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Study of diction and imagery in the poetry of Robert Browning

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A STUDY
of
DICTION AMD IMAGERY
in th e
POETRY OF ROBERT BROWNING
*7
__________ G ra c e Rvon
B*A«, C a r l e t o n C o l l e g e , 1919
P re s e n te d in p a r t i a l f u lf illm e n t o f th e
re q u ire m e n t f o r th e d e g re e o f
M a s te r o f .A r ts .
M o n tan a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y
m o
A p p ro v e d
C h a irm a n ; o f ^ o a r d
o f E x a m in e rs
t C h a irm a n o f Co m i t t e e
on G r a d u a te S tu d y
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UMI Number: EP34859
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IN F O R M A T IO N T O ALL U S E R S
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U
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UMI E P 34859
Published by ProQ uest LLC (2 0 1 2 ). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author.
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To
R e n a ts M urphy
a n d t o a l l oh h e r s who h a r e
d i r e c t e d an d e n c o u r a g e d a® i n
th e w r itin g o f th e s e p a g e s 1
e x p r e s s s i n c e r e t h a n k s an d
a p p re c ia tio n .
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mrn^m
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tas m m im * * * * * * * * * , * * * * * * *
1
F l a e a o f t h e p ro b le m I n
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* * . * * * * * * * * * *
1
R e a s o n f o r i n t e r e s t in.
ill® j r o M o i t • * * * : * * * * * * * * * * *
S f tttu a s ig t o f t h e p ro b le m
Hm
* * * * * * *
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P la n , off p r o c e d u r e * * * * * * * * * * * * *
1
l i t e r a r y - t e x t u s e d i s t h s s tr n iy * * * * * *
2
m m xm . * * * * • * • * * * . . * * * . * . ♦ *
3
S tetM M O it off t h e p u 2fcp o s e off t h e
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d s v l e s s f o r so u n d *. * * * * * *
.
W o rt c o m b in a tio n s sh o w in g o t h e r
favorite treat® . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Olatis© c o n s t r u c t i o n s
. . . . . .
P u n c tu a tio n and s p e l l i n g
34
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C o n c lu s io n * * * * * * * * * *
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R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
53
iv
CHAPTER
H I.
PAGE
IMAGERY . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . .
54
A llu s io n s t o th e a u th o r* s
id e a o f p o e try
« . . .. .. . .
l a a g e s s u g g e s t e d t h r o u g h w o rd s
* .
. ♦ . .
. . . . . .
54
§4
Im a g e s s u g g e s t e d th r o u g h f i g u r e s
o f sp aeeh ♦ . . . . . .
* . * * ,
. . . .
D e s c rip tio n s o f v a rio u s le n g th s . . . . . .
R e s u ltin g id e a
it*
G o m tim o m
* . . .
BIBLIOGRAPHY..........................
93
.
. . . .
. . . . . . . . .
. .
83
. . .
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
98
99
102.
CHAPTER I
IBTRODTJCTLQN
F o r m ore t h a n one h u n d r e d y e a r s R o b e r t Browning
h a s b o o n c l a i m i n g th e &t t e n t i o n o f r e a d e r s o f p o e tr y *
P r o b a b l y no p o e t o f th e m i d - y e a r s o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n ­
t u r y i s s t i l l r e a d w ith, s o much i n t e r e s t a s i s R o b e r t
B ro w n in g .
T h is i s n o t b e c a u s e h e i s
lik e th e w r i t e r s o f
t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y m o d ern p o e t r y , b a t b e c a u s e i n h i s own
r i g h t h e i s a p o e t -and i n d i v i d u a l who i s n o t q u i c k l y d i s ­
m is s e d ,
I t i s t o b e s u r m is e d t h a t t h i s h o n o r h a s c o r r e s ­
p o n d in g I n f l u e n c e u p o n E n g l i s h a n d A m e ric a n l i t e r a t u r e o f
to d a y .
Y e t i t I s n o t t h i s e n c o u ra g e m e n t t o f r e e d o m o f
e x p r e s s i o n i n o t h e r w r i t e r s t h a t we w ant t o d i s c u s s .
T he
w o rk s o f R o b e r t B ro w n in g th e m s e lv e s con t a i n a f u n d o f m a t e r i a l .
D i s c u s s i o n o f c o n t e n t and a tt e m p t s a t i n t e r p r e t a t i on o f t h a t
m a t e r i a l a r e f r e q u e n t ; b u t n o s tu d y o f th e te c h n ic a l, s id e o f
t h e p o e t r y h a s , t o my k n o w le d g e , b e e n m ade e x c e p t on e i n p r o s o d y .
T h i s p a p e r i s a n a tt e m p t t o f i n d a n d g r o u p some o f t h e f a c t s
i n t h i s l e s s e r w o rk e d f i e l d .
In i t I p u rp o se t o g iv e r e s u l t s
o f ex am in in g , t h e w r i t i n g s t o Show B ro w n in g * s t e c h n i q u e a s r e ­
v e a l e d i n d i c t i o n and i n im a g e r y .
In c a rry in g f o r t h t h i s p r e ­
l e c t , I have- made u s e o f w o rk s u p o n t h e s t u d y o f p o e t r y and o f
w o r d s ; a l s o , o f h e l p f u l b o o k s u p o n R o b e r t B ro w n in g .
T h e re fo re ,
th o u g h t h e p a p e r i s t h e p r o d u e t o f my own r e s e a r c h , i t i s d e p e n ­
d e n t upon th e s e h e lp s ,
I h a v e t r i e d t o ■ assem ble enough m a t e r i a l
t o show B ro w n in g * s t e n d e n c i e s i n t h e f i e l d o f t e c h n i q u e .
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
T he
2
w ork a s a wfeole t a k e s o n tb e cba r a c t e r o f a s u r v e y i l l u s t r a t e d
b y e x a m p le s f o u n d i s a b u n d a n c e o r g le a n e d m t b
d iffic u Ity .
For
t b i s s t u d y t h e C a m b rid g e M i t i o n o f B ro w n in g ’ s c o m p le te w oik s
b a s f u r n is h e d tb # te x t*
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
I s . a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f B ro w n in g ’ s d i c t i o n t h e q u e s t i o n
i s n o t o f w iie th e r t h e p o e t u s e d th e
w o rd he h a s u s e d .
r i g h t w o rd , h u t o f w h a t
I f p o e tr y su c c e e d s i n b e in g c l e a r and p le a s in g
— en o u g h s o , a t l e a s t , t o l i v e and b e r e v i v e d f ro m tin © t o t i m e —
t h e d i c t i o n m u st b e f a i r l y r i g h t .
l i v e d th r o u g h s u c h a h i s t o r y .
The p o e t r y o f B ro w n in g h a s
T he s t u d y , t h e n , becom es on e o f
th e in d iv id u a l, p o e t’ s d i c t i o n —n o t d i c t i o n in g e n e r a l, n o r d i c t i o n
co m p ared o r c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h a t o f same o t h e r p o e t .
c o n t a c t w i t h g e n e r a l u s a g e i s a lw a y s f e l t ;
S u b c o n s c io u s
i t is p ro b a b ly th a t
w h ic h make s a r e a d e r s e n s e a n i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e o r an u n u s u a l e x ­
a m p le .
The aim h e r e i s t o d i r e c t t h e i n t e r e s t i n t o B ro w n in g ’ s
d i c t i o n ; an d w h e re i t
seem s . s u r p r i s i n g , b e a u t i f u l , o r i n v o l v e d ,
to o b se rv e i t
a n d t o r e a l i z e t h a t J u s t s u c h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s m ake
i t a s tu d y o f
B ro w n in g i n s t e a d o f som eone e l s e .
W h e th e r i n th e fo rm o f d r a m a ti c m o n o lo g u e , l y r i c , o r dram a
p r o p e r , B r o w i n g i s s p e a k in g th r o u g h t h e c h a r a c t e r who t e l l s t h e
s t o r y , g i v e s h i s v i e w s , o r f i n d s t h e hop®.
s e p a r a t e th e
I t i s n ot n e c e ssa ry to
s p e e c h e s o f G e r a r d o r M e rto u n ; n o r d o e s P o r p h y r i a ’ s
l o v e r d i f f e r fro m t h e s e tw o ; n o r d o e s B ro w n in g h i m s e l f s p e a k o t h e r ­
w is e i n " C h r is tm a s E v e . "
A l l a r e B ro w n in g ; t h e B row ning d i c t i o n
i s t h e i r p ro p e r sp eech .
T h is d e e s n o t m ean t h a t t h e r e i s n o v a r i e t y .
o f l i n e s and t h e many m o u th p ie c e s
o f e x p re s s in g
The th o u s a n d s
shew how n u m b ero u s th e w ay s a r e
th e on® man— R o b e r t B ro w n in g .
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k
S u c h a s tu d y o f d i c t i o n d i v i d e s r e a s o n a b l y i n t o t h e
fo llo w in g p a r ts .j
w o rd s* w o rd c o m b i n a t i o n s , c l a u s e s , a n d s a c k
a d d it i o n a l c o n s id © ra tio n s a s s p o i l in g a n ! p u n c tu a tio n .
A.
B ro w n in g ’ s v o c a b u l a r y i s t h a t i n g e n e r a l u s e i n t h e
© dueabed E n g l i s h home o f t h e 'n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y .
I t s b a la n c e
o f w o rd s o f E n g l i s h a n d L a t i n o r i g i n i s t h a t o f n a t u r a l , , t h o u g h t ­
f u l c o n v e rs a tio n am i e x p la n a tio n .
L im es l i k e th e f o l l o w i n g show
how u n a f f e c t e d s u c h u s a g e i s :
F o r I ara v o c a l th r o u g h t h e u n i v e r s e *
I * t h e w o rk sh o p * m a n u f a c to r y , e x c h a n g e
And m a r k e t - p l a c e , s e a p o r t a n d c u s to m -h o u s e
0 ’ th e f r o n tie r :- l i s t e n i f th e e c h o e s d i e —
" U n f e t t e r e d com m erce I F e w e r t o s p e a k a n d h e a r
A nd p r i n t a n d r e a d ! T he u n i v e r s a l v o t e ! n 1
Her© t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f E n g l i s h d e r i v a t i o n t o L a t i n i s a b o u t 2 5 : 1 ? .
I f t h a t m & m a p r e p o n d e r a n c e of L a t i n , t r y a n a t u r e seen©'—
1 . The. C o m p le te P o e t i c and B r a a a t l c Woafea o f R o b e r t
B ro w n in g (S t u d e n t ’V G S b r i d ^ ' ^ d i t i o n j New' Y o rk ! d o u g h to n
M i f f l i n Com pany, 1 8 9 5 )* c i t i n g " P r i n c e H o h e n s tie l- S c h w a n g a u ,
S a v i o r o f S o c i e t y , " p . 689* 11# 3 7 - 4 2 b .
(T h ro u g h o u t t h i s
s t u d y t h e C am b rid g e I d i t i o m o f B ro w n in g h a s b e e n u s e d . I
h a v e u s e d a f o r f i r s t c o lu m n , a n d b f o r second* f o l l o w i n g
t h e p a g e n u m b ers* )
2.
B a l a u s t i o n 4s A d v e n tu r e , p . 614* 1 1 . 2 7 -2 8 b .
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
5
i n w h ic h th e l e s s t e c h n i c a l w o rd s b a l a n c e a b o u t [email protected] to- f o u r .
F a t i n t o o r d i n a r y p r o s e , t h i s p r o p o r t i o n b eco m es f i r ® t o
th re e *
F a c in g on l i g h t f e e t o a s t t h e o a r l e d n i n e s .
Hot© how
t h e s e p r o p o r tio n s re s e m b le ,
’"What w as a sp o o k e x p a n d s i n t o a s t a r , *3 on© o f
B ro w n in g ’ s m o st b e a u t i f u l l i n e s , -shows a. p r o p o r t i o n o f s i x t o
one f o r t h e A n g lo -S a x o n .
T h is n e e d n o t b e d i s t u r b i n g when a
p o e t ©an e x p r e s s so w e l l w i t h o u t b o r r o w in g .
A u th o ritie s t e l l
u s , h o w e v e r , t h a t n o c o m p u ta tio n .a n sw e rs hi© q u e s t i o n o f
"Wh&t i s t h e w h o le E n g li s h v o c a b u la ry ? * * ^
B.
We t u r n now t o w o r d s t h e m s e l v e s .
W ords t h a t h a d become
a r c h a i c , i n B row ning* s t im e ar© n o t f r e q u e n t l y f o u n d .
The n o u n
b u s s i s fo u n d one© ; q u e a n .on ce? g e n t l e s a n d t h e none© a p p e a r
s e v e r a l tim e s .
tw ic e ' e a c h .
The a d j e c t i v e s ag o g a n d f a s t { c lo s e d ) I f i n d
T he v e r b s b l a b a n d b r a y a r e g i v e n t h e m e a n in g o n c e
g o o d j a n d a p p e a r many tim e s .
Wot v e se em s f i t t i n g
in S a u l.
A d v e rb s i n t h e o l d - f a s h i o n e d c o m p a r a tiv e d e g r e e o c c u r o fte n :'.
A l l a y d a y s , 1*11 go s o f t l i e r , s a d l i e r , ^
: 3 Paracelsus, p. 17, 1. ■54 a*
4 la m e s B r a d s t r e e t G re e n o u g h a rd G e o rg e Lyman K i t t r e d g e ,
W ords a M T h e i r Wavs i n E n g l i s h .S p e e c h (Mew Y o rk : T he M a c m illa n
C om pany, 1 9 3 3 ) , p . 1 0 5 .
5 ^h® C o u p let® P o e t i c and D ra m a tic . W orks o f R o b e r t
B ro w n in g . F e a r s a n d S c r u p l e s , p . 8 1 1 , 1 . 9 b .
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
C o r r e l a t i v e c o n j u n c t i o n s a r e a lw a y s th e o i l o r . o r o r n o r * n o r ;
n e v e r t h e e i t h e r *, o r , n e i t h e r , n o r o f to d a y *
fh e o i l a -h o ld ln g
an d a - d o l n g p a r t i c i p l e a p p e a r s , u s u a l l y f o r rh y th m '* s s a k e .
th e
For
same r e a s o n t o e o l d p r e f i x e s e , e n . a n d em s o m e tim e s b e g in
th e v e rb ;
1.
2.
And s t i l l f e a r l e s t t h e t e r r i b l e g l o r y e v a n i s h l i k e
s le e p . 6
7
A s e a r l y A r t em browns t h e g o ld *
O f te n fo r m a l s e c o n d p e r s o n l e n d s a d i g n i t y t h a t i s a p p r o p r i a t e
t o t h e t b o u g h t:
1*
S a i d B l a i s e . , t o e l i s t e n i n g monk* "W e ll d o n e ;
I d o u b t n o t t h o u a r t h e a r d , my s o n ; 8
2*
A v o i c e s a i d , . So won i d s t th o u s t r i v e , n o t re st? * * 9
V a r i a t i o n s fro m - d e f i n i t i o n g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d f o r a w o rd
a r e s u r p r i s i n g l y few *
M ost p e r s i s t e n t i n i t s p r o p e r c o n n o t a t i o n
i s t h e v e r b f i x , t o f a s t e n o r JgO h o ld *
1*
Bow s h a l l I f i x y o u , f i r e y o u , f r e e s © y o u ,
2.
F ix e d me a b r e a t h i n g - w h i l e o r twO®:;;:vv
10
J'" r"J:iir*r S * i a u i , p . 1 8 2 , 1 . 18 b .
7 . I n T h r e e D a y s, p . 1 9 2 , 1* 38 a .
8 . The Boy an d The A n g e l, p . 2 5 4 , 1 1 . 5 -6 a .
9 .H e p h a n , p . 1 0 0 5 , 1 . 6 a .
1 0 .VIomen a n d B o s e s , p . 1 9 3 , 1 . 3 4 a .
1 1 . The L a s t R id e T o g e t h e r , p . 2 6 7 , 1 . 23 b .
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
7
3.
.
f i x ray fa#® , and f e a r l e s s
t t oe li faltt fct hh .1
l1i-ift.
f t th
.-2
4.
1 cou I d f i x h e r f a c e w ith a g i a r d h e tw e e n .
And f i n d h e r s o u l a s w hen f r i e n d s c o n f e r ,
F r i e n d s - - l o v e r s t h a t m ig h t h a v e b e e n . - ^
5.
D o u b t y o u i f , i n s u c h a m om ent.
As s h e f i x e d m e, d i e f e l t c l e a r l y
A ges p a s t th e . s o u l e x i s t e d , 1*
C o r r e c t , a l s o , i s t h e e a r l y c o n n o t a t i o n o f d ie f o l l o w i n g p a r t i c i p l e *
V u lg a ris e d H o ra c e , f o r t i e
u se o f s c h o o ls ,^
And t h e v e r b I n t h e n e x t , a lt h o u g h a l i t t l e
(D on’ t
le a n on m t
odd:
M ild re d , h e r e ’ s a l i n e ,
1 * 1 1 l a g l i s h i t f o r y o u } 1®
A m using c o n n o t a t i o n s a p p e a r s o m e tim e s :
1,
T h e re sh e s t a n d s ,
C la ra de M i l l e f l e u r s , a l l d e o d o riz e d ,
17
Tw enty y e a r s * s t a i n w ip e d o f f h e r i n n o c e n c e ! 1 '
2.
p r o c r a s tin a te th e tr u th
U n t i l t h e w i f e , who h a d m ade p r o o f a n d fo u n d
T h e h u s b a n d w a n t in g , m ig h t e s s a y one® m o re ,
H e a r , s e e , and f e e l him r e n o v a t e d now—
A b le t o d o , n ew , a l l h e r s e l f h a d d o n e .
R is e n t o h e i g h t o f h e r : 18
12 'f e d B r a t t s , p . 0 8 9 , 1 . 24 b .
13 Any W ife t o Any H u sb a n d , ,p. 1 8 7 , 1 1 . 1 8 -2 0 a .
14 C r i s t i n a , p . 1 7 0 , 1 1 . 5 - 7 a .
15 The R in g and t h e B o o h , p . 4 1 5 , 1* 2 b .
16 A B l o t i n t h e
’ S c u tc h e o n , p . 2 2 3 , 1 1 . 3 4 -3 5 b .
17 Red C o tto n H ig h t-C a p C o u n t r y , p . 7 6 7 , 1 1 . 9 -1 1 b .
18 B a l a u s t i o n ’ s A d v e n tu r e , p . 6 2 4 , 1 1 . 3 3 -3 8 b .
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8
A f o n d n e s s f o r c e r t a i n w o rd s b eco m es n o t i c e a b l e a s
o n e r e a d s th r o u g h a c h r o n o l o g i c a l a r r a n g e m e n t o f B ro w n in g * s
poem s*
Some w o rd s p e r s i s t ; ; o t h e r s a p p e a r a n d a re . s e e n f o r a
p e r io d o f y e ars*
B e c a u s e m any o f t h e s e w o rd s o c c u r i n o t h e r
p a r t s o f t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , th e f o llo w in g l i s t s a r e s h o r t .
1*.
P e r s i s t i n g , t h r o u g h o u t t h e -hooks;
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t o i m a g e r y , w i l l h e l p m ake t h e
p i c t u r e s i n C h a p te r I I I .
I m p r e s s i o n s and f i g u r a t i v e p h r a s e s — some a lm o s t c o l ­
l o q u i a l — f in d t h e i r w ay i n t o th e
d i c t i o n o f Brow ning.-
sh o w no o r i g i n a l i t y , he g e t s o u t
o f them a l l t h e v i g o r s u g g e s t e d
b y “p l a g u e t a k e , ”^
W h ile t h e y
“b l u r t o u t , * ^ “w e a r and t e a r ;
19 S i b r a n d u s S c h a f n a b u r g e n s i s , p . 1 6 ? , 1 . 1 a .
20 H e r a k l e s , p . 6 6 1 , 1 . 21 a .
21 B o r d e l l o , p . 9 1 , 1 . 1 ? a .
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9
t h e o f f - h a n d m a n n e r s u g g e s t e d b y “d i r t and a l l 1,22 "g o t o t h e
d o g s ” 2 ^ an(j " a h o t t i m e ; " 2^ t h e e a s u a l n e s s o f “ t o b o o t , " 2 '*
“ on® o f t h e s e d a y s , " 2^ “t o a l l . i n t e n t s ? 2"'7 “why s w e l l th©
l i s t ; " 2 ^ a n d t h e s i l l i n e s s ' o f "my d e a r * *38 S e v e r a l o f t h e s e
p h r a s e s we f i n d m ore th a n one©*
B ro w n in g ©an a l s o p u t a s l i g h t
c h a n g e i n t o a n o l d e x p r e s s i o n , so t h a t we r e a d w ith h e i g h t e n e d
a la r m " s t a r k s t a r i n g lu n a c y " * ^ o r " fro m c r e s t to c r u p p e r . n^ 2
l l o t i e e a l s o ‘t h e l i v e l y c o m b in a tio n o f tw o o l d p h r a s e s i n on®
lin e :
Tom g e t th® p i c k o f t h e n e w s- and i t c o s t s you n e v e r a
p i n , 33
T h a t t h e r e s h o u ld b e s u c h f r e s h n e s s a b o u t o l d t h i n g s i s th e
w o n d e r h e r® .
T r i t e n e s s o f e x p r e s s io n seem s to- me to b e a lm o s t m is s i n g
’.............
2 2 '" le d G o tte n N ig h t-C a p G a u n try * p . 763* 1 . 12 b ,
23 O ld P i c t u r e s i n F l o r e n c e , p . 171* 1 . 4 4 a*
24 The F l i g h t o f t h e D u c h e s s , p . 273# ! • 6 b ,
25 By t h e F i r e s i d e * p . 187* 1 , 15 b .
26 T he F low er*® Nam e, p . 1 6 6 , 1 , 26 b ,
27 B o r d e l l o , p . 1 2 6 , 1 . 40 a .
28 P a r a c e l s u s . , p . 31* 1* 3 a .
29 B e f o r e , p . 1 9 3 , 1 . 29 b .
30 B ed ’C o tto n N ig h t-C a p C o u n tr y , p . 749* 1* 47 b .
31 G e n c i a j a , p . 8 2 3 , 1 . 34 a ,
32 B o r d e l l o , p . 107* 1 , 13 a*
33 Up a t a V i l l a — Down i n th e C i t y , p . 174* 1 , 15 b .
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is - b o th d i c t i o n a n d im a g e ry o f B ro w n in g .
" D e w - p e a r le d ,
d e s c r ip tiv e o f t h e h ills id e .,, i s need f o r a s e r e n i t y ; w h ile
d ia m o n d . w h ic h a© .at a n t h e r s t r i t e l y
s e l e c t f o r dew , w o u ld p r o ­
d u c e t h e w ro n g e f f e c t . When h e s a y s t h a t t h e l e a f - b u d s a r e
35
" w o o l l y ," " t h e a d v a n c e o f s p r i n g n e e d s a© f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n .
When P a r a c e l s u s s p e a k s o f t h e "m u rk y s o u l s
t h e a d j e c t i v e h a s don#' a l l n e ed e d *
o f a d v e rs a rie s ,
A s tra n g e , b u t p e rtin e n t
c h o i c e i s w h a t w e f i n d i n B ro w n in g .
N o tic e p l a s t i c
in. t h i s
c o u p le ti
Ee f i x e d me i n th e d a n c e .,O f p l a s t i c c i r c u m s t a n c e . **
Twic© I n v e n t s i s u s e d o f s o m e th in g God h a s m ade; i n e a c h -ease
it
i s m ore c o n v in c in g t h a n c r e a t e s w o u ld h a v e b e e n :
1,
I f y o u g e t s im p le b e a u t y a n t n a u g h t e l s e . , .
You g e t a b o u t t h e b e s t t h i n g God in v en ts-* ®
2.
S o s o o n made h a p p y ? H a d s t t h o u l e a r n e d
W hat God a e c Q u n te th h a p p i n e s s ,
T hou w o m ld st n o t f i n d i t .h a rd t o g u e s s
t h a t h e l l may b e h i s p u n is h m e n t
F o r t h o s e who d o u b t i f God i n v e n t
B e t t e r t h a n th e y .-* *
34 P i p p a l a s s e s , p . 1 3 3 , 1 . 31 a .
35 The L o s t M i s t r e s s , p . 1 7 0 , 1 . ML a*
36 P a r a c e l s u s , p . 3 7 , ! •
2? b .
3 7 f ia b b i Ben E g r a , p . 305* H * 4 1 -2 4 a .
38 F r a L ip p o L i p p i , p .
3 4 4 , 11* 3 7 -3 8 a .
39 S aste rG B & y , p . 3 3 2 , 1 1 . 3 8 -4 2 b .
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Q u a in t v e r b s o c c u r i n t h e s e p h ra s in g ® *
1.
T h is l i k e s aie m o re , and t h a t a f f e c t s a© l e s s !
2.
W hat b e n e f i t s m a n k in d m ust g l a d me t o o . ^ 1
3.
Mot e v e n P a r i s , r a n s a c k e d , c o u l d s u p p ly , 2
'T hat gem i h e h a d t o f o r a g e i n Hew Y o r k ,
4©
A lo v e ly c h o ic e o f e x p re s s io n a p p e a rs i n
You h a v e o p e n e d a new w o r ld t o m e,
Ifi l l n e v e r t a k e t h e f a d e d la n g u a g e up
Of w h a t I l e a v e t * ^
F e a r l e s s i s t h e c o n c e p t o f "foamy p a t r i o t i s m ;
fo rth rig h t
w ay t o s p e a k i s o f "the l e s s p r e - e m i n e n t a n g e l ; " ^ w h i l e odd
q u a l i t i e s c o m b in e i n " h y a e n a g r o a n - l i k e l a u g h t e r 2
Hew
e x p r e s s i o n s f o r o l d h o p e s com® o u t i n
47
1,
I w o u ld a d v e n t u r e n o b l y f o r t h e i r s a k e s .
2.
I
My h e a r t b u rn e d up w i t h i n me to: a y to n g u e * 4 '
Hew d i c t i o n f o r o l d i d e a s a l s o d o e s a n e a t l y t u r n e d t h o u g h t :
4® P i e t o r I g n o t u s , p.. 342,: 1 1 . I S a .
41 P a r a c e l s u s , p . 3 4 , 1 . 1 4 a*
42 R ed O o tto n H ig h t-O a p C o u n tr y , p . 7 4 1 , 1 1 . 4 0 -4 1 a
43 Colomb©’ s B i r th d a y ,, p . 2 4 2 , 1 1 . 5 3 -5 4 a .
4 4 P r i n c e H o h e n st i e 1 - S c h w an g au , S a v i o r o f S o c i e t y ,
p . 6 7 4 , 1* 8 b .
45 Th® K in g and t h e B o o k , p . 5 6 2 , 1 . 34 b*
4 6 T he R e tu r n o f t h e D r u s e s , p . 2 0 8 , 1 . 8 h .
4 7 P a r a c e l s u s , p . 2 4 , 1 . 50 a#
48 Th© l a s t A d v e n tu re o f B a l a u s t i o n , p . 6 4 3 , 1* 31 b
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
1.
t o d a p i n m ig h t b e b e a r d d r o p h a l f a m il® h e n c e — ^ 9
2.
a k in d ly b a l l e t th ro u g h y o u r s k u l l
l e t s i n l i g h t a n d t e a c h e s m a n n e r t o w h a t b r a i n i t f i n d s .*
O a th s a r e n o t u s u a l i n B row ning* s p o e t r y , b u t when t h e y d o a p p e a r
th e y a r e d i f f e r e n t :
1.
2*
1 s w e a r b y th e H o ly H o u s e , my h e a d w i l l I n e v e r w ash
f i l l I f i l c h h i s P e a r l aw ay— 51
52
lo o k s * w h a t ’ s t o b la m e ? you t h i n k y o u s e e a monk?
Y oung p e o p le t o d a y who u s e s u c h s l a n g a s ’’mum’ s t h e word,**
"w h a t a l a u g h t " o r ’’c a n s e e y o u r d r if t* * do n o t know t h a t t h e y
q u o te B ro w n in g and t h a t t h o s e e x p r e s s i o n s w e r e h a r d l y s l a n g
a s h e u s e d t h e m . ^ H o w ev e r, w i t h B ro w n in g t h e y w e re u s e d f o r
f u n , J u s t a s h e m ig h t s a y
Q u ic k , P a u l* a n o t h e r d o s e o f m a n u s c r i p t
5L
or
* * T is c l e a r * * c r ie d , t h e y , " o u r Mayor*® n o d d y ; ^
4 9 B h r i s t m a s E v e , p . "323, 1 . 13 a .
50 O l i v e , p . 8 9 5 , XX. 2 6 -2 7 a .
51 M u le y k e h , p . 8 9 8 , 1 1 . 2 0 -2 1 a .
52 F r a L ip p o L i p p i , p . 3 1 2 , 1 . 37 a .
53 a . F r a L ip p o L i p p i , p . 343* 1 . 1 4 a .
b . D e v e lo p m e n t, p . 1003* 1* 34 a .
e . B a l a u s t i o n ’ s A d v e n tu r e , p . 6© 6, 1 . 11 b .
54 The Two P o e t s o f G r o i s i e , p . 8 6 8 , 1 . 40 a .
55 The P i e d P i p e r ©f H a m e lin , p . 2 6 8 , 1 . 23 b .
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
13
On® o f t h e m ost o r i g i n a l h i t s o f d i c t i o n I ©an f i n d l i e s i n
t h e w ord p e r p l e x e d a s u s e d h e r e :
c o n c e d e t h e r e m ocks
E ac h l o v e r o f f r e e m o tio n and ranch s p a c e
A p e r p l e x e d l e n g t h o f a p s e an d a i s l e , a n d n a v e , — 5
Gloom ed i s t h e s i n g l e m a g ic w ord i n
i f t h e r e - h a v e n o t gloom ed
Some b l o t i ’ t h e ’ s c u tc h e o n .''* '
K now ing when t o s t o p l i s t i n g t h e s e e x a m p le s o f a p p r o p r i a t e
d i c t i o n , i s d i f f i c u l t , b u t p e r h a p s tw o i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f
oxym oron w i l l s u f f i c e t o c l o s e th e p a r a g r a p h . O l i v e i s
58
" f e a r f u l l y c o u r a g e o u s ."
