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Study of relationships between achievement, personality, and interests

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OF RELATIONSHIPS
8BT#SSf ACHIEVEMENT, PERSONALITY, M S IHTEHBSTS
I s p e c lf y d e g r e e s, i n s t i t u t i o n s and d a te s”
e * g * , 8 . A* Montana S ta t e U n iv e r s it y ,
1955
P resen ted in p a r t ia l/f u l f i llm e n t ' o f the
requirem ent f o r tb s degree' o f Mas­
t e r o f Arts*
Montana S ta te U n iv e r s ity
Approved
Chairman o f Board
o f Examiners
Chairrnan o f Comffiittee
on Graduate Study
UMI Number: EP41227
Ail rights reserved
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Ann Arbor, Ml 4 8 1 0 6 -1 3 4 6
m im
Introduction
p* I
fiis f rcbleis
p. 4
Surrey o f L iterature
p. S
Procedure
ju£&
I n te r e s ts o f Business
M i n i s t r a t i o n 'S tu d en ts
p*3G
'Interest- and S elio lu stie MMevessant
p*32
Su&sary
p .3 3
Conclusions and Suggestions
j?*35
A STUB! OF RELATI.GNSHIr3
• B srm m t
a c Hi E
v m w f , m m o m & iT 't,
m b
x k tb b ssts
INTRODUCTION
The p r o b l e m s o f ®ork a r e a s o l d a s t h e p r o b l e m s o f
men h i m s e l f .
S i n c e man h a s fo u n d h i m s e l f i n t h i s w o r l d
he h as a tte m p te d to a d a p t h im s e lf to h i s e n v iro n m e n t.
I n t h e e a r l y d a y s e a c h member d i d h i s s h a r e i n t h e p r o c e s s
o f a d a p tio n .
T h e r e was l i t t l e
d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n among t h e
v a r i o u s m em bers o f h i e g r o u p , a l t h o u g h a few i n d i v i d u a l s
e v e n t h e n e x c e l l e d i n c e r t a i n t a s k s a n d o t h e r s seem ed t o
be m i s f i t s *
B u t a s man g a i n e d c o n t r o l o v e r M s e n v i r o n ­
m e n t, h e f o u n d t h a t by a s s i g n i n g i n d i v i d u a l s t o t a s k s
f o r w h ic h t h e y w e re e s p e c i a l l y f i t t e d ,
t h e w h o le g r o u p
a d v a n c e d f a s t e r an d m ore e f f i c i e n t l y .
T h is s p e c i a l i z a t i o n
h a s b e en i n c r e a s i n g i n s h a r p n e s s u n t i l t o d a y t h e a r t o f
s p e c ia liz a tio n has reached an i n t r i c a t e p a t t e r n . .
Man i l a s a lw a y s b e e n f a c e d w i t h t h e p r o b l e m o f f i n d ­
i n g t h o s e p e o p l e b e s t s u i t e d t o a p a r t i c u l a r k i n d o f w o rk .
The p r o b l e m h a s b e e n s o l v e d i n d i f f e r e n t w ays by d i f f e r e n t
s o c i e t i e s u n d e r v a r y i n g e c o n o m ic p r e s s u r e s .
J i t h ev ery
c h a n g e i n t h e e c o n o m ic o r d e r , a new e m p h a s i s h a s b e e n
p l a c e d on e m p lo y m e n t.
In th e c o m p a ra tiv e r e c e n t h i s t o r y
o f o u r own. a n c e s t r y we h a v e had G u i l d s y s t e m s w ith, t h e i r
m e th o d s o f c h o o s i n g a p p r e n t i c e s and t h e s y s t e m h a s b e e n
c a r r i e d o v e r in to th e a p p r e n tic e s h ip s o f th e b u s in e s s
w o rld o f th e p a s t g e n e r a t i o n .
'Today, w i t h e m p h a s is u p o n e d u o a t i on a n d f o r m a l t r a i n ­
ing. i n s t e a d o f t h e a p p r e n t i c e s h i p m e th o d , t h e p e r s o n a t t e m p t ­
in g to f i n d h i s p la c e i n th e o c c u p a ti o n a l w o rld i s c o n fr o n te d
w i t h t h e t a s k o f c h o o s i n g t h a t t y p e ' o f t r a i n i n g w h ic h w i l l
f
«,v
h o s t f i t him f o r t h e j o b t h a t c a l l s f o r a h i g h l y .o r g a n ! z e d
s y s t e m o f k n o w le d g e an d s k i l l s . , , a n d i n w h ic h h e i s a l l o w e d
o n l y a minimum o f t i m e f o r o r i e n t a t i o n .
The s o c i e t y o f t h i s a g e i s u n d e r t h e e c o n o m ic p r e s s u r e
o f f i n d i n g w ork f o r i t s m em bers i n a r a p i d l y c h a n g in g ', m ech­
a n i c a l age*
u s t h e m e th o d o f s c i e n c e i s . t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l
p ro c e s s u sed to s o lv e p ro b lem s, i t
i s no m ore t h a n n a t u r a l
t h a t man s h o u l d a t t e m p t t o s o l v e t h e p r o b l e m o f c h o o sin g ,
p e o p l e w i t h s p e c i a l a b i l i t i e s by some s c i e n t i f i c d e v i c e .
One m eth o d o f a p p r o a c h h a s b e e n t h e u s e o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l
te s ts .
These, t e s t s h a v e b e e n d e v e l o p e d i n • v a r i o u s w a y s,
a n d h a v e , g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , b e e n m ost s u c c e s s f u l i n t e s t ­
in g t r a i t s
t h a t c a n b e e a s i l y r e c o g n i z e d and' s e g r e g a t e d by
th o s e p e o p le i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s ty p e o f q u e stio n *
m
T h erefo re,
f i n d v a s t s t r i d e s made i n t h o s e t e s t s t h a t m e a s u r e s u c h
t h i n g s a s g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e a s r e l a t e d t o e d u c a t i o n , and
v a r io u s m e c h a n ic a l t e s t s , m ea su rin g d e f i n i t e p h y s i o l o g i c a l
• a b i l i t i e s s u c h a s s p a e d o f m o vem en t, c o l o r v i s i o n a n d d e x ­
te rity .
T his, k n o w le d g e i s v e r y u s e f u l and r e p r e s e n t s g r e a t ,
s t r i d e s f o r w a r d i n t h e s t u d y o f m an’ s i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s .
The c o m p le x f a c t o r s o f p e r s o n a l i t y p r e s e n t e d a m ore
d i f f i c u l t t a s k t o t h o s e who u n d e r t o o k t o d e v i s e t e s t s f o r
t h e i r m e a su re m e n t..
B u t n o t h i n g d a u n t e d , man s e t o u t t o f i n d
-5 a y a r d s t i c k by w h ic h t o m easure t h e s e e l u s i v e t r a i t is.
Stu d en ts o f in d iv id u a l d if f e r e n c e s d isco v e re d th a t
t h e y c o u l d s e g r e g a t e v a r i o u s t y p e s o f a t t i t u d e s and r e ­
a c t i o n s t h a t would s e r v e t o s e t d i f f e r e n t men o f f from
e a c h o t h e r , and so p r o c e e d e d t o c r e a t e v a r i o u s t y p e s o f
p e r so n a lity t e s t s .
A n o th er s e r i e s o f t e s t s s u g g e s t e d t h e m s e l v e s t o s o l v e
t h i s a g e - o l d p roblem o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n work.
I t was
foun d t h a t e v e n th o u g h a man had a b i l i t i e s a l o n g v a r i o u s
l i n e s o f e n d e a v o r , he w ould a p p ly them t o b e t t e r a d v a n ta g e
i n t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s i n w h ich he had t h e g r e a t e s t i n t e r e s t .
S o , 3 e r i e s o f i n t e r e s t t e s t s have b e e n d e v i s e d t o d e te r m in e
t h e i n d i v i d u a l ’ s dom inant i n t e r e s t s i n v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s .
The i d e a l tow ard s w h ich s c i e n t i s t s a r e s t r i v i n g i s t o
g e t one t e s t o r a s m a ll s e r i e s o f t e s t s ,
th e sm a ller th e
b e t t e r , by w hich a l l o f men’ s i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s can
be i n f a l l i b l y m ea su r ed .
At t h e p r e s e n t s t a g e o f o u r kn ow l­
e d g e , t h i s i s a U to p ia n d r e a n .
Our p r e s e n t s t u d y i s co n ­
cerned w ith th e r e l a t io n s h ip o f c e r t a in t e s t s
{ w ith each
o t h e r ) and w i t h s o h o l a s t i c a c h ie v e m e n t t o s e e what f a c t o r s
t h e s e t e s t s h ave i n common.
4-
TIB FBOBl-M
The p r o b l e m i s d i v i d e d i n t o
th re e phases*
The f i r s t
p h a s e was t o s e e i f a n y r e l a t i o n s h i p c o u l d h e f o u n d h e tw e e n
t h e am ount o f i n t r o v e r s i o n — e x t r o v e r s i o n ^ - s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y —
d e p e n d e n c e ^ - d o m i n a n c e - - 's u b m i s s i o n p o s s e s s e d hy d i f f e r e n t
p e o p l e , a n d t h e way t h e y r e s p o n d e d t o I n t e r e s t s i n l i f e *
The s e c o n d p h a s e was t o s e e w h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p
c o u l d be d i s ­
c o v e r e d b e tw e e n s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t a n d g e n e r a l a c h i e v e m e n t *
The t h i r d p h a s e was t o s e e i f t h e r e w as a n y r e l a t i o n s h i p
b e tw e e n t h e a n s w e r s t o s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t q u e s t i o n s and
i n t e r e s t a s shown,, i n t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l a s h e
w as i n f l u e n c e d by many f a c t o r s .
S ta te d w ith d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e to t h i s d is c u s s io n ,
th e
p ro b lem s a re a s f o llo w s :
1*
M s t h e r e a n y r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n t h e s c o r e s on
t h e B e r h r e u t e r P e r s o n a l i t y t e s t and t h e S t r o n g I n t e r e s t
te s t?
2.
I s t h e r e .any r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n t h e s c o r e s on
S tr o n g I n t e r e s t t e s t and s c h o o l g ra d e s ?
3.
I s t h e r e any r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n 'th e S tro n g
I n t e r e s t t e s t , s c o r e s a n d t h e i n t e r e s t shown b y t h e s t u d e n t
t h r o u g h M s c h o i e e o f M a j o r D e p a r tm e n t?
SOKTBY O f LITBRaTOBS
As t h e f i e l d o f l i t e r a t u r e
in t h i s p ro b lem i s
q u it©
e x t e n s i v e , no a t t e m p t h a s b e e n m ade t o ' c o v e r t h e e n t i r e
fie ld ,
b u t o n l y a r t i c l e s h a v i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t b e a r i n g on
o u r' d isc u ssio n .
its e n j o y a b l e a r t i c l e a p p r o a c h i n g t h e s u b j e c t i n a
p o p u l a r v e i n i s one by L a i r d i n t h e J r . o f I n d u s . P s y c h .
|8 j»
He s t a t e s i n e f f e c t :
B ench m e c h a n i c s h a v e no d i s t i n c t
g r o u p i n g b u t c o u l d be c l a s s e d a s a m b i v e r t s .
