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A survey of the attendance procedures used by the Los Angeles schools

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A SURVEY OP THE ATTENDANCE PROCEDURES USED
BY THE LOS ANGELES SCHOOLS
A THESIS
PRESENTED TO
THE FACULTY OP THE SCHOOL OP EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OP SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Science In Education
by
Philip Walter Lieb
June, 1940
UMI Number: EP53863
All rights reserved
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UMI EP53863
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unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code
ProQuest LLC.
789 East Eisenhower Parkway
P.O. Box 1346
Ann Arbor, Ml 48106- 1346
T h is thesis, w r it t e n u n d e r th e d ir e c t io n o f the I
C h a ir m a n o f the c a n d id a te ’s G u id a n c e C o m m it ­
tee a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l m em b ers o f the C o m ­
m itte e , has been prese n te d to a n d accepted by
the F a c u lt y o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a t io n in p a r t i a l
f u l f i l l m e n t o f the re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f
M a s t e r o f Science in E d u c a tio n .
D ate
Jme .8*..1940.....
Guidance Committee
...
Chairman
I»oui s P.. Thorpe....
C. C. Crawford
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.
PAGE
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM AND METHOD OF PROCEDURE
Introduction
1
. . . . . . ............. • .
The p r o b l e m ............ • • • . • • • • • •
Importance of the problem
Related investigations
Method of procedure
3
• • • .......... •
3
• • • • • • • • • » • •
•
4
Distribution of q u e s t i o n n a i r e ..........
5
Tabulation of results
5
• • • • • • • • • •
• . • *
BACKGROUND OF S T U D Y ........................
State attendance laws
..........
Reasons for attendance procedures
Use of attendance procedures
5
7
7
• • • • •
............
P R O C E D U R E ......................
8
10
12
Methods of collecting material
• • • • » •
12
Personal interviews
...........
18
The questionnaire
IV.
4
•
Organization of remaining chapters
III.
2
• • • • • . . «
Construction of questionnaire
II.
1
FINDINGS
• • • • • •
• • • • • • • » • • » • .
................
The questionnaire results
Habitual tardiness
Excuses
...........
31
39
• • » • » • • • •
40
..........
40
• • .
40
iii
CHAPTER
PAGE
Checking of absences
« . . • • • . • • • .
43
Follow up methods used in checking
absences
. . . . . . .
43
Percentage of schools sending sick children
home
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lunch permits
Attendance files
• • • • • . • • • • • • • .
46
• • • • • • • • • • • • •
49
..............
49
Attendance file symbols
The counter
..............
Enrollment procedure
49
• • • • . . « • • • •
Efficiency of procedures
............
Summary and discussion of major systems • .
V.
52
58
66
Check slip System
. • • • • • • • • • •
66
Double card system
• • • • • • • • • • •
67
Master absence sheet system
• • • • • •
67
Two period roll call system
• • • . • •
68
CONCLUSIONS AND R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S .............
System of greatest e f f i c i e n c y ............ ♦
70
71
...................
73
..........................................
74
Value of survey
APPENDIX
46
BIBLIOGRAPHY
........................
82
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
I*
PAGE
Percentage attendance, Los Angeles Junior
High Schools, February, 1940
IX.
Percentage attendance, Los Angeles Senior High
Sehools, February, 1940
III.
• • • • • • • • • •
• • • • • * • • • • • • • • •
• . • • « • • • • • . • • ♦
. . . • • • • • • • • • •
45
47
A percentage distribution of the methods used In
• • • • • • . .
48
A percentage distribution of the methocls used
in arranging attendance files
XI.
. . . . .
• • • • • • • . • • • • • • • • • • .
dealing with lunch permits
X.
44
Percentage of schools sending sick children
home
IX.
42
A percentage distribution of the follow-up
methods used in checking absences
VIII.
41
A percentage distribution of the methods of
checking absences
VII.
• • • • .
A percentage distribution on the types of
excuses allowed
VI*
20
Percentage distribution of procedures for
dealing with habitual tardinesses
V.
15
Humber and percentage of schools replying to
questionnaire
IV.
14
• * • • • • •
50
A percentage distribution of the different uses
of attendance files symbols
• • • • • • • .
51
V
TABLE
XII.
PAGE
Percentage distribution of the duties
performed at the counter
XIII.
XIV.
Enrollment procedure
• • « • • • • . .
53
. . • • • • • • • • • •
54
A percentage distribution of the methods used
in caring for transfer students, Enrollment
procedure (cont'd)
XV.
• • . • • • • • • • • •
A percentage distribution of the methods used
in caring for non-reporting students
XVI.
...
57
Percentage distribution of transfer care for
students who leave
XVIII.
56
A percentage table of the methods used to check
on students who do not return in September •
XVII.
55
. • • • • • • « . • • »
59
A percentage distribution of the methods used
for students who fail to check out
completely
XIX.
XX.
XXI.
XXII.
• • • • • • • • • • • • « . • »
Percentage of schools using each system
Efficiency table on re-entering students
...
60
62
• •
63
Efficiency table on making A. D. A. report • •
64
Services performed by attendance offices
65
• «
CHAPTER I
. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM AND METHOD OF PROCEDURE
INTRODUCTION
To conduct a business one must first Have a reason
for that business, and it is then necessary to set up an
efficient method of conducting its activities.
The or­
ganization must be so handled that It will insure a proper
Income, this income being a necessity In order to carry on
its enterprises.
In the state of California, the largest single
business of them all Is that of the maintenance of
educational institutions.
Millions of students go to
school in the state, and it takes millions of dollars to
maintain educational institutions for these students.
In the city of Los Angeles alone, there are
hundreds of thousands of children attending school.
To
educate these three quarter million students, the city,
must have hundreds of schools and thousands of teachers;
plus all the trained personnel necessary to operate such
a huge institution.
Most business supplies the demand for material
things, but education supplies the need of the state for
good citizens.
A well conducted business has an
efficient clerical staff to handle the credit and debit
accounts for its maintenance.
A good school must also have
an efficient clerical staff and good bookkeeping methods of
handling its credit and debit accounts.
In the credit
column, the school posts the present child, and in the de­
bit column, the absent child.
Financing of the school system
depends upon the daily attendance of each child.
The
accurate keeping of attendance records is of utmost importance
for upon these records is based the amount of school funds
apportioned to each school.
The method of caring for these
accounts is the same as it is in business, and this bookkeep­
ing is the work done by the school attendance office.
One of
the most important procedures of a schoolsystem is that of
gathering and maintaining these student attendance record.
I.
THE PROBLEM
The problem of this thesis is to make a survey of
all the attendance office procedures in the Los Angeles
City junior and senior high schools.
It has been said by a
well known educator of many years experience that of all of
the administrative departments of the schools in the Los
Angeles city system, the registrars department displays most
waste motion.
It is hoped that by this thesis survey a
better system based upon:
1) efficiency; 2) ease of inter-
pretation; and 3) general utility can be devised, and that
this study may play some part in the general adoption of
such an improved system.
Importance of the problem:
The very existence of
individual public schools, in fact, of entire school dis­
tricts, depends entirely upon pupil attendance.
Hence the
importance of an accurate, efficient, and thorough method
of recording attendance and absences.
Each school*s share
of the state funds is computed from the average daily
attendance.
Related investigations:
On July 6, 1937, the Cali­
fornia State Department of Education, Division of Research
and Statistics, published a paper presenting excerpts and
summaries of the provisions of the school code and of the
rules and regulations of the California State Board of
Education governing secondary school attendance.
This
paper also contained form cards and methods to be used in
recording attendance data.
On September 21, 1939, another paper from the same
department containing more recent school laws and methods
used in gathering data for attendance record maintenance
was published.
The Los Angeles City Board of Education has from
time to time made suggestions as to the handling of
attendance records in its secondary schools*
To date, how­
ever, no uniform method has been adopted by the Board of
Education and put into practice by the schools of the Los
Angeles City School System*
The theses previously published on the subject of
attendance office procedure which are most nearly related
to this survey have in no way been of any assistance in
this study, because these related theses were more concerned
with the critical analysis of the data itself than with the
methods and procedures of handling and compiling the data*
They dealt with the significance of the absence, tardiness,
and attendance of the child, and the effect of these three
upon the student and the school system, rather than with the
clerical efficiency in the recording of such absence, tardi­
ness, and attendance, and the effect of the methods used on
the smooth and effective functioning of the registrar’s de­
partment*
XI.
METHOD OP PROCEDURE
Construction and distribution of the questionnaire:
A long series of "yes* and wnott questions dealing with all
phases of attendance procedures was devised.
These were
put in the form of a questionnaire and sent to all of the
senior and junior Los Angeles City high schools.
Of the
seventy-one high schools to which questionnaires were sent,
ninety-one percent reported*
Schools which were outstand­
ing examples of various types of procedures were visited
and the systems investigated wltth the co-operation of their
registrars*
Tabulation of results?
Results were tabulated and
charted and system types analyzed with regard to their
efficiency, ease of interpretation of records, and general
utility*
III.
ORGANIZATION
OF REMAINING CHAPTERS
Chapter II deals with a consideration of the state
attendance laws and the background for school attendance
procedures.
The reasons for such a department in a school
system are to aid in the enforcement of compulsory attend­
ance between certain age limits, the determination of
teacher load, the anticipation of supplies and materials
requirements, and the distribution of school funds*
In Chapter III the method of procedure in collecting
material and the organization of the collected material is
explained.
Chapter IV presents a digest of the major findings
of the survey.
6
Chapter V is a summary of the survey with conclusions
and recommendations based upon the original reasons for con­
ducting of the survey.
7
CHAPTER II
BACKGROUND
It is the purpose of this chapter to consider the
background which necessitates the use of attendance laws
and procedures.
In the California State School Code, as
well as in the school code of every state in the Union,
there are laws and regulations governing school attendance,
in the following paragraphs are discussed;
1.
State attendance laws.
2.