O ld T a u r e l l o i s " r e s t l e s s l y a t
59
r e s t."
O xym oron, h o w e v e r, i s n o t o f t e n f o u n d .
^
l e t us t u r n now t o f i n d som e v o c a b u l a r y o f a r a n k n o t
t o b e e x p e c te d i n p o e t r y .
any page w ill d is c lo s e .
B ro w n in g e n j o y s t h i s , a s a lm o s t
A few e x a m p le s w i l l s e r v e .
G o -c a rt^ 0
m ak es a s t r a n g e s y n e c d o c h e f o r i n f a n c y . B l e a r s o f t h e s to m a c h ^1
i s n o t a p r e t t y e x p re s s io n t o fin d
i n a poem .
T o ry h u m b le ,
to o , is
56 P r i n c e H o h e n s tie l- S c h w a n g a u , S a v i o r o f S o c i e t y ,
p . 6 8 8 , 1 1 . 2 4 -2 6 a .
57 A B l o t i n t h e
’ S c u tc h e o n , p . 2 2 3 , 1 1 . 7 - 8 b .
58 O l i v e , p . 8 9 7 , 1 . 18 a .
59 S o r d e l l o , p . 8 3 , 1* 12 b .
60 P a r a c e l s u s , p . 2 6 , 1 . 23 b .
61 M ih ra b S h a h , p . 9 3 6 , 1 . 37 a .
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
14
So lo n g a s e a ch t o e sp a res- i t s n e i g h b o r 's k i b e —
62
- - C h i r r u p s t h e c o n tu m a c io u s g r a s s h o p p e r ^
i s n o t e x a c t l y e x p e c te d i n p o e tr y ..
P e rh ap s in t h i s l a s t ,
h o w e v e r, l e n g t h o f w ord p r o d u c e s th e u n p o e t i e e f f e c t .
A n o th e r ex am p le w i l l show t h e f u n B ro w n in g h a s i n a p a r a d e
o f lo n g w o rd s:
One i s i n c i s i v e c o r r o s i v e ;
Two r e t o r t s , n e t t l e d , c u r t , c r e p i t a n t ;
T h re e m ak es r e j o i n d e r , e x p a n s iv e ., e x p l o s i v e ;
F o u r o v e r b e a r s th e m a l l , s t r i d e n t a n d s t r e p i t a n t :
F i v e . . . 0 B a n d id e s , Q S ie v e
F o r s a t i r e ho m ely w o rd s a r e a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f
65
B ro w n in g ’ s d i c t i o n .
"M ix in g mud w ith f a n t a s y ”
is n e ith e r
m e lo d io u s n o r c o m f o r t i n g ; n o r i s " b u b b le b u r s t i n s u d s .* * ^
S h o rt u h a s no euphony.
C h u rc h c u s to m s r e c e i v e much o f t h i s
s a tire .
R e f e r r i n g t o h o g s i s a f a v o r i t e m e th o d . B r o t h e r
67
L aw re n ce i s " y o u swine;**
t h e p r i e s t o f f i c i a t i n g on H o ly -
68
C r o s s B ay i s " a n a c c r u e d h o g . 0 'P e o p le i n c h u rc h s i t
" h i p t o h a u n c h , a n d B r o t h e r L ip p o m in g le d w i t h p e o p le
62 P r i n c e H o h e n s tie l- S c h w a n g a u , S a v i o r o f S o c i e t y ,
p . 6 8 6 , 1 . 13 a .
63 S o r d e l l o , p . 1 2 6 , 1* l a *
64 M a s te r H ugues o f S a x e ~ \G o th a , p . 1 9 6 , 1 . 1 6 -2 0 b .
65 Th® L a s t A d v e n tu re o f B a l a u s t i o n , p . 3 6 1 , 1 . 50 b .
6 6 Red C o tto n M ig h t-C a p C o u n tr y , p . 7 5 0 , 1 . 4 0 a .
67 S o l i l o q u y o f t h e S p a n ish C l o i s t e r , p . 1 6 8 , 1 . 50 a .
68 H o ly -C r o s s D ay, p . 2 8 2 , 1 . 5 a .
69 F r a L ip p o L i p p i , p . 3 4 2 , 1 . 32 b .
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
15
70
o u t s i d e t h e c h u r c h ”h i p t o h a u n c h .n
C o rk s wr e l i g i o u s l j
71
72
popped'*
when t h e Im age r e - e n t e r e d , a n d S c e l i n " s l u n k ”
i n t o b e in g a m onk,
th o u g h p o i n t e d , h i s s a t i r e h a s n o b e a u t y .
H e re i s a n o t h e r r e a l i s t i c
s u g g e s tio n :
how s h a l l I d e s c r i b e
What g r u b s o r n i p s o r r u b s o r r i p s — y o u r « l o u s e
F o r l o v e , y o u r f l e a f o r h a t e m agnanim ous
an d a n o t h e r w r i t t e n y e a r s l a t e r :
Once m ore h a s p u s h e d c o m p e t i t o r s t o d u s t ? ^
75
S u re ly a " p ic k th a n k ”
i s a,n u n p l e a s a n t p e r s o n , an d t h e
76
’'g o r m a n d i z e r - s p e n d t h r i f t - d r a m a t i s t *
a s u b je c t f o r sc o rn .
A l l i t e r a t i o n , s o m uch a p a r t o f B ro w n in g * s d i c t i o n h e l p s i n
h o m ely s a t i r e .
" B o y h o o d 's b u g b e a r ” ? ? and " a g i l t - g i n g e r 7B
b re a d b ig b a b y -h o u se ”
may a s w e l l s e r v e a s a lo n g l i n e o f
illu s tr a tio n s h e re .
T h e i r ro u g h s o u n d i s a l s o o n o m a to p o e tic .
T r u l y , m o st o f Browning;* s o n o m a to p o e ia i s o f t h i s ■ u n p lea sa n t
s o rt:
70 H o ly C r o s s B a y , p , 2 8 2 , 1 . 5 a .
71 The E n g lish m a n i n I t a l y , p . 2 6 2 , 1 . 28 a .
72 B o r d e l l o , p . 9 7 , 1 . 47 a .
73 I b i d . , p . 9 1 , 1 1 . 1 3 -1 5 a .
74 The L a s t A d v e n tu re o f B a l a u s t i o n , p . 6 3 6 , 1 . 32 a .
75 K in g V i c t o r a n d K in g C h a r l e s , p . 1 4 6 , 1 . 26 a .
76 T he L a s t A d v e n tu re o f B a l a u s t i o n , p . 6 3 7 , 1 . 19 a .
77 B o r d e l l o , p . 9 7 , 1 . 47 a .
78 Red C o t to n N ig h t-C a p C o u n tr y , p . 7 5 5 , 1 . 38 b .
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
79
1,
T h u s w r a n g le d , b r a n g l e d , j a n g l e d t h e y a m o n th —
SO
2 , O t o t o t o i , — g r o a n ! Away i s mown
gl
<J/j
A c t i v e l y s a t i r i c a l a r e su c h s o u n d s a s " g r - r - r , "
wh e - h e , n
"zooks,
" ®he©- h e e - n e a n d
" f e e - f a w - f u m . Y e t , we
c l a i m t h a t B ro w n in g ’ s d i c t i o n i s r i g h t !
The us© o f u n g r a m m a tic a l w o rd s i s v e r y r a r e , e v e n
w hen c h a r a c t e r s s p e a k .
d o m in a te s .
B ro w n in g ’ s own good c o n s t r u c t i o n p r e
P e r h a p s t h i s i s B e c a u se c h a r a c t e r s who a r e
i n f e r i o r a r e u s u a l l y sp o k e n a b o u t .
M r. S lu d g e d o e s s a y
" h e d o n ’ t , * 1 and one o r tw o o t h e r m i s e r a b l e p e o p l e d o . The
86
D u c h e ss i n "C olom be*s B i r t h d a y ” re m a rk s "* Twas m e .” " i s n o t
S o r d e l l a fam o u s© st f o r rhym e?
B ro w n in g u s e s " s w a n g ,"
o th e rw is e .
t h e c ro w d s a s k .
Once
b u t m ore i n c o in e d hum or t h a n
S e v e r a l t i m e s f o r t h e s a k e o f rim e some l i c e n s e
79 The K in g and t h e B o o k ,
p . 4 1 6 , 1 . 53
b.
80 H e r a k l e a , p . 6 6 9 , 1 . 18 a .
81 S o l i l o q u y i n a S p a n is h C l o i s t e r , p . 1 6 7 , 1 . 19 b
82 0&. c i t . , 1. 4 2 b .
83 F r a L ip p o L i p p i , p . 3 4 2 , 1 . 32 b .
84 H o ly - C r o s s D ay, p . 2 8 2 , 1 . 29 a .
85 I b i b . , p . 2 8 1 , 3 b .
86 C olom bo*s B i r t h d a y , p .
87 B o r d e l l o , p . 1 0 5 , i «
2 3 5 , 1 . 32 a .
3 a»
88 S h o p , p . 8 1 0 . 1 . 1 2 .
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o c c T irs, a s i n
Th© c h o rd * s m ig h t h a l f d i s c o v e r e d , w h a t a h © aid a l u c k
On© s t r i n g , h i s f i n g e r , w as fcm a d p a 1 s y - s t r u c k .
The w o rd t h a t m u st h e p ro n o u n c e d i n s h o r t e n e d fo rm
o s c a r s to i n t e r r u p t
B ro w n in g ’ s rhy th m *
h a rd ly ev er
I n v in c ib le - in th e f o l ­
lo w in g w o u ld p r o b a b l y b e r e a d i n i t s f u l l l e n g t h :
Of t h a t i n v i n c i b l e f a i t h , b u t o n ly o n e l^ ®
P r o b a b l y B ro w n in g d e r i v e d
sob©
o f h is k een est e n te r­
t a i n m e n t fro m t h e c o in i n g o f w o r d s , n o t a s a n e o l o g i s t , b u t
f o r h i s own u s e .
Names f o r c h a r a c t e r s a n d n ic k n a m e s o c c u r
i n a c h a r m in g ly o f f - h a n d m a n n e r:
1,
T he R e v e re n d Bon S o - a n d - s o .
2,
A’ s book s h a l l p r o p y o u u p , B *s s h a l l c o v e r y o u ,
Her©*© 0 t o b e g r a v e w i t h o r D t o b© g a y ,
And w ith E on e a c h s i d e , a n d F r i g h t o v e r y o u ,
B r y - r o t a t e a s e t i l l t h e J u d g e m e n t-d a y
3 , x Go g e t you m anned by M anning and new -m anned
By Newman, a n d , m ay h a p , w ise -m a n n e d t o b o o t
By W isem an, an d w e’ l l s e e o r e l s e w© won *t J
T h a t much p u n n in g i s v e r y u n u s u a l, i n B ro w n in g , a n d , s i n c e he
d o e s n o t. l i k e p u n s , a d d s t o th e
s a tire
s a t i r e he in te n d e d .
The
i n ’’P o p u l a r i t y " i s c h a rm in g w hen a l l t h e s e nam es
" p u t b l u e i n t o t h e i r l i n e : **
89 B o r d e l l o , p . 1 2 4 , 1 . 34 b .
90 P a r a c e l s u s , p . 2 2 , 1 . 7 a .
91 Up a t a V i l l a — Down i n a C i t y , p . 1 7 4 , 1 . 22 b .
92 S i b r a n d u s S c h a f n a b u r g e n s i s , p . 1 6 7 , 1 1 . 1 5 -1 8 b .
93 The R in g a n d t h e B o o k , p . 4 1 8 , 1 1 . 2 1 -2 5 b .
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18
H obbs h i n t s b lu e , —s t r a i g h t he t u r t l e e a t s :
H obbs p r i n t s b l u e , — c l a r e t c r o w n s - h i s c u p :
Melees o u t d o e s S to k e s i n a z u r e f e a t s , —
l o t h g o r g e . Who f i s h e d th& , a u r e x a p t
W hat p o r r i d g e h a d J o h n K e a t s ? ™
S o k e s also - a p p e a r s a g a i n i n th e s t o r y o f "Ned B r a t t s . ”
A
l i n e u p o n a n ic k n a m e f o l l o w s h e r e :
E l a p h io n , m ore P e i r a i o s - k n o w n a s "Phap s ," 9 5
I n " S a r d e l l e " we r e a d o f f o r m s -of g o v e rn m e n t a s :
Down s a n k t h e P e o p l e ’ s T h e n ; u p - r o s e t h e i r H e w ^
T he " H ig h and E i g h t ,." t h e "lo w a n d Wrong,** an d th e
" little
and Bad** a r e f a c e d by E u r i p i d e s . ^ ?
Som ewhat c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o g i v i n g new nam es t o o l d
i d e a s i s B ro w n in g ’ s h a b i t o f s u b s t i t u t i n g a d e f i n i t i o n f o r a w o rd .
S uch k e n n in g c a u s e s a t h o u g h t f u l a n d o f t e n p l e a s u r a b l e r e s p o n s e
fro m t h e r e a d e r .
P o l l e n i s " g o ld e n s o i l " i n
Shook o f f , a s m ig h t a l i l y
i t s g o ld e n s o i l .
H a p p in e s s h e s m s u p i n
We h a v e n o t s i g h e d d e e p , la u g h e d f r e e
qq
S t a r v e d , f e a s t e d , d e s p a ir e d ,'—b e e n h a p p y . y
B e a t i s r e p re s e n te d in
-11'1
94 f o p u l a r i t y , p . 1 9 5 , 11* 3 6 -4 0 b .
95 T he l a s t A d v e n tu re o f B a l a u s t i o n , p . 6 3 3 , 1 . 37 b .
96 S a r d e l l e , p . 1 2 1 , 1 . 1 b .
97 H e r a k l e s , p . 6 7 5 , 11* 2 6 -3 9 6 .
98 B o r d e l l o , p . 9 8 , 1 . 58 b .
99 T o u th a n d A r t , p . 3 9 6 , 1 1 . 1 1 -1 2 b .
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
To t h a t p u l s e *s m a g n i f i c e n t come - a n d - g o . 100
Or w av# i n
'N e a th t h e m u te h a n d 's t o - a n d - f r o .
101
D e f i n i t i o n o f d o c u m e n ts com es i n t h i s :
— T h a t i s , o ' t h e p e n w h ic h s t i m u l a t e d to n g u e
On p a p e r a n d s a v e d a l l e x c e p t th e so u n d
102
W hich n e v e r w a s . L a w 's s p e e c h b e s i d e l a w 's th o u g h t?
I n a l o n g e r p a s s a g e ha e x p l a i n s — a lm o s t a s a d e f i n i t i o n — o f
w h a t l i f e i n a m o n a s t e r y ‘c o n s i s t s ? W e ll, s i r , I f o u n d i n t i m e , y o u may b e s u r e ,
•Tw as n o t f o r n o t h i n g — t h e good b e l l y f u l ,
The warm s e r g e and t h e r o p e t h a t g o e s , a l l r o u n d .
And d a y - l o n g b l e s s e d i d l e n e s s b e s i d e .
^
S u ch c o i n i n g an d d e f i n i n g seem n a t u r a l a n d p l e a s u r a b l e , r e ­
q u i r i n g .o n ly t h o u g h t f u l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .
T h e re i s , h o w e v e r, a n o t h e r s i d e o f B r o w n in g 's d i c t i o n
w h ic h s e n d s one im m e d ia te ly t o t h e d i c t i o n a r y *
M ost o f t h e
u n f a m i l i a r w o rd s o c c u r o n ly o n c e , o r a t l e a s t s e ld o m .
" B o r d e l l o ” a n d t h e " B a l a u s t i o n " poem s f u r n i s h m o s t o f t h e s e .
By s e a r c h one c a n f i n d som e o t h e r s , b u t , g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g ,
B r o w n in g 's v o c a b u l a r y i s n o t a p a r a d e o f d i f f i c u l t w o r d s .
From some tw o d o z e n s u c h w o rd s i n " B o r d e l l o " one m ig h t l i s t
b l i n k a r d . c o b s w a in , s a r d i u s , t h y r s u s .
" B a la u s tio n " f u r n is h e s
100 The L a b o r a t o r y , p . 1 6 8 , 1 . 26 b .
101 A L o v e rs* q u a r r e l , p . 1 7 2 , 1 . 49 a .
102 Th® l i n g an d th e B o o k , p . 4 2 4 , 1 1 . 4 2 -4 4 b .
103 F r a L ip p o L i p p i , p . 3 4 3 , 1 1 . 3 7 -4 0 a .
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20
o h o lm c , d lk a .s t-> k o t t a b o s , and t e t t i x am ong o t h e r s from th©
G re e k ,
T u r n in g fro m s u c h e r u d i t e la n g u a g e t o th e I n g l i s k
m o n o s y lla b le i s n o t m e a n t t o b e a n a n t i t h e s i s o f i d e a .
The
m o n o s y lla b ic l i n e s , l i k e t h e f o r e i g n w o r d s , a r e n o t f r e q u e n t ;
b u t w hen t h e y do o c c u r , a r e a lw a y s a r r e s t i n g .
1.
A re h e r o e s m en t
Ho m ore a n d s c a r c e a s m u e h , ^ ^
2.
T h a t n i g h t th e Buka s a i d , "D e ar o r c h e a p
As th e c o s t o f t h i s cup o f b l i s s may p r o v e
To b o d y o r s o u l , I w i l l d r a i n i t d e e p . i 0 5
D i r e c t n e s s i s a c c o m p lis h e d .
When a s i n " S a u l" t h e l i n e s a r e
o f f o u r t e e n s y l l a b l e s and we f i n d s i x t y c o n s e c u t i v e s i n g l e s y lla b i® w o r d s ( w i t h tw o e x c e p t i o n s ) , t h e d i c t i o n seem s
a lm o s t a p h en o m en o n .
T h e r e i s n o a p p a r e n t e f f o r t t o accom ­
p l i s h t h i s , a id t h e th o u g h t i s n o t w a rp e d :
”0 S a u l , i t s h a l l b e
A f a c e l i k e a y f a c e t h a t r e c e i v e s t h e e ; a Man l i k e t o m e,
Thou s h a l t l o v e a n d b e lo v e d b y , f o r e v e r ; a Hand l i k e
t h i s h an d
S h a l l th ro w o p en t h e g a t e s o f new l i f e t o t h e e ! S ee
t h e C h r i s t s t a n d I **
I know n o t t o o w e l l how I f o u n d my way home t h a t n i g h t .
l a s t i n d i s c u s s i o n o f th e s i n g l e w o rd o r e x p r e s s i o n i n
B ro w n in g Ts t e c h n i q u e i s th e h y p h e n a te d w o rd .
T h is o c c u r s i n
so g r e a t a b u n d a n c e t h a t a few -ex am p les w i l l r e p r e s e n t t h e
:"''l£>4 The L a s t A d v e n tu re o f B a l a u s t i o n , p . 6 4 7 , 1 . 24 b .
105 The S t a t u e a n d th© B u s t , p . 2 8 4 , 1 1 . 28.-3Q b .
106 S a u l , p . 1 8 4 , 1 1 . 2 1 -3 1 a .
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
21
h u n d r e d s to- b e fo u n d ,- Among t h e n o u n s " s t a n d e r s - b y " 10*^ an d
108
n 3a y - h u n g e r M
a r e t y p i c a l . A d j e c t i v e s a r e " n ln e - h u n d r e d y e a r s - o ld ,* * 1 0 ^ " c r o p - h e a d e d * " 1 1 ® an d " c i n d e r - b l a c k ; n111
a d v e rb s* . " r e d - f i g - w i s e " 1 1 ^ an d " s a u s a g e ~ w i s e .m11^ Mon© o f
t h e s e e x a m p le s a r e a l l i t e r a t i v e , b u t t h e r e a r e m any su c h
w o rd s, a s
" fir e -fla s h * 11^
in th e f a v o r i t e f
,
and t h e s e
fo u n d in l i n e s to i l l u s t r a t e :
1.
D i r e c t i n g o r l a n d - l a b o r o r s e a - s e a r c h — 115
2.
F o r v o tiv e - v is o r , F aunas g o a t-g rin n in g f a c e I 11®
3.
C u t t i n g him t o s h o e - s o l e - s h r e d s — ■L1?
0.
I n w o rd c o m b in a tio n s t h e t r e n d to w a rd a l l i t e r a t i o n
le a d s .
B ro w n in g *s a l l i t e r a t i o n i s u s u a l l y o f tw o w o rd s
o n ly * b u t o f t e n t h e s e a r e so a r r a n g e d t h a t tw o p a i r s o c c u r
.
J o T lT o lo m b e *s B irth d a y * , p . 2 4 0 , 1 . 2 a .
108 C le o n , p . 3 6 1 , 1 . 33 a ,
109 My l a s t D u c h e s s , p . -252, 1 , 33 a .
110 M a rc h in g A lo n g , p . 1 6 3 , 1 . 2 a*
111 Bed C o tto n N ig h t-C a p C o u n tr y , p . 737* 1 . 22 a .
112 The L a s t A d v e n tu re o f B a l a u s t i o n , p , 634* 1 . 39 a .
113 X b ib . . p . 6 3 7 , 1 . 23 b .
114 B a l a u s t i o n * s A d v e n tu r e , p . o07* 1 . 15 a .
W
I b i b ., p. 607, I .
B b.
116 The l a s t A d v e n tu re o f B a l a u s t i o n , p . 641* 1 . 24 b*
117 I b i d . . p . 6 5 6 , 1 . 38 b .
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22
I n on© l i n e .
B e c a u s e th e a l l i t e r a t i v e w o rd s a r e somet im e s
s e p a r a t e d fey w o r d s , t h e r e i s a te n d e n c y t o th in k : o f t h e i r
g i v i n g co n so n a n ce r a t h e r th a n a l l i t e r a t i o n ; b u t a c l o s e
e x a m in a tio n m i l show t h a t c o n s o n a n c e i s o f t e n p r e s e n t in-'
a d d itio n to a llite r a tio n ..,, n o t in p la c e o f i t .
The
" B a la u s tio n 1* poem s a r e lo a d e d w i t h a l l i t e r a t i o n .
From
t h e f i r s t f i f t e e n p a g e s 2 h a v e t a k e n e x a m p le s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e
o f th e s e , t h r e e p o e m s, a n d , i n f a c t , o f a l l Brow ning*©
a llite r a tio n .
Of tw o -w o rd a l l i t e r a t i o n a r e th e f o l l o w i n g :
1.
W re tc h e d W ra n g le
2.
" E v e r i s my w o n t t o h e a r t h e how. " ^ 9
3.
To t o u c h my l y r e , t o l i f t my s o u l i n s o n g
4.
F r i e n d l y C r e t e lo o m in g la r g e th e r © ^ 21
5.
H a r b o r o f many s t r a n g e r s , f r e e t o .f r i e n d
120
122
Of t h r e e - w o r d c o m b in a tio n s :
1.
P l a n a t e s a n d j> ale p o p u l a c e o f H eav en
2.
Be s p i t e t h e
123
^
s o b b in g a n d t h e s i l e n c e jsoon12^
YY3 B a l a u s t i o n * s A d v e n tu r e , p . 6 1 7 , 1 . 10 b .
119 I b i d . . P* 6 0 6 , 1 . 49 a .
120 I b i d . , P* 6 1 0 , 1 . 45
121 I b i d . , P« 6 0 3 , 1 . 15 a .
1 2 2 I b i d . , P* 6 1 4 , 1 . 15 b .
123 I b i d . , p . 6 0 4 , 1 . 4# a*
124 I b i d . . p . 6 1 0 , 1 . 33 b .
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
23
3.
Was t r u t h f a s t t e r r i f y i n g t e a r s aw ay
125
H e re i s a s t a r t l i n g l o n g e r i l l u s t r a t i o n :
As who m u s t jgrope u n t i l h e g a i n t h e g ro u n d
0* t h e d u n g e o n doomed to h e h i s d w e l l i n g now
A lr e a d y '" h ig h o ’ e r h e a d w as j a i l e d t h e d u sk
When s o m e th in g jm s h e d t o s t a y i t s downward s t e p ,
P lu c k b a c k d e s p a i r j u s t .r e a c h in g i t s r e p o s e T ^ o
I s n ’ t t h a t c l o s e - k n i t p o e tic p la n n in g !
S uch a l l i t e r a t i o n
r u n s t h e r i s k o f b e co m in g t i r e s o m e , and- d o e s b e f o r e on e
f i n i s h e s t h e e i g h t y p a g e s o f MB a l a u s t i o n . "
U s u a l l y , how­
e v e r, a l l i t e r a t i o n adds i n t e r e s t and p le a s u re .
Some e x a m p le s
c h o s e n fro ® o t h e r p o m s w h e re t h e y f u r n i s h v a r i e t y , n o t
s a t i e t y , may p ro v e t h i s .
The f i r s t tw o m ake f o r f o r c e o f
im p re s s io n :
1,
’M eath o u r f e e t b ro k e th e b r i t t l e b r i g h t s t u b b l e l i k e
c h a f f .1 2 7
2,
F i e r c e to e b l a c k w a t e r f r o t h e d o ’ e r t h e b l i n d r o c k ,
T he f o l l o w i n g tw o i n a g i v e tim e t o th in k .:
1,
M azed, m o t i o n l e s s , an d m o o n s tru c k — I ’m t h e m a n |^ 9
2,
M u l t if o r m , m a n i f o l d , a n d m e n a c in g 1 ^
125 B a l a u s t i o n * s A dvent u r e , p . 6 1 3 , 1 . 31 a .
126 I b i d , , p . 6 1 5 , 1 1 . 3 -7 &.
1 2 ? How T hey B ro u g h t t h e Hood Mews -from G h e n t t o A ix ,
p , 1 6 3 , 1 , 28 a .
128 The E n g lish m a n i n I t a l y , p , 2 6 0 , 1 . 59 a .
129 F r a L Ip p o L i p p i , p . 3 4 5 , 1 . 24 b .
130 An E p i s t l e , p , 3 4 0 , 1 . 38 b .
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24
H e re i s w a s te d m o tio n :
t o n thum bed* t h r u s t , p a t t e d a n d p o l i s h e d .
t h e l a s t i s a n ex am p le o f s k i l l i n c o l l e c t i n g v a r i e d i d e a s
i n t o s i m i l a r fo rm :
S a in t, S avage, Sage. ^ 2
C o n so n a n c e i s n o t so f r e q u e n t n o r s o a p p a r e n t a s
a l l i t e r a t i o n * y e t t h e r e a r e many l i n e s i n w h ic h i t i s th e
s e c r e t o f t h e v e i l e d c h a rm .
The f i r s t t h r e e o f t h e f o l lo w in g
e x a m p le s a r e fro m t h e f i r s t t w e n t y - f i v e p a g e s o f " B a l a u s t i o n ; ”
t h e s e c o n d two a r e fo u n d n e a r e a c h o t h e r i n "The R in g end t h e
B o o k :"
•
133
1.
I m u st i n t e r a c e r t a i n c o r p s e to d a y
2.
O nly h a l f s e l f i s h now;, sin e ® s e n s i t i v e
3.
I r e l e t th e r e p t i l e
4.
B u z z in g a n d b l a z e , n o o n - t i d e an d a a r k e t - t i m e ^ ^ ^
5.
T hat, w as a f i r e b r a n d a t e a c h f o x ’ s t a i l
U n le a s h e d i n F o r n f l e l d :
so o n s p r e a d f l a r e e n o u g h ,
As“ h u r t l e d t h i t h e r and t h e r e h e a p e d th e m s e lv e s
From e a r t h *s f o u r * " c o r n e r s , a l l a u t h o r i t y
134
r a i s e h is , c r e s t a g a in .
131 Y o u th and
A r t,p . 396, 1 . 6 a .
132 C h r is tm a s
E v e , p . 3 2 5 , 1 . 15
135
b.
133 B a l a u s t i o n * s A d v e n tu re , p . 6 1 3 , 1 . 41 a .
134 I b i d . , p .
6 1 7 , 1 . 31 b .
135 I b i d . . p .
6 2 4 , 1 . 23 a .
136 T he R in g an d t h e B o o k , p . 4 1 5 , 1* 1 9 a .
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25
And. p r e c e d e n t f o r p u t t i n g w i v e s t o d e a t h
A sso n a n c e o c c u r s o f t e n .
rim e .
137
I t has r e la tio n to
in te rn a l
H e re a r e a num ber o f s i n g l e - l i n e e x a m p le s f o r t h e
s a k e o f t h e v o w e ls t h e m s e l v e s :
1.
3.
E re l e t t h e r e p t i l e r a i s e h i s c r e s t a g a in '
13<3
P m - p e l l e t e d fro m P nux
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140
He knew h i s m an, h i s m a tc h , h i s m a s te r
4.
S h a l l l o o s e h e r doom ©m rae1^
5.
6.
H u s h in g i t s h u n d r e d s a t o n c e 1^2
143
~
~
Unhook w in g s , unhood b ro w s t D o ist h a r k e n
7.
S t u p e d b y a c o n c h a -t© p fro m f l u t t e r i n g f o r t h , 144
2.
D isso n a n c e ,-, t h e p l e a s i n g v a r i a t i o n , i s a l s o i n
B ro w n in g * s p o e t r y , h u t t h e s e l i n e s fo u n d w i t h m o re s e a r c h i n g :
1.
2.
When— I J i© som e m e t e o r - b r i l l i a n c e , f i r e and f i l t h 1^
146
Such a w e b , s im p le a n d s jtb tl©
f h e K in g a n d th e B o o k , p . 415* 1* 19 a .
