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A comparative study of the educational concepts of Booker T. Washington and W.E. Burghardt Du Bois

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A Thesis
Presented to
the Faculty of the School of Education
The University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Science in Education
Lillian Frances Duffy
June 1940
UMI Number: EP53806
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UMI EP53806
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T h is thesis, w r it t e n u n d e r the d ir e c t io n o f the
C h a ir m a n o f the c a n d id a te ’s G u id a n c e C o m m i t ­
tee a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l m em bers o f the C o m ­
m itte e , has been pre se n te d to a n d accep ted by
the F a c u l t y o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a t io n in p a r t i a l
f u l f i l l m e n t o f the re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f
M a s t e r o f Science in E d u c a tio n .
D a te
J u n e
8 *
D ean
Guidance Com m ittee
M. M. Thompson
C hairm an
C. C. Crawford
Irving R. Melbo
The Problem..........................
Statement of the p r o b l e m .............
Importance of the study...........
Related investigation.
. ♦ ...........
Scope of investigation
Method of procedure.................
Organization of remainder of the thesis.
Contemporary American setting.......
Biographical sketches of Washington and
Du B o i s ..........................
Booker T. Washington .................
W.E.Burghardt Du Bois.............
Origin of their respective concepts.
Pragmatic philosophy .................
Washington1s concepts.
Industrial concepts...............
Reaction against academic formalism.
Du Bois*s concepts.................. • • .
College concepts..........
Ideal Negro university..............
Reaction against industrial training.
A HD DU BOIS...............................
Washington, the active m a n ..............
The Tuskegee e x p e r i m e n t ...............
The expansion of the Tuskegee experiment
Du Bois, the thoughtful man . . . . . . .
The organization movement • • • • • • •
Shifting opinions • • . • • • • • • • •
Contrasting social attitudes.............
B I B L I O G R A P H Y .....................................
The history of the Negro in America is one of strife
and counter-strife.
Kidnapped and brought to these shores
three centuries ago, enslaved upon his arrival and kept in
bondage from the early seventeenth through the early nine­
teenth century, the black man was finally liberated into a
savage and unfriendly society at the close of a war that all
but disrupted the Union.
The ensuing pages propose to take
up certain portions of this story that begin at the crucial
and chaotic Reconstruction.
Traditionally, historians have endeavored to attri­
bute the Civil 'War to the inevitable conflict between the
"industrial North" and the "agrarian South".
Slavery, or
the emancipation of the slaves, was but an incidental issue,
according to some.
That the sudden liberation of several
million untutored blacks created a problem of the first
magnitude, a l l .seem agreed.
Disagreed seem many, however,
an the "humanity” of this black man who had been kept in
bondage so long that his keepers persuaded themselves he
was, by Divine will, destined for eternal servitude.
thought of educating him in the sense that education is
understood today was foreign to the defenders of the insti­
tution of slavery of a century ago.
Indeed, so great has
been the penetration of this insidious doctrine of black
inferiority and Negro ineducability that one of the subjects
of this study felt constrained so recently as 1935 to write:
It would be only fair to the reader to say
frankly in advance that the attitude of any person
toward this sbory will be distinctly influenced by
his theories of the Negro race.
If he believes
that the Negro in America and in general is an
average and ordinary human being, who under given
environment develops like other human beings, then
he will read this story and judge it by the facts
If, however, he regards the Negro as
distinctly inferior creation, who can never suc­
cessfully take part in modern civilization and
whose emancipation and enfranchisement were ges­
tures against nature, then he will heed something
more than the kind of facts I have set down* But
this latter person, I am not trying to convince.
I am simply pointing out these two points of view,
so obvious to Americans, and then without further
ado, I am assuming the truth of the first.
In fine,
I am going to tell this story as though Negroes
were ordinary human beings, realizing that this
attitude will from the first seriously curtail my
audience. 3It is obvious, therefore, that even today opinion is
sharply divided as to the capacities and capabilities of
black men.
This assumption of a fundamental difference be­
tween the black slave, and later the black freed man, is
the basis of many discussions that advocate different edu­
cational systems for the students of these "different" races
Considering that the blacks were not emancipated until 1865,
is not entirely an unnatural assumption.
(New York:
E. Burghardt Du Bois, Black Reconstruction
Earcourt, Brace and Company^ 1935) Preface.
Statement of the problem.
The purpose of this study
was to make a critical analysis of the comparative value of
the educational concepts of Booker T. Washington and W. E.
Burghardt Du Bois, in regard to Negro education.
In other words the purpose of this study was to an­
swer the following questions:
Under what conditions did the concepts of Booker
T. Washington and W. E. B. Du Bois originate?
What were their concepts of education?
What are the essential differences between the
concepts of these two men?
What are the essential likenesses between the
concepts of these two men?
What are the political, social and economic
implications of the concepts of Washington?
To what extent is it possible to evaluate the
concepts of Washington?
ton taken?
Of Du Bois?
Of Du Bois?
What practical turns has the concept of Washing­
Of Du Bois?
What has been the influence of Washington?
Du Bois?
What place have the concepts of Washington in
the American scheme?
Of Du Bois?
To what extent do the concepts of these two men
advance the ideals of education?
To what extent do the concepts of these two men
contribute to the solution of the problem of their people?
Of the Nation?
Importance of the study*
The intelligent observer
of race relations in the United States today concedes that
the destiny and progress of the country are directly depend­
ent upon the destiny and progress of all the citizens.
Though guaranteed the privileges of citizenship by consti­
tutional amendment, and to some intent and purpose a eitizen
of the United States, no one who knows anything of the set­
up of the ’’Solid-South” really believes the colored citizens
enjoy their constitutional or legal rights of suffrage*
Since Reconstruction when white Southerners found the free
black man in their midst, at liberty to compete in the same
economic order, there has been much animosity between these
tv^ro groups of the population.
Defensively, the white man
avers the Negro is ’’different” and is ’’entitled” to privi­
leges which are ’’separate but equal”.
Defensively, like­
wise, the Negro charges that whereas he has no difficulty
finding the ’’separate”, the ’’equal” is a myth.
charges are especially true of education, which in the
South is based upon racially segregated school systems*
Flourishing around the close of the nineteenth and
early part of the twentieth century was a brilliant Negro
educator, Booker T. Washington.
So revolutionary were the
reforms he effected in an educational experiment at Tuske­
gee, Alabama, that many of our present day principles of
vocational education are said to be off-shoots of his plan.
Chiefly, he advocated the “dignity of labor, the gospel of
service, and the intellectual, moral, and economic advan­
tages of an industrial education,”
The chief critic of the Washingtonian scheme of things
in the early part of the century was that indefatigable Negro
scholar, Dr. W. E. Burghardt Du Bois.
He represents what is
the most articulate utterances against the “industrialism”
(for the Negro) of Booker Washington.
Socially, he is, os­
tensibly, opposed to compromise with the “white South”.
The importance of this problem promises to have na­
tional and even international ramifications.
The problem
of the Negro has always been uppermost among the problems
of this country.
That he can be educated is the assumption
The nature of this education is not in every instance
Many advocate a different kind of education for mem­
bers of the colored race.
The success of the Washington ex­
periment at Tuskegee has made an everlasting impression on
educators throughout the world.
The United States is not alone among world powers
with race relations problems.
Naturally, any success the
United States achieves with its ’’colored citizens" will be
watched by such countries as England and Prance with interest.
In the face of growing intolerance in the dictator
nations, there is definite need for a clarification of the
status of minorities throughout the world.
true in the democratic nations.
This is especially
These democratic nations
have an opportunity today to study the problems of their
minorities at close hand.
A contribution to such a problem
would be the formal statement of the concepts two members
of the same race held about so important an issue as educa­
The public school system of the United States sub­
scribes to the opinion that education will advance democ­
racy; hence the emphasis on Negro education.
Many states, and particularly southern states, prac­
tice discriminatory tactics on their colored citizenry.
This alone testifies to the growing need of a reclarifica­
tion, not only of Negro education, but of education in the
The wider implications suggest that the problem is
in no wise limited to the United States or the colored peoples.
Fundamentally, these conflicts are conflicts between ideol­
ogies which bid fair to transcend the borders of race.
deed, any practical solution would be a worthwhile contribu­
tion to the economic and social progress of the nation.
If one were to consider that literally the Negro has
been uprooted from his native African soil and superimposed
on a native American background, which in the course of gen­
erations, has come to be synonymous with his "home11, one
would have little difficulty in understanding what is too
often regarded as the paradoxical part of the Negro:
apparent inability to cooperate for his own good.
the "differences11 which white
have consciously,
or unconsciously, spread has come to be part and parcel of
the ideologies of many Negroes.
Accepting this so-called
"inferiority" status, this type of Negro has been content
to remain docile and to receive the benefits of the white
man's paternalism, which, in many cases, continues as long
as he is " a good boy".
This is not to say that Mr. Wash­
ington accepted the idea that God designed the black man for
a traditionally "inferior" place.
What students of Washing-
ton have apparently overlooked is that the far-sighted re­
former was a firm believer in progressivism.
The fact re­
mains, however, that at Tuskegee and in his many public ut­
terances, Washington commended the Negroes to an artisan's
^Cf. S. S. Richards, A Study of Materials Dealing
with Race Educational Problems (Los Angeles: U. S. C.
Department of Education, 1931).
This factor, together with his so-called compromise
with the white South, raised him to a prominence which no
man of color had attained before him.
Following his death,
a new group of Negro thinkers appeared upon the scene.
trary to the opinion of some, this group was not actually
new, for as early as 1903^ a Negro organization was started.
