the evening high schools
was maintained
2.
•
10
Years in which special day adult classes were
attached to junior and senior high schools
3#
20
Locations and movements of the evening high schools
in Long Beach, California, 1914-1939
4*
• • •
. . . . . .
29
Use of adult education centers for each year,
1919-1939, for special day adult classes in the
Long Beach City Schools •• • » • • • • • • • « «
5*
Locations and movements of adult education centers
and offices, 1919-1939
6*
32
. . . • • • • • • • • • »
35
Locations of day school and non-school buildings
used for adult classes during school year 19381939
7*
. ...................... ...
40
Use of non-school buildings for special day and
evening classes for adults in the Long Beach
City Schools
8.
•• • • .
........
• • • • . • • •
41
Use of day school buildings for each year, 1914-1939,
for special day and evening classes for adults in
the Long Beach City Schools • • * . . . « • • • •
9.
45
The administrative organization of the Adult Education
Department and relation of the adult personnel to
other administratorsand supervisors
52
CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM
X.
STATEMENT OP THE PROBLEM
Special classes for adults were Held by the Long
Beach City Schools in 1913-14.
In 1914 the Board of Edu­
cation of the Long Beach City Schools authorized the
establishment of an evening high school.
Special day
adult classes have been continued, community centers
have been opened, and other evening high schools have
been developed as the people of Long Beach have learned
of the program and taken advantage of the farther develop­
ment of educational facilities and offerings to meet their
needs.
It is the purpose of this study to trace the growth
of the organization of the Adult Education Department from
its inception to the present time, exclusive of such fac­
tors as the selection of personnel, in-service teacher
training, growth and development of the curriculum, sched­
uling of classes, supervisorial functions, activities of
guidance, or other features not Included In organization.
This study is concerned with the formation of evening high
schools, special day adult classes, and summer schools;
housing the day and evening classes; organization of the
personnel, certain aspects of Federal, State, and community
2
cooperation; and the financing of the adult education
program*
II.
JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM
During the twenty-five years that adult education
has existed in the Long Beach City Schools, there has
never been a complete study made of its growth#
A record
of the historical development, presenting the essential
facts in such form that they may be available for refer­
ence, has long been needed*
This study, If followed by similar studies in other
cities, might serve to establish trends for future gui­
dance in developing policies and procedures, not only
for the use of the Long Beach Adult Education Department,
but for other school systems who are now beginning a
program of adult education, or who may develop such pro­
grams in the future.
Obviously, this one study cannot
cover the entire field of Adult Education in Long Beach,
but it can provide needed data pertinent to the history
of the whole department*
III.
METHOD OF PROCEDURE AND SOURCES OF DATA
The procedure followed in making this study was to
examine literature from Federal, State, or local sources
which might contain material relating to the problem.
3
Sources Included the Federal laws for vocational education,
the California School Laws, Rules and Regulations of the
State Board of Education, local administrative rules and
regulations, and reports and correspondence of the Direc­
tor of Adult Schools, principals of evening high schools,
supervisors of adult classes, and teachers of adults*
Administrative records and reports on file in the Long
Beach City Schools, including cost Income studies and
attendance records, were examined.
Newspaper files and
courses of study also were a source of information*
Inter­
views with the Director of Adult Schools, principals,
teachers, and clerks who were informed on the development
of adult education in Long Beach provided additional data*
IV.
REVIEW OF PREVIOUS RELATED STUDIES
There has been very little written on the organi­
zation of adult education*
There have been, however, some
books and theses on the general field of administration
and organization of adult schools*
Elmer G* Jones in his Thesis "Administration of
Adult Education"-** discussed the various agencies of adult
education outside the public schools, the fields of adult
^Elmer (Jlifton Jones, Administration of Adult
Education, (unpublished Master* s thesis, The University
of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1928), pp* 211*
4
education in the schools, and the administrative problems
encountered in an adult education department#
Lyman Bryson in ffA State Flan for Adult Education”2
surveyed the various forms of adult education in California
and recommended a state offiee of adult education#
Prank M. Debat in in the "Administration of Adult
Education113 told of the staff, financing the program and
other material factors, the part the adult plays in the
plan of adult education, and other groups and organizations
offering adult education opportunities#
The "Organization and Administration of a Community
Program in Adult Education”4 by Thomas Pansier presents
the various problems in the organization and administration
of an adult education program.
Mr. Pansier believed that
the needs of the community should determine which subjects
should be offered to adults#
^Lyman Bryson, ‘A State Plan for Adult Education
(Hew York: J* J. Little* and Ives Company, 1934), pp. 69.
3
Prank M. Debatin, Administration of Adult Educa­
tion, (Hew York, etc.: American Book Company, 1938),
pp. 486.
4Thomas Pansier, Organization and Admlnistration of
a Community Program in Adult Education '(The 'Mew York "s'fcaW
Emergency Education ][cTult Education Program♦ Series 1,
Bulletin Ho. 1), Albany, Hew York: State Education Depart­
ment, 1936), pp. 26.
5
Frederick L* Fagley in "A Little Handbook on Adult
Education”** discussed the principles of adult education
and the organization of the program#
A survey of the evening schools in the United States
is presented in "Public Evening Schools for Adults" by
a
Lewis Alderman*
His attention was centered about the
organization and administration of the schools*
A history of adult education in Pennsylvania is
presented In "Organization and Administration of Extension
Centers, Schools, and Classes"*? by A# W. Castle#
He also
discussed the administrative problems of adult schools#
J# Keith Torbet in "The Establishment of an Adult
School"8 gives a history of the development of the Maple­
wood, New Jersey, adult school#
Organization, cooperation
of the community, financing, and administration are dis­
cussed#
8Fagley, Frederick L, A Little Handbook on Adult
Education (Boston: The Pilgrim Press,' 1955}, pp# 32.
®Alderman, Lewis Raymond, Public Evening Schools
for Adults (Washington: Government Printing ofrifce, bureau
of feducatTon, Bulletin Number 21, 1927), pp# 72#
*?A# W# Castle, Organization and Adminlstration of
Extension Centers, Schools, and grasses (Harrisburg,
Pennsylvania; Department of Public Instruction, June, 1935,
Bulletin Number 78), pp* 46#
Q
J. Keith Torbet, The Establishment of an Adult
School (New York; The MacMillan Company, l93!>), pp# 218*
These studies present descriptions of adult educa­
tion programs in other sections of the country, or in the
United States as a whole*
The organization of the Adult
Education Department in the Long Beach City Schools differs
from that of other cities*
Studies of several different
systems of adult education must he made before definite
conclusions can he drawn as to most effective hasis for
the organization of classes for adult students*
V*
THE ORGANIZATION OP THE THESIS
In tracing the development of the organization of
the Adult Education Department of the Long Beach City
Schools, this study is presented under various chapter
headings indicating various fields of the subject*
The
development of the evening high schools and special day
adult classes are discussed in Chapter II*
of the program is described In Chapter III*
The housing
This section
includes the locations of the evening high schools, day
adult schools, and the use of other buildings for class­
rooms during the twenty-five year period*
Chapter IV, the 11Growth of the Staff," describes
the addition of administrators and supervisors, teachers,
and non-certificated personnel*
"Relations with Cooperat­
ing Agencies" is described in Chapter VI*
The organiza- .
tions which affected the growth of the Adult Education
7
Department In Long Beach are the Federal Government, the
State of California, and miscellaneous local groups*
Chapter VII covers the financing of the program of adult
education in Long Beach*
This includes income from Fede­
ral, State and local sources, expenditures of the depart­
ment, and data on average daily attendance, enrollment,
and cost per unit of average daily attendance*
The final chapter summarizes the study and Includes
recommendations for the future program of adult education
as a result of the study of past practices*
CHAPTER II
BEGINNINGS GP EVENING HIGH SCHOOLS
AND SPECIAL DAY ADULT CLASSES
The year, 1913, marks two events in the history
of the Long Beach City Schools•
It was at this time that
William Logan Stephens became Superintendent of Schools
and Adult Education was started as a part of the Long Beach
City Schools*
The program this year was not organized
In a separate department, but was called "special day and
evening classes for adults*"■*•
According to the School Code of California evening
high schools were allowed:
The public school system shall include day and
evening elementary schools, and such day and evening
secondary schools, normal schools, and technical schools
as may be established by the legislature, or by muni­
cipal or district authority • • *2
Superintendent Stephens saw the benefits to be
derived from an organized evening high school and intro­
duced the Idea to the Board of Education*
Being a far­
sighted man, Superintendent Stephens was strongly in favor
of offering any subject which the people of the community
•^News Item in The Educator, September 13, 1937. p. 1.
^School Law of California (Office of Superintendent
of Public Instruction, Edward Hyatt, Superintendent• Sacra­
mento: Department of State Printing, 1913*
might desire, rather than restricting the curriculum to
seme specified field or fields of study*
However, the
Board of Education did not believe that the public would
be interested in a school for adults#
Further, they said
if classes were started, there should be only a few aca­
demic and some vocational subjects*^
They were not in
favor of expending much money*
I*
DEVELOPMENT OF EVENING HIGH SCHOOLS
After much discussion, the Board of Education
established the Long Beach Evening High School for the
school year of 1914-15 with the conception of public
school service to the community*^
For the first two
years this school was in session for only six months*
It was not until 1916-17 that a full nine months of
school was held*
Figure 1 presents graphically the
years in which the Long Beach and other evening high
schools were maintained.
A second evening high school was organized in
1917-18*
This Temple Evening High School was housed at
the Temple Elementary School for a six month period*
The evening school was discontinued after one year*
3tjnpublIshed document* Private files of Elmer G*
Jones, Director of Adult Schools* Long Beach, California
4Ibid.
Evening High. School
m <D 0-00 0 H CM KN^tin 0-30 ON O rH CM KN-sfrliNO fr-30ON
HH
CM CM CM CM CM CM
CM KN]t
cNK\ KNKN KN KNK\
I I I I
1III I
II
I II
OX) ONP H NNif-MN C^-30
D—COIONO H CM
MN
H
H CM CM CM
OJ CM CM KN KN KNKN KN KN KN
ON ONON
ON On ONION 0N|ON O n C N O N On
On
O N ON On O n ON
rH
•H rH p j H i
rH H H rH rH
-4
rH
rH 3 H
iHH
Long Be&eh
Temple
Fremont
^-Washington - Polytechnic
Practical Arts
Trade Extension
^Washington Evening High School was changed to Polytechnic Evening High
School, July 1, 1938.
FIGURE I
YEARS IH WHICH EACH OF THE EVENING HIGH SCHOOLS WAS MAINTAINED
LEGENDS
Hi
- Year in which evening high school was maintained*
In 1918 the Fremont Evening High School was opened at
Fremont Elementary School*
Classes were held here the
first year for four months and in 1918-19 for nine months*
That adult school was closed at the end of the second
year*
In January, 1920, Walter R* Hepner, Principal of
the Long Beach Evening High School said that the function
of the evening school was to meet the needs of:
1* Those who have not mastered the rudiments of
modern education among whom are:
a* Some who have heen denied education because
of economic conditions#
b* Some who have left school prematurely for
other reasons*
c* Some foreigners who are unable to use our
language*
2* Those people in shops and factories who have
no opportunity to advance In their place of employ­
ment*
3* Those without trades who desire to learn one*
4. Those who desire further training or special­
ization along their particular line*
5* Those whom we desire to Americanize*
6* Those who desire to reduce the cost of living*
7* Those who wish to combine pleasure and profit*
8* Those who desire to study for cultural purposes*
9* Those needing credit for entrance to college*
10* Those parents who are making an effort to kj?ep in
close touch with the interests of their children* ^
^Letter of Walter R* He pner to Superintendent
Stephens, January 19, 1920* Jones* papers*
12
In the fall of 1923, the school district on Catalina
Island became a part of the Long Beach City School District*
In 1924 classes for adults were opened in Avalon as “spe­
cial day and evening classes for adults” attached to
Avalon High School*
organized.
No separate evening high school was
A few classes have continued in Avalon through­
out the remaining period studied, the only change in
organization being made in September, 1932, when the
evening classes were attached
to the Long Beach Evening
High School, the day classes remaining attached to the
Avalon High School for purposes of state reimbursement*
In 1923-4 a survey was made to determine whether
it would be advisable to start an adult school in the
eastern section of Long Beach*
Posters were placed In
store windows and 1200 letters were sent to the parents
of the Jefferson Junior High School students.
Only twenty
answers were secured, so efforts to establish an “East
Side School” were abandoned.
High School diplomas were first granted from the
Long Beach Evening High School in 1924, there being seven­
teen graduates that year.®
In 1929-30 the Long Beach Junior College opened
classes In the evening to care for the overflow from their
®$ews K e m in The Educatort September 13, 1937#
13
day classes and for the benefit of any adults who might
care to take advantage of the opportunities offered#
In
1930-31 all adult students who desired high school credit
were sent to the Junior College where they took the work
offered by the ttJunior College Evening Credit Courses.n
Prom the data in Figure 1 it can be seen that in
September, 1932, three new evening high schools were organs
ized.
Each of the evening schools was assigned subject
fields distinct from those of the other schools.
The Long
Beach Evening High School offered general high school sub­
jects, cultural arts, arts and crafts, health and physical
education.
The Evening High School of Practical Arts
offered classes in business and commercial subjects.
The
Trade Extension Evening High School was Intended primarily
for students of agriculture and trades and industries.
The George Washington Evening High School included the
classes in the socio-civie subjects, naturalization, homemaking, parent education, family relations, immigrant edu­
cation, and elementary education.
During 1932-33 and 1933-34,
eighth grade diplomas were granted from the latter school.
In January, 1938, the George Washington Evening High
School was moved to Polytechnic High School.
Teachers and
principals reported that confusion existed in the minds ©f
the public when they were sent to Polytechnic High School
for classes listed under the George Washington Evening High
14
School*
Thus, the name of the school was changed on July 1,
1938, to the Polytechnic Evening High School*
Beginning with the school year of 1938-39 the Poly­
technic Evening High School became accredited by the Uni­
versity of California*
This has been the only accredited
evening high school in the Long Beach City School District*
The other three evening schools have remained as
they were originally set up.
They granted diplomas to
students upon the completion of the necessary units of
work.
Their purposes were to serve immediate and local
needs, rather than to prepare students for higher insti­
tutions of learning.
Certain rules have been established by the State
Department of Education in respect to evening high schools*
In 1937 these regulations were described in terms of all
evening high schools, graded, and ungraded schools:
The evening high school must be established as a
separate administrative unit by a resolution of the
governing board of the school district.6
An evening high school which is graded must meet
certain other requirements.
Classes must be conducted
for at least two hours per night, four nights per week,
not less than eight school months, or less than 128 school
days.
An average daily attendance of forty units must be
^Handbook on Adult Education (State of California,
Department of Education, Bulletin l?o. 20, October 15, 1937).
maintained.
High school credit and high school diplomas
must be granted.
Classes must be maintained for all
grades, from the ninth to the twelfth, and allowance
may be made by the principal in grading the student for
his working experience and training#
A graded evening high school may also maintain
ungraded classes. Special day and evening classes
may be maintained under the administration of any
graded or ungraded evening high school# Special
evening classes may not be attached to a day high
school if there is an evening high school in the
same plant#”
All courses must be approved by the Division
of Adult and Continuation Education of the State Department
of Education, and apportionments may not be made until the
establishment of the school and the courses offered have
been approved.
Courses must meet the needs ©f adults and
be approved by the State Department of Education:
The school must set up a graded curriculum based
upon the educational needs of adults and grant credit
toward high school graduation in accordance with the
Rules and Regulations of the State Beard of Education#
The principal of each graded evening high school
must submit for approval to the State Department of
Education an outline of all courses offered as part
of his October Report#8
The purpose of the evening high schools and special
day adult classes have remained much the same as when the
first evening school was opened#
steie
In 1937 Elmer C# Jones
16
Director or Adult Schools, said that lifelong learning
is needed:
To rear on the foundation laid in youth a structure
on which adult life may be lived fully*
To lift men to the highest levels of achievement
and appreciation*
To assist adults to gain satisfactory balance in
life*
To enable adults to thoughtfully adapt themselves
to the needs and problems of modern life*
To aid adults to discover the real values in life—
to discriminate— to develop personal capacities*
To place learning on good terms with life*
Q
Dr. Kenneth E. Oberholtzer, Superintendent of
Schools in Long Beach, said:
Adult education has been supported as an integral
part of our total educational program in Long Beach,
and this support is recognition of our status as
learners throughout life* We cannot anticipate all
of our educational needs nor meet all of them in our
childhood days* Furthermore, the need for a program
adapted to all ages and to many interests is apparent
when we consider the numerous demands made upon us
today* Our rapidly changing scene in all walks of
life places an increasing emphasis on the ability of
the individual citizen to judge well— to judge social,
political, economic proposals; to learn how to live
more happily. One of our best guarantees of happiness
is our willingness to keep on learning. Adult education
is here to serve, to help those who wish to learn.10
^Article in The Educator. September 13, 1937.
10Itoid.
17
II.
DEVELOPMENT OF SPECIAL DAY ADULT CLASSES
The School Law provides for special day and
evening classes for adults:
The high school board of any high school district,
subject to the provisions of this code relating to
courses of study for high schools, shall have power
to establish and maintain, in connection with any
high schools under its jurisdiction, special day and
evening classes for the purpose of giving instruction
In any of the branches of study that may be taught
in a high school. These classes may be convened
at such hours and for such length of time during
the school day or evening, and at such period and
for such length of time during the school year as
may be determined by the governing authority. A
The first classes for adults in the Long Beach
City Schools were organized in 1913-14 In English for
aliens and sewing and millinery for the Americans.
These
classes and all later classes meeting from eight ofclock
In the morning ■until six ofclock In the evening were
called "Special Day Adult Classes."
Classes in sewing and millinery held during the
day were under the administration and supervision of the
principal of Polytechnic High School until 1921 when they
were placed under the supervision of the Long Beach Evening
High School Principal, Elmer C. Jones.