138 B a l a u s t i o n * s A d v e n tu r e , p . 6 2 4 , 1 . 23 a .
139 I b i d . .
p . 6 3 2 , 1 . 27 b .
140 I b i d . .
p . 6 3 5 , 1 . 23 a .
141 The L a s t A d v e n tu re o f B a l a u s t i o n , p . 6 4 8 , 1 . 57 b .
142 M a s te r H uges o f S a x e -G o th a , p . 1 9 6 ,
143 A p o llo
an d t h e F a t e s , p . 9 5 0 , 1 .
1. 7 a.
17 a .
144 T he R in g and t h e B o o k , p . 4 1 5 , 1 . 42 a .
145 The L a s t A d v e n tu re o f B a l a u s t i o n , p . 6 3 0 , 1 . 60 a .
146 M a s te r H u g u es o f S a x e -G o th a , p . 1 9 6 , 1 . 4 5 b .
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
3.
F i t t o th e f i n i t e M s
The f o l l o w i n g e x a m p le s show a c o m b in a tio n o f t h e s e d e v i c e s
f o r so u n d a s B ro w n in g i s a b l e t o u s e th e m :
1.
Whjjt wap a s p e c k e x p a n d s i n t o a j s t a r .
e , a —f o r asso n an ce
a — f o r d is s o n a n c e
s., sp+ a , i"— f o r c o n s o n a n c e
2.
None o f s e l f - l a u d a t i o n ..,, v u l g a r b ra g ., ja q
YaT n g lo r i o u s r i v a l s c u l t i v a t e so m uchI y
v— fo r a llite r a tio n
n , 1 , v — f o r eo n so n an e©
a-—f o r .a sso n a n c e
a — f o r d is s o n a n c e
Q u ite a s i n f l u e n t i a l a s t h e s e r e p e t i t i o n s o f s o u n d s
w i t h i n a l i n e c a n b e th e e f f e c t p r o d u c e d b y r i m i n g w o rd s .
B ro w n in g ’ s r im e i n g e n e r a l h a s n o t g r e a t v a r i e t y , y e t he
d o e s some t h i n g s w ith i t t h a t p r o d u c e sound p a t t e r n s l i k e
no o th e r p o e t’ s o f h is d a y .
M ost s t r i k i n g o f t h e d i c t i o n o f rim e i s w h a t i s known
a s m o n o -rim e .
is
The w o r d s , h o w e v e r, a r e n o t f o r c e d ; t h e i r u se
s e n s i b l e ; an d th© r e s u l t i s p e r f e e t u n i t y .
E xcept f o r
t h e c h o r u s , ’’B o o t a n d S a d d le ” h a s n o r e p e t i t i o n o f w o rd s t o
g i v e t h e jy r so u n d i n i t s
o t h e r tw e lv e l i n e s .
M ore s t r i k i n g ,
b u t a l s o c o n t a i n i n g some r e f r a i n r e p e t i t i o n , a r e t h e f o r t y
l i n e s o f ’’T h ro u g h t h e M e t id j a t o A b d - e l- K a d r , ” w h ic h c o n t a i n
147 B o r d e l l o , p . 1 2 k , 1 . 1 b .
148 P a r a c e l s u s , p . 1 ? , 1 . 54 a .
149 The L a s t A d v e n tu re o f B a l a u s t i o n , p . 6 3 d , 1 1 . 1 - 2
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27
f i v e s t r i k i n g i n t e r n a l . rim e - w o r d s p e r s t a n z a , i n c r e a s i n g .
f o r t y i d e e n d -s o u n d s t o s i x t y s u c h r im e s b e f o r e th e poem i s
c o m p le te *
S t a n z a f o u r w i l l i l l u s t r a t e th e p l a n ,, e x c e p t t h a t
t h e s e v e n t h l i n e , w h ich i s t h e c lim a x o f th e p o em , o u td o e s
a l l th e r e s t .
As I r i d e , a s I r i d e ,
N e’ e r h a s s p u r my s w i f t h o rs© p l i e d .
Y e t h i s h i d e , s t r e a k e d and p i e d .
As I r i d e , a s 1 r i d e ,
Shows w h e re sw e a t h a s s p r u n g a n d d r i e d ,
— Z e b r a - f o o t e d , o s t r l c h - t h ig h e d —
How h a s v i e d , s t r i d e w i t h s t r i d e
As I r i d e , a s 1
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com es i n
life
to o a n d w i f e t o o , w ould h i s f r i e n d s b u t h e lp 1 ^ 1
I n t e r n a l r im e i s n o t on© o f B ro w n in g * s m o re u s u a l
ty p e s .
One ©an h u n t c u t l i n e s , b u t e x a m p le s l i k e t h e
n e x t two show t h a t t h e y do n o t s a t i s f y w hen f o u n t :
152
1.
S h a k e s p e a r e w a s o f u s , M i l t o n w as f o r u s .
2.
S h ru g g e d h i s h u m p - s h o u ld e r , t o t e l l th e b e h o l d e r 1 ^
B e t t e r em ploym ent i s t o
t e c h n i q u e w o r th p r a i s i n g .
s e e k e n d - r i m e s t h a t show
Of t h e c o u n t l e s s k i n d s , h e r e
a r e t h r e e s a m p le s ;
1 ^0 "«|jir o u gj1
M e t id j a t o A b d - e l- K a d r , p . 1 6 5 , 1 1 . 35~42 b
151 B a l a u s t i o n * s A d v e n tu r e , p . 6 1 5 , 1 . 32 a .
152 The l o s t l e a d e r ,, p . 1 6 4 , 1 . 13 a .
153 N a t i o n a l i t y i n D r i n k s , p . 1 6 6 , 1 . 25 a .
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
28
w ith you
d eadness
te m p e r
b lo s s o m
bosom
w i t h you
re d n e ss
sem p er
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i n H o. 3 o c c u r o c c a s i o n a l l y an d a r e n o t u n p l e a s a n t b e c a u s e
t h e sens® i s n o t im p a ir e d ,
I f n e c e s s a r y t o e m p h a s iz e th e
t h o u g h t , B row ning w i l l e v e n g i v e up t h e rim e , a lt h o u g h
h i s e x t e n s i v e v o c a b u l a r y se ld o m make® i t n e c e s s a r y .
We
a
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fr o m a b r a n d i s h e d t o r c h
L ik e a d r o p o f f i r ©
F a l l tw o r e d f a n s o f a b u t t e r f l y
Ho t u r f , no r o c k ;
i n t h e i r u g ly s t e a d ,
S e e , w o n d e r f u l blu© and r e d []j l 3 7
R e f ra in s a r e a n o th e r c o n s id e r a tio n f o r rim e , but
t h e y a r e n o t a b u n d a n t i n poem s b y B ro w n in g .
The t h i r d s o n g
o f nP i p p a P a s s e s " show s a t e n d e n c y to w a r d th e r e p e t e n d i n
how h e w o u ld h a v e l i n e s r e s e m b l e , b u t e a c h b e f i t t e d t o i t s
"154 The E n glish m an i n I t a l y , p . 2 6 0 , 1 1 . 9 - 9 - 2 0 a .
155 C r i s t i n a , p . 1 7 0 , 1 1 . 2 9 -3 6 a .
156 A n o th e r Way t o L o v e , p . 1 9 0 , 1 1 . 1 2 -2 2 b .
157 On t h e C l i f f , p . 2 7 4 , 1 1 . 1 6 -2 1 b . , s t a n z a 3 .
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p> p» 0
P la n :
p 0
do f i n d a g o o d e x a m p le i n "On th e C l i f f : "
own s e t t i n g :
1.
C ru m b lin g y o u r h o u n d s t h e i r n e s s e s .
2.
.F ittin g jo m
haw ks t h e i r jesses!^**®
T h e econom y o f w o rd s i n t h o s e i n d i r e c t o b j e c t s m a k e s s u p e r b
s u m m a riz in g .
L e s s p l e a s i n g , b u t o f a c e r t a i n am o u n t o f
fo rc e , is a lin e
o f r e f r a i n c o m p le tin g e a c h lo n g s t a n z a o f
"Women and R o s e s ."
I t r im e s w ith n o t h i n g , w h ic h i s e x c e l l e n t
a f t e r e ig h t l i n e s o f rim in g c o u p le ts ;
T hey c i r c l e t h e i r
r o s e -on my r o s e t r e e .
159
Ah© " C a v a l i e r Tunes*’ h a v e good r e f r a i n s f o r sen g .
I n "Why I Am A L i b e r a l " a m o st d a r i n g p i e c e -of i m p e r f e c t
r im e o c c u r s o n th e w ord l i b e r t y .
T h is a p p r o p r ia te n e s s o f d i c t i o n
i s a lm o s t t o o m uch!
B ut l i t t l e do o r can th e b e a t o f u s :
c
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Who, t h e n , d a r e s h o ld .- - e m a n c ip a te t h u s —
c
H is f e llo w s h a l l c o n tin u e bound? H er I ,
d
Who l i v e , l o v e , l a b o r f r e e l y , n o r d i s c u s s
, An c
A b r o t h e r ’ s r i g h t t o f r e e d o m , T h a t i s "W hy."
d
B ro w n in g i s a t h i s b e s t I b e l i e v e w hen h i s r im in g i s
a c o m b in a tio n o f th e rim in g c o u p le t
fo r
h i s own d e s ig n e d e f f e c t .
a n d a l t e r n a t e rim© a r r a n g e d
"Home T h o u g h ts fro m A b ro a d " i n i t s
158 P i p p a P a s s e s , p . 1 3 7 , 1 1 . 2 4 -3 3 b .
159 Women and R o s e s , p . 193* 1* 7 b .
160 Why I Am a L i b e r a l , p .
9 4 8 , 1 1 . 9 -1 4 b .
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30
tw e n ty l i n e s Is. a n i n t e r e s t i n g s t u d 7/ o f rim e d i c t i o n ,
fit®
e q u a l, p r o p o r t i o n o f h e a v y and l i g h t s t r e s s e s i n no s e t
p a t t e r n an d th e a lm o s t e q u a l n u m b e r o f e n d - s t o p a n d r u n - o n
l i n e s c o n t r i b u t e t o th e s u b t l e p la n ..
A l l o f t h i s i s o n ly
a q u a r t e r o f t h e poem ’ s b e a u t y ,, f o r b e s i d e s t h e r e a r e m e t r e ,
im a g e r y , a n d e m o tio n a l i n t e n s i t y .
The same p l a n o f fre e d o m
i n b l e n d i n g o c c u r s w i t h e x c e l l e n t e f f e c t i n t h e n a r r a t i v e p o e m s,
"S e r v e B i e l ” a n d " C l i v e / * i n B a r t I I I o f " Ja m e s l e e ’ s W if e ,"
a n d i n " C h r i s tm a s - E v e . ”
A l t e r n a t e rim e .in "A G ra m m a ria n f s F u n e r a l , ” w o rk ed
o u t i n lo n g and s h o r t l i n e s a n a w e l l - p l a n n e d s t r e s s e s , p r o ­
d u c e s a p o w e rfu l © ffe e t:
l e t u s b e g in a n d c a r r y up t h i s c o rp s e ,. .
S in g in g to g e th e r
l e a v e we th e coam on c r o f t s , th e v u l g a r t h o r p s
l a c h i n i t s t e t h e r 1®*-
a
b
a
b
(m a s.)
(fe r n .)
(m a s .)
( f e r n .)
I n "W a rin g " t h e f e m in in e r im e i s t o r t u r e d t h u s :
l o v e d him
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a c c o s t hi®.
" P r o s p i c e ” i n m a s c u lin e rim e and a d i f f e r e n t r h y th m ic schem e
h a s l e s s m elody t h a n some poem s i n i t s c o l l e c t i o n :
When t h e snow s b e g in an d t h e b l a s t s d e n o te
I am n e a r i n g th e p la c e ,1 & 3
16 1 A G ra m m a ria n ’ s F u n e r a l , p . 279* 1 1 . 3 0 -3 3 a .
162 W a rin g , p . 2 6 4 , 1 1 . 4 2 -4 5 b .
163 P r o s p i c e , p . 395* 1 1 . 3 - 4 b*
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31
Poem s l i k e "O ld P i c t u r e s i n F l o r e n c e , ” w h ic h show e v id e n c e
©f e f f o r t t o draw p r o p e r n am es i n t o th e r im e , make one m a r v e l
a t th e te c h n iq u e :
1*
T h y s e l f s h & lt a f f o r d t h e e x a m p le ,
Thy o n e w o r k , n o t t o d e c r e a s e ,
Bon© a t a s t r o k e , w a s j u s t (w as i t
T hy g r e a t C a m p a n ile i s s t i l l t o
G io tto I
o r d im in is h .
n o t ? ) ” QhJ ”
f i n i s h . 164
2.
H a r g h e r i t o n e o f A re z z o
W ith t h e g r a v e - c l o t h e s g a rb and- s w a d d lin g b a r r e t ,
{Why p u r s e up m outh an d b e a k i n a p e t s o ,
You b o ld o l d s a t u r n i n e p o l l - c l a w e d p a r r o t ? 5 ?
" P a c c h ia r o tto ” i n c o u p le ts d o es t h i s d e c id e d ly :
1 le a v e ye to fa n c y o u r S ie n n a ’ s
B e a s t - l i t t e r o f s l o t h s and h y e n a s— 1 5
I n h i s w o rk u p o n th e v e r s i f i c a t i o n o f B ro w n in g , H a r la n H a tc h e r
c a l l s t h i s t y p e o f rim e a s u r p r i s e .saved f o r a m oment o f
in d u lg e n c e , and a d d s :
”I n i t s own w a y , ’P a c h i a r o t t o ’ i s a s
p e r f e c t a s ’Love Among t h e R u i n s . **16?
The r i m i n g e o s a p le t I s u s e d b y B ro w n in g f o r s e r i o u s
m a t e r i a l and f o r l i g h t e r p o e m s,
C o u p l e t s c o m p le te th e
f o u r t e e n - s y l l a b l e l i n e s o f ’’S a u l" a n d "A b t Y o g l e r , ” t h e
t e t r a m e t e r o f ”E a s t e r - D a y , " ’’The C o n f e s s i o n a l , ” an d ’’The
I t a l i a n i n E n g la n d ,” a n d t h e p e n ta m e t e r -of ”My L a s t D u c h e s s .”
No j i n g l i n g so u n d a c c o m p a n ie s :
l 6 k O ld P i c t u r e s i n F l o r e n c e , p . 1 7 7 , 1 1 . 2 5 -2 8 a .
165 I b i d . , p . 1 7 8 , 1 1 , 9 -1 2 a .
166 P a c c h i a r o t t o , p . 8 0 4 , 1 1 . 5 3 -5 4 b*
167 H a r la n H. H a t c h e r , The V e r s i f i c a t i o n o f R o b e r t
B ro w n in g (C o lu m b u s: T he O hio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , '19281,
p . 109.
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X s a id
’♦Fra P a n d o l f * b y d e s i g n , f o r n e v e r ro a d
S t r a n g e r s l i k e yon t h a t p i c t u r e d , e o u n te n a n c e , ,
The d e p t h and p a s s i o n o f i t s e a r n e s t g l a n c e .
Even th e w h im s ic a l ’’Adam, L i l i t h , an d E ve" w i t h i t s
o f m ix e d rh y th m f o r e s t a l l s a n y j i n g l e .
c o u p le ts
U n lo v e ly l o n g w o rd ­
in g an d v a r i a t i o n s p ro d u ce s a t i r e t
s tu p e n d o u s
d e fe n d u s
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se ra p h ic ,
g ra p h ic
B la n k v e r s e , b e c a u s e o f i t s
la c k o f rim e , w i l l n o t b e
d i s c u s s e d h e r e ; b u t i n p a s s i n g i t m ig h t -fee m e n tio n e d t h a t t h e
d i g n i t y o f i t s d i c t i o n i s I n k e e p i n g w i t h i t s v e r s e - f o r r a an d
i t s th o u g h t.
To i n t r o d u c e b e a u t y o f d i c t i o n i n r im e t h e w e ll-k n o w n
e i g h t l i n e s fro m nP ip p a P a s s e s ’1 c a n n o t b e e x c e l l e d .
i s not a fa c to r of i t s
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lo v e lin e s s t h a t i s u s u a lly r e a liz e d ,
b u t I b e lie v e - t h a t a n a l y s i s show s t h a t i t
is. th e f o u n d a t i o n .
H e re we .have n o t one a , b , £ , d a n d a n o t h e r e f f , £ , h ; b u t
th e seco n d fo u r l i n e s a r e an e x a c t e ch o o f th e f i r s t f o u r ,
w h ic h s u s t a i n s t h e I m p r e s s i o n and g i v e s p e r f e c t u n i ty *
The y e a r ’ s a t t h e s p r i n g
The d a y ’ s a t th e m o rn ;
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T h e h i l l - s i d e * s dew p e a r l e d ;
a
b
c
d
l 6 s The g o m n le te P o e t i c a n d D ra m a tic W orks o f R o b e r t
., My L a s t D u c h e s s , p . 2 5 2 , 1 1 . I S - 20 a .
169 W a rin g , p . 2 6 5 , 11* 1 -5 a*
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The la r k * s o n th e w in g ;
T he s n a i l 1s on t h e t h o r n :
G od1s i n h i s h e a v e n —
170
A i l ' s r i g h t w i t h th e w o r ld !
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A n o th e r s e c r e t o f t h e b e a u ty i s th e m a s c u lin e r iin s v a r i e d
b y a s m a ll p r o p o r t i o n o f f e m i n in e r im e .
c o n v in c in g ; t h e s e c o n d m ello w i t .
The f i r s t make i t
And w h ile t h e poem i s
b e f o r e u s , i t i s we11 t o n o t e t h e r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e c o n ­
t r a c t i o n s w h ic h a r e so a p p r o p r i a t e i n t h e i r p r e s e n t a t i o n
o f t h e u n a ssu m in g l i t t l e
I t is
w o r k i n g - g i r 1 *s t h o u g h t .
i n "The P i e d Piper** w i t h i t s
f ittin g , d ic tio n th a t
t h e c o m p le te j o y o f v a r i a t i o n i n n u m b e rs o f rim e d l i n e s i s
fo u n d .
The g r o u p i n g s may be f ro m tw o t o s i x c o n t i n u o u s rim e d
lin e s .
S p o n t a n e i t y c a r r i e s f o r w a r d lo n g s y l l a b l e s , s h o r t
s y l l a b l e s , d i g n i f i e d w o r d s , s i m p le w o r d s , a l t e r n a t e r i m e ,
c o u p l e t r i m e , a n d m o n o -rim e q u i t e a s th e p i p e r drew a f t e r him
1?1
G r e a t r a t s , s m a l l r a t s , l e a n r a t s , b raw n y r a t s .
The t h r e e - l i n e s t a n z a b r i n g s o u t a d i c t i o n t h a t c o m p e ls
a tte n tio n .
A t e r c e t fo rm l i k e t h e f o l l o w i n g i s good b e c a u s e
o f i t s m a s c u lin e s t r e s s e s 1
And s t r a i g h t w a y i n h i s p a l a c e h a l l , w h e re commonly i s s e t
Some c o a t - o f - a r m s , some p o r t r a i t u r e a n c e s t r a l , l o , we m at
H is m ean e s t a t e ’ s r e m i n d e r i n h i s f i s h e r f a t h e r *s n e t f Th3 o c ta m e t e r o f th e **Toeeato** i s m anaged t h e same w ay and
170 P i p p a P a s s e s , p . 1 3 3 , I I . 2 9 -3 6 a .
171 The P i e d P i p e r , o f H a m e lin , p . 2 6 8 , 1 . 8 fc.
1 7 2 The P ope a n d t h e N e t, p . 9 9 2 , 1 1 . 1 7 -1 9 a .
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34
h a s a p o is e d e f f e c t .
B ro w n in g m akes a c o n s i d e r a b l e u s e o f t e r z a
r i m . , w h ic h p r o d u c e s a s u s t a i n e d e f f e c t s
I.
12w e ll
sq u a re
te ll
III.
th e re
la s t
a ir
ceased
hand
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in c re a s e d
T h e s e s e v e r a l u s e s o f rim e s h e w 't h a t B r ow ning e x p e r im e n te d
i n t e r e s t i n g l y and s e le c te d w e ll fo r h i s p u rp o se s.
S ta n z a fo rm ,
h o w e v er, i s n o t p r i m a r il y d i c t i o n ; h e n c e , we le a v e t h e s u b je c t
o f r im e .
D.
A n o th e r d i s t i n c t i v e q u a l i t y i n B row ning*® w r i t i n g i s
t h e su d d e n i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a n e x t r a t h o u g h t .
o r i n s e r t s a b o u n d i n B ro w n in g 1 s s t y l e .
T hese a s id e s
The p a r e n t h e t i c a l
i s a lw a y s a s u r p r i s e , a s i n the- f o l l o w i n g !
1.
G a l le d B a tu r a * a A l p s , and t h e w o r l d 1s _ d e s p a i r
F o r p e e r l e s s p a i n t i n g ? {See Y as& ri
2.
H ay, I s h a l l h a v e i t y e t J B e tu r a m a n til
My K o h - i - n o o r — o r ( i f t h a t ’ s a p l a t i t u d e }
J e w e l o f G ra m sc h e d , t h e P e r s i a n S o f i 1s e y e ;.1 7 5
3.
Y o u r s e l f w e re v i s i b l e
As you s to o d v i c t o r , t h e n ; whom now ( y o u r ,p a r d o n I }
I am f o r c e d n a r r o w ly t o s e a r c h and s e e . -
173 The S t a t u e a n d th e B u s t , p . 2 3 3 , 1 1 . 1 - 6 and
p . 284, 11 . 1 -3 .
174 O ld P i c t u r e s i n F l o r e n c e , p . 1 7 6 , 1 1 . 1 5 -1 6 b .
175 I b i d . . p . 173;, 1 1 . 3 6 -3 8 a .
176 G o la a b e ’ s B i r t h d a y , p . 239* 1 1 . 5 0 -5 2
a.
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35
4*
T he l a d y g i r d s t h e sw o rd u p o n t h e Y o u th
{H&r a a lw a y s v e r y young} — t h e t r u m p e t s s o u n d ,
G ups p l e d g e h im , an d ', w hy, th e K in g b l e s s e s h i m - - 1
The us© o f a p p o s i t i v e s I s a n e x a c t m ethod a l s o f o r t h e
in tro d u c tio n o f th e p a r e n th e tic a l id e a .
A p p o s itiv e s s a y h e
s i n g l e , a s th e s e fo llo w in g :
1.
2.
3.
4*
T he d e v i l , t h a t o l d s t a g e r , a t h i s t r i c k 1 *^
179
1 — p a t r i o t , lo v in g p e a c e an d h a tin g w a r ;—
ISO
To sp e n d one*© A p r i l h e r e , t h e b io sso m -m o n th "
L a n g u a g e , th e m a k e s h i f t ,, g re w
I n t o a b r a v e s t o f e x p e d i e n t s t o o ; 1-8!
T h ey m y be d o u b l e , a s i n t h e s e :
1.
I t k i l l s h e r , and t h i s p r e v e n ts a y s e e in g I t c lo s e :
T he d e l i c a t e d r o p l e t , my w h o le f o r tu n e * s [email protected] #*182
2.
And l o , t h e s w e e t p s a l t e r i o n , s t r u n g and s c r e w e d ,
W hereon he t r i e d t h o s e l e - e - e - e - e s
*
And i c e - e - e - e - e s a n d t u r n s a n d t r i l l s ,
liv e ly la r k ’s t i r r a - l i r r a , la d ’ s d e lig h tt
'
T h is- i n t r o d u c t o r y re m a rk i s a f a v o r i t e w i t h B ro w n in g :
1 e ft
In s h o r t, he le a rn e d f i r s t , p ra c tic e d a fte rw a rd s .
1 7 7 S t r a f f o r d , p . 5 9 , 1 1 . 2 1 -2 3 a .
178 R ed C o tto n M ig h t-G ap C o u n tr y , p . 7 4 7 , 1 . 49 b*
179 The L a s t A d v e n tu re o f B a l a u s t i o n , p . 6 4 3 , 1 . 39 b ,
ISO S t r a f f o r d , p . 6 7 , 1 . 39 a .
101 S o r d e l l o , p . 8 9 , 11* 4 2 —43 b*
182 The L a b o r a t o r y , p . 1 6 8 , I I .
3 6 -3 7 b ,
183 The L a s t A d v e n tu re o f B a l a u s t i o n , p , 6 4 2 , 1 1 . 1 4 -1 7 b .
184 I b i d *,, p . 6 3 6 , 1 . 50 b .
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M ore o f t e n t h e a s i t e i s a d d e d :
1.
A n t now one a f t e r - on® s e e k s i t s l o d g i n g , a s s t a r
fo llo w s s t a r
I n t o e v e and t h e b i n e f a r a b o v e m e ,— so b i n e an d
so f a r J l S 5
2..
Th® sian s p r a n g t o h i s f e e t .
S to o d e r e c t , c a u g h t a t God *s s k i r t s , and p r a y e d !
— S o , I w as a f r a i d !
3*
Who saitlx*—b u t why a l l t h i s a b o u t w h a t h e s a i t h ? - ^ ?
Word g r o u p i n g i n s e r i e s
in g .
i s a f a v o r i t e d e v i c e w i t h B row n­
Ant. p e r h a p s i n no- -o th e r d i v i s i o n o f B r o w n in g 's t e c h n iq u e
a r e t h e r e m ore v a r i e d e f f e c t s .
S im ila r ite m s w i l l i l l u s t r a t e
firs t:
1.
B e h o ld them r a g g e d , s i c k , la m e , h a l t , and b l i n d !
2.
So y o u r f u g u e b r o a d e n s a n d t h i c k e n s ,
G r e a te n s , and deepen® , and le n g th e n s ,
3.
'
So m uch s k y - s e u d , s e a - f r o t h , e a r t h - t h i s tle d o v m
190
I te m s d e n o t i n g tim e o f t e n a p p e a r , b u t n e v e r m ore p l e a s i n g l y
th a n in
And m o r n in g , e v e n i n g , n o o n , a n d n i g h t ,
P r a i s e d God i n p l a c e o f T h e o c r i t e . 1 9 1
185 S a u l , p . IS O , 1 1 . 1 5 - 1 6 a .
186 I n s t a n s T y r a n n u s , p . 2 5 5 , 11* 5 0 -5 2 a .
1 87 An E p i s t l e , p . 3 4 0 , 1 . 31 b*
188 The l a s t A d v e n tu re o f B a l a u s t i o n , p . 6 4 7 , 1 . 25 b .
189 M a s te r H ugues o f S a x e - G o th a , p . 1 9 6 , 1 1 . 3 4 -3 5 b .
190 The L a s t A d v e n tu r e s o f B a l a u s t i o n , p.. 6 3 6 ,:- 1 . 41 b
191 The Boy and th e A n g e l, p . 2 5 4 , 1 1 . 23*24 a .
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37
S h o rt c la u s e s in a e r i e s a r e e f f e c t i v e i n M ild re d r s sp eech :
1 w a s so y o u n g ,. I lo v e d him. so , I had
Bo m o th e r , God f o r g o t .me, and I f e l l .
I n s t e a d o f fe e in g e q u a l* ite m s so m e tim e s r i s e t o a c lim a x .:
1.
Of s u b j e c t s d rea m ed a n d d a r e d and don© b e f o r e — ^93
2*
W ould I s h r i n k t o l e a r n a y l i f e t i m e ’ s l i m i t — d a y s ,
w eek s* m o n th s , o r y e a r s ? T 9 4
O r t h e y may s i n k i n a n t i c l i m a x :
He S p a r t a n i z e s , a r g u e s , f a s t s , a n d
fr o w n s,
A n tith e s e s even o c cu r in s e r i e s :
How pur© y e t p a s s i o n a t e , how c a lm y e t k i n d ,
,
How g r a v e y e t j o y o u s , how r e s e r v e d y e t f r e e l 1 ^
B ro w n in g o c c a s i o n a l l y sta k e s a s e r i e s o f t h r e e i t e m s fey t h e
a d d itio n of m
i d e a t o tw o c u s t o m a r i l y p a i r e d w o r d s .
The
e f f e c t i s d e c id e d ly u n iq u e :
1,
T im e, t i d e , and t h e t r a i n w on’ t w a i t : ^ 9 7
2,
3,
'
h e l o r d s , l a d i e s , and l o u t s e y ed
196
S u ch m en, s u c h women, and s u c h g o d s t h e i r g u a rd
W
I B lo t i n th e
’ S c u tc h e o n , p.- 2 2 2 , 11,. 6 - 7 a*
193 The L a s t A d v e n tu re o f B a l a u s t i o n , p , 6 7 7 , 1« 18 fe.
194 La S a i s i a s , p . 8 5 1 , 1 . 21 fe,
195 T he L a s t A d v e n tu re o f B a l a u s t i o n , p . 6 4 7 , 1* 52 a .
196 A B lo t i n th e
’ S c u tc h e o n , p . 2 1 8 , 1 1 , 7 - 8 fe,
197 The I n n A lbum , p* 7 8 6 , 1 , 33 a ,
198 P a e e h la r o tto , p . 804, 1 , 12 a ,
199 The L a s t A d v e n tu re o f B a l a u s t i o n , p* 6 4 6 , 1 . 13 fe.
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The l a s t I l l u s t r a t i o n show s r e p e t i t i o n i n s e r i e s i n th e w o r t
su ch ,
L ik e w is e i t r e p r e s e n t s B ra w n in g ’ s f o n d n e s s f o r g r o u p ­
in g s o f t h r e e .
F o llo w in g a r e m ore e x a m p le s o f t h i s s e r i e s p l a n s
1.
A s t a r v e l i n g c re w , u n k e m p t, u n s h o r n , u n w a s h e d ,2®®
2.