The purpose of this group was to direct the attention of
the liberal forces in the nation, and particularly in the
Negro race, to fla recognition of the principles of human
Chief among the agitators in this movement during
the years 1905, 1907 and later was W. E. Burghardt Du Bois.
From the beginning, Du Bois took exceptions to the doc­
trines of Booker Washington.
In tracing the respective philosophies of these two
talented Negroes, we shall have occasion to view some of
the workings of the so-called ”Negro-mindt! at close quarters.
That two minds so singularly gifted should apparently be so
diametrically opposed will certainly lend interest to the
3b . G. Brawley, The Negro Genius (Chapel Hill, N. C . :
The University of N. C. tress, 1936) pp. 191-2.
Related investigations.
It is significant that the
investigations most nearly related to the present one are
concerned with but one side of this dual question.
That is
to say, in so far as the present researcher has been able to
discover, there are no studies that attempt a comparison of
the educational concepts of two Negro commentators on the
What studies that have been discovered in this in­
stance may discuss, in toto or in part, the concepts of
Washington; or, the studies may attack the broader problem
of the relationship between Negro education (in such cases
as there exists racially segregated educational systems) and
the education of the white majority, generally.
The reasons for the lack of closely related investi­
gations will not be treated in detail here.
A probable
reason is suggested by the relative scarcity of trained and
interested Negro scholars on the one hand; and on the other,
the difficulty of a full and complete appraisal of the work
and influence of Dr. Du Bois, who, of course, is still alive
and productive.
The following four studies have been selected from a
long list of similar ones.
Their pertinence will become
clear with a brief resume of the contents:
Bower, May, The Contributions of Booker T. Washington
Education (Los Angeles: The ^University of Southern
California i)epartment of Education, 1922).
The title is a succinct statement of the problem.
The author asserts that Washington* s ’’pragmatic philosophy”
led him to emphasize the dignity of labor, the gospel of serv­
ice, and the intellectual, moral and economic advantages of
an industrial education.
While acknowledging that the in­
fluences of Washington have gone far afield from their origi­
nal objectives (the Negro race), the author pays unstinted
tribute to Washington and offers documentary evidence that his
industrial system presaged important vocational concepts of
this day.
Throughout, the viewpoint of this author is that
Washington and his whole doctrine were but incidentally asso­
ciated with the colored race.
In fine, the opinion quite
logically points towards Washington*s essential greatness as
an American.
Eason, Newell D., The Negro in American Industry
(Los Angdes;
The Universityof Southern California
Department of Economics, 1932).
This study is an exceptionally able, though brief,
treatment of the Negro*s relation to American industry.
ing the hostility of white laborers and the ”jim crow” poli­
tics of trade unions on the one hand, and the enforced inef­
ficiency of the Negro on the other, the author contends the
Negrofs problem is one of becoming "normally” distributed*
Three activities recommended by the writer, in this connec­
tion, are:
(1) Establishment of new plant policy by indus­
trial concerns; (2) Industrial education for the negro; (3)
Labor cooperation and organization.
Thus, in a measure, this
author advocates a modified form of the Booker Washington
Horne, Frank R ., The Present Status of Negro Educa­
tion in Certain of the Southern States, Particularly
GeorgTa fLos AngpLes: The University of Southern
California Department of Education, 1932).
Of all the theses examined by the present investiga­
tor, this one is the most scholarly and the most thorough.
It finds a place in the bibliography of Dr. Du Bois!s book,
Black Reconstruction.
That the author is attached to the
Fort Valley (Georgia) Normal and Industrial Institute (an
experiment not entirely dissimilar to the earlier one at
Tuskegee) has evidently been of minimum influence in his
views, for in general style, analysis, and point of view, the
author shows signs of intercourse with the newer school of
Negro writers who have courageously allied themselves with
"the proletariat”.
The survey of this author is on a background that has
taken ample cognizance of the tradition of Negro inferiority;
Negro incompetence in political and economic affairs and the
fear of Negro domination.
Opposed to these hollow claims
are what the author considers "bitter opposition consequent
to the rise into power of the traditionally non-slave holding
poor white class."
This, avers Mr. Horne, is accompanied by
a heightened "conflict and bitter opposition to the develop­
ment of Negro education or of his political or economic oppor­
tunities. "
Southern states do provide, uniformly, inadequate edu­
cational facilities for the Negro citizenry.
This "de-emphasis",
or better, "un-emphasis", of Negro education has led to a no­
toriously inefficient colored product.
That southern states
with the largest Negro populations are usually ranked lowest
in national educational scales is directly attributable to
this refusal to allow the colored citizens an equitable portion
of the educational facilities available.
To offset the short­
comings of state and county, even federal agencies, in some
instances, private philanthropic organizations have made not­
able contributions.
Some hope is seen in the South itself.
Organizations like the Inter-racial Commission, products of
the South itself, are held to be signs of enlightenment:
a new, advanced day for Negro education.
The conclusion of this study represents that curious
anomaly the white Southerner sees clearly enough, but on
which he does not act.
Clearly the destiny of the South and
the nation are inextricably intertwined with the destiny of
the humblest black citizen.
Richards, Eugene S . , A Study of Materials Dealing
with the Race Educational Problems, (Lo s Angeles: The
University of Southern California Department of Educa­
tion, 1931).
In the critical bibliography appended to the Horne
treatise, this work is described as "adverse to the Negro".
Though there is the chance of ambiguity in that author’s
meaning, it becomes clear on a careful reading of Mr. Richards1
thesis that he was interested primarily in an objective, impar­
tial presentation of the facts about the textbooks most fre­
quently employed by teachers of Social Sciences and related
subjects in the nation’s schools.
After examining such texts and counting the mentions
of the word "Negro" as source and as reference, Mr. Richards
proposes to divide the books into three classes, which, roughly
are as follows:
(1) Those in which the author is sympathetic
in his treatment of the Negro; (2)Those in which the author
makes "sweeping" statements (after a generally unscientific
(3) Those in which the "traditional" interpretation
is given of the Negro (this is intensely subjective as a rule
and about as unscientific in method as the group referred to
in the second statement).
Mr. Richards, himself an example of the scientific
investigator at work, recommends a higher objectivity as the
aim of future chroniclers of sections relative to Negroes.
It can be concluded that whereas the concepts of Wash­
ington have profoundly affected American educational thought,
the reaction which has naturally followed him and his period
is becoming increasingly articulate.
The reaction is justi­
fiable on account of gross inequalities forced upon colored
inequalities, it should be added, which retard the
forv/ard march of this state.
Scope of the investigation.
The primary purpose of
this thesis is to ascertain and to evaluate the educational
concepts of Booker T. Washington and W. E. Burgharat Du Bois
by comparative analysis.
In no way does the study propose to
be an exhaustive treatment of this topic, except from the view­
point of formal education.
Any discussion of the Race problem or its implications
is purely incidental to the topic specified above,
The primary sources used in this study were the books,
magazine articles, and speeches of Vifashington and Du Bois.
The secondary sources were books, magazine articles, etc. by
their contemporaries.
Some works of a general nature on edu­
cation and the Hegro are included.
Throughout, the procedure consists largely of quoting
passages from the respective writers to illustrate their atti­
tudes relative to certain situations.
In order to more fully portray the educational phi­
losophy of these two outstanding Negro educators, the writer
in December 1939 made a personal visit to Tuskegee Institute
and Atlanta University.
At Tuskegee a relative and friend
of the late Booker T. Washington were interviewed, as well
as the president of Tuskegee, Dr. Frederick D. Patterson.
At Atlanta University where Du Bois is teaching, the writer
attended his classes, interviewed him, and was permitted to
read two of his unpublished manuscripts, Seven Critiques of
Negro Education, and his autobiography, Dusk of D a w n , which
will be published in the fall of 1940.
The general plan for this thesis will follow the page
of contents outlined.
Since an Idea of the outline of the
five chapters has been included, it can be stated here that
a resume of the chapters will include the following:
The material included here:
A succinct state­
ment of the problem and its investigation.
II. The background of Washington and Du B&is:
This section will view briefly the periof of
Slavery, Reconstruction, and early twentieth
and late nineteenth century America.
graphical sketches of the two men and the
origin of their concepts are stated.
The educational concepts of Washington and Du
This is really the heart of the thesis,
though comparison is limited.
The influence of Washington and Du Bois:
tended comparison, emphasizing how their con­
cepts affected educational institutions, organi­
zations, and hegro education in general.
Summary and Conclusions:
The points established
in the body of the thesis are brought together
and restated.
Chapter Summary.
Conclusions are drawn and stated.
The'spirit of intolerance in_the
"'world today calls for a clarification of the status of minor^
Since the public school system of the United States
subscribes to the opinion that education is the foundation
of democracy, the education of all groups, including the
Uegro group, is a vital issue.
Hegro can assimilate education.
It is assumed today that the
The nature of this education
\ is not always clear, as some advocate a different type of
''v' V
instruction for this minority group.
The educational philosophy
of Washington and D-u Bois give us the viewpoint of two men
whose ideas were diametrically opposed.
The section of the country in which one is born, the
early impressions, the cultural background, and the spirit of
the age in which one lives, deeply affect every individual.
The profound influence of these factors are seen in the lives
and consequently in the educational philosophy of Washington
and Du Bois.
Booker T. Washington was born shortly before the Civil
War; Du Bois shortly after its close.
The years that followed
the Civil War offered many parallels in the years that followed
the World War.l
The South had hoped to establish an Independent state
where the slave system would be absolutely protected politically
and economically.