Reasons for attendance laws.
3.
Use of attendance procedures.
State attendance laws:
Attendance in the public
secondary schools of California is governed by the provi­
sions contained In specific laws.
Such laws, however, are
supplemented by rules and regulations adopted by the State
Board of Education.
The authority to adopt such rules and
regulations is vested in the State Board of Education by
several provisions of the School Code:
It shall be the duty of the State Board of Education
to determine all questions of policy within its power.
The state board of education shall have power and it
^State of California, School Code, 1937, Div. II,
Pt. IV, Ch. II, P. 126, Sec. 2.1381.
shall be its duty:2
To adopt rules and regulations not inconsistent with
the laws of this state for its own government, for the
government of its appointees and employees, for the
government of its day and evening elementary schools,
the technical and vocational schools of the state, as
may receive in whole or in part financial support from
the state.3
The school code requires the attendance of all
students in secondary schools to be kept according to uni­
form regulations prescribed by the State Board of Education.^
Secondary schools may be defined as including high
schools, technical schools and junior collges.
High schools, with which this thesis is concerned, are
defined as including four-year high schools, junior high
schools, senior high schools, and special high schools.
Special high schools included in this study are
found to be detention schools, welfare schools, or schools
for crippled children.
Their attendance records and methods
of accounting for school attendance were not the same as
those used in the general high schools of the city.
Each
school had its own method according to the purpose of the
institution and was not considered in the conclusions drawn
from this study.
2Ibid, Sec. 2.1382.
3Ibid, Sec. 2.1383.
^State of California, School Code, 1937, Div. XV.
Pt. IV, Ch. I, P. 234, Sec. 4.733.
Attendance may be.classed as that time spent by pupils
of all type s of secondary schools in activities approved by
the principal, and all time spent in any educational activity
which is a definite part of the student*s assignment and con­
ducted by, or under the supervision of, a legally certificated
teacher employed by the board of that district, during the
hours of a school day.
A school day in the Los Angeles High School District is
a minimum of two hundred forty minutes.
Time spent during
lunch or rest periods may not be credited as attendance for
apportionment purposes.
Ho student may be credited with more
than one day of attendance during any calendar day.
The state of California requires a student to attend
school a minimum of one hundred seventy days unless absent for
legitimate reasons.^
The Los Angeles City Board of Education
defines a school year as forty school weeks or two hundred
school days.*5 There are a few exceptions to this rule, as in
the case of special schools.
As this study deals only with
the regular high schools, these exceptions will be disregarded.
Compulsory education includes all children between the
ages of eight and sixteen years.
Each parent, guardian, or
other person having control or charge of any child, not
5Ibld, P. 235, Sec. 4.741.
®Los Angeles City School Bulletin, Ho. 500, Sept. 1934.
10
exempted, shall be required to send such child to the public
full-time day school for the full time for which the public
schools of the city or school district in which the child re­
sides shall be in session*
Persons exempt from compulsory
education are:
Children whose physical or mental condition is such
as to prevent, or render inadvisable attendance at
school . . • ♦
Children who are residing more than two miles from a
school house * . • •
Children who are being instructed in a private full
time day school • * * *
Children* * * *being instructed privately by persons
capable of teaching * • • •
Children may work and attend school part-time if they
hold work permits granted by the school authorities of their
respective districts.
7
The average daily attendance in high schools is de­
fined as the quotient secured by dividing the total number
and fraction of days of pupils1 attendance by the number of
days actually taught in the regular day high school of the
district during the school year.®
It is the duty of all high schools and junior high
^State of California, School Code* 1937, Div. 1,
Pt. II, Ch. I, P. 9-11, Sections 1.130-1.144.
8Ibid, Div. IV, Pt. IV, Ch. Ill, P. 246, Sec. 4.922.
11
schools to record, for apportionment purposes:
1) a daily
record of actual periods of attendance or percent of absence
from the two hundred forty minute attendance day; 2) a sum­
mary of twenty-day school month attendance; and 3) a summary
of the school year total days1 attendance*
The apportioning of school funds for the maintenance ■
of a school depends directly upon the average daily attend­
ance record of Its students.
The method of collecting these
attendance records and the systems used in keeping this in­
formation is the problem of this work.
The State and the
Department of Education have made the laws and regulations
regarding schools and school attendance.
The Individual
school districts make up their own methods of fulfilling
these legal requirements*
Schools within the district must
conform to the method adopted by that district.
In some
cases, as in the Los Angeles City School District, Individual
schools within the district are permitted to use any type of
procedure.
These facts lead to the problem of this study
which is to survey the procedures used by all the high schools
in Los Angeles and to compare their methods as to efficiency,
ease of interpretation, and general utility.
12
CHAPTER III
PROCEDURE
The method used In securing information about the op­
eration of attendance offices in the seventy-one senior and
junior high schools in the Los Angeles City School District
Is contained in this chapter.
At a meeting of the registrars and attendance office
clerks of the senior and junior high schools in the Los
Angeles City High School District,
held In 1939, it was
found that there were almost as many methods of running the
attendance office as there were schools.
Registrars and
clerks had their own personal plans of keeping the records
for their respective schools.
When a registrar or a clerk
was transferred, he either had to learn a new method or to
change the method of the school towhich he was transferred
to one with which he was familiar.
Many registrars and
clerks had their own system which they thought best, and
upon their transfer they immediately Instructed their new
staff in the ir method.
One attendance office clerk, doing substitute work,
had been assigned to six or more schools during the school
year.
In no two schools was the same methods of keeping re­
cords used.
The question was raised as to exactly how many
different procedures were in use in the offices of the senior
13
and junior high sehoold of the city.
Major duties of an attendance office are much the same
in all schools, hut schools do differ in the scope of infor­
mation compiled and kept in that office.
All attendance offices
have to check and supervise the readmittance of students after
being absent.
Another of their major functions is that of
making out their statistical report at the end of the month.
This is also known as the ftA.D.A.tt, or Average Daily Attendance
report.
After this report is made out and sent in to the
office of the Superintendent of Schools, a list of schools
with their ranking percentage of attendance is compiled by
the Superintendent’s office and mailed to all schools.
The percentage of attendance:
The percentage of at­
tendance for all the junior and senior high schools in the
Los Angeles City School System is tabulated every month.
For purposes of comparison, a table was prepared showing the
respective percentage of attendance of all junior and senior
high schools, listed alphabetically.
The principal’s
statistical attendance report for the sixth month of the
school year, 1939-40, is shown.^
•^Los Angeles City School District Special Bulletin
No. 139. Report on Per Cent of Attendance for the Sixth
Month of School. March 15, 1940.
TABLE I
PERCENTAGE ATTENDANCE
LOS ANGELES JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS
FEBRUARY 1940
School
Adams • • • • . . • . « » «
Audubon • • • • « • * • * «
Bancroft
• • * • * « • * *
Belvedere ♦ . * • • * . « «
Berendo . ♦ • • * • * • • .
Burbank . . . . . . . . . .
Burroughs • • « « « • • • •
Central • • « • • • • « • •
Dana « • • • • * .........
Edison • • • • . . . « « .
Emerson • * • « • • • « • •
Foshay
• • • • • * • • » • *
Gompers • • • • • • . . . .
Harte • * • • • • • • • • •
Hollenbeck
. . . . . . . .
Irving • • • • • « • • « •
Kern Avenue « * « « • • • «
K i n g .................
Lafayette • • • • • • • . .
Le Conte
• • • • • • • • •
Mann • • • • • • . . • • •
McKinley
...............
Mount Vernon
• • « • • • •
M u i r ............
Nightingale . * . . * . . .
North Hollywood » • • • • »
Pasteur • • • • • • •
...
Stevenson . . . . • • « . *
Virgil . ..
...........
Per cent
93•26
94.68
94*42
95*47
92*84
93*85
94*96
92*66
95*27
94*07
93 *98
95*78
93*55
94*28
96.44
95.95
95.84
93.95
93.13
93.66
94.39
93.22
95.79
94.76
93.37
93*66
94.66
94.60
94.79
TABLE II
PERCENTAGE ATTENDANCE
LOS ANGELES SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS
FEBRUARY 1940
School
Banning •
.
B e l l ..........
Belmont • • • • • • • • • •
Cambria •
............ ♦ .
Ganoga Park • • • • • • • •
Coronel • • • • • • • • • •
...........
Dorsey
Eagle R o c k ...............
El R e t l r o ............
F a i r f a x ...................
Francis Polytechnic • • • •
Franklin
•
Fremont • • • • • • • • • •
Gardena • • . . . • • . . •
G a r f i e l d ..........
Hamilton • • • • • • •
... .
Hollywood
...........
Huntington Park . . . • • •
Jackson • . . . • • • • • .
Jefferson •
•
Jordan
. . . . . . . . . .
L i n c o l n ...................
Los Angeles • • • • • • • •
Manual A r t s
. •
M a r s h a l l .................
Narbonne
. . . . . . . . .
North Hollywood • • • • • .
Pacific Lodge
• • • • • •
R i i s .................
R o o s v e l t ................ •
San Fernando
• • • • • • •
San P e d r o .................
South G a t e ..............
Torrance « •
U n i v e r s i t y ...............
Van Nuys
..........
Venice
.............
Verdugo H i l l s
*
W a s h i n t o n .................
Wilson
• • • • • • • . • •
Per cent
94*73
95.85
93.50
85.59
93.27
84.06
95.19
95.40
82.91
94.60
93.61
93.30
94.29
93.67
95.36
93.73
94.07
94.74
80.04
91.62
92.42
93.72
94.44
95*03
94.33
95.98
93.67
98.74
87.88
94.33
93.62
95.94
95.12
94.00
93.34
93.64
94.67
89.70
93.48
93.12
16
Questions about the operation of these attendance
offices were drawn up and compiled*
questions were designed.
A dozen major procedure
Each of the major questions dealt
with a function of the attendanc e office and several subqLiestions were added under each major question.