The classes for immigrants were taught by teachers
holding elementary school credentials but were supervised
^ c k o o r Law of California, 1919 (Sacramento: State
Department of Printing, l'&LS*), kec.TTtOc•
18
throughout the entire period by the principal of the
evening high school*
Their salaries were charged to
the Adult Education Department budget*
This procedure
was followed until September of 1933 when these teachers,
certificated also as secondary school teachers, were
placed on the high school budget of the Adult Education
Department*
Previous to 1931-32 the day classes were reported
to the State for reimbursement as classes meeting at the
various schools or outside buildings*
This year, however,
the special day adult classes were reported as being
attached to seven different high schools*
Thus bonuses
amounting to $15,000 more than the previous year were
secured as apportionments for the first thirty units of
average daily attendance*
This was in accordance with
the School Code in which it states that the State Super­
intendent of Public Instruction:
• • • shall apportion to each high school district
on account of each high school maintained therein
eighty dollars for each unit or major fraction of
a unit of the first ten units of average daily attend­
ance in special day classes, special evening classes
and evening high school classes, including compulsory
continuation classes for persons under eighteen years
of age, maintained in connection with each such high
school during the preceding school year; sixty dollars
for each unit or major fraction of a unit of the
second ten units of such attendance; and forty
1?
dollars for each unit or major fraction of. a unit
of the third ten units of such attendance*12
Figure 2 shows graphically the schools to which adult
day classes were attached*
Each group of classes under
a single day high school operated as a separate day
school, with the principal of the day school reported
as the principal of the special day adult classes*
In
practice, however, the administration and supervision
of these day classes were placed in the hands of the
evening high school principal whose subject field included
that class*
During 1931-32 classes were attached to the fol­
lowing day high schools:
Edison, Franklin, Hamilton,
Jefferson, Lindbergh, Polytechnic, and George Washington.
Glasses In Avalon were not included in the reports of
the Adult Education Department but were maintained as
special classes in Avalon High School and administered
by the principal of that school.
In 1932-3 the Avalon classes were included with
the reports for the Long Beach adult classes, making a
total of eight day high schools to which the classes of
the Adult -Education Department were attached.
In 1935-36
Jordan and Wilson High Schools had special day adult
3’2SchooT Code of California, 1931 (Sacramento:
State Printing office, 1^31), Section ¥673 *
20
School to which
classes were
attached
Prior to 1952
1951-32 1935
Avalon High
Jordan High
Polytechnic High
Wilson High
Columbia Junior High
Edison Junior High
Franklin Junior High
Hamilton Junior High
Jefferson Junior High
Lindbergh Junior High
Lowell Junior % g h
Washington Junior High
FIGURE 2
YEARS IN WHICH SPECIAL PAY ADULT CLASSES WERE
ATTACHED TO JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS
LEGEND:
Year in which classes were attached to that high school
21
classes attached to their schools,
Edison Junior High
School was closed in 1936-37 and Lowell Junior High School
was opened, thus classes were attached to the new school
instead of the old.
In 1938-39 special day classes were
also attached to the Columbia Junior High School,
These
changes were shown in Figure 2+
Two methods have been employed since 1931-32 in
attaching these classes to the different junior and senior
high schools.
In some Instances, locality has been the
determining factor*
That is, classes have been attached
to that school in whose district the adult class met*
On the other hand, classes have at times been separated
according to function.
Those which were supervised by a
certain adult school principal or departmental assistant
were attached to the same day high school.
In this case,
the effort was made to have classes attached to the day
high school whose principal was most interested In that
type of class and therefore most willing to cooperate with
the Adult Department.
The number of special day adult classes has
increased throughout the entire period.
From a few
classes for Immigrants, sewing, and millinery, the program
has grown until in 1938-39 classes were held during the
day in the vocational subjects, commercial, distributive,
homemaking, parent education, cultural arts, agriculture,
and immigrant education*
Additional personnel has been
required to supervise and administer the program*
Attend­
ance in the day classes has Increased to the point that
in 1938-39 the units of average daily attendance were 427
in the day classes as compared to 576 in the evening
classes*
III,
DEVELOPMENT OP SUMMER SCHOOLS
Summer classes for adults have not been a regular
feature of the program throughout the history of the Adult
Education Department*
However, summer schools were held
during several periods of the development*
Some were
successful, and others did not pay for the cost of main­
taining the program*
Beginning in June of 1923, a six weeks session for
aliens was conducted under the supervision of the Adult
Education Department*
Such classes were also held during
the three following years, after which time summer schools
13
for aliens were discontinued*
The first summer school for other than immigrant
work was conducted in 1924.
offered*
Only a few subjects were
A tuition fee was charged with the hope that
this money, added to the income from charging for the use
^Letter from Elmer C. Jones to the Superintendent,
May 17, 1926* Jones* papers.
23
of the plunge and admission to the movies conducted by
the Adult Education Department would pay the expenses of
the school*
However, this was not the case.
It was also
believed that tuition would improve attendance, but this
did not prove to be true*
Again in 1926 another summer session was attempted*
A tuition of five dollars was charged for the six weeks*
Classes were offered in a variety of subjects:
commercial,
Spanish, English, French, physical education, millinery,
china painting, and mathematics*
Ho other regular adult summer schools were held
until 1937*
In that year classes were being conducted
on the Merchant Marine Training Ship*
As the young men
enrolled had an immediate need for finishing their course,
and money was available from the National Youth Adminis­
tration for their maintenance on the ship, special day
adult classes on the boat were continued under the Board
of Education for the summer months in which the regular
school was not in session*
Those classes were attached
to the Avalon High School*
The first non-tuition adult summer school was
opened experimentally in 1938.
Long Beach being a town
for summer vacationists, it was felt that a summer session
would be not only a drawing card for those who might spend
their summer in Long Beach, but it would be an added
24
opportunity to residents of the city*
weeks session was held*
14
Accordingly, a six
Attendance In the classes was even
better than had been anticipated, and many visitors to the
city enrolled in the classes.
With the success of this first non-tuition summer
school proven, classes were again held in 1939 during the
summer months.
training.
The emphasis that summer was on vocational
The objectives of this session were s
Occupational information and selection of occupational
training areas.
Curricular offerings where labor shortage exists.
Occupational training for young adults who need
additional training on jobs for security and advance­
ment and service to employers.
Conferences of personnel managers and employers,
officials of the California State Employment Service,
representatives of labor, and public school officials
to consider employment and adjustment on the job for
young adults.
Home Arts and Crafts.
Personal Development Courses.
Teacher1s Seminar for study of student needs- and
goals.
Special conferences for study of:
Adequate forecasting of immediate and long-time
labor needs.
Close articulation between demand and supply of
workers*
^ N e w s item in The Educator, June 6 , 1938.
25
Accurate information on the working expectancy ©f
those engaged in the many industrial fields*
Choice of training content togmeet employment needs
of the young adult on the job#
The regular session was held for six weeks, opening
on June 19, with an additional two weeks for commercial
classes*
Glasses in the field of trades and industries
were open until August 31#
Glasses held during these last two summers were
organized under the evening high school or as special day
adult classes attached to junior or senior high schools,
according to which school they were attached to during the
preceding school year.
With two summers of non-tuition adult schools proven
to be successes due to the number of people attending and
requesting classes, it is apparent that classes during the
summer months provide needed opportunities to the people
of Long Beach*
IV.
SUMMARY
The Adult Education Department was composed of one
evening high school until 1932-33.
evening schools were opened.
At this time three new
Day classes for immigrants
were under the supervision of the evening high school
^®Summe"r Session of the Adult Education, Long Beach
Public Schools, 1939* Aclult Education Department files.
principal, later the Director of Adult Schools, throughout
the entire period*
In 1921-22 homemaking classes for adults
were also placed In the Adult Education Department.
Special
day classes were attached to day junior and senior high
schools in 1931-32 in order to receive State apportionments.
Special summer sessions for adults have been conducted at
various periods throughout the history of the adult schools
in Long Bfeach.
CHAPTER III
THE HOUSING OP ADULT CLASSES
On© of the problems throughout the history of the
Adult Education Department has been the housing of the
program*
Whenever possible, day school buildings have been
used in the belief that the day schools belong to the pub­
lic and that the more they can be used, the better return
there is on the investment which has been made in the
buildings*
With the development of the day classes, it became
necessary to use other locations, aa the school buildings
were already used to capacity during the school day*
The
interesting feature of community centers grew out of this*
When locations for classes could not be arranged
for in either day school buildings or adult centers, it
became necessary to use whatever rooms could be secured
for classes*
These included stores, public buildings,
residences, and churches*
At times these locations were
furnished free of charge to the Adult Education Department*
On the other hand, some classes paid for their own rent
or utilities, or the charges for the use of the buildings
were paid for by the School District#
.28
I*
LOCATIONS FOR EVENING HIGH SCHOOLS
The first evening high school was conducted at
Polytechnic High School*
This location was maintained
until the earthquake on March 10, 1933*
When classes
reopened, the Long Beach Evening High School moved to
Hamilton Junior High School*^
In the fall of 1935 this
evening high school was moved to the East Adult Center,
a building rented from the Young Menfs Christian Associa­
tion by the Board of Education, at Tenth Street and Belmont
Avenue*
That school has remained at the latter location
until the present time*
The location and movements of
this and other evening high schools are portrayed In
Figure 3*
The Temple Evening High School was held in the
Temple Elementary School from 1917-18*
Fremont Evening
High School was located at the Fremont Elementary School
from 1918-19 and 1919-20.
George Washington Evening High School opened in
September, 1932, at the George Washington Junior High School
at Ninth Street and American Avenue*
After the earthquake,
classes were held in the tents and bungalows which were
erected on the school grounds.
In September, 1936, the day
and evening schools both moved to a new location and
l^ews item in The Educator, April 17, 1933*
A t
1es
Aye..
Is/
S o*+h
St.
<■
St
m
S t­
ep lorlJt
FIGURE 3
LOCATIONS AHD MOVEMENTS OF EVENING HIGH SCHOOLS
1914-1939
LEGEND
IT~I
®
j
CURRENT EVENING HIGH SCHOOLS
FORMER EVENING HIGH SCHOOLS
DIRECTION AND DATE OF MOVEMENT
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
LONG BEACH EVENING HIGH SCHOOL
POLYTECHNIC EVENING HIGH SCHOOL
PRACTICAL ARTS EVENING HIGH SCHOOL
TRADE EXTENSION EVENING HIGH SCHOOL
TEMPLE EVENING HIGH SCHOOL
FREMONT EVENING HIGH SCHOOL
29
building at Fourteenth Street and Cedar Avenue#
Classes
met here until the opening of the second trimester in
January, 1938, when the Evening High School was moved to
the Science Building at Polytechnic High School*
This move
was desirable because the seats at the Junior High School
were too small for adult students and transportation
facilities were poor*
The Trade Extension Evening High School opened in
1932 at the Polytechnic High School shops.
After the
earthquake the school was moved to John Dewey High School
at State Street and Cedar Avenue*
It remained at this
location until September, 1936, when both schools moved
to the new John Dewey School site, at Eighth Street and
American Avenue*
Polytechnic High School was also the location of
the third new evening high school in 1932*
The Practical
Arts Evening High School remained at this location until
after the earthquake, when it moved to Franklin Junior
High School at Sixth Street and Cerritos Avenue*
In
September, 1935, this evening school returned to the Com­
mercial Building at Polytechnic High School where it was
located until 1939-40.
Although the majority of classes have been held in
these main centers, spotted on Figure 3, it has been nec­
essary to use many other buildings.
This has been due,
in general, to three main causes:
(1) Lack of space in the
regular centers used for evening high schools, (2) Lack of
adequate equipment for instructional purposes in the day
school buildings, and (3) Students* preference for some other
location for the class meeting, which was more accessible
for the majority of the students.
II.
THE USE OP CENTERS
FO R
DAY ADULT GLASSES
The use of all centers for special adult classes in
the Long Beach Gity Schools is presented graphically in
Figure 4.
Prior to 1920 a community center was established at
the South Cerritos School by Mrs. Bertha L. Abbot, Principal.
Classes were held in citizenship and English for the parents
of the day school children.
Mrs* Abbot was the agent for
t
distribution of supplies to the people of this vicinity from
the Long Beach Social Welfare League•
One phase of her pro­
gram was to have evening entertainments for the people of
the community.
Further, out of her own funds, Mrs. Abbot
purchased a cow to provide milk for under-nourished children.
Miss Ethel Richardson, State Director of Americanization at
that time, stated that this was the only such project in
the State of California.
The first A^ult Education Center was established in
1919-20 under the first home teacher in Long Beach.
This
32
M u l t Center
0 H CM
CM CM CM
1II
O rH
OS
H CM CM
ON OSO S
rH rH
un
CM
KN
I
fr-X)ON
CM CM CM
III
No C-Hto
CM CM
O n ON
rH rH
CM CM CM
O S O S ON
rH rH
CM K> rf LfN HO
kn KNKNKN KN KM
KN KN
«
KN KNl KN KN KN KN KN KN KN
ON ON □N ON ON ON ONON ON
—f
rH rH H rH rH rH r* rH i
Mirasol
Garfield
Newport
Brickyard
Los Amigos
West State Street
West Seventh Street
International
North Adult Center
East Adult center
West Adult Center
LEGEND
■I
to ON
I I
II 9 I
O rH KM KN^-liNNO CHto
- Year in which Genter was used
FIGURE k
USE OF ADULT EDUCATION CENTERS FOR EACH YEAR,
1919-1939# FOR SPECIAL DAY ADULT CLASSES
IN THE LCNG BEACH CITY SCHOOLS
33
-
school which became known as the Mirasol Center was located
in a bungalow at State Street and Cedar Avenue in the center
of the largest*foreign section in Long Beach;
Classes were
offered in Citizenship and English;
Walter Hepner stated as his belief that persons
desiring immigrant work could be better served in:
• • • small, comfortable, and convenient neighbor­
hood centers/.. * • People whom this work should reach
seem afraid *bf iarger buildings* The smaller and
less imposing structures will serve as stepping stones
to the larger buildings of the more thoroughly Ameri­
can groups*
Following this suggestion, a parent education center
for Mexican women was started in the fall of 1921 by a
nurse from the Long Beach Social Welfare in the school
bungalow at Mirasol Center*
Parents could come here on
Saturday mornings for instruction*
Two years later, upon
the initiative of the Supervisor of Americanization, the
center was held on school days*
In 1922-23 there were three Americanization Centers,
each in the charge of an adult school teacher.
Mirasol
was supervised by Mrs. Honora D. Smith, Garfield by Mrs*
Irene Abbot, and Newport by Miss Bessie Callahan.
There
was a total enrollment in these centers of 622 Mexicans,
368 men and 245 women.
1920*
The evening enrollment was 78, with
Walter Hepner to the Superintendent, January 19,
Jones* files.
34
seventeen different nationalities represented*
At the Mirasol Center Mrs* Smith started a program
v of American-Mexican activities as a basis for a new pro­
gram of international relations*
This was also used as a
new method of teaching English to the Spanish speaking
and Spanish to the English speaking*
Special problems
among the Mexican girls were placed under Mrs. Inez Rae
Berger at this same school#
In 1923-26 there were two community cottage centers*
\
Mirasol was a four room cottage, and Newport was a two room
cottage.
The following year the Mirasol Center moved to
a larger five room cottage at 1819 Pine Avenue.
remained as the preceding year.
Newport
A four room cottage at
1023 East 21st Street was rented by the School Board and
called the Los Amigos
Center.
A one room cottage at the
Western Brick Company Plant became the Brickyard Center#
These movements as well as locations and movements for
the other Adult Centers are shown in Figure 5, a map of
Long Beach on which these locations have been spotted*
The garage at Mirasol Center was converted into
a storeroom in 1927-28*
At Newport Center the loom room
was rebuilt and a large building was added in the rear of
the bungalow*
In 1928-29 the West State Street Center
was opened at 1610 West State Street*
Four centers for immigrant work were used during
"■ V
5omth
St.
carsoh
s-t.
mu
<■
5t-
FIGURE 5
LOCATIONS AND MOVEMENTS OF ADULT EDUCATION CENTERS
1919-1939
LEGEND
CURRENT ADULT EDUCATION CENTERS
FORMER ADULT EDUCATION CENTERS
DIRECTION OF MOVEMENT
ADULT CENTERS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
NEWPORT CENTER
EAST ADULT CENTER
WEST ADULT CENTER
MIRASOL
GARFIELD
BRICKYARD
LOS AMIGOS
WEST STATE STREET
WEST SEVENTH STREET
INTERNATIONAL
NORTH ADULT CENTER
35
;36
the school year 1929-30.
These were Mirasol, Los Amigos,
West State Street, and Newport.
Each of these buildings
was equipped with a play room for the children of the
women who were attending classes.
The West State Street Center was closed on January
29, 1932 and a new center was opened at 627 West Seventh
Street, which was called the West Seventh Street Center.
School opened in September, 1932, in four adult centers—
Los Amigos, Mirasol, Newport, and the West Seventh Street
Bungalow.
Two of these centers had been moved during the
simmer months.
Los Amigos cottage center had been changed
from its former address to 2045 Cerritos Avenue.
This new
cottage not only had larger rooms, but the facilities were
increased.
Three sewing machines, ironing boards, and a
washing machine were available at the new location.
The
Mirasol Center had moved to 1795 Pine Avenue, as this
building had larger rooms and a back yard in which the
*
children could play.
These cottages were used for immigrant classes
until the earthquake.
After this there were many changes.
School rooms were not available for adult classes, as the
number of classrooms had been decreased and the day schools
were using all the rooms for longer periods of time, since
day schools were meeting on half time schedules, some
5News item in The Educator. October 3, 1932.
students attending mornings and some afternoons•
Because
of lack of space In the day schools* adult classes were
placed in the cottage centers so far as possible*
For
the first time in the history of the Adult Education Depart­
ment the foreign-born and American women worked side by
side* often in the same classes*
The main office of the Adult Education Department
which had been housed at Polytechnic High School was moved*
following the earthquake, to the West Seventh Street Cen­
ter* where classes were still held*
In 1933-4 this bungalow
was used exclusively as the central office for the principals*
departmental assistants* and clerical staff*
The office
remained at this location until February, 1936* when it
was moved to a bungalow on Ninth Street between American
and Locust Avenues*
After several months at this location*
the bungalow was moved to 871 American Avenue, so that
the space on Ninth Street might be used for a playground
and athletic field*
The central office has remained at
this location throughout the remainder of the period covered
in this study.