The North was determined not to surrender
a part of Its territory which was a market for its manufactured
and agricultural products, as well as the source of tobacco,
sugar and cotton.
The real tragedy of the Reconstruction was the failure
of the American mind to regard it as a major national problem.
lj. G. Randall, The Civil War and Reconstruction
(New York: D. C. Heath & Co., 1 9 3 7 T , p. 6 8 9 .
Pew realized that the Reconstruction meant transition from
slavery to free labor, a social upheaval comparable with the
French and Russian Revolutions*2
Evidently some people expected this upheaval to be
settled easily.
The abolition of slavery was attempted by
legislative action.
Slavery was not abolished.
The people
that had been in power in the South did not believe in its
real abolishment.
problem faced them.
Cotton was still their king.
An economic
They had no intention of quietly sur­
rendering the right to live on the labor of black folk after
years of exploitation.
They did not want free black labor.
A series of Negro codes were passed by the South.
They were
so drastic that the North, to protect the Negro, proposed
the Freedman1s Bureau.
The North planned to finance the bureau by confiscat­
ing the property of the former slaveholders.
When it was
discovered this was illegal, the North was very much perturbed.
The expense began to mount.
The country became worried when
the experiment with democracy proved more expensive than it
had anticipated.
E. B. Du Bois, Black Reconstruction, (New York:
Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1935), p. 708.
The North realized that the abolition of slavery could
not be left to the white South.
It could not be abolished by
the North without time and money.
So the North decided to
put the responsibility on the Negro.
Du Bois points out that:
What the nation had before it was not the
nice academic question as to whether it would
be better to have as voters men of intelligence
or men of ignorance, whether it would be better
to throw into the electorate of a great modern
country a mass of slaves or a mass of college
graduates--no such question was before the
country . . . .3
The only way to make slavery in fact, or inference
forever impossible, was to put the ballot in the hands of the
This truth Thaddeus Stephens saw when he forced Negro
suffrage on the South.
The Negroes began the abolition of slavery in fact in­
stead of theory.
They established free schools and passed
many laws under which the white South is content to live today.
Du Bois feels that if the Negro had been protected in his legal
rights by the government, he would have been eventually able
to protect himself.
The North wavered.
South was determined to prevent.
Such a situation the
The forcible overthrow of
democratic government followed from 1872 to 1876 in the South.
The black peasantry of the South was almost completely dis­
franchised and forced into serfdom.
E. B. Du Bois, The Negro in the South (Philadelphia:
George W. Jacobs and Co., 19077, p. 88.
Against this type of background the lives of these two
educators were etched*
Booker Taliferro Washington.
The life of Washington
began in desolate and miserable surroundings.
slave in Franklin County, Virginia.
He was born a
The exact date of his
birth is unknown, but it is thought to be 1858 or 1859.
father was a white man who lived on a nearby plantation.
mother was a plantation cook.
During his childhood as a slave little Booker slept
on a bundle of dirty rags on a dirt floor.
His days were oc­
cupied in cleaning the yard, carrying water to men in the
fields, and going to the mill weekly to take the corn to be
In Virginia it was common to use flax for a part of
the clothing of slaves.
This clothing was made from refuse.
During Booker’s childhood he wore but a single garment, a flax
When the shirt was new, it was so rough that it felt
like a hundred pin points in contact with his flesh.
All of
his life he could accurately recall the tortures he underwent
in putting on one of these garments.
After freedom was declared, Washington went with his
mother to Malden, West Virginia, which is about five miles
from Charleston,
Here he worked in the salt mines, often
starting at four a.m.
His new home was in the midst of a clus­
ter of cabins crowded closely together, with no sanitary regu­
Soon after the family settled in West Virginia,
Booker induced his mother to get a book for him.
She secured
Webster*s spelling book.
In the
colored boy who had learned to read in Ohio came to Malden.
As soon as it
ed by
midst of Booker*s struggle for an education, a
was found out this boy could read, he was surround­
a large group who were anxious to hear him read the news
contained in the papers.
About this time the opening of school for colored chil­
dren in the village was being discussed by members of the Negro
The most perplexing question was where to find a teacher*
The boy from Ohio was considered too young.
About this time
another young man from Ohio came to Malden, and he was engaged
to teach.
Each family agreed to pay a certain amount per
month, with the understanding that the teacher would spend a
day with each family.
Each family tried to provide the very
best, the day the teacher was to be the guest.
As fast as teachers could be secured, the day and night
schools were filled.
Even after a school for Negroes opened
in Kanawha Valley, Bookerfs stepfather decided that Booker
r must continue to work.
Finally, he persuaded his stepfather
to permit him to go to school during the day, with the under­
standing that he was to get up early and work to nine a.m.
and return after school to continue to do his work.
period he was permitted to attend school during the day was
He was forced to stop and devote his days to work.
He then studied at night, but it was difficult to secure a
satisfactory teacher as the teachers often knew very little.
After working in the salt mine for some time, work was
secured for Booker in a coal mine.
One day while working in
the coal mine, he happened to hear two miners talking about
a school for colored people somewhere in Virginia.
They told
about opportunities for poor, but worthy, students who could
work out all or part of the cost of their board, and at the
same time be taught some trade or industry.
his mind to attend this school.
Booker made up
The ambition to attend
Hampton Institute dominated his life.
A' vacant position occurred in the household of General
Ruffner, the owner of the salt-furnace and coal mine.
Ruffner, who was from Vermont, had a reputation of being
strict with her servants, especially the boys.
Booker for five dollars a month.
lessons in her employ.
She hired
He learned many valuable
She required everything to be done
promptly and systematically.
Nothing must be slip-shod.
Every door, every fence must be kept in repair.
Even to this day I never see bits of paper
scattered around a house or in the street that
I do not want to pick them up at once.
I never
see a filthy yard that I do not want to clean
it, a paling off a fence that I do not want to
put it on, an unpainted or unwhitewashed house,
that I do not want to paint or whitewash it or
a button off one’s clothes, or a grease spot on
them or on the floor, that I do not want to call
attention to it.
During the one or two winters that Booker was with Mrs.
Ruffner she gave him an opportunity to go to school for an hour
a day.
He did not give up the idea of going to Hampton Insti­
In the fall of 1872 he made a determined effort to get
Finally the great day came and Washington started to
The distance from Malden is about five hundred miles.
Trains ran only a portion of the way and the remainder of the
distance was traveled by stage coach.
By walking and begging
rides in wagons, after a number of days he reached the city of
Richmond, Virginia, about eighty-two miles from Hampton.
walked the streets until after midnight.
In a state of exhaus­
tion he came to a portion of the street where the board side­
walk was considerably elevated.
Booker crept under the side­
walk and lay on the ground for the remainder of the night.
As soon as it was light enough for him to see his sur­
roundings, he noticed he was near a large ship that was
^Booker Washington, U jd From Slavery (Doubleday, Page
and Co., 1901), p. 44.
unloading pig iron.
He went to the captain of the vessel and
asked him to let him help unload the ship.
In this way he
was able to earn enough for his breakfast.
The captain was
pleased with his work, so he continued to work for several
days in order to get enough money to get to Hampton.
When he
reached Hampton, he had exactly fifty cents.
When he saw the three-story building, he thought it the
largest and most beautiful edifice he had ever seen.
sented himself at the school to the head-teacher •
time he was kept waiting.
For some
In the meantime other students were
After a long time she told him to take the broom
and sweep the recitation room.
Washington swept the room three
times and dusted it four times.
He pre­
She inspected the room care­
When she was unable to find one bit of dirt on the
floor or a particle of dust anywhere, she remarked that she
supposed Washington could enter the institution.
Miss Mary F. Mackie, the head-teacher, offered Washing­
ton the job as janitor.
The work was hard and exacting but
Washington persevered.
One of the people that made a lasting impression on
Washington was General Armstrong.
One might have removed from Hampton all the
buildings, classrooms, teachers, and industries,
and given the men and women their opportunity to
come in daily contact with General Armstrong, and
that would alone have been a liberal education.5
5Ibid., p. 55.
Life at Hampton was' a revelation to Washington,
meals at regular hours, eating on a tablecloth, using a napkin,
the use of the bathtub and the toothbrush as well as sheets on
the bed were
all new to him.
to him.
first night he slept on top of both of them.
watching the
The sheets were quite a puzzle
other boys he caught on to the correct procedure.
The education he received from textbooks was only a small
part of what Washington learned at Hampton Institute.
One of
the things that impressed Washington was the unselfishness of
the teachers.
White teachers from the North devoted their en­
tire life to the uplift of the students.
Miss Natalie Lord, from Portland, Maine, taught him to
use and love the Bible.
She taught him to appreciate its
spiritual help as well as its literature.
She also gave him
private lessons in public speaking, teaching him breathing,
enunciation, and emphasis.
had adesire to do something
then be
From early childhood Washington
to make
the world better, and
able to speak to the world about it.
Washington com­
ment s :
. . . for the first time, I learned what
education was expected to do for an individual.
Before going there I had a good deal of the then
rather prevalent idea . . . that to secure an
education meant to have a good easy time, free
from all necessity of manual labor. At Hampton
I not only learned that it was not a disgrace to
labor, but I learned to love labor, not alone for
its financial value, but for laborfs own sake and
for the independence of self-reliance which
the ability to do something the world wants
done brings. At that institution X got my
first taste of what it meant to live a life
of unselfishness, my first knowledge of the
fact that the happiest individuals are those
who do the most to make others useful and
Washington graduated from Hampton in 1875.
During the
summer he worked as a waiter in a hotel in Connecticut.
the close of the hotel season he returned to Malden and was
elected to teach the colored school there.