The ques­
tions were designed, in the most part, to require a "yes”
or ”no" answer.
This type question was used for the specific
purpose of facilitating comparison of the data obtained from
the survey.
The major questions and comments on sub-questions are
as follows:
I.
READMITTANCE PROCEDURE.
Describe your procedure
for readmitting students who have been absent.
II.
HABITUAL TARDIES.
medial measures?
Does your office attempt re­
If so, check.
Eight methods commonly used were listed for check.
III.
EXCUSES.
A list of seven sub-questions on excuses calling for
a "yes” or ”no" answer.
IV.
CHECKING ABSENCES.
Do you issue a master sheet
to each teacher daily?
With four additional questions.
V.
do you:
SENDING CHILDREN HOME.
When sending them.home,
17
A list of questions on the card of sick children
followed.
VI.
LUNCH PERMITS.
If student stays at home during
the afternoon on his lunch permit, do you:
*
With eight questions on lunch permits.
VII.
ATTENDANCE FILES.
Set-up.
How do you arrange
your cards?
A list of twenty questions as to the methods of arrange­
ment, symbols used, type of card, part played by school print
shop, method of posting* and whether posting is done in ink
or pencil.
VIII.
THE "COUNTER” .
Do you have a general pupil pro­
gram file in your office?
Six questions about the work done at the "counter” .
IX.
OFFICE HELPERS.
Do you rely a great deal upon
your monitors?
With two questions about help rendered and training
given monitors?
X.
TYPING ATTENDANCE CARDS.
When do you do it?
Three questions on when the cards are typed.
XI.
ENROLLMENT PROCEDURES.
Who enrolls new pupils?
A list of twenty-eight questions on student transfers*
care of new and old students, checking out students, and
care of entry and leaving book.
XII.
MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION..
Who handles program
18
changes?
cedure?
work?
What is the strongest point in your set-up or pro­
What is your weakest point?
Who- does your statistical
Do you perforin any miscellaneous duties that have no­
thing to do with your attendance work?
These and twenty related questions completed the
twelfth major question of the questionnaire.
There was a total of one hundred and four major and
minor questions included in the questionnaire.
Besides an­
swering the inquiries, the schools were requested to send
their form cards and to give any information that would help
in the survey.
Several schools were selected and visited.
Questions
were asked as to their system of making and keeping attend­
ance records.
The systems used were classified into groups, and the
four groups most used were examined by personal visits.
The efficiency of the method of computing the average daily
attendance, recording absences of the day, posting data, and
the general efficiency of the office were judged from the
standpoint of time consumed.
The ease of finding information about students and the
speed with which it could be determined whether or not a
student was in school were noted and computed.
The survey also determined the general utilitarian
set-up of the attendance office.
It asked about the keeping
in the office of files other than those specifically used
in the attendance work.
It inquired into the amount of in­
formation which could be derived from the data, on file in
the office.
The survey sought to discover if the amount of
extra work demanded of the attendance staff was such that
it hindered or made less efficient the regular work in the
attendance field.
These questions ’were asked in confidence
and the information received was used only in statistical
comparison of efficiency, and the determining of the
efficiency of the particular office.
The replies to the questionnaire were remarkable, in
that ninety-two percent of the questionnaires were answered.
Ninety-six percent of junior high schools responded and
eighty-seven percent of the senior high schools.
The special
high schools of the Los Angeles City School District have a
separate system of keeping their school attendance.
This
number and percentage of schools.replying to the questionnaire
is shown on Table Number III.
Inclosed in this chapter is the computed questionnaire
as it was sent to the seventy-one Los Angeles senior and
junior high schools.
20
TABLE III
HUMBER AMD PERCENTAGE OP SCHOOLS
REPLYING TO QUESTIONNAIRE
Number
sent out
Number
returned
Percentage
returned
Junior High Schools
27
26
96
Senior High Schools
37
32
87
Special High Schools
7
7
100*
71
65
92
Totals
* Questionnaire returned, but subject matter in­
applicable*
31
SAMPLE QUESTIONNAIRE
School__________________ Jr. High____Sr. High
Enrollment
Name of Attendance Clerk___________________________________
I.
READMITTANCE PROCEDURE
On separate sheet of paper headed with name of
school and number of this question, describe your
procedure for readmitting students who have been ab­
sent. Include forms, If you wish.
II.
HABITUAL TARDIES
A.
Does your office attempt remedial measures?______
B.
If so, check one or more Items listed below:
1.
Drop period 1 and lose credit for 1 solid____
2.
Detention after school______
3.
Come early in the mo ring and punch a slip of
paper in the time clock for one week (about
15 or 20 minutes early)______
4.
Give demerits______ (how many?)
5.
Assembly privileges revoked______
6.
Send notice home appealing for parent*s co­
operation______
7.
Send for parent to come to school______
8 . ____________________________________________
III.
EXCUSES
A.
Who files the excuses in your office?
B.
How are they filed?______
C.
Do you have a time limit on late excuses?______
How long?______
D.
Do you have signature card to compare signed
excuses?
32
IV.
E.
What penalties have you for failure of pupil to
bring excuses?______
F.
Do you allow students to write their own excuses
in the office on the day they return?______ Is it
satisfactory?______
G•
C omment s_______________________
•
_________
CHECKING ABSENCES
A.
Do you Issue a master sheet to each teacher daily?
B.
Do you collect slips throughout the day and maintain
your own master-sheet?
C.
How do you prepare your absence cards?
D.
1.
Typed in advance______
2.
Made at counter in the morning when pupil re­
turns______
3.
Made by period 1 teacher who sends in absence
card instead of slip._____
4.
___________________________________________________
Check the follow-up methods you use for checking
absences:
1.
Telephone the parent______
2.
Postal card notice with return card reply______
3.
By attendance supervisor^_____ (how are you
notified?)______
4.
Nurse sent on home calls of suspected illness
cases_______
5*
Contacting brothers and sisters of absentees____
6.
E.
;
________________________________
Do you have a good way of checking odd slips through­
out the day (cuts, etc.?)
33
P•
C omment s_____________________________________________ _
SEEDING CHILDREN HOME
When sending them, do you:
VI.
A.
Telephone parent to call for sick child?______
B.
Does vice-principal handle means of transportation?
C.
Send child with attendance supervisor, nurse, or
teacher who has free period?
D.
Permit child to go home unaccompanied?______
E.
Do you assume responsibility for pupils going off
grounds?______
F.
Who in your school may assume responsibility for
pupils leaving grounds?
G.
G omment s
LUNCH PERMITS
A*
If pupil stays home during the afternoon on his
lunch permit, do you:
1*
Revoke the permit?______
2.
Allow a certain number of P.M. absences before
revoking?______ How many?______
3.
Permit him to keep the permit, but warn him?___
4.
Notify parent and request his cooperation?_____
5
VII.
______
.
B.
Does your office handle temporary lunch permits?___
C.
If so, how?______
D.
Comments________________
ATTENDANCE FILES
A.
Set-up.
How do you arrange your cards?
34
1.
By grades
2.
Strictly alphabetically
3.
Boys and. girls separate, alphabetically
4:,
Boys and girls by grades
5 • Home rooms
6 . Social living rooms
7.
B*
Symbols: What sort of marking do you use on the
attendance card? Give legend here:
C*
Would you favor a uniform system of symbols?______
D*
Do you indicate reason for absence on attendance
cards?
E*
Do you use the back of one-year cards for notes on
pupil?______
P.
Do you have your print shop print additional helpful
data in squares of card?______ If so, what?______
G#
If you use three-year card, do you find it difficult
to post to different portions of cards (designated
by grade) when you work on different grades?
_
H.
Do you post in pencil?__
Ink?
P ost every day?______
I*
Comment___________ ________________________________ ____
J*
Statistical:
Colored pencil?
How do you do your statistical?________
1#
Is your present card arrangement satisfactory for
this
2.
now do you compute fractional absences, tardies,
cuts, tec., on your record card including your
statistical
35
3. Circumstances under which you “red line”_______
VIII.
IX.
X.
THE "COUNTER”
A.
Bo you have a general pupil program file in your
office?______
B.
Do you have a general teacher program file in your
office?
C.
Are these overly-used to the point of interruption
of your routine work?______
D.
Would your interruption be considerably lessened
if these files were removed to a less congested
office?______
E.
Do students take care of counter inquiries from
outsiders?^_____
P.
Comment
OFFICE HELPERS
A.
Do you rely a greatdeal upon
B.
If so, in what way?_______
your monitors?_______
C.
Do you teach your helpers something about filing,
sorting, business procedure, courtesy, ethics, etc.?
D.
Comment__________
:________________
TYPING ATTENDANCE CARDS
* When do you do it?
A.
During the summer?______
B.
After opening of semester?______
C.
Do you have pupil fill in everything but last line,
then type last line?______
D.
C o m m e n t _________________ _______ _________________
ENROLLMENT PROCBHJRE
A.
Who enrolls new pupils, Registrar or Clerk?______
Do you:
i.
Insist upon a transfer^______
2#
Admit pupil, and request transfer by mail____
3*
Admit pupil and hope that transfer will come in
• by mail,
4*
5
B.
■
.
■■
___________________________________________________________________________________________
When elementary school or junior high school sends
cards for pupils who do not enroll, do you:
1.
Send cards back____
2•
Wait for some school to request cards
3*
Try to locate pupil and forward cards
4*
File cards in a dead file
5
C.
,
Send pupil back to former school for transfer
and stub of checkout slip______
.
When checking former pupils who do not return in
Sept#, do you:
1#
Send the attendance supervisor out to check
former addresses______
2#
Wait for "request for cards” to turn up for
these pupils______
3*
Turn names into attendance Division as "mis­
sing pupils”______
4.
D.
________ ______________
When pupil leaves, do you:
1.
Send copy of transfer to receiving school
Immediately
37
Wait for school to request I V _____
3*
Send transfer with pupil, and no other____
4.
.