In November, 1936* the Director of Adult
Schools moved his private office to the Board of Education
Building at 716 Locust Avenue*
Five bungalows were used in 1933-34*
Two of these*
the International Center at 624 West Esther* new this year*
and the Newport Center were owned by the school district#
.38
Three were rented cottages, the Mirasol Center, Los Amigos,
and the office building at 627 West Seventh Street*
Two new locations were used experimentally in 1935-36*
The Young Menfs Christian Association buildings in East and
North Long Beach were opened as adult centers, one being
called the East Adult Center and the other being called
the North Adult Center*
Prior to this year there had been
classes in North Long Beach meeting at this building and
also at Lindbergh Junior High School*
Classes in the
eastern section of the city, which had been scattered
before, could also have a central meeting place*
North Adult Center was used for two years only*
The
The
building was not centrally located; it was not built to
accommodate classes; and the people of North Long Beach
were not attending classes in sufficient number to justify
the rental of the building*
proved to be successful*
The East Adult Center, however,
This building, located at Tenth
Street and Belmont Avenue was the meeting place for most
of the day classes in East Long Beach and it was also
used as the location of the Long Beach Evening High School*
The International Cottage was discontinued in 1935-36
and a new center was opened at State Street and Cedar
Avenue in the former John Dewey School Building*
^his
building became known as the West Adult Center and was
used for both immigrant classes and homemaking classes for
the American-horn,
The three adult centers, Newport, East Adult Center,
and West Adult Center, were the central locations for the
day classes for the next three years#
The location of the adult education centers at the
close of the first twenty-five years of the Adult Educa­
tion Department can he determined by referring back to
Figure 5#
III.
THE USE OF OTHER LOGATIONS FOR ADULT CLASSES
Because of insufficient classroom space, lack of
adequate facilities, or poor location of available school
rooms, many classes have been held in school buildings
and other locations than those owned or rented by the
school district#
The location of the schools and non­
school buildings may be seen on Figure 6, a map of Long
Beach with such locations spotted on it.
Figure 7 des­
cribes the location of non-schoolbuildings used
and shows
the years in which each was used for housing the classes#
Figure 8 lists the day school buildings and shows the
years during which each was used.
The policy in 1919-20 was to hold classes in places
which were most accessible to the groupsattending, in
keeping with the original policy of Superintendent Stephens
St.
st
□
car so h
s-t
Munic i fi* I
A ih f >* r t
Ul
St
St
St
nr
FIGURE 6
LOCATIONS OF DAY SCHOOL AND NON-SCHOOL BUILDINGS USED
FOR ADULT CLASSES DURING SCHOOL YEAR 1938-1959*
LEGEND
DAY SCHOOL BUILDINGS
NON-SCHOOL BUILDINGS
* Refer to Figure 7 for names of non-school buildings and
to Figure 8 for names of day school buildings used
during 1938-1939.
40
41
Maine o p location
of building used
o rH CM to
IO to
CM CM CM CM CM CM CM
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
05 O rH CM 10
to
rH CM CM CM CM CM CM
o> 0> 05 o> 05 05 05
rH iH rH rH rH H rH
o rH
to CO
l
o
0}CO
o> o»
H rH
Chamber of Commerce
Public Library
£race Methodist Church
Methodist Mission
Methodist Church at
Zaferia
Jergins Trust (Markwell)
Building
Young Women* s Christian
Association
^State Street
Jewish Community House
Virginia Hotel
231 Pine Avenue
15th and Euclid Avenue
14th and Santa Pe Avenue
245 Elm Avenue
#Ximeno Avenue
Section House
■a-Lewis Avenue
•a-Willow Street
•a-Seaside Street
2019 California
•8-Perris Road
Buffums Department Store
130 West Fourth Street
Municipal Auditorium
1961 California Avenue
1914 Corinne Avenue
144 West Sixth Street
-a-Ehea Street
-a-G-rand Avenue
#Byrd Residence
Red Cross
Gold Medal Creamery
05
CO
t
00
CO
05
rH
H
FIGURE 7
USE OP NON-SCHOOL BUILDINGS FOR EACH YEAR, 1919-1939,
FOR SPECIAL DAY AND EVENING CLASSES FOR ADULTS,
LONG BEACH CITY SCHOOLS
o rH CVI
CVI CVI CM
IIf
ONp H
Name op location
of building used
rH C\| CVI
O N ON O N
rH
rH
32 South Pine Avenue
Spaulding Building
5393
Avenue
HfLoeust Avenue
Sharon Inn
*Cafe
615 Pacific Avenue
3292 Elm Avenue
I609 Atlantic Avenue
55if Pine Avenue
ifjlj. Santa Fe Avenue
1157 California Avenue
De Lux Club
Italian Foods
#Bayshore Drive
Halfhill Cannery
■JfrEast Ocean Avenue
Robinson Hotel
223 East Seaside Street
Bayshore Library
Bayshore Community
Church
I4J4.6 East Fourth Street
Boy Scouts of America
21%lj- Olive Avenue
5545 Linden Avenue
1238 West State Street
Marine Stadium
1326 West Anaheim Street
3l}.17 East First street
llj-2 Pine Avenue
665 Atlantic Avenue
I4.OO East Esther Street
Third and Alamitos
p
FIGURE 7 (continued)
USE OF NON-SCHOOL BUILDINGS FOR EACH YEAR, 1919-1939,
FOR SPECIAL DAY AND EVENING CLASSES FOR ADULTS
LONG BEACH CITY SCHOOLS.
43
Name or location
of building used
O -X ) On
0 rH CM KN-rfrLPsnDl>-00ON
CM
K> KNKN
CM HMKNKNKN
CM CM
cm CM cvi CM
I
t
ill
III
1I iI II
L
f
N
H
Df— DO
i
n
id
o
o
r
i
k
n
_
h
*
rH
CM
friN
os CM
p
!
n
KNKNKNKN
CM K
NIKN
H CM
CM CM CM CM
ON|ON ON ON ON ON
ON ON ON ON
ON O N O N O N OnON ON
H H r lH
r-l HI H rH H
H
Fire Station
San Carlos Cannery
Young Menfs Christian
Association
ij.10 Texmino Avenue
6666 Gardenia Avenue
255 Grand Avenue
Capital Theatre Building
City Hall
State Emergency Belief
Association
17)4.5 Gundry Avenue
4201 Chestnut Avenue
109 Covina Avenue
10G Bivo Alto Way
Library
Conwayfs Floral Shop
Belmont Hall
Dodge Garage
2711 East Fourth Street
2290 Orange Avenue
356 Wisconsin Avenue
60I4. Junipero Avenue
Woodland Clubhouse
59 th and Gundry Avenue
920 Linden Avenue
284 East 56th Street
K.G.E.R. Radio Station
Tulare Street Beach
Security Bank
Lakewood Village
Walkerfs Department
Store
Sixth and Locust Avenue
I5I4.8 Locust Avenue
FIGURE 7 (continued)
USE OF NON-SCHOOL BUILDINGS FOR EACH YEAR, 1919-1939#
FOR SPECIAL DAY AND EVENING CLASSES FOR ADULTS,
LONG BEACH CITY SCHOOLS
44
tr>sO C-CD ON O rH CM KN-sfrUfN sO E-PO ON
rH CM KN
KN KN KN KNlKN KN K N
CM CM CM CM CM CM CM
CM KSK>|k n |
Name or location
of building used
I I I
I I I I I I I I I I I I IK>
I I r«
0-30
CM K N -d * MS
O rH kvi K>_dITSSo J>X> OSO rH
CM CM CM CM CM CM CM
CM CM KNlkni KMKN KN KN KN KN KN
ON ON ON ON ON ON ON
ONosCMO S O S O S ON On ON[ON
rH
rH
rH rH H I rH
15l#i Atlantic Avenue
Recreation Commission
Colorado Street Club^
house
Long Beach Bathhouse
Belmont Methodist
Church*
North Branch of the
Young Men 1s Chris­
tian Association
Community Cardens
Congregational Church
All Saints Parish House
Eastside Christian
Church
Bethany Baptist Church
Atlantic Methodist
Church
First Evangelical
ChurchCalifornia College of
Commerce
1522 Harding Street
6lst and Orange Avenue
165 East 56th Street
8 lo Olive Avenue
Parents 1 Educational
Center
North Long Beach
Nursery School
League for the Hard of
Hearing
American Legion Hall
East Long Beach
Methodist Church
Airport
FIGURE 7
H
rH rH
rH rH
■
(continued)
USE OF NON-SCHOOL BUILDINGS FOR EACH YEAR, 1919-1939,
FOR SPECIAL DAY AND EYENING CLASSES FOR ADULTS
LONG BEACH CITY SCHOOLS
44
Name or location
of building used
0
CM
1
i
rH CM
CM CM
1 1
ON O rH
r l CM CM
O N O N ON
H «H rH
KN
CM
1
CM
CM
Os
rH
LfN
i t CM
1 1
KN
CM j t
ON
rH
< 0 CN- DO
CM CM CM CM
1 1 1 1
UN s o
X>
CM CM CM CM
ON
O
'
ON
H rH rH rH
o>
9284 Linden Avenue
71*4 Locust Avenue
1072 California Avenue
Willis Refrigeration Shop
1$50 Redondo Avenue
765 Linden Avenue
Ocean Center Building
Times Building
Police Station
Long Beach Players1
Guild
Moose Hall
Fire College
705 Linden Avenue
1060 East Ocean Avenue
3762 Falcon Avenue
Ebell Clubhouse
Houghton Park
3615 Cerritos Avenue
Navy Young Menfs Chris­
tian Association
UN
O r-t CM KN
KN KN KN KN KN KN
1 1 1 1 1 1
ON O rH CM KN
CM KN KN KN KN KN
ON ON ON ON ON 0%
rH rH rH 1rH H rH
«£> H X> ON
KN KN KN KN
1 1 11 1
LfN <D H 30
KN KN KN KN
ON ON ON GTS
H H rH H
■
-xCorreet address not available
LEGEM)
H
- Year in which building was used
FIGURE 7 (continued)
USE OF HON-SCHOOL BUILDINGS FOR EACH YEAR, 1919-1959#
FOR SPECIAL DAY AND EVENING CLASSES FOR ADULTS,
LONG BEACH CITY SCHOOLS
45
ON O
Name of
School building
ON ON
H
P
M
Addams
Agricultural
Center 1
Avalon
Board of Educatior
Bryant
Burbank
Burnett
Dewey
Franklin
Fremont
Garfield
Grant
Hamilton
Jefferson
Jordan
King
Lafayette
•st-Lee (Temple)
Lincoln
Lindbergh
Longfellow
Los Cerritos
Lowell
Mann
McKinley
Muir
Maples
Polytechnic
Roosevelt
Seaside
Signal Hill
^Stevenson (Atlantic
Washington
Whittier
Willard
Wilson
■ ■
FIGURE 8
USE OF DAY SCHOOL BUILDINGS FOR EACH YEAR, 1934-59»
FOR SPECIAL DAY AND EVENING CLASSES
IN THE LONG BEACH CITY SCHOOIS
LEGEND
- Year In which school was used
l
46
to offer to the public that which they need and want*
During 1919-20, classes met at the Methodist Mission at
Fourteenth Street and Locust Avenue, the Public Library,
the Chamber of Commerce, and at the Methodist Church at
Zaferia, later known as East Long Beach, in addition to
the locations in the Evening High School Buildings*
In 1922-23 the South Cerritos and Edison Schools
were used for classes*
Other locations were the Public
Library, Chamber of Commerce, Grace Methodist Church,
Markwell Building, Jewish Community House, and Virginia
Hotel*
Fifteen different locations were used In 1924-25
for twenty-four immigrant classes*
The ''Smith-Hughes”
classes, those reimbursable through Smith-Hughes funds
for vocational education, were held in the Markwell Build­
ing, 231 Pine Avenue, Polytechnic High School, Lincoln,
Roosevelt, Horace Mann, Muir, Atlantic Avenue, Burbank,
Edison, and Fremont Schools, and at Buffums1 Store in the
evenings.
For two days the millinery classes used the
Municipal Auditorium as a classroom and remodeled hats
donated by millinery shops*
The completed hats were given
to the Long Beach Social Welfare League for distribution*
In 1926-27 the work in the field of Immigrant educa­
tion was divided into seven districts, which were:
Los
Amigos, Mirasol, Newport, California Avenue, North Long
46
Beach, Garfield, and Seaside.
To house the classes where
there were no Adult Centers, fifteen homes were*used on
an average of twice a week.
Evening classes for immigrants
were held at Polytechnic High School, ^ewey and McKinley
Schools*
In the field of the Smith-Hughes classes, thirty-
six classes were held in various locations*
A sewing"room
was used day and evening at Polytechnic High School and
other sewing classes met at Jane Addams, Atlantic Avenue,
Burbank, Fremont, Mann, Willard, Wilson, Dewey, Roosevelt,
and Hamilton Schools.
Other classes in this same field
were offered at Betty Hudlowfs Millinery Shop, Margaret
Young’s Millinery, Greens* Millinery, and the Nelleaton
Shoppe.
Smlth-Hughes classes were also meeting at the
Young Women’s Christian Association, the Public library,
and the Bed Cross headquarters.
The use of these centers
may be seen in Figure 7*
In 1929-30 immigrant classes were held at the
following locations in addition to the regular Adult
Centers:
four at 144 Santa Fe, one at the De Lux Club,
two at Italian Foods, three at Halfhill Cannery, one on
Bay Shore Drive, one at a residence at 1157 California
Avenue, three at the Garfield Community Hall, one at
Lincoln School, four night classes at Polytechnic High
School, one night class at William McKinley School, and
one at Avalon#
47
A bungalow at the Naples School was used for an
arts and crafts studio.in 1931-32, a room in one of the
down town stores was used as an art room, and classes met
at the Bay shore Community Church and the Immanuel Presby­
terian Church*
School buildings which were used were the
Jane Addams, Avalon, Burbank, Burnett, Dewey, Edison,
Franklin, Fremont, Garfield, Grant, Hamilton, Jefferson,
Starr King, Lafayette, Lee, Lincoln, Lindbergh, Longfellow,
Lowell, Mann, McKinley, Muir, Naples, Roosevelt, Atlantic
Avenue, George Washington, Whittier, and Willard Schools
and the Tenth Street Agricultural Center.
Locations of
these schools are also shown on Figure 6*
After the earthquake it was necessary to use many
locations outside of the regular evening high schools and
day Adult Centers, since so many schools were unsafe or
completely demolished.
In 1933-34, sixty-three day classes
were held in locations outside of the regular centers.
Day school buildings or tents were used at the Atlantic
Avenue School, Bryant, Temple Avenue, Willard, and Muir
Schools.
In 1934-35 classes met as follows:
seventeen In
private homes, six in the public libraries, twenty in the
Young Men1s Christian Association and Young Women* s Chris­
tian Association, five in churches, two in the American
Legion Hall, six in the Capitol Theatre Building, two at
48
Conway*s Floral Shop, one at the Municipal Airport, two
at the Belmont Recreation Hall, three at the Pire Station,
six at the City Hall, eleven at the State Emergency Relief
Association Project, fifteen at the Community Cardens, and
fourteen at the Marine Stadium.
The final year of this study, 1938-39, classes were
held at the League of the Hard of Hearing for persons of
this organization, in posture and personality at Walkers*
Department Store, chorus at the Young Women1s Christian
Association, art classes at the studio at 1060 East Ocean
Avenue, gardening at 3615 Cerritos and at Pine and Willow,
parent education at the Parent1s Educational Center, obser­
vation of pre-school children at Houghton Park, Spanish
at the Ebell Club, floral art at the Depot Guild Playhouse,
immigrant classes at Avalon in the Social Hall, City Hall,
and Pebbly Beach, marine training classes on the S.S* Martha
♦
Buehner, rowing at the Marine Stadium, civic education
classes at the Public Library, extemporaneous speaking at
the Chamber of Commerce, aviation at the Arbogast Hangar
and Scott Plying Service, floral art at the Conway*s Floral
Shop, classes for navy men at the Havy Young Menfs Christian
Association, lathing, painting and plastering at the East
Methodist Church, classes for the Board of Equalization at
the City Hall, and air conditioning and refrigeration at
the Willis Refrigeration Service*
49
Each year has not been covered In the above listing,
but various examples are given describing the increase in
the use of locations outside of regular adult education
centers.
Figure 7 shows the various locations outside of
regular adult centers and evening high schools, in which
classes have been held, throughout the first twenty-five
years of the Adult Education Department in the Long Beach
Gity Schools.
Figure 8 gives a complete picture of the
years in which the different school buildings were used.
The use of these buildings has considerably cut the
cost of maintaining adult classes, and has provided facili­
ties which otherwise could not have been available for the
use of students.
At times it was necessary to pay for
utilities or for rent, but the Adult Education Department
has been fortunate in having friends and organizations
donate the use of classroom space for the meeting of classes.
♦
IV.
-
SUMMAHT
One of the principal problems in developing a pro­
gram of education for adults is the securing of necessary
rooms for class meetings.
So far as was advisable, the
Adult Education Department of the Long Beach Gity Schools
attempted to use the day school buildings which were already
built.
Wien day classes were offered in such number that
the day schools could not accommodate the adult classes,
bungalows were rented or purchased by the Board of Education
50
to b© used as Adult Education Centers•
As the demand for
classes grew, it became necessary to use many locations in
addition to buildings owned or rented by the school dis­
trict.
Ho solve this problem many local organizations have
donated the use of their facilities for instructional pur­
poses .
Such groups have included local business concerns,
churches, civic organizations, social welfare agencies,
clubs, and citizens of the community*
CHAPTER V
GRCMTH OF THE STAFF
The story of the growth of the Adult Education Depart*
ment of the Long Beach City Schools is necessarily tied in
with the growth of the staff*
With the increasing number
of students, growth of average daily attendance, new even­
ing schools, and opening of adult centers, there has been
a gradual addition of persons to administer and supervise
the program, teachers to instruct the students, clerks to
care for the office details, and caretakers and matrons
to maintain the buildings*
The coming of hew persons to
the Adult Education Department has often opened up new
fields, the development of which has brought rich offerings
to the citizens of Long Beach#
This study, however, reports only on the growth of
the staff in size and function at different periods; it
does not attempt to tell the contributions that each has
made to the development of the Adult Schools as a whole#
Figure 9 shows the administrative set up of the
Adult Education Department and its relation to other seg­
ments of the school system at the beginning of the school
year, 1939-40,
The Director of Adult Schools is directly
responsible to the Superintendent, as are the other two
52
Citizens of the Long Beach School District
Board of Education
Superintende nt
Deputy Superintendent,
Director of Personnel
and Secondary Schools
Director of
Adult Schools
Coordinator of
Vocational
Education and
Industrial
Arts
Director of
Elementary
Schools
r
Principal Trade
Extension
Evening High
School
Principal
Polytechnic
Evening
High School
Principal
Practical
Arts Evening
High school
Departmental
Assistant
in charge
of publicity
Coordinator
of
Distributive
Education
-- Teachers
l .4:
Supervisor
Parent
Education,
Hcraemaking,
Immigrant
Education
i.- Teachers
Teachers
i- Janitor
FIGURE 9
THE ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATION OF THE ADULT EDUCATION DEPARTMENT AND RELATION
OF THE ADULT PERSONNEL TO OTHER ADMINISTRATORS AND SUPERVISORS
Administrative relations
Supervisory relations
Departmental
Assistant in
charge of
forums
i~ Teachers
Parent
Education
Assistants
Tool Room
Clerks
LEGEND
Principal
Long Beach
Evening
High School
Janitor
Manager
53
directors and the Business Manager*
X
Responsible to the Director or Adult Schools are the
four principals, each with an assistant.
