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THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA IN IMPROVING SPEECH AND VOICE IN CONVERSATION

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University Microfilms
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A nn Arbor, M ic higan 48106
A X e ro x E d u c a tio n C o m p a n y
"
13-8515
Doob, Dorothy.
The effectiveness of i n s t r u c t i o n a l
med ia in impr ov ing s p e e c h a n d voice in
conversation; an e x p e r i m e n t a l evaluation
of four types of i n s t r u c t i o n a l m e d i a
used in a college s p e e c h course...
IIev; Yorh, 1941.
c5=,192 t y pe w r i t t e n leaves.
tables.
29cm.
final document ( E d . D . ) - D e w Yo r k
university, School of education, 1941.
Bibliography:
p . 113-115.
A 67292
S h elf List
Xerox University Microfilms,
Ann Arbor, Mi c hi ga n 48106
T H I S D I S S E R T A T I O N H A S B E E N M I C R O F I L M E D E X A C T L Y AS R E C E I V E D .
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA
IN IMPROVING SPEECH AND VOICE
IN CONVERSATION
An E x p e r im e n ta l E v a l u a t i o n o f Four Types
o f I n s t r u c t i o n a l Media Used in a
C o l l e g e Sp eech Course
DOROTHY DOOB
S u b m itted in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f th e
r e q u ir e m e n ts f o r th e d e g r ee o f D octor o f
E d u c a tio n in t h e S o h o o l o f E d u c a tio n o f
New York U n i v e r s i t y
1941
P L E A S E NO TE :
Some pages may have
i n d i s t i n c t print.
F i l m e d as re ce ive d.
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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
F o r t h e i r s p l e n d i d c o o p e r a t i o n i n th e perform ance
o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , I am g r e a t l y in d e b t e d t o t h e
s t u d e n t s who a c t e d a s s u b j e c t s .
For t h e i r f a i t h f u l , u n t i r i n g and i n v a l u a b le
a s s i s t a n c e , I w is h t o e x p r e s s my deep a p p r e c i a t i o n t o
t h e t h r e e j u d g e s , Alona H a r r in g t o n H enning, Mary Lou
P lu g g e and Dr. Domis E . P l u g g e .
For t h e i r en c o u r a g em en t, s t i m u l a t i n g s u g g e s t i o n s
and e x p e r t g u id a n c e a t e v e r y s t e p o f th e way, I sh o u ld
l i k e t o e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e t o th e s p o n s o r in g c o m m ittee ,
P r o f e s s o r D o roth y M ulgrave (C hairm an), P r o f e s s o r John
C r e a g e r , P r o f e s s o r E r n e s t tfood, and P r o f e s s o r Randolph
S o m e r v ille •
For h i s f r i e n d l y c o u n s e l and c a r e f u l d i r e c t i o n
o f my g r a d u a te work, I owe a d eb t o f g r a t i t u d e to
P r o f e s s o r A l b e r t M e r e d ith .
I s h o u ld a l s o l i k e t o e x p r e s s my th a n k s t o Dr.
C h a r le s Odom f o r h i s v a l u a b l e h e lp i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n
o f th e s t a t i s t i c a l t a b l e s ;
t o P r o f e s s o r Marie K.
G a lla g h e r f o r h e r c o o p e r a t i o n ; to M iss E l s i e Hug
f o r h er s y m p a t h e tic u n d e r s t a n d in g and v a r i e d s e r v i c e s ;
and to M is s C la r a D e t h l o f f , whose warm p e r s o n a l
i n t e r e s t and u n f a i l i n g l o y a l t y h e lp e d t o smooth many
rough p a s s a g e s .
A6 1 8 9 2
TABLE OP CONTENTS
Page
CHAPTER I
The Problem and I t s S c o p e .............................................1
S ta te m e n t o f t h e P r o b l e m .......................
1
D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms ............................................ 1
S i g n i f i c a n c e o f th e Problem ......................... 4
S p e c i f i c P roblem s o f th e Study .................... 10
D e l i m i t a t i o n s ............................
11
CHAPTER I I
The Background o f th e P r o b l e m .................................13
Sp eech E d u c a tio n in th e American
C o lleg e
......................................15
C o n v e r s a t i o n ......................................
21
R e s e a r c h ............................................................................ 24
CHAPTER I I I
Data and P r o c e d u r e .........................................................31
The
The
The
The
Stu dents
..............................................................31
E x p er im e n ta l Groups
....................... 32
T e s t i n g P roced u re ....................................... 36
R a tin g P roced u re . . . . .
.................... 42
CHAPTER IV
A n a l y s i s o f t h e R e s u l t s f o r th e Pour
E x p er im e n ta l Groups and th e C o n tr o l
G r o u p ................................................................................ 54
Method o f A n a l y s i s ....................................................54
The P o e t r y G r o u p .........................................................55
The Dram atic M a t e r i a l s Group ........................ 62
The P ro se Group
....................................................68
The C o n v e r s a tio n Group ....................................... 73
The C o n tr o l Group ........................ . . . . .
81
Summary . . . . .
................................................ 84
TABLE OP CONTENTS
Page
CHAPTER V
A Comparison o f th e Pour E x p er im e n ta l
Groups and t h e C o n tr o l G r o u p ....................
85
Method o f A n a l y s i s ...........................................
F u r th e r Comparisons
. . . . . . . . .
85
90
CHAPTER VI
Summary, C o n c l u s i o n s , and
Recommendations . . . . . .
....................
95
Summary o f Problem and P roced ure . . .
95
Summary o f F i n d i n g s .......................................
97
The R ecord in g P roced ure
................................
100
L i m i t a t i o n s o f th e C o n c lu s io n s . . . .
102
C o n c lu s io n s o f th e S t u d y ....................... • 103
S ig n if ic a n c e o f th e R e su lts . . . . .
105
R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s ..................................................
109
B ib lio g r a p h y
...........................................................................
A p p e n d i x .................................................................................
113
LIST OP TABLES
R atin g S c a l e Used by Judges
T able I ....................................................................
F i r s t R a tin g o f V o ic e and Sp eech in
C o n v e r s a t io n o f S i x S u b j e c t s
by Three Jud ges
T able I I . . .
. ................................................
Second R a tin g o f V o ic e and Sp eech i n
C o n v e r s a t io n o f S i x S u b j e c t s
by Three Judges
T ab le I I I
. . . .
...........................................
T o ta l S c o r e s on F i r s t and Second R a tin g s
o f S ix Major C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f
V o ic e and Sp eech i n C o n v e r sa tio n
o f S i x S u b j e c t s by Three Judges
T able I V . . . .....................................................
Mean I n d i v i d u a l R a tin g s o f Twenty S t u d e n ts
i n E x p e r im e n ta l Group I and Twenty
S tu d e n ts i n C o n tr o l Group on P r e T e s t and E n d -T e st i n E le v e n Speech
Q u a litie s
T a b le s V th ro u g h V III
Table V .................................................... . . .
T able V I ....................................... .... .......................
T ab le VII
. . . .
. . .
. . . . . . .
T ab le V I I I . . . .
. . . . . . . . . .
Mean I n d i v i d u a l R a t i n g s o f Twenty S t u d e n t s
i n E x p er im e n ta l Group I I and Twenty
S tu d e n ts i n C o n tr o l Group on P r e T e st and E n d -T e st i n E le v e n Speech
Q u a litie s
T a b le s IX th r o u g h XII
T ab le IX . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
T able X . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table XI . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
T ab le XII . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
.
.
.
.
LIST OF TABLES
Page
Mean I n d i v i d u a l R a tin g s o f Twenty S t u d e n t s
i n E x p er im e n ta l Group I I I and Twenty
S t u d e n t s in C o n tr o l Group on P r e T e s t and E n d -T e st i n E le v e n Speeoh
Q u a litie s
T a b le s X I I I th ro u g h XVI
T able X I II ..........................................................
T able XIV ..........................................................
T ab le XV ...............................................................
T able XVI ..........................................................
69
71
72
74
Mean I n d i v i d u a l R a t in g s o f Twenty S t u d e n ts
in E x p e r im e n ta l Group IV and Twenty
S t u d e n t s i n C o n tr o l Group on P r e T e s t and E n d -T est i n E le v e n Speech
Q u a litie s
T a b le s XVII th rou gh XX
T able XVII ..........................................................
T able XVIII .....................................................
T able XIX ..........................................................
T ab le XX ...............................................................
75
77
78
80
C r i t i c a l R a t i o s Between t h e P r e - T e s t and
E n d -T est o f th e C o n tr o l Group w ith
R e s p e c t t o S p eech Q u a l i t i e s
T able XXI ..........................................................
82
D i f f e r e n c e b etw een Means and C r i t i c a l
R a t i o s o f t h e E x p e r im e n ta l Groups
and t h e C o n tr o l Group w it h R e sp e c t
t o S p eech Q u a l i t i e s
T ab le XXII ..........................................................
86
CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE
S ta te m e n t o f t h e Problem
The purpose o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s t o compare
f o u r t y p e s o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l media u sed in a b a s i c
c o l l e g e co u r se and t o e v a lu a t e t h e i r e f f e c t upon sp ee ch
-«**?■
and v o i c e in c o n v e r s a t i o n .
I t i s in te n d e d t o examine
c r i t i c a l l y m a t e r i a l s and t e c h n i q u e s now b e in g used in
th e t e a c h in g o f sp ee ch and to make s p e c i f i c recommenda­
t i o n s c o n c e r n in g th e c o n t e n t o f a c o u r s e in c o n v e r s a t i o n a l
sp e e c h .
D e f i n i t i o n s o f Terms
By “t y p e s o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l ” a r e meant
th e c h i e f media through which s p e e c h and v o i c e t r a i n i n g
in e a ch c l a s s i s s e c u r e d .
Thus a l l o f the f o u r c l a s s e s
in th e p r e s e n t stu d y p r a c t i c e c e r t a i n v o ic e and
a r tic u la tio n ex ercises
i n common, b u t t h e a p p l i c a t i o n
of these ex erc ise s
takes
m edia.
the read in g o f p o e tr y ,
These a r e :
of prose,
its
form in f o u r d i f f e r e n t
the re a d in g
th e r e a d in g o f d ra m a tic p a s sa g e s , and
p articip atio n
in in f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n and c o n v e r s a t i o n .
The a c t u a l p r o c e d u r e s u s e d i n e a c h c l a s s a r e f u l l y
d e s c rib e d in C hapter I I I .
By a “ c o l l e g e s p e e c h c o u r s e ” i s m eant a o n e seinester co u rse e n t i t l e d
“Voice and D i c t i o n ” , s u c h a s
i s g e n e r a l l y t a k e n i n t h e sophomore y e a r a t H u n te r
C o l l e g e o f t h e C i t y o f New Y o r k .
By “ e v a l u a t i o n ” i s m e a n t t h e a p p r a i s a l o f
changes in voice and speech r e v e a l e d by r e c o r d in g s
t a k e n b e f o r e and a f t e r t h e t r a i n i n g g i v e n .
evaluation
i s b a s e d upon th e r a t i n g s
This
o f qualified
judges un d er the c o n d i ti o n s d e s c r ib e d in C hapter I I I ,
By “ c o n v e r s a t i o n ” , i n t h i s
stud?/, i s meant
s p e c i f i c a l l y th e c o n v e r s a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l form ing th e
c o n te n t o f the re c o rd in g s used in th e ex perim ent.
This m a t e r i a l c o n s i s t s o f th e r e a d i n g o f a s h o r t
s e l e c t i o n o f s i m p l e and i n f o r m a l p r o s e ,
in s t y l e ,
conversational
f o ll o w e d by a b r i e f s p o n ta n e o u s d i s c u s s i o n
of i t s
c o n te n ts w ith the i n v e s t i g a t o r .
In a b ro a d e r
sense,
t h e term “ c o n v e r s a t i o n ” i s u s e d t h r o u g h o u t t h i s
-3 -
stu d y t o d e n o te th e g i v e and ta k e o f f r i e n d l y
d i s c u s s i o n a s opposed to “p u b l i c s p e a k in g ” .
It is
t h e u se o f sp e e c h in in fo r m a l f a s h i o n , broken a t b r i e f
i n t e r v a l s by r e s p o n s e s from o t h e r s and g u id e d by t h o s e
responses.
iVhile i t
i s d i f f i c u l t t o fo r m u la te a s i n g l e
c o m p le t e ly s a t i s f a c t o r y d e f i n i t i o n o f c o n v e r s a t i o n or
o f c o n v e r s a t i o n a l s p e e c h , t h e f o l l o w i n g a tte m p t s a t
d e f i n i t i o n by v a r io u s a u t h o r i t i e s e x h i b i t an agreem ent
and an i n c l u s i v e n e s s which i n d i c a t e a g e n e r a l a c c e p t a n c e
o f c e r t a i n c o n c e p t s a s b e in g fundam ental t o c o n v e r s a t i o n :
“C o n v e r s a t io n a l s p e e c h i s a sp o n ta n eo u s u t t e r a n c e
o f t h o u g h t s , coming a s i f f o r th e f i r s t tim e t o t h e
m in d ...” 1
“The k in d o f s p e e c h t h a t l i s t e n e r s o r d i n a r i l y
u n d e rsta n d w ith l e a s t e x e r t i o n i s s p o n ta n e o u s , f r e e
from d i s p l a y and u n c o n s t r a in e d .
I t i s t h i s e le m e n t
o f e a s e , o f g en u in en ess, o f n a iv e t e , th a t c o n s t i t u t e s
t h e q u a l i t y we c a l l c o n v e r s a t i o n a l . . . . ” 2
“Sp eech on t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n a l l e v e l , where th e
h e a r e r s a r e r e l a t i v e l y few and where th e pomp and
c ir c u m s ta n c e o f p u b l i c m e e t in g s are a b s e n t . ” 3
By “ s p e e c h and v o i c e ” i n t h i s e x p e rim en t are
meant th e f a c t o r s ta k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n by th e ju d ges
in r a t i n g t h e r e c o r d in g s o f th e s t u d e n t s .
These f a c t o r s
and t h e i r im portance are f u l l y d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I I I .
1.
2.
3.
H, Ogg and R. Immel, Speech Im provem ent, p. XVII
I b i d . p . X I II
Ib id . p. X
-4-
They may be l i s t e d
b r i e f l y h ere as: dictio n ,,
voice q u a l i t y , f l e x i b i l i t y ,
au d ib ility ,
anim ation, en u n c ia tio n ,
p r o n u n c i a t i o n , f l u e n c y , g r o u p i n g , rh y th m , tem po, v a r i e t y
and r a t e , n a t u r a l n e s s .
S i g n i f i c a n c e o f th e Problem
I t has been estim ated th a t n in e ty per cent of the
s tu d e n ts tak in g a fundam entals course in speech in th e
average
college
o r u n i v e r s i t y h a v e no i n t e n t i o n o f
becoming p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t o r s ,
o r t e a c h e r s o f speech.*-
lectu rers,
public speakers,
As e d u c a t o r s h a v e g i v e n mor e and
more t h o u g h t t o t h e a c t u a l n e e d s o f s t u d e n t s ,
come t o r e a l i z e
t h a t the speech tr a in in g
average co lleg e
stu d en t is not tra in in g
th e y have
r e q u i r e d by t h e
in p la tfo rm or
p u b l i c s p e a k i n g , b u t i n t h e a r t and s c i e n c e o f e v e r y d a y ,
inform al, co n v ersatio n al speech.
come a b o u t g r a d u a l l y , b u t
acceptance.