W ith s ta n d m o t - r u l e , e x p o s e m o b - f l a t t e r y .
P u n is h m o b - f a v o r i t e s ;
,
3.
T hey t h w a r t e d me t h r o u g h o u t ,, h e r e , and her© h e r e : 202
As. s e v e r a l o f t h e a b o v e e x a m p le s show,, t h e s e r i e s i s on© o f
B ro w n in g * s m e th o d s f o r w r i t i n g s a t i r e . .
The f o l lo w in g ' tw o
e x a m p le s m u st h a v e b e e n i n t e n d e d f o r t h a t , e s p e c i a l l y t h e
second w ith i t s u n e v e n n e ss:
1,
T he d a u g h t e r o f t h e B u r g r a v e s , L a n d g r a v e s , M a r k g r a y e s ,
KemaiBS t h e i r d a u g h t e r , I s h a l l s c a r c e g a i n s a y . 20^
2*
B i k a s t and h e H a s t , p l e a d e r , l i t i g a n t ,
Q u a c k - p r ie s t, s h a m - p r o p h e c y - r e ta ile r , sco ut
0* t h e c u s to m s , s y c o p h a n t , w h a te v e r t h e s t y l e ,
A l t e r - s c r a p - e n a t o f a e r , p im p ,a n d p a r a s i t e — 2®4
P a r a l l e l s t r u c t u r e i s a p p a r e n t i n m uch o f B row ning* s
w ritin g .
We f i n d i t
i n b o t h p a r a l l e l i d e a s and o p p o s i t e i d e a s .
A p le a s in g v ig o r p e rv a d e s th e fo llo w in g p a r a l l e l s :
200 The L a st A d ven tu re o f B a l a u s t io n , p , 6 4 6 , 1 . 43 b .
201 I b i d . . p . 6 5 5 , 1 1 . 4 - 5 b .
202 P r in c e H o h e n stie 1 -S c h w a n g a u , S a v io r o f S o c i e t y ,
p . 6 9 4 , 1 , 22 a .
203 C o lo n b e * 3 B i r t h d a y , p . 244* H »
54 a — 1 b .
204 T he L a s t A d v e n tu re o f B a l a u s t i o n ,. p . 6 2 9 , 1 1 , 3 9 -4 2
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1.,.
w o u ld y o u s a i l ?
Ha t e a d r a i n e d t b s T i b e r f o r y o u : w o u ld you w a lk ?
H© s t r a i g h t e n e d o u t th e l o n g F la m in ia n W ay.2 0 ?
2.
Hamas i s t h e n e w s p a p e r— g r e a t T h i s , g r e a t T h a t 2 n ,
G ladston© > O a r l y l e , th e L a u r e a t i e —much I c a r e ! ®
3,
A y e a r a g o h ad s e e s h e r_ a n d b e e s s e e s ,.
L oved and b e e s l o v e d .
4*
The t h i n g I p i t y m o st
l a roan i s — a c t i o n p ro m p te d b y s u r p r i s e
Of a n g e r ; M eat n a y , h u l l s — w h o le o n s e t . l i e s
A t i n s t a n c e o f t h e f i r e w o r k and. t h e g o a d ! ®
5.
So I s a i d
"To do l i t t l e i s b a d , - t o do- n o t h i n g i s w o r s e " — an d made v e r s e .
^
As. i n t e r e s t i n g p a r a l l e l fo rm n o t i l l u s t r a t e d a b o v e a p p e a r s i n
c h ia s m u s , a s f o l l o w s :
How l o n g , 0 L o rd ?
210
1.
0 L o r d , how lo n g ?
2.
S h e t o e - t i p s an d s t a c c a t o . — l e g a t o , s h a k e s h i s p o l l
3*
The p e t t y d o n e , t h e u n d o n e v a s t ,
212
O p p o s it e s I n i d e a a r e q u i t e a s i n t e r e s t i n g . .
I s n 1 t h i s n ic e
b a la n c e i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f a m ushroom ?
205 " I a p e r a n t e A ugust© M a tu s S e t — , "
206 The I n n A lbum , p . 2 0 4 ,
p .1 0 0 1 , 1 1 . 26-28 b .
1 1 . 1 5 -1 6 a .
20 ? C o l o m b i a B i r t h d a y , p . 2 4 3 , 1 1 . 1 0 - l i
20S A F o r g i v e n e s s , p . 819*
a.
1 1 . 3 6 -4 1 b .
209 (An i n t e r l u d e f o r ) F e r i s h t a h 's F a n c i e s , p . 9 3 9 ,
11. 4-5 b.
2 10 B i l i p p o B a l d i n u o c i on th e P r i v i l e g e o f B u r i a l ,
p . 827, 1 . 28 b .
211 F l f i n e a t t h e F a i r , p . 7 2 6 , 1 . 2 a .
212 The L a s t Eld® T o g e t h e r , p . 2 6 8 , 1 . 4 1*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
46
S i n c e , o u t s i d e w h it® a s m ilk , and i n s id® b l a c k a s i n k .
213
A g a in com es t h e id s® t o th e p a i n t e r :
To s o n © th in g h e a v e n - t i n g e d , n o t h e l l - h u e d 211
O th e r c o n t r a s t s a p p e a r i n su ch e x p r e s s io n s a s :
1.
L o o k in g s o o l d — E u r i p i d e s se em s y o u n g 21-*
2.
l o l l i n g a n d f r e e z i n g , , l i k e l o v e a n d h a t e 21^
3.
4.
He d o te d ., o r he d o z e d J w217
And i f w h a t seem ed h e r rtNow may n o t h a v e m ean t h e r
" T e s l^ ls .
S.
b u rn in g t o th e te c h n iq u e o f lo n g e r c o n s tr u c tio n s —
c l a u s e s a s we may c a l l them — w® f i n d s e v e r a l o u t s t a n d in g
c h a ra c te ris tic s .
A b r u p tn e s s i s on® o f t h e s e , b u t i t d o e s
n o t a lw a y s l e a d t o b r e v i t y .
.I n s t e a d i t m ay a cco m p an y i n *
v o lv e d s y n t a x , o m is s io n o f f u l l s t a t e m e n t s , and v a r i o u s
d e v ic e s f o r s u g g e s tin g id e a s ,
T hese i n s t r u c t i o n s a re n o t ,
h o w e v e r, s o b a f f l i n g a s t h e y h a v e o f t e n b e e n r e p u t e d .
They
s e t t l e , i n to g ro o v e s , r a t h e r r e p e t i t i o u s th a n w id e -re a c h in g
a n d g iv e o n e p r a c t i c e i n t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ,
’ 213 F i f i n e
a t th e F a i r , p ,
73-2, 1 . 1 6 a .
214 F a c c h i a r o t t o , p . 7 3 2 , 1 . 16
a.
215 The L a s t A d v e n tu re o f B a l a u s t i o n , p . 6 3 9 , 1 . 51 b .
216 I b i d . . p . 6 8 1 , 1 . 29 a .
217 F if in e
at
th e
F a i r , p . 715* 1 . ® a .
218 I b i d , ,
p . 7 6 9 , 1 . 4 fe.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
P e rh a p s f i r s t w# o u g h t t o s e e mm® o f t h e a b r u p t s t a t e ­
m e n ts t h e m s e l v e s .
th o u g h t, a d d itio n s *
T hey a r e o f t h r e e k i n d s :
sudden tu r n s o f
-and odd e n d i n g s .
T he s u d d e n t u r n s o f t h o u g h t come o u t n i c e l y i n th e
l a s t s t a n z a o f *G au n t G i am end, * w h ic h show s f o u r d e f i n i t e
a b ru p t c h an g e s a s t h e c o u n te s s
c o n c e a l s h e r t h a n k f u l ,, h a p p y
b o a s t in g *
h o w e v e r , a r e w s l u n e x p e c te d :
T he l a s t tw o l i n e s ,
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G r e a t b ro w : th o * when h i s b r o t h e r * ® b l a c k
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And m e d i t a t e t h e f a c t , ’ t w i x t .s ip a n d - s i p —
T h is s e t t l e d —why 1 p l e a s e m y s e l f —
A lth o u g h B ro w n in g se ld o m a d d r e s s e s th e r e a d e r , h i s a t t e n t i o n
i s re q u e s te d h e re :
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H e re l e s s a b r u p t l y t h e sam e a d m o n itio n i s g i v e n :
How a s t h e i n g o t , e r e t h e r i n g w as f o r g e d ,
l a y g o l d , ( b e s e e c h y o u , h o ld t h a t f i g u r e f a s t i }
S o, in t h i s book la y a b s o lu te ly t r u t h ,
219 C o u n t G ism ond, p . 2 5 3 , 11« 2 9 -3 4 b .
220 P r i n c e H o h e n s tie l- S c h w a n g a u , S a v i o r o f S o c i e t y ,
p . 6 8 4 , 1 1 . 5 2 -5 4 a .
221 l e d G o tte n . N ig h t-C a p C o u n tr y , p . 7 4 9 , 1* 35 a .
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F a u c i l e s s f a c t * t h e d o c u m e n ts i n d e e d ,
222
A q u e s t i o n may m ake a b r u p t i n t r u s i o n :
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223
A h e a r t — how s h a l l I s a y ? — t o o so o n m ade g l a d .
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h a n d le d a p t l y b y B ro w n in g , o f t e n w i t h s u r p r i s i n g p u n c t u a t i o n .
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l y e s i n t h e h o u s e , tw o e y e s e x c e p t :
T hey s t y l e d t h e i r h o u s e ’ The L o d g e .,2 2 7
The t h i r d , o r a b r u p t e n d i n g , i s t h e acme o f t h i s
s ty le o f c o n s tru c tio n .
The t e m p t a t i o n h e r e i s t o o v e r l o a d t h e
l i s t o f e x a m p le s b e c a u s e t h e r e i s s u c h v a r i e t y .
A fte r
222 T he R in g an d t h e B o o k , p . 1 1 6 , 1 1 . 1 3 -1 6 a .
223 Hy l a s t D u c h e s s , p . 2 5 2 , 1 . 22 a .
224 C o u n t D iam ond, p . 2 5 3 , 1* 50 a .
225 T h e T ie d P i p e r o f H a m e lin , p . 2 7 1 , 1 1 . 1 6 -1 7 a .
226 R ed C o tto n N ig h t-C a p C o u n tr y , p . 7 2 6 , 1 1 . 5 5 -5 6 a .
227 C o n f e s s i o n s , p .
3 9 4 , 11* 4 7 -5 0 b .
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s p e a k in g o f h i s l a s t d u c h ess an d th e r e q u i s i t e s o f th e n e x t,
t h e d u k e s a y s s u d d e n ly t o t h e e n v o y whom w e h a v e n o t h e a r d :
. May* we *11 go
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N o t i c e N e p tu n e th o u g h ,
T am ing a s e a - h o r s e —• th o u g h t a r a r i t y *
W hich C lau s, o f I n n s b r u c k e a s t In. b r o n z e f o r me 2
The- I t a l i a n i n E n g la n d m u s in g o v e r h i s d re a m e d -o f v i s i t
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231
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t h e p r o lo g u e t o nF e r i s h t a h ’ s F a n c ie s * ’
Who l a u g h e s t "T ake w h a t i s * t r u s t w h a t may b e l "
T h a t’ s l i f e ’ s t r u e l e s s o n , — eh?232
" I m p e r a n te A u g u sto N a tu s 1 s t * r e p r e s e n t s a man w i t h h i s q u e s t
o u ts id e th e p u b lic b a th s .
He t h i n k s h e h a s w a i t e d l o n g
en o u g h ?
:^ 2 i" :iS y . l a s t D u c h e ss* p . 252* .11, 1 5 - l S b .
229 The I t a lia n in England, p , 260, I I . 7 -8 b .
23© By t h e F i r e s i d e * p . 187* 1 1 . 2 8 -3 0 b .
231 A n d re a D e l - S a r t o * p , 348* 1 , 37 a ,
2 3 2 F e r i s h t a h ’ s F a n c i e s , p . 929* 1 1 , 9 - 1 0 b .
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kk
Was i t f o r n o t h i n g t h e g r a y S i b y l w r o te
’’C a e s a r A u g u s tu s r e g n a n t , s h a l l b e b o m
I n b l i n d J u d e a ”— o n e t o m a s t e r ilia ,,
Kim an d t h e u n i v e r s e ? An o l d - w i f e *s t a l e ?
B o th - d r u d g e I H ere,, s l a v e ! No c h e a t i n g I
O ur t u r n n e x t#
Ho l o i t e r i n g o r s u r e y o u t a s t e t h e l a s h !
Two s t r i g i l s , tw o o i l - d i p p e r s , e a c h a s p o n g e I
P e r h a p s t h i s l a s t i s t o o e o aa ao n p lae e f o r p o e t r y , b u t th e r e .
a r e fe w w r i t e r s who c o u ld h a v e g o t t e n s u c h m a t e r i a l i n t o
p o e tr y #
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i s a g ra n d b le n d o f s u r p r i s e s i n t h a t m o st
c o n v e n t io n a l E n g l i s h ia m b ic p e n ta m e te r #
F r e e fro m a b r u p t n e s s i s a d i r e c t , d i g n i f i e d b r e v i t y ,
v e r y b e a u t if u l ,, b u t s u c h h a r d e r to f in d f o r i l l u s t r a t i o n s #
B a la u s tio n t e l l s
o f th e queen*s d e a th i n su c h a l i n e ;
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T h is i s a p o ig n a n t o b s e r v a tio n upon l i f e :
T i l l lo , th e l i t t l e
t o u c h , and y o u th w as gen© I 2^5
T he c o u p l e t so o f t e n r e p e a t e d f r o m "R a b b i Ben E z r a ” n o
d o u b t g a i n s i t s r e p u t a t i o n f r o m t h i s s t y l e o f -e x p r e s s io n
a s m uch a s fro m t h e c o n t e n t ;
W hat I a s p i r e d t o b e ,
236
And w as n o t , c o m f o r ts m e:
The d i g n i t y o f t h a t poem l e n d s i t s e l f t o s u c h u n a d o rn e d
s ta te m e n ts a s th e s e :
255" ”l m p e r a n te A ugust© H a t us 1 s t — ” p* 100
234 B a i a u s t i o n 's A d v e n tu r e , p« 6X1, 1 . 2 ? a#
235 A G ram m arian *s F u n e r a l , p . 2 7 9 f 1* 13 b .
236 H a b b i Ben E z r a , p . 3 8 4 , 1 1 . 1 9 -2 0 a .
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1 1 . 2 3 -3 1 b#
1.
/
Bo,, t a k e an d u s e t h y w o rk :
Amend w h a t f l a w s .may l u r k ,
W hat s t r a i n o* t h e s t u f f , wha t w a rp l u g s p a s t t h e a im !
My t im e s b e i n t h y h a n d !
P e r f e c t t h e cu p a s p la n n e d !
L e t age- a p p ro v e o f y o u t h , a n d d e a t h c o m p le te th e
s a m e l2 3 ?
B r i e f r e m a r k s i n t h e h o r t a t o r y m an n e r a r e h a r d l y t o b e
fo u n d .
I n " S t r a f f o r d ” R udyard. c r i e s o u t
W ould I w e re s u r e w e knew o u r s e l v e s !
2*3#
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• A la s ,. A d m e to s--w o u Id we fo u n d th e© g a y ,
S o t g rie v in g !
t h e p u n i s a fo rm o f b r e v i t y t h a t B ro w n in g a lm o s t
Ig n o re s.
From h i s w i s h f o r
Ho Jo k e i n a i d o f P e a c e , Qno dem agogue
F u n - p e l l e t e d fro m I n n x 4
one m u st b e lie v e t h a t h e d i s l i k e s p u n s .
L e t who l i e d b £ l e f t l i e !
H e n c e , I s t h i s , o n e?
So*. e n d y o u r l e t t e r ,
*
F lo w e ry h i g h - f lo w n e l e g a n c e o f la n g u a g e se e m s a b s e n t
fr o m B row ning* s s t y l e .
The v e r y f a c t t h a t h e i s h o n e s t ,
d i r e c t , v i g o r o u s , and a b r u p t l e a v e s no room f o r e u p h u is m s .
237 H a b b i B en B z r a , p . 3 8 5 , 1 1 . 1 8 -2 3 b .
238 S t r a f f o r d , p . 5 6 , 1 , 10 b .
239 B a l a u s t i o n * s A d v e n tu r e , p . 6 1 2 , 1 1 . 2 -2 1 b .
240 The L a s t A d v e n tu re o f B a l a u s t i o n , p . 6 3 2 , 1 . 27 b .
241 F l u t e - M u s i c , w i t h a n A c co m p a n im en t, p . 100-1, 1 . 25
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46
T h ere I s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , a w e a lth o f w h a t a t f i r s t
g l a n c e seem s t o h a i n v o lv e d s y n t a x and o b s c u r e s t a t e m e n t .
Some o f t h e e x a m p le s a l r e a d y g iv e n s u g g e s t t h i s .
ty p ic a l*
O th e rs a r e
Of t h e s e t h e v s r ^ s u b j e c t - ob j e e t o r d e r a p p e a r s
o f t e n i n B ro w n in g ’ s s y n ta x a
1.
T h u s h e ld h e me t h e r e w i t h h i s g r e a t e g e g t h a t
s c r u t i n i s e d m in e —
2.
Be® you nob s o m e th in g b e s i d e s m aso n ry ?
3.
I r k s c a r e th e c r o p - f u l l b i r d ? F r e t s d o u b t t h e
saw -cram m ed b e a s t ? 2 4 4
A p l e a s i n g w o rd o r d e r a p p e a r s i n t h e l a s t l i n e o f t h i s
re p r© s e n ta tiv e s ta n z a :
Ho m a s te r y o f m in e o ’ e r th [email protected] I
T e r r o r w i t h b e a u ty ., lik e - t h e B u sh
B u r n in g b u t u n c o n su ia e d . Bend k n e e s ,
D rop © y es t o e a r t h w a r d ! „L a n g u a g e ? T u sh I
S i l e n c e ' t i s -mm d e c r e e s . ^5
L e s s sm o o th a r e t h e s e n e x t w a n d e r i n g - p r e p o s I t i o n s , y e t t h e i r
f o r c e i n s u c h p o s i t i o n s i s p r o b a b l y th e
r e s u l t o f p la n n in g
on th e a u th o r ’ s p a r t ,
1.
*E at f l e s h ? B y e - g r a s s c o n t e n t t h e e r a t h e r w i t h .
W h e re o f a c c e p t a b u n d le 2 *246
2.
bad© f o l k "D rap e t h e n u d e
And s t o p t h e s c a n d a l ! *
q u o th t h e r e c o r d p r im
242 '"§ a u l, p . 183» 1* 15 a ,
243 B a l a u s t i o n ’ s A d v e n tu r e , p . 6 0 5 , 1* 15 b .
244 R a b b i Ben E z r a , p .
384, 1 , 3 a .
245 P r o lo g u e t o A s o la n d o , p , 9 8 ? , 1 1 . 2 6 -3 0 a .
2 46 The Two C a m e ls , p . 9 3 7 , 1 1 . 1 2 -1 3 a .
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I b o rro w t h i s o f :
h a n g h i s b o o k a n d liiraj
T he a d v e r b her© i s a s u r p r i s e *
”1 saw t h r o u g h t h e j o k e 2" t h e man r e p l i e d
t h e y s e a t e d t h e m s e l v e s b e s i d e ,^ * 8
T h e c o g n a te a c c u s a t i v e o c c u r s s o m e tim e s .
The e x a m p le s .s u g g e s t
t h a t B ro w n in g d o e s n ’ t u s e th e m s e r i o u s l y *
249
1.
G u t-H o ra erin g Homer
250
2*. I h a v e s e e n my s e e .
The- g e n e r a l p l a n o f t h i s l a s t ex am p le m akes a n i c e p ro b le m
o f a n a l y s i s , w ith i t s p o s i t io n o f a p p o -s ltiv e , " th e f i r s t " i
H e re you b e h o ld th e K in g o f Comedy—
Me, w ho, t h e f i r s t , h a v e p u r g e d my e v e r y n i e c e
From e a c h and a l l a y p r e d e c e s s o r s ’ f i l t h . ^ 5 1
N e x t w i l l com© a, few e x a m p le s o f w h a t m ig h t b e c a l l e d
o b sc u re .
P r o b a b l y t h e y a r e n o - .a c r e c o n v in c in g l y s o t h a n gem©
o f th e f o r e g o in g q u o ta tio n s .
1.
2 p a r l e y e d w i t h my p a s s - b o o k , — ru b b e d my p a i r
A t t h e b i g b a la n c e i n my ban k er* ® h a n d s , —
F o ld e d a c h e c k e i g a r - e a s e - s h a p e , — j u s t w a n ts
f i l l i n g a id s i g n i n g , —a n d t o o k t h e t r a i n ,
2.
F r i e n d l e s s — a g a i n I t e l l th e © i s i l l - l u c k . 2 ^3
247 B e a t r i c e S i g n o r i n i , p .
24$ Adam, L i l i t h , a n d
996, 11.
1 9 -2 1 b ,
Sv© , p . 916* 1 1 . 5 3 -5 4 a .
249 P r i n c e H o h e n s t i e 1 -S e h w a n g a u , S a v i o r o f S o c i e t y ,
p . 7 0 0 , 1 . 29 a .
250 The R in g and t h e B o o k , p . 4 2 8 , 1 . 8 b .
251 T he L a s t A d v e n tu re - o f B a l a u s t i o n , p . 6 5 8 , 1 1 . 5 5 -5 7
252 The I n n A lbum , p .
7 7 5 , 1 1 . 9 -1 2
253 H e r a k l e s , p . 6 6 6 ,
1. 9 a.
b.
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3*
T hy c h i l d a s su r e l y g r a s p s
An o r a n g e a s h e f a i l s t o g r a s p t h e su n
Assumed h i s c a p t u r e .2 5 4
4«
Doe'S s h e lo o k ,, p ity ;* w o n d e r
A t o n e w ho m im ic s f l i g h t ,
Swim s— h e a v e n a b o v e , s e a u n d e r ,
Y e t a lw a y s e a r t h i n s i g h t ? 255
5*
T hus m oaned
S a n t i l l P ro m e th e u s h e lp e d h i m , - - a s we l e a r n , —
O f f e r e d a n a r t i f i c e w h e re b y h e d re w
B un*s r a y s in to - a f o c u s , — p l a i n and t r u e .
The v e r y Sun i n l i t t l e : m ade f i r e b u rn
And h e n c e f o r t h do Man s e r v i c e — g l a s s - c o n g l o b e d
Though t o a p i n - p o i n t c i r c l e — a l l the- same
C o m p ris in g t h e B un*a s e l f , b u t Sun d i s r o b e d
Of t h a t e l s e - u n c o n c e i v e d e s s e n t i a l f la a ©
B o rn e b y no- .naked s i g h t . 256
A n o t h e r ■p o i n t p e r t i n e n t t o t h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s t h e o m issio n .
o f w o r d s o r w h o le e x p r e s s i o n s .
do a g r e a t d e a l o f s u p p ly in g *
A r e a d e r o f B ro w n in g m u s t
Her® h e .may s u p p ly a t h i r d
v e r b , a l t h o u g h t h e sens® o f t h e d i c t i o n i s b e t t e r w i t h o u t i t :
C la p p e d m y h a n d s , la u g h e d an d s a n g , a n y n o i s e , bad
o r g o o d , 257
S u p p ly s u b j e c t a n d p r e d i c a t e i n G u e n d o lin ’ s a n s w e r .
B ut
y o u s p o i l i t , b o th f o r rh y th m a n d f o r d ra m a :
M i l . I s a y t h e r e i s a c lo u d . . .
Gue'n.
Mo c lo u d to m l
l o r d M e rto u n and y o u r l o v e r a r e t h e sam e! 258
254 A P i l l a r a t S e b z e v a r , p . 9 4 0 , 1 1 . 4 4 -4 6 b .
255 P r o lo g u e t o F i f i n e a t t h e F a i r , p . 7 0 2 , 1 1 , 3 7 -4 0
256 P a r l a y i n g s w i t h C e r t a i n P e o p le — w i t h B e r n a r d i #
M a n d e v i l l e , p . 9 5 5 , 1 1 . 2 3 -3 2 a .
257 How T hey B ro u g h t t h e Good Mews fro m G h e n t t o A ix ,
p . 165, 1 , 3 b .
258 A B l o t i n t h e ’ S c u tc h e o n , p . 2 2 6 , 1 1 . 37 -3 8 a .
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W hat one s h o u ld f i l l in. h e r e o n ly P r i s e ® H o h e n s tie l- S c h w a n g a u
•would know :
T he f r e e c h u r c h com es t-o v i s i t t h e f r e e C h u rc in
R e c e iv e h e r !
o r. . .o r .
. n e v e r m ind w h a t e l s e i 2 59
T h is n e x t' o r e ,
sp o k e n t o
th e t h r e e P a t e s ., i s n o t h a r d .
S u p p ly th© g e s t u r e s a s w e l l a s t h e w o r d s :
G ood:
l i f t t h e c h a l i c e t o th e l i p !
th o u n e x t — an d t h o u ! 260
Q u e s tio n s h e lp one to i n t e r p r e t :
1,
F o r up s t o o d , f o r o u t s t e p p e d , f o r i n s t r u c k
am id a l l t h e s e
— A C a p ta in ? A L i e u t e n a n t ? A M a te — f i r s t ,
seco n d , th ir d ? 2 o l
2*
Why, w i t h b e a u t y , n e e d s t h e r e money h e .
L ove w i t h l i k i n g ?
C ru s h t h e f l y - k i n g
i n h i s g a u z e , ’ b e c a u s e no h o n e y -b e e ? 2 6 2
An o m is s io n o f f e r i n g n o d i f f i c u l t y , b u t g i v i n g
v i g o r o u s v a r i e t y , i s t h a t ©f t h e a r t i c l e b e f o r e n o u n s :
1.
D uch esses d e s c e n t a t d o o r
From c a r r l a g e - s t e p t o s t r a n g e r p r o s t r a t e s t r e t c h e d
And b id him t a k e h e a r t an d d e l i v e r m in d . 263
2.
Grew c o r n f o r b a r n and g r a p e s f o r v a t . 264
259 P r i n c e H o h e n s tia l-S c fa w a n g a u , p . 695* 11* 4 9 -5 0 b .
260 A p o llo an d th e F a t e s , p . 950* 11* 3 4 -3 5 a .
261 H e rv e R i e l , p . 8 1 5 , 11. 3 7 -3 8 b .
262 A P r e t t y Woman, p . 1 9 1 , 1 1 . 1 9 -2 2 a .
263 Red C o tto n M ig h t-G a p C o u n tr y , p . 7 4 9 , 11* 5 5 -5 7 b*
264 F i l i p p o B a M i n u e c i on t h e P r i v i l e g e o f B u r i a l ,
p . 8 2 4 , I* 32 a .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
50
Tiie t w a n t y - f o u r l i n e s i n t r o d u c i n g *£a S a i s a i z " h a v e no a r t i c l e s
i n th e m .
One m o re b i t
o f t e c h n i q u e d e m o n s tr a ti n g B row ning* a
econom y o f w o rd s i s i n t h e i n t r o d u c t o r y G la u s e s f o r .q u o ta tio n s
and c o n v e r s a tio n *
tim e s .
^Qnoth. th is* * and “Quoth t h a t 1* a p p e a r m any
M ice v a r i e t y a p p e a r s i n s u c h d i c t i o n a s t h e f o l l o w i n g
ex am p les, shows
1.
“To h e a v e n w i t h m e t ** w as i n th e g o o d m an’ s m o u th ,
2.
A v o ic e
3.
He e n d e d w i t h a f l o u r i s h .
I re p lie d s
“F ancy m y s e lf y o u r A r is to n u m o s ? “ 26?
4.
A w h i s p e r from t h e w e s t
ShootS“-MAdd t h i s t o t h e r e s t *
T ak e i t a n d t r y i t s w o r th s t h e r e d i e s a n o t h e r
s a i d * “So w o u ld s ’ t th o u s t r i v e * n o t r e s t ? “266
-
5*
n— Y e s , I * js M a l c r a i s , and som ebody b e s i d e *
T on s n i c k e r i n g m o n k ey !* t h u s w in d s up t h e t a l e
Our h e ro * s a f e ’.a t home— 269
6,
A b u s t l i n g e n t r a n c e : “ M o l o f my f la m e !
Can i t be my h e a r t a t t a i n s a t l a s t
I t s l o n g i n g ? t h a t you s t a n d t h e v e r y sam e
As i n my v i s i o n s ? * . *Ha! h e y * how ?" a g h a s t
S t o p s s h o r t t h e r a p t u r e * 270
D ia lo g u e o f t e n h a s n o i n t r o d u c i n g m a t e r i a l * b u t i t s
d a y *
“ 268
a r ran g e -
T o c h a n a n H a k k o d o sh , p . 9 2 1 , 1 . 16 a*
266 R e p h a n , p . 1005* 1* 6 a*
267 The L a s t A d v e n tu re o f B & la u s tio n * p . 653# H » 2 9 -3 0 a .
268 R a b b i Ben E z r a , p* 384* 1 1 . 2 4 -2 6 b .
26f Two l o o t s o f S r o i s i c , p . 871* 11* 2 1 -2 3 b*
270 I b i d . * p . 8 ? 0 , 1 1 . 4 1 -4 4 a .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
m en t on t h e p a g e show s th e new s p e a k e r .
1..
"IhnEip s h e r a t h w a r t t h e m u z z le ; w hy?"
"How e l s e
I n s t r u c t th e c r e a t u r © — m o u th s s h o u ld m unch, n o t / b i t e ? "
" T r u e ; h e ” I s a m an, know s b u t a a n 's t r i c k t o t e a c h .S u p p o se seme, p l a i n w o r d , t o l d h e r f i r s t o f a l l *
Bad h i n d e r e d ' a n y b itin g ?'* *
’’F in d him s u c h ,
And f i t th e b e a s t w i t h u n d e r s t a n d i n g f i r s t ! ” 271
2...