He began his work
at eight o !clock in the morning and often it did not end until
ten at night.
In addition to the usual routine of teaching,
he taught them to comb their hair, take a bath, and use the
the day.
At night he taught about as many as he did during
The year 1877 which was his second at Malden, he
spent very much as he did the first.
In the summer of 1879 General Armstrong asked Washing­
ton to return to Hampton, partly as a teacher and partly to
pursue further study.
About this time the experiment of educating the Indians
was being tried for the first time by General Armstrong at
Few people had any confidence in the ability of Indians
to profit by education.
He secured from the reservation over
one hundred wild and ignorant Indians.
6Ibid., p. 73.
Washington was to be a sort of ”house father” to them.
He was to live in the same building with them and have charge
of their discipline, clothing, rooms, etc.
At the end of his first year with the Indians there
came another opening for Washington at Hampton.
A number of
young colored people wished to get an education but could not
afford to attend school.
General Armstrong conceived the idea
of starting a night school in connection with Hampton Insti­
A limited number of young people were to work for ten
hours during the day, and attend school for two hours at night.
General Armstrong asked Washington to take charge of the night
During the time Washington had charge of the Indians
and night school at Hampton, he studied under Rev. Dr. H. B.
In May, 1881, General Armstrong received a letter from
George W. Campbell, a white ex-slave holder, and Lewis Adams,
a Negro ex-slave, asking him to recommend someone to take charge
of what was to be a normal school for colored people in Tuskegee.
Tuskegee was a village of two thousand people, about one-
half of them colored.
Before going to Tuskegee he had expected
to find a building in which to teach.
The state legislature
had granted $2000 for the payment of salaries, but-had made no
provision for securing land or buildings.
to find a place to open the school.
His first task was
Washington reached Tuskegee early in June of 1881,
The first month he spent in traveling through Alabama, study­
ing the actual life of the people, especially in the rural
districts, and getting the school advertised among the people
he hoped would attend it.
a mule and a cart.
Most of his traveling was done with
He ate and slept with the people in their
On July 4, 1881, the school opened in the little shanty
and church which had been secured for its accommodation.
Thirty pupils reported the first day of school.
Most of them
were public school teachers.
During the summer of 1882 Washington was married to
Miss Fannie N. Smith, of Malden, West Virginia.
She died in
1884 leaving one child, Portia, who is at present living at
When death came to Booker T. Washington in 1915,
it ended a very useful career.
cemetery at Tuskegee.
He was buried in the chapel
Two tall, pointed evergreen trees stand
like sentinels on either side of his tombstone.
Booker Washington was a tireless worker.
He wrote over
a dozen books, many periodicals, and gave many speeches.
The story of his life is told in TJjd From Slavery.
later book,
Larger Education, is a sequel to the former.
It answers many of the questions Washington was frequently
asked as to how he worked out the educational methods used at
William Edward Burghardt Du Bois.
Prom 1868 to 1940
stretch seventy-two years--the years of the life so far of
Du Bois, who was born February 23, 1868, in &reat Barrington,
In 1868 the Civil War had just ended three
years previously.
It was that year that the freedmen of the
South were enfranchised.
Two groups of laborers— freed slaves
and poor whites--dominated the former slave states, in an
extraordinary experiment in democracy.
The colored population in Great Barrington was small.
The color'line was manifest, but not sharply drawn.
family were among the oldest inhabitants.
Du Bois’s
Mary Burghardt, his
mother, was born there January 14, 1831.
Du Bois attended school regularly from the age of five
or six until he graduated from high school at sixteen.
early contact with playmates and other human beings was normal
and pleasant.
The Hew England influence is shown by the follow
ing comment of Du Bois.
In general thought and conduct I became
quite thoroughly New England.
It was not
good form in ‘Great Barrington to express
one's thought volubly, or give way to ex­
cessive emotion. We were even sparing in
our daily greetings.'
?W. E. B. Du Bois, Dusk of D a w n , p. 30.
He attended Fisk University, Nashville, Tennessee, re­
ceiving the degree of Bachelor of Arts in 1888, the same degree
at Harvard in 1890 and that of Master of Arts at Harvard in
Du Bois then studied
at the University of Berlin.
received his Doctor of Philosophy at Harvard in 1895, his
thesis being The Suppression of the African Slave Trade to
the United States of America.
Dr. Du Bois taught for a while
at Wilberforce University, Wilberforce, Ohio.
He then accepted
a position as an assistant and fellow in sociology at the Univer
sity of Pennsylvania, producing in 1899 his study, The Philadel­
phia Negro.
In 1896 he became professor of history and economics at
the old Atlanta University.
For a number of years he was the
moving spirit of the Atlanta Conference.
He edited a number
of studies about Negroes which made him one of the important
sociologists of the day.
In 1910 Du Bois
went to New York City as director of
publicity and research
for the National Association for the
Advancement of Colored People.
Fo£ twenty-four years he was
editor of The Crisis, the official organ of the NAACP.
In those
years he was the main factor in revolutionizing the attitude of
the American Negro toward caste.
In describing his break with the NAACP, Du Bois says,
By 1930, I had become convinced that the
basic policies and ideals of the Association
must be modified and changed; that in a world
where economic dislocation had become so great
as ours, a mere appeal based on the old liber­
alism, a mere appeal to justice and further
effort of legal decision, was missing the es­
sential need . . •
In 1934 Du Bois returned to Atlanta University to
assist in placing it on a graduate basis,
'Today Atlanta
University does only graduate work.
Dr, Du Bois is the author of The Souls of Black Folk,
written thirty-seven years ago.
He describes it as a cry
at midnight thick within the veil, when none knew rightly
the coming day.
Darkwater, now twenty years old was a mili­
tant challenge, defiant with a dogged hope.
Dusk of Dawn,
which is scheduled to be published in the fall of 1940, he
describes as recording dimly but consciously the coming day
which one feels in the early morning even when mist and murk
hang low.
^ He combines the temper of the scholar and the roman-
ticism of the Negro race.9 For more than three decades he has
striven to interpret the desires and aspirations of his people.
He has compiled seven speeches made at Hampton, Fisk,
and Howard. Universities into one volume, as yet unpublished,
entitled Seven Critiques of Negro Education.
These seven
SBgnjamin Brawley, The Negro Genius (New York:
Mead & Co., 1937), p. 202.
speeches are the best source of Du Bois1s concepts of Negro
Washington1s concepts.
Washington1s philosophy of
education was largely molded by Hampton Institute.
he learned to regard labor as something dignified, something
that gave independence and self-reliance.
The unselfishness
of the teachers in general, and General Armstrong in particu­
lar, impressed upon him the ideal of service for others.
was convinced that education and useful work were inseparable.
This view he carried to Tuskegee.
Pu Bois1s concepts. Du Bois*s concepts were influenced
by his New England background, and his college training in
this country and abroad.
He was Vtfashington1s severest critic
in regard to the larger implications, and the limitations of
industrial training.
Chapter summary.
Booker Washington was born a slave
on a plantation in Virginia,
of the Civil War*
shortly before the beginning
He worked long hours from his earliest
childhood and lived in abject poverty.
To obtain money to at­
tend Hampton Institute, he entered the employ of Mrs. Ruffner,
a former New Englander.
Her high standards of neatness, precision,
promptness, and thoroughness duly impressed Washington.
the thorough manner in which he cleaned the recitation room at
Hampton, gained him admittance.
In 1881, at the request of an
Alabama ex-slave and ex-slave owner, he founded Tuskegee.
Du Bois was born in Massachusetts in 1868.
His child-
hood was similar to that of the average New England boy.
1884 he made his first trip to the South, when he entered
Fisk University,
For twenty-four years he was connected with
the NAACP, serving as editor of The Crisis, its official organ.
&e resigned in 1934 and resumed his teaching at Atlanta Uni­
versity where he is located today.
Considering the background of Du Bois and Washington,
perhaps it is not surprising that their ideas concerning
Negro education are in such direct antithesis.
The world has constantly been faced with many grave
problems--war, starvation, unemployment, etc.
plight is particularly precarious.
The Negro*1s
He not only faces every
problem that confronts' other groups, but the additional
^problem of caste.
Because of this overwhelming burden, the
Negro*s education becomes an increasingly important issue.
Among the many Negro educators who have attempted to formu­
late and evaluate an educational program, Washington and
Du Bois are the most outstanding.
I. Washington*s Concepts
The deep influence of Hampton, the keen analysis of
the basic needs of the people he sought to serve, and his
reaction against the academic formalism of his day, each
played its role in crystallizing Washington*s philosophy.
Pragmatic philosophy.
Washington* s pragmatic phi­
losophy dominated his educational views.
When he first
arrived in Tuskegee in 1881, he made personal contacts with
the people of that vicinity, so as to be conversant with
the pressing needs of that community.
A few years later
there appeared in the Atlantic Monthly an article in which
Washington analyzed the needs of the Negro in the South.
He observed that the masses lived on plantations; their
basic needs were "food, clothing, shelter, education,
proper habits, and a settlement of race relations".
Washington habitually dealt with concrete objectives.
He sought to make Tuskegee of practical value to his own
racial group and to the South as v/ell.
A careful study
showed that the undeveloped material resources of the South
offered great opportunities for the person skilled along
agricultural and industrial lines.
The curriculum of
Tuskegee was set up to train Negroes to be able to grasp
the opportunities of their community.
On this point Wash­
ington wrote:
. . . the best education is that which
fits one to do in the best manner the things
that are open to him in the community in
which he is to reside.1
— -
The Tuskegee founder believed that the best way to
educate, was to adhere to the common and familiar things
that concern the greater part of the people, the greater
part of the time.