■O ffice c l e r k s s e e a t o h a v e no s p e c i a l g r o u p i n g b u t
te n d to w a rd I n t r o v e r s i o n .
lie n d i r e c t i n g o t h e r s , such' ias f o r e m e n a n d e x e c u t i v e s ,'
are d e fin ite ly e x tro v e rt.
■ I n s p e c t o r s , a c c o u n t a n t s , a n d r e s e a r c h e n g i n e e r s seem
to be in g e n e ra l i n t r o v e r t s ,
N urses a re e x t r o v e r t s .
T h o se
who a r e n o t s o o n l e a v e t r a i n i n g s c h o o l .
The a b o v e d a t a w as s e c u r e d f o r M m t h r o u g h t h e c o o p e r ­
a t i o n o f . t h e C e n t r a l S'. Y. S e c t i o n o f t h e T a y l o r S o c i e t y .
The o n l y a r t i c l e a s f a r a s known t h a t was s i m i l a r t o
t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y was t h a t c o n d u c t e d b y H a n n ah F . F a t e r s o n
(?h.
D s in g a g r o u p o f 268 p e o p l e , 120 men a n d 148 women,
sh e d e v is e d a t e s t supposed t o m easure " i n f e r i o r i t y a t t i ­
tu d e s .”
T h i s s c a l e , when t r i e d o u t on a l a r g e g r o u p o f
norm al c o l l e g e . s t u d e n t s , gav e a no rm al d i s t r i b u t i o n w ith
a w id e v a r i a b i l i t y .
I t had a r e l i a b i l i t y
.7 3 on a r e t e s t a f t e r a s i x weeks*
c o -e ffic ie n t of
in te rv a l,
a s a stu d y
-6 t h i s t e s t w as g i v e n t o - t h e f r e s h m e n r e g i s t e r i n g i n t h e c o l l e g e
o f s c i e n c e , l i t e r a t u r e , an d th e a r t s a t th e U n iv e r s ity o f
k in n e so ta .
The g r o u p c o n s i s t e d o f 1 ,4 2 4 s t u d e n t s , 815 men
a n d 509 women.
T h e r e w e re v a r i o u s o t h e r g r o u p s u s e d , n u m b e r -
l u g n o t u n d e r 200 s t u d e n t s .
Some i n t e r e s t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s a p p e a r b e t w e e n t h e v a r i o u s
p r o f e s s io n a l, .g ro u p s.
The s t u d e n t s r e g i s t e r e d i n t h e s c h o o l
o f b u s in e s s ,., men r e g i s t e r e d i n E n g i n e e r i n g , women i n n u r s i n g
a n d i n fiome E c o n o m ic s , a l l had s l i g h t l y l o w e r s c o r e s than,
th e s . l . a .
g ro u p .
T h i s w ould i n d i c a t e . ' t h a t , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e
m easures u se d , th e y a re l e s s l i a b l e to p o ss e s s f e e l i n g s o f
in fe rio rity .
Men r e g i s t e r e d i n t h e c o l l e g e s o f e d u c a t i o n a n d
d e n t i s t r y a n d women i n t h e s c h o o l s o f m u s ic a n d m e d i c i n e h a v e
h ig h e r th an av erag e s c o r e s .
O n ly tw o o f t h e s e g r o u p s , h o w e v e r —
men who a r e e n g i n e e r s a n d women who a r e m u s i c i a n s — show d i f f ­
eren ces th a t a re s ig n if ic a n t s t a t i s t i c a l l y .
The - t e s t i t s e l f
w a s - c h e e k e d w i t h o t h e r t e s t s o f e m o t i o n an d t h e c o n c l u s i o n s
draw n w e r e :
1*
On t h e w h o l e , t h e I . A .
sh o w s a r a t h e r c l o s e r e l a t i o n ­
sh ip to o th e r m easu res o f g e n e r a l em o tio n al i n s t a b i l i t y . .
i s o f p a r tic u la r ''
It
i n t e r e s t t h a t i t g i v e s m arked p o s i t i v e
c o r r e l a t i o n s w h ic h a r e s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h t h e
l o a d w o r t h q u e s t i o n n a i r e w h ic h i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d a m ea s­
u re o f e m o tio n al i n s t a b i l i t y *
2.
The c o r r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n t h e I , A . a n d i n t r o v e r s i o n - ,
e x t r o v e r s i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e s e tw o a t t i t u d e s ,
by t h e s e s c a l e s , a r e p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d .
a s m e a s u re d
B at th e ' f a c t t h a t
th e c o r r e l a t i o n c o - e f f i c i e n t s a r e lo w e r
t& a a
th e r e l i a b i l i t y ,
s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e y m e a s u re , d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s o f e m o t i o n a l
response.
3.
The h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n s b e tw e e n w o r r i e s a n d I*A* show
t h e c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t e x i s t s b e tw e e n t h e s e l f - e s t i m a t e d
p o s s e s s i o n o f v a r i o u s *t r o u b l e s o m e * t r a i t s an d t h e t e n d e n c y
t o w o r r y a b o u t th e m .
P o s s e s s in g t h e s e ' t r a i t s and w o rry in g
a b o u t the®, a r e , a p p a r e n t l y , a l m o s t .sy no nym o us i n t h e m ind o f
th e s u b je c t.
f f i t h t h e i d e a i n m in d t h a t p e o p l e w i t h a n i n f e r i o r i t y
a t t i t u d e w o u ld t r y t o o w r - c c a p e n s s t e b y t h e i r c h o i c e o f
life
a c t i v i t y , a s t u d y was made w i t h i n t e r e s t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h
th e i n f e r i o r i t y a t t i t u d e .
I n t h e s tu d y a M in n e so ta, m o d if i c ­
Some o f t h e c o n - '
a t i o n o f t h e P r e y d i n t e r e s t b l a n k was u s e d .
e l u s i o n s d raw n fro m t h i s c o m p a r is o n w e re t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s
c h a r a c t e r i s e d by th e i n f e r i o r i t y
te n u o u s o c c u p a ti o n s .
f e e l i n g i n c l i n e d t o t h e m ore
T hey a l s o " d i s l i k e o c c u p a t i o n s w h ich
a c c o r d i n g t o F r e y d * s schem e w ould c l a s s i f y them .among e i t h e r
th e .s o c ia lly o r th e m e c h a n ic a lly i n c l i n e d ,
b o t h o f w hich c a t e ­
g o r i e s im p ly c o n c r e te c o n t a c t s w ith e i t h e r p e o p le o r t h i n g s . ”
T he c o n t r a s t i n g g r o u p , on 't h e o t h e r hand-, d i s l i k e s some
o f th e te n u o u s o c c u p a tio n s l i s t e d ab o v e.
in d if f e r e n t to a v a rie ty o f th in g s.
However,, t h e y a r e
T h is i n f a c t a p p e a rs to
be a s t r i k i n g d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n t h e g r o u p s .
The i n f e r i o r i t y
group c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y e i t h e r l i k e s o r d i s l i k e s a v a r i e t y
o f t h i n g s ; th e n o n - i n f e r i o r i t y g ro u p i s l a r g e l y i n d i f f e r e n t .
C o r r e l a t i o n s b e tw e e n i n f e r i o r i t y i n t e r e s t s c o r e s an d
s c o r e s on t h e M i n n e s o t a c o l l e g e A b i l i t y t e s t w e re c o m p u te d ,
-8 u s i n g a random s a m p lin g o f 200 men* s p a p e r s and 200 women’ s
pap ers.
The c o r r e l a t i o n s w ere foun d to be - . 0 8 and - . 0 2
r e s p e c t i v e l y , w ith P .E .’ s o f .0 5 .
They do n o t r e v e a l any
r e l a t i o n s h i p b etw een t h e two v a r i a b l e s .
In th e r e l a t i o n o f
t h e i n f e r i o r i t y a t t i t u d e t o t h e M in n e s o ta A b i l i t y t e s t s and
t o a c t u a l s c h o l a r s h i p a c h iev e m en t* t h e y show t h a t t h e r e i s
a
s l i g h t r e la t io n s h ip o f su p e r io r s c h o la r sh ip b e in g a s s o c ia te d
w i t h lo w e r I . A . s c o r e s , b u t i t
is
to o s l i g h t t o be s i g n i f i c a n t .
T h is s t u d y d i s p l a y e d some v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g c o n c l u s i o n s ,
bu t t h e t e r m i n o l o g y o f " i n f e r i o r i t y a t t i t u d e s " i s
c o n fu sin g .
As t h e t e s t seem s t o m easure a c o m b in a tio n o f t r a i t s t h a t
p e rh a p s c o u ld be more c o r r e c t l y c a l l e d a " w ith d r a w a l p e r s o n ­
a l i t y " w it h o u t n e c e s s a r i l y f e e l i n g i n f e r i o r t o . a n y one t h i n g .
as
t h e S t r o n g I n t e r e s t t e s t and t h e B e r n r e u t e r 'P erson­
a l i t y I n v e n t o r y were t h e two t e s t s u se d t o o b t a i n t h e n e c e s s a r y
d a t a , th e f o l l o w i n g a r t i c l e s w ere s e l e c t e d t o show t h e v a r i o u s
f a c t o r s g o v e r n in g t h e i r u s e and a f f e c t i n g d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y
th e r e s u l t s o b ta in ed in th e p r e s e n t s tu d y .
For t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i t was d e s i r e d t o
f i n d o u t some o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t h e s e t e s t s t o th e v a r ­
io u s f a c t o r s in th e stu d e n t’ s l i f e .
S tr o n g ( 1 5 - 2 0 - 2 1 ) a s s e r t s
t h a t i n t e r e s t do n o t change a p p r e c i a b l y a f t e r t h e a g e o f
tw e n ty -fiv e .
T h e r e f o r e , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o icnow w h eth er t h i s
t e s t c o u ld be u s e d on a group composed m o s t l y o f fresh m en and
sophom ores i n c o l l e g e .
The c o n s e n s u s o f o p i n i o n by v a r i o u s
i n v e s t i g a t o r s would seem t o b e t h a t t h e r e was s o l i t t l e
change
t h a t i t w ould n o t a f f e c t t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e c o n c l u s i o n s o f
th e p r e se n t stu d y .
A t t i t u d e s Toward S p a e i.f i© i n t e r e s t I t e m s U h ic h C h a r a c t e r i z e t h e
I n f e r i o r i t y Group* .
women
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f f c i a men
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f a k i n g l o n g w a lk s
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g eo g rap h y
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n o v e list
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p- pyr S o c ia l w o rk er'
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Algebra .
A rith m e tic
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O u tlo o k
N a tio n .
O l i v©r <T w ist-g/
- A d d is o n 1 s Essays..
T a l e o f 'T w o C i t i e s
I d y l l s , o f th e- K in g
Symphony c o n c e r t s
• G ran d ' o p e r a
A r g u i n g •. .
In te rv ie w s ‘
Z o o lo g y , :
:
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. .E n g lis h L i t e r a t u r e O c c u p a tio n s.
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l l e c t r i c a l -en g in e er
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S t o c k b r o k e r ; ’;': :.P
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14630.