He s i n g s .
She sp e a k s .
He d u g s . 272
3*
A fo re s a id .
" fe ll i t ,
q u o th t h e le w
le a ra e d e s t o f f r ie n d s ! ”
e a u t i f u l and b lu e
T h o u g h t a o f a c h a r a c t e r so m e tim e s a r e p r i n t e d i n i t a l i c s ,
w h i l e h i s sp o k e n i d e a s a r e p u t down i n r e g u l a r q u o t a t i o n f arm .
A q u o ta tio n w ith in a
q u o t a t i o n may b e so a r r a n g e d .
See
"T he I n n A lb u m ."
T he q u o t a t i o n s w i t h i n q u o t a t i o n s - i n th e
" B a la u s tio n "
a d v e n tu r e s le a d to g r e a t c o m p lic a tio n and even c o n f u s io n ,
b u t t h e i r p u n c tu a tio n i s n o t a t f a u l t .
ar.
P u n c t u a t i o n i s u s u a l l y much l i k e o u r s t o d a y .
" C a lib a n
u p o n S e t e b o s " d e f i e s u s u a l p u n c t u a t i o n and c a p i t a l i z a t i o n .
I t e v e n h a s a gram m ar o f i t s own.
A fe w i l l u s t r a t i o n s fro m
271 A C a m e l- D r iv e r , p . 9 3 6 , 1 1 . 2 3 -3 7 b .
272 I n a G o n d o la* p p . 2 6 2 -2 6 4
273 Jo efaan an H a k k o d o sh , p . 9 1 8 , 1 1 . 2 6 -2 9 a .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
t h e poem w i l l h a v e t o s e r v e a s a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e w h o le ,,
and a ls o
s e r v e t o show B ro w n in g in. h i s m o st d a r i n g t e c h n i q u e :
1-*- {*¥111 s p r a w l , now t h a t t h e h e a t o f d a y i s t e s t , ,
(fh @ J i s n e v e r f o u n d . 5 274
2.
*Think© t ii , lie d w e l l e t h i* t h e c o l d o* t h e m o o n .275
3.
H a tin g a n d l o v i n g w a rm th a l i k e :
4*
M e a n w h ile ,
I s , n o t to
Y o n d er tw o
B ask o n th e
s o H e.
th e b e s t way t o e s c a p e H is i r e •
seem t o o h a p p y .
♦ S ees, h im s e lf .
f l i e s , w i t h p u r p l e f i l m s and p in k *
p o m p io n - b e ll a b o v e : k i l l s b o t h . *77
A lo n g w i t h t h e o t h e r l i b e r t i e s t a k e n i n t h i s poem , o n e l o o k s
fo r so®
in s p e llin g .
None a r e to- b e f o u n d .
o n l y tw o s t r a n g e t h i n g s
nam esd i f f e r e n t l y
in s p e l l i n g .
B row ning’ doe s
Onei s t o w r i t e
fro m t h e a c c e p t e d fo r m , b u t t h i s
p ro p e r
i s so
common t o many w r i t e r s t h a t i t c an b e a c c e p t e d a s demon­
s t r a t i n g no i n d i v i d u a l i t y *
n am es i s a d i f f e r e n t m a t t e r .
c o n s ta n tly ..
I t is a l it t le
To s u b s t i t u t e u f o r y i n G re ek
B ro w n in g -does t h i s a lm o s t
d is c o n c e rtin g to re a d about
"Q lu m p u s,* t h e " H u d ra , n "M u k e n a ia n , M " D io n u s io s , " a n d
" N u m p h o le p to s’* and t o come u p o n a Hs t u l u s n a s a n i n s t r u m e n t
f o r w ritin g .
"274"’C a li b a n upon S e t e b o s , p . 3 9 2 , 1 . 1 a .
275 l o o , c i t . .
1 . 24 a .
276 L o c* c i t . *
p . 1 . 43 a .
277 i b i d . , p . 394* H . 4 4 -4 7 a .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
We h a v e o b s e r v e d th r o u g h v a r i o u s i l l u s t r a t i o n # th e
o u t s t a n d i n g t e M e n e i e s o f B ro w n in g * # te c h n iq u e i n d i c t i o n .
Our c o n c lu s io n i s t h a t M s js e tlio d s r a n i n c e r t a i n g r o o v e s ,,
t u t w ith in , th e s e , r e v e a l i m p r e s s i v e v a r i e t y *
H is la n g u a g e
i s v i g o r o u s , t h e w o rd s a n d m an n er o f e x p r e s s i o n f i t t e d
h i s r e a l i s t i c t e n d e n c i e s o f t h o u g h t.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
to
CHAPTER I I I
XMASER*
We t u r n a « r f r o m tim s tu d y o f d i c t i o n t o t h a t o f
im a g e r y .
l a o n e o f M s l a t e r w r i t l a g s B ro w n in g s p e a k s , o f
a p o e t a s one who lia s
—p ie rc e d th e sc re e n
♦ f w ix t t h i n g a n d w o rd , l i t la n g u a g e s t r a i g h t
fro m s e a l . — 1
W here t e t t e r t h a n i n M s im a g e ry i s a p o e t s o r e w m l a d ?
T h ro u g h t h e s i n g l e w o r t o r s h o r t p h r a s e ,, th r o u g h f i g u r e s
o f sp eech , am
h y lo n g d e s c r i p t i v e p i c t u r e s and e x p la n a tio n s
B row ning* a im a g e ry show s h i® a p o e t a b l e t o
— a d ju s t^
R e a l v i s i o n t o r i g h t la n g u a g e ,
.In h i s e a r l i e s t poem,- ^ P a u l i n e , n h e h a s p r e p a r e d t h e r e a d e r
to expect
—a p rin c ip le of re s tle s s n e s s
,,
W hich w ould b e a l l , h a r e , s e e , know , t a s t e , f e e l a l l .— *
W ith su c h a n i n t r o d u c t i o n h e p r e p a r e s th e
r e a d e r t o w a tc h
f o r m uch t h a t i s p l e a s u r a b l e .
A.
S in c e t h e a u t h o r lia s m e n tio n e d **a®#w - e a r ly i n h i s
l i s t o f . a l a s , w® s h a l l , u s e i t f i r s t .in t h e d i s c u s s i o n .
**”
l . P a r i e y l n g a w i t h C e r t a i n P e o p l e —W ith C h r i s t o p h e r
S m a r t, p . 9 6 0 , 11*- 1 - 2 b .
2* Mg,* s l t l . I I , 11-14
3 . P a u l i n e , p , 5., 1 1 , 8 - 9 a .
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55
Long l i s t s o f v i s u a l im a g e s show t h a t B row ning w as e y e -m in d e d .
C o l o r a n d f o r a make a r a t i o o f a b o u t s e v e n ty t o t h i r t y . , , w h ile
t h e s e co m b in ed o n e h u n d re d s i g h t im a g e s a r e m a tc h e d w i t h
o n ly tw e n ty so u n d im a g e s , f o u r im a g e s o f s m e ll,, f b t i r o f
t o u c h , a n d tw o o f t a s t e .
T h e s e n u m b ers a r e t h e r e s u l t o f
n a t u r a l r e a d i n g , n o t o f m in u te s e a r c h ; t h e r e f o r e , t h e y
r e p r e s e n t a l i s t i n g o f y feat seem t h e b e s t p a s s a g e s *
T hey
d o , h o w e v e r, show p r e t t y w e l l t h e u s e B ro w n in g sta k e s o f
th e f i v e sen ses*
Ho a c c u r a t e c o u n t w o u ld h e p o s s i b l e
b e c a u s e B row ning e l a b o r a t e s many o f t h e p i c t u r e s u n t i l
s e v e r a l c o m b i n a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y of s i g h t an d s o u n d ,
o v e r la p a n d d e f y s e p a r a t e c o u n tin g *
U se o f p r i m a r y c o l o r s i m p r e s s e s one fro m B ro w n in g ’ s
e a r l i e s t pages on.
I n " P a u l i n e , 1’ f o u n d o n l y e i g h t l i n e s
a p a r t, a re
B lu e su n n y a i r , w h ere a g r e a t c lo u d f l o a t s —
an d
Se© w h e re t h e s o l i d a z u r e w a t e r s l i e ^
T h e s e g i v e a sa m p le o f B ro w n in g ’ s t e c h n i q u e i n t h e
o f a p le a s a n t scen e.
sh o w in g
I n h i s e a r l y i d e a l i s t i c poem s b l u e
© yes a l s o g i v e p l e a s u r e *
1.
Mo f o r e i g n e r s , t h a t I c a n r e c o l l e c t
Come, a s sh e s a y s , a m onth s i n c e t o i n s p e c t
' % P a u l i n e , p . 9 , 1* 51 a .
5 L ee * o t t * t 1* 1 t *
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
O ur s i l k - m i l l s — n o n e w i t h b l u e eye a a id t h i c k r i n g s
Of r a w - s i I k - c o l o r e d h a i r ,®
2 .K i n g - c o u s i n t a k e s a f a n c y t o t i n e © yes?
© e m -llk e b lu e i s b e a u t i f u l i n
O ur s a p p i i i r i n e s p i r i t o f a t w i l i g h t s t a r . ®
W ith r e d . t o o , h e d o e s some e x c e l l e n t t h i n g s .
how i t
N o tic e
i s t w i c e s u g g e s t e d h e r e , a n d a l s o how m uch s o r e t h e
im ag e g iv e * t h a n j u s t r e d f l o w e r :
"The w i l d t u l i p , a t e n d o f i t s t u b e , b lo w s o u t i t s g r e a t
red b e ll
L ik e a t h i n c l e a r b u b b le o f b l o o d , f o r c h i l d r e n t o p i c k
an d s e l l . ^
a c o m b in a tio n o f r e d an d b l u e w a s o f t e n fo u n d i n B row ning*ar
im a g e ry when he w as y o u n g .
I n wJ o c h a n a n H a k k a d o s h ," w r i t t e n
i n 1833* h e r e f l e c t s upon, t h a t p r e f e r e n c e :
W h ile Y o u th b e s t g a z i n g a t i t s
r e d and b l u e 10
And w e f i n d t h e y o u t h f u l B o r d e l l o , 1 8 4 0 , s a y i n g :
S a v e one p a l e - r e d s t r i p e d , p a l e - b l u e t u r b a n e a p o s t
F o r g o n d o la s 11
A n o th e r I t a l i a n s e t t i n g :
H o t a p i l l a r n o r p o s t b u t i s d iz e n e d
W ith r e d a n d b l u e p a p e r s 1 ^
'"J ■© P’i p p a P a s s e s , p . 1 4 4 , I I . 4 9 -5 1 a .
7 O olom be*s B i r t h d a y , p . 247* 1 . 37 a .
8 P a r a c e l s u s , p . 23* 1 . 57 a .
9 tip a t a V illa -D o w n i n t h e C i t y , p . 1 7 4 , 1 1 . 3 1 -3 2 a .
10 J o o h a n a n H a k k a d o sh , p . 9 2 1 , 1 , 41 b .
11 B o r d e l l o , p . 9 8 , 11* 5 0 -5 1 b .
1 2 The E n g lish m a n i n I t a l y , p . 2 6 2 , 1 1 . 9 -1 0 a .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
57
L a t e r I n "The R in g and t h e Book.” come t h e s e e s t i m a t e s :
1.
— now s u c h r e d s an d b l u e s
As o n l y h e a v e n c o u l d f i t l y i n t e r f u s e , — 3.5
2*
A w re c k o f t a p e s t r y , p r o u d I y - p u r p o s e a web
When r e d s a m b l u e s w e re in d e e d r e d and b l u e , ^
A n u m b er o f t im e s b o o k s , one o f t h e f a v o r i t e im a g e s , a r e
re p re s e n te d in c o lo r ,
T h i s one f i t s
in. r i g h t h e r e :
W ith a l l t h e b i n d i n g a b l i s t e r .
And g r e a t b lu e s p o t s w h e re t h e i n k ’ h a s r u n
And r e d d i s h s t r e a k s t h a t w in k and g l i s t e r
O’ e r th e p a g e so b e a u t i f u l l y y e l l o w : 15
B ra v m ln g * s m ost- i m p o r t a n t b o o k i s " th e s q u a r e o l d y e llo w
B o o k .”16
Y e llo w I s u s e d m o st f o r h a i r c o l o r , a s i n h i s e a r l y
y e a r s h e m uch p r e f e r r e d t h a t c o l o r ,
" a m b e r, ”1 6 a n d " c o l o r e d l i k e
S u c h w o rd s a s " g o l d , " 1 *^
h o n e y w1^ d e s c r i b e t h e h e a d s .
Some u s e i s m ade o f s e c o n d a r y c o l o r s , b u t n o t so
m uch a lo n e a s i n c o m b i n a t i o n .
A lo n e g r e e n a p p e a r s i s
OA
" g r e e n - f l e s h m e lo n s n<iWand " g r e e n - g l a s e d m i n a r e t , "
2 1
but
l3 ^ E p ilo g u e t o B r a m a tis P e r s o n a e , p . 4 1 4 , I I *
5 -5 a ,
14 The K in g a n d th e B o o k , p . 415» 1 1 . 3 6 -3 7 a ,
15 B ib ra n d u s S c h a f n a b u r g e n s i s , p . 1 6 7 , 1 1 . 4 2 -4 5 a .
16 The R in g and t h e B o s k , p . 4 1 5 , 1 . 8 a .
17 A t o c c a t a a t G a lu p p i * s , p . 1 7 5 , 1 . 25 b .
18 S v e ly n H ope, p* 1 7 1 , 1 . 31 b .
19 B o r d e l l o , p., 8 5 , 1 . 36 a .
20 Be G u s t i b u s , p . 1 7 8 , 1 . 58 b .
21 S o r d e l l o , p . 9 2 , 1 . 4 2 a .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
58
u s u a lly g re e n i s
s u g g e s te d by m e ta ls * " g r e e n i s h t o n g u e l e t
pp
l i c k e d fro m b r a s s ;
o r by some, g e m - lik e b r i l l i a n c e * a s
i n " e m e ra ld s h a f t s
" e m e r a ld l u z e r n ; "24 0r i n c h a n g in g
25
g r e e n * a s " t h a t e y e a k i n d l i n g c h ry s o p ra s .«
C om bined
c o lo r i s b e a u tif u l in
A l e n s ,, t o d ra p e
I n ru b y * e m e r a ld , e h r y s o p r a s .
.
P u r p l e we f i n d i n a gem a l s o :
And t h i s l e a p s r u b y , t h i s l u r k s a m e th y s t.
27
X t a p p e a r s i n t e r e s t i n g l y i n m o re e v e r y - d a y p i c t u r e s :
1.
And g o u r d s f r i e d i n g i e a t p u r p l e s l i c e s *
T h at c o lo r o f p o p e s,
2*
Prom s t a l w a r t s t r i d e r b y w a g o n - s i d e .
B r i g h t e n i n g t h e a c r e w ith h i s p u r p l e b l o u s e 2”
M o st p o e t i c i s t h i s p u r p l e i n " t h e halo- i r i s e d , ” y
R e tu r n i n g t o gems we f i n d
p o rtra it.
t o p a z s u g g e s t i n g a w h o le
(T he w o n d e r o f B r o w n in g 's p o r t r a i t s i s f r e s h
2 2 ~ fh e Two F o o t s o f C r o i s i c , p . 8 5 9 , 1 . 13 b .
23 P a u l i n e , p . 9 , 1* 21 a .
24 Red C o tto n M ig h t-C ap C o u n tr y , p . 7 3 6 , 1 . 10 a .
25 F i f i n e a t t h e F a i r , p* 7 1 5 , 1 . 22 b ,
26 P r o lo g u e t o I s o l a n d o , p . 9 8 7 , 1 1 . 1 2 -1 3 a .
27 E p ilo g u e t o D r a m a t i s 1P e r s o n a e , p . 4 1 3 , 1» 23 b .
2 8 T he E n g lish m a n i n I t a l y , p . 2 6 0 , 1 1 , 4 7 - 4 8 b .
29 R ed C o tto n H ig b t-O a p C o u n t r y , p . 7 3 7 , 1 1 . 4 9 -5 0 'b,
30 E p ilo g u e t o F e r i s h t a h f s A n c l e s , p . 9 4 7 , 1 . 8 a .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
59:
th r o u g h a l l h i e p a g e s ...|
B row n, a n d s h a d e s o f b ro w n o c c u r t
.B r i s e i l l a l e f t me f o r a B r a b a n t l o r d
W hose c h e e k w a s l i k e t h e topaz on h i s thumb*
O tter bro w na a r e u s e d i n g r e a t v a r i e t y * an d a r e one o f t t e
s in g l© c o l o r s t h e p o e t u s e s b e s t .
They a r e r e a l i s t i c and
b e a u tif u l a t o n c e in . images o f s o il* , w h ic h o c c u r o f t e n :
1.
Where t t e tjui-ok s a n d p i p e r s f l i t
I n and o u t th e ' m arl an d g r i t
T h a t seem s t© b reed item ,* brown, a s t h e y ,
2,
t h e m ounds
Of r e d e a r t h f ro m a& ose s i d e s s t r a n g e t r e e s grow oat***5
3,.
Y o u * re t h e brows, p lo u g h e d M M b e f o r e * wimr©
o x e n stea m a n d wheeze3&
4.
Oh, good g i g a n t i c m il®
T h is autumn m om ingl35
o* t h e brown, o l d e a r t h
Autumn b ro w n s i n I t a l y wha& n e tw o rk e d w ith brown1*36
e a c h w h i t e grape*, show ed ".some b u r s t s p r i g * ,,^7 a n d ”t w i s t e d
d e a d v in e - t w ig s ."38 A m ore unusual p l a c e 1 m b ro w n com es isAh* do you m ark t e e b ro w n o ’ t t e c lo u d s * m ade
b r i g h t w ith , f i r e
31 C o lo m b e te B ir th d a y * p . 247-, 1 1 . 5 0 -5 1 b .
32 'P a r a c e l s u s , p . 4 4 , 11* 3 1 -3 3 b .
33 I b i d .* p . 24* 11* 5 3 -5 9 a .
34 Up a t
a V i l l a — Down in . t h e C i t y , p* 1 7 4 , 1.- 26 a .
35 Among t t e
S o c k s , p . 3 7 5 , 11* 9 -1 0
b.
36 The- E n g lis h m a n i n I t a l y , p . 260* 1 . 22 a*
37 t o *
1 - 37 a .
36 l o o « o i t . * 1* 47 a#
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
60
T h ro u g h a n d t h r o u g h ?
a s , o l d w i l e s s u c c e e d in g
to- d e s i r e , * "
B ro w n in g * e o b s e r v a t i o n s o f g r a y a r e m ore o r i g i n a l
t h a n m o st p e o p le s* * .
H e re i s a n o t h e r b o o k s
O r, my s c r o f u l o u s F r e n c h n o v e l
..
On g r a y p a p e r w i t h l i m i t t y p e l ^
G ra y g r a p e s a r e n ' t o u r u s u a l i m a g e - - " g r a y a s a n
grape.
unripe
B a r do we s e e g r a y m o o n s:
t h e s o o n b r e a k s t h r o u g h , a g r a y m ean s c a l e a g a i n s t
the v a u l t ! 2
D e f i n i t i o n f o r t h e a d j e c t i v e a s w e l l a s k e e n o b s e r v a t i o n make
t h i s p i c t u r e an d t h i s o ld b e l i e f s tr a n g e ly p le a s in g }
To a .m ilk r i v e r t h a t m akes o x e n w h i t e
M i r a c u l o u s l y , u n - m o u s e - c o lo r s s k in .,
O r so t h e Roman c o u n tr y p e o p le d rea m,43
The g r a y o f s t o n e s , h a i r , e y e s , and w e a t h e r i s m ore u s u a l
and i s fo u n d i n a b u n d a n c e .
A p i c t u r e l i k e th e f o l l o w i n g ,
a lth o u g h o f t e n u s e d b y p o e t s , i s a lw a y s l o v e l y :
And t h e h i l l s o v e r-s m o k e d b e h in d b y the f a i n t g r a y
o liv e tr e e s .
N o t i c e how o v e r-s m o k e d d o u b le s t h e g r a y and m akes t h i s t r e e
39 F i f i n e a t t h e F a i r , p* 7 0 6 , 11* 1 - 2 b .
40 S o l i l o q u y o f th e S p a n is h C l o i s t e r , p* 1 6 8 , 1 1 . 27- 28 a .
4 1 S o r d e l l o , p . 1 2 3 , 1* 28 a*
4 2 I b i d . . p . 1 1 9 , 1 1 . 5 3 -5 4 b .
43 P r i n c e lio k e n s tie l- S c k w a n g a u , S a v i o r o f S o c i e t y ,
p . 6 9 9 , 11. 4 9 -5 1 a .
4 4 Up a t a V i l l a — Down i n t h e C i t y , p l ? 4 > 1 . 27 a .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
61
im a g e ry B ro w n in g ’ s own.
The d i c t i o n o f t h i s n e x t s t a n z a
d o e s s o m e th in g f o r t r e e s t h a t 1 t h i n k p l a c e s B ro w n in g h i g h
a h o y # m o st w o r d - p a i n t e r s o f t r e e s a n d p l a n t s ?
And t h e l e a f - b u d s ©a t h e T i n e s a r e w o o l l y ,
I n o t i c e d th a t- to d a y ?
One d a y m ore b u r s t s them ©pen f u l l y
— T on know t h e r e d t u r n s g r a y . 45
-gink i s a m o st t m p o e t i e s o u n d , h u t Browning u ses, t h e
i d e a so w e l l t h a t we s e e t h e t r e e s a n d f o r g e t t h e sound?
!•
a t la s t
P i n k l e a f l e t s b u d d ed on t h e b e a c h ^
2.
S h o u ld y e a r n f o r t h i s f i r s t la r c h - b lp o m
c r i s p -and pinfc47
T h e r e i s d e f i n i t e b e a u ty i n ’’t h i s p i n k p e r f e c t i o n o f t h e
c y c l a m e n . "4® When t h e i d e a i s
e x p r e s s e d i n r o s e we hay®
w h a t p o e t s n e a r l y a l l , fro m H om er o n , h a y # m ade u s a c c u s to m e d
to .
B u t i s ’’t h e .r o s y - f i n g e r e d dawn'1* b e t t e r th a n t h i s ?
T he en d m o st snow?
And s e e a r o s e - l i g h t d y e s
H i s d aw n , H i s d a y , H i s s a f e
a t home 14-9
.B lack a n d w h i t e a p p e a r s o o f t e n i n d e s c r i p t i o n s o f
f a c e s and a s f o i l s f o r e a c h o th e r a n t f o r o t h e r c o l o r s t h a t
a s h o r t l i s t o f th o s e w i l l s u f f i c e .
A g a in , n a t u r e s u g g e s t s
45 "The L o s t M i s t r e s s , p . 17©, 1 1 . 5 -8 a .
46 S o r d e l l o , p* 8 3 ,
1 . 47
47 I b i d . . p . 9 3 , 1 .
19 a .
4# La S a i s a i z , p.. 8 4 9 ,
49 I r a n I y a n o r itc h ,
i*
b.
13 to.
p . 883., 1 1 . 21.-22 to.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
62
c o n c re te p i c t u r e s :
1.
A b r u i s e d b l a c k - b lo o d e d m u l b e r r y ;
2.
T h e ir s o o t y r a n k s , caw a n d c o n f a b u l a t e — 51
T h is n e x t b la c k i s s u r p r i s i n g :
Tiie k i n g b a i l e d b i s k e e p e r , a n A ra b ,
A s g l o s s y a n d b l a c k a s a s c a r a b , 52
Of c o u r s e t h e r e a r e c o u n t l e s s r e f e r e n c e s t o b l a c k h a i r a n d
e y e s b e c a u s e so m any o f B ro w n in g 1 s p e o p le h a v e th e m .
B e c a u s e B ro w n in g i s .so e n e r g e t i c a n d s e e s so- c o m p l e t e l y ,
Mush o f b i s im a g e ry w i l l b e a c o m b in a tio n o f c o l o r s .
H e re a r e
a fe w o f t h e m o st p l e a s i n g and m o s t s t r i k i n g :
1,
— g a t h e r f r u i t s o f on® g r e a t gat®
A t t h e m oon: l o o k y o u ! The same ©rang® h a z e , —
The sam e b lu e s t r i p e ro u n d t h a t — an d ., i n t h e
m i d s t a. s p e c t r a l w h i t e n e s s , ? !
2.
F a n c y t h e P a m p a s’ s h e e n i
M ile s a n d m i l e s o f g o ld a n d g r e e n
W here t h e s u n f l o w e r s b lo w
I n a s o l i d glow
And— t o b r e a k m m and t h e n th e s c r e e n —
B la c k n e c k and e y e b a l l s k e e n ,
Bp
3-.
a
w ild
h o rse
le a p s
b e t w e e n , 54 -
S h a l l we s a i l r o u n d a n d ro u n d th e m , c l o s e o v e r
The r o c k s , - t h o u g h u n s e e n ,
T h at r u f f l e th e g ra y g la s s y w a te r
To g l o r i o u s g r e e n ? * ?
50 T h e F l i g h t o f t h e D u c h e s s , p . 2 7 4 , 1 . 29 b .
51 B ed C o tto n B ig h t-G a p C o u n tr y , p . 7 6 8 , 1 . 56 b .
52 The G lo v e , p . 2 5 6 , 1 1 . 51*52 b .
53
S o r d e l l o , p . 8 0 , 1 1 . 1 5 -1 8 a .
54 A l o v e r s * ' Q u a r r e l , p.. 1 7 3 ,. 11* 8 * 1 4 a .
55 The- E n g lish m a n i n I t a l y , p . 26-1, 1 1 . 3 1 -3 4 a .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
63
4.
W h ile a n o t h e r p i c k s
And. p u t s aw ay e v en p e b b l e s , w hen a c h i l d ,
B e c a u se o f b lu is h , s p o t s and p i n k y , v e i n s —
*Giv e M a f o r t h w i t h a p a i n t - b o x l5 6
5.
W here on© s m a ll o ra n g e , cup a m a sse d
F i v e b e e t l e s , — b l i n d and g r o a n t h e y g r o p e
Among t h e iio n e y -m e a l: 57
The ra in b o w i s sp o k e n o f m any t i m e s ,
so m e tim e s a s a sym bol
o f hop© a n d m o s t t i m e s a s a n im a g e o f c o l o r .
T he p r e t t i e s t
re fe re n c e i s p e rh a p s
L a u g h in g w i t h l u c i d d e w -d ro p s r a i n b o w - e d g e d .58
B u t t h e ra in b o w i s n e v e r b ro k e n up i n t o s e p a r a t e c o l o r s
a s .is t h i s b ia s e s
T h in g s f u r n i s h y o u r o s e - f l a m e ,
W hich b a r n up r e d , green.-,- b l u e ,, n a y , y e llo w m ore t h a n
n e e d s . 59
E f f e c t s o f l i g h t , a n d s h a d e seem t o me m ore v i v i d l y
p r e s e n t e d b y B ro w n in g t h a n b y a n y o t h e r w r i t e r I h a v e
n o tic e d .
W here - e ls e i s s u c h c o - o p e r a t i o n on t h e r e a d e r 1 s
p a r t c a lle d f o r th a s in :
1,
~
'
a b ro w n p a i r
O f haw ks fr o m t h e wood f l o a t w i t h w id e w in g s
S tra in e d t o a b e l l i
♦ g a i n s t n o o n -d a y g l a r e
You c o u n t t h e s t r e a k s ’a nd r i n g s . ° 0
i n r .
S lu d g e , "The M edium *, p . 4 0 6 , 1 1 , 4 2 -4 5 a ,
57 Two i n t h e C a a p a g n a , p . 1 8 9 , 1 1 , 2 2 -2 4 a .
58 S o r d e l l o , p . 8 0 , 1 , 4 7 b ,
59 F i f i n e a t t h e F a i r , , p . 7 1 5 , I I .
1 4 -1 6 a .
60 By t h e F i r e s i d e , p . 1 8 6 , .11, 2 8 -3 1 b .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
64
2*
I l a y and lo o k e d a t th e s u n ,
f lie n o o n - s a il lo o k e d a t m e:
B etw een a s t w o , n o o n e
B i t e c r e a t u r e , t h a t I c o u ld see..
T e s t T h e re came f l o a t i n g , b y
H e , who l a y f l o a t i n g t o o ,
Such a s t r a n g e b u t t e r f l y '! :
C r e a tu r e a s d e a r a s new :
B e c a u s e t h e m em braned w in g s
So w o n d e r f u l , so w id e .
So s u n - s u f f u s e d , w e re t h i n g s
,
l i k e s o u l a n d n a u g h t b e s i d e . ^-
3.
T he h e rd e d p i n e s coasaune a n d h a r e d e e p t h o u g h t s ,
A s e c r e t t h e y a s s e m b le to - d i s c u s s
When th e s u n d r o p s b e h in d t h e i r t r u n k s w h ic h g l a r e
l i k e g a te s o f h e l l s 62
4.
On t h e a r c h w h e re o l i v e s o v e rh e a d
'P r i n t th e b l u e s k y w i t h t w i g a n d l e a f : . '* ■
T h i s f i n a l ex am p le i s a n i c e l i t t l e
e p ig r a m : -
M e a su re y o rrm in d * s h e i g h t b y th e s h a d e i t e a s t s .