The way to make education worthwhile
was to teach the things that everyone needed to know.
enlisted the cooperation of the community by trying to
teach what the community wanted.
IB. T. Washington, "The Salvation of the Negro,"
WorldTs Work, 2:964, July, 1901.
One of the influences of education is to increase
the wants of an individual,
A critical period in that
person*s affairs arises when education does not increase
his ability to supply these wants.
Washington believed
that industrial education would develop this ability.
Industrial concepts.
Washington*s idea of indus­
trial training was to give the Negro an opportunity to
start his new life in a natural and logical way, instead
of beginning life in an artificial atmosphere without any
real foundation.
One of the many hurtful influences of slavery was
the attitude the institution created in regard to labor.
Manual labor was thought of as .undignified, disgraceful,
and degrading by both whites and Negroes.
The slave system
discouraged the use of labor-saving machines because some
Intelligence to operate them was required.
Slavery and
intelligence were never on friendly terms.
The plantation
owner was regarded as belonging to the highest social class.
He did little labor with his hands.
'Those who ¥/ere held
in subjection felt that labor was a badge of degradation.
The Negro felt that the less work he did, the more nearly
he would be like the privileged class.
The slave looked
forward to freedom as being that period when he would no
longer be compelled to work with his hands.
of manual labor, Washington says:
In speaking
One of the first lessons to be taught
the Negro when he became free was that
labor with the hands or the head, so far
from being something to be dreaded • . •
was something dignified and something that
should be sought, loved, and appreciated.
Here began the function of the industrial
school for the education of Negroes.^
In attempting to clarify some of the misconceptions
concerning industrial education Washington points out that
some people were under the impression that industrial
training was designed to make the Negro work much as he
had done during slavery.
the great educatorfs idea.
This conception was far from
The Negro was not to toil ig­
norantly and blindly as he had under the slave regime,
but to learn how to work efficiently and intelligently.
He was to be taught how to understand the forces of nature
and to use them to the best advantage.
Industrial train­
ing was to serve as a bridge--a means of transition from
a feudal setup to that of a free wage earner.
Another misconception was that such training was
class education.
On this point Washington comments:
If the idea becomes fixed in the minds
of people that industrial education means
class education, that it should be offered
the Negro because he is a Negro, and that
the Negro should be confined to this sort
of education, then I fear serious injury
will be done the cause of hand-training.3
^B. T. Washington, Tuskegee and Its People (New York:
D. Appleton & Co., 1907), Preface.
5lbid., p . 8.
The idea that hand training was opposed to the Hegro*s
higher mental development is refuted in these words:
A mastery of the industries taught at
Tuskegee presupposes and requires no small
degree of academic study, for competency in
agricultural calls for considerable knowl­
edge of chemistry, and no mechanical pur­
suit can be followed satisfactorily without
some acquaintance with mathematics and the
three R fs .4
The pragmatic and industrial concepts of Washington
were aligned against the academic formalism which was prev­
alent in education at this time.
Reaction against academic formalism.
contends that education which really educates is not the
mere committing to memory of something that is known before
We must be taught to solve problems of our own, and
not problems and puzzles someone else has originated for us.
The fault of the college lies in the fact that students
never face unsolved problems.
they do not know men.
They may know books, but
There is no education one can get
from books that is equal to that which can be secured from
contacts with great men and women.
Instead of studying
books so constantly, Washington said the schools could
profit by the study of men and things.
Connected with education is the erroneous idea that,
because a man has passed through certain educational forms,
4Ibid., p. 12.
he has somehow become a sort of superior being set apart
from the rest of the world--a member of the ”Talented
Tenth” or some other ill-defined and exclusive caste.
The days of an idle class of people is coming to
a close.
The Tuskegee founder asserts:
. . . a school that is content with
merely turning out ladies and gentlemen
who are not at the same time something
else--who are not lawyers, doctors, busi­
ness men, bankers, carpenters, farmers,
teachers, not even housewives, but merely
ladies and gentlemen--such a school is
bound, in my estimation, to be a failure.
There is no room in this country, and
never has been, for the class of people
who are merely gentlemen, . . . .
time is coming when there will be no room
in any country for the class of people who
are merely gentlemen--for people in other
words, who are not fitted to perform some
definite service for the community in
which they live.5
In his book, Character Building, Washington com­
ments that education in its broadest and truest sense will
make an individual seek to help all people regardless of
race or condition.
The person who is the most truly edu­
cated is the one who is going to be kindest, the most con­
siderate and is going to act in the gentlest manner toward
the race or individual that is most despised.
The highest
test of the civilization of any group is measured by its
willingness to extend a helping hand.
A race, like an
§B. T. Washington, My Larger Education (Hew York:
Doubleday, Page & Co., 191TJ, p. 300.
individual, lifts up itself toy lifting others.
It does not
require intelligence to erush out or try to retard the aspira­
tions of a people, tout a profound statesmanship is shown in
guiding and stimulating people to develop to their greatest
As to the form of education in the South,
we .of both races have grown to the point where
practically all are united in the opinion that
just now industrial education coupled with
thorough religious and academic training, with­
out circumscribing the ambition and inclination
of those who have means to secure what is re­
garded as a higher education, is now most needed.
This industrial training will teach the Negro
thrift, economy, the dignity of labor, and will
soonest enable him to become an intelligent pro­
ducer in the highest sphere of life--a property
holder, a larger tax-payer, a greater commercial
factor, will enable him to knit himself in the
business life of the South.6
Washington* s philosophy is characterized by his prag­
matic and industrial concepts, Du Bois advocates higher
The educational concepts of Du Bois are best analyzed
from various commencement speeches given by him at intervals
from 1906 to 1938.
The author has compiled these addresses,
with the addition of other pertinent comments, into a single
volume of educational philosophy, entitled, Seven Critiques
of Negro Education.
®B. T. Washington, "Educational Possibilities,11
The Arena, 21:458, April, 1899.
After the scheduled fall publication of Du Bois*s autobio­
graphy, Dusk of D a w n , this educational volume will doubt­
less receive serious consideration from the publishers.
In the introduction Du Bois says:
These speeches are snapshots of my mental
state over a period of thirty-two years.
vary from the narrowness of intense conviction
to the vagueness of doctrines that attempt
They tell from one point of
view what the Negro has thought of that edu­
cation which was designed to fit him as a
citizen of a modern democracy.
Seven times in the last thirty odd years Du Bois
has criticized and evaluated the education of the American
His college concepts, his vision of an ideal uni-
\ t,
versity, and his reaction to industrial training make a
worthwhile study.
College concepts.
Du Bois unceasingly drives home
that the complexity of our modern civilization makes the
higher training of Negroes imperative.
The group must have
leaders who understand the great forces of the age and
where civilization is tending.
The first step in lifting
the submerged masses, he contends, is through the higher
training of the talented few.
Education must necessarily
be’gin at the top and filter down.
wrote in the Atlantic Monthly:
As early as 1902 Du Bois
Progress in human affairs is more often
a pull than a push, a surging forward of the
exceptional man, and the lifting of his duller
brethern slowly and painfully to his vantage
Thus it was no accident that gave
birth to the universities centuries before
the common schools, that made fair Harvard the
first flower of our wilderness.^
Black leaders must have a broad education so that
they will be able to apply the general principles of knowl­
edge to the particular circumstances of the condition of
the group.
The rationally arranged college course for men
and women able to pursue it, is the best method of putting
into the nation Negroes with ability to use the social
forces of their group to "stamp out crime, strengthen the
home, eliminate degenerates, and inspire . . . the higher
tendencies of the race not only in thought and aspirations
but in every-day toil."^
The chief thing that distinguishes the American Negro
group from other Negro groups in the West Indies, South
America, and Africa, is the "number of men that have been
trained in modern education, able to cope with the white
world on its own ground and its own thought, method and
?W. E. B. Du Bois, "Of the Training of Black Men,"
Atlantic Monthly, 90:292, September, 1902.
9_______ , "Training the Negro for Social Power,"
The Outlook, 75:413, October 17, 1903.
9_______ , Seven Critiques of Negro Education, Unpublished.
The Negro university, guided by the right philosophy
and properly equipped is the pivotal point around which
Negro education revolves.
The ideal Negro university.
The curriculum of a
Negro university should be based on the Negro’s problems.
The life problem of the American Negro is caste.
woven with the major problem of caste are such issues as
segregation, persecution, discrimination, de­
featism, humiliation, and insult, inferiority complex, etc.
Although it is essential for a Negro university to begin
with the study of the Negro, Du Bois warns:
On the other hand, it would be of course
idiotic to say . . . that as far as most
black men are concerned'education must stop
with this.
No, starting with present con­
ditions and using the facts and the knowledge
of the present situation of American Negroes,
the Negro university expands toward the pos­
session and the conquest of all knowledge.
It seeks from a beginning of a history of the
Negro in America and Africa to interpret all
history; from a beginning of social develop­
ment among Negro slaves and freedmen in
America and Negro tribes and kingdoms in
Africa, to interpret and understand the social
development of all mankind in all ages.
seeks to reach modern science of matter and
life from the surroundings and habits and ap­
titudes of American Negroes and thus lead up
to understanding of life and matter in the
It is a matter of beginnings and
integrations of one group which sweep in­
stinctive knowledge and inheritance and cur­
rent reactions into a universal world of sci­
ence, sociology, and art.