.- L ik e ■
Mi s e e l l a n e o u s
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n o th in g .
ll i a c e I P a n e q u a ■
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V e ry p o l i t e p e o p l e M isc e lla n e o u s
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g o te l k e e p e r;
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L abor a r b i t r a t o r '
Law yer
M a th e rs a ti c l a n
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C o n s e r v a tiv e p e o p le
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lo n g w a lk s
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Amusement parks'
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D e te c tiv e s t o r i e s
Hew R e p u b l i c .;
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A t l a n t i c M o n t h l y .'
.Review -of R e v ie w s
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S o c i o l o g y 1S n g lish l i t e r a t u r e
German
P l e a s u r i n g . I n f e r i o r i t y A t t i t u d e s ” — by U, ,F. P a t e r s o n .
J . v o f S o c , Psych,* t 10 30 .1
Page 4?6
S t r o n g {15} s t a t e s i n a n o th e r a r t i c l e t h a t s c o r e s ob­
t a i n e d a t t h e ag e o f t w e n t y - s e v e n w i l l a v e r a g e .2 5 o f r a t i n g
h i g h e r th a n a t t h e a g e o f t w e n t y - t w o .
C a r t e r , F y l e s , and S r e t n a l l (2 ) s t a t e i n an a r t i c l e w r i t t e n
by them t h a t t h e a g r ee m e n t b etw een t h e i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s
o b t a i n e d f o r c o l l e g e s e n i o r s and h i g h s c h o o l b o y s i s i n d i c a t e d
by an r . 7 7 .
o f th e s c a l e s :
D i s c r e p a n c i e s can be a t t r i b u t e d l a r g e l y t o f o u r
n am ely; M i n i s t e r , YMCA s e c r e t a r y ,
and p e r s o n n e l m anager.
sc h o o lm a n ,
T h ese f o u r s c a l e s c o r r e l a t e m ost h i g h l y
w it h th e i n t e r e s t m a t u r i t y s c a l e a c c o r d i n g t o , S t r o n g .
A n other f a c t o r o f i n t e r e s t o f t h i s t e s t i s t h e permanence
o f in te r e s ts o f a d u lts.
I f any r e l a t i o n s h i p i s fo u n d b etw een
a p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t and t h e S t r o n g t e s t , c o u l d i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p
have any permanency i n t h e f u t u r e y e a r s ?
As r e g a r d s t h e p e r ­
manency o f i n t e r e s t , S t r o n g made one s t u d y where 156 c o l l e g e
s e n i o r s showed t h u t a y e a r l a t e r 4 6 p e r c e n t o f them had e n t ­
e r e d o c c u p a t i o n s i n w h ich t h e y had s c o r e d h i g h e s t on th e S t r o n g
test,
20 p a r c e n t had e n t e r e d ' o c c u p a t i o n s where t h e y had s c o r e d
se c o n d h i g h e s t i n t h e S t r o n g t e s t ,
and 11 p e r c e n t e n t e r e d
o c c u p a t i o n s where t h e y s c o r e d t h i r d h i g h e s t .
O nly 18 p e r c e n t
had e n t e r e d o c c u p a t i o n s w here t h e y had shown no i n t e r e s t ,
a c co rd in g t o th e s tr o n g t e s t .
V a r io u s o t h e r i n v e s t i g a t o r s (2 )
( 6 ) have foun d t h a t t h e r e
i s i n most c a s e s a gurked d e g r e e o f p erm an en ce.
As th e p r e ­
s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n was i n t e r e s t e d i n f i n d i n g i n what manner
c e r t a i n p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s i n f l u e n c e d t h e m arking o f t h e S tr o n g
blv,nk, o t h e r i n f l u e n c e s a f f e c t i n g th e m arking o f th e t e s t a r e
here n o ted .
S t e i n m e t z {11} made a - 's t u d y on t h e s t u d e n t * s a b i l i t y t o
fake o c c u p a tio n a l i n t e r e s t s .
Xn t h i s s t u d y t h e s t u d e n t s w e re
g iv e n th e t e s t i n th e u s u a l o rth o d o x m anner and th e n a f t e r an
• i n t e r v a l o f a b o u t two months, t h e y w e re g i v e n t h e t e a t a g a i n
preceded by th e s e in s tr u c tio n s :-
t h e y w e re t o l d t o im a g i n e
th e m se lv e s i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f h a v in g a p p lie d f o r t h e s u p e ri n t e n d e n c y o f a s m a l l s c h o o l s y s t e m , a n d t h a t t h e y w ere a l l
e q u a lly q u a lif ie d to f i l l
t h e p o s i t i o n and t h a t t h e s c h o o l
-b o a rd was t o a w a r d t h e p o s i t i o n t o t h e s t u d e n t s c o r i n g h i g h e s t
i n t h i s o c c u p a t i o n on t h e S t r o n g i n t e r e s t t e s t .
Sach s tu d e n t
w as t o l d t o p u t - h i m s e l f I n p o s i t i o n o f d e s p e r a t e l y w a n t i n g
t h e l o b a n d a t t e m p t i n g t o s c o r e t h e h i g h e s t on t h e t e s t .
The r e s u l t s o f t h i s t e s t w e re -compared w i t h The r a d i k e ’ s
i n t e l l i g e n c e s c o r e , n a iv e s c o r e ,
te s t),
{ t h e s c o r e made on t h e f i r s t
an d w i t h t h e r a n k c h o i c e o f - t h e o c c u p a t i o n
{ a s th e
s t u d e n t l i k e d " i t i n c o m p a r is o n t o t h e o t h e r n i n e t e e n o c c u p ­
a t i o n s o f t h e i n t e r e s t t e s t ) , a n d a l s o w i t h t h e g a i n made o v e r
t h e o r i g i n a l n a i v e sc o re 's .-
th e c o n c lu s io n s t h a t he a r r iv e d
a t fro m t h i s / .s t u d y s e r e t h a t :
1.
'S t u d e n t s -are a b l e i n t e n t i o n a l l y t o d i s t o r t t h e i r
s h o r e s on a n i n t e r e s t . b l a n k a n d t o s u c c e e d i n q u a l i f y i n g
w e l l f o r a n o c c u p a t i o n c h o s e n a t ra n d o m , s o f a r e s t h e y a r e ■
<
c o n c e r n e d d e s p i t e a lo w a v e r a g e i n i t i a l p r e d i c t i o n .
2.
S t u d e n t s a r e a b l e t o i m p r o v e ■t h e i r s c o r e s when
t h e y t r y , a n d t h i s i s i n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e t r u e s c o r e . .;
■5.
'The t y p i c a l man s c h o o l t e a c h e r - a d m i n i s t r a t o r i s
v ie w e d b y t h e s e s t u d e n t s a s a s o r t o f c r o s s b e t w e e n a r e l i g -
-1 3 i o u s s o c i a l worker and an a c c o u n t a n t ; a more s t r i c t i n t e r ­
p r e t a t i o n m ig h t be t h a t a c t u a l l y i n t h e m in d s o f t h i s group
t h e o c c u p a t i o n s s h i f t i n g t o g e t h e r i n t h e same d i r e c t i o n have
t h e c o n t e n t o f t h i s t e s t i n common.
4.
Faked m ark ing a f f e c t s n o t o n l y t h e s i m u l a t e d o c c u p ­
a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s o f t h e s t u d e n t s , but d i s t o r t s s e r i o u s l y a t
l e a s t h a l f o f th e o c c u p a t i o n a l i n d i c a t i o n s .
5.
A c t u a l ran k — c h o i c e o f o c c u p a t i o n s i m u l a t e d b e a r s
a n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n t o n a i v e s c o r e s and an u n c e r t a i n r e l a t i o n
t o t h e T h orn dike s c o r e and t o ’’f a k e d ” s c o r e and t o " g a in i n
sc o r e .”
N a iv e s c o r e , h o w ev e r, may c o r r e l a t e w ith fa k e d
s c o r e and p r o b a b ly d o e s w i t h T h orn d ik e s h o r e and c e r t a i n l y
n e g a t i v e l y w i t h " g a in i n s c o r e . ”
Faked s c o r e c o r r e l a t e s
v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t l y w ith g a i n i n s c o r e b u t a l s o w it h Thorn­
d ik e s c o r e ; w h erea s t h e r e i s no a p p a r e n t c o r r e l a t i o n b etw een
g a i n and T h orn dike s c o r e , p r o b a b ly b e c a u s e o f th e n e g a t i v e
c o r r e l a t i o n m e n tio n e d a b o v e .
I n t h e s e c o n c l u s i o n s t h e i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t a s he men­
tio n e d i t i s
t h a t t h e r e i s a f a c t o r o p e r a t i n g w h ich he c a l l s
" s o c i a l i n s i g h t ” t h a t e n a b l e s some s t u d e n t s t o a c h i e v e a h i g h
s c o r e on t h i s t e s t .
I t w ould be i n t e r e s t i n g t o s e e i f t h e r e
were any r e l a t i o n s h i p b etw een t h i s s o c i a l i n s i g h t f a c t o r and
s c o r e s made on t h e r e g u l a r B e r n r e u t e r t e s t .
A n oth er s t u d y a t t e m p t in g t o a n a l y z e t h e f a c t o r s o f
i n t e r e s t was t h a t c o n d u c te d by C a r te r ( 3 ) .
H is problem was
t o s e e w h eth er t h e f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n i n t e r e s t were i n f l u e n c e d
more b y h e r e d i t y o r e n v ir o n m e n t.
I n t h i s p r o b le m , he had 43
p a i r s o f i d e n t i c a l t w i n s and 75 p a i r s o f f r a t e r n a l t w i n s
-1 4 answ er t h e S t r o n g i n t e r e s t t e s t .
1.
H is c o n c l u s i o n s were:
There a r e d e f i n i t e f a m i l y r e s e m b la n c e s i n o c c u p a t ­
i o n a l i n t e r e s t s a3 m easured by t h e v a r i o u s s c a l e s o f t h e S tr o n g
V o c a t i o n a l I n t e r e s t B la n k .
The e x t e n t o f t h e s e r e s e m b la n c e s
a s i n d i c a t e d by t h e p r e s e n t d a ta i s r e p r e s e n t e d by a v e r a g e
c o - e f f i c i e n t o f c o r r e l a t i o n o f . 5 0 f o r i d e n t i c a l t w i n s , and o f
.2 8 f o r f r a t e r n a l t w i n s .
2.
S in ce i t i s
c e r t a i n t h a t t h e i n t e r e s t s o f th e inono-
z y g a t i c t w i n s a r e more s i m i l a r th an t h o s e o f t h e f r a t e r n a l
t w i n s , and s i n c e th e d a ta s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e i s no g r e a t e r
s i m i l a r i t y o f l i k e - s e x f r a t e r n a l t w in s than o f u n l i k e - s e x
tw in s, i t
seem p r o b a b le t h a t h e r e d i t a r y f a c t o r s s r e more im­
p o r t a n t i n d e t e r m in g in g i n t e r e s t s th a n a r e e n v ir o n m e n t a l
fa cto rs.
"The p r e s e n t w r i t e r b e l i e v e s t h a t su ch g r e a t e r
s i m i l a r i t y o f en v iro n m en t i s a f a c t w hich m ust be tak en i n t o
c o n s id e r a tio n , but th a t i t
i s a f a r l e s s im p o r ta n t f a c t th a n
th e g r e a te r s i m i la r i t y or h e r e d ity ."
3.