___________________ __
E.
If pupil transfers out of town, where do you send
transfer?
F.
When pupils fail to check out completely, do yous
G.
H*
XII.
2.
1*
Withhold credits until debts are paid, or
books returned______
2*
Send credits and request cooperation of new
school to remind pupil of his oversight______
3*
Send credits regardless______
Do you keep separate entry and leaving books?_____
1*
Do you make registration cards______ (Send in
a copy)
2.
Who checks off transfer and cards as received
Comments__________ _____________________ ____________
MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION
A.
Who handles changes of programs?_______
B.
What is your strongest point in your set-up or
procedure?______
C.
What is your weakest point?______
D.
Are there any problems that you would like addi­
tional information on that might be supplied by
other elerks?_______
E.
How does your school handle promotions and demo­
tions?
1.
Do you send a list to H.R. teachers?____
a.
If so, please send procedure on separate
sheet.
38
F.
Are there any points that you have so v^ell organ­
ized that you would be willing to tell everyone
about them, thereby spreading the benefit?______
G.
Who does the statistical?
H.
Number of hours you work in the Attendance Office?
I*
Do you perform any miscellaneous duties that have
nothing to do with your attendance work?_____ _
J.
Do miscellaneous duties interfere with your effic iency ?______
K.
Do you have any special forms by which other clerks
may profit? Please include them.
Registrar?
Clerk?
_
Approved:
Registrar or Attendance Teacher
39
CHAPTER IV
FINDINGS BASED TJPON
THE QUESTIONNAIRE
The previous chapters have explained the need and the
background for attendance procedures.
The state and the
school laws as to the attendance procedures, and the methods
of compiling data were explained.
The chapter on procedures
explained the construction of the questionnaire and the ques­
tions asked.
This chapter will contain the information gathered
from the questionnaire with tables showing the percentages
of answers to the questions.
Jiach table will deal with one
of the major questions and its sub-questions.
For the most
part, the results from senior and junior high schools are
separated and tabulated with their respective percentages
for comparison.
Questions answered in personal interviews
were placed in table for easier comparison.
From the in­
formation obtained through the questionnaire and the inter­
views, it was evident that four outstanding systems of attend­
ance procedures were used generally.
Schools claiming to
have an original system were found to use a modification of
one of the four major methods.
Thus, for the purpose of
this study the systems were narrowed down to four and com­
pared as to their efficiency of operation, ease of interpre­
tation, and their general utility.
40
Habitual tardiness:
A table of the percentage dis­
tribution of procedures for dealing with habitual tardinesses
was constructed.
This Table IV, listed eight important
questions dealing with habitual tardiness.
The percentage
of ’school answering "yes", "no", and "no report” were
listed separately for both junior and senior high schools.
The percentage of both junior and senior high schools which
attempted remedial measures for habitual tardiness was both
high and about the same in each division.
For those who
were habitually tardy, the senior high schools made the stu­
dent drop the first period in ten times more cases than in
the junior high schools.
The junior high schools revoked
more student privileges than did the senior high schools.
Both types of schools sent for the parents’ in the majority
of cases.
Excuses:
Table V, "A Percentage Distribution on the
Types of Excuses Allowed", was made up of the four questions
dealing with the important procedures of excuses and excusewriting.
Both types of school allowed about the same length
of time for returning of late excuses.
The junior high
schools were unanimous in not allowing students to write
their own excuses, while eighteen percent of the senior high
schools permitted their students to write their own excuses.
This shows evidence that the senior high school student is
trusted more and placed more on his honor than the junior high
school pupil.
TABLE IV
41
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OP PROCEDURES
FOR DEALING WITH
HABITUAL TARDINESSES
Junior High Senior High
Yes No
A* Does your office attempt remedial measures?
76
No Yes No No
Report
Report
3
21
87
3
10
3 11
86
37
6
57
38
7
55
50
3
47
3. Come early and punch slip in
time clock 20 min. early for one
week.
27
7
66
3
6
91
4.
Give demerits.
15 15
70
40
3
57
5.
Assembly privileges revoked.
30
3
67
22
3
75
6. Send notice home appealing
for parents* cooperation.
76
3
21
62
3
35
7. Send for parents to come to
school.
53
3
44
43
0
57
B. If so, check one or more items
listed belows
1. Drop 1st period and lose
credit for one solid.
2.
Detention after school.
42
TABLE V
A PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION
ON THE TYPES OP EXCUSES ALLOWED
Junior High
Yes No
Senior High
No
Yes No No
Report
Report
A* Do you have a time limit on late
excuses?
69 11
20
59 18
23
B* Do you have signature cards to
compare signed excuses?
60 42
8
47 37
16
C. Do you allow students to write
their own excuses?
0 76
24
18 59
23
D. If so, is this policy satisfac­
tory?
0
0 100
9 12
79
43
Checking absences:
checking absences*
There are several methods of
Table VI listed the six major questions
on the care of absent cards and their making#
A large per­
centage of the schools of both types did not Issue a master
absence sheet of the absent students to the teachers*
Forty-
three percent of the senior high schools prepared their
absence cards in advance*
attendance office*
These cards were prepared In the
In most of the junior high schools, the
absence cards were prepared by.the first period teacher,
it was found that the reason so many schools did not report
to some of these questions was that an answer to the one
question dealing with the method they used covered all points*
Follow-up methods used in checking absences:
The
follow-up methods used in checking absences were divided
into six questions on procedures.
The percentage distribu­
tion Table VII shows how these questions were answered*
Both junior and senior high schools were one hundred percent
for telephoning parents to check up on their child’s absence*
The senior high schools were one hundred percent in sending
cards and attendance supervisors to the parents without
phones.
The junior high school registrars did not respond
to any method for checking stray absences during the day.
Upon questioning several junior high school registrars about
this problem, the writer found that they all seemed to agree
44
TABLE VI
A PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE METHODS OF
CHECKING ABSENCES
Junior High
Yes No
Senior High
No
Yes No No
Report
Report
A* Do you issue a master sheet to
each teacher daily?
23 73
4
B. Do you colleet slips through­
out the day?
15 47
38
43 15 52
15
7
78
43
6 51
0 11
89
28
9 63
62
12
9 79
34 47
19
C. How do you prepare your absence
cards?
1.
In advance•
2# Made at counter when pupil
returns.
3.
Mad© by period I teacher.
35
3
45
TABLE VII
A PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OP THE
FOLLOW-UP METHODS USED IN
CHECKING ABSENCES
Junior High
Yes No
A.
Telephone parents.
Senior High
No
Yes No No
Report
Report
96
0
4
95
0
7
B. Postal card notice with return
card reply.
76
7 17
90
0
10
C.
80
7 13
97
0
3
D. Nurse sent on home calls of
suspected Illness.
88
3
71 15
14
E. Reaching (or interviewing)
brothers and sisters of absentees.
88
0 12
84
0
16
100
34
9
57
By attendance supervisor.
P. Do you have a good way of check­
ing odd slips throughout the day?
0
0
9
46
that no satisfactory method was now in use.
Percentage of schools sending sick children home*
The
questions dealing with the care of children who take sick at
school were tabulated and Table VIII shows how the sick
children were cared for.
All of the junior high schools had
the vice-principal handle the means of transportation.
Most
of the senior high schools let the child go home unaccompan­
ied.
Neither school systems assumed responsibility if the
child went off the school grounds.
Lunch permits:
Table IX shows the cases of children
who go home for lunch and fail to return to school for the
afternoon session.
In all cases, the student was warned and,
in a great percentage of the cases, parents were notified
and requested to cooperate with the school.
The temporary
permits to go off bounds for lunch were, to a large extent,
granted by the attendance offices.
Students who persisted
in the violation of lunch permits, whether permanent or
temporary, were deprived of the privilege of leaving the
school grounds during school hours for the remainder of the
year*
The revocation of permits was confined mainly to
senior high schools, indicating that violations were more
prevalent at that level.
The response to warnings and the
cooperation of parents was more satisfactory in the junior
high schools*
47
TABLE VIII
PERCENTAGE OF SCHOOLS
SENDING SICK CHILDREN HOME
Junior High
Yes No
Senior High
Yes No No
No
Report
Report
84
7
9
61 12
27
B* Does vice-principal handle means
of transportation?
88
0
12
61 12
27
C. Send child with attendance super­
visor, nurse, or free teacher?
65 11
24
61
D. Permit child to go home unaccom­
panied?
69 11
20
59
0
41
E. Do you asstune responsibility for
pupils going off grounds?
19 69
12
28 59
13
to
A* Telephone parent to call for sick
child*
2
48
TABLE IX
A PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION
OP THE METHODS USED IN DEALING WITH LUNCH PERMITS
Junior High
Yes No
Senior High
No
Yes No No
Report
Report
A. If pipil stays home during after­
noon on his lunch permit, do you:
1.
Revoke the permit?
34 25
41
8
31
0
69
7
40
53
0
47
42
3
55
40
3
57
73
7
20
81
6
13
38 19
43
2. Allow a certain number P.M.
absences before revoking?
42 50
3. Permit him to keep permit but
warn him?
53
4. Notify parents and request
cooperation?
B. Does attendance office handle
temporary permits?
49
Attendance files:
The attendance record card which
is universally issued in all the junior and senior high schools
of Los Angeles is filed differently in many of the schools.
A particular card-filing method is an aid in one school and
might be a cause of loss of efficiency in another school using
a different attendance procedure.
Table X lists the methods
of card arrangement and the schools using these methods.
Attendance files symbols:
Symbols used in the junior
and senior high schools of the city vary tremendously.
The
State Department of Education and Los Angeles City Depart­
ment of Education recommend uniform symbols, but the schools
are permitted to use their own systems.
This difference in
symbols is very confusing to the transferred clerk or re­
gistrar.
it has been pointed out that, whereas a symbol has
one meaning in one school, it may have a totally different,
or even opposite, meaning in another school,
xhere is always
a waste of time when a clerk or registrar is transferred from
one school to another because he must make this realignment
of symbols.