The Departmental
Assistant in charge of publicity is directly responsible
to the Director but must necessarily work with each member
of the staff.
Under the principals are the teachers and
non-certificated employees.
The janitors are responsible
to the principal in whose building they are located, and
the office clerks are responsible to the Director, who
delegates his responsibility in this line largely to the
Principal of the Practical Arts Evening High School*
The staff considered in this study included only
those persons employed by the Board of Education to serve
in the Adult Education Department.
Other persons who have
donated their time or been paid through other funds such
as the Works Projects Administration and the National Youth
Administration have been omitted*
I.
.-
ADMINISTRATORS AND SUPERVISORS
To administer and supervise the program of adult
education has required an ever-increasing staff.
Not only
has there been a growth in the number of persons to develop
the program already In existence, but new positions have
3-The Administrative Code and Rules and Regulations
of the Long feeach City Schools (Long Beach.' 1939)
been created to fill new needs or to develop new programs
as a result of State and Federal reimbursements*
In accordance with the Rules and Regulations of the
State Board of Education, the Board of Education was
required to select a principal for the Long Beach Evening
High School:
In schools of more than one teacher, the board of
school trustees or city board of education must desig­
nate one of the teachers as principal of the school,
who shall have general supervision of the entire school*
Rexford Newcomb was elected by the Board of Educa­
tion as principal of the first evening high school*
He
was a full time day school teacher at Polytechnic High
School, the only high school in the city at the time*
He
acted as principal ©f the evening high school for three
years*
From 1917-18 Jerome Me Hair was principal, and from
1918-19 Julian Greenup replaced him.
Both of these men
were still full time day school teachers*
In 1919-20
Walter Hepner became principal on the same basis, however,
the second semester he was allowed half time as supervising
principal for his evening school work and supervision of
special day adult classes*
In 1920-21 Elmer C* Jones, the Director of Adult
Schools In 1939, became principal of the Long Beach Evening
5school~~Law of California (Office of Superintendent
of PublicInstruction, Edward Hyatt, Superintendent.
Sacramento: Department of State Printing, 1913.)
55
High School, remaining as a half-time teacher at Polytechnic
High School*
When the Smith-Hughes classes were placed
under the supervision of the evening school principal in
1921-22, Mr* Jones acted as Director of .Americanization
and Smith Hughes classes in addition to his half-time princlpalship*^
It was not until 1924-25 that this principal-
ship was made a full-time position.
With the organization of day and evening classes at
Avalon, M. B. Dunkle, principal of the Avalon day schools,
became acting principal of the special classes*
Ho extra
time was allowed him for this work during the entire his­
tory of the special day and evening classes for adults in
Avalon.
The first supervisor was elected in 1925-26 to
assist the principal of the Long Beach City Schools.
Mrs.
Lenore Panunzio became at this time a full-time Supervisor
of Immigrant Education.
In 1926-27 Miss Elizabeth Moore
was elected on a half time contract to supervise homemaking
and teach in the Adult Department.
Mrs* Panunzio was replaced in 1929-30 by Mrs.
Harriet Merrill as the assistant director.
Her responsi­
bility was to wevaluate the various phases of the program
4
and make recommendations for improvement•”
She covered
the fields of Immigrant Education, Homemaking, Parent
^TJnpublished document.
4S
fb
ic
U
'
Piles of Elmer C. Jones.
56
Education, Arts, and Crafts.
The following year, 1930-31,
Mrs# Ida Case Storch was elected to fill this position.
The supervision of Parent Education in the Adult Depart­
ment was a part of the assignment given to Mrs# Storch#
Part time supervisors were used in 1930-31 in two
different fields.
Miss Shirley Poore supervised the art
work by teaching one night per week and Dean Bottorff was
assigned for two nights a week in the vocational field#
His duties were to supervise the new courses in plumbing,
welding, radio repair, boat building, house planning,
wood finishing, and forging.
With the development in the fall of 1932 of four
evening high schools, three new principals were required.
Elmer C# Jones remained principal of the Long Beach
Evening High School, Lillian B# Hotchkiss became principal
of the Evening High School of Practical Arts, J. E. Hol­
lingsworth of the Evening High School of Trades and Indus­
tries, and Ida Case Storch of the Washington Evening High
School#
The principal ships of the new evening schools
were only half-time positions.
Mrs. Storch remained half-
time assistant to Mr. Jones, the Supervising Principal,
and the other two principals were half-time day school
teachers#
In September, 1935, James M# Sexton became halftime principal of the Practical Arts Evening High School,
57
replacing R» E. Reynolds who was principal in 1934-5,
Mr#
Sexton was also elected as half-time departmental assistant
in order to promote classes in the commercial fields.
He
remained only one year when he was replaced by R. A. Coverdale as half-time principal and half-time departmental
assistant.
Mr. Coverdale started his fourth year as prin­
cipal in September, 1939.
During 1935-36 the principal of the Trade Extension
Evening High School became half-time departmental assistant
in addition to his half-time principal ship, in order that
he might develop day classes in the fields of Trades and
Industries.
He continued in this position during the
remainder of the period covered in this study.
The work continued under the preceding form of
administration until September, 1937.
By action of the
Board of Education on May 24, 1937, Elmer C. Jones was
elected Director of Adult Schools, which included the
principal ship of the Long Beach Evening High School.
This
same month, the Director of Adult Education was placed
on an equal position to that of the Directors of the
Elementary and Secondary Schools and the Business Manager*
Mr. Jones* outline of duties as described in
September, 1938 follows:
Schools - Long Beach Evening High School, Poly­
technic Evening High School, Trade Extension Evening
High School, Practical Arts Evening High School, all
58
elementary schools where Special Day and Evening
classes for adults are held and all secondary schools
to which Special Day classes for adults are attached*
Duties a* Recommending to the Director of Personnel
all certificated and non-certificated workers in
the Adult Education Department*
b. Assigning all certificated and non-certificated workers in the Adult Education Department*
c. Approving all matters pertaining to the
making and operating of the budget for the Adult
Education Department.
d. Directing and administering the Adult student
body funds.
e* Directing the preparation of all records and
reports through the main office where all Adult Edu­
cation Department records are kept*
f. Approving all courses and projects offered
in the Adult Education Department and securing the
approval of the Superintendent in establishing any
new departure•
g. Directing the publicity for the Adult Educa­
tion Department, including the publication of f,The
Educator*ff
h. Directing curriculum and guidance develop­
ment in the Adult Education Department.
i* Directing the teacher-training program in
the Adult Education Department.
j. Directing the Discussion-Forum Program*
With the increasing duties of the Director and the
Assistant Director, Mrs. Ida Case Storch, it was soon
^Departmental Bulletin, Number 1 (Long Beach:
Education Department, September i,
p. 1*
Adult
59
found necessary to have full-time teachers act as adminis­
trators of the Long Beach Evening High School and the Poly­
technic Evening High School#
These acting administrators
were called teaehers-in-charge*
Mrs. Ada Mayes Pavich, a
teacher in the field of cultural arts was selected as
teacher-in-charge of the Long Beach Evening High School,
and Mrs* Leona L* Taylor, a teacher in the socio-civic
classes, became teacher-in-charge of the George Washing­
ton Evening High School.
When the plan to maintain a summer school in the
stammer of 1938 was approved, it became apparent that there
should be an administrator in charge of the program*
Fur­
ther, the work of the Department was carried on throughout
the summer in many ways, such as the making up of schedules,
caring for administrative details that arose at this time,
and contacts with outside groups that had to be made during
the summer months in preparation for the new school year*
For these reasons, the Director was placed on a twelve­
month contract, beginning July 1, 1938.
Hear the close of the school year of 1938-39 the
question arose as to the legality of having a teacher-in­
charge of an evening high school when the regular principal
60
was not in attendance*
According to the School Code:
• * * The principal must he on duty in the evening
high school during the time the school is in session*6
With this in mind, and because the administrative duties
of the Director and Assistant Director had increased to
such an extent that they were unable to arrange their
time to be on duty each night at the evening high schools,
Ada Mayes Pavich was elected for the coming year as prin­
cipal of the Long Beach Evening High School and Mrs.
Leona Taylor was elected as principal of the Polytechnic
Evening High School*
This relieved the Director, Elmer
C* Jones, of his duties as Principal of the Long Beach
Evening High School, and Mrs* Storch became full-time
Supervisor of Homemaking, Parent Education, and Immigrant
Education.
During the first years that J. E* Hollingsworth
was half-time Departmental Assistant, there was a decided
increase in the demand for classes in the field of Trades
and Industries*
Many groups of persons desired help in
their particular trade*
Oil companies, electricians,
carpenters, barbers, lathers, plumbers, auto mechanics,
painters, plasterers, sheet metal workers, and other fields
of industry were asking for classes which would aid them*
Many contacts had been made by the principal with represen­
tatives from these groups*
on ^dult Education, State of California,
Department of Education Bulletin, Ho* 20* October 15, 1937.
p* 4.
61
Due to the rapid increase in this field of work
and to the fact that the cost of a coordinator would he
reimbursed through Federal and State funds, a Supervisor
of Apprentices was elected to a full-time, twelve months
position in June, 1937.
John J* Fuhrer was the man
selected to handle this work.
His duties were described
as follows:
Mr. J. J. Fuhrer is departmental assistant coor­
dinating apprentice training. He works in coopera­
tion with Ktt*. Hollingsworth*
1* He conducts conferences with employers and
employees in the building trades area.
2. He develops the courses in cooperation with
the building trades.
3. He teaches courses in these fields*
4. He assists other teachers in training to
conduct such courses*
5* He cooperates with Dr* Horridge in policies
of Vocational Education*
6* He provides the department with information
about the development of adult education in his
field.7
Wcien funds became available for reimbursement for
vocational education classes in business education in the
distributive trades under the 6eorge-Deen Bill, it was
considered advisable to develop classes in the field of
distributive industries.
Mr* A* B. Stridborg was elected
departmental Bulletin, Humber 1, op* cit*» p* 3*
62
as Coordinator of Distributive Industries in March, 1938*
His position was described as follows:
Mr* A* B* Stridborg is departmental assistant co­
ordinating distributive trades training* He works In
cooperation with Mr. Coverdale*
1* He conducts conferences with employers and
employees In Distributive Trades*
2* He develops the courses in cooperation with
the distributive trades representatives*
3. He teaches courses in the field of the distri­
butive trades.
4. He assists in the training of teachers to con­
duct such courses*
5. He cooperates with Dr. Horrldge in policies
of Vocational Education*
6. He provides the department with Information
about the development of adult education in his field*®
Until the fall of 1938, the publicity for the
department had been in the hands of part-time teachers
who taught classes in journalism or short story writing.
At that time, Mrs. Ethel Johnston was elected as a Depart­
mental Assistant in charge of all publicity for the
department.
She was also to serve as Supervising Editor
of the Adult Education Department paper, The Educator,
direct the speaker1s bureau and radio work, have charge
of exhibits and publicity and supervise all public programs
by the department*®
------------- ' p. 3-4.
9Ibid.
p. 7.
63
The development of the Federal Forum Project in
Long Beach caused a rapid development in the field of
discussion forums and thus gave rise to another addition
to the staff*
During 1938-39 forums were placed in charge
of a contract teacher, Harvey B* Franklin*
His duties
were:
1* Organize ftdiscussion-forums,f for adults through
the public school system which may be placed in the
hands of other leaders*
2.
Conducts discus si on-forums in cooperation with
the individual schools and other departments*
3* Promotes discussion-forums before community
groups •
4* Civic Education in the community program*
5* Supervises the Federal Discussion-Forum Edu­
cational Project.
6* Provides the adult department with information -Q
about the development of Adult Education in his field.
That phase of the program had increased so rapidly
during
the first year under Mr. Franklin that at the open­
ing of
the school year of 1939-40 he was made a Depart­
mental Assistant for forty per cent of his time.
The
remaining sixty per cent of a full-time position was to
be teaching time.
Thus he was enabled to organize and
develop forums in cooperation with various community
organizations.
Another administrative adjustment became effective
at the
opening of the school year
-------lOTb T J r p . 5.
of 1939-40.
The two
64
principals of the Long Beach Evening High School and the
Polytechnic Evening High School, Mrs. Pavich and Mrs. Taylor,
were elected half-time departmental assistants in charge of
day classes in their respective subject fields.
The total
number of administrators and supervisors throughout the
twenty-five years is shown in Table X.
II.
THE CERTIFICATED PERSONNEL
Teachers in the Adult Education Department have
been of two types.
teachers.
One group have been called contract
These were those certificated instructors who
were given contracts by the Board of Education for their
services during the year.
The second kind of teachers
have been known as hourly teachers.
They were employed
and paid by the hour and were given no contract.
Their
services were required from two up to thirty hours per
week for the portion of the school year in which their
assigned classes were in session.
The first contract
teacher in the Adult Education Department was elected
in 1919-20 under the provisions of the California School
Law:
Boards of school trustees, or city boards of
education of any school district, may employ teachers
to be known as "home teachers" not exceeding one
such teacher for every five hundred units of average
daily attendance in the elementary or high schools
of the district as shown by the report of the county
superintendent of schools for the next preceding school
65
TABLE I
TYPES OP POSITIONS AND NUMBER OP PERSONS EMPLOYED
IN THE ADULT EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, EACH YEAR,
1911^-1939
Non-certificated
09
Year
Administrators
and
Teachers
Supervisors
Contract Hourly
19111.-15
**1
19x5-16
*#1
1916-17
**1
1917-19
«*i
1919-19
1919-20
1920-21
1921-22
1922-23
1923-24.
1924-25
1925-26
1926-27
1927-29
1929-29
1929-30
1950-31
1931-32
1952-33
1933-34
«*i
1
2
23
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
1934-35
1935-36
1936-37
14.
1937-38
6
1938-39
7
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
2
2
2
*
2
2
3
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
6
5
6.9
4B* 16
4*4* 18
4H* 21
4m I4.6
4K* 41
*4*- lj.9
4*4* 51
4B* §8
4*4* 58
4*4* 58
4H* 63
4*4* 85
4*4* 93
4*4* 98
4*4*118
4*4*100
4*4*108
##116
4*4*110
4*4* 9ft
4H*ik7
4*4*lfcl
4*4*lk0
4Hf 1 4 2
4HM31
s
O
09
*4
O
09
X
u
<D
rl
O
09
£J
■a
-p
©
0
£i
•P
at
0
S
0
4*
0
4*
0
4*
0
4*
0 4*4*1
0 4*4*1
1
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4fNo records available*
4*4*Employed for part-time work for varying periods
of time*
8
6
6
9
66
year. It shall fee the duty of the home teacher to work
in the homes of the pupils instructing children and
adults in matters relating to school attendance and
preparation therefor; also in sanitation, in the Eng­
lish language, in household duties, such as purchase,
preparation, and use of food and clothing, and with
the fundamental principals of the American system of
government and rights and duties of citizenship.11
The first full-time adult school teacher, was elected as
a home teacher in accordance with the afeove provisions.
She was also given a certain number of hours of teaching
regular classes.
Two years later, 1921-22 a second home
teacher was added to teach classes for immigrants.
In
1925-6 a full-time cooking and sewing teacher was added
to the staff of contract teachers.
The following year
the third home teacfeer was added, and the fourth home
teacher was e’Lected for the school year 1928-29.1^
Each of the home teachers were allotted time to
visit the homes of the immigrants in addition to the
regular classes which they taught.
They were put in charge
of the adult centers and had the responsibility for their
own programs under the supervision of the assistant direc­
t o r . T h e s e five contract teachers were all elected as
elementary teachers.
Only five contract teachers were
'll'Caiifomia School haw, 1919 (Sacramento: State
Department of Printing, 1919), Sec. 1615.
12 Lenore Panunzio, Comparative Study During Four
Year Period of Home Teacher Work (Long Beach: Unpublished
document)
13
Elmer G. Jones, Unpublished document. Jones1 files.
employed until 1938-39.
In that year several additional
teachers of this type were added•
A full-time teacher
of carpentry was added, a half-time teacher of auto
mechanics* a two-fifths time teacher of electricity, and
one full-time teacher in charge of forums became members
of the staff;
This same year two of the former contract
teachers became half-time teachers and half-time depart­
mental assistants.
At the opening of the school year,
1939-40, there were three contract teachers in the field
of immigrant education, one full-time carpentry teacher,
one full-time teacher of metal finishing, one sewing
teacher, and one three-fifths time teacher in charge of
forums.
The trend through the twenty-five years of the
Adult Education Department in Dong Beach has been gradually
to employ more of the teachers from outside the regular day
school personnel.
As already noted, all of the first
teachers were regular teachers in the school system.
By
1923-24 the movement was well started to employ teachers
from outside.
In October of that year, there were fifty-
six teachers, fifteen of whom were not day school teachers.
Ten of the forty-one remaining teachers were regular day
school administrators or supervisors.
It became the practice during the 1920*s to employ,
chiefly, "specialists” in the various fields, rather than
68
day school teachers.