The g r e a t e r s i m i l a r i t y o f a l l p a i r s on some o f t h e
i n t e r e s t s c a l e s may be p a r t l y t h e r e s u l t o f g r e a t e r r e l i a b ­
ility
o f some o f t h e s c a l e s and a l s o may be p a r t l y th e r e s u l t
o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e s p e c i f i c i t y o f t h e t r a i t s m easured by
th ose s c a le s ;
I t i s a l s o p r o b a b le t h a t th e c o r r e l a t i o n s e r e
lo w e r f o r t h o s e t r a i t s -were a f f e c t e d by e n v ir o n m e n t a l i n f l u e n c e s .
F u r t h e r a n a l y s i s i s d e s i r a b l e i n o r d e r t o answ er t h e s e q u e s t i o n s .
As some o f h i s r e s u l t s u r e o f i n t e r e s t t o t h e p r o s e n t
q u e s t i o n , t h e y o r e i n c l u d e d h e r e i n t h e t a b l e form and w i l l be
referred to la t e r .
T h ese a r e some o f th e f a c t o r s t h o t a f f e c t
t h e s t u d y o f i n t e r e s t and have an i n d i r e c t b e a r i n g on th e i n -
-In ­
v e s t i g a t i o n on h a n d .
I n t e s t i n g p rogram s, th e most work h a s
b een done cn i n t e l l i g e n c e ,
tie f i n d when we come t o th e B e r n -
r e u t e r p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t t h a t a g r e a t d e a l o f work h a s b een done
i n f i n d i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e tw e e n i n t e l l i g e n c e and p e r s o n a l i t y .
V a r io u s i n v e s t i g a t o r s h ave found t h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e o r
no r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n i n t e l l i g e n c e and th e t r a i t s m easured
by t h e B e r n r e u t e r p e r s o n a l i t y i n v e n t o r y .
S t . C la ire (1 1 ):
I n t h e words o f
’’The c o n c l u s i o n o f p r e v i o u s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s ,
t h a t t h e r e i s n o l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw een p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s
and s c h o l a s t i c a p t i t u d e , was s u b s t a n t i a t e d .
A c o r r e la tio n o f
.2 9 was found t o e x i s t betw een s c h o l a s t i c a p t i t u d e and s e l f s u f f i c i e n c y when n e u r o t i c t e n d e n c y and dom inance were h e l d
con stan t.
Two p r o f i l e s w ere d e f i n e d a s f o l l o w s :
( i n d i c a t i v e o f 1 w it h d r a w a l* ) :
P r o file I
B l- N , above 7 0 ; B4-D, b elo w 30;
B 2 -S , more th an 15 p o i n t s h i g h e r th an B4-D, l e s s th e n 3 0 .
"The b i s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n b etw een sa m p le s o f P r o f i l e I and
I r c .fi l e I I r e s u l t e d i n a d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n P r o f i l e I
and s c h o l a s t i c a p t i t u d e . ” ( r = . 4 0 , 10 t im e s i t 3 p r o b a b le e r r o r ) .
In r e l a t i o n t o i n t e l l i g e n c e , Wrenn, F e r g u s o n , and Ken­
n e d y (2 2 ) found t h a t t h e r e seemed t o be a d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p
b e tw een t h e e x tr e m e s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e and t h e t r a i t s o f t h e
B ern reu ter p e r s o n a lit y t e s t .
I n t h i s s t u d y t h e a u t h o r s to o k
from 9 ,9 9 0 j u n i o r c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s 324 men and women r e p r e s e n t ­
i n g t h e u p p e r 5 p e r c e n t and t h e lo w e r 15 p e r c e n t o f th e
in te llig e n c e scores.
The r e s u l t s o f t h i s t e s t seemed t o show
t h a t t h e s u p e r i o r s t u d e n t was more s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t , and t h i s
was more s i g n i f i c a n t b e c a u s e i n t h e a v e r a g e t h e y were y o u n g er
th an t h e l e s s s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t s t u d e n t .
S e lf-su ffic ie n c y is
16-
Table IT*
The R e la tio n o f Type o f I n t e r e s t t o I n t e llig e n c e
r sy e n o io g a se .
.2* M ath em ali c ia n * *»*»-» * » » « # * *»®«
•3 . ■P hys i.c. 1 a n * . • ♦*. • . . . * • *.. *. * « « . • . *
4 « Ohemis t « « * . * ♦ ««»•* *. «»».»* * *.» »*
6• P h y s i c 1 s t • « * • • » • • • » » « *** •« • • * • *
6*., A r c h i t e c t «•«* *»». « *• * . « . • • * *. * • •
■■7* E n gin e ©r »**. «•«••» »»«.»*•»**•»»*»«
8 1) Parmer *,»»*•»- *»»* * ** * *-* * * *■*«* * «>a
*36
*18
*0 4
*31
«19
■»0 7
*1*7
*08
-*53
*30
• 36
*^0
*1?
*30
The nlanguag;en group o f i n t e r e s t s :
1 * ■J f c u m s l i s t <>• • * « * • •• ,*«« • . »• » . « » * *
‘*2. .la w y e r • • . - ♦ « • * . • • »* • • » * .-« * • •.•3 A d v s r t i s o r . » * a-*»• a «*. *.* » • « a- * * * *
4* A r t i s t . * • •*-c* * **.• . . »-»*-#.* . . . * • . .
■
—*09
«13
*.11
*04
* 22
*81
• 8o
*24
Mean, o f c o r r e l a t i o n s * . . . » * .
-.0 1
.2 5
The !Hpeople® .-group.' o f i n t e r e s t s :
. .i »
»0*i\ .* S e c r e t a r y * * • . * • • * * # * *
■• 2* C i t y s c h o o l s u p e r i n t e n d e n t .. . . ►
3* P e r s o n n e l m anager* * . . » # * * . . * * .
4 . h i n i s t e r . » . . . . * *. * •»♦»• * . • ♦«♦• *
•5 *. l e a c h e r « • » . •
. . • .« * •#* * * .
*14
.3 2
*,27
* 23
.3 5
—*12
*03
-.0 3
•«08
—■*04
/K ean o f c o r r e l a t i o n s .
*26
* *06
The Rb u s l o e s s ” group o f i n t e r e s t s :
1 • Vacuum c le m s e r s a le s m a n * « # * « #•
2 . R e a l e s t a t e s a l e s m a n * ..- * . . . .* *
3 . . . L i f e ; i n s u r a n c e s a le s m a n * .*»■* * .*
'4 Pnv&hsis i n g a g e n t * . . •»* * . . . . . . ♦-«
5 * Ox f i c e c le r R
6 * C.P. A. . . . . . . . * « . « • « . * * *«• # • . *
* *14-»-*15
—. 1 9
.0 0 .
•*00
*09
«• *44
. *05
*01
**•*13
—. 24
—*08
- .0 5
**. 1 4
Moan o f c o r r e l a t i o n s * . . . . . .
'-'.aeaitt Of c o r r e l a t i o n s . . . » * . .
^ G arter, H,P*
J r . o f Ed. Psych*
Vol. 23
««2>4
* 23
1938
p 647
-1 7 T a b le I I I *
T a b le I I I * Com parison o f t h e C o r r e l a t i o n s o f S c o r e s on t h e S t r o n g
V o c a t i o n a l I n t e r e s t S e a l e s , f o r I d e n t i c a l Twins and f o r F r a t e r n a l
T w in s• S i n c e t h e P r e v i o u s A n a l y s i s Showed t h e L i k e - s e x
F r a t e r n a l P a i r s Hot More S i m i l a r th a n t h e U n l i k e - s e x P a i r s
t h e Two Groups o f F r a t e r n a l Twins Are Combined H e r e ,
The C o e f f i c i e n t s ,l n T h is T a b le a r e W eig h ted A v e r a g e s
S i n c e t h e Humbera o f C ases i n t h e Two Groups
D iffe r e d
Id e n tic a l tw in s,
fo r ty -th r e e p a ir
F ra tern a l tw in s ,
average c o r r e la ­
t i o n f o r l i k e and
u n lik e - s e x p a ir s*
T ota l o f sev en ty
seven p a ir s ,
C»P*A* • - . . * • • • • • * • . • • ' * * , , • . . *
C h em ist.....................
.31
,62
* 44
*47
,6 4
.21
.1 5
.20
.2 7
.3 9
6»
7,
8,
9,
10.
D o c t o r . , * ..............
Engineer*,.* . . * . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Farme r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *
Journalist.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,
L a w y e r * . . , . . . . , . . ..............
.5 9
.74
.49
*34
*50
.3 6
.2 7
.5 1
.1 6
.22
11.
12,*.
13,
14*
15*;
L if e Insurance s a l e s m a n . . . , ,
m in iste r
P e r s o n n e l ma na g e r * . . . . . . . . . .
Psychologlst** • * . , * * . , . » * . , .
P u r c h a s in g a
g
e
n
t
.5 4
,5 8
.46
*36
. 36 ‘
.4 0
.2 1
,2 8
.3 2
.3 5
16.
17...
18.
19*20*
R eal e s t a t e sa le sm a n ., . . . . . .
S c h o o l man* * * • ♦ * , ,
Vacuum c l e a n e r s a l e s m a n . . . . ,
X. M. C. A. S e c r e t a r y . « . , * « * , . *
O ffic e c l e r k , . .
*30
*42
.5 4
.5 8
*46
. .1 8
*25
.3 6
.3 1
*29
21* P h y s i c l o t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2 9 . M a th e m a tic ia n .............................
23* C i t y s c h o o l s u p e r i n t e n d e n t . *
,6 5
*54
.6 2
, 3o
.2 7
.3 1
Mean o f c o r r e l a t i o n s * * . . . *
.5 0
.2 8
1.
2»
3.
4.
5.
A dvertiser.............,.*,,
Architect».»••»»••.»»..»».*,
A rtis t.,«*•«^
.
^ C a r t e r , H .P .
. *.,.
J r . o f Ed, P s y c h .
V o l 23
19 32
p 647
-1 8 su p p o se d t o i n c r e a s e w ith a g e .
At t h e same tim e t h e i n f e r i o r
s t u d e n t was more dom in ant th an t h o s e i n th e u p p e r end o f th e
b r a c k e t.
The a u th o r s o f t h i s e r t i o l e p r e s e n t e d th e t h e o r y o f p s y c h ­
o l o g i c a l c o m p e n sa tio n g o in g b ack .to th e fu n d a m e n ta l t h e s i s o f
A lf r e d A ld e r .
The a u th o r p o in t e d o u t t h a t t h e g r a d e s o f th e i n f e r i o r
s t u d e n t had t h e a v e r a g e o f B p lu s and i f any o f t h e s e s t u d e n t s
w ere e x p e c t e d t o show e v id e n c e o f c o m p e n sa tio n , i t
s t u d e n t s s t r i v i n g h a r d e s t f o r s o c i a l a p p r o v a l.
life
w ould be t h o s e
The c h o ic e o f
work c o u ld w e l l be on e e x p r e s s i o n o f t h i s u r g e f o r s u p e r i ­
o r ity .
A c c o r d in g t o H. lo d g e and S . Kahn (2 2 ) t h e c r a v in g f o r
s u p e r io r ity i s u n iv e r s a l, but i t
i s o f t e n e x p r e s s e d i n a p se u d o ­
s u p e r i o r i t y , g o in g on t h i s t h e o r y , Sfrenn and h i s a s s o c i a t e s
u se d t h e S tr o n g i n t e r e s t t e s t t o f i n d o u t w hat o c c u p a t io n s t h e s e
tw o g r o u p s o f s t u d e n t s c h o s e .