64
The a b o v e e x a m p le s l a v e s e v e r a l t i m e s i l l u s t r a t e d
j u s t a s v i v i d l y im a g e s o f form a s im a g e s o f c o lo r *
The
t e c h n i q u e h e r e ,, h o w e v e r, f o l l o w s c e r t a i n t r e n d s w h ic h th e
f o l l o w i n g e x a m p le s a t t e m p t t o show :
The s i l h o u e t t e fro m "How T h ey B ro u g h t t h e Good News
fr o m G h e n t t o A ix " i s w e ll-k n o w n :
6T P r o lo g u e t o F i f i n e a t t h e F a i r , p . 7 0 1 , 11* 5 - 1 6 a ,
62 P a r a c e l s u s , , p . 4 7 , 1 1 . 1 6 -2 1 a .
63 O ld P i c t u r e ® i n F l o r e n c e , p . 1 7 6 , 1 1 . 2 5 -2 6 a .
64 P a r a c e l s u s , p . 3 2 , 1 . I f b .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
A t A e r s h o t , up le a p e d o f a s u d d e n th e su n ,.
55
And a g a i n s t i d s t h e c a t t l e s t o o d b la c k e v e r y on©,
66
A ls o b i s t o r s e * s e a r ,. " j u s t on e s h a r p e a r b e n t b a c k ,
a n d a n o t h e r h o r s e ’ s e a r , " t h e t h i n s t i f f © ar l i k e a n a b b e y
s p ir e i”^
a r e c l e a r im a g e s o f s h a p e .
B ro w n in g ’ s l o v e o f t h r e e m akes f r e q u e n t p l e a s i n g
little
s u g g e s tio n s o f f lo w e r s and p l a n t s :
1.
D a i s i e d t u r f g i v e s room t o
T r e f o i l , p lu c k e d o n e# i n h e r p r e s e n c e — 68
2.
l e t our la u re ls l ie I
B r a id e d m o o n fe rn now w i t h m y s t i c t r i f o l y 'm
3,
A s l i g h t f l o w e r g ro w in g a l o n e , and o f f e r i n g
jq
I t s f r a i l c u p o f t h r e e l e a v e s t o th e c o l d s u n .
J u s t a s p l e a s i n g l y he d ra w s a l e a f o f f i v e p a r t s ;
O ur f i g - t r e e , , t h a t l e a n e d fo r th © s a l t n e s s , h a s .f u r le d
B ar f iv e fin g e rs ,
E a c h l e a f l i k e a ' hand o p en ed w id e t o t h e w o r l d 1
A n e e d l e - s h a p e d t r e e a g a i n s t th e
1,
sk y i s a f a v o r i t e p a t t e r n :
by th o rn -ro w s
A l i v e w i t h l a m p - f l i e s , sw im m ing s p o t s o f f i r e -
65 Bow T hey B ro u g h t t h e Good Mews fro m G hent t o A ix ,
p . 1 6 5 , 11. 7 -6 a .
66 l o o , p i t , , 1 , 1.3 a ,
6 7 The F l i g h t o f th e D u c h e s s , p . 2 7 3 , 1 . 43 a .
68 F l u t e - M u s i c w i t h a n A c co m p a n im en t, p . 1000 , 1 1 . 2 -3
6 9 S o r d e l l o , p . 9 2 , 1 1 . 3 3 -3 4 b .
«■
70 P a u l i n e , p . 8 , I I . 3 7 -3 8 b*
71 I n t h e B o o rw a y , p . 3 7 3 , 1 1 . 2 1 -2 3 b .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
And dew , o u t l i n i n g th e b l a c k c y p re s s *
2..
s p ire
72
And one s h a r p t r e e — * t i s a c yp r e s s — s t a n d s 7 3
l o t i c e i n th e f i r s t e x a m p le hovt much m o re t h e r e i s o f
im a g e ry b e s i d e s t h e s h a p e o f t h e t r e e - .
o f t h e s e m o u n ta in s .
The same i s t r u e
M o u n ta in s a r e n o t o f t e n f o u n d i n
B row ning*® im a g e r y , b u t h e r e a r e tw o t o o v i v i d t o m is s ;
1.
Sc©:, i n t h e e v e n in g - g lo w .
How s h a r p t h e s i l v e r - s p e a r - h e a d s c h a r g e
When A lp m e e ts h e a v e n i n sn o w !74
2.
s tr a n g e g ro u p s
O f y o u n g v o l c a n o s come u p , e y e l o p s e - l i k e ,
S t a r i n g t o g e t h e r w i t h e y e s o f f la m e — 75
M ore u s u a l a r e h i l l s a n d p i l e s o f s t o n e s , b u t t h e y a r e
se ld o m c o m f o r t a b l e h i l l s .
Mot i c e th e h a r s h s t r o n g o u t l i n e
1.
I c r o s s e d a r i d g e o f s h o r t s h a rp b ro k e n h i l l s
L ik e an o l d lio n * '® c h e e k t e e t h . 7 6
2.
How d o e s i t s t r i k e y o u , t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n
g a u n t and g r a y —
S o l e o b je c t , t h o s e p i l e d s t o n e s , t h a t g le a m
u n g ro u n d aw ay
By t w i l i g h t ' s h u n g ry Jaw , w h ic h Champs f i n e
a l l b e s id e
I* t h e s o l i t a r y w a s t e we g r o p e t h r o u g h ? '*
3.
*Mid ro c k chasm s a n d p i l e s o f l o o s e s t o n e s
L ik e th e l o o s e b ro k e n t e e t h
72 S o r d e l l o , p . 9 3 , 1 1 . 2 3 -2 $ b .
73 De G u s t i b u s , p . 1 7 8 , 1 . 47 b .
74 By th e F i r e s i d e , p . 1 8 $ , 1 1 . 3 3 -3 5 a .
7.5 P a r a c e l s u s , p . 4 6 , 1 1 . 1 6 -1 8 b .
76 An E p i s t l e , p . 3 4 0 , 1 1 . 4 3 -4 4 b .
77 F i f i n e a t t h e F a i r , p . 7 3 1 , 1 1 . 6 - 9 b .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
6?
Of some m o n s te r w h ic h c lim b e d t h e r e t o d ie
fro m t h e o c e a n b e n e a th — 7$
The c o n s t a n t r e i t e r a t i o n
of t e e th in th e s e c o n fig u ra tio n s
i s a s t r i k i n g e x a m p le o f a B ro w n in g t r e n d i n im a g e ry .
O b serv e
how much t h e s e hom es on h i l l s r e s e m b le i n t e c h n i q u e , i f n o t
i n s a t i s f a c t i o n t o th e o c c u p a n t:
1.
W e ll now , l o o k a t o u r v i l l a !
s tu c k l i k e th e
h o rn o f a b u l l
l u s t on a m o u n ta in
he
2*
W hat I lov® b e s t in. a l l t h e w o r ld
I s a c a s t l e , p re c ip ie e -e h c u rle d
I n a g a s h i n t h e w i n d - g r i e v e d A p e n n in e .80
A r c h it e c t u r e , o f c o u r s e , s u g g e s ts a w e a lth of fo rm s,
u s u a lly
i n f a i r l y c o m p lex s t a t e m e n t , b u t i n c l e a r s u g g e s t i o n s
o f im a g e ry :
1.
O ver th e w a t e r s o f th e v a p o r o u s W est
The su n g o e s down i n a s p h e r e o f g o ld
B e h in d th e a m o f t h e c i t y , vsfo i c h b e tw e e n ,
W ith a l l t h a t l e n g t h o f dom es and m i n a r e t s .
A th w a r t t h e s p l e n d o r , b l a c k a n d c ro o k e d r u n s
L ik e a T urk' v e rs® a lo n g a s c i m i t a r .
T h e re l i e , s u l l e n M e m o ria l, and no m ore
P o s s e s s my a c h in g s i g h t ! 81
2.
By t h e p o r t a l — e n t e r , a n d , c o n c e d e t h e r e mocks
E ach l o v e r o f f r e e m o tio n a i d much s p a c e
A p e r p l e x e d l e n g t h o f a p s e an d a i s l e and n a v e , —
78 The E n g lish m a n i n I t a l y , p . 2 6 1 , 1 1 . 3 6 -3 9 a .
79 Bp a t a V i l l a — ©own i n t h e C i t y , p . 1 7 4 , 1 1 . 1 4 -1 5 a .
80 De G u s t i b u s , p . 1 7 8 , 1 1 . 3 8 -4 0 a .
81 P a r a c e l s u s , p . 1 9 , 11* 3 5 -4 2 b .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
68
P i l l a r e d r o o f a n d c a r v e d s c r e e n , and w h a t © are I ? —
3.
A h, th e a l i a c a s t l e ! d w in d le d o f l a t e y e a r s ,
B ut m o re m y s t e r i o u s ; g o n e t o r u i n — t r a i l s
Of v ia© th r o u g h e v e r y l o o p - h o l e , N au g h t a v a i l s
The n i g h t a s , t o r c h i n h a n d , he m u s t e x p l o r e
The m a p le c h a m b e r: d i d I s a y i t s f l o o r
Was m ade o f i n t e r s e c t i n g c e d a r beam s?
Worn now w i t h g a p s so l a r g e , t h e r e b le w c o l d s tr e a m s
Of a i r q u i t e fro m t h e .dungeon;, l a y y o u r e a r
C lo s e a n d * ti& l i k e , on© a f t e r o n e , you h e a r
I n th e b lin d d a rk n e s s w a te r d ro p .
How m uch im a g e ry b e s i d e s t h a t o f fo rm t h e r e i s t o f i n d i n
su c h d e s c r i p t i o n !
The t o u c h o f c o ld a i r &M t h e
d r o p p in g w a t e r a r e j u s t a s v i v i d
a r e t h e s i g h t im a g e s i t
sound o f
i n t h i s l a s t c o m b in a tio n a s
i s used to i l l u s t r a t e .
F o r so u n d im a g e ry i n B row ning* s poem s t h e r e i s v a r i e t y ,
b u t t h e r e a r e n o t g r e a t n u m b ers o f im a g e s :
The w in d s l i p s w h i s p e r i n g fro m bough t o bough®4
i s p le a s in g .
So a r e b i r d
so u n d s:
1.
S p i n , p r a y , t h e n s i n g l i k e l i n n e t s o * e r t h e f l a x . 65
2.
We s h a l l h a v e th e w o rd
I n a m in o r t h i r d ,
T h e re i s n o n e b u t t h e c u ck o o know s.
3.
T h a t* s a wi se t h r u s h ; h e s i n g s e a c h so n g tw ic e
l e s t y o u s h o u ld t h i n k h e n e v e r c o u ld r e c a p t u r e
over
82 T rin e © H o h e n s tie l- S c h w a n g a u , S a v i o r o f S o c i e t y ,
p. 688, 11. 23-26 a.
83 S o r d e l l o , p . 9 2 , 1 1 . 5 0 -5 6 a , a n d 1 1 . 1 - 3 - b .
84 P a r a c e l s u s , p . 3 4 , 1 . 29 a .
85 The l i n g a n d t h e B ook, p . 4 3 8 , 1 . 19 a .
86 A h o v e rs * Q u a r re l., p . 173» 1 1 . 3 4 -3 6 b .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
69
The f i r s t f i n e c a r e l e s s r a p t u r e !
F a v o r i t e i n s e c t s o u n d s a r e t h o s e o f t h e c i c a l a who " d a r e d
c a r o u s e o r
" t h e v e r y c i c a l a l a u g h s , a n <j " t h e im p la c a b le
90
c ic a la * s c ry ."
S om etim es t h e r e i s n o t p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n
l i k e t h i s , b u t p e o p le th e m s e lv e s make t h e so u n d s*
1«
P u rs u in g h i s d is c o u r s e : a g ra n d u n ch eck ed
M onotony m ade o u t of h i s q u ic k t a l k
Q_
And th e r e c u r r i n g n o i s e s o f h i s w a l k ; " 1
2*
T hen h e a v e s a b r o a d h i s c a r e s i n one g o o d s i g h , 92
3.
O v id ia n q u ip o r C i c e r o n i a n c r a n k ,
A -b u b le i n t h e l a r y n x w h ile h e l a u g h s ,
As h e had f r i t t e r s d e e p down f r y i n g t h e r e . 95
F r y i n g c a n b e u s e d h o r r i d l y , a s in t h e s e l i n e s fro m a t o r t u r e
se e n ® ;
H e l l —-are t h e y s p r i n k l i n g f i r © t o o ? T he b lo o d f r i e s
And h i s s e s on y o u r b r a s s g l o v e s a s t h e y tear***A c r e a k i n g h in g e i s a r e a l r e l i e f a f t e r t h a t , e v e n i f t h e
a u t h o r d o e s m ind
th e g r u f f
H in g e *s i n v a r i a b l e s c o l d
"
11 " W 'H o a e T h o u g h ts fro m A b ro a d , p . 1 7 9 , 11*. 1 1 -1 6 a*
88 P ip p a P a s s e s , p . 1 3 0 , 1 . 51 b .
89 I b i d . . p . 1 3 9 , 1 . 17 b .
90 The R in g and t h e B o o k , p . 443* 1 . 51 b .
91 S o r d e l l o , p . 1 1 9 , 11* 3 4 -3 6 a .
92 The R in g a n d t h e B o o k , p . 4 2 6 , 1 . 6 a .
93 I b i d . , p . 4 2 5 , 11* 1 5 -1 7 a*
94 S o r d e l l o , p . 1 0 8 , 1 1 . 2 0 -2 1 a .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
70
M aking my r e r y b lo o d r u n c o l d . 95
Or even t h i s :
I
s i t o f e v e n in g s — s i l e n c e , sa v e f o r b i s c u i t c r u n c h , 96
As m ig h t be e x p e c t e d , a m u s ic ia n w o u ld i n c l u d e m any r e f e r ­
e n c e s to m u s ic a l so u n d s ,
T h e se a r e s u g g e s t e d b y " t h e l y r e
a lo n g , s u f f i c e d , **97 t y **belle now m u te can j i n g l e ,* 9 8
f l a u t i s t 's
a
" t o o t l i n g s h o a rs © a n d h u s k y , ” 99 o r b y " t h e s e v e n -
s trin g e d to r to is e - s h e ll.
B e c a u s e o f t e n " R o b e r t B ro w n in g
a t t h e o r g a n c h a s e d a f u g u e " 101 we h e a r a t o c c a t a w i t h i t s
su d d e n s t o p s ;
1,
W hat?
T h o se l e s s e r t h i r d s so p l a i n t i v e , s i x t h s
d i m i n i s h e d , s i g h on s i g h ,
T o ld th em s o m e th in g ? T h o se s u s p e n s i o n s ,
t h o s e s o l u t i o n s — "M ust we d i e ? "
T h o se c o m m is e r a tin g s e v e n t h s — " L if e m ig h t
la s t!
we can b u t t r y ! "1 0 2
2.
B u g u e sl I a d v i s e m ea p o e n a
{ C o u n te r p o in t g l a r e s l i k e a G orgon)
B id One, Two, T h r e e , F o u r , F i v e , c l e a r t h e a r e n a !
S a y t h e w o rd , s t r a i g h t I u n s to p t h e f u l l o r g a n ,
B l a r e o u t t h e a o d e B a l e s t g in s .. IQ 3
’ "95 C h r i s t a i a s - E v e , p . 3 1 6 , 1 1 . 2 3 -2 5 b .
96 C l i v e , p .
393, !•
10 b .
97 S o r d e l l o ,
p . 8 9 , 1 . 46 b ,
98 F i f i n e a t
t h e F a i r , p . 7 0 S , 1 . 37
a.
99 F l u t e - M u s i c , w i t h a n A c co m p a n im en t, p . 1 0 0 0 , 1 . 25 a .
100 B s r a J c le s ,
p . 6 6 7 , 1* 41 a .
101 $ T o c c a ta
o f G a l l u p i *s , p . 1 7 5 , 11*
1 5 -1 6 a .
162 h o c . c i t . , 1 1 . 3 -5 b .
103 M a s te r H ugues o f S a x e -G o th a , p . 1 9 7 , 1 1 . 6 -1 0 b .
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71
3.
I f e e l fo r t h e common e h o rd a g a i n ,
S l i d i n g by s e m ito n e s t i l l 1 sirsk to th e
m in o r ,— y e s ,
And I b l u n t i t i n t o a n i n t h , and 1 s t a n d on
a l i e n g ro u n d ,
S u r v e y in g a w h ile t h e h e i g h t s 1 r o l l e d fro m
i n to th e d e e p ;
W h ic h , h a r k , I h av e d a r e d a n d d o n e , f o r my
r e s t in g - p l a c e i s fo u n d ,
The C M a jo r o f t h i s l i f e :
s o , now I w i l l
t r y t o s le e p .1 & 4
The a n a c o lu t h o n o f t h o s e t h r e e s c a t t e r e d e x a m p le s i s so
s im ila r th a t i t
v a rie ty ,
r e p r e s e n ts a tr e n d in te c h n iq u e , b u t n o t in
A m ore v a r i e d e x am p le w i l l b e good f o r a c o n ­
c lu s io n to t h i s p a r t o f t h e d is c u s s io n :
The so u n d im a g e ry
a n d e m o tio n a l i n t e n s i t y o f " M e e tin g a t M ig h t" a r e accom ­
p l i s h e d b y s h o r t , q u i e t w o rd s , o n o m a to p o e tic o f t e n :
A t a p a t t h e p a n e , t h e q u ic k s h a r p s c r a t c h
And b lu e s p u r t o f a l i g h t e d m a tc h ,
And a v o i c e l e s s l o u d , t h r o u g h i t s j o y s and f e a r s ,
Than tw o h e a r t s b e a t i n g e a c h t o e a e h jl® 5
C on son an ce, a sso n a n ce ,
and d is s o n a n c e a r e p r o b a b l y th e
s e c r e t of th e p e rfe c tio n h e re .
The r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l n u m b e rs o f im a g e s o f t a s t e
an d s m e ll w i l l be shown by f e w e r e x a m p le s .
T h e re a r e i d e a s
t h a t h a v in g b u r s t l i k e a b u b b le " fo u n d s o a p s u d s b i t t e r t o
t h e t o n g u e *"106 T h e re a r e w o rd s t h a t " b i t e l i k e s a l t . " ^ ^
1 0 4 A bt V o g l e r , p . 3 8 3 , 11- 1 3 -1 * h .
105 M e e tin g a t B i g h t, p l ? 0 , 1 1 . 9 -1 2 b .
106 The B in g and t h e B o o k , p . 4 3 1 , 1* 49 a .
1 0 ? J P ifin e a t t h e F a i r , p . 7 3 5 , 1 . 22 a .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
72
O ld p e r f u m e s h e l p r e p r e s e n t t h e t r e a s u r e s i n " P a r a c e l s u s : ”
1.
And s t r e w f a i n t s w e e tn e s s fro m some o ld
E g y p tia n *s f i n e w o rm -e a te n s h ro u d
W hich b r e a k s t o d u s t w hen -once u n r o l l e d ;
Or s h r e d d e d p e rfu m e l i k e a c lo u d
Prom c l o s e t lo n g t o q u i e t vowed-,
W ith m o th ad a n d d r o p p in g a r r a s h u n g ,
M o u ld e rin g h e r l u t e a n d b o o k s am ong,
As when a q u e e n , lo n g d e a d , w as y o u n g .108
I n t h e n e x t e x am p le s m e ll i s s o co m b in ed w ith t o u c h t h a t
t h e r e i s n o s e p a r a t i n g th em :
I n came th e c o u n t r y s o u n d s a n d s i g h t s a n d
s m e lls — th a t f in e
S h a rp n e e d l e i n t h e n o s e fro m o u r
^
fe rm e n tin g w in e J 10“
Somewhat th e same s e n s a t i o n o f t o u c h com es a few
l i n e s l a t e r i n t h e sam e poem:
To g iv e me one© a g a i n th e e l e c t r i c sn ap and
sp a rk
W hich p r o v e , w h en f i n g e r f i n d s o u t f i n g e r
i n t h e d a r k 110
T o u ch a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m o tio n i n t h e s e a r c h f o r
i s made r e a l i s t i c
by B ro w n in g .
seme t h i n g
A g ain i t i s t h r o u g h a k in d
o f p o r t r a i t p a in tin g :
1..
T h e a is to k le s —
S u r e l y h i s m ere b a c k - s t r e t c h o f h and c o u ld s t i l l
F i n d , n o t so l o s t i n d a r k , O d u s s e u s f — h e
H o ld in g a s s u r e l y on t o H e r a k l e s , —
Who to u c h e d Z e u s , l i n k b y l i n k , t h e
u n - r u p t u r e d c h a i n J 111
108 P a r a c e l s u s , p . 3 6 , 11* 4 -1 1 b .
109 F i f i n e a t th e F a i r ,
p . 7 2 4 , 1 1 . 3 2 -3 3 a .
110 I b i d . , p . 7 2 5 , 1 1 . 1 7 -1 8 a .
111 The L a s t A d v e n tu re o f B a l a n a t i o n , p . 6 4 6 , 1 1 . 5 1 -5 5 a .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
73
2.
F e e l i n g l y be e x t e n d s a f o o t
W hich t a s t e s th e w ay e r e i t t o u c h e s
l a r t h ’ s s o l i d a r t j u s t e s c a p e s man ’ s s o f t *
B o r b o ld o f th e sam e u s e d u t c h e s
T i l l i t s f e l l o w f o o t , l i g h t a s a f e a t h e r w h ic h ,
L ands i t s e l f ' no l e s s f in e ly :
So a m o th e r re m o v e s a f l y fro m th e f a c e
O f h e r b a b e a s l e e p s u p i n e l y . 112
B ro w n in g r e a l l y d o e s m ore w i t h a s e n s e o f m o tio n
th an , h e c a n w i t h m ere t o u c h ,
th a t.
T h e f o r e g o i n g e x a m p le s p r o v e
M o tio n i s n i c e l y s u g g e s t e d i n t h e s e t h r e e e x a m p le s
fo u n d som ew hat a t ran d o m :
1.
f i r i n g t h r e e h o y s a t th e b e llo w s ? 1^
2.
The t w e n t y - t w o - y e a r s - o l d f r a n k f o o t s t e p 13^
3.
A man o f r e a d y s m ile a n d f a c i l e
te a r ,
A tte m p te d o r p a r t l y a c c o m p lis h e d m o tio n i n f a c e s i s a b u n d a n t.
The b r e v i t y o f d i c t i o n i n p r o d u c i n g a w h o le p i c t u r e i s one
o f B ro w n in g ’ s su p rem e s k i l l s :
1.
F i n a l l y t h e l a s t s l e e p f i n d s th e eye
So t i r e d i t c a n n o t e v e n s h u t i t s e l f .
,
2.
S t a r t s so m ew h at, s o le m n iz e s s t r a i g h t h i s s m i l e ,
3.
And f o r a l l th e c r o n e ’ s s u b m is s iv e a t t i t u d e ,
I c o u ld s e e ro u n d h e r m outh th e l o o s e p l a i t s
tig h te n in g ,
l l l f D o n a l d , p . 3 2 , 1 1 . 49*52 b . , a n d p . 9 1 3 , 1 1 - 1 - 4 a .
113 M a s te r H agues o f S a x e -G o th a , p . 1 9 6 , 1 . 43 b .
1 1 4 Red C o tto n E ig h t- C a p C o tm try , p . 7 4 6 , 1 . 55 a .
115 The R in g and t h e B o o k , p . 4 2 5 , 1* 35 a - .
116 Bed C o tto n B ig h t- C a p C o u n t r y , p . 7 3 8 , 1 1 . 4 5 - 4 6 to.
117 The B in g and t h e B o o k , p . 4 2 5 , 1 . 53 b .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
74
And h e r brow w i t h a s s e n t i n g I n t e l l i g e n c e
b r i g h t e n i n g * **$
4.
l i k e a s m i l e s t r i v i n g w i t h a w r i n k l e d f a c e 3'1 ^ ,
5*
S i s h o llo w c h e e k
l o o k e d a l l n i g h t l o n g a s th o u g h a c r e e p i n g
la u g h
A t M s own s t a t e w e r e j u s t a b o u t t o b r e a k
From t h e d y in g m a n : * 2 0
V ig o r o u s a c t i o n i s so much t h e r u l e w i t h B ro w n in g t h a t we
can. p a s s t h a t by an d g i v e a n e x a m p le o r tw o o f e x a g g e r a tio n - ,
w h ic h i s n o t e x t r e m e , t o vshieh h e u s u a l l y g o e s *
He i s too
i n t e l l i g e n t f o r much l i k e t h e s e :
1.
S p in him a r o u n d a n d s e n d h im f l y i n g
O f f t o h e l l , 12*
2.
Had s t u n k th e p a t i e n t d e a d e r e h e c o u ld g ro a n *
I c u rs e d th e d o c to r , u p s e t th e b r o th e r ,
B ru s h e d p a s t th e c o n j u r e r , * 22
A m o st u n a c c o u n t a b l e a c t i o n i s m a n i f e s t i n th e a b u s e o f t h e
c
“ o l d y e llo w B o o k :*
—X to s s
I* t h e a i r , a n d c a t c h a g a i n , and t w i r l a b o u t
By t h e c ru m p le d v e llu m c o v e r s : * 2*
Much m o re p l e a s i n g i s t h i s p e r s i f l a g e :
118 The F l i g h t o f t h e D u c h e s s , p . 2 7 5 , 1 1 . 4 3 -4 5 a .
119 P a r a c e l s u s , p . 4 6 , 1 . 25 b .
120 I b i d . , p . 4 1 , 1 1 . 7 -1 0 a .
121 S o l i l o q u y o f t h e S p a n is h C l o i s t e r , p . 1 6 8 ,
1 . 2 5 -2 6 a .
122 P a r a c e l s u s , p . 2 9 , 11* 6 0 -6 2 a .
123 T he K in g a n d t h e B o o k , p . 4 * 5 , 1* 8 -1 0 a .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
75
O u t s t r i p p i n g my t e n s m a ll s t e p s w i t h one s t r i d e ?
The r e a l i s t i c
i s m o st n e a r l y a c c u r a t e :
1,
T h e s e c a p p in g s q u i c k , t h e s e c r o o k - a n d - c r i n g i n g s l o w .1 2 ?
2.
Q u i e t l y th r o u g h th e to w n t h e y rode- j o g - j o g i 2 6
I n t e r e s t i n g m o tio n s i n n a t u r e m ake a v i v i d b le n d h e r e :
H aught d i s t u r b s th e q u i e t w ay,
S ave a l a z y s t o r k th a t s p r i n g s ,
T r a i l i n g i t w i t h l e g s a n d w in g s*
Whom th e s l y f o x fro m t h e h i l l
R o u s e s , c r e e p he n e ’ e r so s t i l l *^27
One o f B ro w n in g s m o st f a s c i n a t i n g
im a g e s o f m o tio n
i s t h a t o f r i s i n g smoke o r t h e s u g g e s t i o n o f sm oke:
1.
From t h e v o l c a n o ’ s v a p o r - f l a g w in d s h o i s t
B la c k o ’ e r t h e s p r e a d o f s e a , — 128
2.
Mow t h a t I , t y i n g t h y g l a s s
May g a z e th r o u g h t h o s e f a i n
c u rlin g
As t h o u p l i e s t t h y t r a d e I n
3.
L a r c h e s s c a t t e r e d th r o u g h th e p i n e - t r e e s o l i t u d e s
B r i g h t e n e d , " a s I n t h e slu m b e ro u s h e a r t o f t h e w oods
O ur b u r i e d y e a r , a w i t c h , g rew y o u n g a g a i n
To p l a c i d i n c a n t a t i o n s , a n d t h a t s t a i n
A bout w e re fr o m h e r c a u l d r o n , g r e e n sm oke b l e n t
W ith g h o s e b l a c k p i n e s ”— so I g la m o u r g a v e v e n t
To a c h a n c e f a n c y . 130
m a sk t i g h t l y ,
t sm okos
w h ite ly ,
t h i s d e v i l ’ s -s m ith y ---12”
12 4 Any W ife t o Any H u sb a n d , p . 1 8 8 , 1 . 45 b .
125 O olom be’ s B i r t h d a y , p , 2 3 3 , 1 . 17 a .
126 B o r d e l l o , p . 7 6 , 1 . 2 4 b .
127 P a r a c e l s u s , p . 4 4 , 1 1 . 3 3 -3 7 b .
128 B o r d e l l o , p . 1 2 4 , 1 1 . 2 5 -2 6 b .
129 i h o L a b o r a t o r y , p . 16-8, 1 1 . 1 - 3 a .
130 S o r d e l l o , p . 8 3 , I I . 4 9 -5 5 b .
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76
A r e a l i s a t i o n o f w e ig h t i s a n o t h e r k in d o f im a g e ry
o c c a s i o n a l l y p r e s e n t*
We r e a d i n s t r a n g e d i c t i o n a b o u t a
f a m i l i a r i d e a — t h e serm o n o f " p i g - o f - l e a d - l i k ©
p r e s s u r e . "-*-31
More t h a n m e re w e ig h t i s s u g g e s te d , i n t h e s e o th e r, e x a m p le s
w h ic h a r e m o re e x te n d e d ;
1.
T he s h r u b s b e s t i r a n d r o u s e t h e m s e lv e s a s i f
Some s n a k e , t h a t w e ig h e d th em down a l l n i g h t ,
l e t go
H is h o ld * 3*
2*
When h e a v e n * s p i l l a r s seem ed o*endow ed w i t h h e a t .
I t s b la c k - b lu e canopy s u f f e r e d d e sce n d
C lo s e o n u s b o t h , t o w e ig h down e a c h t o e a c h ,
And a n o t h e r up. a l l . l i f e e x c e p t o u r l i f e . 133
One m ere ty p e o f im a g e , a n d w® m u st t u r n t o some
o t h e r p h a s e o f B ro w n in g 1'® s t y l e .
T h is ty p e i s n ’ t f r e q u e n t ,
b u t i s i m p r e s s iv e w h e r e v e r fo u n d *
S u p p o rt o f th in g s e i t h e r
b y s e l f o r b y s o m e th in g e l s e
i s h a r d t o m anage e f f e c t i v e l y . •
B ro w n in g * s c l e a r n e s s o f i d e a a n d f i t t i n g w o rd s p r o d u c e t h e s e
p ic tu re s .