For example, Floral Art was taught
by a commercial florist, Journalism by newspaper men and
women, Barber Science by a master barber, Plumbing by a
master plumber, and Short Story Writing by a commercial
writer*
Since experts in any one certain line were limited
as to subjects they were able to teach, these persons were
not given a full teaching schedule*
Another factor which
prevented their giving full time to teaching was that they
did not wish to give up their regular work in their owh
trade or profession and consequently did not have time
for more than one or two weekly classes*
Table I shows the number of teachers employed each
year of the period studied*
There was a steady growth
in the number of teachers until 1929-30, there being only
one year in that period of time when the number was less
than the preceding year*
Several factors contributed to
the causes for fluctuations after that year*
The depres­
sion years and the years following caused an increase in
the number of teachers*
This was due to Increased demands
on the parts of the citizens of Long Beach, some of whom
desired to retrain for new jobs, others of whom found
they had increased leisure and desired to find methods
of using this time profitably*
This necessitated the
addition of new types of classes and thus new teachers*
The addition of new subject fields with new administrators
69
developed the need for more teachers as. classes developed*
Drops in number of teachers occurred after the earthquake
of March 10, 1933, when budgets were cut, making it finan­
cially impossible to use so many teachers*
The number of
teachers decreased following the earthquake, there being
a drop of from 115 to 99 teachers in 1932-33 and 1933-34,
due to lower budget allowances*
The last year shows a
slight drop, due to more teachers being employed as contract
teachers•
A second type of certificated personnel was employed
under the provisions of the School Code relating to lec­
turers :
The principal of any high school in which there
are special day and evening classes, or the principal
of any evening high school, at his discretion may
employ when so directed by the governing board of
the school district, special lecturers well qualified
in their subjects to speak before such classes, with­
out such lecturer being required to hold a teaeher*s
certificate.
Permission for the employment of such lecturer shall
be previously obtained from the commission of creden­
tials of the State Department of Education*
Such lecturer can not be employed in any school for
more than four lectures each term*14
Lecturers have been used in classes and paid by the
Board of Education since 1930-31.
Such persons have been
employed to enrich the classes already in progress or to
give short unit courses in special fields.
Lecturers have
^School Oode of California, 1931, op. clt*, p. 245.
70
been of two groups*
Some hold lecture permits and are paid.
Others have contributed their time to the Department by
presenting a short talk as a part of the regular class
session.
These latter persons did not necessarily hold
lecturers1 permits.
When a lecturer was to be used in a class, the
procedure was for the instructor to submit an application
to his principal for approval of the use of such person.
Such application included the name of the speaker, the
subject of his lecture, his special qualifications for
presenting the topic, the names of the persons recommend­
ing him, and a space for additional comments.
If the
speaker were to be paid, the principal would make a state­
ment to that effect to the Director who, if he approved,
requested a lecture permit from the State Department of
Education.
Upon receipt of the permit, the Director of
Adult Schools recommended that the Board of Education of
the Long Beach City Schools elect such lecturer.
Upon examination of the applications of such lecTK
turers,
it was found that each person was an outstanding
person in his line of work*
Each spoke on a subject for
which he was particularly qualified.
These special con­
tributions were made at the time when the class was pre­
pared to receive this special instruction.
Follow-up work
^•3Files" of applications for lecturers.
tion Department, Long Beach, California.
Adult Educa­
71
was done in the classes following the lecture by the
teacher.
Some lecturers were used for the maximum time
allowed, others were used only for one class session.
The use of these speakers has enriched the offerings
considerably, such lectures often attracting new persons
who remained as students in the Department'after becoming
acquainted with what was being offered to the adults of
Long Beach, through the curriculum of the Adult Schools#
III.
NOE-CERTIFICATED PERSONNEL
The non-certificated personnel has been composed
of three groups of employees:
1) Office Clerks, 2) Janitors
and Matrons, and 3) Miscellaneous persons.
Until the fall of 1920 the principal of the evening
high school had no clerical help.
In September of that
year a half-time clerk was elected.
a full-time position in 1921-22.
in 1926-27, a third In 1927-28*
This was increased to
A second clerk was added
A fourth clerk was employed
in 1930-31, who was paid from student body funds that year
but by the School District the following year*
The next few years costs were cut to a minimum
due to the depression and the earthquake.
However, two
new principals had been added since there had been new
clerks and clerical duties had rapidly Increased.
By
1935-36 It was found necessary to have two additional
72
clerks, Increasing the total to six full-time persons*
A seventh member of the office staff was liired
in September, 1937*
In February, 1939, one of the clerks
was transferred to half-time with the new Vocational
Rehabilitation Department and remained as a half-time
clerk in the Adult Education Department*
An additional
full-time clerk was employed at that time, making a total
of six and one-half time clerks.
At the start of the year, 1939-40, the woman who
has been acting as matron at the West Adult Center was
elected as a clerk rather than a matron, her work upon
investigation being found to include more work as clerk
than as caretaker*
Until the summer of 1933 all clerks were hired for
ten calendar months of the year, except during the summers
when classes were held, when one clerk was given an extra
month of work.
This year, however, the chief clerk was
given a twelve month position to care for clerical duties
during the summer.
When the Director was placed on a
twelve month contract basis in 1938, his secretary was
also hired for twelve months of the year.
The summer of
1939 the half-time clerk was employed during the summer
months also.
This made a total of two full-time and one
half-time clerks with twelve month positions in the final
73
year of the study.
This growth was shown on Table I,
page 65.
As the clerical staff grew in size, and the adminis­
trative and supervisorial staff grew, it was found that the
most efficient work was seeured by each doing the type of
work which she was best qualified to do.
As a rule, clerks
acted for a few months as general office clerks and then
were gradually given responsibilities in accordance with
their abilities.
In 1938 the chief clerk was in charge of
the main office and in charge of certain reports*
The
secretary to the Director performed his secretarial duties,
and was in charge of other reports.
One clerk made up the
payroll and assisted with the records of students desiring
high school credit.
Another was bookkeeper and receptionist.
Two acted as general office clerks in the main office.
The
half-time clerk acted as secretary to the principals of the
Trade Extension and Practical Arts Evening High Schools.
One clerk was located at the West Adult Center and one at
the East Adult Center, each assisting the principal in
charge, and performing other tasks as required.
The clerk
at the East Adult Center also had charge of the department
16
registration files.
The janitorial work has been handled in two ways.
In the Adult Education Centers the costs of janitorial
^^Departmental Bulletin, No. 1, op. cit., pp. 6-7.
74
service have been paid by the Adult Education Department.
Until 1923-24 the Janitors of all schools were paid by the
Adult Education Department.
Since that time when evening
schools meetlin the regular day school buildings, the cost
of janitor service has been paid by the day schools.
This
study includes only those persons paid through Adult Edu­
cation funds.
There have been two types of persons employed
to perform the janitorial work.
The men were call jani­
tors or caretakers, and the women, matrons.
In 1918-19 and 1919-20 one janitor was employed for
two hours a night.
janitors.
The following two years there were two
During the three years from 1922 to 1925, there
was only one person on this job.
Ho janitors were used
from 1925 until 1931.
In 1932-33 there were four matrons.
They were
employed on a monthly basis and were located at the immi­
grant cottages.
Pour matrons were used at the cottage
centers in 1933-34 and 1934-35.
and two matrons were used.
added in 1936-37/
In 1935-36 two janitors
One additional janitor was
There were five janitors and one matron
in 1937-38, three janitors and one matron in 1938-39, and
three janitors and no matrons in 1939-40.
The number of
janitors and matrons, by years were shown in Table I.
Janitors have replaced matrons largely because men
were better able to perform the tasks required such as the
75
lifting of large articles, heavy cleaning, and similar
tasks*
In addition, the use of matrons for immigrants
has decreased, largely because immigrant education classes
have decreased*
There has been a miscellaneous group of non-certificated persons employed in the department for the last
twenty years*
Their titles largely describe their duties*
In 1918-19 there was an accompanist for the physical edu­
cation classes and a model for the drawing classes, the cost
of which was paid by the School Board*
In 1922-23 there
was a plunge guard and assistant for womens swimming classes,
and a pianist.
The following year a laboratory assistant
and gymnasium assistant were added to the staff of the pre­
ceding year*
In 1924-25 there were four swimming assistants,
a domestic science assistant, gymnasium assistant, labora­
tory assistant, life guard and nurse inspector*
In 1925-26 there were two life guards and assistants
in the fields of domestic science, laboratory science, art,
gymnasium, and swimming*
Life guards, laboratory assistants,
swimming assistants, and accompanist clerks were used until
1932-33*
After the earthquake these miscellaneous assis­
tants were discontinued.
The use of tool room clerks began in 1929-30*
These
clerks on the hourly basis have assisted the instructor by
handling the Issuing and receiving of the tools used in the
76
classes in the field of trades and industries.
After the
earthquake the budget for such help was smaller than pre­
viously, but this service has continued throughout the
remainder of the period.
In 1938-39 a new type of help was used.
persons were called Parent Education Assistants.
These
They
were used in the classes of "Parents* observation of PreSchool Children."
The duties of the assistants were to
supervise the children at play, tell stories, sing songs,
and serve a light lunch.
IV.
SUMMARY
Prom a full-time day school teacher serving as
principal of the Evening High School has developed the
present position of Director of Adult Schools.
Pour
principals have been added, five full-time and five parttime departmental assistants have been required to assist
in the administration and supervision of the program.
The original teaching staff was composed of sixteen parttime teachers.
During the following twenty-five years
the staff of teachers holding contracts with the School
Board has increased in number to an equivalent of six
and six-tenths full-time teachers.
The number of part-
time teachers has grown to one hundred and thirty-eight
during 1938-39.
For the first six years there was no
clerical help*
Prom 1920-21 to 1939-40 the growth has been
from a half-time clerk to eight and one-half clerks*
Many
non-certificated positions have been created throughout
the history of the department, but the majority have been
dropped as better ways developed to handle the situations
in which additional help has been needed*
CHAPTER V
RELATIONS WITH COOPERATING AGENCIES
Throughout the history of the Adult Education
Department In Long Beach there are found many cases of
cooperation with various agencies.
These outside organi­
zations have affected the program through assisting In
the development of a certain feature of the adult schools*
offerings.
Such cooperation has created new interest
in the field affected and thus caused a growth in that
field of study.
At times the influence has been sufficient to
cause the addition of new persons to the staff.
As already
noted previously, the principals were given contracts as
departmental assistants in order to assist In the promotion
and organization of special types of classes.
Teachers and
supervisors have been added to develop fields for which
State and Federal assistance was granted.
Average dai?.y
attendance and enrollment have been built up through the
interest of members of local organizations and groups who
desired special help.
Interpretation of the program to
the public has also helped in the growth of the Adult
Education Department.
Such publicity has often drawn
new students to the adult schools.
79
Cooperation has been with three groups:
the Federal
Government, the State or California, and local organiza­
tions.
Each of these has left its distinct imprint on the
program.
X.
USE OF FEDERAL FUNDS IN THE ADULT EDUCATION
PROGRAM
The Federal Government has given direct support
to the program of adult education through Its appropria­
tions under the Vocational Echcation Acts, the Emergency
Education Project, the National Youth Administration,
and Works Projects Administration, and the Federal Forum
Project.
Whenever such aid was given, certain standards
had to be met, regulations were established, and limita­
tions Were placed on the program.
The Smith-Hughes, George-Ellzey, and George-Reed
Vocational Education funds have provided money for voca­
tional education in the fields of homemaking, trades, and
industries in the Adult Education Department.
The George-
Deen Bill provided special funds for business education
in the distributive trades.
The Smith-Hughes classes for adults which had been
held by Polytechnic High School came under the supervision
of the Adult Education Department in 1921.
Seven classes
were held the first year in sewing and millinery, fourteen
80
the second year, twenty-nine the third, thirty-four the
fourth, thirty-3ix the fifth*
Smith-Hughes funds were
claimed only on the basis of classes in vocational homemaking until 1925-26, when reimbursements were granted
for classes in trades and industries*
The first George-Reed funds were granted according
to the requirements set up by the State and Federal Voca­
tional Education Acts for the classes maintained during
1929-30*
George-Ellzey reimbursements were made for
classes during 1934-35, and George-Deen funds were avail­
able in 1938-39 on the basis of classes held during 1937-38*
These Federal and State Vocational funds have been
important factors in the development of the adult classes*
They have been the factors which determined the opening
of new fields of study*
Vocational homemaking, trades and
industries, and the distributive trades classes have deve­
loped largely because of the aid given through these various
acts*
Cooperation of the Federal Government, the State
Department of Education, the Day Nursery Board, and the
adult schools was secured in the development of the nur­
sery schools*
The Federal Government gave permission for
the State Department of Education to open nursery schools
under the Emergency Education Project in Long Beach.
Three
day nursery buildings and equipment were made available
through Government funds, for the school to open on July 1,
1934*
Supervision of the project was through the Long Beach
Adult Education Department*
Twenty-five teachers were
required to maintain this project*
In 1936-37 and 1937-38 the Federal Government by
means of Works Projects Administration funds provided
Long Beach with a specialist in the field of parent edu­
cation.
Under the Institute of Family Relations in Los
Angeles, Dr. Loran D* Osborn, State Supervisor of an
experimental project, worked in Long Beach with Mrs* Ida
0. Storeh, Departmental Assistant in charge of Homemaking.
He conducted classes, organized groups in the different
schools, and promoted the extension of parent education
throughout the city.
During 1935-36 funds became available through the
national Youth Administration for students between the
ages of 18 and 25*
Regularly enrolled adult students were
permitted to perform clerical tasks in the office of the
Adult Education Department, for which they were paid through
funds from the Rational Youth Administration.
clerks started work on February 24, 1936*
The first
From that time
until June 21, 1939, a total of $1127.99 was paid in
salaries to these persons.
Table II gives the amount paid
in salaries to these persons each year they were employed*
82
TABLE
II
TOTAL SALARIES OF CLERICAL WORKERS PAID BY FUNDS
FROM THE NATIONAL YOUTH ADMINISTRATION AND
THE FEDERAL FORUM PROJECT .
Year
National Youth
Administration
Funds
Federal Fornm
Project
Funds
Total
•
1935-6
$
320.25
1936-7
505.95
1937-8
138.95
1938-9
162.81).
Total
$ 1127.99
$
320.25
505.95
Ilj.l6.9i4.
1555.89
w^i.39
5014.23
$ 6268.33
1 7396.52
#
83
The Merchant Marine Training Center was the result
of cooperation of the National Youth Administration, Federal
and State governments through their reimbursements for voca­
tional education, and local agencies with the Adult Educa­
tion Department#
In the spring of 1937, this project was
opened on board a ship in the local harbor with the purpose
of training men for unlicensed positions on cargo ships and
thus assist In raising the efficiency of the United States
Merchant Marine#
The cost of instruction was paid by the Long Beach
School District through the Adult Education Department#
The district was then reimbursed through the Federal and
State Vocational Education funds#
was paid by the school district#
The rental for the boat
Equipment was furnished
by the schools and by other interested persons#
Food was
paid for by the men in training at the rate of $5#00 per
week#
All of the trainees were expected to live on the
boat during the time they were attending the classes*
VS/hen they were financially unable to pay for their food
and other living expenses, the National Youth Administra­
tion paid twenty-seven dollars per month to the youth In
need, twenty dollars of which was to be used for the cost
of the food#
The instruction of such students was practical to
such an extent that they were ready for positions at the
completion of their training go»iod#
Eighty hours per month
84
were spent by the students for the specific occupation they
were learning.
Sixty hours each month were spent in the
improvement of the ship.
Through the cooperation of the
unions and ship owners associations the students have been
placed in positions for which they were trained, as they
became prepared and openings occurred*
Another form of Federal aid has been through means
of the Federal Forum Project.
In 1938 the Office of Edu­
cation made funds available for the employment of certified
Works Projects Administration workers to stimulate interest
in forums or allied activities.
Seeing the value of such
assistance, the Adult Education Department applied for aid
and the Federal Forum Project was opened under the super­
vision of the Director of Adult Schools.
The persons employed on this project were limited
as to the type of work which they were permitted to do*
The Office of Education, Washington, D. G., gave the fol­
lowing illustrations of work they could perform;
1. To assist teachers or discussion leaders in the
day or evening schools in which it is desired to extend
opportunity for discussion. Belief workers may help
such teachers or discussion leaders with bibliographi­
cal or secretarial work and in various forms of research
work.
2. To assist student clubs or forums where discus­
sion programs are being conducted.
3. To assist in surveying existing adult civic edu­
cation opportunities including day or evening school
classes, lecture courses, club activities, etc.
85
4* To assist in surveying the physical resources
for adult civic education which includes an investiga­
tion of suitable meeting places, cost of maintenance,
seating capacity, etc.
5# To assist in creating a list of available speakers
and leaders from the local community or elsewhere.
6. Assistance to evening school, adult education
directors or other supervisory or administrative offi­
cers who are engaged in the promotion of discussion
groups in working out schedules for the use of speakers
and leaders and in arranging the details of the meet­
ings.
7. To assist in an investigation of available library
facilities for adult education groups including pamphlet
material, special study materials and visual aids.
8. To assist librarians who are cooperating with the
school officials in the promotion of a program of pub­
lic discussion.1
The first project was set up with twelve relief
workers for an average period of two and one-half months
and an average wage of not over eighty dollars.
The maxi­
mum budget to be spent by June 50, 1938, was $2400.
Due
to delay in starting the* work, there was an original request
made for sixteen workers.
Two of them were ”Research
Workers” at #94 per month, two were ffSenior Stenographers”
at #85, three were ”Senior Clerks” at #85, four were ”Junior
Clerks” at #65, and five were "Senior Typists” at #65.
first of these workers started on May 10, 1938.
The
Prom that
time, to the close of school, they had reported on 113 forums
or discussion groups.
1, 1938.
Table III presents the total number
Let tel* from J.i W. Studebaker to Will French, March
Adult Education Department files.
86
of and attendance in the forums and discussion classes for
the first trimester of 1938-39.
This table also gives the
number and percent of persons participating in the discus­
sions.
The project has been set up in various units of time,
each lasting from two and one-half months up to a year in
length.
Each reopening has immediately followed the closing.
Average wages were established, total budget was stated,
and a limit was set as to the number of man-months to be
worked.
One man-month is equal to the total monthly time
of one man working for a full month.
In the case of this
project one hundred and twenty hours constituted a manmonth prior to September 1, 1939.
The Federal aid on this project has given a great
impetus to the growth of the forum-diseussion groups in
the Long Beach Adult Education Department.
The number
of such forums increased rapidly, and attendance in such
classes has been high, often averaging one hundred students,
or more*
Community cooperation has been secured in the pre­
sentation of these forums.
Schools, clubs, and the Public
Library have all asked for and received forumrdiscussion
groups for their organizations.
Teachers and principals
say that the classes organized for these and other student
groups have accomplished much in creating a new desire for
87
civic education by the persons of Long Beach and has made
the community more intelligent on the problems of the day*
Glasses have been maintained in the subjects listed in
fable III and other subjects have been added throughout
the period of the Federal Forum Project.