In no other way
can the American Negro college function.
cannot begin with history and lead to Negro
It cannot start with sociology and
end with Negro sociology,10
A great Negro university must begin with the particu­
lar and go to the universal.
Then the universal concepts
must be brought to apply to the individual life and the in­
dividual conditions of living Negroes.
Rooted deep in the
such a university must become not simply a center
of knowledge, but a center of applied knowledge and a guide
for action as well.
The aim of a Negro university should be to produce
leaders who know themselves and the real condition of their
The big problem is to consciously and scientifically
guide the future of the Negro so as to insure his physical
survival and social growth.
Against the Washingtonian idea of industrial train­
ing for Negroes, Du Bois continually directed sharp and
scathing criticism.
Reaction against induBtrial training.
Du Bois criti­
cized the "triple paradox11 of Mr. Washington’s position.
contended that Washington’s silence and submission concern­
ing the civil and political rights of the Negro, in the
hopes of gaining more economic opportunity had not resulted
as Washington predicted.
The actual results were the dis­
franchisement of the Negro, the creation of a distinct
^ I b i d . , Unpublished.
status of civil inferiority, and the withdrawal of aid
from institutions of higher learning for Negroes.
these things were not a direct result of Washington*s
teachings, his social attitude helped their speedier ac­
Du Bois raises the question, "Is it possible
. • . that men can make effective progress in economic
lines if they are deprived of political rights, made a
servile caste, and allowed only the most meager chance for
the developing their exceptional men?"I1
Du Bois holds that what Washington failed to under­
stand was the connection between industrial education and
the labor movement.
The Tuskegee founder*sidea was to
develop skilled labor under a regime of benevolent capi­
Out of wages he hoped the black laborer could
save enough money to develop Negro capitalist who would
hire black laborers.
Washington failed to realize the im­
possibility of labor accumulating enough capital to com­
pete with great monopolies.
Skills and techniques change so rapidly that no
industrial school can predict what will be required to­
Mass production rapidly makes skills and techni­
cal operations obsolete.
Hampton has abandoned its in­
dustrialism entirely and is wondering what to do with its
industrial equipment.
p. 51.
E. B. Du Bois, Hie Souls of Black Polk.
Washington*s educational philosophy was
evolved from his experience at Hampton, his keen analysis
of the basic needs of his people, and his reaction against
the educational formalism of his day.
He realized that the
undeveloped material resources of the South offered oppor­
tunities to the person skilled along agricultural and in­
dustrial lines.
The curriculum at luskegee was set up to
enable the Negro to grasp the opportunities in his com­
Washington tried to change the South*s prevail­
ing idea that manual labor was degrading, by teaching the
dignity a n d -worth of work.
He believed industrial train­
ing was the best means of bridging the transition from the
feudal regime to that of the wage earning system.
ington refuted the accusations that industrial education
was class education by pointing out that the mastery of
agriculture, mechanics, and other industries required the
study of such branches of knowledge as chemistry, mathe­
matics, etc.
The Tuskegee educator firmly believed that
a school which merely turned out ladies and gentlemen un­
prepared to earn a livelihood, was impractical and vision­
Du Bois contends that the complexity of our civili­
zation makes it absolutely necessary to stress higher edu­
In order to obtain a true perspective of the world
situation in general and the particular place of the
American Negro in this complex setting, the brighter
Negro minds must be trained broadly.
Social statesmen
must be produced who understand the complete situation
and can work out a way to extricate the Negro from the
humiliating and degrading position he is forced to occupy
' Both educators were sincere.
Each wished to uplift
/his race, but each differed as to the methods that bring
[the desired results
From the biographical sketch, it is to be gleamed
that Washington lived in a world of action.
Be lost him­
self in a great cause for the benefit of others.
Washington was an extremely active person--a doer of
He felt, that only through the struggle to surmount
difficulties, that races, like individuals, were made strong.
Hard problems were a challenge to his tireless energy.
considered it a privilege to live in an age where perplexing
problems had to be met.
As he so aptly put it, tfI would not
care to live in a period where there was no part of the human
family to be helped up or no wrongs to be r i g h t e d . I n
addition to being a man of action, he was an opportunist
grasping .every possible opportunity to advance the Tuskegee
The Tuskegee experiment.
Tuskegee Institute was es­
tablished by an act passed by the legislature of Alabama in
An annual appropriation of <f2000 for teachers*
■^B. T. Washington, The Negro in the South, p. 40
was made at that time.
During the first ten years of its existence,
a large part of the time and energy of the
Tuskegee school was spent in convincing the
students, their parents, and the white and
colored population of the North and South, of
the value of industrial education ♦ . .
The educational creed was based on the dignity of
The founder of Tuskegee was convinced that the group
would prosper if it learned to dignify labor and put brains
and skill into the common occupations of life.
was emphasized; service was stressed.
Tuskegee fostered
the spirit of cooperation among all groups.
In his famous
speech at Atlanta, Washington cried out in spirit as well as
words, "Cast down your buckets where you are.
Cast them
down in making friends In every honorable way of the people
of all races by whom you are surrounded.”
From the very start Washington sought to make Tuskegee
a community project.
The extension courses endeavored to
meet the needs of Negroes beyond the direct atmosphere of
the class room.
These courses dealt with such matters as
agriculture, health, religion and business.
The agricultural
activity grew out of a conference called by Booker Washington
to consider the needs of the black farmers.
As an outgrowth
of this innovation in southern Negro education, an Annual
Farmers* Conference was organized.
Each year this conference
^B. T. Washington, "Twenty-Five Years of Tuskegee,"
W orld1s W o r k , 11:7434, April, 1906.
attracts large numbers of southern farmers and their wives,
who. gather at Tuskegee to learn better methods of farming,
and of improving their living conditions in general.
It was
Booker Washington who induced George Washington Carver, a
graduate of Iowa State Agricultural College, to head the
agricultural department of Tuskegee.
By 1915 Tuskegee
was carrying on more than twenty-
five different extension activities. Besides the
Farmers1 Conference, Negro Health Week and the Negro Busi­
ness League are some of the agencies functioning today.
fhe expansion of the fuskegee experiment.
In 1881
when Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute first opened
its door, there was practically no school in Alabama, Missis­
sippi, Georgia, Florida, Louisiana, South Carolina, or Texas,
that devoted much attention to industrial education.
a quarter of a century the
. . . demand for industrial schools all
over the North and South, not merely for
colored students but for white also, has
grown to such an extent that it may be said
that a permanent idea of popular education
had been brought about.^
This type of training for Negroes was introduced at
Tuskegee was an outgrowth of Hampton.
T. Washington, "Twenty-five Years of Tuskegee,11
WorldTs Work, 11:7434.
growths sprang up in the form of institutes founded by
Tuskegee graduates.
Soon after the turn of the century
the following schools were founded:
Mt. Meigs Institute,
Waugh, Alabama; Snow Hill Institute, Snow Hill, Alabama;
Vorhees Industrial School, Denmark, South Carolina; East
Tennessee Normal and Industrial Institute, Mississippi;
and Christianburg Institute, Cambria, Virginia.
The founding of these various schools indicated how
the Tuskegee experiment expanded throughout the South.
W. E. Burghardt Du Bois is a scholar whose thoughtful
mind is kept refreshed by constant research.
The late
Kelly Miller regarded the Atlanta professor as a type of per­
son particularly fitted for a lifetime of research.
expressed the viewpoint in Race Adjustment that it was large­
ly due to the subtle influence of Monroe Trotter that Du Bois
turned from research to launch upon a program of organizing
Organization of movements.
In August, 1905, Du Bois
started an organization known as the "Niagara Movement.11
The twenty^-nine men who met at Niagara Falls were representa­
tive of a number of colored people who were concerned about
the future of the Negro, and had misgivings concerning the
larger import of the Washington program.
Just two years
previous Du Bois had published, The Souls of Black F olk,
in which one of the chapters leveled
criticism against the
policies of Mr* Washington*
The manifesto of the Niagara Movement declared its
aims to be:
freedom of speech and press, the abolition of
caste based on race and color, the recognition of the
practical creed, and a united effort to realize those ideals
under wise and courageous leadership*
The following year the group met at Harpers Ferry,
and in 1907 Boston was the meeting place*
The lack of co­
herence was soon apparent and the Niagara Movement as such
It did not fail entirely as it paved the way for
the National Association for the Advancement of Colored
This movement again centered attention upon the
Atlantic professor*
In 1910, Du Bois left Atlanta Uni­
versity to become director of publicity and research for
the NAACP.
In such a position he founded its official
organ, The Crisis * acting in the capacity of editor from
November, 1910 to July, 1934*. During those twenty-four
years his editorials constantly protested against the dis­
crimination practiced upon the' Negro.
He bent his efforts
to the vindication of the black man's right to the full heri­
tage of American citizenship*
In the initial publication of
The Crisis in 1910, Du Bois*s editorial stated:
The object of this publication is to set
forth those facts and arguments which show the
danger of race prejudice, particularly as mani­
fested today toward colored people.
It takes
its name from the fact that the editors believe
that this is a critical time in the history of
the advancement of men*
Catholicy and toler­
ance, reason and forbearance can today make the
world-old dream of human brotherhood approach
realization; while bigotry and prejudice empha­
sizes race consciousness and force can repeat
the awful history of contact of nation and
groups In the past* We strive for this higher
and broader vision of Peace and Good Will.
It may well be said
that the platform of the NAACP
was enunciated by Du Bois!s first editorial*
During his
editorship the masses were kept informed of racial discrim­
ination in theaters, parks, courts, educational institutions,
The initial editorial likewise sounded the need for
an international movement.