Of t h e i n f e r i o r grou p 51 p e r
c e n t and o f t h e s u p e r io r grou p 68 p e r c e n t had c h o se n t h e p r o ­
f e s s i o n s , v o c a t io n s b e a r in g a s i g n i f i c a n t stam p o f s o c i a l
a p p r o v a l.
The mean dom in ant s c o r e o f th e i n f e r i o r grou p who had
c h o s e n p r o f e s s i o n s was 25 p o i n t s ab ove mean s c o r e f o r th e
t o t a l in f e r io r group.
On t h e o t h e r hand, th e a v e r a g e dom in ant
s c o r e o f th e s u p e r io r grou p who had c h o se n p r o f e s s i o n s tu r n e d
o u t t o be o n ly .8 4 on t h e s c o r e above t h e t o f t h e t o t a l su p ­
e r io r group.
The c r i t i c a l r a t i o b etw een i n f e r i o r and s u p e r io r
who had c h o se n p r o f e s s i o n s was 7 . 4 , a much g r e a t e r d i f f e r e n c e
b etw een t h a t o f th e t o t a l i n f e r i o r and s u p e r i o r g r o u p s .
They
u s e d t h i s t o shew t h a t t h i s tr e n d s u p p o r te d th e t h e o r y t h e t
<*1©*
fch® In ferior group compensated by assms lag a greater so c ia l
aggress iw©is©s«*
I t was also shown that the in fe r io r i n t e l l i ­
gence group exaggerated • to tenants o f th e ir own a b ility *
In
part f i l l o f Strong’ s te a t, the students were asked to chock
y e s , no* or question mark, as to th eir oma a b ilit y in regard t©
certa in p erson ality factors*
Here the Investigator® f cund
th at the average numbers of checks in the yen column for the
Inferior In te llig e n c e student was 8 *3*
Her# the c r it ic a l r a tio
was 8*2 In favor of the superior male group*
I t was a lso seen
that the inferior group cheeked a great d e a l more in tha yes
colusa* than aid the superior group who placed their checks In
the question mark ealxwaa.
$h©»© with In ferio r in te llig e n c e
not only assumed a paeude-tmpsriQrity but. were q u ite p o sitiv e
in I t .
In th e p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h e r e w ere o n l y e i g h t s c o r i n g toele w 44 on t h e O tis test.,., leaking t h i s f a c t o r n e g l i g i b l e f o r
e o n e id e r a t io f i h er® .
ft» r ® have b e e n n a r c o s s t u d i e s made o f
the rela tio n sh ip of th e Borsrenier p e r s o n a l i t y in v e n to r y to
p e c p l# in v a r im ta o c c u p a t io n a l ea» of these is reported by
Craft’ s adapting- am arts.el® from fralm® {4 >* the s p e c ific
a le of T rab u e’ s study was to nonpar© th© s o o r e s mad® toy o f f i c e
workers and sa le s g ir l# in s rmba? of psyohclogical exam­
in a t i o n s * among in.«s being the B e r n r e u te r t e a t .
In eenqparing
o f f i c e workers with s a le s g ir ls * he showed that the sa le s g ir ls
ex celled i n trie p e r s o n a l i t y tr a it s ©f nervous s t a b i l it y , extro­
v er sio n , and dom inance*
I n s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y * th e d ifferen ce
between the scores o f sa le ® g ir ls and c l e r i c a l workers m s
slig h t*
20T rabue r e p o r t e d a l s o t h a t
In
D vorak’ s
Dvorak' c o n fir m e d h i s f in d in g s *
s t u d y , a d d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t io n a l p r o f i l e s w ere ob­
t a i n e d f o r g a r a g e m e c h a n ic s , n u r s e s , p o lic e m e n , and o th e r
v o c a t i o n a l gro u p s*
T rabue p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e p e r s o n a l i t y
s c o r e s o f th e p o lic e m e n w ere v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f th e de­
p a rtm en t s t o r e s a l e s g i r l s ;
i . e . , th e s c o r e s o f b o th g ro u p s
show a d e f i n i t e tr e n d in t h e d i r e c t i o n o f n e r v o u s s t a b i l i t y ,
e x t r o v e r s i o n , and d o m in a n ce.
L a te r on In h i s a r t i c l e , T rabue s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e s u l t s
a l s o s u g g e s t t h a t t o o much s t a b i l i t y and t o o much s e l f - s u f f i c ­
i e n c y may be a l i a b i l i t y i n th e f i e l d o f c l e r i c a l w o rk , v e r y
p r o b a b ly b e c a u s e s u p e r io r s m ust be r e l i e d o n , ” c a te r e d t o , ”
and p le a s e d * i f
th e i n d i v i d u a l i s
t o be " s u c c e s s f u l . ”
Dvorak* r e p o r t s s i m i l a r a n a l y s i s f o r n u r s e s and p o l i c e ­
m en.
In e a c h o f t h e s e g r o u p s , t h e p r o f i l e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s
r a t e d a s s u p e r io r w ere n o t i c e a b l y d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e r a te d as
in fe r io r .
T h is and s i m i l a r work h a s b een done on p e o p le In
s e m i - s k i l l e d c l a s s e s and w ork in g i n th e a c t u a l o c c u p a t io n s
u n der c o n s id e r a t io n *
W ith th e v a r io u s f a c t o r s o f p e r s o n a l i t y f l u c t u a t i n g In
t h e s e s e m i - s k i l l e d t a s k s and th e t e s t s h a v in g b e e n g iv e n t o
p e o p le a c t u a l l y e n g a g ed i n t h e s e o c c u p a t i o n s , th e q u e s t io n was
r a is e d a s t o how p e o p le w it h t h e s e p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s w ould
answ er an i n t e r e s t t e s t w h ere t h e y h a d had no a c t u a l e x p e r ­
ie n c e In th e w ork.
The q u e s t io n was r a i s e d , w ould t h e s e p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s
havo a n y i n f l u e n c e on how p e o p le a n sw ered an I n t e r e s t te s t? .
-2 1 PROCEDURE
For th e p u rp o se o f t h i s s t u d y , th e B e r n r e u te r p e r s o n a l i t y
in v e n t o r y and t h e S tr o n g i n t e r e s t t e s t w ere g iv e n t o a p p ro x - ~
im & tely 300 c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s , m ost o f whom w ere fresh m en or!
I
The O t is s e l f - a d m i n i s t e r i n g t e s t o f m en ta l a b i l i t y ,
so p h o m o res.
h ig h e r e x a m in a tio n Form A. was g iv e n to s e e how th e f a c t o r
o f i n t e l l i g e n c e in f lu e n c e d th e r e s u l t s .
The l a r g e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f s t u d e n t s was ta k e n from th e
f a l l and w in t e r q u a r t e r s , 1 9 3 9 — 4 0 .
No two t e s t s w ere g iv e n on
t h e same d a y , bu t w ere sp a c e d th r o u g h th e q u a r te r s a s th e y
b est fit te d
i n t o th e c l a s s s c h e d u le .
The men w ere g iv e n S t r o n g ’ s new form M f o r men and t h e
women t h e r e g u la r form f o r th e women.
As t h e s e form s w ere d i f f e r e n t ,
th e r e s u l t s f o r th e men
and women were k e p t s e p a r a t e th r o u g h o u t th e w o rk .
The B e r n r e u te r form s w ere a l s o w orked o u t s e p a r a t e l y a s
t h e r e i s a s l i g h t s e x d i f f e r e n c e in t h i s t e s t .
The t h r e e s c a l e s o f t h e B e r n r e u te r T e s t u s e d w ere;
I n t r o v e r s io n - E x t r o v e r s io n ( B 3 - I ) ; S e l f - S u f f i c i e n c y ( B 2 -3 );
and Dominance (B 4 -B ).
The n e u r o t i c s c a l e
■(B I N) was n o t u s e d b e c a u s e i t
c o r r e l a t e s .9 4 { S t . C l a i r s , 11) w ith B 3 - I .
is
D h ile , p e r h a p s , i t
s l i g h t l y more a c c u r a t e th an th e B 3 -I s c a l e in e s t i m a t i n g
th e s tu d e n ts *
a t t i t u d e s , th e s c o r e s a re n o t u s u a l l y g iv e n o u t
t o G en era l P s y c h o lo g y s t u d e n t s ,
so i t was n o t u s e d .
B e ca u se o f th e v a s t amount o f tim e in v o lv e d f o r ea ch k ey
i n s c o r i n g th e S tr o n g T e s t by hand c o u n t e r s , i t was d e c id e d to
*22u s e fo u r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e k e y s f o r th e men and th r e e f o r th e
women*
Keys w ere s e l e c t e d w ith a v ie w t o h a v in g them r e p r e s e n t
t h e i n t e r e s t s o f th e m ost s t u d e n t s as shown b y t h e i r c h o ic e
o f a m a jo r.
The k e y s c h o se n f o r th e men w ere th e Group k e y s , S tr o n g
<19) u s in g T h urston© ’ s f a c t o r m eth od d is c o v e r e d t h r e e dim en­
s i o n a l f a c t o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e tw e e n v a r io u s o c c u p a t io n s t h a t
s t a t i s t i c a l l y p la c e them i n th e same g r o u p .
I t was b e l ie v e d , f o r th e p ro b lem a t h a n d ,t h a t t h e s e g ro u p s
w ould in c lu d e more o c c u p a tio n s w it h th e same ty p e o f I n t e r e s t s
th a n would b e c o v e r e d i f on© s p e c i f i c o c c u p a tio n was u s e d .
The G roups f o r t h e men w e re :
Group J I
M a th e m a tic ia n s , E n g in e e r s * and C h em ists*
T here i s n o
p u b lis h e d s c o r e a s t h e i r i n t e r e s t s c o r r e l a t e
.9 3 and
*91 r e s p e c t i v e l y w it h s c o r e s f o r C hem ist and t h o s e o f
Mathfen& tic i a n *
Group ¥
Composed o f X*M,C.A. P h y s i c a l D i r e c t o r s , P e r s o n n e l
m a n a g es, Y.M .C .A . G en er a l S e c r e t a r i e s , S o c i a l S c i e n c e
H igh S c h o o l T e a c h e r s , C ity S c h o o l S u p e r in t e n d e n t s ,
and M in is t e r s *
Group V I I I
Composed o f A c c o u n t a n ts , O f f i c e Men, P u r c h a s in g A g e n ts ,,
and B a n k e r s.
Group X
Composed o f A d v e r t is in g S e n , L a w y e r s, an d A u th o rJ o u r n a lis ts .
-2 3 The Groups c h o se n f o r t h e women w e r e :
1*
Women S te n o g r a p h e r s - S e c r e t a r i e s .
The s c a l e i s b a se d on t h e r e c o r d s o f 271 women s t e n o ­
g r a p h e r s and s e c r e t a r i e s , a l l o f whom h a v e had a t
l e a s t t h r e e y e a r s ’ e x p e r ie n c e i n th e work*
A v era g e a g e , 2 9 .3 y e a r s ? e d u c a t i o n , 1 2 .5 grade*
Forms a r e b a s e d on 298 r e c o r d s .