The money that has been paid for salaries for the
workers on the Federal Forum Project in the Long Beach
Adult Education Department was shown in Table II.
II.
FORMS OF STATE COOPERATION
The. greater per cent of the money for maintaining
the Adult Education Department has come from State funds
on the basis of average daily attendance, years of school
maintained on the high school level, and bonuses on the
first thirty units of average daily attendance.
Money
has also been granted by the State to equal Federal Funds
for reimbursements in the field of vocational education.
In 1927-28 the State Department of Education
cooperated with the adult schools by sending Dr. Gertrude
Laws, who was In charge of parent education in Southern
California, to work one day each week in Long Beach.
The
purpose was to train and discover lay leaders for parent
education and to test the use of materials in classes of
that field.
In the morning she met groups for the Parent
Teachers’ Association, in which two hundred persons
88
TABLE III
NUMBER OF FORUM-DISCUSSION CLASSES HELL, TOTAL ATTENDANCE IN EACH,
NUMBER AND PERCENT OF STUDENTS ACTIVELY PARTICIPATING,
FIRST TRIMESTER, 1938-1939 *
Title of Glass
Leader
Attendance
H* B.
C. H*
H* B#
A* W*
James
1339
1224
1050
658
486
181
335
185
144
42
14
27
18
22
8
148
413
5315
120
384
T355
81
93
26
Participation
Namber
Per cent
FORMS
Town Meeting
Exploring the Times
Governments of the World
Investments
Understanding My Body
United States History
and Government
Traffic Safety
Franklin
Woodruff
Franklin
Gox
Houloose
Judith Johnson
Gilbert Merritt
Sub-Total
TRAVEL DISCUSSION
Lands ©f Peace
H« B* Franklin
H* B. Franklin
World in Review
Adventures in the Balkans H* B* Franklin
Seeing the World
Honora D. Smith
Sub-Total
GRAND TOTAL
368
358
457
881
5553
110
61129
124
30
17
28
14
13
7382
816
25
*Forum-Discussion Program (Long Beach, California!
1938-9, Adult Education Department), p. 32.
Mimeographed booklet,
89
enrolled*
Club*
In the afternoon she met with the College Women fs
Thirty-five enrolled in this class*
The remainder
of the day Dr* Laws spent in contacting community leaders
and organizing parent groups*
In 1928-29 Dr* Laws conducted
two groups In Long Beach, one for the general public and one
for parent education leaders*
The demand for parent education classes grew steadily
through the next few years as a result of her work*
Classes
were organized In the various schools for the parents*
The
content of the classes varied with the needs of the agegroup of children in the school where the class was offered*
Later consumer education, pre-natal care, and classes for
parents of pre-school children were added*
In the latter
classes, the parents observed the characteristics of the
children as displayed in their play and discussed the sig­
nificance of their actions*
By 1938-39 all parents in Long Beach had been invited
to participate in the parent education classes*
The demands
for training in this field were often so great that it was
difficult to offer enough work In the field to supply the
demand and still keep within the budget allowed*
In 1936-37 a check was made on all of the State
Offices in Long Beach to determine the number of State
employees attending adult classes*
The results revealed
that twenty-three of the sixty-three such persons were
90
TABLE IV
STATE EMPLOYEES ATTENDING ADULT CLASSES
1936-1937
Office
Number employed
Number attending
adult classes
State of California Labor
Commission
3
1
State of California Board
of Equalization
35
17
State of California Motor
Vehicle Department
18
5
State of California, Division
of Income Tax
2
State of California Compensation 3
Insurance Fund
State of California, Division
of Oil and Gas
TOTAL
2
63
22
91
enrolled.
In one Instance a class was organized for the
employees of that office.
Sixteen members of the Board of
Equalization were found to be attending that class, Police
Science.
Table IV shows the number of persons employed
by the State and the numbers attending adult classes*
III.
COOPERATION OF COMMUNITY ORGANIZATIONS
One of the interesting features of the Adult Edu­
cation Department has been the large amount of community
cooperation, which has been given in several ways and has
left definite imprints upon the program.
Financial assis­
tance has in some cases been in the form of money given to
help secure speakers, In buildings made available for classes
without rental charges, or in equipment donated or loaned to
the adult schools for the use of the students.
A second form
of local cooperation has been by means of the organization
of classes for groups asking for special help, or by co­
operating with such agencies to give special programs.
A
third manner of cooperation has been through interpretation
of the program through the local newspapers and radio sta­
tions.
This study will merely point out examples of the
cooperation of community agencies.
The extent of such
assistance to the program has been so great that a complete
record of the work would be a study in Itself*
Instances
92
of the use of buildings of community organizations has
already been discussed in Chapter III, Housing the Program*
The donation of the use of buildings has made it possible
for the Adult Education Department to save money and thus
present classes that might not otherwise have been offered*
The records of community cooperation prior to 1920
are limited*
The first mention we find is in a report by
Walter R* Hepner in which he tells of the help received
by the Adult Education Department from the newspapers
of the city:
That the evening schools have succeeded in reaching
at least some of these groups of people is indicated
in the editorial printed in the Long Beach Daily Press,
to wit, "The night high school in Long Beach is wield­
ing a large influence for better and more useful citi­
zenship and is contributing to the individual success
of large numbers of people. Here are offered facili­
ties to learn how to do things in almost every walk
of life."
It is to the Long Beach Daily Press and the Long
Beach Daily Telegram that a large portion of the credit
for this large enrollment and attendance belongs. The
greatest factor which enables night schools to fulfil
their purpose is publicity* At all times these two
papers have published willingly and gladly the news
items from the office of the evening schools* It has
certainly been a great pleasure to have the cooperation
of our two newspapers in the task of carrying the
message of the evening schools to the people of Long
Beach*2
The local radio station, K.F.O.N., sponsored a series
of radio talks in 1926-7 by the Adult Education Department*
These programs were presented from 8:00 P.M. to 8:10 P.M.
^Letter from Walter R. Hepner to Superintendent
Stephens, January 19, 1920* Files of Elmer C. Jones.
93
eighteen weeks and included five lectures on Personality
Development by Dick Carlson, five by Mrs. Catherine Jones
on Parent
Education, and eight by Elmer C. Jones on
f,Educating the Grown Up.”
The Press-Telegram printed
these talks in the Eadio Section of their paper.
These
broadcasts and follow-ups in the Press-Telegram were
continued during the following year.
They originated
in the office of Elmer C. Jones each evening from 7:00
to 7:15.
In 1921-22 an Americanization Committee was formed
of twenty persons interested in Americanization.
This group
sponsored a series of lectures with the aim of Americanizing
Americans, instead of emphasizing aliens.
Invitations to
attend the lectures were sent out by the Naturalization
office and delivered by the Boy Scouts to all who had
their first papers.
did not attend.
The series was not a success; people
One reason for non-appearance of those
receiving special invitations was that the addresses were
incorrect and therefore messages were not delivered.3
That same year the Chamber of Commerce, through Its
Naturalization Committee of which Elmer C. Jones was chair­
man, had a special welcome program on the Fourth of July.
This was held in honor of all naturalized citizens who
had received their papers during the year*
^Unpublished document.
Reports state
Files of Elmer 0. Jones.
94
that It was an interesting program*
However, there was
only a small attendance at this program and only a few
new citizens were present#
One of the reasons the foreign mothers gave in
1924 for not attending classes offered for them was that
they had so many children and such big washings that they
did not have time to take advantage of these opportunities*
The Elks, upon learning of this situation, provided an
electric washer for the Mirasol Center#
Mothers came to
the center and put out their washings on the line*
While
the clothes were drying, the women studied English*
The
small children, in the meantime, played under the direction
of a volunteer teacher*
During 1924-25 it was found that the greater majority
of the foreign-horn left school as soon as they had learned
enough English for their immediate needs#
To encourage
further study, the Daughters of the American Revolution
awarded a gold medal to the winner of an essay contest in
the Advanced English classes.
Cooperation of the day schools and of the various
nationality groups with the Adult Education Department was
secured in 1925 through a year end public program, the
"Pageant of the Nations."
The Director of Adult Schools
stated, "It was the most spectacular demonstration of
foreign talent ever presented In Long Beach#
Thousands
95
were turned away while the Municipal Auditorium crowd sat
enthralled for three hours.
In 1925-26 Mrs* Panunzio who was Supervisor of Immi­
grant Education conducted two hundred and three programs,
parties, dances, receptions, and conferences*
Thirty-five
organizations interested in Americanization cooperated with
her in the presentation*
Among the groups included were:
Seaside Hospital, City Employment Bureau, Labor Commission,
District Attorney, Chamber of Commerce, Better Business
Bureau, Mexican Consulate, Probation Office, Detective
Bureau, County Jail, Municipal Courts, Vice Squad, Tax
Department, Immigration and Naturalization authorities*
The Federated Parent Teacher Association at their
first meeting of the school year, 1926-27, appointed a
committee to cooperate in giving lectures In the two high
schools on "Home Problems.11 This plan was dropped as the
committee did not believe that people doing Parent Teacher
Association work should be paid for their services, as would
occur if the courses were conducted by the Adult Education
Department*
However, two classes were offered that year
in the field of Parent Education, one was given under the
instruction of Dr. G* Handy Clark of the Parents Educa­
tional Center of the Long Beach Social Welfare on "The
Pre-School Problem11 and one by Mrs* Catherine Jones on
the "School Child.”
This was followed with a short unit
^Unpublished document, files of Elmer C. Jones*
96
course on "Etiquette," taught by Mrs •Jones, which was so
popular that it was repeated twice*
These classes were the
start of Parent Education work in Long Beach*
As a result of the success of these lectures, a
"Lecture Bureau” was formed in the Adult Education Department
which furnished speakers for the monthly meetings of the
Parent Teachers * Association Reading Circles •
There were
thirteen speakers from the Adult Department used in this
Bureau, during this school year*
As a requirement for a playground credential in
1928-29, a course in "Playground Training" was required*
The Physical Education Department of the Long Beach City
Schools requested the Adult Department to offer such a
course, which request was granted.
A class the same year
was offered in "Scouting" through the cooperation of the
Boy Scout staff and the school staff*
For the benefit of teachers who were interested in
psychology, Dr. Frank C* Davis, Assistant Professor of
Psychology at the University of California at Los Angeles,
was secured by the Adult Education Department to give a
series of four lectures in the spring of 1937*
This series
was attended by approximately nine hundred of the one
thousand certificated teachers in the Long Beach City
Schools*
97
Another outstanding piece of cooperative work during
1936-37 was a elass in Character Education, designed for
the Training of Volunteer Teachers, especially in chureh
schools*
This group of twelve meetings was planned by the
churches in cooperation with the local school authorities
and offered by the Adult Education Department*
Many of the teachers throughout the entire school
system have attended classes, not only in fields where they
might develop new interests, but in classes that would help
them in their positions.
Thus, teachers have been found in
classes in art, music, floral art, interior decoration,
foreign languages, commercial classes, short story writing,
and other allied subjects*
At various times, other short
unit classes have been offered especially for teachers, such
as Manuscript Writing, Electricity, and Woodwork.
Local business concerns and the Adult Education
Department worked together in 1926-27.
A class in Per­
sonality Development was offered to employees of Buffurns
Store and to the Gold Medal Creamery.
The use of equipment
was donated to the Adult Department by the Western Union
who supplied the instruments for a class in telegraphy*
A new feature was started in 1930-31*
The merchants
of Long Beach opened their stores in the evenings for the
benefit of a&ilt students.
There the members of the classes
would gather to hear the specialists discuss subjects of
98
general household Interest*
Several different groups of people in the fields of
trades and industries were served by the Adult Education
Department during 1934-35.
Previous to that year classes
had been offered to employees of the oil companies.
A
definite cooperation was maintained with classes in oil
production, employing oil experts as instructors during
1934-35.
Forty-two different companies enrolled a total
of over three hundred men.
Over three hundred city employees
were enrolled that same year including persons from the
Fire Department, Park Department, and the Police Depart­
ment.
Glasses were offered to Navy men on Friday nights.
Spcial shore leave was granted to any who desired to
attend.
Most of the work requested by them was in the
vocational field.
Cooperation with such groups increased during the
following five years, continuing with the above mentioned
trades and industries, enlarging the programs already
started, and adding still other industrial organizations
to the list of concerns desiring classes for their per­
sonnel.
The Public Library has always been very helpful
in cooperating in all ways with the Adult Department.
They
have always been willing to furnish rooms for adult classes. 5
Immediately following the earthquake five classes moved to
^Walter Hepner, op. cit.
99
the Public Library*
z»
Classes continued to meet there
throughout the remainder of the twenty-five year period
of the study*
During 1928-29 the readers from the Public
Library were enrolled in a class ffAmerican Life in Books11
with an Adult Education instructor*
Miss Annis Fletcher of the Social Welfare in 1926-27
requested a course in Social Welfare for about twenty-five
workers.
Ten sessions were scheduled with a different
speaker for each one.
An additional lecture was added on
”Selling Yourself.**
In 1925-26 the Social Welfare donated the time of
one Public Health Nurse to Immigrants in the Adult Education
Department.
In 1926-27 two were supplied and one inter­
preter was sent to the Newport Center to help those who
could not speak English.
Two nurses were used each year,
1927-28 and 1928-29.7
Previous to 1928 the Seaside Hospital had been
offering training classes for nurses.
As there was no
laboratory at the hospital, the science work was given
by the Adult Education Department at Polytechnic High School*
This year a class in Psychology was added to their regular
course in the adult school*
®News Item in The Educator, April 17, 1933.
^Lenore Panunzio, op* clt*
100
On January 6, 1938, the Long Beach Chamber of Com­
merce Olympic Beautification Committee launched a campaign
to help out the many people in the city who needed financial
assistance*
First there was a clean-up campaign in which
an attempt was made to clean up unsightly spots in the city*
This was followed by a drive against billboards*
The third
phase was the beginning of the Thrift Cardens, which is a
splendid example of community cooperation.
To start the plan of the Thrift Gardens, ground was
needed, water was required, seeds would have to be secured,
other details had to be worked out.
Owners of vacant lots
donated the use of these idle pieces of ground*
furnished by the City with no charge*
Water was
The Press-Telegram
and Long Beach Sun newspapers raised a fund of $2000 for
purchasing vegetable seeds and later $1300 for the same
purpose was raised by the State Theater*
These lots were given to the unemployed for their
use*
The first immediate problem, however, was to secure
means of livings for these people until the crops were
raised.
It did not take long to discover that there
already was much food being wasted.
A truck was secured
and wherever fruit or vegetables were not used, they were
collected and brought to Long Beach.
The oil and gas
necessary to run this truck were furnished by oil com­
panies.
In addition, barrels were distributed around
101
the Public Market where donations of* food might be left*
Barges and fish boats were used to secure fish for these
people*
Later rabbits, chickens, and goats were raised to
furnish meat*
To build up interest in the project radio station
K.F.0.X. donated time for radio broadcasts.
With the
opening of school on September 11, 1932, the Adult Educa­
tion Department started gardening classes*
Subjects
offered for the Thrift Garden group were food preserving,
carpentry, rabbit raising, fruit and berry growing, farming
and gardening, floral and bulb culture for the home and
for commercial purposes, and home economics.
The music organizations in the fall of 1937 desired
to have a series of music recitals by Dr* Henry Purmort
Eames, Professor of Aesthetics and Musical Arts at Scripps
College*
As his fees were too high to be met by the Adult
Education Department alone, the Musical Arts Association
and the Women1s Music Club assisted the department in meeting
the expenses*
Mr. Bruce C* Rowan donated the use of the
Little Theater in the Times Building where the series was
held.
The short unit course was called ^Progressive Lis­
tening,11 and it was open to members of the music clubs
participating and to adult schools students*
The seating
capacity of the auditorium was limited, so tickets were
102
required, for which no charge was made*
Capacity audiences
were held each hight*
The Educator for April 25, 1938 listed the following
Cooperative Adult Projects:
Teacher or leader Training for Sunday School teachers
in cooperation with churches and other character build­
ing agencies*
Teacher Training Units for elementary teachers in
cooperation with General Supervisor of Elementary Grades
in script writing, woodwork, and electricity used in
project work*
Training elementary clerks and applicants for school
clerical positions in cooperation with the Director of
Elementary Schools and Elementary Principals*
Custodians and Caretakers in cooperation with Calif­
ornia School Employees Association and the Director of
Business Department of the Public Schools*
Band in cooperation with the American Legion*
Long Beach Philharmonic Orchestra in cooperation with
the Becreation Department and High School Principals*
Progressive Listening in cooperation with the Women's
Music Club, Musical Arts Association, Rowan Institute
of Music and Allied Arts, and Dr* Henry Purmort Eames
of Claremont Colleges*
Traffic Safety School in cooperation with the Munici­
pal Courts, Traffic Safety Council, and city officials*
School Forums with cooperation of State Office, day
school principals, Parent Teachers Associations, and
Fathers’ Council*
Investments Forum In cooperation with all local
Investment concerns*
Apartment House Courses in cooperation with the
Long Beach Apartment House Association*
Barber Science in cooperation with the local associa­
tion of barbers and the Master Barbers of America*
103
Petroleum Technology program:
Institute*
Marine Training Center:
Association*
Police and Fire Science:
American Petroleum
Unions and Ship Owners
City Departments.
Navy Men's Classes: Navy Young Men*s Christian
Association, and Navy Officials*
Apprentice Building Crafts: BuildingTrades, Con­
tractors, and Citizen*s Committee.
Parent Education and Family Relations: Parent
Teacher Association, Character Building Associations,
Social Welfare, State Department.
Lipreading Forum:
League for Hard of Hearing.
Floral Art and Short Story Writing:
Players* Guild*®
During 1938-39 there were several additional groups
cooperating with the Adult Education Department who were
not mentioned in the April 25, 1938, listing.
There was a
class in Real Estate In cooperation with the Long Beach
Realty Board*
The "Native Wild Life of California” class
was composed largely of members of the Agassiz Club.
Classes
consisting of people in that trade were offered to Dental
Assistants, Painters, Lathers, Plasterers, Electricians,
Plumbers, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, each with a
lay-sehool advisory committee.
Members of the Ebell Club
and the University Women's Club attended special classes
offered to their groups, but open to any other persons who
desired to attend*
Classes In the field of Distributive Industries
SNews' "item in The Educator, April 25, 1938.