This r e c o g n i t i o n has
i t has g ain ed w idespread
A s u r v e y o f r e c e n t b o o k s an d a r t i c l e s on
s p e e c h p r o d u c e s t h e f o l l o w i n g co m men ts on t h e s u b j e c t :
“We h a v e no h e s i t a t i o n i n i n s i s t i n g t h a t t h e
g r e a t e s t need o f the s tu d e n t in a fundam ental course
i n s p e e c h i s t r a i n i n g on t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n a l l e v e l . ” Z
“ C o u rses s h o u ld im prove th e p u p i l ’ s p r i v a t e
s p e e c h a n d c o n v e r s a t i o n q u i t e a s much a s —-or e v e n
more t h a n — h i s s p e a k i n g i n p u b l i c . ” 3
1.
2.
3.
Ogg an d I m m e l, S p e e c h I m p r o v e m e n t , p . XVII
I b i d . p. X
A. Mo Drummond, A C o u r s e o f S t u d y i n S p e e c h T r a i n i n g
a n d P u b l i c S p e a k i n g f o r S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s , p . 10
-5-
“S p eech t r a i n i n g to o k an enormous s t r i d e forw ard
when i t r e c o g n i z e d t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f c o n v e r s a t i o n a l
d e l i v e r y o v e r s t i l t e d , b o m b a s t ic , e l o c u t i o n a r y r h e t o r i c .
The n e x t g r e a t advance w i l l come w ith t h e r e c o g n i t i o n
t h a t the s t u d e n t s t o be t r a i n e d have a v a s t l y g r e a t e r
n ee d f o r p r i v a t e than f o r p u b l i c s p e e c h . ” 1
While t h i s n eed o f th e i n d i v i d u a l f o r t r a i n i n g
in c o n v e r s a t i o n a l sp e e c h has b een n o t e d , o b s e r v e r s have
commented on th e low s t a t e o f p r i v a t e c o n v e r s a t i o n in
America t o d a y .
In a magazine a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d “The
D e c l i n e o f C o n v e r s a t io n ” , 2 A lb e r t J . Nock w r i t e s :
“ The c i v i l i z a t i o n o f a c o u n try c o n s i s t s in
th e q u a l i t y o f l i f e t h a t i s l i v e d t h e r e , and t h i s
q u a l i t y shows p l a i n e s t in th e t h i n g s t h a t p e o p le
c h o o se t o t a l k about when t h e y t a l k t o g e t h e r , and
in t h e way th e y c h o o se t o t a l k a b o u t t h e m .”
Judged on t h i s b a s i s , Nock c l a i m s , Am erican
c i v i l i z a t i o n to d a y must be fo u n d l a c k i n g .
Dyer remarks*.
“Among th e g e n t l e but im portant a r t s whose
decay we have b een j u s t l y la m e n tin g in America i s
t h a t o f c o n v e r s a t i o n . . . . The p i t y i s th a t so
few p e o p le are a b l e t o c o n v e r s e on w o r th w h ile
t o p i c s . . . . The c o n d i t i o n s o f modern l i f e have
made c o n v e r s a t i o n a l o s t a r t . ” 3
Even among c o l l e g e g r a d u a t e s we f i n d sp e e c h m a ste ry to
be r a r e , and o f t e n t h e i r c o n v e r s a t i o n i s immature b o th
in c o n t e n t and i n t e c h n i q u e .
This c o n d i t i o n i s due in
p a r t to t h e f a c t t h a t t e a c h e r s o f s p e e c h have n o t y e t
1.
2.
3.
R. T. O l i v e r , “The Growth o f I n t e r e s t in
C o n v e r s a t io n ” , E n g l i s h Journal ( C o l l e g e
E d i t i o n ) , O c t . , 193 2, p . 657
H arper’ s M agazine, v o l . 1 5 2 , 1 9 2 6 , pp. 6 8 6 - 7 0 2
If. P. D y er, “D e v e lo p in g t h e A rt o f C o n v e r sa tio n
a s a Form o f C u lt u r e ” , E n g li s h J o u r n a l .
v o l . 1 5 , A p r i l , 1 9 2 6 , p . 276
-6-
worked o u t s a t i s f a c t o r y m ethods o f d e v e l o p i n g s p e e c h
on t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n a l l e v e l *
As o n e w r i t e r h a s s a i d :
“ U n d e r g r a d u a t e c o u r s e s i n s p e e c h may n o t e x p e c t
t o s u r v i v e th e e x a c t i n g and c r i t i c a l s p i r i t o f t h e
t i m e s u n l e s s t h e y a r e b a s e d on i n d i s p u t a b l e f a c t s w h i c h
r e s e a r c h and s c h o l a r s h i p a r e a b le t o f o r m u l a t e .
To
u n d e r e s t i m a t e th e v a lu e o f s c h o l a r s h i p and t h e a n a l y t i c
m e t h o d i n o u r own f i e l d . . , w o u l d be n o t h i n g s h o r t o f
su icid e* ” 1
W hile t h e
im provement o f c o n v e r s a t i o n a l s p e e c h
i s g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d as a t l e a s t one o f t h e aim s o f
n e a r ly e v e r y c o lle g e speech c o u rse ,
m a te ria ls used are
i n many c a s e s t h e p r o d u c t s o f
t r a d i t i o n or o f experience*
very l i t t l e
t h e m e t h o d s an d
co n tro lled ,
As y e t t h e r e h a s b e e n
scie n tific
and m a t e r i a l s o f s p e e c h e d u c a t i o n .
teach ers are attem pting
s tu d y o f t h e m ethods
T o d a y , when s p e e c h
to ad ap t t h e i r
in s tr u c tio n to
t h e new a im s o f c o n v e r s a t i o n a l s p e e c h , t h e n e e d f o r s u c h
scie n tific
study is g r e a te r than e v e r.
The p r e s e n t s t u d y
i s o f f e r e d a s a p o s s i b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n to such s c i e n t i f i c
in vestigation*
O r a l r e a d i n g h a s long b e e n one o f t h e most w i d e l y
u s e d media o f s p e e c h e d u c a t i o n *
In i t s
proposed curriculum
f o r s e c o n d a ry s c h o o ls , a s p e c i a l com m ittee o f th e N a tio n a l
TI
M. L . D a g g y , “ The” U n d e r g r a d u a t e C u r r i c u l u m i n
S p e e c h ” i n Xi. A. C a b l e C u l t u r a l a n d S c i e n t i f i c
S p e e c h E d u c a t i o n T o d a y , p . 41
A s s o c i a t i o n o f T e a c h e r s o f S p e e c h i n 1925 r ec om m en de d
t h a t “ The r e a d i n g o f s i m p l e p r o s e a n d p o e t r y s h o u l d be
b o t h m ea ns t o a n d p r o d u c t s o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e d e t a i l s
o f e x p r e s s i o n , ” -*h o t o n ly p ro se and p o e t r y b u t d r a m a tic p a s sa g e s
as w e ll have been u se d a s i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s
in speech
c o u r s e s , a n d t h e p r a c t i c e h a s b e e n n o t t o u s e one o f t h e s e
media e x c l u s i v e l y , b u t t o
d e p e n d in g upon th e
It
v a r y them ,
in d iv id u a l t a s t e o f the
i s on e o f t h e a i m s o f t h i s
relativ e
w ith th e em phasis
in stru cto r.
s tu d y t o compare t h e
v a l u e o f t h e s e media f o r t h e d ev elopm ent o f
c o n v e r s a t i o n a l s p e e c h , t o d i s c o v e r which h a s most t o
o f f e r t o i n s t r u c t o r s s e e k i n g t h e b e s t medium f o r
e x e r c i s e and p r a c t i c e .
If
t h e c h i e f a im o f a s p e e c h c o u r s e
is the
developm ent o f c o n v e r s a t i o n a l sp e e c h , how ever, the
q u e s t i o n a r i s e s as to w h e th e r th e b e s t method to u s e
m ight n o t be t h e d i r e c t o n e , t h a t
in c o n v e r s a tio n a l s i t u a t i o n s .
t e x t book have p u t i t :
is,
actu al tra in in g
As t h e a u t h o r s o f a r e c e n t
“ Why n o t t r a i n t h e s t u d e n t f o r
t h e v e r y t h i n g f o r w h ic h he n e e d s t r a i n i n g ,
do i t
d ire c tly ,
other a c tiv ity ?
a n d why n o t
i n s t e a d o f t h r o u g h t h e medium o f some
i/hy n o t make c o n v e r s a t i o n a l s p e e c h t h e
1 . A. M. Drummond, A C o u r s e o f S t u d y i n S p e e c h T r a i n i n g
a n d Pu b l i c S p e a k i n g f o r S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s , p . 14
-8-
o b j e c t i v e and why n o t u s e c o n v e r s a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n s
as
the v e h ic le
The same o p i n i o n i s e x p r e s s e d by a n i n v e s t i g a t o r
o f group d i s c u s s io n m ethods,
o f sp eech “ cannot
inherent
who s t a t e s t h a t t h e t e a c h e r
i g n o r e t h e v a l u e s w h ic h a r e n e c e s s a r i l y
i n a method w h i c h a c t u a l l y c r e a t e s t h e k i n d o f
situ atio n
frequently
in which sp e e c h as a t o o l
n
t h r o u g h o u t l i f e . ,,':'
t h r e e m ethods o u t l i n e d
i s t o b e u s e d m o st
In a d d itio n to the
the p r e s e n t
study c o n s id e r s
the
e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the d i r e c t use o f o o n v e r s a tio n a l
s i t u a t i o n s f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f v o i c e an d s p e e c h i n
conversation.
In t h is
way i t may b e p o s s i b l e
to l e a r n
s o m e t h i n g o f t h e b e s t m e t h o d s and m e d i a f o r a c o u r s e
aimed d i r e c t l y a t c o n v e r s a t i o n a l s p e e c h as w e l l a s f o r
a fundam entals course
i n w hich c o n v e r s a t i o n a l speech
i s only one of t h e aim s.
It
in public
i s o f te n claim ed t h a t t h e t r a i n i n g
speaking c o u rse s i s
c a r r i e d over to
acquired
conversa­
t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n s , b u t i t h as been p o in te d o u t a ls o
th at train in g
i n c o n v e r s a t i o n i s v a l u a b l e f o r any s o r t
of speech a c t iv ity .
1.
2.
One w r i t e r h a s s a i d :
“P u b l i c
Ggg a n d Imm el, o p . c i t . , p . XVT
A. J o h n s o n , “ T e a c h i n g t h e F u n d a m e n t a l s o f S p e e c h
t h r o u g h Grou p D i s c u s s i o n ” , Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l
o f S p e e c h , 1939, p . 447
-9-
speaking
is
sim ply o r d i n a r y c o n v e r s a t i o n e l e v a t e d and
intensified.A nother
w rites:
“I t
is
from s u c h a
c o n c e p t i o n o f p u b l i c s p e a k in g a s an e n l a r g e d c o n v e r s a ­
tio n
that
a p u b lic d e liv e r y w ith the n a t u r a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s
O
o f c o n v e r s a t i o n w i l l b e d e v e l o p e d . ” '-
A fter a l l ,
vocal elem ents o f d e liv e r y are the s a m e ...
grouping,
cen tralizatio n ,
tran sitio n ,
“the
B reath
tem po, m elo d y ,
and c l i m a x a r e f u n d a m e n t a l p r i n c i p l e s u n d e r l y i n g t h e
p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a l l form s of s p e e c h . ”
of th e r e la tiv e
3
Thus t h e s t u d y
v a l u e o f d i f f e r e n t media f o r t h e
developm ent of v o ic e and speech in c o n v e r s a t i o n i s a
c o n t r i b u t i o n as w e ll t o
in stru ctio n
in p u b lic or
platform speaking.
F in ally ,
t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y may be v i e w e d a s an
e f f o r t to d is c o v e r w hether t h e r e
d ifferen ce at a ll
for
is
any s i g n i f i c a n t
in th e value o f d i f f e r e n t m a t e r ia ls
i n s t r u c t i o n a l purposes in speech e d u c a tio n , or
w h e t h e r t h e mere f a c t o f s u p e r v i s e d p r a c t i c e
is th e o n ly elem ent t h a t
is
sig n ifican t.
in i t s e l f
The f o u r
e x p e r i m e n t a l c l a s s e s a r e compared w ith a c o n t r o l gro u p
17
2.
3,
Cr. W. H u l b e r t , “ The C o n v e r s a t i o n a l B a s i s ” , E n g l i s h
J o u r n a l , 1 9 2 7 , p . B03
II. II. V/agner, “ C o n v e r s a t i o n a l Q u a l i t y i n D e l i v e r y ”
i n A. II. Drummond, o p . c i t . p . 52
">/. P . H i n s d a l e , “ The P l a c e o f S p e e c h i n t h e C o l l e g e
C u r r i c u l u m , ” i n iif. A. C a b l e , o p . c i t . p . 36
-1 0
o f s t u d e n t s who r e c e i v e no i n s t r u c t i o n or p r a c t i c e in
sp e e c h a t a l l .
I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t an a n a l y s i s o f th e
r e s u l t s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i l l r e v e a l t h a t th e o n ly
s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n improvement o v e r th e f i v e month p e r io d are b etw een th e c o n t r o l group and e a ch o f
th e e x p e r im e n ta l g r o u p s .
In t h a t c a s e , e v id e n c e w i l l
have been brought forw ard a s t o t h e v a lu e o f t r a i n i n g
in s p e e c h r e g a r d l e s s o f th e i n s t r u c t i o n a l medium u s e d ,
and t o t h e im portance o f e m p h a sizin g p r a c t i c e and
s u p e r v i s i o n i n t h e m s e lv e s r a th e r than th e m a t e r i a l s
o f c la s s r o o m p r a c t i c e .
S p e c i f i c Problem s o f th e S tu d y
I n v o lv e d i n th e main problem o f t h i s stu d y a r e
t h e f o l l o w i n g s p e c i f i o su b -p rob lem s:
1.
Which o f th e fo u r i n s t r u c t i o n a l media
p ro d u ces th e g r e a t e s t improvement in th e c o n v e r s a t i o n a l
sp e e c h o f th e s t u d e n t s ?
2.
What i s th e c o m p a rative e f f e c t o f th e
d i f f e r e n t i n s t r u c t i o n a l media upon t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n a l
sp e e c h o f th e s t u d e n t s ?
3.
What i s th e e f f e c t o f each o f t h e i n s t r u c ­
t i o n a l media upon t h e v a r io u s f a c t o r s o f c o n v e r s a t i o n a l
speech?
4.
What recomm endations a s t o th e o b j e c t i v e s ,
m eth ods, and m a t e r i a l s o f a c o u r se in c o n v e r s a t i o n a l
-11-
s p e e c h grow out o f t h i s
5.
study?
Y/hat r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a s t o t h e s c i e n t i f i c
sttidy o f sp eech e d u c a t i o n a r i s e
resu lts
of th is
f r o m t h e m e th o d an d
study?
D elim itations
This stu d y i s d e l i m i t e d to th e e x te n t t h a t th e
s u b je c ts a re a s e l e c t e d group o f g i r l s .