" I n c i d e n t o f t h e F re n c h Camp" h a s a n exam ple o f
e a c h o f t h e s e im a g e s :
N a p o le o n s u p p o r t s h i m s e l f —
W ith n e c k o u t - t h r u s t , you f a n c y how,
L e g s w id e , a rm s lo c k e d b e h i n d ,
As i f t o b a la n c e t h e p r o n e brow
O p p r e s s iv e w ith i t s m in d .134
131 C h r istm a s-E v e , p . 3 1 7 , 1* 17 b .
132 P a r a c e l s u s , p . 3 4 , 1 1 . 5 -7 b .
133 P ip p a P a s s e s , p . 1 3 2 , 1 1 . 4 2 -4 5 b .
134 I n c i d e n t o f t h e f r e n c h dam p, p . 2 5 1 , I I .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
5 -8 a .
77
Til© w ounded b o y
h e ld h im s e lf e r e c t
By j u s t h i s horse'*© man©, 135
I n m ore d e t a i l , b u t w i t h e f f e c t s i m i l a r t o t h i s l a s t s t a n d s
S a m i;
He s t o o d e r e e t a s t h a t t e n t - p r o p , b o th a rm s
s t r e t c h e d a id w id e
On t h e g r e a t c r o s s - s u p p o r t i n th e c e n t r e ,
t h a t .goes t o e a c h s i d e ;
He r e l a x e d n o t a m u s c le , b u t h u n g t h e r e a s ,
caught in h is pangs
And w a i t i n g h i s c h a n g e , t h e k i n g - s e r p e n t a l l h e a v i l y h a n g s , 3"
H i l l s h e l p in t h i s v i v i d s i m i l e ;
The h i l l s , l i k e g i a n t s a t h u n t i n g , l a y ,
C h in upon M a d , t o s e e th e game a t b a y , — 3 3 ?
S i n i s t e r , t o o , and l o n e l y i s
t h i s im p re s s io n ;
When a l l a t o n c e , l a r g e - l o o m i n g fro m h i s w a v e,
Out l e a n e d , c h i n h a n d - p r o p p e d , p e n s i v e on l e d g e ,
A s e a -w o rn f a c e , s a d a s m o r t a l i t y ,
. g
D iv in e w ith y e a r n i n g a f t e r i e llo w s h ip * v®
The p i c t u r e o f h e a d s u p p o r t e d b y a h and i s
f a r m ore b e a u ­
t i f u l when a p o r t r a i t ;
Musing, by th e f i r e - l i g h t , t h a t g r e a t brow
And th e s p i r i t - s m a l l h a n d p r o p p in g i t ,3 3 9
We h a v e now s e e n many e x a m p le s o f B ro w n in g ’ s o u t -
"135 I n c i d e n t o f th e F re n c h Camp,
p .*
2.51, 1 1 . 1 8 -1 9 a .
136 S a u l , p . 1 8 0 , 1 1 , 3 - 6 a .
1 3 7 C h ild © .R o la n d t o t h e D a rk T ow er Com es, p . 2 8 9 ,
1 1 . 4 -5 a .
138 The l a s t A d v e n tu re o f B a l a u s t i o n , p . 6 3 5 , 1 1 . 5 5 -5 8 b .
139 By t h e F i r e s i d e , p . 1 8 7 , 11* 2.3-24 b .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
78
s t a n d i n g t r e n d s i n im a g e r y — lo v e f o r gem c o l o r s , app r e c i a t i o n o f t r e e s * p l e a s u r e i n so n g s o f b i r d s a n d n o i s e o f
i n s e c t s — t o name a few f a v o r i t e s ,
T iie re a r e s t i l l some
o t h e r s w h ie h h e r e p e a t s t o o o f t e n t o b e o m itte d *
S to n e s * o r e s * a n d m e t a l s a r e fo u n d a s o f t e n i n c o l o r
Im a g e ry a s a r e g e m s,
’’B la n k a l a b a s t e r * b l a c k o b s i & i o n " ^ ^
i s -a m o st s t r i k i n g c o m b i n a t i o n .
m ore r e a l b e c a u s e o r d i n a r y .
G r a n i t e and s a n d s to n e seem
The p a v e m e n t o f th e K re m lin i s
o f **s e r p e n t i n e a n d s y e n i t e . " *
G r e a te s t o f a l l a s a s tu d y
o f s t o n e s iS "The B is h o p O r d e r s H is Tomb i n S a i n t P r a x e d ' s
C h u r c h ," w hich t e a c h e s s o m e th in g -about e a c h o f n e a r l y a
d o zen k in d s o f s to n e .
and g re a te r c o lo r .
M e ta ls s e r v e t o g i v e l e s s i n f o r m a t i o n
G old a n d s i l v e r , so common i n a l l
v o c a b u l a r i e s * a r e h a n d le d w i t h o r i g i n a l i t y i n
T he g o ld - r o u g h p o i n t © ! , s i l v e r b l a z i n g d i s k
O’ t h e l i l y J 1 ^ 2
A s t a t u e o f " b l o o d l e s s , h a r d , c o l d b ro n z e « 1 4 3 seem s t o
r e p r e s e n t a l l th e q u a l i t i e s o f t h a t m e ta l.
A liv e lie r
b ro n z e i s s u g g e s te d by
S ee how t h a t b e e t l e b u r n i s h e s i n th e p a t h X ^ ^
140 B o r d e l l o , p . I l l ,
1 . 3S a .
141 W aring* p . 2 6 5 , 1* 61 a .
142 S o r d e l l o , p* 1 1 2 , 1* 11 a .
143 B a l a u s t i o n ’ s A d v e n tu re * p . '6 1 5 , 1* 21 b .
144 P i p p a P a s s e s , p . 141» 1 . 37 b .
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P l e a s i n g l y h o n e s t i s t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f the- B a r t ’ s b r e a s t
Shows w h a t b r a s s we t o o k f o r g o l d J 1^
Her© ar® © yes o f w o l v e s :
T h ey ar© © Iters- a n t l e a d t h e l i n e , e y e and e y e —
g r e e n - g lo w in g b r a s s ! ^46
l e t n s c o n c lu d e c o l o r im a g e ry w i t h a f i g u r a t i v e e x p la n ­
a tio n :
G la s s e d me w i t h Com ic P o e t s who s h o u ld w e l t
B a rk w i t h l i g h t m e t a l , t o show t h e i r b l a d e m y k e e p
I t s a d a m a n tin e b i r t h r i g h t th o u g h a b l a z e
W ith p o e t r y , t h e g o l d , and w i t , t h e gem ,
And s t r i k e m ere g o l d , u n s t i f f e n e d o u t b y s t e e l , Or g e a , n o i r o n j o i n t s i t s s t r e n g t h a r o u n d ,
fro m hand o f p o s t u r e r , n o t c o m b a ta n t 11^-7
I n p l a n t l i f e B ro w n in g ’ s f a v o r i t e
im a g e s a r e m o s s ,
f e r n s , l i c h e n s , w o r t s , muchrooms, an d w e e d s .
T in e s o c c u r
a s o fte n a s t r e e s .
T h e re i s so m e th in g v e r y c h a rm in g a b o u t
th e s e m odest l i t t l e
p la n ts :
1.
Bound u s t h e w i l d c r e a t u r e s , o v e rh e a d t h e t r e e s ,
U n d e r f o o t t h e m o s s - t r a c k s , — l i f e and l o v e o f t h e s e .
2.
A s to n e f l o o r one m ay w r i t h e on l i k e a worm:
Ho m o ssy p i l l o w b lu e w i t h v i o l e t s l 4 9
3.
How t be m in u te g ra y l i c h e n s , p la t© o ’ e r p la t©
Have s o f t e n e d down t h e c r i s p - c u t name and d a t e ! 150
J"n 145 A t t h e "M erm aid” , p . 8 0 8 , 1 . 16 a .
146 I v a n I v a n o v i c h , p . 8 8 2 , 1 . 22 b .
147 The l a s t A d v e n tu re o f B a l a u s t i o n , p . 6 5 0 , 1 1 . 3 8 -4 4
148 F e r i s h t a h ’ s F a n c i e s , p . 9 3 0 , H .
2 1 -2 2 a .
149 P a r a c e l s u s , p . 3 9 , 1 1 . 5 2 -5 3 a .
150 F am e, p . 1 7 0 , 1 1 , 7 -8 b .
\
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
so
4.
By b o u l d e r - s t o n e s w h e re l i c h e n s mock
The m a rk s on a m o th , an d s m a ll f e r n s f i t
T h e i r t e e t h t o t h e p o l i s h e d b l o c k . 51
5.
0* t h e m ugw ort t h a t c o n c e a ls a dew drop s a f e J
6.
S p r i n g s up a f u n g u s b r o o d s i c k l y a n d p a l e ,
K%
C h i l l m ushroom s c o l o r e d l i k e a c o r p s e ’ s c h e e k . '5'5
7.
B u t c o c k l e , s p u r g e , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r la w
M ig h t p r o p a g a t e t h e i r k i n d , w ith n o n e t o a w e ,
1c,
Y o u 'd t h i a k i a b u r r h a d b e e n a t r e a s u r e tr o v ® .
8.
P l a n t a i n and q u i t c h , th® ro c k s * s h a d e k e e p a l i v e : 1 55
152
f i n e s i n I t a l y .make a p i c t u r e l i k e t h i s :
— y o u s t r i p p e d a n d w h ite d m u lb e r r y t r e e s ,
B ound e a c h t o e a c h b y l a z y r o p e s o f v i n e j i 5 o
R u in s may b e c o v e r e d t h u s :
By th© c a p e r o v e r r o o t e d , b y t h e g o u rd
O v e rsc o re d ,
W h ile 'th e . p a t c h i n g h o u s e l e e k 1 s h e a d o f b lo s s o m w in k s
T hrough t h e c h i n k s . 3-57
Among th© p l a n t s , n u t- b e a r in g t r e e s ar© M en tio n ed :
1.
T h o se s w a r th y h a z e l - c l u s t e r s , s u s s e d a n d c h a p p e d *
Or f i l b e r t s r u s s e t - s h e a t h e d an d v e l v e t - c a p p e d . '
I t i s t h e a c o r n * s c a p t h a t p l e a s e s B ro w n in g :
151 By t h e F i r e s i d e , p . 1 8 5 , 1 1 . 4 2 -4 4 b .
152 B o r d e l l o , p . 9 9 , 1 . 54 b .
153 P a r a c e l s u s , p . 3 0 , 1 1 . 3 5 -3 6 a .
154 C hild© B o la n d t o th® B a r k Tow er Came, p . 2 8 7 ,
1 1 . 1 3 -1 5 b .
A D e a th i n t h e D e s e r t , p . 3 8 6 , 1 , 11 a ,
156 K in g f i c t o r and K in g C h a r l e s , p . 1 5 2 , 1 1 . 1 3 -1 4 b .
157 l o v e Among t h e R u i n s , p . 1 7 2 , 1 1 . 3 5 -3 8 a .
1 58 S o r d e l l o , p . 8 2 , 1 1 . 2 4 -2 5 b .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
2,
Hoi* i t s f i n s t h i m b l e f i t s - t h e a c o r n - t o p
K e e p s w o o lly w ard a b o v e th e o v a l b ro w n ,
I t s p l a c i d feature-*--^
S m a ll a n im a l s p l e a s e B ro w n in g — ’’t h e s n a i l , w ith h i s g a y
s h e l l o f d e w ,” 160 t h e " h a t w h ic h c o w e rs t h r o u g h o u t n o o n t i d e , " ^ ^ - ”a t o a d I n a c h r i s t e n i n g f o n t ," 4 6 2 «a wee wn i t e
mou s e , ,f l^3 .and o f c o u r s e a l l
t h e r a t s o f Hamel i n - t o w n .
F o r b o th c o l o r a n d so u n d t h i s i s a f a v o r i t e l i n e —
A b la c k l y n x s n a r l e d a n d p r i c k e d a t u f t e d e a r
H e p t i l e s f i g u r e r e a l i s t i c a l l y — e f t s , l i z a r d s , and num ^erous
sn ak es,
B u t B ro w n in g * s p r e d i l e c t i o n i s f o r t h e i n s e c t s .
W ith o u t c o l l e c t i n g th e m a l l , I h a v e t h i r t e e n s p i d e r s , s i g h t
v a rio u s f l i e s , fo u r b e e s, f i v e w asp s, th r e e a n t s , a g n a t,
a t i c k , a sp ecim en o f a p h i s , a b u t t e r f l y , f o u r m o th s , o c c a ­
s io n a l c a t e r p i l l a r s , th r e e c r i c k e t s , s ix c i c a l a s (a s he c a l l s
th e m } , a g r a s s - h o p p e r o r tw o , f o u r b e e t l e s , tw o s p e c i a l
s c a r a b s , t h r e e e a r w ig s , e le v e n s c o r p io n s , f o u r te e n v a r io u s
w o rm s, a s l u g , an d a l e e c h .
S e v e ra l o f th e s e ap p ear to g e th e r
i n tii© b o o k b y S ib r a n d u s S c h a fn a b u r g e n s is , d r o p p e d i n t o a
h o l lo w t r e e r
'l5 9 "Red C o tto n H ig h t-C a p C o u n tr y , p . 7 1 8 , 1 1 , 25? 27 a .
I 60 P a r a c e l s u s , p . 1 3 , H »
19 a ,
I d ! B o r d e l l o , p . 8 5 , 1 . 53 b .
162 S o ld B a ir , p , 378, 1 , 3 a .
163 P r a L ip p o L i p p i , p . 3 6 2 , 1 , 44 a .
164 An I p i s t l e , p . 3 3 8 , 1 . 20 b .
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82
How d id he l i k e i t when th© l i v e c r e a t u r e s
t i c k l e d a n d h o u s e d and b r o u s e d him a l l o v e r ,
And worm,, s lu g ,, © f t , w i t h s e r i o u s f e a t u r e s ,
Game i n , each, m e , f o r h i s r i g h t o f t r o v e r ?
—When t h e w a t e r - b e e t l e w ith g r e a t- b l i n d d e a f f a c e
Made o f h e r e g g s a s t a t e l y d e p o s i t .
And t h e n ew t b o rro w e d j u s t so .orach o f t h e p r e f a c e
,
As t i l e d i n th© t o p o f h i s b l a n k w ife'*© c l o s e t ? 1 5 '
Above t h i s s c e n e
A s p i d e r h a d span, h i s web a c r o s s ,
And s-at i n t h e m i d s t w i t h a rm s a k im b o :
i n c o n t r a s t w ith t h i s m o i s t s c e n e , w e’ l l lo o k a t some
b a k in g o n e s .
From t h e t o p o f a w a l l o u t com es
167
A ,s c o r p i o n w i t h w id e a n g r y n i p p e r s !
[email protected] r s c o r p i o n n s p r a w l s " 1 ^
.Where t h e b a k e d c i c a l a d i e s o f d r o u t h .
lA o
7
; W ith e h a m i n g d e l i c a c y B ro w n in g m akes a fe w f a i r y
p ic tu re s .
A n o th e r p o e t m ig h t t r y t o
b u t n e v e r sa y so w e l l
a s B ro w n in g d o e s t h i s a b o u t a y e ll o w l e a f f a l l e n on some
m o ss ♦
— a s h i e l d e l s e g o ld fro m r im t o b o s s ,
And l a y i t f o r show on t h e f a i r y - c u p p e d
I l f - n e e d l e d m at o f m o s s ,! '
165 S i b r a n d u s S c h a f n a b u r g e n s i s , p . 1 6 7 , 1 1 . 4 9 -5 4 a .
an d 1 1 . 1 - 2 b .
166 l o g . g i t . , 1 1 . 3 5 -3 6 a .
1 6 ? The E n g lish m a n i n I t a l y , p . 2 6 2 , 1 . 37 a .
168 De G u s t i b u s , p . 1 7 8 , 1 . 56 b .
!6 9 lo o , c i t . , 1 .
45 b .
170 By th e F i r e s i d e , p . 1 8 5 , 1 1 . 4 8 -5 0 b .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
T h is s i m i l e show s B ro w n in g * s d e f t n e s s :
I t u r n e d to h im , s c a r c e c o n s c i o u s l y , a s t u r n s
A w a t e r - sn a k e when f a i r i e s c r o s s h i s s l e e p . 171
E ven i n t h i s p i e c e o f r e a l i s m th e i d e a o f f a i r i e s o c c u r s :
Ay., he s tr e w e d
A f a i r y d u s t u p o n th e m u l t i t u d e .
A lth o u g h h e f e i g n e d t o t a k e th e m b y t h e m s e l v e s ,
H is g i a n t s d i g n i f i e d t h o s e p u n y e l v e s , 1 7 2
B.
From t h i s som ew hat s p o n ta n e o u s im a g e ry we t u r n now t o
p i c t u r e s n o l e s s e x c e l l e n t , b u t m o re f r a n k l y a t t e m p t e d — f i g u r e s
o f speech.
M ost p o e t s u s e th e s i m i l e m o s t.
T h is B ro w n in g d o e s ,
b a t h e f i n d s le © s n e e d o f i t a s h i s w r i t i n g s p r o g r e s s .
T h e s e f i r s t a r e among h i s e a r l y s i m i l e s , sem e d e l i g h t f u l l y
c o n c e iv e d a n d t r u s t i n g l y s a i d :
h e b a d e me grow
G u iltle s s , fo re v e r, lik e a tre e
T h a t b u d s a n d b lo o m s , n o r s e e k s t o know
The la w b y w h ic h i t p r o s p e r s s o : 173
Or s c i e n t i f i c a l l y —
And g r e e n and b l u e h i s s h a r p e y e s t w i n k l e d
L ik e c a n d l e - f l a m e w h ere s a l t i s s p r i n k l e d ; 174
Or h i s t o r i c a l l y —
™ n,1' J ''
1"“l"
''
"
' 171 P a r a c e l s u s
,
p . 1 6 , 1 . 63 a . a n d 1 . l b ,
172 S o r d e l l o , p . 8 9 , 11* 6 - 9 b .
173 J o h a n n e s A g r i c o l a i n M e d i t a t i o n , p . 3 4 1 , 1 1 ,
22^25 a .
1 7 4 The P i e d P i p e r o f H a m e lin , p . 2 6 9 , 11- 1 - 2 b .
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Bk
— S ave on# who,, s t o u t a s J u l i u s C a e s a r,,
Swaa a c r o s s a n d l i v e d t o c a r r y
(As h©., til© m a n u s c r i p t 3a© c h e r i s h e d )
To H a t- la n d home i l l s c o s a n e n ta ry : 175
I n ’’P a r a c e l s u s " we f i n d tlie b e a u t i f u l b u t t h e m ore u s u a l :
176
T he s u n g o e s dovm l i k e a s p h e r e o f g o l d ,
An i n t e r e s t i n g
l a t e r s im ile re a d s :
B o th o f u s . s t o p p e d , t i r e d a s to m b s to n e s ,,
h e a d - p l e o e f o o t p i e c e when t h e y le a n .,
E ach t o o t h e r , d ro w se d i n f o g - s m o k e > o ’ e r
a c o f f i n e d F a s t b e tw e e n , 1 T7
Of th© e x te n d e d s i m i l e , a s c o r e o f © sam p les c a n b e
fo u n d .
T h is on© show s t h e s t y l e , i n w h ic h a l o n g e x p l a n a t i o n
l e a d s t o th© c o m p a r is o n :
l o w , my f r i e n d . , i f y o u had so l i t t l e r e l i g i o n
As t o c a t c h a h a w k , some f a l c o n l a n n e r ,
And t h r u s t h e r b ro ad , w in g s l i k e a b a n n e r
I n t o a coop f o r v u l g a r p i g e o n ;
And i f d a y by d a y a n d w eek b y w eek
You. c u t h e r © la w s, a n d s e a l e d h e r e y e s ,
And © lip p e d h e r w in g s , a n d - t i e d h e r b e a k ,
Would i t c a u s e you a n y s u r p r i s e .
I f , w hen you d e c id e d t o g iv e h e r a n a i r i n g ,
You fo u n d s h e n e e d e d a l i t t l e p r e p a r i n g ?
— I s a y , s h o u ld you be su c h a cu rm u d g e o n ,
I f sh e c lu n g t o t h e p e r c h ; a s t o t a k e i t i n d u d g eo n ?
Y e t when th® Duke t o h i s l a d y s i g n i f i e d
J u s t a d a y b e f o r e , a s he Ju d g e d m o s t d i g n i f i e d ,
I n w hat a p l e a s u r e sh e w as to p a r t i c i p a t e , —
A nd, i n s t e a d o f l e a p i n g w id e i n f l a s h e s ,
H e r e y e s j u s t l i f t e d t h e i r lo n g l a s h e s ,
As i f p r e s s e d by f a t i g u e e v e n h e c o u ld n o t d i s s i p a t e ,
And d u l y a c k n o w le d g e d th e D uke’ s f o r e t h o u g h t ,
B ut sp o k e o f h e r h e a l t h , i f h e r h e a l t h w e re w o rth a u g h t ,
175 T he P i e d P i p e r o f H a m e lin , p , 2 6 9 , 1 1 * .1 - 2 b .
176 P a r a c e l s u s , p . 1 9 , 1* 36 b .
177 C l i v e , p* 8 % , U *
2 8 -2 t a .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
O f th® w e ig h t by d a y and t h e w a tc h b y n i g h t ,
And much w rong new t h a t u s e d t o b e l i g h t ,
So* t h a n k i n g h im , d e c l i n e d t h e h u n t i n g —
Was c o n d u c t e v e r m ore a f f r o n t ! n g ? 178
.In " B is h o p B1 oxigram* s A p o lo g y " th® a u t h o r s u d d e n ly s a y s
A s im ile !
a n d t h e n f o l l o w s t h i s l i n e fro m t i m e t o tin ® t h r o u g h f i v e
p ag es.
I n " H a lf Rome® a s i m i l e i s g o in g on and on. when
B ro w n in g s u d d e n ly s a y s a s i d e
(W here w as I w i t h t h a t a n g le r - s im ile ? ) ! ® ® '
B row ning* s m e ta p h o r s a r e nor® : n u m ero u s a n d p r o b a b l y
b e t t e r i n some w ays t h a n h i s s i m i l e s ,
T hey a p p e a r t o b e
o f f o u r M u d s — s u g g e s t e d , o b v io u s o r d i r e c t , m ix e d , and
lo n g .
Some s u g g e s t e d c o m p a r is o n s l i k e th e f o l l o w i n g a r e
i n t e r e s t i n g l y rea d y f o r in te r p r e ta tio n ;
1.
l i n g C h a rle s !
P a u s e h e r e u p o n t h i s s t r i p o f tim e
A l lo tte d you o u t o f e te rn ity !1 ® 1
2.
A th o u s a n d p o e t s p r i e d a t l i f e ,
And o n l y on e am id t h e s t r i f e
R o se t o a S h a k e s p e a r e :1 8 2
3.
I had. f e l t
I c e i n me m e l t , gro w s t e a m , d r i v e t o e f f e c t
1 7 8 The f l i g h t o f t h e D u c h e s s , p . 2 7 3 , 1 1 . 2 3 -4 7 b .
179 B is h o p B lo u g ra m ’ s A p o lo g y , p . 3 5 0 , 1 . 41 a .
180 The R ing an d t h e B o o k , p . 4 3 0 , 1 . 30 a ,
181 K in g V i c t o r and K ing C h a r l e s , p . 1 6 1 , 1 1 . 3 6 -3 8 b .
182 O hrisbm ae-S V ® , p . 3 2 4 , 1 1 . 3 6 -3 8 a .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Any o r a l l t h e f a n c i e s s l u g g i s h h a r e 1 ®^
4.
My l i f e fo u n d i t s May g ro w O c t o b e r * '^
5.
He danc e d th e
J ig t h a t needs no f l o o r ,— -^ 5
O b v io u s a n d d i r e s t a r e t h e s e n e x t m e ta p h o r s .
In
1 8 4 1 B ro w n in g c o u ld s a y
irtA
A re w e: x
— G od’ s p u p p e t s , b e s t an d w o r s t ,
The m e ta p h o r , h o w e v e r, i s good t e c h n i q u e a t a n y tim e ':
187
X. T he b u t t e r c u p s , t h e l i t t l e c h i l d r e n ' s d ow er
2.
My s o u l
Sm oothed i t s e l f o u t , a l m g ~ c r a a p « d s c r o l l , 00
3.
And 1 am a weak~ey© 4 h%t n o s u n , s h o u ld t e m p t . 189
4.
B e a u ty ’ s th© p r i z e - f l o w e r w h ic h d e s p e n s e s e y e
From p e e r i n g i n t o w h a t h a s n o u r i s h e d r o o t — 190
B ro w n in g m ix e s m e ta p h o r s , and ow ns t h e c h a r g e i n
S e e , we h a v e t r a v e r s e d w i t h h o p , s t e p , and ju m p ,
From h e e l t o h e a d , t h e m a i n - s t r e e t i n a t r i c e , ’
M e a su re d th© g a r m e n t { h e lp my m e t a p h o r ! }
H o t m e r e ly c r i t i c i s e d t h e c a p , f o r s o o t h : 191
1 8 / ’"The In n A lbum , p* 7 8 1 , 11* 2 4 -2 6 a .
184 P a c e h i a r o t t o , p . 8 0 5 , 1 . 30 b .
185 Med B r a t t s , p . 8 8 9 , 1* 12 a .
186 f i p p a P a s s e s , p . 1 3 0 , 1 1 . 3 2 -3 3 b .
187 H o m e -T h o u g h ts, fro m A b ro a d , p . 1 7 9 , 1* 19 a .
188 The l a s t Hid© T o g e t h e r , p . 2 6 7 , 1 1 . 3 4 -3 5 b .
189 A n d re a d e l S a r t o , p . 3 4 7 , 1* 55 a .
190 T he In n A lbum , p . 7 8 5 , 1 1 . 3 6 -3 7 b .
191 Red C o tto n 'M ig h t- C a p C o u n t r y , p . 7 3 9 , 1 1 . 4 9 -
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87
O th e rs a r e :
I-.
T h e re s t a n d s h e ,
W h ile t h e same g rim b l a c k - p a n e 1 l e d c h am b er b l i n k s
A s thought ru b b e d s h i n y w i t h t h e s i n s o f Home
T o ld t h e same o a k f o r a g e s — w a v e -w a sh e d w a ll
A g a i n s t w h ic h s e t s a sea. o f w ic k e d n e s s .1 9 2
2.
K n i t t i n g an. i r o n n e r v e — ^93
3.
And e a s i l y r a v e l o u t a c l u e t o a l l ,
194
Two l o n g e r m e ta p h o r s w i l l s e r v e t o I l l u s t r a t e t h e
b e a u t y t h a t c an b e w o rk e d i n t o a l o n g e r c o m p a r is o n .
From
nP i p p a P a s s e s : ”
Day!'
F a s t e r and m o re f a s t ,
O 'e r n i g h t * s b r im , d a y b o i l s a t l a s t :
S o i l s pur© g o l d , o * e r th e c lo u d -c u p * s b r im
W here s p u r t i n g a n d s u p p r e s s e d I t l a y .
F o r n o t a f r o t h - f l a h e ' to u c h e d th© rim
Of y o n d e r g a p i n t h e s o l i d g r a y
Of t h e e a s t e r n c l o u d , a n h o u r a w a y ;
B u t f o r t h o n e w a v e l e t , th e n a n o t h e r , c u r l e d ., T i l l th © w h o le s u n r i s e , n o t t o b e s u p p r e s s e d .
R o s e , r e d d e n e d , and i t s s e e t h in g b r e a s t
F l i c k e r e d i n b o u n d s , g re w g o l d , t h e n
, Qe.
o v e r f lo w e d t h e w o r l d .
M ore t h a n f o r t y y e a r s l a t e r B ro w n in g w r i t e s t h e l i t t l e
ly ric
^ W an tin g I s — W hat?” , a l s o a n '.i n t r o d u c t i o n i n m e t­
a p h o r i c a l s t y l e , t h i s tim e , i n v e r y d i f f e r e n t m e t r i c s .
L in e s i r i s one o f t h e b e s t , a l t h o u g h t h e w h o le t h i n g i s
p ra is e w o rth y .
I t seem s m ore s t u d i e d i n i t s fo rm t h a n
1 9 2 The R in g a n d t h e B ook, p . 4 2 4 , 1 1 . 2 6 -3 0 a .
193 M esm erism , p . 2 5 5 , 1 . 47 b .
194 P a r a c e l s u s , p . . 3 2 , 1 . 4 b ,
195 P lp p a P a s s e s , p . 1 2 9 , 1 1 . 1 - 1 2 a .
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85
e a r l i e r e x a m p le :
W an tin g i s —w h a t?
Summer r e d u n d a n t
B lu e n e s s a b u n d a n t ,
—W here i s t h e b l o t ?
Beamy t h e w o r l d , y e t a b l a n k a l l th e sa rae ,
— Fram ew ork w h ic h w a i t s f o r a p i c t u r e t o f r a m e :
W hat o f t h e l e a f a g e , i l i a t o f th e f l o w e r ?
l o s e s em b o w erin g w i t h n a u g h t t h e y em bow er!
Gone th e n ,, e o m p le te in e a m p le t io n , 0 com er,
P a n t th r o u g h th e b l u e n e s s , p e r f e c t th e summer!
B r e a t h e b u t one b r e a t h
H o s e - b e a u ty a b o v e ,
.And a l l t h a t w as d e a t h
Grows l i f e , g ro w s l o v e ,
G row s l o v e ! 1 Vo
B ro w n in g s e e a s n e v e r to p a r a d e h i s p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n *
S u c h e x a m p le s a s t h e f o l l o w i n g eh m
how s p o n ta n e o u s and apt-
s u c h .f i g u r e s a r e :
1.