Table XX, showing the percentage of different
symbols used with the methods of posting the attendance re­
cord data, was made to show the comparisons.
The counter:
The method of handling and the operation
of an attendance office counter depends a great deal upon the
efficiency of that office.
Some attendance offices give less
information over their counters than others.
The amount and
50
TABLE X
A PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE METHODS USED
IN ARRANGING ATTENDANCE FILES
Junior High
Yes No
A. Set-up.
cards?
Senior High
Yes No
How do you arrange your
1.
By grades?
53 47
50 50
2.
Strictly alphabetically.
11 89
18 82
3.
Boys and girls separate,alpha­
betically.
42 58
21 79
4.
Boys and girls, by grades.
42 58
34 66
5.
Home rooms.
19 81
18 82
TABLE XI
51
A PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OP THE DIFFERENT USES OF
ATTENDANCE FILES SYMBOLS
Junior High
Yes No
Senior High
No
Yes No No
Report
Report
A. Would you favor a uniform system
of symbols?
76 11
13
62 18
20
B. Do you Indicate reason for absence
on attendance card?
66 34
0
56 34
10
C. Do you use back of one-year cards
for notes on pupils?
19 57
24
47 43
10
D. Do you have your print shop print
your cards?
19 57
24
22 61
17
3 50
47
0
4
87
3
E. If you use three-year cards, do you
find it difficult to post by grades?
0 100
F.
Do you post every day?
73 23
G.
Do you post in pencil?
42
0
50
0
Do you post in ink?
47
0
22
0
Do you post in colored pencil?
27
0
28
0
10
52
kind of counter help has a bearing on the counter*s operation.
A Table XII summarizing the ten duties and operations at the
counter, was made for comparing the methods used.
Enrollment procedures
The enrollment of new students
is handled by the vice-principal, counselor, registrar, or
clerk.
A table showing the percent of schools using each
method indicates that the attendance office or registrar per­
forms most of this enrolling of new students as part of his
office duty.
This is shown in Table XIII.
When a new student enters, he must have a transfer
from his previous school ahowing his achievement at that
school.
The transfer also helps the attendance office check
on the whereabouts of students.
In some cases, if the stu­
dent has no transfer card, he is sent to his former school
to obtain it.
In other instances, the student is admitted,
and a transfer is requested by mail.
In still other schools*
the student is admitted and the obtaining of the transfer
is trusted to luck and the chance that the former school
will forward it.
Table XIV was made showing the percentage
of each method used.
In some parts of the city, the elementary or junior
high school sends the registration cards of its graduates
to the junior high school or senior high school within the
district.
These cards are on file and ready for the new stu­
dent at the beginning of the new term. There are always un-
TABLE XII
53
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OP THE DUTIES PERFORMED
AT THE COUNTER
Junior High
Yes No
Senior High
No
Yes No No
Report
Report
A. Do you have a general pupil pro­
gram file in your office?
96
4
0
B. Do you have a general teacher file
in your office?
84 11
0
0
5
75 19
6
61
9
31 62
7
D. Would your interruption he less­
ened if these files were in another
office?
25 53
24
25 37
38
E. Do students take care of counter
inquiries from outsiders?
15 65
20
25 67
8
F. Do you rely a great deal upon
your monitors?
76 15
9
93
3
4
G. Do you teach your helpers about;
filing* sorting, procedure, etc.?
84
3
13
88
3
9
H. Do you type your attendance cards
during the summer?
76
0
24
62
0
38
I. Do you type your attendance cards
after the semester opens?
23
0
77
37
6
57
J. Do pupils fill in everything but
last line, which you type?
15 73
12
12 53
35
C. Are these overly used to the point
of interruption of your routine work?
30
100
54
TABLE XIII
ENROLLMENT PROCE0JRE
Junior High
A.
Senior High
Yes No
Yes No
1
Who enrolls new pupils?#
1.
Vice-principal•
2
2.
Counselor.
5 19
4 12
3*
Registrar.
20 76
21 61
4.
Clerk.
12 47
12 37
#
dents.
7
3
In some schools more than one person enrolls new stu­
55
claimed cards.
Students fail to registrar at the junior or
senior high school within the district in which they were
graduated the preceding semester.
The methods of handling these uncalled for cards are
varied.
Some schools send them back.
request,
Others wait for a
oome schools try to locate the student and other
schools put the cards in a 11dead file.”
Table XV showing
the percentage of each method used was made to show just
what happened to these uncalled for cards.
Checking former students who do hot return in Septem­
ber:
The question arose as to the whereabouts of these
”lost students” .
Some registrars turned the names over to the
attendance supervisor for check.
Other schools waited for a
request to turn up for these students records.
These and other
steps taken in checking non-returning students are in­
dicated in Table XVI which shows the percent of school action
on each of these questions.
Pupils who leave for another school:
Transferring
students are either given their transfer to take to the new
school, or it is mailed immediately to that school.
The per­
cent of schools using each methods was made into a table for
convenience.
These methods are taken up in Table XVII.
Pupils failing to check out completely:
To check out
completely, a student must settle all unpaid debts, for ex­
ample, for materials used in shops; return or pay for mis-
TABLE XIV
A PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OP THE METHODS USED
IN CARING FOR TRANSFER STUDENTS
ENROLLMENT PROCEDURE (cont'd)
Junior High
Percentage
5*
Do you insist upon transfer?
Yea No
Senior High
No
Yes No No
Report
Report
23 15
62
47 22
31
6
27
6. Admit student and request
transfer by mail?
96
4
0
7. Admit student and hope transfer come by mail?
15
0
85
0 31
69
8. Send pupil back to former school
0 50
for check-out slip?
50
44 12
44
67
56
TABLE XV
A PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OP THE METHODS USED
. IN CARING FOR NON-REPORTING STUDENTS
ENROLLMENT PROCEDURE (cont»d)
Junior High
Yes No
Senior High
No
Yes No No
Report
Report
B. When elementary schools or junior
high schools send cards for pupils who
do not enroll, do you*
28
3
59
31
3
66
2. Wait for some school to re­
quest cards?
19
3
78
31
6
63
3. Try to locate pupil and forward cards?
84
0
16
56
0
44
4. File cards in a dead file?
23
7
70
28
0
73
1.
Send cards hacks
57
TABLE XVI
A PERCENTAGE TABLE OP THE METHODS USED
TO CHECK ON STUDENTS
TOO DO NOT RETURN IN SEPTEMBER
ENROLLMENT PROCEDURE (cont»d)
Junior High
Yes No
Senior High
No
Yes No No
Report
Report
When checking former pupils who
c.
do not return in September, do you:
1.
Send attendance supervisor
out to check?
92
8
0
81
0
19
2* Wait for wrequestM to turn up
for these students?
23
0
77
34
3
63
0 100
25
3
72
3*
Turn names into attendance
division as nmissing pupils”?
0
58
sing books for which he assumed responsibility.
In the case
of incomplete checking out, a student1s credits are either
withheld or sent on with a promise to settle the obligations#
Table XVIII shows the procedures used by the schools, with
a tabulation of percentages made for convenient use in this
s tudy.
After a survey of this questionnaire,
supreme efforts
were made to classify the several methods used in taking
the attendance and making records of the student, and to
tabulate the methods used in the order of their popularity.
It was found that the Master Absence Sheet method was used
the most; with the Double Card system, second; Two-Period
Roll Call, third; and the Check Slip system, fourth.
The
other systems used were either closely related to one of
these systems or was the same method with a different name.
It was very hard to rate these methods of procedure
as to their efficiency because of the fact that the schools
had a different size enrollment and had a larger or smaller
staff.
The survey compared the efficiency of the methods used
in the performance of the two main duties of the attendance
office:
1) Re-entering students, and, 2) the making of the
monthly Average Daily Attendance report.
These duties were
compared in the light of the time spent per helper per
pupil.
59
TABUS XVII
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OP TRANSFER CARE
FOR STUDENTS WHO LEAVE
ENROLLMENT PROCEDURE (cont'd)
Junior High
Yes Ho
D.
Senior High
Ho
Yes No Ho
Report
Report
When pupils leave, do you:
1* Send a copy of transfer to receiving school immediately?
96
0
4
100
0
0
2m Wait for school to request
transfer?
11
0
89
16
0
84
3. Send transfer with student
only?
69
0
31
12 12
76
TABLE XVIII
60
A PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION
OF THE METHODS USED
FOR STUDENTS WHO FAIL TO CHICK OUT COMPLETELY
ENROLLMENT PROCEDURE (cont»d)
Junior High
Yes NO
Senior High
No
Yes No No
Report
Report
F. When pupils fail to check out com­
pletely, do yous
!• Withhold credits until
dehts are paid?
27
3
70
2* Send credits and request co­
operation of new school?
96
0
3.
23
G* Do you keep separate entry and
leaving books?
27
H* Do you make (print) registration
cards?
Send credits regardless?
40 12
48
4
47
3
50
3
74
6
6
88
3
70
37
6
57
73 11 116
61
3
36
40
0
60
9 47
44
I. Do you perform any duties that have
nothing to do with attendance?
50
J. Do you find that these miscellan­
eous duties interfere with your effi­
ciency?
7
43
11 42
47
61
Time taken in re-entering students daily, per minute
per unit of office help, was computed by multiplying the
help by the time consumed, and dividing that product by the
number readmitted.
Average daily attendance report-making time per one
hundred pupils, was found by dividing the number of hours
it took to make the report by the average enrollment.
These figures gave a good comparison of school pro­
cedures as to their efficiency of operation.
Each registrar reported his office procedure the
simplest of interpretation.
The personal interviews and
general notes upon the individual school procedures ranked
the four procedures in this order of ease of understandability and simplicity;
1) Master Absence Sheet; 2) Two-
period Roll Call; 3) Double Card system; 4) Check Slip sys­
tem.