T heir s p e c ia l
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a re f u l l y d e s c rib e d in C hapter I I I .
While i t
is
b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e f o u r methods o f
i n s t r u c t i o n u s e d i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t a r e t h o s e most
commonly a n d w i d e l y e m p l o y e d i n c o l l e g e s p e e c h c o u r s e s ,
o th e r m ethods, such as th e d e l i v e r y o f p re p a re d speeches
or a r g u m e n ta tio n might have been i n c l u d e d ,
s i n c e many
te a c h e rs o f speech m ain tain t h a t the e f f e c t s o f t r a in i n g
i n t h e more f o r m a l b r a n c h e s o f s p e e c h c a r r y o v e r t o
c o n v ersatio n al speech.
M o r e o v e r , a c o m b i n a t i o n o f two
o r more m e t h o d s m i g h t h a v e b e e n e m p l o y e d .
The
d e l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y to t h e f o u r media u s e d ,
h o w e v e r , was d i c t a t e d b y t h e f a c i l i t i e s
A ll fo u r c la s se s
in stru cto r.
av ailab le.
were t a u g h t b y a s i n g l e
E v e r y e f f o r t was made t o g i v e t h e
q u ality of in stru ctio n
same
to each c la s s r e g a r d le s s of
th e method o f i n s t r u c t i o n u s e d , b u t i t
is
conceivable
t h a t t h e a b i l i t y o f th e t e a c h e r in a l l f o u r methods
-12
may n o t
have been e q u a l.
The s t u d y I s f u r t h e r d e l i m i t e d t o t h e e x t e n t
t h a t t h e a c t u a l r e c o r d i n g p r o c e s s i t s e l f may n o t be
co n sid ered e n t i r e ly
conducive to th e n a t u r a l
inform al
a t m o s p h e r e a s s u m e d i n t h e u s e o f t h e word “ c o n v e r s a t i o n ” .
The e f f o r t s made t o o v e r c o m e t h i s
described
in C hapter I I I .
It
l i m i t a t i o n are
is not m aintained th a t
the re c o rd in g s i t u a t i o n r e p r e s e n ts
the
ideal
e o n v o r s a tio n a 1 s e t- u p , b u t the l i m i t a t i o n s
involved
wer e t h e s a n e f o r e a c h one o f t h e f o u r c l a s s e s .
CHAPTER I I
THE BACKGROUND OF THE PROBLEM
While s c i e n t i f i c s tu d y o f th e problem s and methods
o f s p e e c h e d u c a t i o n i s a r e c e n t d e v e lo p m e n t, t h e t e a c h i n g
o f sp e e c h has a lo n g h i s t o r y *
M oreover, th e t e a c h i n g o f
o r a l E n g l i s h in th e American c o l l e g e i s a s o l d a s t h e
i n s t i t u t i o n i t s e l f , and was one o f th e major s e c t i o n s
o f i t s c u r r ic u lu m in th e c o l o n i a l p e r io d .
The em phasis
in American sp ee ch e d u c a t i o n , h ow ever, has changed
s i g n i f i c a n t l y in th e c o u r s e o f th e p a s t two c e n t u r i e s ,
and t h i s g r a d u a l t r e n d has b een alw ays in th e d i r e c t i o n
o f l e s s d e c la m a t io n and more c o n v e r s a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g .
In t h e b e g i n n in g , sp e e c h e d u c a t i o n in th e American
c o l l e g e aimed a t t h e t r a i n i n g o f la w y e r s and m i n i s t e r s ,
i t was f o r e n s i c and o r a t o r i c a l t r a i n i n g .
Today, a s was
i n d i c a t e d in Chapter I (p p . 7 - 8 ) , th e o b j e c t i v e s i n our
c o l l e g e s tend tow ards th e t e a c h i n g o f s p e e c h f o r c o n s t a n t
e v e r y d a y u s e , n o t f o r s p e c i a l o c c a s i o n s or f o r
p r o fessio n a l d isp la y .
The stu d y o f c o n v e r s a t i o n has a h i s t o r y o f i t s
own, a h i s t o r y which c r o s s e s t h a t o f sp ee ch e d u c a t i o n
o n ly i n r e c e n t y e a r s .
Much h a s been w r i t t e n o f
c o n v e r s a t i o n s i n c e th e day Dean S w if t commenced h i s
14
famous e s s a y w ith th e words: “ I have o b ser v ed few
o b v io u s s u b j e c t s t o have been so s l i g h t l y h a n d led as
th is;
in d e e d , I know few so d i f f i c u l t t o be t r e a t e d
a s i t o u g h t, nor y e t upon which t h e r e seem eth so much
t o be s a i d . ” 1
Most o f what has been w r i t t e n about
c o n v e r s a t i o n , i n t e r e s t i n g , c l e v e r , and p e n e t r a t i n g
though i t may have b e e n , has b een o f l i m i t e d v a lu e
t o one i n t e r e s t e d in c o n v e r s a t i o n a s an o b j e c t i v e o f
c o l l e g e sp ee ch e d u c a t i o n .
T h is l i t e r a t u r e i s
s i g n i f i c a n t b e c a u se i t p r e s e n t s so w e l l th e p e r s i s t e n t
r e c o g n i t i o n o f th e need f o r t r a i n i n g i n c o n v e r s a t i o n .
I t i s th e purpose o f t h i s c h a p te r t o r e v ie w
b r i e f l y th e h i s t o r y and p r e s e n t s t a t u s o f sp e e c h
e d u c a t io n i n American c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
A
se co n d s e o t i o n w i l l th en c o n s i d e r th e l i t e r a t u r e o f
c o n v e r s a t i o n , and what has b een done up t o t h i s tim e
tow ards making c o n v e r s a t i o n a l sp eech a p r a c t i c a l aim
o f c o l l e g e sp e e c h c o u r s e s .
A fin a l se c tio n w ill
r e v ie w the sm a ll body o f r e s e a r c h i n t o th e problem s
o f t e a c h in g c o n v e r s a t i o n a l s p e e c h , th e media and
i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s o f c o l l e g e sp eech c o u r s e s ,
1.
“H in ts Toward an E ssay on C o n v e r s a t io n ” in The
P ro se Works o f Jonathan S w i f t , Ed. by Temple
S c o t t , v o l . X I, p. 65
15-
and th e measurement o f Improvement In v o i o e and sp ee ch
q u a litie s.
S p eech E d u c a tio n i n th e Am erican C o lle g e
The f a c t t h a t the t e a o h in g o f sp ee o h i s n o t a
new develop m en t i n American c o l l e g e s i s n o t w i d e l y
r e a liz e d ;
in f a c t ,
i n s t r u c t io n in o r a l E n g lish g o es
a l l the way back t o th e b e g in n in g o f American c o l l e g e
e d u c a tio n .
The r e a s o n f o r t h i s g e n e r a l im p r e s s io n o f
v e r y r e c e n t developm ent may b e t h a t s p e e c h t r a i n i n g ,
a l t h o u g h o f g r e a t im p o rta n ce i n the e a r l y p a r t o f th e
n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , “f e l l i n t o su ch d i s u s e i n t h e
l a t e r p a r t o f th e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , p a r t i c u l a r l y in
t h e s c h o o l s and c o l l e g e s , t h a t i t s p r e s e n t rem ark able
d e velop m en t seems l i k e an in d e p e n d e n t g r o w t h .”1
The f i r s t c o u r s e o f s t u d y a t Harvard i n 1642
p r o v id e d t h a t d i s p u t a t i o n s on s e t themes be h e l d tw ic e
a week. ^
S i m i l a r p r o v i s i o n s a p p l i e d i n a lm ost a l l
e a r l y American c o l l e g e s and o r a t o r y h e l d a p l a c e in
t h e c u r r ic u lu m se co n d o n ly t o L a t in and G reek.
These
e a r l y d e c la m a t io n s were d e l i v e r e d i n th e c l a s s i c a l
la n g u a g e u n t i l the end o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y or
17
2.
C. A. F r i t z , “The T each in g o f P u b li c S p ea k in g in
th e E a r ly American C o l l e g e ” , Q u a r te r ly J o u r n a l
o f S p e e c h , A p r il 1 9 2 7 , p . 151
I b i d . p . 152
-1 6 -
l a t e r , when th e u se o f th e n a t i v e la n g u a g e i n form al
d e c la m a t io n s was i n s t i t u t e d .
C o u rses in r h e t o r i c and
o r a t o r y u se d th e c l a s s i c a l a u t h o r i t i e s such a s C ic e r o
and L on gin u s a s t e x t s and th e o r a t i o n s o f C ic e r o and
o t h e r g r e a t c l a s s i c a l o r a t o r s a s m o d e ls.
I t must be remembered t h a t i n c o l o n i a l and
R e v o lu t io n a r y d a y s , sp e e c h was a much more e f f e c t i v e
method o f p e r s u a s io n and d e l i b e r a t i o n than t h e w r i t t e n
word, and a l l sp e e c h t r a i n i n g was aimed a t i t s p u b l i c
uses.
For some r e a s o n , i t has b een p o in t e d o u t , 1
d e c la m a tio n r a th e r th a n d e b a te was t h e c h i e f form o f
sp e e c h t r a i n i n g , but c o u r s e s i n a r g u m en ta tio n were soon
added t o t h e c u r ricu lu m t o t r a i n th e h o s t o f la w y e r s
who became so prom inent i n e a r l y American h i s t o r y .
The
most n o t a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a l l t h e s e e a r l y sp e e c h
c o u r s e s was th e em p hasis on f o r m a l i t y .
T h is i s w e l l
i l l u s t r a t e d in t h e e a r l i e s t American t e x t b o o k s on
p u b l i c s p e a k in g , su ch works a s John H olm es’ “The Art
o f R h e t o r ic hade E a sy ” and W illiam S c o t t ’ s “L e sso n s
in E l o c u t i o n ” .
For S c o t t , F r i t z r e p o r t s , “t r a i n i n g in
sp ea k in g c o n s i s t e d m a in ly in t h e t r a i n i n g o f g e s t u r e . ”"
TI
2.
0 . A. F r i t z . C o l l e g e Speech b e f o r e 1 8 5 0 . Ph. D.
T h e s i s , NYU, p . 19
C. A. F r i t z , E a r ly American Works in Speech T r a i n i n g ,
American S p e e c h . v o l . 5 , Dec. 1 9 2 9 , p . 104
-1 7 ®
The id ea o f in fo r m a l sp e e c h t r a i n i n g had n o t e n t e r e d
t h e minds o f t e a o h e r s o f r h e t o r i c , d e c la m a tio n and
debate*
I t was o n l y a t th e b e g in n in g o f t h i s c e n t u r y ,
when a r e j u v e n a t e d s p e e c h t r a i n i n g movement was s t a r t e d ,
t h a t e d u c a t i o n f o r p r i v a t e s p e e c h became an aim o f
o o lle g e in s tr u c t io n in o r a l E n g lish .
The grow th o f
c o u r s e s i n s p e e c h has been t w o f o l d ; i t h a s b e e n a
phenomenal i n c r e a s e b o th in number o f c o u r s e s g i v e n
and in t h e v a r i e t y o f sp eech s u b j e c t s c o v e r e d .
The
o l d - f a s h i o n e d d e c la m a t io n h as been r e l e g a t e d t o a minor
p l a c e i n sp ee ch a o t i v i t y , and t h e newer c o u r s e s which
have t a k e n i t s p la c e i n c lu d e fu n d a m en ta ls c o u r s e s ,
g e n e r a l p u b l i c sp e a k in g t r a i n i n g , d r a m a t ic s , group
d i s c u s s i o n , i n t e r p r e t a t i v e r e a d in g and s p e e c h c o r r e c t i o n .
The em phasis h a s v a r ie d from s c h o o l t o s c h o o l but c e r t a i n
t e n d e n c i e s have been s i g n i f i c a n t .
A r e c e n t s u r v e y o f s p e e c h e d u c a t i o n i n j u n io r
c o l l e g e s 1 showed one hundred and f i f t y - t h r e e o f one
hundred and s i x t y - o n e ju n io r c o l l e g e s o f f e r i n g sp e e c h
c o u r s e s o f some k in d .
In a m a j o r it y o f t h e s e s c h o o l s ,
n i n e t y - s i x , t h e sp e e c h c o u r s e s a r e g i v e n under the
l7
S . D. M a rin e r, “S p e e c h S u r v e y o f J u n io r C o l l e g e s , ”
Q u a r te r ly J o u r n a l o f S p e e c h . 1 9 3 8 , pp. 23 9 -2 4 4
-1 8 -
d epartm en t o f E n g lis h , in fo u r t h e r e are d ep artm en ts o f
d r a m a tic s , one g i v e s sp e e c h c o u r s e s in th e departm en t
o f p s y c h o lo g y , and f o r t y - f i v e have s e p a r a t e ly o r g a n iz e d
sp e e c h d e p a r tm en ts.
That m ost o f t h e s e s c h o o ls r e c o g n iz e
th e im portance o f p r iv a t e sp e e c h i s
in d ic a t e d by th e f a c t
t h a t f i f t y - t h r e e , th e l a r g e s t number, check ed a s t h e i r
c h i e f aim , t o “t e a c h th e s tu d e n t t o sp ea k e f f e c t i v e l y in
p u b lic and p r i v a t e . I
t
i s t o be n o t e d , h o w ev er, t h a t
w h ile p r i n c i p l e s or fu n d a m en ta ls o f sp e e c h i s th e m ost
p o p u la r c o u r se in th e ju n io r c o l l e g e s , t h i s i s f o llo w e d
in o r d e r o f p o p u la r it y by su ch p r o f e s s i o n a l c o u r s e s a s
p u b lic sp e a k in g , d r a m a tic s and a r g u m en ta tio n and d e b a te .
The tr e n d s in sp e e c h e d u c a tio n in Am erican
c o l l e g e s in th e p a s t hundred y e a r s a r e w e ll i l l u s t r a t e d
by th e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f c o u r s e s in a r e c e n t s u r v e y .^
T hese were th e h e a d in g s under w hich th e v a r io u s
c o u r s e s were d is c u s s e d : L o g ic and R h e to r ic ;
D e c la m a tio n , E lo c u t io n , and O ratory; P o r e n s ic s ,
D e b a te , and A rgu m en tation ; E n g lis h , Extem poraneous
S p e a k in g , and P u b lic S p ea k in g ; I n t e r p r e t a t i o n , Drama,
P la y P r o d u c tio n .
TI
2.
I t w i l l be n o te d t h a t c o n v e r s a t io n ,
S . D. M a rin er, “S p eech Su rvey o f J u n io r C o l l e g e s , ”
Q u a r te r ly J o u rn a l o f S p e e c h , 1 9 3 8 , p . 2 4 3 .
( I t a l i c s m ine)
T. E. C o u lto n , T rends in Sp eech E d u c a tio n in
Am erican C o l l e g e s , M. A. T h e s is , NYU 1935
-
19 -
group d i s c u s s i o n and s i m i l a r term s a re n o t u se d .
su r v e y o f c o l l e g e sp ee o h c u r r ic u la
A
in 1 9 3 2 , c o v e r in g
356 c o l l e g e s , l i s t e d 544 c o u r s e s in “P u b lic S p e a k in g ” ,
4 3 6 in “The T h e a tr e ” , 414 in “ I n t e r p r e t a t i o n ” , and
327 in “A rgu m en tation and D e b a te ” . 1
A gain th e term s
c o n v e r s a t io n and d i s c u s s i o n were n o t c o n s id e r e d
im p ortan t enough t o u s e .