— t h e w oods w o n d e re d , a n d l e f t u s
2*
- “t h e v e r y r i v e r p u t a
I t s a m a ro u n d me a n d con due t e d m©1^©
3*
And a l l t h e w o r l d ’ s c o a r s e thum b
And f i n g e r f a i l e d t o p lu m b !99
4*
H o r r o r c o q u e t t i n g w i t h v o lu p tu o u s n e s s '^ 00
5*
A lie
10?
t h a t w a ll® a n d e a t s a n d d r i n k s ! 20!
196 W a n tin g I s —W h a t? , p . 911 a .
1 9 ? The E n g lish m a n i n I t a l y , p . 2 6 l , 1 . 32 a .
198 T he B l o t on t h e
’ S c u tc h e o n , p . 2 2 6 , 1 1 . 2 1 -2 2 b .
1 9 9 R a b b i Ben E z r a , p . 3 8 5 , 1 1 . 19-2© a .
200 A F o r g i v e n e s s , p* 8 1 9 , 1 . 44 a .
3 ) 1 P ip p a P a s s e s , p . 1 3 3 , 1 . 14 b .
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89
6.
W h ile c a lia s i t s C a u ti o n , r a p t w ith , h e a v e n w a rd e y e , 202
T h e s e f i g u r e s a r e a lm o s t b o l d i n id e a ..
The c o n v e n t io n a 1
B e a u ty and D u ty a r e n o t th e f i g u r e s B row ning c a l l s u p o n f o r
M s p e rs o n ific a tio n .
One m ore o f t e e u s u a l f i g u r e s o f s p e e c h i s m et o c c a ­
s i o n a l l y , t h e spa s t r o p h e .
I t i s e f f e c tiv e ., a lth o u g h p e rh a p s
n o t s o i n d i v i d u a l a s some o f t h r e e a l r e a d y m e iitic a ie d .
Ex­
a m p les a r e :
1,..
D e a r an d g r e a t a n g e l , w o u ld s t thou, o n ly l e a v e
T h a t c h i l d , when t h o u h a s done w i t h h im , f o r m e !2™
2.
May I p r i n t , S h e l l e y , how i t cam e t o p a s s 2° 4
3.
S e r v e R i e l , a c c e p t sty v e r s e l 2 0 ^
4.
A u to b io g r a p h y , a d i e u !
F o r m etonam y and s y n e c d o c h e e x a m p le s a r e not- n u m e ro u s.
T h e re i s , h o w e v e r, a r i c h n e s s o f im a g e ry I n t h e s e t h a t f o l l o w .
M etonom y:
1.
. l i s t e n i n g t h e w h i l e , w h e re on a h e a p o f s t o n e s
T he w h i t e b r e a s t o f th e s e a - l a r k t w i t t e r s s w e e t . 2 0 ?
2.
T he b l o c k p u r s u e s m e ,20'®
202 The R in g a n d t h e B o o k , p . 4 2 5 , 1 . 45 a .
203 T he G u a r d ia n - A n g e l, p . 1 9 4 , I I * 3 9 -4 0 a .
204 C e n e i a j a , p . 8 2 1 , 1 . l a .
205 H e rv e R i e l , p . 8 1 7 , 1 . 1 a .
.206 P r i n c e H o h e n s tie l- S e h w a n g a u , S a v i o r o f S o c i e t y ,
p . 6 9 2 , 1 . 33 b*
2 0 ? Among t h e R o c k s, p . 3 7 5 , 1* 1 3 -1 4 b .
208 S t r a f f o r d , p . 7 0 , 1 . 23 a .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
3*
As i f you h a d c a r r i e d s o u r Jo h n Knox
To a p l a y - h o u s e a t P a r i s 2° 9
Synecdoche:
1.
-“-how
Behaved, o u r spokesm an w i t h th© f o r e h e a d ? 2*0
2.
Th© o a r o f C h aro n m a rk s t h e i r p e r i o d
W a its to end a l l 2* 1
3*
A b l a c k n e s s s i t s o n e i t h e r aid ® a t w a tc h * 212
4.
Y o u 'd come u p o n h i s s c r u t i n i z i n g h a t 2 1 3
C o n t r a s t o f t e r m s , d i s c u s s e d i n t h e c h a p t e r on d i c t i o n
o f t e n g o e s o n to- p ro d u c e im a g e r y .
B ro w n in g h a s a z e s t f o r
a n t i t h e s i s ; h i s q u i c k m ind c a l l s up t h e p r o p e r r e s p o n s e t o
an o p p o s ite id e a ,
f i g u r a t i v e la n g u a g e i s a n a t u r a l r e s u l t :
1.
1 u s e d t o ta k e him- f o r a drow n c o l d p i e c e
O f th© w a l l I s s e l f , a s c u t o f i t h e r o s e
To l e t me- p a s s — a t f i r s t , I s a y , I u s e d :
How, s o h a s t h a t dumb f i g u r e f a s t e n e d on m e ,
I r a t h e r s h o u ld a c c o u n t t h e p l a s t e r e d w a l l , ,
A p i e c e o f h im , s o c h i l l y d o e s i t s t r i k e . ^
2.
h e y o u rs t o p ro v e
T h a t g o l d a n d d r o s s may m e e t and n e v e r m ix ,
P u r i t y p lu n g e i n p i t c h y e t s o i l n o t p lu s © 1 215
209 S i b r a n d u s S c h a f n a b u r g e n s i s , p . 1 6 7 , 1 1 . 7 - 8 b .
210 Colom bo*a B i r t h d a y , p . 2 7 4 , 1 1 . 2 5 -2 6 a .
211 H e r a k l e a , p . 6 6 4 , 1 1 . 2 0 -2 1 b .
212 Red C o tto n N ig h t-C a p C o u n tr y , p . 7 5 7 , 1 . 24 a .
213 How I t S t r i k e s a C o n te m p o ra ry , p . 3 3 6 , I .
46 a .
214 P i p p a P a s s e s , p . 1 3 1 , 1 1 . 1 7 -2 2 b .
215 Red C o t to n N ig h t-C a p C o u n tr y , p . 7 5 0 , 1 1 . 2 9 - 3 1 a
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
91
3.
P o u r in g h e a v e n i n t o th e
s h u t h o u se o f l i f e .
4*
I m u st s u s p e c t ,
My s c h o l a r h a d b e e n l e f t t o c o o l h i s h e e l s
U n c a r p e te d , o r warm t h e m - - l i k e l i e r s t i l l —
W ith b a s t i n a d o f o r i n t r u s i o n . 217
5.
C h u rn ed th e b l a c k w a t e r v h i t e .
23 &
L ito te s i s c lo s e ly r e la te d t o a n tith e s is in
But. th o u g h I c a n n o t soar,.. 1 do n o t c r a w l . 219
I n Mn o t u n b e co m in g h a i r " 220 t h e v i g o r o f - t r u e l i t o t e s i s
fe lt.
P u re l i t o t e s i s n o t fre q u e n t.
So m uch t h a t i s v i g o r o u s i s fo u n d i n B ro w n in g ’ s
s t y l e t h a t o n e m ig h t e x p e c t him t o d e a l con s t a n t l y i n
h y p e rb o le .
T h is d o e s n o t p ro v e t o b e s o , and i s p e r h a p s
th e r e a s o n f o r h i s v ig o r.
fro m l a c k o f t h o u g h t .
T oo g r e a t o v e r s t a t e m e n t r e s u l t s
C e r t a i n l y B ro w n in g c a n n o t b e a c c u s e d
o f f a i l i n g to- t h i n k a b o u t w h a t he p u t s .in to a poem .
Iv en
t h e h u m o ro u s p o e m s, w h ic h d o g i v e aw ay t o h y p e r b o l e , a r e t h e
r e s u l t o f m o st l i v e l y t h o u g h t .
wI n f i f t y d i f f e r e n t s h a r p s
a n d f l a t s ” 22'*- I s good w h e re i t i s
216 “T r a n s c e n d e n t a l i s m :
p . 3 3 6 , 1 . 24 a .
21? A B e a n - S trip e :
fo u n d i n t h e r e a lm o f
A Poem i n T w elv e B o o k s ,
A ls o A p p l e - S a t i n g , p . 9 4 3 , 1 1 .
3 1 -3 4 b .
218 B a la u s t i o n * s A d v e n tu r e , p . 6 0 3 , ! •
36 a .
219 P a r a c e l s u s , p . 3 2 , 1 . 35 a*
220 C oloaib e’ s B i r t h d a y , p . 2 3 5 , 1 . 23 a .
221 The P i e d 'P i p e r o f H a m e lin , p . 2 6 8 , 1* 2> b .
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92
h u m o r.
A l a w y e r who " s h e d t e a r s i n a f l o o d " 222 is- a n
e x a g g e r a t i o n , h a t on e may l o o k l o n g to- f i n d many e x a m p le s o f
p a r e h y p e r b o l e l i k e ■ that*
The h e i g h t e n e d s t y l e o f d i e t l o n
d o e s n o t n e e d th© e x t r a g u s t o .
illu s tr a te s th is .
" M a s te r H u g h es o f S a x e -G o th a "
The s h a l e i d e a i s d e l i g h t f u l l y e x tr e m e , b u t
t h e r e a r e n o t h y p e r b o l e s in. i t - - u n l e s s th© w h o le poem i s a
h y p e r b o le #
A p a s s a g e c o m b in in g s e v e r a l f i g u r e s i s m ore t y p i c a l
o f B row ning;*s t e c h n i q u e t h a n t h e s e l a s t s e p a r a t e f i g u r e s
w h ic h h a v e b e e n s e a r c h e d o u t w ith a f a i r am o u n t o f d i f f i c u l t y *
T h i s b i t o f d ram a i n w h ic h t h e t h r e e F a t e s and A p o llo s p e a k
i l l u s t r a t e s hew p a c k e d and h i g h l y f i g u r a t i v e t h e m a t e r i a l
can. b e ;
C lo th e .
I s p i n the© a t h r e a d .
L i v e , A dm etus!
F fodue® him !
.in c h e s ts *
G o ,—b r a v e , w i s e , g o o d , h a p p y ! How
-c h e q u e r th® t h r e a d ;
He i s s l a v e d f o r , y e t lo v e d b y a g o d . 1
u n lo o s e h im
A g o d d l e s s - s e n t p l a g u e . He w a s c o n q u e r e d ,
i s w ed,
Men cro w n h im , h e s t a n d s a t t h e h e i g h t , —
Atro n e s*
He i s . . . .
A n d l'lo T (E n t e r i n g : L i g h t . I
"B ead?"
, H a y , s w a r t sp m e t e r s '! So 1 .s u r p r i s e y o u
M aking and m a r r i n g th e f o r t u n e s o f Man?
H u d d lin g — n o m a r v e l , y o u r enemy e y e s y o u —
H ead b y h e a d b a t - l i k e , b l o t s u n d e r t h e b a n
Of d a y l i g h t e a r t h ’ s b l e s s i n g s s i n c e tin®, b e g a n !
The F a t e s . B ack t o t h y b l e s t e a r t h , p r y i n g A po llo -!
S h a f t a f t e r s h a f t t r a n s p i e r c e w ith t h e y beam s
E a r t h t o t h e c e n t e r , — spar© b u t t h i s h o llo w
222- Pont© B e ll* A n g e lo , T e n ie ® , p . 9 9 6 , 1 . 4 a*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
93
Hewn o u t o f S ig h t* ® h e a r t ., vhe r e o u r m y s te r y eeem s
Mewed fro m d a y ’ s m a l i c e : w ake e a r t h fro m h e r d re a m s .
Some e n ti r e - poem s a r e f i g u r e s o f s p e e c h ,
a n d th e Book** i s e v en s o .
"The R in g
A fte r th e lo n g , p ic tu re s q u e
e x p l a n a t i o n o f m ak in g a, r i n g , t h e a u t h o r s a y s
W hat o f i t f
’T is a f i g u r e , a s y m b o l, s a y ;
A thing.*® s i g n ; now f o r th e t h i n g s i g n i f i e d * 22^
F o llo w in g t h i s , i s d e s c r i b e d t h e t h i n g ,, t h e 'hook*
He h a s
^ m a s te r e d th® co n te n ts* * a n d t h e n s a y s ' t o the. r e a d e r
How, a s th e i n g o t , e r e th e t i n g w a s f o r g e d ,
L ay g o l d , ( b e s e e c h you.,, h o l d t h a t f i g u r e f a s t i )225
0
.
T h e re are: l o f t many d e s c r i p t i o n s o f v a r i o u s l e n g t h s
an d p u r p o s e s t h a t a r e j u s t a s r i c h i n Im a g e ry a s a n y o f t h e
p a s s a g e s i s t h e f o r e g o i n g p a g e s*
little
T h ey c o n s i s t o f t e n o f a
n a r r a t i v e f o r th© p u rp o se- o f e x p l a n a t i o n ,. b e a u t i f u l l y
i l l u s t r a t e d , a n d e x e c u te d i n m o st s a t i s f y i n g d i c t i o n *
lis t
A
o f tw e n ty su c h 1 h a v e c u t t o t h r e e :
1*
l u s t t h e ju d g e m e n t p a s s e d
Upon a s t a t u e , l u c k l e s s l i k e a y s e l f ' ,
1 saw i n Roue one e l
’ Twas some a r t i s t ' s , w him
To c o v e r a l l t h e a c c e s s o r i e s c l o s e
I* t h e g r o u p , an d l e a v e you o n ly L aoeoon
W ith n e i t h e r s o n s n o r s e r p e n t s t o d e n o te
The p u r p o s e o f h i s g e s t u r e .
T hen a crow d
Was c a l l e d t o t r y th e q u e s t i o n , c r i t i c i s e
W h e re fo re s u c h e n e r g y o f l e g s an d a rm s ,
223 A p o llo a n d t h e F a t e s , p . 9 4 8 , 1 1 . 8 -2 5 h .
224 T he R in g and the. B o o k , p . 4 1 5 , 1 1 . 6 - 7 a .
225 I b i d * , p . 4 1 6 , 1 1 . 1 3 -1 4 a .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
<
94
May, e y e b a l l s , s t a r t i n g f r o m m e s o c k e t . On©—
1 g iv e i l i a l e a v e t o w r i t e my h i s t o r y —
O nly -cm# s a i d , ” 1 t h i n k the. g e s t u r e s t r i v e s
A g a i n s t some o b s t a c l e w© c a n n o t s e e . ”
A l l th© r e s t made t h e i r a i n d s u p .
M,T i s a yawn
Of s h e e r f a t i g u e s u b s id in g t o r e p o s e :
The s t a t u e * s ’ Som nolency*' c l e a r e n o u g h !” 226
2.
T h e re *s a t a l e e x t a n t , i n a b o o k I c o n n ed
Long y e a r s a g o , w h ic h t r e a t s o f t h i n g s b e y o a t
Th® common, a n t i q u e t im e s .and c o u n t r i e s q u e e r
And c u sto m s s t r a n g e to- m a tc h .
T i s s a id l a s t y e a r ,”
{R e c o u n ts a y a u th o r ! . T,t h a t th e K in g had. m ind
To v ie w h i s k i agdcm— gue sse-d fro m b e h in d
A p a l a c e -w in d ow h i t h e r t o . A nnounced
Mo s o o n e r w a s s u c h p u r p o s e t h a n ’ tw a s p o u n c e d
Upon by a l l th e l a d i e s o f t h e l a n d lo y a l b u t lig h t of l i f e :
t h e y fo rm e d a band.
Of l o v e l i e s t o n e s b u t l i t h e a t a l s o , s i n c e
P r o u d l y t h e y a l l co m b in ed t o b e a r t h © i r p r i n c e .
B a c k s J o i n e d t o b r e a s t s , — a rm s , l e g s , . — n a y a n k l e s , w r i s t s , .
H a n d s, f e e t * 1 knew n o t by infest t u r n s and t w i s t s *
Bo in te r w o v e n l a y t h a t you b e l i e v e d
’Twas on® s o l e b e a s t o f b u M e n w h ic h r e c e i v e d
T he m o n arc h o n h i s b a c k ., o f b r e a d t h n o t s c a n t ,
S i n c e f i f t y g i r l s made or© w h ite e l e p h a n t . w
Bo w ith f i f t y f l o w e r s w h ic h s h a p e s a n d h u e s
B l e n t , a s I t e l l , and made on© f a s t y e t lo o s®
M ix tu r e o f b e a u t i e s , com po-sit® , d i s t i n c t
Mo l e s s i n e a c h c o m b in in g f l o w e r t h a t l i n k e d
W ith f l o w e r t o fo rm a f i t e n v ir o n m e n t
F o r — whom m ig h t b e th© p a i n t e r ’s h e a r t ’ s- I n t e n t
T h u s , in. th e m i d s t © n h a lo ed t o e n s h r i n e ?
" T h is g l o r y - g u a r d e d m id d le s p a c e — i s m in e ?
F o r me t o ■ f i l l ? * 2 **/
3.
— o r — e x a m p le b e t t e r y e t , —
A c a r p e t - w e b I saw one© l e a v e t h e loom
And l i e a t g o r g e o u s l e n g t h i n Is p a h a n *
Th© w e a v e r p l i e d h i s w o rk w i t h l e n g t h s o f s i l k
Byed e a c h t o m a to h a s m J e w e l a s i t m i g h t ,
And w ove th e m , t h i s b y t h a t .
’How com es i t , f r i e n d , ’ — {Q uoth I ) — ’ t h a t w h i l e , a p a r t , t h i s f i e r y h u e , '
’
226 P r i n c e H o h e n s tie l- S c h w a n g a u , S a v i o r o f S o c i e t y ,
p . 6 9 2 , 1 1 . 5 8 -6 2 a . e a t 1 - 1 1 b .
2.2? B e a t r i c e S i g n o r i n i , p . 9 9 8 , 1 1 . 1 6 -4 2 a .
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95
T h a t w a t e r y d im n e s s , e i t h e r s h o c k s t h e e y e .
So b l i n d i n g b r i g h t , o r e l s e o f f e n d s a g a i n
By d u l l n e s s , - - y e t t h e tw o ,, s e t e a c h b y e a c h ,
Somehow p ro d u c e a c o l o r b o r a o f b o t h ,
A m edium p r o f i t a b l e t o th e s i g h t ?
•Buch medium, i s t h e en d w h e r e a t I a i m , ’—
A nsw ered my c r a f ts m a n :’th e r e ’ s no s in g le t i n c t
W ould s a t i s f y th© e y e ’ s d e s i r e t o t a s t e
T he s e c r e t o f t h e d ia m o n d :
j o i n e x tr e m e s
R e s u l t s a s e r v i c e a b l e m e d iu m -g h o s t,
The d ia m o n d ’ s s i m u l a t i o n . Even so
1 n e e d s m u s t b l e n d th e q u a l i t y o f m n
W ith q u a l i t y o f God, a n d so a s s i s t
.Mere- hum an s i g h t t o u n d e r s t a n d a y l i f e ,
W hat i s , t h a t s h o u ld b e , — 223
To l e a v e t h e s u b j e c t o f im a g e ry w i t h o u t s e p a r a t e
a t t e n t i o n t o B ro w n in g ’ s p o r t r a i t s w o u ld be t o g i v e a n i n ­
c o m p le te im p r e s s io n o f h i s a b i l i t y i n w o r d - p a i n t i n g ,
lik e ­
w i s e , e m p h a s is u p o n m an,. B ro w n in g ’ s c h i e f i n t e r e s t , w o u ld
h a r d l y be p a i d due- a c c o u n t .
p o r t r a i t g a lle ry *
The' poem s a r e a v e r i t a b l e
From t h e th o u s a n d p a g e s I h a v e w i t h n o
e f f o r t a n d w ith g r e a t d e l i g h t c o ll e c t e d s i x t y .
a re th e re .
Many m ore
To c l a s s i f y a n d p r e s e n t a l l t h e s e i s n o t
n e ce ssa ry h e re .
Soma- o f them g i v e n c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y w i l l
(
s e r v e t o show B ro w n in g * t h e p a i n t e r , fro m 1840 t o 1 8 9 0 .
T he y o u t h f u l S a r d e l l e f i r s t :
H is fa s©
— l o o k , now h e t u r n s aw ay ! Y o u r s e l v e s A a l l t r a c e
(T h e d e l i c a t e n o s t r i l s w e r v in g w id e a n d f i n d ,
A s h a r p r e s t l e s s l i p , s o w e l l court)In©
W ith t h a t c a lm b ro w ) a s o u l f i t t o r e c e i v e
D e l ig h t a t e v e r y s e n s e ; 229 '
22i~nA B e a n - S t r i p e :
A ls o A p p l e - S a t i n g , p . 9 4 5 , 1 1 . 1 9 -4 0 a
229 B o r d e l l o , p . 7 9 , 1 1 , 1 3 -1 8 a .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Y o u th a g a i n i s
p ic tu re d h e re :
— ’H e r head, t h a t ' s sh arp - a n d p e r f e c t l i k a a p e A r,
So e l os© a n d sm ooth a r e l a i d th e few f i n e l o c k s
C o lo re d l i k e h oney o o z e d f r o m to p m o s t r o c k s
s u n - b l a n c h e d t h e l i v e l o n g sum m er*— 230
N o t i c e how d i c t i o n p r o d u c e s t h i s p o r t r a i t :
How. . .a y * she to Id a®* g a t h e r i n g up h e r f a c e .,
A l l l e f t o f i t , i n t o a n ' a r c h - g r im a c e
To d i e w ith * . .2 3 1
How m uch i s
s u g g e s te d h e r e b y th e a d j e c t i v e s o f t h i s m e ta p h o r
i n p o r t r a i t la n g u a g e
H is h o u s e , a l i t t l e
s k u l l w ith d a z z lin g
t
e
e
t
h
:
232
The n e x t t h r e e o f f e r v a r i e t y : 1.
S e e h i s s ta n d .
B u t t r e s s e d u p o n h i s m a t t o c k , H ild e b r a n d
Of t h e h u g e b r a i n - a ia s k w e ld e d p l y o.-*®r p l y
As i n a fo rg e ;, i t b u r ie s e i t h e r eye
S h it® a n d e x t i n c t , t h a t s t u p i d b ro w 3
t e e t h c le n c h e d .
T he n e c k t i g h t - c o r d e d * to o * t h e c h i n
d e e p - t r e n c h e d — 233
2*
I f t h i s my d a u g h t e r * s f o r e h e a d ? Y e s :
I* ire m ade i t f i t t e r new to b e a q u e e n ’ s
Than f o r m e r l y : I ’ v e p lo u g h e d t h e d e e p l i n e s t h e r e
W hich k e e p t o o w e l l a c ro w n fro m s l i p p i n g o f f . 234
3*
Y o u , w i t h a brow r u l e d l i k e a s c o r e ,
Y e s , an d © yes b u r l e d i n p i t s on e a c h c h e e k ,
230 B o r d e l l o , -p. 8 5 , 1 1 . 3 5 -3 3 a .
231 I b i d . . p . 9 6 , 1 1 . 3 6 -3 3 a .
232 I b i d . * p . 1 0 1 , 1 . 43 to.
233 I b i d . * p . 1 1 2 , 1 1 . 4 3 -4 8 a .
2 3 4 K in g V i c t o r an d K in g C h a r l e s , p . 1 6 2 , 1 1 . 4 0 -4 3 b .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
9?
L ik e tw o g r e a t b r a v e s , a s th e y w r o t e th em o f y o r e .
E ach s i d e t h a t bar#, y o u r s t r a i g h t b e a k i'2 3 5
Pomp i l l a s h o u ld b e i n t h i s g a l l e r y — '
**A l o v l i e r f a c e I s s o t .in R o m e c r i e d lie ,
"S h a p ed l i k e a p e a c o c k ’ s e g g , t h e -p are as' p e a r l - '
M ore a c t i v i t y
e s s e s i s t h e s e n e x t ::
1 . . S t a y s t a r t o f q u ic k m u s ta c h e , a r r e s t t h e a n g ry r i s e
o f e y e b ro w .2 3 7
2.
B lo o d b u r n t t h e c h ee k b o n e - e a c h b l a c k e y e f l a s h e d
fie r c e * 238
Os o n e p a g e c o n t r a s t s a p p e a r-:
1.
H u m a n ity 1 s m is h a p : t h e w r i n k l e d b ro w , b a l d .p ate*
And rheum y e y e s o f A g e, p e a k e d c h i n an d
p a rc h m e n t c h a p 239
2.
— t h e n e x t r e v o l t i n g you w a s T o o th ,
S t a r t ig n o r a n c e and c r u d e c o n c e i t , h a l f s m i r k ,
h a lf s ta re ,
On t h a t f r a n k f o o l - f a c e , g a y b e n e a t h i t s h e a d
o f h a ir
W hich c o v e r s n o t h i n g . 24 °
T h is M e t p o r t r a i t i s t h e e q u a l o f m y :
T h o s e s p a r k l i n g e y e s b e n e a th t h e i r -eyebrmr&P
(E a c h m e e ts e a c h , a n d th e h aw k -n o se^p u le''§ D eb w e© n }
r id g e -2 4 1
"^’3 5"M a s t e r U ngues o f B a x e -G o th a , p , 1 9 6 , 11* 3 5 -3 9 a .
236 T he B in g and t h e B o o k , p . 4 4 1 , 2 0 -2 1 b .
237 F i f i n e a t t h e F a i r , p . 7 0 4 , 1 1 . 3 - 4 a .
238 T he L a s t A d v e n tu re o f B a l a u s t i o n , p . 844* 1 . 44 a .
239 F i f i n e a t th e F a i r , p . 72.6, 1 1 . 6 - 7 b .
240 L oo* o i t . * 1 1 . 1 4 -1 7 b .
241 " I i a p e r a n t e A ugust© K a tu s 1 s t — " , p . 1 0 0 2 , 1 1 . 3 4 -3 6 a .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
y©r a. d i s c u s s i o n o f Browni:ng*® im a g e ry t h e r e i s no
l o n g c o n c l u s i o n t o b e -drawn*
'The i l l u s t r a t i o n s s p e a k f o r
M ia , a n d , t o a y m in i,- d e c l a r e him s u p e r i o r i n im a g e ry t h a t
i s b o th b e a u t i f u l a n d r i g o r o u s .
I n o u g h o f t h e d re a m t Ton s e e how p o e t r y t u r n s t o p r o s e .
A n n o u n cin g w o n d e r-w o rk , 1 d w in d le a t t h e c l o s e
Down t o mere- coisraonplace o l d f a c t s lA i o h e v e r y b o d y
k n o w s.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
OHAITER 1¥
GQHOOTIOli
Tile f o r e g o i n g o h a p t e r s upon d i c t i o n and im a g e ry i n
t h e p o e t r y o f R o b e r t B ro w n in g h a v e a t t e m p t ed t o show t h e
r i c h a n d v a r i e d m a t e r i a l w h ic h ha f i t s
t r e n d s i n th e m anner o f te c h n iq u e .
in to c e r t a i n d e f i n i t e
We h a v e o b s e r v e d t h a t
B r o w n in g is c h o ic e o f w o rd s i s c a r e f u l , v i v i d , and r e a l i s t i c ;
we h a v e becom e a w a re t h a t he h a s c e r t a i n h a b i t s o f s y n t a x ,
b u t t h a t w ith in th e s e l i m i t s th e v a r ie ty o f d i c t i o n and
con s t r u c t ! on i s g r e a t ,-
H i s i s t h e la n g u a g e o f t h e a l e r t n a n
who .sp eak s f e a r l e s s l y , b u t i n g o o d t a s t e , who b y h i s t r u s t ­
w o r th y d i e t i o n a t t a i n s a fre e d o m o f s t y l e t h a t m akes h i s
p o e try l i v e .
I f he r e p e a t s , - t h e r e p e t i t i o n i s c o m f o r t a b l e ;
i f he a d d s t o t h e v a r i e t y , t h e a d d i t i o n i s e x h i l a r a t i n g ,
As t h i s i s s a i d o f B ro w n in g * s d i c t i o n , l i k e w i s e may i t b e
s a i d o f h i s im a g e r y ,
Sea© o f t h e im a g e s grow t o b e o ld
f r i e n d s , b u t a lw a y s w ith n o t i c e a b l e p e r s o n a l i t y c h a n g e s .
When t h e new im a g e s a p p e a r , th e y i n c r e a s e th e k a l e i d o s c o p i c
c o lo r , add a d e t a i l t o a s c e n e , or e n la rg e th e g a lle r y o f
p o rtra its *
fie ld
W h ile c o n t e n t o f th e w r i t i n g s h a s n o t b e e n th e
o f t h i s w o rk , i n m any i n s t a n c e s w o rd s an d lin a g e s m u st
h a v e s u g g e s te d i t s b r e a d t h .
T h e re i s a w holesom e fre e d o m
a b o u t w h a t B row ning d o e s i n a n y d i r e c t i o n *
T h a t h i s m e th o d s
may a t t i m e s seem r e p e t i t i o u s i s n o t a c r i t i c i s m a g a i n s t
th e m , b u t r a t h e r a v e r i f i c a t i o n o f h i s d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
te c h n iq u e .
He o m i t s , p e r h a p s , a s w i s e l y a e lie c h o o s e s .
Then*. h a v in g c h o s e n , h e p r a c t i c e s t h e h a b i t s w h ic h m l®
h im i n d i v i d u a l .
1 a s w illin g to
c o n c lu d e t h a t R o b e rt
B row ning i s a th o u g h tf u l* . z e s t f u l p o e t w ho u s e s w id e
v a r i e t y o f d i c t i o n and im a g e ry w i t h i n d e l i b e r a t e l y p la n n e d
n a rro w e r l i m i t s o f te c h n iq u e .
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Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
B IB L IO G R A P H Y
A .
The
TEXT
C o m p le te P o e t i c a n d D r a m a tic W o rk s o f R o b e r t B r o w n in g
( " s t u d e n t ' s C a m b r id g e E d i t i o n ) .
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m 3
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in c .,
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The
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6 3 :3 9 -4 7 ,
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
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