The utility of an attendance procedure depends upon
the accessibility of records and information.
Questions
were asked as to where the files were kept, how the records
were arranged, and the ease with which one could find infor­
mation.
The system that seemed the
most serviceable and to
answer the most daily needs was the Master Absence Sheet
system.
This is pointed out on a table of attendance office
utilities by systems and methods.
62
TABLE XIX
PERCENTAGE OP SCHOOLS USING
EACH SYSTEM
System
Check slip
Number
Percent
Average
enrollment
8
13
1600
Double Card
16
27
2300
Master Absence Sheet
22
38
2800
Two Period Roll Call
12
22
1700
Explanations
The percent of schools using each system was
found by dividing the total number of schools reporting by the
number of schools in each system.
TABLE XX
EFFICIENCY TABLE
ON RE-ENTERING STUDENTS
A*
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Method of procedure
1*
Check Slip System
1600
80
3
12
2.2
2.
Double Card System
2300
150
3
15
3.33
5.
Master Absence Sheet
2800
240
2
20
6.
4*
Two Period Roll Call
1700
90
il
20
3.
Note:
A.
Average enrollment*
B.
Number readmitted daily*
C.
Average number of persons readmitting students*
D*
Average time consumed in minutes*
1. Number of students readmitted per minute per
worker in attendance office*
64
TABLE XXI
EFFICIENCY TABLE
ON MAKING A. D. A. REPORT
A.
B.
C.
D.
O
•
H
A.
Procedure
Check Slip System
1600
3
16
2.
Double Card system
2300
3
25
.92
3.
Master Absence Sheet
2800
2
36
•
4•
Two Period Roll Call
1700
1*
10
.59
Notes
CO
1.
A.
Average enrollment*
B.
Average number of workers in attendance office.
C.
Average time consumed for school report in hours
D.
Average time per 100 pupils.
The average time was found by dividing the number of
hours it took to make the report by the average enrollment.
65
TABLE XXII
SERVICES PERFORMED
BY ATTENDANCE OFFICES
Check
slip
system
Double
card
system
Master
absent
sheet
Two
period
roll
call
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
No
Yes
Are attendance cards by boy
and girl?
No
No
No
Yes
Are attendance cards by home­
room?
No
Yes
No
No
Are attendance cards In one
office?
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Do teachers know who are absent
from school?
No
No
Yes
No
Do registrars have students’
attendance handy for checking
absences?
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Are attendance cards alphabet­
ical?
Are attendance cards by grades?
If the majority of schools using a particular system
incorporated one of the procedures mentioned above, the pro­
cedure was assumed, for purposes of tabulation, to be a char­
acteristic of that particular system.
66
SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION OP MAJOR SYSTEMS
The tabulation of the more than one hundred questions
of the questionnaire and the many questions asked in the per­
sonal interviews are graphically shown in the tables.
The
last four tables, which deal with the systems used in taking
and maintaining the attendance records, point out the merits
of each of the major systems used in the Los Angeles junior
and senior high schools.
A long and detailed account of the mechanics of these
different systems which, in the end, reach the same goal is
not necessary for this survey.
A brief discussion of the four general procedures, and
the characteristics peculiar to each, follows:
Check Slip system:
This method was used in the smaller
schools and only Ip. the junior high schools.
The absence of
a student was noted by every teacher on a separate slip and
sent to the attendance office during every period of the day.
These slips were filed under the student1s name and checked
of odd period absences.
The student upon returning to
school made a slip for each class from which he had been
absent.
After having the slips stamped and okehed by the
registrar he attended classes, handing each teacher an ex­
cuse slip.
The system wastes materials, and teacher1s and
registrar1s time.
for these reasons.
It was not used in the larger schools
67
Double card system:
This method was used by most of
the schools which later adopted the Master Absence Sheet
plan#
It is now used to a large extent in the junior high
schools,
rhe student, upon registraring, makes out a program
card of all his periods and subjects.
a home room period.
The first period is
Each day the home room teacher takes
his respective roll and sends, the program cards of all those
absent to the office.
These cards are sorted and routed to
the absentee*s second period classes.
Monitors take the cards
to the second period classes and the teacher signs them.
Cards are collected and rerouted to the third class, and so
on for the rest of the periods.
When a student returns, he
goes to his homeroom, makes out a new card to be used the
next time he is absent, and is given an admittance slip.
All
of the student’s attendance is taken care of by the homeroom
teacher.
office.
These records are sent in monthly to the attendance
Attendance reports are not centralized in one office.
Some schools have as many as forty monitors helping to sort
out and carry cards to the classrooms.
Master Absence Sheet system:
tensively used.
This system is most ex­
High schools and the larger junior high
schools have recently changed to this method.
The second
period teacher makes out absence slips for each student ab­
sent from his class, and places them in a clip on the class
room door#
These slips are then collected by monitors who
take them to the attendance office#
There an alphabetical
list is made of all those absent and a copy given to every
teacher by the third period#
If a teacher notes one of his
absent students on the list he knows he is recorded absent.
If his name is not on the Master Absence Sheet, a slip is
sent to the office for period truancy#
A returning student
makes out a form slip in the attendance office checking
reason for absence, days absent, by whom excuse was signed#
This slip is stamped, and the student is sent on to class with
the slip stub for readmittance.
The Master Absence Sheet is
used by the registrar for tabulating consecutive,.days out
and immediate check on students.
This method requires fewer
clerks, centralizes student information, and every teacher
is informed as to who is absent.
Two-Period Roll Call system:
This system takes the
roll the first and last periods of the day.
It assumes that
a student if present at these two roll calls is in attend­
ance the entire day.
Slips are collected after each roll
and placed alphabetically#
When a student returns he is
given an admittance slip to class by the registrar.
His
attendance record is made by substracting the number of
absence slips from the number of school days in a month.
In
direct opposition to other methods, this system gives a stu­
dent credit for the dayfs attendance if he has not been
marked absent from the first or last period.
This method
seems to work in a small school, but the possibilities of
error in a larger school would make it an inaccurate
index of attendance.
70
CHAPTER V
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
In the first chapter the problem was stated, and the
method of approach to that problem was discussed.
The second chapter gave the background to the study
of attendance procedures.
Excerpts from the state school
attendance laws, as well as policies followed by the Los
Angeles City School System on student attendance were dis­
cussed.
Reasons for good procedures in the keeping of
attendance records were stated, as was the importance played
by them in the financial maintenance of a school system.
The schools, being largely supported by funds only obtain­
able upon the average daily attendance of their students,
must have an efficient method of collecting and maintaining
that data for the accurate apportionment of school funds.
The third chapter explained the methods of gathering
the information about attendance.
Questions were asked
about every procedure which could conceivably be used in an
attendance office.
Questions that were impractical for a
questionnaire were asked of and discussed with the regis­
trars, either by phone or in personal interviews.
These
questions were tabulated and classified under attendance
office procedures.
71
Prom the information gathered in the survey, it was
apparent that there were several different sets of symbols
used in accounting for students*
meanings for the same symbol.
Some schools had opposite
This mixture of symbols and
symbol meanings cause a great amount of confusion and in­
accurate work, especially by newly transferred attendance
clerks or registrars.
A uniform system of symbols and symbol
meanings should be instituted throughout the school system,
thereby eliminating the confusion experienced by substitutes
or transferred attendance clerks or registrars.
The State
Department of Education recommends a good set of symbols, as
does the Los Angeles City School Administrator's Guide.
To
date, the individual schools have devised their own systems
and have used their individual methods of interpretation.
The methods of attendance procedures have been dis­
closed by the survey to be of four general types.
One type, the Master Absence Sheet system, seemed, by
evidence of the survey, to be the most efficient and to con­
tain the most centralized information about attendance. Each
of the other methods had some commendable points but other
features that tended to hinder efficiency.
The Master Absence Sheet method has all the students
in school in one alphabetical attendance record file.
This
is for accessibility in finding students attendance records,
and, also, for the posting of these records.
On the other
72
hand, another system has the boys and girls by grades,
arated, in the attendance files.
sep­
This is for ease in the
making of statistical reports at the end of each month.
This type of student attendance card filing is not so acces­
sible for attendance checking or finding out about individual
student absences.
The Master Absence Sheet method is the only
system that furnishes a Master Absence Sheet to all the teach­
ers daily.
period.
All teachers know who are absent by the third
This method is a great aid in teacher-student plan­
ning.
It was graphically shown by the survey that the Master
Absence Sheet re-entered two students to every one re-entered
by any of the other types in the same period of time.
factor was a great aid to the first period teacher.
This
Re-en­
tered students did not miss half of their first period as
they did when re-entered by any other method.
The Amount of
office help used for the readmittance of students was the
least of all the methods.
This small staff readmitted more
students per minute.
In making out the monthly report of average daily
attendance, the Master Absence Sheet method was less than
two-tenths slower per one hundred students than the fastest
time of any system.
The system which required the least time
for making this report was the Two-Period Roll Call system.
This system assumes that a student is in attendance if not
73
marked absent*
The monthly report is made from the absence
slips, and not from the attendance record cards, as is done
by the other systems.
This survey has pointed out the merits of the methods
used by the Los Angeles City junior and senior high schools.
Prom information gathered it is evident that there is a
lack of uniformity in the making of school attendance records.
The study has shown that some school methods of procedure are
less efficient than others.
Many schools were not aware that
there are different procedures and methods of keeping
attendance.
The existence of procedures other than their own was
called to the attention of many registrars and clerks by
this survey.
The exchange of ideas and comparison of methods
has resulted in improvements in several attendance offices.
APPENDIX
75
TABULATIOHS OP ATTENDANCE QUESTIONNAIRES
27 Junior High Schools
44 Senior High Schools
71 Total # of Schools
26
52
58
7
Jr. High Schools reported
Sr. High Schools reported
Total # reporting
Special Schools: questionnaire
did not fit.
65
READMITTANCE PROCEDURE
A few listed on separate sheets.