The c o n fu s e d s t a t u s o f c o n v e r s a t io n a l sp ee ch
in th e c o l l e g e and u n i v e r s i t y i s w e l l in d ic a t e d by
th e ty p e o f r e p l i e s r e o e iv e d by th e i n v e s t i g a t o r from
t h e h ead s o f sp e e c h d ep artm en ts to q u e r ie s as t o what
t h e i r d ep a rtm en ts were o f f e r i n g
sp eech .
in c o n v e r s a t io n a l
On th e one hand t h e r e were r e p l i e s su ch a s
th e f o llo w in g :
Our D epartm ent d o es n o t o f f e r c o u r s e s
w h ich s t r e s s th e c o n v e r s a t io n a l a s p e c t o f s p e e c h .
We b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s phase o f S p eech E d u c a tio n i s
an i n d i r e c t b y -p r o d u c t o f a l l c o u r s e s in s p e e c h .
I n our b e g in n in g c o u r s e s where we d e a l w ith th e
sp ea k in g p e r s o n a l i t y , we f e e l t h a t th e r e i s a v e ry
d i r e c t c a r r y -o v e r t o c o n v e r s a t io n a l sp e a k in g .
L ik e w ise we f e e l t h a t any t r a i n i n g in d i c t i o n ,
p r o n u n c ia t io n , a r t i c u l a t i o n , a l s o c a r r i e s over
t o c o n v e r s a t io n a l s p e e o h .”2
1.
2*
J . C. W eaver, “A S u rvey o f Speeoh C u r r ic u la ” ,
Q u a r te r ly J o u r n a l o f S p e e c h . 1 9 3 2 , v o l . IV ,
p . 610
L e t te r t o i n v e s t i g a t o r from G. E . Densm ore,
Chairman o f D ep t, o f S p eeo h , U n iv e r s it y o f
M ich ig a n . See A p p en d ix, p. 117
SO-
On th e o th e r hand, th e r e were r e p l i e s su ch as
th e f o llo w in g :
“May I c a l l p a r t i c u la r a t t e n t i o n t o c o u r s e s
numbered S p eech 106 and 1 1 6 , b o th o f which d e a l w ith
c o n v e r s a t io n a l o r th e d i s c u s s i o n t y p e s o f sp eeoh as
c o n t r a s t e d w ith p u b lic sp eak in g or d ram atic
p r e s e n t a t i o n .” 1
B etw een t h e s e ex tr em e s o f s c h o o ls n o t o f f e r i n g
any d i r e c t work in c o n v e r s a t io n a l sp eech and o th e r s
d e v o tin g s p e c i a l c o u r s e s to i t were r e p l i e s su ch a s
th e f o llo w in g :
“Such work as we do w ith th e c o n v e r s a t io n a l
a s p e c t s o f S p eech i s done m a in ly in our two fundam ental
cou rses . . .
in t h e s e c o u r s e s a c t u a l e x e r c i s e s a r e
pursued w ith c o n v e r s a tio n a s th e e x e r c i s e m a t e r i a l .”2
Thus th e p r e s e n t s t a t u s o f sp ee ch e d u c a tio n in
th e Am erican c o l l e g e r e p r e s e n t s an a c t i v e and r a p id ly
grow ing movement tow ards more and more p r a c t i c a l sp eech
t r a in in g .
P r iv a t e and c o n v e r s a t io n a l sp ee ch has
a t t r a c t e d in c r e a s in g a t t e n t i o n from sp ee ch e d u c a to r s ,
but t h e r e i s w id esp rea d c o n fu s io n a s t o i t s p roper
p la c e in th e sp ee o h cu rricu lu m and th e proper m edia
fo r i t s i n s t r u c t i o n .
I t i s th e p u rp ose o f th e p r e s e n t
stu d y t o c o n t r ib u t e som eth in g t o th e s o l u t i o n o f t h i s
1.
2.
L e t t e r to th e i n v e s t i g a t o r from A. H. Monroe,
Chairm an, D ep t, o f S p e e c h , Purdue U n iv e r s it y ,
S e e A p p en d ix , p . 118
L e t t e r t o i n v e s t i g a t o r from C. M. W ise, Chairman,
D ep t, o f S p eeo h , L o u is ia n a S t a t e U n iv e r s it y ,
S ee A ppendix, P» 119
-2 1 -
p rob lem , and I t h a s as one o f i t s aim s th e fo r m u la tio n
o f recom m endations a s t o a c o u r se in c o n v e r s a t io n a l
sp e e c h and th e m ost e f f e c t i v e means o f a c h ie v in g th e
en d s o f such a c o u r s e .
C o n v e r sa tio n
Not o n ly i s i n t e r e s t in c o n v e r s a t io n n o t new ,
but i t
i s d o u b tfu l w hether th e a r t , a s p r a c t ic e d by
a c u l t i v a t e d fe w , h a s e v e r r e a c h e d a h ig h e r p la c e
than i t h e ld in th e e ig h t e e n t h c e n tu r y .
T h is was th e
c e n tu r y in which ap p eared th e e s s a y s on c o n v e r s a t io n
o f A d d iso n , S t e e l e , S w if t , Cowper and G o ld sm ith , and
w hich eoh oed t o th e th u n d erou s u t t e r a n c e s o f th e m ost
famous c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i s t in E n g lis h l i t e r a t u r e , D r .
J o h n so n .
What may be c a l l e d th e f i r s t modern s tu d y
o f c o n v e r s a t io n was t h a t o f P r o f e s s o r Mahaffy-*- o f
D u b lin about 1 8 5 0 .
P r o f e s s o r M ahaffy “ s e r i o u s l y
c o n s id e r e d c o n v e r s a tio n a te a c h a b le s u b j e c t fo r
s c h o o ls b u t was r e l u c t a n t l y f o r c e d t o th e c o n c lu s io n
t h a t su ch te a c h in g was im p r a c t ic a l.
The s u c c e s s o f
c o n v e r s a t io n , he d e c id e d , depend s upon i t s
s p o n t a n e it y ; h o w ev er, i t can n ot be ta u g h t w ith o u t
TT
J . P . M ahaffy, The P r i n c i p l e s o f t h e A rt o f
C o n v e r sa tio n
■22-
red uo in g i t t o r u l e s ; b u t t o red u c e i t t o r u l e s would
be to d e s t r o y i t s s p o n t a n e it y ; h en ce c o n v e r s a tio n
c a n n o t be t a u g h t .***■ P r o f e s s o r Peabody o f Harvard and
R ev eren d Trenoli o f B o sto n w ere Am erican c o n te m p o r a r ie s
o f M a h a ffey , who t r i e d t o t e a c h c o n v e r s a t io n from th e
l e c t u r e p la tfo r m .
With th e e x c e p t i o n o f c e r t a i n p io n e e r in g a tte m p ts
t o t e a c h c o n v e r s a t io n in th e s c h o o l a t T exas A g r ic u lt u r a l
C o l l e g e , th e te a c h in g o f c o n v e r s a t io n h a s b een m a in ly an
e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t y , v e n tu r e d i n t o by l e c t u r e r s ,
p o p u la r w r i t e r s , and fam ous c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i s t s .
A
c o r r e sp o n d e n c e c o u r s e i n c o n v e r s a t io n was i n s t i t u t e d
b y G r e n v ille K l e i s e r b o o k s
l i k e t h a t o f Henry Taft**
d i s c u s s e d th e n a tu r e and im p o rta n ce o f c o n v e r s a t io n
and com pared i t w ith p u b lic s p e a k in g ; h i s t o r i e s o f
c o n v e r s a t io n have b een w r i t t e n ; th e r e have b een
c o u n t l e s s books and a r t i c l e s by e n t h u s i a s t i o a m a teu rs,
e s s a y i s t s , and p o p u la r w r i t e r s e a g e r t o add what th e y
ca n t o th e l i v e l i n e s s and i n t e r e s t o f our c o n v e r s a t io n .
Any d e t a i l e d stu d y o f t h e s e w orks m ig h t be e n t e r t a i n i n g
but i t
Tl
2.
3.
would have l i t t l e
to o f f e r t o t h o s e i n t e r e s t e d
R. T. O l i v e r , “The Growth o f I n t e r e s t in C onver­
s a t i o n ” , E n g lis h J o u r n a l. C o lle g e E d it io n ,
O ct. 1 9 3 2 , p . 658
How to Im prove you r C o n v e r sa tio n
K in d red A r t s , C o n v e r sa tio n and P u b lic S p eak in g
-
23 -
in s p e c i f i c and p r a c t i c a l means o f sp ee o h e d u c a t io n .
In a d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r y , b u t s i m i l a r l y somewhat
removed from th e im m ediate co n cern o f t h i s stu d y , a r e
su ch a n a ly s e s a s W illou gh b y^ s1 o f th e p s y c h o lo g ic a l
b a s i s and th e s a t i s f a c t i o n s o f c o n v e r s a t io n .
R e c e n t ly , th e r e have b e e n p u b lis h e d te x tb o o k s
w r it t e n by t e a c h e r s who have made p io n e e r in g a tte m p ts
t o in c o r p o r a te th e te a o h in g o f c o n v e r s a t io n a l sp e e c h
in t o t h e i r own c o u r s e s , and have g iv e n th e b e n e f i t s
o f t h e i r e x p e r ie n c e t o o th e r t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s
o f sp eech .
Among these books a r e Ogg and Imrael *s
Sp eech Im provem ent, a b r i e f b u t c o m p le te o u t l i n e o f
a c o u r se in sp ee o h fu n d a m en ta ls w ith em p h asis upon
t r a i n in g on th e c o n v e r s a tio n a 1 l e v e l .
T hese a u th o r s
a d v o c a te t h e u s e o f b o th d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t m ethods
o f c o n v e r s a t io n a l t r a i n i n g , bu t make a s tr o n g p le a f o r
t h e v a lu e and e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f th e se ld o m -u se d d i r e c t
m eth o d s.
O ther p u b lic sp ea k in g t e x t s , su ch a s t h o s e
o f W eaver, B orch er and W o o l b e r t a n d o f B r ig a n c e and
Imrael, 3 p o in t o u t th e im p ortan ce o f c o n v e r s a t io n a l
Tl
2.
3.
R. P . W illo u g h b y , "The F u n c tio n s o f C o n v e r s a tio n ” ,
J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l P s y c h o lo g y , v o l . 3 , 1 9 3 2 ,
pp. 1 4 2 -1 5 7
The New B e t t e r Speeoh
Sp eeoh Making
24
sp e e c h and d e s c r ib e c e r t a i n e x e r c i s e s em p loyin g
d i r e c t m eth od s, f o r th e a tta in m e n t o f th e aim s o f
c o n v e r s a t io n a l sp e e c h .
R ese a rc h
S c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r o h in th e f i e l d o f sp e e c h h a s
b e e n l a r g e l y c o n fin e d t o s p e c i f i c p rob lem s o f s p e e c h
c o r r e c t i o n and sp ee ch p r o d u c tio n .
On t h e la r g e r
q u e s t io n s a lm o st a l l t h a t has b een w r i t t e n h a s b een
i n th e n a tu r e o f a c c o u n ts o f e x p e r ie n c e , t h e o r i z i n g ,
and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n .
There h ave been o n ly two c a r e f u l s t u d i e s ,
com parable t o th e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n , o f r e l a t i v e
e f f i c i e n c y o f m ethods o f sp e e c h i n s t r u c t i o n .
One
i n v e s t i g a t i o n was c a r r ie d on a t F lo r id a S ou th ern
C o lle g e in 1 9 3 9 .
In d e s c r ib in g i t s p u r p o se , th e
i n v e s t i g a t o r w r i t e s t h a t i t “ so u g h t t o d eter m in e
w h eth er o r n o t group d i s c u s s i o n m ight be an e f f e c t i v e
m ethod o f te a c h in g th e fu n d a m en ta ls o f sp e e c h in a
c o l l e g e c o u r s e .”'1'
The method u sed was t o compare th e
sp e e c h improvement o f two g ro u p s o f c o l l e g e fr e sh m e n ,
on e s e c t i o n ta u g h t by th e u s u a l p la tfo r m sp ea k in g
TZ
A. J o h n so n , “T each in g th e F undam entals o f
Sp eech th rou gh Group D is c u s s io n ” ,
q u a r t e r ly J o u r n a l o f S p e e c h , v o l . XXV,
O c t ., 1 9 3 9 , p . 441
25
m ethod, th e o th e r hy u se o f group d i s c u s s i o n a s th e
main a p p ro a ch .
An e f f o r t was made t o c o n t r o l a l l
p o s s i b l e v a r ia b le s w hich m ight a f f e c t th e r e s u l t s .
“I f th e e x p erim en t was t o have s i g n i f i c a n c e
o th e r th a n in th e p e r s o n a l judgm ent o f th e
e x p e r im e n te r , i t demanded n o t o n ly a program o f
o b j e c t i v e t e s t i n g and e v a l u a t i o n , bu t a l s o t h a t
f a o t o r s c o n d it io n in g th e e x p e rim en t be c o n t r o l l e d
a s c l o s e l y a s p o s s i b l e , s o t h a t th e o n ly v a r ia b le
would be th e method o f t e a c h in g .
C o n se q u e n tly an
e q u a tio n was e s t a b l i s h e d on th e b a s e s o f num bers,
s e x , i n t e l l i g e n c e , a g e , and h ig h s c h o o l r e c o r d s ."1
The e x p erim en t c o v e r e d a th r ee -m o n th p e r io d .
Each s tu d e n t in b o th g ro u p s made fo u r r e c o r d in g s , one
o f extem poraneous sp e e c h and one o f a r e a d in g from
l i t e r a t u r e a t th e b e g in n in g o f th e th r ee -m o n th p e r io d ,
and one o f e a c h a t th e e n d .
T hese r e c o r d in g s were
a n a ly z e d and r a te d by a group o f ju d g e s in v o ic e and
d i c t i o n a c c o r d in g t o a c h a r t a d a p ted from a number
o f th o s e in u se a t v a r io u s c o l l e g e s .
In a d d it io n
t o r a t i n g s o f v o ic e and d i c t i o n , m otion p i c t u r e s
were u sed t o keep r e c o r d s o f th e s t u d e n t s ’ p o i s e
and sp e a k in g p r e s e n c e , and t e s t s were g iv e n t o r a t e
th e s tu d e n ts * th in k in g a b i l i t y ,
in fo r m a tio n and
p e r s o n a lity .
1«
A. J o h n so n , “T eaoh in g th e F undam entals o f
S p eeoh th rou gh Group D is o u s s io n ” ,
Q u a r te r ly J o u r n a l o f S p e e c h , v o l . XXV,
O c t . , 1 9 3 9 , p . 441
-2 6 -
The m ethods o f g rou p s d i s c u s s i o n u se d by th e
e x p e r im e n ta l group in t h i s e x p erim en t were v a r ie d ,
r a n g in g from in fo r m a l group d i s c u s s i o n t o th e p a n el
and sym posium .