2.
Women T e a c h e r s i n G en er a l i n H ig h S c h o o l*
The s c a l e i s b a s e d on th e r e c o r d s o f women h ig h
s c h o o l t e a c h e r s , in c lu d in g 504 t e a c h e r s o f E n g li s h ,
223 tea G h ers o f m a th e m a tic s and p h j s i c a l s c i e n c e s ,
180 t e a c h e r s o f s o c i a l s c i e n c e , and 178 t e a c h e r s o f
a l l s u b j e c t s ? 500 from C a l i f o r n i a , 133 from Sew Y o r k ,
123 from W a sh in g to n , 8 1 from A r iz o n a , O regon , O h io ,
and Id a h o , and 40 s c a t t e r e d .
A l l b u t a few a r e r a te d b y t h e i r P r i n c i p a l s a s
s u p e r io r o r a v e r a g e .
c a tio n , 1 6 .6 .
3.
A verage a g e , 3 8 y e a r s ? edu­
Grad© Froms a r e b a s e d on 9 0 7 r e c o r d s*
S o c i a l W ork ers.
The s c a l e i s b a s e d on t h e r e c o r d s o f 175 women s o c i a l
w ork ers.
N e a r ly a l l w ere l i s t e d
i n N o r th e r n C a l i f ­
o r n i a , S e a t t ie - T a c o m a , and New York C it y c h a p t e r s o f
A m erican A s s o c i a t i o n o f S o c i a l 'W orkers.
a t l e a s t th r e e y e a r s ’ e x p e r ie n c e .
y e a r s? e d u c a t i o n , 1 5 .5 grade*
A l l had had
A v e ra g e a g e , 3 8 * 5
Forms a r e b a se d on 177
reco rd s.
U s in g th e te r m in o lo g y o f C a rter (3 ) th e v a r io u s grou p s f o r
-2 4 t h e men c o u ld b e c a l l e d " S c ie n c e " f o r Group I I , "L anguage” f o r
Group X , " P e o p le ” f o r Group V , and " B u sin e ss" f o r Group V I II *
The f a l l q u a r te r s t u d e n t s a s s i s t e d i n c o r r e c t i n g t h e i r own
B e r n r s u te r t e s t , b u t i t was f e l t t h a t t h i s in tr o d u c e d to o
l a r g e a s o u r c e o f e r r o r , s o i t wag n o t c o n tin u e d f o r th e w in t e r
q u a r te r *
To sp e e d up th e s c o r i n g p r o c e s s , th e s t u d e n t r e c o r d ­
ed h i s answ er on a s p e c i a l form made t o . f i t o v er a t r a n s p a r e n t
k e y ms.de from draughtm en’ s t r e e in g , c l o t h .
A lig h t , s h in in g
th r o u g h from u n d e r n e a th t h i s c l o t h , made th e s c o r in g w e ig h ts
p r in t e d on t h e t r a n s p a r e n t c l o t h show th ro u g h th e s t u d e n t ’ s
pap er.
The p lu s and m inus s c o r e s wore th e n t o t a l e d up w it h
e l e c t r i c c o u n te rs.
The t i n e s a v e d in n o t h a v in g t o h a n d le
ca rd b o a rd s t r i p s I n c r e a s e d t h e a v e r a g e s p e e d o f s c o r i n g B e rn r e n t e r k e y s t o a b o u t 27 an hou r and S t r o n g ’ s k ey s t o 20 an
hou r.
When th e s c o r i n g was c o m p le te d , th e group was gone th r o u g h
and t h o s e ta k e n o u t who had n o t c o m p le te d b o th t e s t s or had
ta k e n i t
im p r o p e r ly .
T h is l e f t , a t o t a l number o f 167 c a s e s f o r
th e icon and 118 f o r th e women.
The raw s c o r e s o f th e two t e s t s
w ere changer! t o a common b a s i s b y t r a n s l a t i n g them i n t o
*
p e r c e n t i l e ranlns.
B e r n r e u te r ’ s p e r c e n t i l e norms w ere n o t u s e d
a s t h e r e was a s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n B e r a r e u t e r ’ s form s
ana th e form s o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r g r o u p .
Each p e r s o n a l i t y s c a l e
was c o r r e l a t e d w ith e a c h one o f th e S tr o n g i n t e r e s t s c a l e s ,
w it h t h e f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s :
F or th e m en, t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n .
Two
o r th r o e o f th e c o r r e l a t i o n s , th o u g h , show i n t e r e s t i n g t r e n d s .
.83-1 h a s a n e g a tiv e ' c o r r e l a t i o n o f - .2 1 w ith Group V II I a n a ,
b&ing four ttmm th e p ro b a b le e r r o r * i n d i c a t e s t h a t th e r e i s a
f a c t o r o f e x tro v e rs io n , o th e r th a n chance..
show a tr e n d tow ard e x t r o v e r s i o n .
Groups ? and X a l s o
This m ig h t he e x p e c te d i n
o c c u p a tio n s h a v in g a more o r l e s s d i r e c t r e l a t i o n to p eo p le#
The s tu d e n t a n sw e rin g t h i s t e s t would a l s o s e n s e th e r e l a t i o n ­
s h ip " o f th e s e o c c u p a tio n s to p e o p le where, h e would n o t a s s o c i a t e
th e o c c u p a tio n s o f Group I I w ith p eo ple*
T h is would p erh ap s
a c c o u n t f o r th e r e h o ia g no c o r r e l a t i o n b etw een 85* I end. Group I I ,
02-3 shows a - p o s s ib le r e l a t i o n s h i p betw een Group IX and
Group V I I I ,
H ere we h a v e a t r e n d f o r s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y shewn
i n Group XI and a te n d e n c y shown or, th e p a r t o f th o s e in
Group V III t o la c k s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y .
o r l e s s t o - b® e x p e c te d .
S e re a g a in t h i s I s more
H a th a m a tlc ia n s and C hem ists- a r e
d ep e n d en t on t h e i r own e f f o r t s In r e s e a r c h o r work o f t h i s
ty p e w h ile , a s s u g g e s te d i n C r a f t* s h o o k , th o s e p e o p le in
Group V I I I w ould i n m o st c a s e s be I n c l e r i c a l p o s i t i o n s and
would, g e t a lo n g b e t t e r by b e in g d ep en d en t on a sy stem or
o r g a n ! s a ti o n ,
8 4 -D shows no c o r r e l a t i o n -c ith any o f th e g ro u p s e x c e p t
Group V w ith a c o r r e l a t i o n o f *20,
P e o p le w ith th e i n t e r e s t s
o f t h i s .group m ig h t b e e x p e c te d t o be dom inant*
As shew s In
Sie.iru»ets* (1 2 ) stu d y * some o f th e an sw ers to- th o s e q u e s tio n s
In th e i n t e r e s t b la n k would be answ ered a c c o rd in g t o th e
s tu d e n t* a c o n c e p t o f th e v a r io u s p o s it io n s and th e y w ould te n d
to th in k o f c e r t a i n o c c u p a tio n s as- n e e d in g dom inance tp - h a n d le
them .
T h is m ig h t n o t be a r t i c u l a t e -In th e s tu d e n t* s m in d , b u t
26i t w ould be u n c o n s c io u s ly e x p r e s s e d th r o u g h h i s p e r s o n a l i t y .
W h ile none o f t h e s e c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e v e r y h ig h , i t
i n t e r e s t i n g t o s e e t h a t we h a v e t h e s e t r e n d s ,
is
T h is i s p a r t ­
i c u l a r l y t r u e . i n v ie w o f th e f a c t t h a t w h ile c e r t a i n o c c u p a t io n s
a r e grou p ed t o g e t h e r , some n i g h t c a r r y t h e 3© p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s
nor© th a n o th e r s and t h a t th e combined, o c c u p a tio n s w ould te n d
t o lo w e r a n y .s u c h c o r r e l a t i o n s w ith p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s .
th e o t h e r h a n d , i t
On
can be s a i d t h a t t h e s e o c c u p a tio n s a r e enough
a l i k e t o show an i n d i c a t i o n o f h a v in g some r e l a t i o n t o p e r s o n ­
a l i t y t r a i t s a s t e s t e d by B e r n r e u t e r ’ s t e s t .
T h i3 q u e s t io n o f f a c t o r s i n o c c u p a tio n s can be shown i n
C a r t e r 1s s t u d y , T a b le V I I I , vsliere i t w i l l be n o t i c e d t h a t
su c h o c c u p a tio n s a s A d v e r t i s e r , J o u r n a l i s t , P s y c h o l o g i s t ,
P u r c h a s in g A g e n t, H ea l E s t a t e s a le s m e n , O f f ic e C le r k , g i v e
low c o r r e l a t i o n s i n any s t a t i s t i c a l tr e a tm e n t a s compared t o
su ch j o b s a s A r c h i t e c t , C h e m ist, E n g in e e r , P h y s i c i s t , or
C it y S c h o o l S u p e r in t e n d e n t .
T h is low c o r r e l a t i o n c o u ld
p o s s i b l e b e a t t r i b u t e d to t h e f a c t t h a t men en g a g ed in t h e s e
o c c u p a t io n s can h ave d i v e r s e a b i l i t y t r a i t s and s t i l l s u c c e e d
i n th e w o rk .
W h ile th e o c c u p a t io n s t h a t h ave h ig h e r c o r r e l ­
a t i o n i n s t a t i s t i c a l work h a v e more u n i f y i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
t h a t d e f i n e thorn from o th e r t y p e s o f o c c u p a t io n s .
By l o o k i n g
a t C a r te r ’ s t a b l e IV , i t w i l l b e s e e n t h a t , a p p a r e n t ly , g e n e r a l
i n t e l l i g e n c e a s m easu red by T h o r n d ik e ’ s t e s t d o es n o t p la y an
im p o r ta n t r o l e In t h i s d i f f e r e n c e .
W ith p r o p e r f a c i l i t i e s , i t w ould b e o f i n t e r e s t t o s e e I f
t h e r e w ou ld be th e same v a r i a t i o n in c o r r e l a t i o n s w it h r e g a r d
-2 7
t o th e B e r n r e u te r p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s .
In p a s s i n g , i t c o u ld be n o te d t h a t i n r e g a r d t o t h i s
s t u d y on t w i n s , B o r n r e u te r ’ s t r a i t s a r e n o t su p p o se d t o be
a f f e c t e d by h e r e d i t y e x c e p t i n t h a t ' t h e r e m ig h t be a h e r e d ­
i t a r y f a c t o r ‘o f n e r v o u s n e s s or some su c h c o n d i t i o n t h a t w ould
p r e d is p o s e a p e r s o n tow ard s i n t r o v e r s i o n or n e u r o t i c te n d e n c y .
The women*s t e s t s g i v e u s a l i t t l e h ig h e r c o r r e l a t i o n
p o s s i b l e f o r two r e a s o n s o u t s id e o f th e in h e r e n t q u e s t io n s
in v o lv e d .
(1 ) Women seem t o h a v e l e s s d e v i a t i o n from th e cen ­
t r a l norm i n th e p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t , and (2 )
th e i n t e r e s t t e s t
i s f o r s p e c i f i c o c c u p a tio n s *
T here i s n o s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n B 3 -I s c o r e s and
s c o r e s f o r women and o n ly a s l i g h t tr e n d i n d i c a t e d f o r s e c r e t a r y .