II
HABITUAL TARDIES
A.
B.
III.
Does your office attempt remedial measures?
48 yes
If so, cheek one or more items listed below:
1. Drop Period I and lose credit for 1 solid
• •
2.
Detention after school
3. Come early in the morning and punch a
slip of paper in the time clock for one
week (about 15 or 20 minutes early) • • • • •
4. Give demerits
. . • . • • • • • • • • • • . .
5.
Assembly privileges revoked
6.
Send notice home appealing forparents1
cooperation
...................... . . . . . .
7.
Send for parent to come to school
• • • • • •
no
2
yes 13
yes 34
yes 8
yes 17
yes 14
yes 39
yes 28
EXCUSES
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Who files the excuses in your office?
• • • • •
N Y A
Student s
Clerks
How are they filed?
.............. Alpha, envelopes
Alpha, folders
H.R. folders
Boys & girls folders
Dated envelopes
Do you have a time limiton late excuses . . yes 37 no
How l o n g ? ........... ............ ..
1 day
3 days
5 days
Do you have signature cards to compare signed
excuses?
........................
.yes 28 no
What penalties have you for failure of pupil
to bring excuses?
• • • •
Citations
Demerits
Detention
Note home
3
24
3
33
15
3
3
4
9
14
7
7
23
5
10
15
4
76
F.
Recorded truancy 7
Off honor roll 1
Citizenship card made 1
Do you allow students to write their own
excuses in theoffice on the day they
return? yes 7 no 39
Is its a t i s f a c t o r y ? ............................. yes 3 no 4
*
IV.
CHECKING ABSENCES
A.
B.
D.
E.
V.
teacher
yes 17 no 34
daily?
.................
Do you collect slips throughout the day and
yes
maintain your own master sheet?
• • • • •
How do you prepare your absence cards?
1* Typed in a d v a n c e .....................
yes
2. Made at counter in the morning when
yes
pupil returns
3. Made by Period I teacher who sends in
yes
absence card instead of slip
.........
Cheek the follow-up methods you use for
checking absences;
yes
1. Telephone the parent • • • • • « • • •
2. Postal card notice with return card
yes
r e p l y ............................... .
yes
3. By Attendance Supervisor .............
4. Nurse sent on home calls of suspected
yes
illness cases
• • • • • • • . • • • •
5. Contacting brothers and sisters of ab­
sentees
...............
yes
6. Contacting friends of pupils • • • • • •
yes
Do you have a good way of checking odd
slips throughout the day (cuts, etc.)
1. Check absence slips with same period teacher
next d a y ............... * ...................
2. Special bulletin issued ...................
3. Students summoned to office
...............
4. Previous days uncleared slips placed in
teachers1 box for answer • • • .............
18 no 17
19 no
4
9 no
6
13 no
4
55
49 no
52
2
46 no
5
50
2
yes 5
yes 1
yes 16
yes
3
45 no
2
44 no
4
SENDING CHILDREN HOME
When sending them, do you;
A. Telephone parent to call for sick child? .
yes
B. Does the vice-principal handle means of trans­
yes
portation? ........... ............ ..........
C. Send child with attendance supervisor, nurse,
or teacher who has free period?
• • • • • •
yes
D. Permit child to go home unaccompanied? . • • yes
E. Do you assume responsibility for pupils
38 no 3
37 no 15
77
P.
VI.
LUNCH PERMITS
A.
B.
VII.
going off grounds
................. yes 14 no 37
Who in your school may assume responsibility
for pupils leaving grounds?
« Principal 18
Vice-principal 27
Registrars 22
Counselor 2
Clerks 5
If a pupil stays home during the afternoon
on his lunch permit, do yous
1.
Revoke the permit? • • • • • • • • • • • yes 21 no 8
2. Allow a certain number of P.M. absences
before revoking? • • • • • • • • • • • •
yes 23
3. Permit him to keep the permit, but
warn him?
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
yes 23
4. Notify parent and request his cooper­
ation? • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
yes 24 no 2
Does your office handle temporary lunch
permits? • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
yes 45 no 4
1.
How? • • • » • • • • • • Note handled by registrars 18
Viee~principals 7
Principals 2
Telephone home 2
Temporary pass with detention 4
ATTENDANCE FILES
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
Set-up. How do you arrange your cards?
1.
By g r a d e s
2*
Strictly alphabetically • ♦ • • • • • • • • •
3#
Boys and girls separate, alphabetically
...
4.
Boys and girls by grades . . « • • • • • • • •
5.
Homerooms
Give legend of markings used on attendance
cards.
Sample card was returned by 42 schools.
Would you favor a uniform system of symbols
yes
Do you indicate reason for absence on
attendance cards?
• • • • • • • • • • • • •
yes
Do you use the back of 1-year cards for
notes on pupil?
yes
Do you have your print shop print additional
yes
helpful data in squares of eard? . . . . . .
If you use 3-year card, do you find it difficult
to post to different portions of cards (desig­
nated by grade) when you work on different
grades?
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • « • • •
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
30
9
17
22
11
40 no . 9
35 no 20
20 no 29
12 no 36
1 no 13
78
H.
J.
VIII.
« • • • • • • • • • • •
ink yes 19
pencil yes 27
colored pencil yes 16
post every day yes 47 no 7
How do you do your statistical report:
1. Is your present card arrangement sat­
isfactory for this?
• • • • • • • • • •
yes 26 no 2
2. How do you compute fractional absences,
tardies, cuts, etc., on your record card
and your statistical - 5 ^ for each twelve minutes- all
3. Circumstances under which you ”red line11- Dr. Cert. 16
Check outs 27
Juvenile hall 2
Christmas work 3
Out of state 3
Holidays 2
Late entries 11
Trips 4
Unknown address 1
Long absences 2
Work Permit 1
THE COUNTER
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
IX.
Do you post in:
Do you have a general file for pupil pro­
grams in your office?
• • • • • • • • • • <
Do you file a general teacher program in
your office?
Are these overly-used to the point of in­
terruption of your routine work? . • • • • «
Would your interruptions be considerably
lessened if these files were removed to
a less congested office? . . . • • • • • • <
Do students take care of counter inquiries
from outsiders?
. . * • • • • • • • • • • <
yes 66 no
1
yes 46 no
9
yes 18 no 36
yes 14 no 26
yes
8 no 39
OFFICE HELPERS
A.
B.
C.
yes 50 no 5
rely agreat deal upon your monitors?
inwhat way:• • • • • • . . •
Circulate cards 2
Simple clerical duties 32
Switchboard 1
Typing 1
Collect slips 6
Phone absentees 1
Posting tardies 2
Counter help 4
Do you teach your helpers something about
filing, sorting, business procedure, courtesy,
Do you
If so,
79
ethic s, e t c * ? .............................. yes
50 no
2
X. TYPING ATTENDANCE CARDS
When do you do it?
A.
B.
C•
During the s u m m e r ? ............ ............. yes
After opening of s e m e s t e r ? ................. yes
Do you have pupil fill in everything hut
last line, then you type last l i n e ? ......... yes
40
18 no 2
8 no 36
XI. ENROLLMENT PROCEDURE
A*
Who enrolls new pupils? • • .
Vice-principal 3
Counselor 9
Registrars 41
Clerks 24
Do you:
1. Insist upon a transfer? .................
yes 21 no
2. Admit pupil and request transfer by mail?
yes 47 no
3. Admit pupil and hope transfer will come
in by school mail?
. . . . .............
yes 4 no
4. Send pupil back to former school for
transfer and stub of checkout card? . . .
yes 14 no
B. When elementary school or junior high
schools send cards for pupils who do not
enroll, do you:
yes 20 no
1. Send cards back?
• • • • • .............
2. Wait for some school to request cards?
yes 15 no
3. Try to locate pupil and forward cards?
• yes 40
4. File cards in a dead file?
. . • • • • •
yes 15 no
C. When checking former pupils who do not return
in September, do you:
1. Send attendance supervisor out to check
yes 50 no
former a d d r e s s e s ? ............... ..
2. Wait for "request for cards11 to turn up
yes 17 no
for these pupils?
........... ..
3. Turn names into Attendance Division as
yes 8 no
"missing pupils*1? ............ • • • • • •
D. When pupil leaves, do you:
1. Send a copy of transfer to receiving
school Immediately? .....................
yes 57
yes 3 no
2. Wait for school to request it?
. . . . .
3. Send transfer with pupil, and no other? • yes 15 no
E. If student transfers out of town, where do
you send transfer?
............ To school if known
To student
Bd. of Educ. of city
Nothing
11
2
10
17
2
3
2
1
1
1
5
4
27
14
10
1
80
F.
G.
When pupils fail to check out completely,
do you*
1.
Withhold credits until debts are paid,
or books returned?
• • • • • • • • •
2.
Send credits and request cooperation
of new school to remind pupil of his
oversight?
• • • • • • • • • • • • •
3.
Send credits regardless? • • • • • • •
Do you keep separate entry and leaving
books?
1.
Do you make registration cards?, . • •
2.
Who checks off transfer and cards as
received?
. • • • • • • • • • • • • •
yes
20 no
5
yes
yes
40 no 1
8 no 3
yes 19 no 3
yes 40 no 4
Registrar 18
Clerk 25
Homeroom Teachers 7
Secretary 1
Credit Clerks 5
XII.
MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION
........ “ ........T"
A.
S.
C.
D.
E.
'
v
Who handles changes of programs?
• • • • Counselors
Vice-principal
Principal
Registrar
Clerks
Secretary
What is your strongest point in your
set-up or procedure? • • • • • • • • •
Daily posting
Organization
Teacher cooperation
Checking on absences
Attendance procedures
Colored absence cards
Alphabetical attendance file
Master sheets
What is your weakest point?
~ Lack of room, time and help
Switchboard in attendance office
Checking tardies, odd slips, excuses
Lack of teacher- cooperation
Who does the statisitcal?
. . . . . . .