A p p a r e n tly th e r e was no p u r e ly
extem p oran eou s d i s c u s s i o n ; t o p i c s were a s s ig n e d in
a d v a n ce , e a c h member o f t h e c l a s s p rep ared f o r th e
l e s s o n and b rou gh t o u t l i n e s t o c l a s s .
In a d d it io n
t o t h i s , th e y l i s t e n e d t o t h e i r r e c o r d in g s and
d is c u s s e d them .
There were i n c id e n t a l d r i l l s in
v o i c e , e n u n c ia t io n , and a r t i c u l a t i o n .
The a c t i v i t i e s
o f th e se co n d g r o u p , e x c e p t f o r th e b r i e f s ta te m e n t
t h a t t h e y were ta u g h t by th e u s u a l p la tfo r m sp eak in g
m ethod, w ere n o t d e s c r ib e d .
John son r e p o r t s t h a t a t th e end o f th e t h r e e month p e r io d , th e m edian s c o r e o f th e e x p e r im e n ta l
group in v o ic e and d i c t i o n showed a g a in f i f t y - s i x
per c e n t g r e a t e r th a n t h a t o f th e c o n t r o l g ro u p .
She
h as some i n t e r e s t i n g t h in g s t o say c o n c e r n in g th e
p o s s i b l e r e a so n s f o r t h i s r e s u l t .
In th e f i r s t p l a c e ,
sh e p o i n t s o u t , th e d i s c u s s i o n s i t u a t i o n p r o v id e s a
g r e a t e r i n c e n t iv e f o r im provem ent, and i n th e secon d
p l a c e , th e d i s o u s s i o n s i t u a t i o n o f f e r s th e stu d e n t a
b e t t e r o p p o r tu n ity t o ju d ge d i r e c t l y and im m ed ia tely
th e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f h i s e f f o r t s t o comm unicate h i s
-2 7 -
id e a s and f e e l i n g s *
“That i s , i f he a r t i o u l a t e s p o o r ly , he i s
made aware im m ed ia tely o f h i s f a i l u r e t o make h i m s e lf
u n d e r sto o d by th e group; i f h i s v o ic e i s d is a g r e e a b le ,
he ca n n o t f a i l t o r e a l i z e t h a t he i s i r r i t a t i n g th e
group and ham pering h i s own p a r t i c i p a t i o n in th e
d i s c u s s i o n ; i f h i s d i c t i o n i s s l o v e n l y , h i s id e a s are
l i k e l y t o be a c c e p te d as a l s o s lo v e n ly ; i f he sp eak s
in a u d ib ly , he f i n d s i t n e c e s s a r y t o r e p e a t what he
h a s s a i d in su c h a way a s t o be u n d e r s to o d .”1
A se c o n d im portant stu d y i s t h a t o f D r u sh a l.
O
T h is i n v e s t i g a t o r a tte m p te d t o m easure t h e e f f e c t i v e ­
n e s s o f th e u s e o f memorized s e l e c t i o n s a s th e b a s i s
o f th e stu d y o f d e liv e r y in p u b lic sp ea k in g c o u r s e s .
The problem was s t a t e d by D ru sh a l a s f o llo w s :
“ I s th e r e a m easu rab le d i f f e r e n c e in th e
e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p u b lic sp e a k in g betw een s t u d e n t s
whose t r a in in g in d e l i v e r y h a s been b a sed in p a r t
upon memorized s e l e c t i o n s and th o s e whose t r a in in g
i s b ased e x c l u s i v e l y upon extem p oran eou s s p e a k in g ? ”*
Two g rou p s o f tw e n ty -fo u r s t u d e n t s e a c h , s t u d e n ts in
t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r * s p u b lic sp e a k in g c l a s s e s a t th e
U n iv e r s it y o f M is s o u r i, were u sed a s s u b j e c t s .
The
f i r s t group was t r a in e d e x c l u s i v e l y by means o f
extem poraneous s p e e c h e s , w h ile th e se co n d had a s a
1.
2.
3.
A. J o h n son , “T each in g th e Fundam entals o f
Speech th ro u g h Group D is c u s s io n ” ,
Q u a r te r ly J o u rn a l o f S p e e c h , 1 9 3 9 , p . 445
D r u sh a l, J . G arber, “An O b je c t iv e A n a ly s is o f
Two T ech n iq u es o f T each in g D e liv e r y in
P u b lic S p ea k in g ” , Q u a r te r ly J o u rn a l o f
S p e e c h , Deo. 1 9 3 9 , p p . 5 6 1 -5 6 9
I b id . . p . 561
-2 8 -
m ajor p a r t o f th e t r a i n in g i n d e l i v e r y th e a n a l y s i s
and m em orization o f a s e l e c t i o n from a contem porary
a d d ress.
Each s tu d e n t in b o th grou p s made a r e c o r d in g
o f a f i v e - m i n u t e , o r i g i n a l ex tem p o ra n eo u s, argum enta­
t i v e sp e e c h .
Three w eeks o f i n t e n s i v e stu d y f o l l o w e d ,
d u rin g w hich tim e th e s t u d e n t s in t h e M emorized group
u sed as a b a s i s o f th e ir s tu d y a fo u r -m in u te m em orized
s e l e c t i o n , w h ile th e members o f th e E xtem poraneous
Group u sed t h e i r extem p oran eou s sp e e c h w hich had b een
record ed .
At th e c l o s e o f t h e p e r io d o f s t u d y , each
s tu d e n t made a r e c o r d in g o f a secon d o r i g i n a l extem ­
p o ra n eou s sp e e c h .
The r e c o r d in g s w ere r a te d by fo u r t r a i n e d ju d g es
on a t e n - p o i n t s c a l e , ea ch sp e e c h b e in g a s s ig n e d an
a v era g e s c o r e o f th e fo u r in d iv id u a l r a t i n g s .
Im prove­
ment was n o te d by s u b t r a c t in g th e f i r s t s c o r e from t h e
se c o n d , and th e a v era g e improvement f o r ea ch group was
o b ta in e d by d iv id in g th e a lg e b r a ic sum o f th e in d iv id u a l
d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s by th e t o t a l number o f s p e a k e r s .
By
t h i s p roced u re th e E xtem poraneous Group was fo u n d t o
have made an a v era g e im provem ent o f 0 . 7 0 , w h ile th e
Memorized Group made an a v e ra g e im provem ent o f 0 .1 4 .
F i f t e e n sp e a k e r s in th e Extem poraneous Group showed
improvement a s a g a in s t t h i r t e e n in t h e M emorized Group.
-
29 -
Dr u s h a l c o n c lu d e d t h a t th e group t r a in e d in d e l i v e r y
by means o f extem poraneous s p e e c h e s made a d e f i n i t e
im provem ent, w h ile t h e im provem ent f o r th e M emorized
Group was to o sm a ll t o w arran t any g e n e r a l i z a t i o n .
P erh ap s th e m ost i n t e r e s t i n g c o n c lu s io n was
t h a t “th e r e l i a b i l i t y o f s u b j e c t i v e e s t im a t e s by
t r a in e d and e x p e r ie n c e d ju d g e s seem s r a th e r w e ll
e s t a b l i s h e d by p r e c e d e n t and by th e e x p e r ie n c e o f
t h i s s t u d y .”1
H is e x p e r im e n t was a d m itte d ly m erely
a p r e lim in a r y stu d y f o r a l a r g e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f
th e same s o r t , b u t h i s f i n d i n g s seem ed t o o f f e r
g e n u in e e v id e n c e t h a t s u b j e c t i v e r a t i n g s c o u ld be
p r o f i t a b l y u se d in s p e e c h i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f t h i s s o r t .
J o h n so n ’ s and D r u s h a l9s in v e s t i g a t i o n s
r e p r e s e n t v a lu a b le f i r s t a tte m p ts a t a n sw erin g th e
problem s o f sp eech i n s t r u c t i o n by means o f s c i e n t i ­
f i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d e x p e r im e n t.
I t i s hoped t h a t
th e p r e s e n t stu d y w i l l c a r r y forw ard J o h n so n ’ s work
in s p e e c h o n - t he c o n v e r s a t io n a l l e v e l by b r in g in g
i n t o ran ge more d e a r l y d e f in e d media o f i n s t r u c t i o n ,
t h a t i s , by u t i l i z i n g n o t sim p ly a p la tfo r m sp e a k in g
method a s compared w ith c o n v e r s a t io n o r d i s c u s s i o n ,
Tl
D r u s h a l, J . G arb er, “An O b je o tiv e A n a ly s is o f
Two T ech n iq u es o f T each in g D e liv e r y in
P u b lic S p e a k in g ” , q u a r t e r ly J o u rn a l o f
S p e e c h , D ec. 1 9 3 9 , p . 269
-3 0 -
b u t fo u r d i s t i n c t media— p r o s e , p o e t r y , d ram atic
m a t e r ia ls and c o n v e r s a t io n .
F u rth erm ore, th e p r e s e n t
s tu d y d e a ls n o t o n ly w ith th e g e n e r a l e f f e c t o f te a c h in g
m ethods upon s p e e c h and v o i c e , b u t t h e i r e f f e c t upon
e a ch o f e le v e n d i f f e r e n t item s im p ortan t in good
c o n v e r s a t io n a l s p e e c h .
CHAPTER I I I
DATA AND PROCEDURE
The S tu d e n ts
The s u b j e c t s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n were one
hundred young women, s t u d e n t s in th e upper fresh m an
and sophomore y e a r a t H unter C o l l e g e .
Hunter C o lle g e
i s a f r e e p u b lic c o l l e g e o f t h e C ity o f New Y ork , w ith
an e n r o llm e n t o f a p p r o x im a te ly se v e n th ou san d s t u d e n t s .
The s u b j e c t s in v o lv e d in t h i s e x p e r im e n t, w ith
th e e x c e p t io n o f t h o s e i n th e c o n t r o l g ro u p , have a l l
c o m p le te d a term o f r e q u ir e d s p e e c h , p u b lic sp e a k in g
and i n t e r p r e t a t i v e r e a d in g , ta k e n g e n e r a l l y in th e
Upper Freshman or Lower Sophomore s e m e s t e r .
S tu d e n ts
i n t h i s f i r s t term o f r e q u ir e d s p e e c h who a r e ju d ged
a s b e in g so s u p e r io r t h a t no f u r t h e r work i s r e q u ir e d
o f them , a re exempt from th e c o u r se in v o ic e and
d ic tio n .
A p p ro x im a tely t e n p er c e n t o f th e sophomore
c la s s f a l l in t o t h i s c a te g o r y .
The s u b j e c t s o f th e
p r e s e n t stu d y are ta k e n , t h e r e f o r e , from th e rem ain in g
n in e t y per c e n t .
Of t h e one hundred s t u d e n t s , tw en ty c o n s t i t u t e
a c o n t r o l g rou p whioh h a s had no fo rm a l r e q u ir e d
s p e e c h c o u r se a t c o l l e g e and h a s n o t been e x p o se d t o
32 -
any ty p e o f sp e e o h t r a i n i n g d u rin g th e p e r io d o f
t h i s e x p e r im e n t.
The rem a in in g e ig h t y a r e d i s ­
t r i b u t e d among fo u r c l a s s e s in v o ic e and d i c t i o n ,
a l l ta u g h t by th e i n v e s t i g a t o r .
In t h i s way th e
v a r ia b le in v o lv e d in th e u s e o f d i f f e r e n t i n s t r u c t o r s
h a s b een e lim in a t e d .
Moreover, a l l fo u r o f th e
e x p e r im e n ta l c l a s s e s met in th e m orn in gs.
The E x p e r im e n ta l Groups
Each o f th e fo u r e x p e r im e n ta l c l a s s e s had some
o f t h e f o llo w in g f a u l t s : d e n t a l i z a t i o n , s l o v e n l y
d i c t i o n , f o r e i g n i s m s , n a s a l i t y , New Y o rk ism s, and
f a u l t y v o ic e p la c e m e n t.
T h is i s due t o th e f a c t t h a t t
s i n c e s t u d e n t s p o s s e s s in g s u p e r io r v o ic e and d i c t i o n
a r e exem pt from t h i s c o u r s e , t h e sta n d a r d f o r t h o s e
r e q u ir e d t o ta k e i t r a n g e s from v ery poor t o a v e r a g e .
C o n se q u e n tly , th r o u g h o u t th e te r m , th e r e was c o n t in u a l
s t r e s s , in a l l fo u r c l a s s e s , o n good v o ic e and d i c t i o n .
The fo u r c l a s s e s d i f f e r e d in t h a t e a c h had a s
i t s c h i e f i n s t r u c t i o n a l medium, a d i f f e r e n t ty p e o f
m a t e r i a l.
The fo u r t y p e s u sed w ere:
Group I , p o e t r y
r e a d in g s , Group I I , d ram atio r e a d in g s , Group I I I ,
p r o se r e a d in g s , and Group IV, in fo r m a l d i s c u s s i o n
and c o n v e r s a t io n .
For Groups I , I I , and I I I th e g e n e r a l p ro ced u re
33-
was v e ry much th e sam e.
A ll s t u d e n t s upon e n t e r in g
th e c l a s s w ere g iv e n a b r i e f r e a d in g a ssig n m e n t and
an Impromptu sp e e c h w hich l a s t e d ab ou t f i v e m in u te s .
The i n s t r u c t o r th e n g a v e a d e t a i l e d d i a g n o s i s o f e a c h
s t u d e n t *s v o ic e and d i c t i o n , i n d ic a t in g w e a k n esse s and
making c o n c r e te s u g g e s t io n s f o r t h e i r im provem ent.
In th e c o u r se o f th e se m e s te r ea ch s tu d e n t
r e c i t e d ab ou t f i f t e e n t im e s , in c lu d in g p r a c t i c e
e x e r c i s e s , r e c o r d in g on th e sound m irro r m ach in e,
r e c o r d in g f o r th e e x p e r im e n t, and t h e a c t u a l r e a d in g
o f p r o s e , p o e t r y , or d ra m a tic m a t e r i a l.
These
r e c i t a t i o n s v a r ie d from th r e e t o t e n m in u te s in
l e n g t h , and each was f o llo w e d by c r i t i c i s m s from th e
i n s t r u c t o r and members o f t h e c l a s s .
D e f i n i t e con ­
s t r u c t i v e s u g g e s t io n s were a lw a y s g iv e n in o r d e r t h a t
th e s tu d e n t m ight im prove h e r n e x t r e c i t a t i o n .
Care was ta k e n th a t th e m a t e r ia l u sed f o r
r e a d in g in t h e s e t h r e e c l a s s e s be th e b e s t a v a i l a b l e .
I t h a s b e e n p o in te d o u t t h a t “th e p r o se and p o e tr y
s e l e c t e d f o r a n a l y s i s and r e a d in g a lo u d sh o u ld p r e s e n t
a g r a d a tio n o f t e c h n i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s and sh o u ld be o f
in tr in s ic lit e r a r y m e r i t . I n
Tl
o rd er t o e s t a b l i s h th e
A. M. Drummond. Spe'e'ch~~Tra in in g and P u b lic S p eak in g
fo r Secondary S c h o o ls , p 14
34
s u p e r i o r i t y o f t h e m a t e r ia l u s e d , a l i s t o f
a p p r o x im a te ly t e n s e l e c t i o n s o f o u ts ta n d in g p r o s e ,
p o e t r y , and d ra m a tic m a t e r ia l was s e n t t o a u t h o r i t i e s
i n th e f i e l d o f E n g lis h l i t e r a t u r e and D ram atic A r t.