Less than a decade later Du Bois
founded and called together the Pan-African Congress.
sentatives from the darker
races throughout the world answered
the call.
Congress declared that the
The Pan-African
nition of the absolute equality of races was the founding stone
for world peace and human advancement.
♦ . . while no one denies the great difference
of gift, capacity, and attainment among individuals
of all races, the voice of science denies the ex­
istence of superior or inferior races,
That in
the vast range of time, one group
should in its
industrial technique lag a few hundred years behind
another, or forge fitfully ahead, or come to differ
in thought, is a proof of the essential richness and
variety of human nature.^
The Spingarn medal was awarded to Du Bois June 1, 1920,
for his achievements in connection with the Pan-African Con­
This medal is presented annually to the American Ne­
gro who has made the greatest contribution to society the pre­
ceding year.
Through his writings, appearances upon the lecture plat­
form, publication of The Crisis, and the general dissemina­
tion of ideas through the channel of over three hundred branches
of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored
People, Du Bois was in a key position to bring the Negro group
his educational and cultural concepts.
^Shifting opinions!
In recent years Du Bois has been
accused of reversing his basic principles and ideals concern­
ing segregation and racial equality.
Hd-s— resignation--from— the
edj-to r ship_-.of-_The— Cri-sl.s~gav.ejJ.de_pub 1 i city_ to ,such a eon.
Because of a preponderance of conflicting opinions
upon this point, it would be well to carefully examine the
B. Du Bois,
Congress," The Crisis, May, 1921.
"Manifesto of the Second Pan-A
Du Bois*s basic theory has been that race prejudice
was primarily a matter of ignorance; that when the truth was
revealed the monstrous wrong of race hate would disappear.
thx-s-Ha-o-xnt he saxs.r
^hen I went to Atlanta University to teach
M.n 1897 . . . I said confidently that the basic
^TQblem is our racial ignoranpe-and lack of cultureV-^That once Negroes know civilization and
whites know^ifegrQes, the" problem is solved.
proposition is stili<true, but the solution is
much further away" ' t h a n ' -.youth dreamed.
are still ignorant, but the^dis concerting thing
is that whiire people on the who 1e^a're-..just as
much opposed to Negroes of education and culture
. . . -perhaps more so.5
In ^ 9 ^ 8 ‘^Bu^Boi"S"'"was^ihv'ftb'd~to,^v'i‘Sit"“Rus‘si'a .
In -the
proferaih,‘“'ofrrbhe UBBR^he—reoegniz ed -the • slmllaf ity-ilf"his~~fight
for, the^teck^fBrF"of"15he'"Uhrte"d~"3tates.
The influence of
the world-wide depression caused the keen mind of Du Bois to
carefully reflect on the economic situation that confronted
the American Negro.
Hbxdescribes h i s ‘reactions thus:
Gradually it downed upon me ♦ .
the essential change in the worid-'iiad been since
the first World War and depression; and how the
tactics of those who iive^for the widest devel­
opment of men must change accordingly.
It is
not simply a m a t t e d o f a\diange in ideals, but
even more of jP'-decisive chkpge in the methods
by which ideals are to be appa^oximated. As I
now looJMSack, I see In the crusade waged by
the^NAiCCP from 1910 to 1930, one of the finest
efforts to achieve human emancipation . . . .
% . E. B. Du Bois, 11The Anti-Segregation Campaign,*1
The Crisis, p. 182, June, 1934.
BtfB^isfeQ^essential difficulty with the liberalism
of the twen-tieih_ century w a t o - ' - ' r e ^ l T z ' e the
by the woridwide""organization of work and tr ad“e ^ n d ^ o m m e r c e .
Du £0is concluded that since the economic situation
of the world had changed so completely, the policies of the
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People,
likewise must be modified and revised.
However, the board
of directors of the NAACP did not share his conviction or
concur with the change of policy Du Bois wished to put in
eff ect .
A -tenso-.ahducon^aAiifei^_Mjbnatlon^row7~ii^"chr t er -
minated~'"±n^li^rehignat-ion-of..,-the,.~e.ditor of The. Crisis in
JuAy~,_193 4 •
Du B oisTs agitation for a planned economic program for
the v/elfare of the Negro, regardless of whether or not it
involved segregation, made him the brunt of a great deal of
He was accused of swerving from his non-compromis
ing position, repudiating his ideals, surrendering his life­
long objectives, and advocating segregation.
He-speaks— for
hima^lf'-'d.ri^hi'S“±hia_manne r :
Bw. E. B. Du Bois, Dusk of D a w n , p. 224.
It was clear to me that the agitation
agaihs-trace prejudice, and a planned economy
for the bettering of the economic condition
of the American Negro, were j>o^r"antagonistic
ideals but part"of one ide-^1; that It did
not increase segregation; the segregation
was there and would'^remain for many years*
But now 1 proposed that in economic lines
• • . segregation should be planned and or­
ganized,*" . . .
This plan did not establish
a new ‘segregation; it did not advocate segre­
gation as the final solution of the race prob­
Du Bois*s eternal goal has always been the abolition
of the color line,
I'v V 'K
a— careful- review,_af--the-'“fae'te— -reveal
that- he has neither repudiated his ideals, nor swerved from
his lifelong objective.
Du Bois has merely changed his technique.
In the
1934, issue of The Crisis, he described how obsolete
methods of warfare have been superseded by newer techniques.
Just as it is necessary to use different methods today to win
a war, than in the past, it is equally essential that the
Negro must employ different methods to win his battle today
against caste and segregation.
The so-called shifting opin­
ions of Dr. Du Bois concern changes in methods and techniques
for reaching the goal, and not changes in the goal itself.
In—the..„.words ,_o_f__the first laay of America:
*7Ibid., p. 238
. . . one--4ias to face the world as it is
and, without dis^r.ding-.--oneJ-s^ideals, meet
the reali-tie'S"'"of the^dayy and keep on working
fo^^f/Hat one hopes will Be a better future.°
Du Bois, himself, protests against the misconception
concerning his emphasis on a different technique in this
stinging retort:
It was astonishing and disconcerting
. .
that this change of my ^emphasis was
crassly^-axid stupidly misinterpreted by
Negroes, ^pp-ro.priating^as their own . . .
my long insistenpe^p self-respect and selfassertion and^tlie demand,..for every equality
on the pao?t^of the Negro, they^ seemed determined-to insist my newer emphasiV'Was a re­
p u t a t i o n of the older . . . .9
^y the type of work carried on by these two men it
was necessary that they present their concepts to the general
We find that in the method of presentation there
was a great similarity.
Washington spent a great deal of
time in interpreting the Negro to the South and the South to
the needs of the Negro.
This was by newspapers, magazines,
and educationa-speaking tours.
Du Bois wrote and spoke but
sought to influence persons capable of reinterpreting his
Washington said that a great deal of political agita­
tion drew the attention of his people away from the fundamental
^Eleanor Roosevelt,
uMy Day,” Toledo Blade, May 16, 1940.
^W. E. B. Du Bois, Dusk of D a w n , p. 240.
matter of perfecting themselves in various industries and
in securing property.
Brains, property, and character for the
Negro will settle the question of civil rights.
The best course to pursue in regard to the
civil rights bill in the South is to let it
alone; let it alone and it will settle itself.
Good school teachers and plenty of money to
pay them will be more potent in settling the
race question than any civil rights bill.l^
Even Du Bois admits that the task of gaining the
cooperation of the various elements in the white South was a
let it
undertaking at the time Tuskegee was
was done in the speech at Atlanta:
”ln all things
purely social we can be as separate as the five fingers,
and yet one as the hand in all things necessary to mutual
This speech changed the status of Mr. Washington
from an obscure country principal to an educator of national
and international significance.
The South interpreted it in different ways:
The radicals received it as a complete surrender
of the demand for civil and political equality;
the conservatives, as a generously conceived
working basis for mutual understanding.
So both
approved it, and today its author is certainly
the most distinguished Southerner since Jeffer­
son Bavis, and the one with the largest personal
l^B. T. Washington, ’’Educational Outlook in the South,”
delivered before the National Educational Association, July
16, 1884.
E. B. Du Bois, The Souls of Black Folk, p. 43.
Du Bois, apparently has never clamored for a large
personal following.
He stressed the importance of creating
and keeping alive an ideal.
That ideal as often uttered in
the editorials of The Crisis is:
nThe NAACP neither slumbers
nor sleeps but keeps its God-appointed task of making every
black slave • . • dissatisfied with his slavery and every
white slave-driver conscious of his guilt.11
The answer Du Bois may give to the following questions
need not be set forth for from the expression above the at­
titude is impelling.
He inquired, Why is it that only Ne­
groes should give up the right to vote?
Why is it that
only Negroes should not organize for self-defense against
Why is it that only Negroes must be meek and wait and
He maintains that the race must never swerve from its
the right to vote, the right to stand as men among
other men.
He said that silent submission to civic inferior­
ity renders the Negro helpless to protect his rights.
Washington stressed emphasizing economic progress with little
or no regard to political or civic agitation, Du Bois un­
ceasingly contended that economic progress was commensurate
with the exercise of civic and political rights.
Chapter summary.
Washington was constantly in action.
The greater part of his time was spent in making educational
tours, raising funds for his institution, writing for publi­
cation, and planning for the future of Tuskegee.
From a
delapidated shanty and church in 1881, Tuskegee has enlarged
its plant to over a hundred modern buildings.
Other indus­
trial schools, many of them founded by Tuskegee graduates,
are scattered throughout the South carrying on the spirit of
Du Bois figured prominently in the organization of the
Niagara Movement, the NAACP, and the Pan-African Congress.