104
necessitated tiie cooperation of various retail stores who
recommended attendance by the employees, or even in some
cases permitted the employees to attend on company time*
Classes held under the provisions of the George Deen Act
for Distributive Trades were attended by students from
grocery stores, hardware stores, drug stores, Buffums*
and Walkers* Department Stores, Famous Department Store,
Sears-Roebuck, National Dollar Store, and Desmonds*
Many
of these classes were held in the store building, thus
solving the housing question.
IV.
SUMMARY
Many different agencies have cooperated with the
Adult Education Department during the period of this study.
Often new fields have been opened through assistance of
these outside organizations, such fields developing into
vital parts of the program for adult education.
Without
such support, the story of the Adult Education Department
of the Dong Beach City Schools would have been an entirely
different one.
The Federal Government has assisted through funds
for vocational education, the Emergency Education Program,
National Youth Administration, Works Projects Administra­
tion, and Federal Forum Project.
The State has supplied
the funds for the maintenance of the Adult Education
105
Department, and supplied a special worker in the field of
parent education.
State employees have been served by the
adult schools*
Community cooperation has been through various forms
and agencies*
The newspapers and radio stations have
interpreted the program, miscellaneous agencies have spon­
sored the Americanization program*
School groups and
representatives of the trades and industries have requested
special elasses for their needs*
Many other local organi­
zations have been served by the Adult Education Department*
Superintendent Stephens alms for the adult school are
realized in this cooperation.
The offerings of the adult
schools fit the needs of the people in the community and
offer what they want and what they
need*
CHAPTER VI
FINANCING THE PROGRAM
The funds necessary to maintain the Adult Education
Department have come from three sources: the Federal Gov­
ernment, State and County funds, and the local district#
The general trend throughout the twenty-five years has
been away from the local agencies and county to the State*
At the beginning the larger amount of money came from the
County*
Through the 1920fs money was received-from the
Federal, State, and County sources and locally from student
fees and student activities.
Table V shows the percentage
of income from the various sources from 1931-32 to 1938-39*
The total cost of maintaining the Adult Education
Department throughout its history may be seen in Table VI*
Total income from 1930-31 to 1938-39 is also included on
this Table*
I.
FEDERAL FUNDS
The Smith-Hughes Bill, effective in 1917, has given
aid to vocational classes in the fields of home economics,
trades, industries, and commerce.
Such courses are limited
to students over fourteen years of age who are preparing
for or are employed in some trade or occupation*
Ralph W. Swetman, Outline and Digest of California
School Law and State School System (Stanford University,
California: Stanford University Press, 1938), p* 8*
107
TABLE V
PERCENTAGE OF ANNUAL INCOME FROM FEDERAL, STATE,
COUNTY. AND LOCAL SOURCES, 1931-1939
County
Local
27.914-
52.12
15.46
4*55
49.03
36.01
10.41
1933-34
3.7
93.4
1934-35
5*1
92.25
#•
2.66
1935-36
5.3
91.8
*
2.9
1936-37
6.74
93.26
1937-38
8*6
91.4
&
*
1938-39
10#00
84.30
&
Year
Federal
State
1951-32
4.49
1952-33
*No income from this source#
2.9
5.70
108
TABLE VI
TOTAL ADULT DEPARTMENT INCOME AND EXPENDITURES,
ANNUALLY, 1? li|-19 39
Year
Income
.-15
1915-16
1916-17
1917-18
1918-19
1919-20
1920-21
1921-22
1922-23
1923-21+
1924.-25
1925-26
1926-27
1927-28
1929-29
1929-30
1930-31
1931-32
*
*
*
*
*
#
*
*
«
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
55,703.00
71,591.64
Expenditures
$
2 ,338.25
2 ,585/37
,* . +
6 513 81
7,205.15
8,876.1+0
13,617.68
19,071.30
32,1+39.22
1+
1,769.18
53,931.85
58,582.75
63,630.46
60,707.81
56,674.82
67,935.97
66,667.35
56 ,064.50
66,826.74
1932-33
1933-34
89,204.05
95,199.10
1934-35
103,716.69
78,073.00
111,622.45
120,905.82
138,250.§6
146,617.86
95,068.26
112,615.18
134,607.86
155,555.96
1935-36
1936-37
1937-38
1938-39
62,343.80
•aThere are no available records for these years*
109
In 1917 the legislature of the State of California
passed a measure which accepted the provisions of the SmithHughes Bill and agreed to observe all of its requirements*
Among these was that a dollar of State money should be
allowed for each dollar of Federal money*
The legislature,
further, permitted local high school boards to establish
vocational courses and have the units of attendance counted
in determining the amount of State and Federal financial
aid to be received*
p
The classes must be approved and
reimbursements made under the California State Plan for
Vocational Education*
The State Board of Vocational Educa­
tion reimburses the school district, and application for
3
aid Is made to the Commission for Vocational Education*
Classes were held under the provisions of the SmithHughes Bill in the Adult Education Department in Long Beach
in home economics and trades and industries from the time
these funds were first allowed throughout the remainder
of the period of this study*
The George Reed Bill gave aid to classes in the
field of homemaking from July 1, 1930 to June 30, 1934*
.ft
Ibid* ~ P* 8.
^Handbook on Adult Education, Department of Edu­
cation Bulletin, T§37*
110
That bill granted one million dollars from the Federal
Government to the States for the first year, and one million dollars additional each of the following three years*
4
Classes during 1931-4 in the field of homemaking
brought in funds under the provisions of the George Reed
Bill#
Additional funds for vocational education in the
Adult Education Department during 1932-33 amounted to
several thousand dollars over the preceding year due to
increases in number of special day classes for homemakers,
reimbursable from the funds for vocational education in the
homemaking field#
The George-Ellzey Act which was effective from
July 1, 1934, to June 30, 1937, provided an annual appro­
priation of $3,000,000 from the Federal government to the
States for the further development of vocational education.*^
Reimbursements from these funds were made to the Long Beach
City School District for adult classes maintained in the
fields of homemaking and trades and industries from 1934-37.
The George Deen Bill became effective on July 1, 1937*
It provided for an annual appropriation of $12,000,000 for
vocational education which was to be divided equally between
^School and Society, January 17, 1931, Volume 33,
Ho. 838, p. 80.
^School and Society, September 5, 1936, Volume 44,
No# 1132.
Ill
tli© three fields ^of agricultural education, trades and
industries, and home economics#
A further appropriation
was made of #1,200,000 for vocational training in the dis­
tributive occupations and #1,000,000 for training teachers
/
of vocational education in agriculture, trades and Industries, and home economics#
These funds have assisted the Adult Education Depart­
ment to a large degree by providing money for these voca­
tional education classes#
Such added income has made it
possible to conduct and supervise classes in the fields
of homemaking and trades and industries, including distri­
butive trades#
III.
STATE AND COUNTY FUNDS
The majority of the money used in financing the
program of adult education in Long Beach has been from
State and County Funds#
Money has been granted under the
provisions of the California School Law to the Long Beach
School District for classes maintained in the Adult Educa­
tion Department#
In 1913 the apportionments were made on
the basis of teachers and units of average daily attendancet
#550 shall be apportioned to every school district
for every teacher, so allowed to it; provided, that in
districts having over thirty five or a multiple of
thirty five units of average daily attendance and a
fraction of less than ten units of average dailjr attend­
ance shall be apportioned for each unit of average
attendance in said fraction#
6 Ibid
112
All school moneys remaining on hand, after appor­
tioning to the school districts the moneys provided
for in subdivision three of this section, must be
apportioned to the several districts in proportion
to the average daily attendance in each district during
the preceding school year . . •
Units of average daily attendance wherever used in
this section shall be construed to be the quotient
arising from dividing the total number of days of
pupils* attendance in the schools of the district by
the number of days school was actually taught in the
district. A school day is hereby construed and declared
to be that portion of the calendar day or night in which
school is maintained and in which one twentieth of the
work of a school month may be performed. The attendance
pf pupils present less than one-fourth of any day shall
jciot be counted for that school day and pupils present
%#or one-fourth of a day or for more than one-fourth
of a day shall be counted as present for one-fourth of
a day, one half of a day, three fourths of a day, or
for a whole day, as the case may be.”
In 1919 the method of computing*average daily attend­
ance in evening schools and special day classes was pre­
scribed :
. . • Attendance upon evening schools and special
day and special evening classes of day schools or ele­
mentary and secondary grade shall be kept according
to regulations prescribed by the state board of educa­
tion. A full day* s attendance upon such schools or
classes shall be four sixty-minute hours . . . and
•units of average daily attendance in secondary schools
shall be construed to be the quotient arising from
dividing: the total number of days of pupils attendance
in the regular full-time secondary schools, the even­
ing secondary schools, the special day and evening
classes of secondary schools, and the part-time
vocational courses of the district for the school
year by the number of days school was actually taught
^School"Law of California, 1915, op. cit., Sec. 1858.
113
in the regular secondary day schools of the district
during said year ♦ • •
In 1929 apportionments were made from the State on
the basis of years of high school maintained*
The State
Superintendent of Public Instructions
i * # shall apportion to each high school district
five hundred fifty dollars for each year of the sixyear course covering grades nine to fourteen, inclusive,
maintained in each high school therein during the pre­
ceding school year*
He shall apportion to each high school district on
account of each high school maintained therein eighty
dollars for each unit or major fraction of a unit of
the first ten units of average daily attendance In
special evening classes and evening high school classes
• * • maintained in connection with each such high school
during the preceding school year; sixty dollars for each
unit or major fraction of a unit of the second ten units
of such attendance; and forty dollars for each unit or
major fraction of a unit of the third ten units of such
attendance•
After making all other apportionments required from
the state high school fund he shall apportion the bal­
ance of the fund to the several high school districts
of the state pro rata on the total average daily attend­
ance in such districts during the preceding school year
as reported by the county, or city and county, superin­
tendent of schools*
The County Fund was to be apportioned by the county
or city superintendent of schools:
He shall apportion to each high school district two
hundred fifty dollars for each year of the six-year
course, covering grades nine to fourteen, inclusive,
maintained in each high school therein, during the
preceding school year* Ho high school district shall
8School haw of California, 1919 (Sacramento:
Department of Printing, 1919), Sec* 1858*
State
^School Code of the State of California, 1929 (Sacra­
mento: California S^Bate Printing Office, 1929), Sec • 4*871,
4,873, 4*875*
114
receive an apportionment on this basis on account of
any high school for more grades than there were teachers
employed in such school during the preceding school
year.
He shall apportion to each high school district on
account of each high school maintained therein, forty
dollars for each unit or major fraction of a unit of
the first ten units of average daily attendance in
special day classes, special evening classes and special
classes of evening high schools...maintained in con­
nection with each such school during the preceding
school year; thirty dollars for each unit or major
fraction of a unit of the second ten units of such
attendance; and twenty dollars for each unit or major
fraction of a unit of the third ten units of such
attendance.
After making all other apportionments required from
the county high school fund, he shall apportion the
balance of the fund to the high school districts of
the county pro rata on the total average daily attend­
ance in such districts during the preceding school
year*10
In 1933 a section was added to the School Code
limiting the attendance to be counted for purposes of
apportionment:
In the computation of average daily attendance
no pupil shall be credited with more than one day*s
attendance during any one calendar day. Effective August 22, 1933, sections 4.890-4.898 were
repealed, and new sections regarding apportionments were
added.
The Superintendent of Public Ins timetion:
. . . shall compute the total amount to be appor­
tioned from the State general fund to each county for
high schools as follows:
T O Ibid. Sec. 4.892, 4.894, 4.896.
11
*1953 Supplement to the School Code of the State of
California, (hepartment' of Education,’ bulletin No. id, 1933T
,115
He shall compare an amount equal to twice the amount
of the apportionment to he made from the State high school
fund to the county with an amount equal to sixty dollars
for each unit of average daily attendance in the day
and evening high schools of the county during the pre­
ceding school year* The larger of the two amounts shall
be the amount required to be apportioned from the State
general fund to the county for high schools*
He shall allow to each high school district on
account of each high school maintained forty dollars
for each unit or major fraction of a unit of the first
ten units of average daily attendance in special day
classes, special evening classes and evening high school
classes, including compulsory continuation classes for
persons under eighteen years of age, maintained in con­
nection with each such high school during the preceding
school year; thirty dollars for each unit or major
fraction of a unit of the second ten units of such
attendance; and twenty dollars for each unit or major
fraction of a unit of the third ten units of such
attendance •
He shall prorate the remainder of the apportionment
to each county from the general fund to the several
high school districts of the county on the basis of the
total average daily attendance in such districts during
the preceding school year*12
It was upon the basis of the preceding sections of
the School Law of California that income was received from
the State and County Ponds, throughout the first twentyfive years of Adult Education in the Long Beach City Schools*
III.
STATS ENROLLMENT AND AVERAGE DAILY ATTENDANCE
Table VII shows the population of Long Beach, the
state enrollment, and units of average daily attendance
for the Adult Education Department of the Long Beach City
Schools.
New students were defined for purposes of
12Xbid.
116
TABLE VII,
POPULATION OP LONG BEACH, STATE ENROLLMENT,
AND UNITS OP AVERAGE DAILY ATTENDANCE
FOR THE ADULT DEPARTMENT CLASSES
1913-1939
Year
1915-34
1934-15
1915-16
1916-17
1917-18
1918-19
1919-20
1920-21
1921-22
Population
State enrollment
Units of
average.daily
attendance
*17,809
18
20
19
38
90
108
*55,593
176
186
1922-25
27
1925-24
1924-25
1925-26
1926-27
496
569
1927-28
1928-29
579
606
1929-30
1950-31
1931-32
1932-33
1933-34
1934-35
1955-36
1936-37
* 1142,032
492
568
{*•95
*#408
12996
34812
1937-38
16292
1938-39
16673
669
691
m
1003
^According to the census of 1910, 1920, 1930,
respectively*
*H*There was an additional 171 units of emergency
units of average daily attendance, not included in this
figure*
117
computing state enrollment figures as follows:
The term r,new pupil11 as used in this article • . •
means a pupil who has not attended any other high
school in this state since the first day of July
next preceding his enrollment . ■# #13
The growth has been consistant with drops only in
a few instances#
In the majority of such cases, both
state enrollment and average daily attendance dropped*
There were fewer persons in 1925-26 than In 1924-25
enrolled*
Also, there were decreases In both state enroll­
ment and average dally attendance in 1928-29#
The latter
may have been caused by a compulsory enrollment fee which
was Introduced that year#
The drop during the following
year in attendance may have been due either to the fee
or to the depression#
The decrease in both enrollment and attendance
during 1932-33 and 1933-34 was caused by the earthquake
and the necessary changes following, such as poor housing
facilities and budget cuts, thus eliminating many classes*
In 1933-34 one hundred and seventy-one units of
emergency average daily attendance were allowed the school
district for adult classes as a result of the decrease In
attendance due to the earthquake of March 101, 1933.
^ SehooT Law of California, 1913, op* oit., Sec# 1743*
118
Emergency average dally attendance was provided for in
the School Code:
In any school district in which the average daily
attendance has been materially decreased because of
conflagration or other public calamity or epidemic
of unusual duration and prevalence the average daily
attendance shall be computed by adding to or subtracting
from average daily attendance of the preceding school
year the average yearly increase or decrease, as the
case may be, in average daily attendance during the
three years next preceding#1*
The increase in units of average daily attendance in
1938-39 was caused in part by the addition of attendance
from the Vocational Kehabilitation Department to the Adult
Education Department attendance reports#
The steady growth of the state enrollment and average
daily
attendance has been due to several factors#
First,
the population of Long Beach has increased rapidly, as shown
in Table VII#
The second has been the addition of new
opportunities in the field of education for the adults of
Long Beach#
The third has been the Increasing number of
persons who were learning of the adult classes and finding
that they, also, could attend and receive new knowledges
and skills#
During the latter years of the study the new
leisure time has brought in many students who wished to
learn how to spend this Increased leisure in profitable
pursuits #
1^£>chooT Code of the State of California, 1951
(Sacramento: State Printing Office, 1931), 3ec# 4 #V5o#
119
Table VIII shows the cost per unit of average daily
attendance throughout the twenty-five years, with the
exception of one year, for which the budget is missing,
r
^he total costs for the first few years were not so Inclu­
sive as those of the later years*
Until 1921-22, the
budgets Included only the salary expenditures*
Later years
included not only instruction supplies for immigrant classes,
but capital outlay, maintenance, operating, and miscel­
laneous expenses.
The last five years of the study also
Include costs assumed by the A^ult Education Department
for the maintenance and operation of the buildings, rentals,
and administrative and supervisorial officers of the Long
Beach City Schools*
Thus, the cost per unit of average
daily attendance, Is higher during the latter portion of
the period*
III.
INCOME FROM LOCAL SOURCES
Income from local sources has been secured In two
ways*
Movies sponsored by the Student Body brought in
funds, and registration fees provided money.
The income
derived from such sources was kept as a student body
account and expended for various student body activities*
In 1923-24 movies were sponsored by the Adult Educa­
tion Department.
For this and the following year, they
provided the income for the student body fund*
were discontinued in 1926-7*
The movies
120
TABLE VIII
YEARLY GOST PER UNIT OP AVERAGE DAILY ATTENDANCE
ADULT EDUCATION DEPARTMENT
1914-1939
Year
Cost per unit of average
dally attendance______
____________________________________
19ll|.-15
1915-16 •
.........................
...............
1916-17 .......................
1917-I8 ..................
1918-19
...........
1919-20
1920-21 ................ . .
1921-22
1922-23
1923-2I4. ..................
1924-25
.........................
1925-26
...
............
1926-27
1927-28
...........
...........
1928-29
1929-30
.
1930-31
1931-32 ..............
1932-33 . . . .............
1933-34 .........................................
1934-35 ..................
1935-36 ...............................
1936-37
. . . .
1937-38 .........................................
1938-39
•
$33.40
34.02
*
72.37
88.95
102.03
111.10
102.53
111.10
91.40
79.27
118.11
III.83
101.02
99.25
108.10
120.6?
98.70
135.00
152.93
118.20
141.45
146.89
148.80
155.09
^Figures not available for this year*
121
Registration fees have provided another source from
which student body money has been secured.
According to the
School Code tuition could be charged:
Whenever a special day or evening class for adults
is established, except classes maintained in English
and citizenship for foreigners and classes in elemen­
tary subjects, the governing board of the high school
district may charge a tuition not to exceed six dollars
per pupil.15
In accordance with the above, registration fees were charged
from 1925-36.