T h ese a u t h o r i t i e s in d ic a t e d t h e i r a p p ro v a l o f th e
m a t e r ia l c h o s e n .
The f o llo w in g i s a p a r t i a l l i s t o f
th e s e le c t io n s u sed .
a u th o r itie s
T hese were su b m itted to th e
whose names and p o s i t i o n s a re l i s t e d
on page 3 5 .*
Exam ples o f S u p e r io r Types o f P o e tr y
1.
W ordsworth, W illia m , “T in te r n Abbey” ,
“Odes o f I m m o r ta lity ” , “She was a Phantom o f
D e l i g h t ” , S o n n e ts .
2 . S h e l l e y , P e r c y , “In d ia n Summer” ,
“O zm andias” , “Ode to West Wind” .
3* K e a t s , Joh n , “Eve o f S t . A gnes” , “Ode
t o a G r e e c ia n Urn” .
4© Housman, A lf r e d , “A S h r o p sh ir e Lad” .
5 . B row ning, R o b e r t, “P ippa P a s s e s ” , “My
L a st D u ch ess” , “M eetin g a t N ig h t” .
6 . B yron , L ord , “P r is o n e r o f C h illo n ” ,
“ C h ild e H arold ” .
7 . B row ning, E l iz a b e t h , “S o n n e ts from th e
P o r tu g u e s e ” .
8.
T ennyson, A lf r e d , “C r o ssin g th e Bar” ,
“M orte D*A rthur” , “B rea k , B rea k , B reak” , “Songs
from th e P r i n c e s s ” .
E xam ples o f S u p e r io r T ypes o f P ro se
1 . La nib, C h a r le s , “D i s s e r t a t i o n on a
R o a st P ig ” , “Dream C h ild r e n ” .
2. The B ib le — a p p r o p r ia te s e l e c t i o n s .
3 . P o e , Edgar A lla n , S e le c t e d S t o r i e s ,
“E ssa y on P o e tr y ” .
1.
The form o f a p p ro v a l s ig n e d by t h e s e a u t h o r i t i e s
i s g i v e n in A ppendix, pp. 1 2 0 -2 2
-3 5 «
4* A d d ison and S t e e l e , S e l e c t i o n s from “The
S p e c ta to r P a p e r s” .
5 . De Q u in c ey , “C o n fe s s io n s o f an Opium E a te r ”.
6 . I r v i n g , W ashington, S e l e c t i o n s from “The
S k e tc h Book” .
7 . A soh , Sh olem , S e l e c t i o n s from “The N azaren e” .
8 . S te v e n s o n , R ., “T r a v e ls w ith a Donkey”.
E xam ples o f S u p e r io r Types o f D ram atic L it e r a t u r e
1 . S h a k e sp e a r e , W illia m , S e l e c t i o n s from “As You
L ike I t ” , “R ich ard I I ” , “Henry IV” , “H am let” .
2 . P a ssa g e s from “She S to o p s t o Conquer” ,
G o ld sm ith .
3 . P a s s a g e s from “ The R i v a l s ” , S h e r id e n .
4 . P a s s a g e s from “The D o l l ’ s H ouse” , I b s e n .
5 . P a s s a g e s from “P yg m a lio n ” , “C andida” , Shaw.
6 . P a ssa g e s from “Cyrano de B e r g e r a c ” , R ostan d .
7 . P a s s a g e s from “The Im portance o f B ein g
E a r n e s t” , O scar W ild e.
8 . P a s s a g e s from “Medea” , “O ed ip u s” , E u r ip id e s
and S o p h o c le s .
A u t h o r it i e s C o n su lte d
D r. W. B a rn es, D ep t, o f E n g lis h , New York U n iv e r s i t y .
Dr. D. M ulgrave, D ep t, o f E n g lis h , New York U n iv e r s i t y .
Dr. Howard D r ig g s , Chairm an, D e p t, o f E n g lis h , New York
U n iv e r s i t y .
P r o f e s s o r R. S o m e r v ille , Chairman, D ep t, o f D ram atic
A r t, New York U n iv e r s i t y .
Dr. E liz a b e t h S t e i n , A s s o c ia t e P r o f e s s o r , D ep t, o f
E n g lis h , Hunter C o lle g e .
Dr. J o s . R e i l l y , P r o f e s s o r , and L ib r a r ia n , D e p t, o f
E n g lis h , H unter C o lle g e .
Dr. Dorais E. P lu g g e , Departm ent o f S p eeoh , H unter
C o lle g e .
P r o f e s s o r W. Farraa, D epartm ent o f E n g lis h , New York
U n iv e r s i t y .
Dr. M. Kramer, Chairman, D epartm ent o f S p ee c h ,
Columbia U n iv e r s it y .
The method o f i n s t r u c t i o n u sed w ith Group IV
may b e d e s o r ib e d as f o l lo w s :
In th e f i r s t few s e s s io n s
o f th e c l a s s , e a ch s t u d e n t ’ s v o ic e and d i c t i o n were
d ia g n o se d a s was done w ith s t u d e n t s in th e o th e r th r e e
-3 6 -
grou p s.
Then t o p i c s o f s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t to th e s t u d e n t s
were a s s ig n e d in advance and form ed th e b a s i s fo r
in fo r m a l c o n v e r s a t io n ,
(e.g.
Campus s u b j e c t s , M u sic .)
a p p o in te d f o r each t o p i c .
The T h e a tr e , The A r t s ,
A s tu d e n t chairm an was
I t was her r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
t o s e e t h a t e v e r y member o f th e c l a s s p a r t i c i p a t e d in
th e d i s c u s s i o n .
In t h i s w ay, e a c h s tu d e n t spoke a t
l e a s t fo u r tim e s d u rin g e a ch c o n v e r s a t io n l e s s o n .
Thus
an exch an ge o f id e a s and e x p e r ie n c e s form ed th e b a s i s
f o r in fo r m a l c o n v e r s a t io n .
The s t u d e n t s c o n v e rse d
w ith o u t in t e r r u p t io n , a f t e r w hich th e in s t r u c t o r
commented on th e v o ic e and d i c t i o n o f e a c h .
A fte r
th e l e s s o n , o p p o r t u n it ie s were o f f e r e d fo r s t u d e n t s to
r a t e c o n v e r s a t io n s and t o a n a ly z e c r i t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t
t y p e s o f c o n v e r s a t io n a l s p e e c h .
C o n s tr u c tiv e s u g g e s ­
t i o n s were made t o a id s t u d e n t s in d e v e lo p in g
e n th u sia sm , a se n s e o f com m u nication , m en tal p o i s e and
vocal f l e x i b i l it y .
The T e s tin g P roced u re
At t h e b e g in n in g o f th e se m e s te r each stu d e n t
r e c o r d e d on an a c e t a t e r e c o r d a p a ssa g e o f c o n v e r s a t io n a l
sp eech .
T h is p a s s a g e , w hich i s rep rod u ced on page 3 7 ,
was in form a1 and c o n v e r s a t io n a l in s t y l e and d e a l t w ith
a s u b j e c t f a m i li a r and i n t e r e s t i n g to e v e r y s t u d e n t .
-3 7 -
The same s e l e c t i o n was r e c o r d e d b y a l l s t u d e n t s .
It
was composed by th e i n v e s t i g a t o r and one of* t h e ju d g e s
w ith th e o b j e c t o f making th e p a s s a g e norm al r e a d a b le
m a t e r ia l and r e l a t i n g i t to a g e n e r a l s u b j e c t w ith
w hich m ost o f t h e s t u d e n t s were f a m i l i a r .
T h is r e a d in g was f o llo w e d by sp o n ta n e o u s
c o n v e r s a tio n in r e s p o n s e t o q u e s t io n s on th e p a s s a g e
ask ed by th e i n v e s t i g a t o r .
The s e l e c t i o n r e c o r d e d by
a l l s t u d e n t s f o llo w s :
You have r a i s e d th e q u e s t io n “Which h a s
th e g r e a t e r in f lu e n c e upon th e s p e e o h o f young p e o p l e ,
th e r a d io or th e m o v ie s? ” . To my m ind, t h e r e i s no
doubt t h a t both a r e e x e r t in g a marked i n f l u e n c e . As
you w e l l know, th e b r o a d c a s tin g s t u d i o s demand a v e r y
h ig h sta n d a r d from th e p e o p le p a r t i c i p a t i n g on t h e i r
programs a s w e ll a s from th e a n n o u n c e r s.
The same tr e n d has a l s o b een n o te d in th e
moving p i c t u r e s . H ig h ly s p e c i a l i z e d work in v o i c e and
sp ee o h i s a r e c o g n iz e d e s s e n t i a l in th e r o u t i n e t r a i n i n g
o f th e modern s c r e e n a c t o r .
The M etro-G oldw yn-M ayer Company c r y s t a l i z e d
t h i s id ea f o r th e p u b lic in th e p r o d u c tio n o f Shaw’ s
“P y g m alion ” . Do you remember t h e co ck n ey f lo w e r g i r l
E liz a D o o l i t t l e ?
W e ll, h e r e n t i r e sp e e c h p a t t e r n , h e r
v o ic e and in f a c t h e r c o m p lete p e r s o n a l i t y w ere changed
as a r e s u l t o f th e sp e e c h t r a i n in g sh e r e c e i v e d under
th e e x p e r t t u t e l a g e o f h e r i n s t r u c t o r , Mr. H ig g in s .
Have you e v e r l i s t e n e d t o th e c h i l d r e n ’ s
programs on th e r a d io ? Can you r e c o g n iz e th e Lone
R an ger, H igh Ho S i l v e r , o r th e Shadow? W e ll, i f you
l i s t e n t o th e c o n v e r s a t io n o f t h e y o u n g s t e r s , you
ca n ’ t f a i l t o r e c o g n iz e th e so u r c e o f some o f t h e i r
pet e x p r e s s io n s .
So you s e e , young and o l d , we a r e a l l
38
more o r l e s s , c o n s c i o u s l y or u n c o n s c io u s ly , in f lu e n c e d
by th e sp e e c h we h e a r in t h e s e two form s o f e n t e r t a i n ­
m en t, t h e r a d io o r th e t a l k i n g p i c t u r e s .
A lth ou gh t h e q u e s t io n s v a r ie d from s tu d e n t t o
s t u d e n t , an exam ple o f th e ty p e o f q u e s t io n s ask ed
i s g iv e n b elo w :
1.
Who a re your f a v o r i t e s c r e e n a c t o r s and
a c tr e sse s?
2 . Do you l i k e them b e c a u se o f t h e i r a c tin g
and pantomime o r d o e s th e v o ic e and sp e e c h a p p ea l to
you?
it?
3 . Have you s e e n P ygm alion? D id you e n jo y
What was th e r e s u l t o f E l i z a ’ s t r a in in g ?
4.
What, f o r ex a m p le, do you th in k i s th e
r e a so n f o r th e p o p u la r it y o f C lark G a b le , B e t t e
D a v is , M ickey Rooney?
5 . Who w ould be your c h o io e f o r th e award o f
d i s t i n g u i s h e d a c tin g ? Why?
6 . Have you se e n any i n t e r e s t i n g p la y s o r
m oving p i c t u r e s ? Would you recommend them? Why?
7 . Can you r e c o g n iz e th e v o ic e o f c e r t a i n
a r t i s t s a s you tu n e in t o a program? For exam ple—
Rudy V a l l e e , C h a r lie McCarthy?
8 . Can you r e c o g n iz e P r e s id e n t R o o s e v e lt ’ s
v o ic e e v e n i f you do n o t h ea r him announced? Why?
9 . Can you d e s c r ib e th e v o i c e s o f c e r t a i n
p e o p le on t h e s c r e e n or on th e r a d io ? For ex a m p le,
Jack B enny, Raymond S w in g, B e t t e D a v is , H elen H ayes,
G a b r ie l H e a tte r ?
1 0 . Do you know any l i t t l e boy or g i r l who
l i s t e n s t o a r a d io program e v e r y day? What i s h i s
o r h e r f a v o r i t e program? Why?
1 1 . Do you e v e r s e e a l i t t l e boy or g i r l
p la y in g th e c h a r a c t e r s th e y have h ea rd o v e r th e
r a d io , or i n th e m oving p ic t u r e s ? e . g . The Lone
Ranger— The Green H ornet?
39 -
T hese q u e s t io n s were ch osen t o f i t th e p a r t i c u la r
s tu d e n t and ad ap ted t o th e tr e n d o f th e c o n v e r s a t io n ,
ea ch b e in g fram ed to e v in c e some sp o n ta n eo u s r e s p o n s e
and th u s r e v e a l a f a i r and ad eq u ate sam p lin g o f
c o n v e r s a t io n a l speech*
Each s tu d e n t r e c o rd ed f o r t h r e e
and one h a l f t o fo u r m in u te s , t h a t i s , one s id e o f an
e ig h t-in c h reoord.
The a c t u a l r e c o r d in g p roced u re was condu oted in
th e f o llo w in g manner:
As ea ch stu d e n t e n te r e d th e r e c o r d in g room sh e
was handed w r itt e n i n s t r u c t i o n s w hich sh e was a sk ed to
read .
On th e pap er t h i s sta te m e n t ap p eared :
“ T h is i s
(M iss J o n e s) r e c o r d in g f o r Speech (Mo.) on (Day) th e
(D a te )”,
She was th en t o l d th a t sh e was t o rea d and
r e o o r d a s h o r t p a ssa g e a t s i g h t w hich would be in fo rm a l
and c o n v e r s a t io n a l in s t y l e *
A fte r she had f i n i s h e d
r e a d in g t h e p a s s a g e , sh e would th e n be q u e s tio n e d by
th e i n v e s t i g a t o r on some o f th e c o n te n t o f th e p a s s a g e .
I t was c l e a r l y e x p la in e d t h a t t h i s was n o t to be
c o n s id e r e d a t e s t f o r v o ic e and d i c t i o n b u t p u r e ly an
a tte m p t t o r ec o rd in fo r m a l c o n v e r s a t io n .
From th e
b e g in n in g th e i n v e s t i g a t o r t r i e d to e s t a b l i s h an
atm osp here o f e a s e and r e l a x a t io n f o r th e stu d e n t*
A f t e r th e s u b j e c t in d ic a t e d t h a t sh e u n d e rsto o d f u l l y
-4 0 -
th e e n t i r e p r o c e d u r e , sh e was th e n a sk ed to read a
s e n t e n c e o r two a lo u d in o r d e r t o t e s t v o ic e and t o
a s c e r t a i n w h eth er or n o t th e r e c o r d in g m achine was
f u n c t io n in g p r o p e r ly .
At a s ig n from th e i n v e s t i g a t o r ,
th e s t u d e n t th e n began t o r e a d t h e p a ssa g e a lo u d and
record .
A f t e r e a c h r e c o r d in g was c o m p le te d , th e
i n v e s t i g a t o r r e q u e s te d t h a t ea ch s tu d e n t keep s e c r e t
th e n a tu r e o f th e p a ssa g e and th e q u e s t io n s a sk e d , and
t h a t sh e w r it e a b r i e f paragraph on h er r e a c t io n s to
th e e n t i r e p r o c e d u r e .