He founded The Crisis and was its editor for almost a quarter
of a century.
He still clings tenaciously to his earlier
ideals, regardless of the misconception that he has repudiated
He advocates a change in technique because he is con­
vinced that the methods that served in the past have become
He realizes the futility of using the same methods
in a changed world.
He denies the accusations of the surren­
der of his goal and answers his critics in his forthcoming
fall publication Dusk of Pawn.
To fully understand the educational philosophy o f \ . ^
Du Bois and Washington, it is necessary to consider their
background, and the forces that impelled and impeded their
9 K Ajo SQ f>Vy
forward march.
In short the educational /'concepts of the s e /
two men are the sum total of their personalities.
— -We""observe that Washington was born at a period^of
United States history when the economic frontier was being
shaken by the impendingCivil War.
The South clinging to
its time worn slave system and -seeking to insure its perpe-tua-tieh-.~~Into X h i s seething internals,s.trife, a boy of
mi'xed“ p"arentage~~sought~”to' "find "hi"S“*'nlehe.--^.Manual labor
-was— hi s— lot -a s— a--child,' with"'xn^ln'termi''tt ent S'fflattering
o f -educa-ti-on-afte r~.emancipation •
Possessed by an impelling desire for individual
improvement, he left his drab surroundings in West Virginia
and went to Hampton.
So outstanding were his qualities that
he was recommended to answer the call from Tuskegee.
Tuskegee he was faced with a group of freed slaves and
their children.
Although they had contributed their share
to the growth of the South, they were disinherited and
penniless members of the southern community.
Washington had
to sell himself to this group and instill within them a
d e M r e to regard their labor as a badge of dignity. As to
the dominant group the efficacy of industrial education
had to be convincingly demonstrated.
Even after hard work
and patience, the task at times seemed almost unsurmountable
Fortunately, Washington possessed a working knowledge of the
psychology of the South and had made use of it long before
his speech at Atlanta.
The Tuskegee experiment served to fill the gap between
slavery and economic freedom.
Its curriculum of industrial
training was designated to serve a primitive society, to
lessen racial prejudice, to raise labor from the ranks of
drudgery to a plane of dignity.
Washington asserted that
such qualities together with lessons in thrift, industry,
and community cooperation were of more immediate concern
than the acquisition of political and civic rights.
Tuskegee founder believed that political rights, and other
privileges would result from proving economic worth.
long as a group or individual occupied a low economic status,
other things must necessarily be remote.
Washington*s educational experiment focused the at­
tention of the nation upon the needs of the recently eman­
cipated group.
He became the official spokesman for that
Early in the twentieth century, another group, led by
W.E.B. Du Bois took exception to the broader import of his
industrial policy.
When the complete history of Negro America is written,
the name of W.E.B. Du Bois will occupy a special place of
Born a few years after the termination of the Civil
War, his early life was spent like that of many other New
England youths.
For over thirty years he has sought to instill his
educational philosophy.
Delving into the rich background
of African tribes, through the new world slave system, and
finally to physical freedom, Du Bois has sought the clue
that would lead the Negro to final and complete emanicipation.
The denial of political, civil-, and cultural rights
and privileges to a group on the superficial basis 'of color
was a challenge to Du
Bois to take a definite, unrelenting,
and uncompromising stand.
To eventually abolish the color
line, the talented few must be broadly educated to provide
leadership for the Negro masses.
These leaders must be so­
cial statesman, so trained as to interpret the trends of
civilization and work out a solution for the Negro’s future.
At Atlanta University Du Bois strives to aid in the
development of su ch _lead.enship .
— —
__________q J) i
The lives of these two men clearly indicate many of ^
the ideals necessary to make this world a place where all
may enjoy those inalienable rights dear to all. Then there
will be the brotherhood of man and the fatherhood of G-od.
An enumeration of the educational concepts of these
two prominent educators will show the salient points of
their respective philosophies.
Industrial training is important because:
It begins at the bottom and expands as the
group expands.
It fits the individual to do the tabks that
are open to him in his community.
It develops social responsibility.
It teaches thrift, enonomy and the
of labor.
It creates a feeling of self-reliance and
It helps to cement the friendship of the
two races in the South as economic worth
will lessen prejudice against the Negro.
It is definite and practical.
It teaches the common and familiar
of life that everyone needs to know.
It helps the Negro to knit himself
in the
agricultural and industrial life of the South.
It prepares every individual to render use­
ful service to the community.
University training is essential because;
Education begins at the top and filters down.
The first step in the lifting of the submerged
masses is through the broad training of the
talented few.
Negroes must be broadly trained so as to become
intelligent leaders.
Intelligent leaders are essential to scientifi­
cally guide the future of the American Negro.
It is the correct agency for training Negroes
with ability to use the social forces of their
group to stamp out crime, life morals,
then the home etc.
Negroes must apply the general principles of
knowledge to the particular circumstances of
their condition.
The curriculum of the Negro University should
be built around the problems of Negroes.
The welfare of the segregated public school
system in the South depends upon Negroes of
higher training.
Negro leaders must understand the real plight
of their group and how to proceed to work out
a solution.
Negro leaders must be educated to recognize
the great forces of civilization, and where civilization
is tending*
Du--Bofs-'-and~^-ashinghon point^fi out the— shosMre-eift&s&e
in eaeh
educational^,!^?as •
O'* sssysa(m S ^
D il.^rBdljL_criticiz-od indu stri al training because:
The methods and techniques rapidly become ob­
solete •
It centered its attention on economic well being
and forgot freedom, manhood .and equality*
It tended to perpetuate present social conditions
It was linked with a program of submission and
silence in regard to civil and political rights*
It trained men as a subject caste to be thought
for and to be lead*
It fostered the erroneous idea that economic well
being would solve the Negro1s problem.
Washington criticized university training because:
Its students know books but they do not know men.
Its students live too much in the past*
Dreamers rather than doers result.
The accumulation of facts that are acquired are
often not pointed in a definite direction that
bears on the present needs of the Negro.
It deals almost wholly with abstract principles.
The study of Du Bois and Washington gives a view of
both sides of industrial and university education,
Both Washington and Du Bois have made a valuable
cbhtribution, not only to Negro education but to the field
of educational philosophy in general.
Each educator desired to advance the Negro group.
Washington believed that industrial education was the best
place to start; Du Bois felt that the lifting of the group
must start with the development of trained leadership.
Washington spent his life building Tuskegee; Du Bois devoted
his life to The Crisis and Atlanta University.
Washington tried to win recognition for the Negro
by demonstrating economic worth; Du Bois demanded such as
a matter of human justice.
Industrial education has bridged the gap from alavery
to freedom, it has enabled the Negro to grasp the opportuni­
ties of the South, and it has helped race relations.
program was constructive but it did make concessions on
fundamental Issues.
There is always danger' in making even
strategic concessions where fundamental principles are
The university has produced an enlightened Negro
leadership 'which has surpassed any other country in the world.
Yet neither the industrial school nor the institu­
tions of higher learning has reached it's goal.
The indus­
trial school has not been able to effectively put the Negro
worker in touch with the labor movement of the white world;
the Negro college has not succeeded in establishing an ideal
of group leadership.
Washington was not opposed to higher education, but
he felt industrial education would serve the needs of a
large number of Negroes more effectively.
Du Bois was not
opposed to industrial education, for in 1903 he remarked that
there was between the Negro college and the industrial school
the strongest grounds of cooperation. I
The problems of the Negro are too complex to be solved
by any one line of procedure.
There is no panacea for the-'
solution of Negro education.
Every educator should be familiar with the educational
contribution Dr. Washington and Dr. Du Bois have made.
though their concepts on two different phases of iducation
has been a great contribution to the educational field, the
problem of education in general is still a challenge to
1. Booker T. Washington
Washington, Booker T., Character Building*
Doubleday, Page and Company, 1903.
Hew York:
, The Future of the American Hegro*
Small, Maynard and Company, 1899.
, The Man Farthest Down*
Page and Company, 1912.
Larger Education*
and Company, 1911.
Hew York:
Hew York:
, The Hegro in Business.
anc[ Company/ 190T.
, The Hegro in the South.
W. Jacobs and Company, 190V.
, Sowing and Reaping.
Company, 1900.
Doubleday, Page
Hertel, Jenkins
L. C. Page and
, The Story of the Hegro. Vols. 1 and 2.
Hew York: Association Press, 1909.
, Tuskegee and Its People. Author, editor.
Hew York: D. Appleton and Company, 1905.
, Up From Slavery.
and Company, 1901.
Hew York:
.9 Working with the Hands.
Page and Company, 1904.
Doubleday, Page
Hew York:
2. W. E. Burghardt Du Bo is
Du Bois, W. E. Burghardt, Black Folk: Then and N o w .
New Yorkr Henry Holt and Company, 1939.
_______ , Black Reconstruction.
Brace and Company, 1935.
, Darkwater.
New York:
New York:
Harcourt, Brace and Horne,
, Dusk of Dawn. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company,
[To be published in fall of 1940).
, The Grift of Black Folks.
Company, 1924.
_______ , The Negro.
New York:
Stratford and
Henry Holt and Company, 1915.
, The Negro in the South.
Jacobs and Company, 1907.
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,_______ , "Signs of Progress Among Negroes," Century, 66:724.
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, "Observations and Comparisons Abroad," Independent,
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, "The Successful Training of Negroes," World1s Work,
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_______ , "Training of Black Men," Atlantic Monthly, 90:289-97.
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Seligmann, Herbert J., "The Niagara Movement," Current History,
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