T h ere i s an i n t e r e s t i n g i n d i c a t i o n f o r th e s o c i a l w orker where
we h a v e a - . 1 2
c o r r e l a t i o n 3ho\?ing t h a t t h e r e i s a te n d e n c y
tow ard e x t r o v e r s i o n , a t r a i t u s u a l l y c o n s id e r e d d e s i r a b l e in
d e a l i n g w ith p e o p l e .
The c o r r e l a t i o n s b e tw e e n B2-S and th o i n t e r e s t s c o r e s f o r
women w ere fo u n d bo be . 3 0 .
B etw een 3 2 -5 and th e i n t e r e s t s c o r e
f o r s o c i a l w o rk ers i t wa3 , 3 3 .
We fou n d a c o r r e l a t i o n o f - . 1 3
b e tw e e n B 2-S and th e s e c r e t a r y s c a l e w h ich m ig h t mean t h a t
s e c r e t a r i e s in g e n e r a l te n d t o b e l e s s s o l f - s u f f i c i e n t th a n
o th o r s.
T h is i s
in a c c o r d w ith D vorak’ s c o n t e n t i o n s i n c e t h i s
c o r r e l a t i o n te n d s t o b e a r o u t h i s r e s u l t s on a c t u a l s e c r e t a r i e s .
T here seem s t o be n o . r e l a t i o n s h i p . I n d i c a t e d b e tw e en th e
t e a c h e r i n t e r e s t and D om in an ce, ( - . 1 2 ) , th o u g h su ch a r e l a t i o n ­
s h ip m ig h t be e x p e c t e d .
The i n t e r e s t s c o r e f o r th e s o c i a l
-2 8 -
w orker shows a c o r r e l a t i o n o f .5 0 w ith Dominance w hich would
a l s o be e x p e c te d .
The s e c r e t a r y i n t e r e s t shows a n e g a tiv e
c o r r e l a t i o n o f - . 0 6 d o m in an ce, w h ich shows t h a t th e r e i s a
te n d e n c y f o r th e s e c r e t a r y to be su b m issiv e a s w e ll a s de­
p e n d e n t, i . e . , la c k in g in s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y .
I n none o f th e s e co m p ariso n s a r e th e r e h ig h enough c o r­
r e l a t i o n s to e n a b le one t o make any d e f i n i t e s t a te m e n ts , b u t
f o r th e women, a t l e a s t , th e r e seems to be a p a t t e r n in d ic a t e d
f o r th e i n t e r e s t o f th e t h r e e o c c u p a tio n s .
F o r th e t e a c h e r , we f in d t h a t i n t r o v e r s i o n p la y s no p a r t
w ith th e te a c h e r b e in g s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t and n o t d o m in a n t.
F o r th e s o c i a l w o rk e r, th e r e i s a s l i g h t te n d e n c y t o
e x tr o v e r s io n w ith s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y and dom inance te n d in g to be
a f a c t o r in p e r s o n a l i t y .
F or th e s e c r e t a r y , th e r e i s o n ly a s l i g h t r e l a t i o n to in ­
t r o v e r s i o n w ith a te n d e n c y t o be d ep e n d en t and s u b m is s iv e ,
though t h i s d o es n o t by any means seem to be a s tr o n g c h a r­
a c te ris a tio n .
•-2 9 TA13L1 111
C o r r e l a t i o n s ■B e tw e e n B e r n r e n t e r S c a l e s t o
The M enis i S t r o n g I n t e r e s t S c a l e s
B2» -i
T a b l e 1 ■•■■
.
.
P»E.
/0 5 I
B 2-S
r
P .3 *
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C o r r e l a t i o n s B etw een B e r n r e n t e r S e a l e s t o
\losien*s I n t e r e s t S c a l e s
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p .® .
t. ... • P . I .
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C o r r e l a t i o n s .B etw een One Q u a r te r *s G ra d e I n d e x a n d
1 3 7 Men*a I n t e r e s t S c o r e s
T a b le 5
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r
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i ,j .
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G roup
G roup V I I I
G roup
i\E .
I
,
-30'
INTERESTS OP BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION STUDENTS
One o f th e o r i g i n a l p ro b lem s p la n n e d f o r was t o f i n d th e
r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e en th e s c o r e s made on th e I n t e r e s t t e s t and
th e c h o ic e o f M ajor made by th e s t u d e n t ; b u t when a l l th e
i r r e l e v a n t c a s e s w ere e x c lu d e d , t h e r e w ere t o o few s t u d e n t s
in a n y one grou p t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t *
The o n ly
group w ith any l a r g e number was t h e b u s in e s s a d m in is t r a t io n
m a jo rs w ith 42 men s t u d e n t s , m o s t ly fresh m en and sophom ores*
The f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s w ere o b ta in e d from a stu d y o f th a t
g rou p :
29 o f t h e 42 r e g i s t e r e d i n t h a t d ep a rtm en t r e c e i v e d
a B p lu s or an k i n S t r o n g ’ s t e s t w it h an a v e r a g e raw s c o r e
o f 27 ( e q u i v a l e n t t o an A) a s com pared t o th e a v e r a g e raw s c o r e
o f 8 0 f o r . th e r e s t o f th e group*
S tr o n g (2 0 ) s t a t o s t n a t :
The c r i t i c a l r a t i o was 4 0 .
HThe t y p i c a l s t u d e n t i n th e Grad­
u a t e S c h o o l o f B u s in e s s a t S t a n fo r d U n i v e r s i t y h a s a B in
a c c o u n t in g , o f f i c e w ork , and p u r c h a s in g , t o g e t h e r w it h e i t h e r
a B i n p e r s o n n e l m anager or a B i n l i f e
in s u r a n c e and r e a l
e s t a t e s e l l i n g , or a B i n b o th t h e s e g r o u p s* 0
A ssum ing th e
v a l i d i t y o f t h i s t e s t , I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o s e e th e l a r g e
number* o f s t u d e n t s c o r r e c t l y p l a c e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y s o , a s th e
p o p u la r c o n c e p t io n i s t h a t th o a v e r a g e s t u d e n t ta k e s B u s in e s s
A d m in is t r a t io n b e c a u s e h e d o e s n o t know w hat e l s e t o d o .
T h is
p r o p o r t io n w ou ld p r o b a b ly be h ig h e r i f o n ly u p p er c la s s m e n wore
u sed .
I t i s c o n c e iv a b le t h a t t h o s e who a r e m is p la c e d a c c o r d in g
t o t h i s t e s t w i l l change from th e b u s in e s s a d m i n is t r a t i o n f i e l d .
T h ose i n t h i s group s c o r i n g A f o r Group I I w ere 4 , 2 o f
whom had n o t r e c e i v e d B p lu s or A i n B u s in e s s A d m in is t r a t io n .
•S L ­
OTcup 7 and X war© a l s o r e p r e s e n t e d by 15 and 7* r e s p e c t i v e l y *
Severn s c o r e d i n t h e s e tw o grou p s r a t h e r th a n i n B u s in e s s
A d m in is tr a t io n *
■m32.-***
INTEREST AND SCHOLASTIC ACHIEVEMENT
The second p a rt o f t h i s stu d y was -tindertaken to s e e I f
■-there- -was any r e la t io n s h ip s Detween th e g e n e r a l s c h o la s t ic
achievem ent o f the stu d e n ts a n d .-th eir I n t e r e s t s as shown by
S tr o n g ’ s i n t e r e s t t e s t *
were u sed »
For t h is p u rp ose, th e men’ s s c o r e s
The men’ s grades were- taken, f o r the- f a l l q u arter ,.
1939., and t h e ir grade Index was a sc e r ta in e d by /d iv id in g the'
.'cred its Into-, th e grad©- p o in ts earned*
These were changed in t o
th e p e r c e n t ile norms t o correspond^ w ith th e norms o f th e I n t e r e s t
test.
The r e s u l t s a re g iv e n In T able 111*
The r e s u l t s are
I n t e r e s t in g in th a t, th ere seems, t o : be a s i g n i f i c a n t correlr-.
a t io n between th e in d ex and s c o r e s In Group II*
I t i s in t e r e s t in g
to n ote t h a t , w h ile I t i s g e n e r a lly r e c o g n ise d t h a t th e r e I s no
d e f i n i t e c o r re la tio n : between I n t e llig e n c e and s c h o la s t ic
achievem ent in s c h o o l, P a terso n g e t s a c o r r e la tio n - o f ..SI
w ith i n t e r e s t s o f ch em ists s and t h i s stu d y seems to show a
c o r r e la t io n o f -*-32 w ith s c h o la s t ic achievem ent fo h Group I I
w hich in c lu d e s chem ists:.
-3 3 -
As a m t t e r o f i n t e r e s t , fee r e s u l t s o f to o to o to were
tabulated t o boo how th is p articu lar student body d istrib u te s
i t s in te r s s t s *
I s l o g th e nomas a s g i v e o by d t r o s g , a l l th e e *
m aking A In ar»y p a r t i c u l a r s c o r e war* t a b u la te d under t h a t
o c c u p a tio n *
S o a tte m p t was made t o s e e i f any one p a r so n mad*
m om th a n on# & r a t i n g i n a * ; o c c u p a t io n , s o f e e t o t a l s do
n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e p r e s e n t d if ie r e a f c in d lv id u a la ©i' th e s tu d e n t
b o d y , b u t i t t m j m o ll be * a o v e r la p p in g *
F or f e e wowen, w# f i n d to u t o a t o f 1X3 g i r l s , 3 nod th e
i n t e r e s t s o f te a c h e r s j 7 , tb s i n t e r e s t s o f s o c i a l w orkers i
and 7 3 ,
tb s l a t e r a s i s o f s f e u t ^ a p a e r e and
s e e r a t a r i ©a. I f
we ■were
a b s o lu te l y a u ra o f b e v a l i d i t y o f
th e s e t e s t s , we
co u ld draw t b s c o n c lu s io n t h a t many s tu d e n ts i n c o lle g e e n t e r
te a c h in g
m id
s o c i a l w o rk , f e l l s t h e i r r e a l i n t e r e s t s l i e in
s e c r e t a r i a l work*
I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to speculertl
m
•shy th e r e
sh o u ld b e 73 g i r l s c u t o f l i d i n t e r e s t e d i n s e c r e t a r i a l work*
riser© a r e t h r e e p o s s ib le eaE plauotienss
1*
fe a t the ssy»pl-fc.%g. i s .not garner*! eaetkgh, that I s , we
might bare s group fcfcafc is. mur* in terested in th is work then another sim ilar or larger s ie s grump wcmld be*
3*fe e o th e r re a s o n i s f e a t fe e t e s t
m ig h t n o t r e a l l y
d i f f e r e n t i a t e betw een atean g r& p h ara ansi th e g e n e r a l p o p u la tio n *
3*
f e e average age 127} o f th e s te n o g ra p h e rs from wheat
th e t e s t s w ere worked
mt were c l o s e r t© fe e Age o f th e s e
ta k in g fe e t e s t , though S tro n g s t a t e s f e a t i n t e r e s t s do not
-3 4
ch a n g e w it h a g e ♦
T h ere i s a d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e en 27 y e a r s o f
a g e and w ore m ature and o ld e r t e a c h e r s (3 8 ) and s o c i a l w ork ers
( 3 8 ) from whom t h e o t h e r norms w ere o b t a in e d .