T h ese i n t r o s p e c t i v e d a ta were
l a t e r u s e d in an a n a l y s is o f th e r e c o r d in g s i t u a t i o n
and i t s e f f e c t on c o n v e r s a t io n a l s p e e c h .
The same p roced u re was r e p e a te d a t t h e end o f
th e te r m .
It is
im p ortan t t o in d ic a t e a t t h i s p o in t
t h a t e v e r y e f f o r t was made by th e i n v e s t i g a t o r t o
e s t a b l i s h an atm osp here o f f r i e n d l i n e s s and e a s e b o th
in t h e p r e - t e s t and e n d - t e s t .
W hile t h e r e i s no
e v id e n c e a s t o w hether th e m a t e r ia l was k e p t s e c r e t
o r n o t , th e e f f e c t upon t h e e x p erim en t c o u ld n ot be
g r e a t , s i n c e t h e p a ssa g e c o u ld h a r d ly be m em orized,
and t h e q u e s t io n s were changed f o r e a c h s tu d e n t.
An o b v io u s d i f f i c u l t y was th e e li m in a t i o n o f
m icroph one f r i g h t , w hich m igh t i n h i b i t a l l s p o n t a n e ity
and e a s e and t h u s tra n sfo r m th e s i t u a t i o n i n t o th e
41
v e r y o p p o s it e o f c o n v e r s a t io n .
For t h i s pu rp ose th e
sound m irror m achine was u se d f i r s t .
T h is ia a m achine
w hich r e c o r d s and r e p r o d u c e s th e v o ic e on an e l e c t r i c
ta p e f o r a p e r io d o f one m in u te .
I t d i f f e r s from a
r e c o r d in g machine in t h a t no perm anent r e c o r d o f th e
v o ic e i s made, f o r when th e n e x t s tu d e n t r e c o r d s , th e
v o ic e o f th e p r e c e d in g s tu d e n t i s o b l i t e r a t e d .
B e fo re
making t h e a c t u a l r e c o r d in g f o r th e e x p e r im e n t, eaoh
s tu d e n t spoke in fo r m a lly in t o th e sound m irror s e v e r a l
t im e s .
I t i s b e l ie v e d t h a t t h i s was e f f e c t i v e in
rem oving th e p o s s i b i l i t y o f “m i k e - f r i g h t ” .
As p r e v io u s ly s t a t e d , a t th e end o f th e se m e s te r
a l l S tu d e n ts a g a in r e c o r d e d th e same p a s s a g e .
S in o e th e
same p ro ced u re was fo llo w e d f o r each s t u d e n t , th e e f f e c t
o f memory f u n c t io n in g h e r e was e q u a liz e d .
T h is r e a d in g
was fo llo w e d by extem p oran eou s c o n v e r s a t io n in r e sp o n s e
t o d i f f e r e n t q u e s t io n s .
The same p ro ced u re was fo llo w e d
f o r b o th e x p e r im e n ta l and c o n t r o l g r o u p s , a lth o u g h th e
c o n t r o l group had b een s e l e c t e d from among t h o s e upper
fresh m en and sophomore s t u d e n t s who had no fo rm a l sp ee ch
t r a i n in g a t c o l l e g e .
W ith th e e x p e r im e n ta l g r o u p s , no
u se was made o f t h e s e r e c o r d in g s in th e c la s s r o o m , n or
d id th e s t u d e n t s know th e n a tu r e o f th e e x p e rim en t in
w hich th e y were t o be s u b j e c t s , a lth o u g h th e y were t o l d
42-
upon making t h e i r f i r s t r e c o r d in g s t h a t th e y were
to a s s i s t in an e x p e r im e n t.
I t was made c le a r t h a t
th e r e c o r d in g s were n o t t o be u se d f o r g ra d in g s t u d e n t s ,
and i t i s th o u g h t t h a t t h i s h e lp e d t o make t h e s i t u a t i o n
a more n a tu r a l o n e .
The R a tin g P roced u re
Both th e o r i g i n a l and f i n a l s e t s o f r e c o r d in g s
w ere r a te d by a com m ittee o f t h r e e c o l l e g e i n s t r u c t o r s ,
two o f them members o f th e S p eech D epartm ent a t H unter
C o l l e g e , th e t h i r d a member o f t h e Speech D epartm ent
a t A d elp h i C o l l e g e .
T hese j u d g e s , two women and one
man, had had from e i g h t t o t e n y e a r s o f e x p e r ie n c e a s
c o l l e g e t e a c h e r s o f s p e e c h , and have ta u g h t c o u r s e s in
v o ic e and d i c t i o n a t H unter C o l l e g e , Columbia U n iv e r s it y ,
and A d elp h i C o l l e g e .
T h e r e fo r e , th e y were f a m i li a r w ith
th e ty p e o f v o i c e s t o be e x p e c te d and w ith th e u se o f a
r a t in g s c a l e o f th e ty p e u s e d .
Of n e c e s s i t y t h e i r
judgm ents were s u b j e c t i v e , b u t e v e r y p r e c a u tio n was
ta k e n t h a t t h e i r judgm ents be r e l i a b l e and c o n s i s t e n t .
As y e t no p r a c t i c a l method o f o b j e c t i v e m easurem ent o f
o f sp e e c h h as b een d e v is e d and i t i s d o u b tfu l w h eth er
an o b j e c t i v e m easurem ent o f sp e e c h e f f e c t i v e n e s s i s
p o s s ib le .
M oreover, th e u se o f s u b j e c t iv e m easures
h a s b een th u s d e fen d ed :
-4 3 -
“While t h e s e judgm ents a r e s u b j e c t i v e , som ething
may be s a id in fa v o r o f su ch p r o c e d u r e .
V o ic e s are
good or bad a s th e y sound t o t h e e a r .
In th e l a s t
a n a l y s i s , e x c e l l e n c e in sp ee ch i s and m ust be s u b j e c t i v e .
E x p erim en tal r e s e a r c h i s e s s e n t i a l l y an a ttem p t to
i s o l a t e and m easure and p erh ap s t o c o n t r o l t h o s e a s p e c t s
o f sp e e c h w hich are s u b j e c t i v e l y e v a lu a te d a s good o r
bad. F u rth erm ore, i t was assum ed th a t i f v a l i d judgm ents
were t o be o b ta in e d under any c o n d i t i o n s , th e y cou ld be
o b ta in e d th rou gh o b s e r v a tio n s by a group o f tr a in e d
in s tr u c to r s .
The r a t in g s c a le u sed by th e ju d g e s i s rep ro­
duced in T able I (page 4 4 ) .
I t w i l l be n o te d th a t
t h is s c a le c o n s is t s o f fo u r te e n d if f e r e n t c l a s s i f i c a ­
t i o n s l i s t e d under s i x g e n e r a l h e a d in g s , w ith boxes
t o in d ic a t e t h e sc o r e on each ite m .
As i s in d ic a t e d
by th e key a t th e bottom o f th e b la n k , e a c h item was
to be r a te d from one t o f i v e , a mark o f one meaning
p o o r, two— m e d io c r e , th r e e — a v e r a g e , fo u r — g o o d , and
f i v e — s u p e r io r .
The term s u sed on th e r a t in g sh e e t
were b a sed on a l i s t o f commonly a c c e p te d sta n d a rd s
fo r ju d g in g c o n v e r s a t io n a l sp e e c h .
I t was drawn up
by th e i n v e s t i g a t o r w ith th e h e lp o f v a r io u s sp eech
s p e c i a l i s t s and i n s t r u c t o r s , a f t e r c o n s u lt in g books
on c o n v e r s a t io n a l sp ee ch and r a t in g s c a l e s u sed in
v a r io u s c o l l e g e s .
1,
Each item on th e s c a l e was
G. l'/. G ray, “R e g io n a l Preponderance in R e s p ir a tio n
in R e la tio n to C e r ta in A sp e c ts o f V o ic e ” ,
S t u d ie s in E xp erim en tal P h o n e t i c s , pp. 64-65
-4 4
TABLE I *
R ating Scale Used By Judges
1
NAME:
1
le
2.
3.
3
4
5
VOICE — AUDIBILITY
A.
PLEASING QUALITY
B.
FLEXIBILITY — VARIETY IN RAN®
C.
ANIMATION
DICTION
A.
ENUNCIATION
B.
PRONUNCIATION
C.
FLUENCY
GROUPING
A.
4.
2
RHYTHM
TMPO
VARIETY AND RATE
5.
NATURALNESS
6.
GENERAL IMPRESSION OF ENTIRE RECORD
KEY* 1 — poor
2 — m ediocre
3 — average
4 — good
5 — s u p e rio r
* This i s th e FORM (not ta b le )
used by th e judges to r a t e
th e in d v id u a l s tu d e n ts .
-4 5 -
d i s c u s s e d by th e I n v e s t ig a t o r w ith th e ju d g e s , to
in s u r e a common u n d e r sta n d in g o f th e m eaning o f th e
term s and i t s r e f e r e n c e t o th e e x p e r im e n t.
The ju d g e s
were foim d t o be in v i r t u a l agreem ent w ith th e
i n v e s t i g a t o r on e v e r y ite m , and what l i t t l e
u n c e r t a in t y
rem ained was removed by p r e lim in a r y r a t i n g s and
d i s c u s s i o n , a s d e s c r ib e d b e lo w .
W hile th e term s u sed a r e v ery w id e ly em ployed
and g e n e r a l l y u n d e r s to o d , i t m ight be w e ll t o rep rod u ce
a t t h i s p o in t some o f th e d e f i n i t i o n s and comments u sed
or r e f e r r e d t o in th e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s e term s by th e
i n v e s t i g a t o r and ju d g e s .
Where th e r e a r e q u o t a tio n s
from o th e r a u t h o r s , th e r e f e r e n c e i s g iv e n in th e
fo o tn o te s:
V o ic e -A u d ib ility :
“The most e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c ­
t e r i s t i c o f v o ic e i s a u d i b i l i t y , and a lm o st e q u a lly
im p o rta n t i s p le a s in g a u d i b i l i t y . ”1
“Good sp e e c h h as
. . . s u f f i c i e n t s t r e n g t h t o be e a s i l y h e a r d .” 2
P le a s in g Q u a lit y :
“The d evelop m en t o f a
p le a s a n t q u a l i t y in th e v o ic e
i s perhaps one o f th e
m ost im p o rta n t a s p e c t s o f v o c a l t r a i n i n g . ”
IT
2.
3.
R.
G.
E.
3
B. M anser. A ManuaT~of Speech C o r r e c tio n , p . 9
W. Gray and C. M. W ise, B ases o f S p e e c h , p . 56
H. B a v is and E. W. Mamraen, The Spoken Word in
L if e and A r t , p . 86
-4 6
F l e x i b i l i t y - V a r ie ty in r a n g e;
“To be
r e s p o n s iv e a v o ic e must be f l e x i b l e and f r e e in
i n f l e c t i o n and r a n g e .”*A n im ation : th e q u a l i t y o f l i v e l i n e s s , s p i r i t
and v i g o r .
“ We a r e j u s t i f i e d
in demanding from our
2
s t u d e n t s th e v o ic e anim ated—- e a g e r n e s s o f v o i c e , ”
D ic t io n : th e c h o ic e o f words t o e x p r e s s i d e a s ,
th e u s e o f la n g u a g e w ith r e g a r d t o c l e a r n e s s , a c c u r a c y ,
and mode o f e x p r e s s i o n .
P r o n u n c ia tio n : t h e u t t e r i n g o f s y l l a b l e s o f
words w ith t h e p ro p er sound and a c c e n t .
E n u n c ia tio n : th e m e c h a n ic a l p r o d u c tio n o f
sp e e c h so u n d s.
“The d e s i r e d g o a l i s sp e e c h t h a t i s
c l e a r , d i s t i n c t , and e a s y — f r e e on th e one hand from
t h a t e x a g g e r a te d n i o e n e s s w h ich a t t r a c t s a t t e n t i o n t o
i t s e l f . ”3
F lu e n c y : th e a b i l i t y to have words a t o n e ’ s
command and t o u t t e r them w ith f a c i l i t y and sm ooth­
n ess.
1,
2,
3,
J . A. W inans, P u b lic S p e a k in g , p . 499
A. M. Drummond, S p eech T r a in in g and P u b lic
S p ea k in g f o r S e co n d a ry S c h o o l s , “The T r a in in g
o f th e V o ic e ” - H e n r ie t t a P r e n t i s s , p. 67
H. M. C a r r, The S p ea k in g V o ic e , p . 195
-
47 -
Grouping : th e co m b in a tio n o f words in grou p s
w ith r e f e r e n c e t o m utual r e l a t i o n and th e b e s t e ffe c t* ,
“E m p h asis, p au se and groupin g sh o u ld be so managed
t h a t a l l may u n d e rsta n d what th e sp eak er i s t r y in g to
s a y . ”1
Rhythm:
“Rhythm . . .
i s th e r i s e and f a l l o f
sound w h ile show ing th e se n s e and s p i r i t o f what you
r e a d. The
movement o f u t t e r e d words a s marked by
th e s u c c e s s io n and a l t e r n a t i o n o f lo n g and s h o r t ,
a c c e n te d and u n a c c e n te d s y l l a b l e s and by th e p o s i t i o n
o f p au ses.
“Rhythm i s im p ortan t in th e c le a r
p r e s e n t a t io n o f th o u g h t.
I f th e u t te r a n c e i s to o
choppy and to o broken up, th e l i s t e n e r d o e s n o t f o llo w
a s w e ll a s he w i l l t h e s e n te n c e which i s smooth and
f l o w i n g . ”3
Tempo: r a t e o f s p e a k in g .
“The r a t e o f sp eech
u sed n o r m a lly by p e r s o n s in c a s u a l c o n v e r s a t io n i s
c a l l e d m oderate tem po.
V a r ie t y and R a t e :
1.
2.
3.
4.
“S p eech t h a t aim s t o be
Ogg and Immel, S p eech Im provem ent, p . 43
0 . W. W oolbert and T. E. N e ls o n , The A rt o f
I n t e r p r e t a t i v e S p e e c h , p . 271
Ogg and Immel, o p . c i t . , p . 104
D a v is and Mammen, The Spoken Word in L if e and
A r t . p . 339
-4 8 -
i n t e r e s t i n g must be v a r ie d in e v e r y way p o s s i b l e .
E s p e c i a l l y , v a r i e t y in th e u se o f f o r c e , p i t c h and
r a t e w i l l add g r e a t l y t o i n t e r e s t in g n e s s •
N a tu r a ln e s s : s p o n t a n e it y , la c k o f a f f e c t a t i o n
and a r t i f i c i a l i t y .
G en eral Im p re ssio n o f E n tir e R eco rd : th e
l i s t e n e r * s r e a c t io n t o th e co m p lete u n i t .
i n t e r e s t been s u s t a in e d ?
Has th e
Has an id ea b een conveyed ?
To in s u r e th e r e l i a b i l i t y o f th e jud ges* r a t i n g s ,
a p r e lim in a r y s e t o f s i x t e s t r e c o r d s were made and
r a te d .
These were r e c o r d e d by s tu d e n ts who were n o t
in any o f th e g rou p s u sed in th e e x p e r im e n t.
They were
ch o sen a t random and t h e i r nam es, l i k e th o s e o f th e
s u b j e c t s o f th e e x p e r im e n t, were n o t r e v e a le d to th e
ju d g e s .