Registrars
Clerks
Registrars and clerks
Vice-principal and registrar
Principal, vice-principal and registrar
Do you perform any miscellaneous duties that
have nothing to do with your attendance
work?
39
11
1
1
3
1
1
4
1
3
2
2
1
1
3
1
3
6
18
4
29
2
1
81
F*
Credits
Switchboard
Typing for vice-principal
Checking addresses on permits
Helping secretary
Making diploma lists
Responsible for I«Q« data
Responsible for program card printing
Helping counselor
Do miscellaneous duties interfere with
your efficiency? . . . .‘-r •
yes 26 no 12
»
yes
6 no 26
John H. Francis P olytech n ic High School
ATTENDANCE PROCEDURES
R evised: Septem ber, 1939
(P lease d e stro y 1938 Instru ction s)
The reporting of absent pupils is built around a M aster A bsen ce Sheet. This
sheet contains in alphabetical order the nam es of all pupils w ho are reported
absent from second period classes and study rooms.
Pupils who have been absent are not to be admitted into a class unless th e y
presen t an absence clearance card from the attendance office.
The adequacy of the attendance check depends upon the accuracy of the
m aster absence sheet and the cooperation of teachers in the m atter of not
adm itting to class pupils who have been absent.
The follow ing detailed instructions are to be follow ed carefully.
A
THE ROLL BOOK
1 The roll book which is issued to teachers w hen perm anent programs are
signed is the official record of attendance, tardiness, and marks.
2 The roll call of classes and study rooms is to be taken each period and a
record made in the roll book according to the instructions printed on the
inside of the cover.
3 The sym bol *'L” (Left) is to be placed in the roll book in the square of the
date a pupil is dropped from the roll.
The sym bol “R e t ” (Returned) is to be placed in the square of th e date a
dropped pupil returns to the roll.
4 The sym bol “T r” is to be used w hen a pupil transfers to another class.
B REPORTING ABSENCES FROM PERIOD 1
A pupil who is absent from Period 1 is not to have a w hite recitation ab­
sence slip made for him until after the m aster absence sheet for the day is
issued. If the name of the absent pupil does n ot appear on the m aster ab­
sence sheet, the absence slip is to be made and sent to the attendance office
according to the instructions in E.
C REPORTING ABSENCES FROM PERIOD 2
1 A second period absence slip (special form ) is to be m ade out for each
absent pupil during the first ten (10) m inutes of the second period. These
slips w ill be collected by Self-G overnm ent m essengers not later than fifteen
m inutes after the beginning of the period.
2 If no pu pils are absen t a second period absence slip is to be m ade out show ­
ing the day, date, and teacher. The words e'No absence” are to be w ritten at
the bottom of the slip.
3 If a pupil is tardy to Period 2, arriving after his absence slip has been col­
lected, a duplicate second period slip is to be made out. The word “Cancel”
is to be w ritten across the slip and it is to be sent to the attendance office
a t once.
4 A n absent pupil is to be reported absent e v e ry d a y until:
a H e returns to school.
b A notice is placed at the top of the master absence sheet to m ark him
“L” in the roll book,
c A clearance card (check out of school) is signed.
NOTE: The second period absence slips are used to m ake up the m aster
absence sheet for the day. The leg ib ility of nam es is of vita l im portance.
C h eck th is continuously.
(OVER)
BIBLIOGRAPHY
83
PERIODICAL ARTICLES
Bander, C. F., MTrends in Secondary School Enrollment”,
Industrial Education Magazine, 37:248-9, November, 1935•
”Child Labor and School Attendance”, Elementary School
Journal, 33:245-7, December, 1932•
"Comparison of School Attendance in the United States and
Certain other Countries”, Elementary School Journal,
34:483-6, March, 1934.
"Compulsory School Attendance Provisions Affecting Employ­
ment of Minors in the United States, 1936”, Monthly
Labor Review, 44:356-8, February, 1937.
Fleming, R. D., "School Attendance in New York State”,
School and Society, 37:191, February, 1933.
Graves, G. W., "Reducing Absences for Illness", Parents
Magazine, 10:22, January, 1935.
Johnson, W. H., "Problems of Truancy in the Chicago Public
Schools”, School and Society, 45:665-72, May 15, 1937.
"School Attendance in the United States", Elementary School
Journal, 36:161-4, November, 1935.
"School Attendance Laws", School Life, 21:47, October, 1935.
Woods, R. C., "How Can I Improve the Attendance in my Room?"
Education, 53:186, November, 1932.
STUDIES
Ayres, Leonard Porter, Child Counting in the Public Schools,
Cleveland, Ohio. Cleveland Foundation Publications.
1915. 68 pp.
Bancroft, R. B., "Maintenance of Attendance in Adult Edu­
cation” . Unpublished Master1s thesis, University of
Southern California, Los Angeles, 1931. 122 pp.
Bender, John Fredrick, The Functions of Courts in Enforcing
School Attendance L a w s . New York City Teachers1 College,
Columbia University, 1927. 187 pp.
84
California State Board of Education, Bulletin No. 23, P T E ,
1920. 59 pp.
California State Board of Education, School Code, 1937.
661 pp.
Compton, J. L., ”A Study of Nonattendance in the Elementary
Schools of Bakersfield, California11« Unpublished
Master* s thesis, University of Southern California, Los
Angeles, 1935. 159 pp.
Compulsory School Attendance, United States Bureau of Edu­
cation Bulletin No. 2, Washington, D. C., 1914. 137 pp.
Darby, 0. E., ”An Analysis of Nonattendance in the Horace
Mann Junior High School” . Unpublished Master*s thesis.
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1935.
113 pp.
Dietrich, C. M., ”A Study in Nonattendance in a Junior High
School” . Unpublished Master*s thesis, University of
Southern California, Los Angeles, 1935. 159 pp.
Donahue, H. E., ”Analysis of the Underlying Causes of Nonattendance in the Hawthorne Elementary Schools” . Un­
published Master* s thesis, Univerd ty of Southern Cal­
ifornia, Los Angeles, 1933. 150 pp.
Gordon, L. 0., ”A Study of the Comparable Factors of Attend­
ance Service in the Los Angeles, and San Diego City
Schools” . Unpublished Master*s thesis, University of
Southern California, Los Angeles, 1935. 148 pp.
Holliday, J. N., ”A Study of Nonattendance in Miguel Hidalgo
School of Brawley, California” . Unpublished Master*s
thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles,
1935. 76 pp.
Hunt, J. R., ”A Critical Study of Attendance Supervision in
the School Districts of Los Angeles County” . Unpublished
Master*s thesis, University of Southern California, Los
Angeles, 1928. 112 pp.
Hyde, Lafayette, ”A Study of Absence and Tardiness of Boys
in High School” . Unpublished Master*s thesis, Univer­
sity of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1935. 108 pp.
Johnson, Jay Milton, "A Study of Methods Used for Improving
85
School Attendance In Certain Cities of the United
States” . Unpublished Master1s thesis, University of
Southern California, Los Angeles, 1936. 137 pp.
Kawachi, R., ”A Comparative Study of the Administration of
Compulsory Attendance in the United States and Japan” .
Unpublished Master’s thesis, University of Southern
California, Los Angeles, 1933. 213 p p . *
Keesecker, Ward W., Laws Relating to Compulsory Education.
United States Bureau of Education Bulletin No. 21, 1928.
70 pp.
Kerr, R. A., ”Causes of Nonattendance in Crested Butte” .
Unpublished Master’s thesis, University of Southern
California, Los Angeles, 1935. 105 pp.
Kirkham, Francis Washington, School Attendance, Granite
District, U t a h . Washington, D. C. : United States Gov­
ernment Printing Office, 1931. 57 pp.
Lawing, John Leslie, Standards for State and Local Compul­
sory School Attendance Service. Marysville, Missouri:
Forum Print Shop, 1934.
105 pp.
Lofton, C. S., ”The Problems of a Compulsory Attendance
Officer in a Typical California School District” . Un­
published Master’s thesis, university of Southern Cal­
ifornia, Los Angeles, 1934. 104 pp.
Los Angeles City School District, Administrator* s Guide, as
of March, 1940.
Los Angeles City School District, Instructions for Keeping
Attendance in High School and Compul sor~Continuation
Classes. September, 1939.
Los Angeles City School District, Instructions for Keeping
High School Attendance. September, 1934.
Mason, H. H., Health and Regularity of School Attendance.
Reprinted from Teachers’ College Record, Vol. XXIV,
No. 1, January, 1923*
Morgan, Walter E., The Administration of Secondary School
Attendance. California State Department of .Education,
Division of Research and Statistics, Sacramento, Sep­
tember, 1939.
25 pp.
86
Morgan, Walter 1., Secondary School Attendance, California
State Department of Education, Division of Research
and Statistics, Sacramento, July 6, 1937♦ 12 pp.
National League of Compulsory Education Officials, V. 27,
Columbus, Ohio, 1932-33#
Odell, C. W., The Effect of Attendance upon School Achieve­
ment# University of Illinois Bulletin No# 31, Vol. XX,
1923.
Peterson, R. H., tfThe Principles and Methods of the Work of
Men Attendance Officers . Unpublished Master's thesis,
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1923.
52 pp.
Reavis, George Harve, Factors Controlling Attendance in Rural
Schools. Hew York City Teachers* College, Columbia
University, 1920. 69 pp.
Rosenberry, E. E., 11A Ctritical Study of Absence and Tardi­
ness in the Secondary Schools of Los Angeles, California1*•
Unpublished Master's thesis, University of Southern Cal­
ifornia, Los Angeles, 1924. 66 pp.
Schoerdtfeger, E. L., "A Study of Nonattendance in the City
Schools of Burbank, California” . Unpublished Master's
thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles,
1933.
137 pp.
Stewart, H. E., "An Analysis of Federal and State Legisla­
tion Affecting Compulsory Public Continuation Education
In the United States". Unpublished Master *s thesis,
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1936.
151 pp.
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