The ©roups f o r t h e m en show a more e v e n d i s t r i b u t i o n ,
p e r h a p s b e c a u s e t h e r e a r e s o r e o c c u p a t io n s in v o lv e d * b u t
s till
t h e r e i s a s h a d in g o f f tow ard h aw in g fe w e r i n th e
5* S cien ce"
{ Group I I ) and t h e ^Language* £Group X)*
I t w ould
b e o f v a lu e t o know t h e s p e c i f i c r e a s o n s why t h e s e tw o
g r o u p s com posed o f m a th e m a tic ia n ,- c h e m i s t , 'la w y e r * and Journ­
a l i s t s ta n d o u t from t h e o t h e r s i n m ost s t u d i e s .,
in te llig e n c e .
o f some s o r t I s u n d o u b te d ly a f a c t o r » b u t n o t th e o n l y o n e ,
w ou ld a f a c t o r c a l l e d fld r i v e ” e n t e r i n a s th e p r o s p e c t o f
d o in g h ard m e n ta l work w ould c a u s e some p e o p le t o g i v e up?
T h e se o c c u p a t io n s c o n t a in t h e e le m e n t o f o r i g i n a l and c r e a t i v e
t h i n k i n g , and t h i s m ig h t c a u se some p e o p le t o h e s i t a t e . In
sh o w in g i n t e r e s t In t h e s e f i e l d s ,
o th e r o c c u p a t i o n s , no
d o u b t , h a v e t h e s e e le m e n ts o f c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g , b u t t h e y a r e
n o t o f fo r e m o s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n .
The d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r men i s 22
f o r Group I I , 59 f o r Group V , 47 f o r Group T U I , , and 23 f o r ■
Group X, w it h a t o t a l o f 151 s t u d e n t s o u t o f 1 6 7 ,
CORCLGSI0KS k m
1.
s u g o s s tio s s
T h ere i s no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n b etw een t h e
p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s o f i n t r o v e r s i o n , s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y , and
dom inance a s m easu red b y ' B ejp n feu ter* s P e r s o n a l i t y T e s t
and t h e i n t e r e s t i n o c c u p a tio n s f o r men as. p la c e d under
Group l i p V , V I I I , and. Jt, an d o c c u p a tio n s for'w om en .as
Teacher,;. S o c i a l W orker, and S e c r e t a r y , a s measured, by
S t r o n g 1'.S' i n t e r e s t t e s t , .
2,.
'What l i t t l e
tr e n d t h e r e i s to w a rd the- in f l u e n c e
o f t h e s e t r a i t s i s fo u n d i n th© d i r e c t i o n t o be e x p e c t e d
and so m e tim e s v e r i f i e d b y o t h e r w o r k e r s, (4 ) ( 8 )
3,
The h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s w ere b e tw e e n B 2-S and
S o c i a l W orkers • and T e a c h e r s w it h **' .3 3 and ~$Q* r e s p e c t . IveT yj a l s o B4—D and S o c i a l v.orker . 3 0 .
4.
T h ere i s a c o r r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n one q u a rt© r^ s g ra d e
in d e x and i n t e r e s t s c o r e s i n Group I I o f .5 2 *
5#
I n r e l a t i o n w it h o t h e r s t u d i e s 13) t h e r e seem s
t o be some f a c t o r o f i n t e l l i g e n c e w o r k in g i n r e g a r d t o
I n t e r e s t s i s o c c u p a t io n s ,.
6.
By s i n g l i n g o u t s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t i o n s , i t ml g o t be
p o s s i b l e t o f i n d som e r e l a t i o n b e tw e en p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s
.
*
and I n t e r e s t i n o c c u p a t io n s ,
7*
The q u e s t io n i s r a i s e d a s t o w h eth er or n o t th e
c o r r e l a t i o n w ould be made s i g n i f i c a n t i f B e r n r e u te r s c o r e s
h a d more c l o s e l y a p p ro x im a te d t h e a d u lt s c o r e s o f th e a v e r a g e
a g e o f t h e p e o p le u s e d in c o n s t r u c t in g S t r o n g ' s o r i g i n a l s c a l e .
8*
A a u g g e s t e d s t u d y o f p o s s i b l e w o r th w h ile v a lu e w ould
b e t o s e e I f th e r e i s a n y r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n B e r n r e u t e r ’ s
p e r s o n a l i t y . t r a i t s * p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t r o v e r s i o n and e x t r o v e r s i o n
and th e t r a i t o f S o c i a l I n s ig h t * s u g g e s t e d by S t e in m e t z ,
9.
T h ere i s a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e en s c h o l a s t i c
a c h ie v e m e n t a s m easured b y th e g r a d e in d e x an d i n t e r e s t In
Group I T , com posed o f C h em ists* M a th e m a tic ia n s* and Engineers.*.
T h ere i s a l s o a p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n b e tw e en t h i s and g e n e r a l
in te llig e n c e *
10*.
B u s in e s s A d m in is t r a t io n s t u d e n t s f o r th e m o st p a r t
- make A i n i n t e r e s t on t i e B u s in e s s s c a l e s o f S tr o n g ’ s . , t e s t *
T he s t u d e n t s in t h i s s t u d y o u t s id e t h e B u s in e s s S c h o o l make a
h ig h e r a v e r a g e s c o r e on t h e I n t e r e s t t e s t , sh o w in g t h a t many
s t u d e n t s h a v e b u s in e s s i n t e r e s t s b u t a r e n o t i n th e ' B u s in e s s
S c h o o l.
11.
f o r t h e group- s tu d ie d * m o st i n t e r e s t - was m a n if e s t i n
S e c r e t a r i a l work f o r t h e women and Group V and ¥1X1 f o r th o
m en.
{ Group ¥ composed- o f Y .M .C .A . P h y s i c a l D i r e c t o r s * P er ­
s o n n e l M an agers, Y.M.C*A. G en era l S e c r e t a r i e s * e t c .
Group
V I I I com posed o f A c c o u n ta n ts* O f f i c e Men* P u r c h a s in g A g e n ts
. t o B ankers*
-3 7 -
1.
B e r n r e u te r * R . 0 .
al h e T heory and C o n s t r u c t io n o f th e
P e r s o n a l i t y In ven tory*1
J* o f S oc* P s y c h o l#
a
2*
C arter ? H«D*
M«H. P y le s and B*P# B r e tn a ll
5fA Com­
p a r a tiv e Study o f F a c t o r s ,in H 'ocatlonal I n t e r e s t Snores •
o f H igh S ch ool Boys0
1935
Vol 26
3 k *‘
J . o f Educ* P sychol#
81-98
“Twin Siiffiilari.fcies In O ccu pation al I n t e r e s t s * 1
J . o f Bduc. P sy ch o l,
1932
V el 23
C r a f t s * 1«W*
641T»G, S e h n e i r l a , and 1*1* R o b in so n
**R e c e n t
*■ in P s y c h o lo g y 5*
York
5.
M cG raw -H ill
Dodge* &*F*
“fh& t a r e th e P e r s o n a l i t y f r a i l s o f th e
s u c c e s s f u l sa le sp e r so n ? * *
Y©1 2 2
6,
D yer* D,T*
1938
1* o f A p p lie d P s y e h o l*
.229-1
**fhe R e l a t i o n b etw een V o c a t io n a l I n t e r e s t s o f
Men i n C o lle g e and t h e i r S u b se q u e n t O c c u p a tio n a l H i s t o r i e s
o f f e n Years***
1939
7*.
Y ol 23
L a ir d * D .A ,
J , o f A p p lie d P s y c h o l*
280-1
“How P e r s o n a l i t i e s a r e fo u n d i n Industries***''
J « o f In d u s# P s y c h o l# ’
1926
Y o l 16
6 6 4 -6 6 2
••*38**
8 * L aird, IX-.A.
'3*
of
1825
9.»
"M ental H y g ien e and V o c a t io n a l H o sts *"
Banc*' PsyehoX*
Vol 16
410-' 422
P r e s s o y , S ,L ,
E . Ja n n ey and H*G* K uhlen
t
A
" L if e ;
.1
.
P s y e h o l o g i c a l Su rvey*
• liew .York
10*
H arp ers
S t . Clair,* W*F.
1939 ■ 2 2 0 -2 7 9
nThe r e la t io n o f S c h o la s t ic A ptitud e
■.vf^ W ithdrawal p erson ality1*
: 1939
Vol 30
-1* o f Bduc* Psychol*
295-300
5'
*
(Q u otation s from- P sy c h o lo g ic a l A h a tra cts”
1939-
Page 600
11* Steim iets*. 8*€v
Vol 13 He. 11
A r t ic le 5785
"'Ability to Fake Occupational In terest"
J . o f Applied Psychol*
1 9 32
12,
VOX 16
X‘2 3 -1 3 0 :
S t r o n g , B*K* ,3r+
W l f f a r e n l i s t io n o f C e r t i f i e d P u t l i e
A ccountants from o th e r O ccupational groups*" : J . o f -
Applied Psychol*
1927
13,
Vol 18
. _.
227-238
" i n t e r e s t s o f Men and Women.*"
J. o f
Sec* Psychol*
1936
14,
Vol
t
F aterson ,- H.F*
40-07
"A stu d y o f The Hitmefiofca B a tin g S c a le
For ^©asuring I n fe r io r ity Attlt u d e s .«”
1930
Vol 1
463-493
1*. o f Sec*. Psychol*
-3 9 15.*-S t r o n g , B.fC* J r .
Chang© o f I n t e r e s t s w it h Age-,
S ta n fo r d U n i v e r s i t y f r e e s
16,
.
1931
B . MacKenzi©
o f A d u lt Men.,”
Vol 1
1930
17*
J* o f S e e . P sy c h o l*
1 5 2 -1 5 9
.
B . J . G reen
In te r e st
1932
"perm anence o f I n t e r e s t s
T e s t ,”
V ol 16
" S h o r t G uts t o S c o r in g an
J , o f A p p lie d P sy c h o l*
1 -8
1 8 .__ _________ ^
" V o c a tio n a l G u id an ce o f E x e c u t iv e s ."
J . o f A p p lie d P s y c h o l*
192?
19.
V o l 11
3 3 1 -3 3 4
.
1 9 34
20.
" V o c a tio n a l I n t e r e s t T e s t s ."
O c c u p a tio n s 2
. -
4 9 -5 6
■■ • M anual f o r V o c a t io n a l I n t e r e s t B lan k
f o r M en,
1938
S ta n fo r d U n iv .
C a lifo r n ia
S t a n fo r d U n iv . P r e s s
21*
Hr©nn* G*G*
L.W* F e r g u s o n and J*h* K ennedy
L e v e l and P e r s o n a l i t y ”
1936
22.
V ol 7
Y ou n g, C.W.
" I n te llig e n c e
J . o f S o c . P s y c h o l*
3 0 1 -3 0 7
.0,1* E sfcab rook s,
" R ep ort on t h e Young-
E sta b r o o k s S t u d io u s n e s s Seal© f o r u s e w it h th e S tr o n g
V o c a t io n a l I n t e r e s t b la n k f o r Men.
1 9 3?
V o l 28
1 7 6 -1 8 7
J , o f B&ue, P s y c h o l,
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