Such fees are presented in Table IX.
Until
1925-26 there was no registration fee for adults attending
classes.
During that year a student body finance plan was
presented by the Student Council to the members of the
classes.
It was proposed to have a voluntary student body
fee of one dollar per year.
In return for this, the adult
would receive a student body card which would admit him
to all the activities of the Adult Education Department#
He would also be eligible to receive current Issues of
T,NIte Idfe," the school paper#^®
The Student Body Council voted to require all stu­
dents to pay a one dollar registration fee for the year
1928-29#
The money so secured was to be used for text
materials, free copies of ffNite Life,*1 dramatics, artists
concerts, a picnic for the entire Department, a nursery
15SohooT Daw of the State of California, 1925 (Sacra­
mento : State Printing office, 192IT)
16
Elmer C. Jones, Unpublished document, Jones files#
TABLE IX
SCHEDULE OP REGISTRATION PEES FOR ADULT STUDENTS
1934-1939
Year
Amount of fee
Previous to 1925
Period of time
covered by fee
None
1925-26
*$1«00
One year
1926-27
4* 1*00
One year
1927-28
4* 1*00
One year
1928-29
1.00
Ctete year
1929-50
1.00
One year
1930-31
1.00
One year
1931-32
•50
One trimester
1932-33
♦50
One trimester
1933-314-
•35
One trimester
19314.-35
•35
One trimester
1935-36
•35
One trimester
1936-37 and
following
years
None
^Voluntary student fee
NOTE I No fees were charged in the classes in
immigrant education and elementary education*
123
for children whose parents were attending classes, swimming
suits for use in the plunge, a radio set, and other needs
1*7
not provided by the Board of Education*
The one dollar registration fee continued until
1931-32 when it was changed to fifty cents for each of
the three terms*
Students who could not pay the regis­
tration fee were urged to see the Director for permission
to attend classes without paying#**®'
The same year, 1931-32, classes were scheduled for
the first time for three trimesters instead of two semes­
ters.
The reason for so dividing the year was to encourage
people to attend after the Christmas holidays and after
the spring vacation*
It had been found that many people
dropped out at these vacation periods and did not return
because the end of the term was so near*
Three terms
were held throughout the remainder of the first twentyfive years of the Adult Education Department in the Long
Beach City Schools*
The registration fee in 1933-34 was reduced to
thirty-five cents per term with the exception of those
enrolled in homemaking, immigrant education, and citizen­
ship classes*
1
'
18Ibid.
124
In the fall of 1936 the registration fee was abolished.
There were several reasons which were given for eliminating
that charge.
tuition.
Many people either could not or would not pay
People were already paying taxes to support the
schools and felt that they should not pay additional fees.
Some people did not attend classes because they did not
feel able to pay.
Elmer C. Jones, Director of Adult Edu­
cation, said:
It is not the idle rich who are Interested but the
intelligent prudent citizen of small means . . .
Adult
education, as now conducted, is a community service
and it Is not individual welfare but social welfare
which Is at stake . . . The cost should not be shifted
to the local district or to the individual. Ho one
should be forced to pay for the privilege of rendering
community service by attending adult classes.
IV.
EXPENDITURES OP THE ADULT EDUCATION DEPARTMENT
Total expenditures of the Adult Education Department
for its first twenty-five years were shown in Table VI.
No figures are available for the year of 1916-17.
The
increase in cost of maintaining the Department has increased
steadily throughout the period studied, due mainly to
larger number of teachers, administrators, and non-certifleated personnel.
Such growth, in turn, was caused
by additional services offered to the people of Long Beach.
reiTfcrr"
125
Costs were much higher in 1935-36 than in 1934-35
as assumed costs amounting to $11,433*92 were included.
These assumed costs were the pro rata share of the Adult
Education Department in the administration and supervision
of the Long Beach City Schools and an amount estimated t©
be the cost of rentals of school buildings.
The average
hourly wage of teachers was also higher in 1935-36 as there
20
were fewer first year teachers in the Department.
Additional assumed costs during 1936-37 and 1937-38
accounted, in part, for the increases in total expenditures.
Another factor causing the higher cost in 1936-37 was the
raising of teachers’ salaries.
Table X gives the salary schedule for hourly teachers
throughout the last twenty years of the study.
In 1930-31
teachers received increases on the basis of more experience
in the Department.
However, they received no pay for
21
holidays, sickness, or institute attendance.
In 1932-33
*
there were reductions for all teachers and administrators
throughout the entire school system in order to decrease
the cost of the schools.
’,
The earthquake during that year
and the necessary rebuilding of schools kept the salaries
down for several years.
The adult schools hourly teachers
did not receive a raise in pay until 1936-37.
^
The following
SixtH Annual Cost-Income Study (Long Beach:
Adult
Education Department, 1937-8)
21
Elmer C. Jones, Unpublished document. Jones’ 'files.
126
TABLE X
RATES OP PAY FOR HOURLY TEACHERS IN THE
ADULT EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, 1918-1939
Year
•
LPV
00
1918-19
Rate of pay per hour according to
years of experience in the Department
1st year
2nd year
Jrd year
Jj-th year
or more
#
.8 5
$
*85
$
.85
1919-20
1*00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1920-21
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1921-22
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
1922-23
2*00
2.00
2.00
2.00
1923-2U
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
19214.-25
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
1925-26
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
1926-27
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
1927-28
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
1928-29
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
1929-30
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
1930-31
2.00
2.25
2.50
2.50
1931-32
2.00
2.25
2.50
2.50
1932-33
1.75
2.00
2.20
2.20
1933-314-
1*75
2.00
2.20
2.20
193I4--35
1*75
2.00
2.20
2. 20
1935-56
1*75
2.00
2.20
2.20
1936-37
1.90
2.15
2.35
2.35
1937-38
2*25
2.25
2.35
2 .14-5
1938-39
2*25
2.25
2.35
2.^5
127
year another increase was made in salaries, but at the end
of 1938-39 the maximum pay was not so great as in 1930-31,
but the minimum pay was higher.
The administrators and
contract teachers did not receive their code salaries until
1939-40.
Table XI shows the total amounts paid for salaries
of all personnel throughout the period studied.
Other expenses of the Adult Education Department
which were included in the total costs were for capital
outlay, office supplies, instructional supplies for immi­
grant classes, rental of buildings, maintenance, operating,
and hauling.
The Student Body Account has been used throughout
the period that such funds were available for those mis­
cellaneous items which were not paid for by the Board of
Education.
These expenditures included costs of the Adult
Education Department newspaper, dramatic events, Artists*
Concert Series, nursery play rooms for children of adult
students, miscellaneous clerical help, teachers salaries,
and other incidental charges.
V.
SUMMARY
The income from classes held by the Adult Education
Department and from other sources has come from three
groups of agencies, the Federal Government, the State,
and the local district.
Vocational classes were reimbursed
from funds allowed by the Federal and State Vocational
128
TABLE XI
SALARY TOTALS OP CERTIFICATED AND NON-CERTIFICATED
PERSONNEL IN THE ADULT EDUCATION DEPARTMENT,
ANNUALLY, 19l4“1939
Year
1914-15
1915-I6
1916-I7
1917-18
1918-19
1919-20
1920-21
1921-22
teachers
Administrators and
supervisors
Clerks
2,338.25
&
#•&
2,385.37
■JHB*
7 ,9 5 0 4 0
13,582,66
14,661.30
32,439*22
1922-25
1923-2l|. 33,173*00
1924-25 46,143*88
1 9 2 5 -2 6
1926-27
1927-28
1 9 2 8 -2 9
1929-30
1930-31
1931-32
1932-33
1933-34
1934-35
1935-36
1936-37
1937-38
1930-39
49,682175
56,451.24
60.707.81
56.674.82
59,820.75
55.801.50
,
60,197*35
46.242.07
39,389.65
52.520.50
61,651.70
4,282.74
5,350.00
92.106.07
•3BH*
•2H*
•iHB*
6,513.84
5,376.40
Care­
Miscel­
takers laneous
clerks
4H*
343*75
596
933*67
999*97
1 ,000.00
1 ,000.00
1.700.00
•JH*
4HB* .
4MH*
*KM*
226.00
530.00
470.00
570.00
651.60
540.00
570.00
3.500.00
850.00
900.00
5.5.00.00
1,800.00
•sh*
2,800.00
3,000.00
3,200.00
3,000.00
2.950.00
3,433*90
-SB*
•3B*
-3*
7.000.00
7.200.00
7.250.00
6.015.00
8.066.00
9,552.55
4> 3 3 3 4 o
4,241.20
11,108.18 6,071.60
ill.,766.50 6,062.50
i9,3l|l|..oo
,050.50
17.011.00 I ,787.50
9*905
n
-JB*
4HB*
•JHHfr
•3BB*
4BH*
98.25
•SB*
■3B*
■SB*
72.00
635.75
950.00
1.655.50
1,075.00
■IBM*
1A99.85 1,487.25
1,801.63 1,395.37
1.649.58 1,091.15
1,777.80
727.68
3,770.1!}.
56.16
fcao.afi
338.16
I4., 558.814. 516.90
5,602.92 1,308.54
7,077.50 1,093*20
5.559.58 1.070.50
-a-Cost of administration and supervision included
Tinder cost of teachers.
•sh*No persons were employed in this position this
year.
-SBBfrNo records available for these salaries.
129
Education Acts*
Hie State and County have granted money
on the basis of teacher units and average daily attendance
in the earlier years and on years of high school maintained
and units of average daily attendance in the later years*
State enrollment has increased during the period
studied from 362 students to 16,673.
Units of average
daily attendance have increased from 18 to 1003.
Income from local sources has been from movies and
student body fees.
Expenditures have increased throughout
the period as new fields were developed and new classes
3s-
were opened.
CHAPTER VII
SUMMARY AID RECOMMENDATIONS
The Adult Education Department of the Long Beach
City Schools was started in 1914 with the organization of
the Long Beach Evening High School#
During the following
twenty-five years five other evening high schools have
been opened, two of which closed within a few years after
they were organized#
Special day adult classes have been
held In many different locations#
Summer schools have
been attempted at various times throughout the period#
Under the present organization, day classes are
attached to the various junior and senior high schools,
with the principal of *the day school the legal principal
of the special day classes.
Supervision is by the depart­
mental assistants of the Adult Education Department#
Actually, the departmental assistants are the administrators
of the classes.
They organize them, close them when neces*
sary, select the teachers, and see that the policies of
the Adult Education Department are maintained.
The day
school principals cooperate in the promotion of such
classes, but have no actual administrative duties.
While this procedure has been satisfactory In the
past, there is a possibility that at some future date this
situation will cause friction between the Adult Education
131
Department and the day school principals.
There might be
two ways of preventing this difficulty from occuring*
One would be to have the day program divided for state
reimbursements into special adult centers or schools,
rather than special classes attached to junior and senior
high schools.
Another possibility would be to have the
special day classes attached, as is done at present, to
the day high schools, but to have the departmental assis­
tants or principals of the evening high schools made the
legal administrators of the program*
The program of adult education in Long Beach has
been housed at times in regular day school buildings*
Three of the four evening high schools in 1938-39 were
meeting in such locations*
The fourth evening high school
met in a building rented by the School Board.
To house
the day classes, adult centers have been opened in various
sections of the City of Long Beach.
these centers in 1938-39.
There were three of
Other classes met in a number
of locations, churches, business houses, residences, city
buildings, and club rooms.
Day school buildings are often not suited to the
needs of adults.
If there were one central building con­
structed and equipped for adult students, more efficient
service could be rendered by the work in the classroom.
Overhead would be reduced with a central location, and
132
time would be saved in the administration and supervision
of such classes.
Persons could attend two or three classes
a day at the same location, and several members of the
family or friends could attend the same school, thus solv­
ing transportation problems.
The original staff of the Adult Education Depart­
ment consisted of one part-time principal and sixteen
part-time teachers.
the period.
This staff was increased throughout
In 1938-39 there were seven administrators
and supervisors, an equivalent of six and nine-tenths time
contract teachers, one hundred and thirty-one hourly
teachers, seven full-time and one half-time clerks, three
janitors, one matron, and nine miscellaneous persons
employed.
Many agencies have cooperated with the Adult Educa­
tion Department throughout the twenty-five years of this
study.
The Federal and State governments have assisted in
developing the program.
Many local organizations have
donated equipment, buildings, and other facilities.
They
have cooperated in the Interpretation and promotion of the
adult program.
The Adult Education Department is not the only
organization in Long Beach offering education to adults.
Many other agencies sponsor similar programs, some in
cooperation with the adult schools and others Independently.
153
If a central agency were established to give out information
regarding all such classes for adults, the possibilities
would be increased for meeting the needs of all persons in
Long Beach*
Such an office could be under the authority
of either one man as a city coordinator of adult education,
or several men acting together as a council*
With central
administration of all educational opportunities, duplica­
tion of classes would be eliminated, rivalry between groups
would be minimized, and people could secure complete infor­
mation on educational matters without having to call
several different offices* .
The money for financing the program of adult educa­
tion in the Long Beach City Schools has been derived from
Federal, State, and local sources*
The largest portion of
this income has been on the basis of units of average
daily attendance, which is computed on the number of hours
of student attendance in the classes*
No student, however,
may be credited for reimbursement purposes for more than
four hours in one day.
In the adult schools, students do not attend every
day of the week*
Often, people find it is to their advan­
tage to take several classes in one day, each class lasting
from two to four hours•
These same persons may not attend
other days of the week, because of their personal schedules*
If attendance for these persons could be counted
134
for the full time they are In the classes, the Adult Educa­
tion Department would he ahle to secure additional income.
Further, it would eliminate the clerical work which is now
necessary to determine when adults do attend over four
hours in any one day*
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BIBLIOGRAPHY
A.
BOOKS
Bryson, Lyman, A State Plan for Adult Education. Hew York:
J.J. Little and Ives Company, 1934. 69 pp.
Debatin, Prank M., Administration of Adult Education. Hew
York: American Book Company, 1938. 486 pp.
Pagley, Frederick L., A Little Handbook on Adult Education.
Boston: The Pilgrim Press, 1935. 32 pp.
Torbet, J. Keith, The Establishment of an Adult School.
Hew York: The Macmillan Company, 1936. 218 pp.
B.
PUBLICATIOHS OP LEARHED ORGAHIZATIOHS
Alderman, Lewis Raymond, Public Evening Schools for Adults.
Washington, D.C. Bureau of Education Bulletin, Ho. 1,
Government Printing Office, 1927. 72 pp.
Castle, A.W., Organization and Administration of Extension
Centers, Schools, and Classes. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania
Department of Public Instruction, June, 1935, Bulletin
Ho. 78. pp. 46.
Pansier, Thomas, Organization and Administration of a Com­
munity Program in Adult Education. The Hew York State
Emergency Education Adult Program, Series 1, Bulletin
Ho. 1. Albany, Hew York: State Education Department,
1936. 26 pp.
Handbook on Adult Education, State of California, Department
of Education, Bulletin Ho. 20, October 15, 1937. 27 pp.
Study of Adult Education, Report of Committee on Services
of Government and Their Costs. California Congress of
Parents and Teachers, Inc. 15 pp.
School Law of California, 1913. Office, of Superintendent
of Public Instruction, Edward Hyatt, Superintendent.
Sacramento: Department of State Printing, 1913.
pp. 312.
137
School Law of California, 1915* Sacramento:
of State Printing, 1915• 329 pp.
Department
School Law ofCalifornia, 1917. Sacramento:
of £>tat~Print ing, l9l7V 384 pp*
Department
School Law ofCalifornia, 1919* Sacramento:
of State Printing, 191UI 440 pp*
Department
School Law ofCalifornia, 1921* Sacramento: California
State Printing Office, 1921« 500 pp•
School Law ofCalifornia,'1925* Sacramento:
Printing Office, 1925• 416 pp*
State
School Code of California, 1929* Sacramento:
F r i n H n g ^ f H c e T T ^ W * H57F pp.
State
School Code of California, 1931* Sacramento:
Printing Office, 1931* 6'2'S pp*
State
School Code of California, 1935* Sacramento:
FrintlHg^f'Ffce, 1935*
pp.
State
School Code of California, 1937* Sacramento:
Printing~75ffice, 1937• 456 pp*
State
1933 Supplement to the School Code of the State of Calif­
ornia* Prepared under the direction of VlerlTng
Kersey, Superintendent of Public Instruction, State
of California, Department of Education, Bulletin No*
10, August 21, 1933*
C.
PERIODICAL ARTICLES
"Proposed Appropriations for Vocational Education,,f School
and Society, 838:80, January 17, 1931.
"The George-Deen Vocational Education Law."
Society, 1132:296, September 5, 1936.
D.
School and
UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS
Jones, Elmer Clifton, The Administration of Adult Education*
Unpublished Master* s thesis, 1‘he University of Southern
California, Los Angeles, 1928. 210 pp.
138
OTHER SOURCES
Cost-Income Studies of the Adult Education Department,
Long Beach City Schools, 1932-39.
Departmental Bulletin, Humber 1 . Mimeographed bulletin.
Long BeacKl Adult Education Department. 7 pp.
Flies of the Adult Education Department, Long Beach City
Schools, 1914-40.
Files of Elmer G. Jones, Director of Adult Schools, Long
Beach City Schools.
Forum-Discussion Program, Long Beach, California. Adult
Education Department, 1939• Unpublished booklet.
36 pp.
Jones, Elmer C. Re-Education of Adults, Tenth Annual
Re port, Unpublished document; •
Jones, Elmer C.
Costs of Education.
Unpublished document.
Jones, Elmer C. A Study of Evening Schools in the State
of CaliforniaT LnpubTTsiied document, T9££.
Jones, Elmer C. Why Adult Education Should be Free.
bulletin, 1933. & pp.
Typed
Monthly Reports of the Adult Education Department, Long
Beach City Schools, 1924-40.
Panunzio, Lenore. Comparative Study during the four-year
period of home teacher worlET Typed report, 1929 •
Payrolls of the Adult Education Department, Long Beach City
Schools, 1918-1939.
Schedules of Classes of the Adult Education Department,
Long Beach City Schools, 1927-40.
The Administrative Code and the Rules and Regulations of
t'HeTong’BeacH UTiy ^ o ^ . * T o n g ^ a c E 7 T ^ 3 U -----The Educator and The Nite Life. Adult Education Department,
Long Beach City ScKools, newspaper. 1925-1939.
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