A fte r th e f i r s t t e s t r e c o r d had been p la y e d
f o r th e ju d g e s , th e r e was f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n c o n c e r n in g
th e meaning o f term s and r e l a t i v e ways o f r a t i n g .
T h is
d i s c u s s i o n c o n tin u e d u n t i l a l l d i f f i c u l t i e s had b e e n
removed or c l a r i f i e d and i t was p o s s i b l e to r a te th e
s i x t e s t r e c o r d s a s thou gh th e y were p a r ts o f th e
r e g u la r e x p e r im e n t.
f o r th e ju d g e s .
1.
The s i x r e c o r d s were th e n p la y e d
T h eir r a t i n g s a r e shown in T ab le I I
Ogg and Im m el, S p eech Im provem ent, p . 127
49 -
(p a g e 5 0 ) ,
A fte r a month had e la p s e d , th e same s i x
r e c o r d s were r e - r a t e d , w ith r e s u l t s shown in T able I I I
(p a g e 5 1 ) .
At t h i s tim e th e r e c o r d in g s were p la y e d in
a d i f f e r e n t o r d e r , and s in c e th e ju d g es had been
l i s t e n i n g t o many v o ic e s in th e in te r im , i t
i s d o u b tfu l
w hether any e le m en t o f memory e n te r e d in t o th e
s itu a tio n .
To a id in th e com p arison o f th e ju d g e s ’ r a t i n g s
on th e two o c c a s i o n s , T able IV (p a g e 52) c o n ta in s th e
T o ta l s c o r e s g iv e n by th e th r e e ju d g es in ea ch o f th e
m ajor c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f v o ic e and sp e e c h q u a l i t i e s .
The rem arkably c l o s e agreem ent o f th e ju d g es w ith ea ch
o th e r and w ith th e m s e lv e s i s so c l e a r l y shown by t h e s e
t a b l e s th a t no f u r t h e r comment seem s n e c e s s a r y , n or do
th e f i g u r e s seem t o demand any f u r t h e r s t a t i s t i c a l
tr e a tm e n t t o make t h e i r meaning c l e a r .
I t was t h e r e f o r e
c o n clu d ed t h a t th e r e l i a b i l i t y o f s u b j e c t i v e r a t i n g s ,
by t h e s e p a r t i c u la r ju d g e s , a t any r a t e , had been
e f f e c t iv e ly e s ta b lis h e d .
The a c t u a l r a t in g o f th e r e c o r d s in th e
ex p erim en t fo llo w e d t h i s p roced u re:
The ju d g es met
f i v e tim e s in a l l , and worked a p p ro x im a te ly fo u r h ou rs
a t e a ch m e e tin g .
A ll r e c o r d s were p la y e d back on th e
r e c o r d in g m achine on w hich th e y had been made t o make
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c e r t a i n t h a t t h e r e would be no d e v i a t io n o r change
in t h e q u a l it y o f ton e or volum e, o r any d i s t o r t i o n
o f th e v o i c e .
The r a t in g form s f o r each judge were
numbered a c c o r d in g t o th e r e c o r d r a t e d , and c o n ta in e d
th e name o f th e judge d o in g t h e r a t i n g .
R ecords were
p la y e d back in d i f f e r e n t o rd er a t e v e r y s e s s i o n , and
th e ju d g e s were n o t aware w hether t h e y w ere r a t in g p r e ­
t e s t o r e n d - t e s t r e c o r d s , nor d id th e y know w hich group
o f s t u d e n ts was b e in g r a t e d .
R ecord s w ere p la y e d f o r
h a l f hour p e r io d s w hich were f o llo w e d by f i v e t o te n
m in u te p e r io d s o f r e s t .
T h is e n a b le d th e ju d g es to
r e s t , walk abou t and r e l a x , and a s s u r e d a f a i r r a t in g
to e v er y reco rd .
In t h i s m anner, two hundred r e c o r d s
were r a te d w ith r e s u l t s t o be d e s c r ib e d i n th e
f o llo w in g c h a p t e r s .
CHAPTER IV
ANALYSIS OP THE RESULTS
FOR THE FOUR EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS
AND THE CONTROL GROUP
Method o f A n a ly s is
A f t e r e a ch o f th e s t u d e n t s in th e fo u r e x p e r i­
m en tal grou p s and th e c o n t r o l group had made two
r e c o r d in g s and t h e s e r e c o r d in g s had b een r a te d by th e
ju d g e s , th e r a t i n g s were su b m itte d t o th e f o llo w in g
s t a t i s t i c a l tr e a tm e n t.
The s c o r e a s s ig n e d t o a s tu d e n t
on e a c h r e c o r d in g f o r e a ch o f th e e le v e n q u a l i t i e s jud ged
was th e a v e ra g e o f th e th r e e in d iv id u a l s c o r e s g iv e n by
th e j u d g e s .
In t h i s way a v e ra g e s c o r e s were o b ta in e d
f o r e a ch s t u d e n t on p r e - t e s t and e n d - t e s t r e c o r d in g s in
e a ch o f th e e le v e n q u a l i t i e s ju d g ed .
For ea ch o f th e
f i v e g r o u p s , mean s c o r e s f o r e a c h q u a l it y were th e n
o b ta in e d on p r e - t e s t and e n d - t e s t .
Improvement by
e a ch group was n o te d by s u b t r a c t in g th e mean p r e - t e s t
s c o r e from th e mean e n d - t e s t s c o r e .
The d if f e r e n c e
b etw een th e two means f o r e a ch group in d ic a t e d th e
amount o f improvem ent or r e t r o g r e s s i o n made by th e
group.
The s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s d i f f e r e n c e
was t e s t e d by co m p u ta tio n o f th e C r i t i c a l R a t io , or th e
-5 5 -
r a t i o o f th e d i f f e r e n c e to th e sta n d a rd e r r o r o f th e
d if f e r e n c e *
The u s u a l s c a l e o f s i g n i f i c a n c e was used*
A q u o t ie n t o f a t l e a s t 3 , when th e d i f f e r e n c e was
d iv id e d by i t s
sta n d a r d e r r o r , was in t e r p r e t e d as
i n d ic a t in g a p r o b a b i li t y o f 9 ,9 9 7 ch a n ces in 1 0 ,0 0 0 ,
or n e a r ly 100 c h a n ces in 1 0 0 , t h a t th e t r u e d i f f e r e n c e
b etw een th e means was g r e a t e r th a n zero*
Whenever th e
r a t i o was l e s s th a n 3 , th e i n d i c a t i o n was th a t th e
d iffe r e n c e ,
improvement o r r e t r o g r e s s i o n , was n o t
c o m p le te ly r e l i a b l e . 1
In t h i s c h a p te r , th e r e s u l t s f o r e a ch o f th e
f i v e grou p s w i l l be a n a ly z e d s e p a r a t e ly and, in th e
f o llo w in g c h a p te r , th e grou p s w i l l be compared in term s
o f t h e i r e f f e c t s upon e a c h o f th e e le v e n q u a l i t i e s r a te d .
The a n a l y s i s in t h e s e two c h a p te r s w i l l be c o n fin e d t o
th e groups a s w h o le s.
The f i n d in g s w i l l th e n be
summarized and th e im p lic a t io n s o f th e s e f i n d in g s fo r
sp ee ch e d u o a tio n w i l l be d is c u s s e d in a f i n a l c h a p te r .
The P o e tr y Group
The r e s u l t s fo r Group I , whose i n s t r u c t i o n a l
medium was p o e t r y , are g iv e n in T a b les V t o V I I I .
Each
o f t h e s e t a b l e s g i v e s p r e - t e s t and e n d - t e s t s c o r e s f o r
1*
II. E. G a r r e tt , S t a t i s t i c s in P sy c h o lo g y and
E d u c a tio n , p . 213
56-
th e tw en ty s tu d e n ts in Group I , mean s c o r e s f o r th e
group on b o th t e s t s , and th e d i f f e r e n c e betw een th e
m eans, or th e im provem ent, w ith i t s C r i t i c a l R a tio ,
For th e purpose o f com p arison s i m i la r d ata are g iv e n
f o r th e C o n tro l Group.
In A u d i b i l it y (T a b le V, page 57), t h i r t e e n
s t u d e n t s showed im provem ent, two s tu d e n ts showed r e ­
t r o g r e s s i o n , and f i v e showed no change in s c o r e .
The
a v era g e improvement f o r th e group was .3 5 w ith a
C r i t i c a l R a tio o f 3 .1 8 , in d ic a t in g s t a t i s t i c a l
r e lia b ility .
In P le a s in g d u a l i t y (T ab le V ) , o n ly one s tu d e n t
r e t r o g r e s s e d , two rem ained s t a b l e , and th e rem aining
s e v e n te e n showed im provem ent.
The a v e r a g e improvement
was .6 8 w ith a C r i t i c a l R a tio o f 6 . 1 8 .
In F l e x i b i l i t y (T a b le V ), fo u r s t u d e n t s » s c o r e s
were unchanged, two r e t r o g r e s s e d , and th e rem aining
fo u r te e n im proved.
The a v e ra g e im provem ent was .4 0
w ith a C r i t i c a l R a tio o f 4 .0 0 .
In A n im ation (T a b le V I, page 5 8 ) , th r e e s t u d e n t s
r e t r o g r e s s e d , th r e e rem ained s t a b l e , and f o u r te e n showed
im provem ent.
The a v e r a g e im provement was .4 6 w ith a
C r i t i c a l R a tio o f 3 .2 8 .
In E n u n c ia tio n (T a b le V I ) , fo u r s tu d e n ts showed
57-
IABLE V
Mean I n d iv id u a l R a tin g s o f Tw enty S tu d e n ts i n E x p e r im e n ta l Group I
and Twenty S tu d e n ts in C o n tr o l Group on P r e - T e s t and E n d -T est i n
E le v e n S p e e c h Q u a l i t i e s
S p e e c h
Q u a l i t i e s
AUDIBILITY
PLEAS IDG QUALITY
Control*
Experim ental** C ontrol
E xperim ental
Group
Group I
Group
Group I
pip* grp** PT
PT
ET
PT
ET
ET
(8)
(9)
(6 )
(7)
(4)
(5)
(3)
( i f (2)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
VM
2.66
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.33
3.00
3.66
3.33
3.00
3.00
3.33
3.00
2.00
3.00
2.66
3.00
3.33
3.33
3.03
.35
.08
SD
fM
D
<Tb
CR
Chances
*
2.66 3.00
3.33 3.33
3.00 3.33
3.33 4.00
3.00 3.33
3.00 3.00
3.66 3.00
3.00 3.00
3.00 3.33
3.33 3.66
3.00 3.00
3.00 3.33
3.33 4. 0 0
3.00 3.66
3.00 4.00
3.00 3.00
3.00 3. 33
3.33 4.00
3.00 3.33
3.33 3.66
3.33
3.33
4.00
5.00
3.66
3.00
3.66
4.00
3.66
3.66
4.00
3.66
4.33
3.33
3.33
3.00
3. 33
5.00
4.00
4.00
.518
.538
3.12 3.41 3.76
.58
.57
.40
.09
.13
.13
.09
.35
.13
.11
3.18
.70
76
100-
2.66
1.66
1.33
2.66
2.33
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
2.33
2.66
2.33
2.66
2.00
2 .66
2 . 66
2.66
2 .66
3.00
2.56
.45
.10
2.66
1.33
1.66
2.00
2.00
3.00
2.33
3.00
2.33
3.00
2.33
2.66
3.00
2.66
2.66
2.66
2.66
2.33
2.00
2.66
2.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
2.00
2.33
3.00
2.33
3.00
3.00
2.00
3.00
2.66
2.66
2,00
3.00
4.00
3.00
3.33
3.00
2 . 33
4.33
4.00
4.00
2.66
2.66
3.66
2.66
4.00
3.66
3.66
4.00
3.00
4.00
2.66
3.00
4.66
3.00
4.00
.548
.668
2.45 2.77 3.45
.43
.48
.65
.15
.10
.11
.68
-.1 1
-.1 0
.11
6.18
-1.10
86
100-
FLEXIBILITY
C ontrol
E xperim ental
Group I
Group
PT
ET
PT
ET
(10) (11) (12) (13)
2.00
2.33
2.00
2.33
2.00
2.00
2.33
3.00
2.66
2. 33
1.66
2.66
2.33
2.00
2.00
2.33
2.66
2.33
2.66
3.00
2.33
.35
.08
1.66
2.33
2.C0
2.33
2.00
2.33
2.33
2.66
2.33
2.66
2.66
2.66
2.66
2.00
2.66
2.00
3.33
1.66
2 . 33
3.00
2.33
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
2.00
2. 33
2.33
3.33
3.33
2.66
3.00
3.33
3.00
3.00
2 .33
3.00
4.00
3.33
3.33
2.33
2.33
4.00
4.66
3. 33
2.66
2.66
3.00
3.66
4.00
3.66
3.00
4.00
3.33
3.33
2.66
3.00
4.00
3.00
4.00
.528
.697
2.38 2.93 3.33
.48
.41
.63
.09
.11
.14
.05
.40
.09
.10
.56
4.00
71
100-
This group had no in s tr u c tio n i n speech fo r fo u r months between p r e - t e s t
and e n d - te s t.
** This group s tu d ie d p o e try fo r fo u r months between p r e - t e s t and e n d - te s t.
PT — p r e - t e s t
ET — e n d -te s t
A
( l ) e to . — number o f th e column
#
r — c o e f f ic ie n t o f c o r r e la tio n
D — d iffe re n c e
M — mean
D — sta n d a rd d e v ia tio n of d iffe re n c e
SD — standard d e v ia tio n
CR — c r i t i c a l r a t i o
M — stan d ard d e v ia tio n o f mean
These term s are used in a l l th e o th e r ta b le s and th e meanings o f th e se
term s w i l l th e re fo re n o t be re p e a te d .
58-
TABLS V I
Mean I n d iv id u a l R a tin g s o f Twenty S tu d e n ts i n E x p erim en ta l Group I
and Twenty S tu d e n ts i n C o n tr o l Group on P r e - T e s t and E n d -T e st in
E le v e n Speech Q u a li t ie s
S p e e o h
Q ua l i t i e s
S tu­
dent) 3
ANIMATION
ENUNCIATION
Experim ental
C ontrol*
Experim ental** C ontrol
Group
Group I
Group
Group I
PT& ET&* PT
ET
PT
ET
PT
ET
(19) (20) (21) (22)
(14) (15) (16) (17) (18)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
2.33
2.33
2.66
2.33
1.66
2.33
2.33
3.00
2.66
2.66
1.66
2.66
2.33
2.33
1.66
2.33
3.00
2.33
2.33
2.66
r
M
SD
*5T
D
2.38
.37
.08
CR
Chances
*
**
.*
2.33
2.33
3.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.66
3.00
2.66
2.66
2.00
3.00
2.66
2.66
2.00
2.66
2.66
2.00
2.33
2.66
2.33
3 .00
3.00
2.66
3.00
2.00
3.00
2.33
3.00
3.33
3.33
3.00
4.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
4.00
3.33
2.66
3.00
2.66
3.66
4.33
3.66
3.00
2.66
3.00
3.66
3.66
4.00
3.00
4 .0 0
3.66
3.33
3.33
3.00
4.66
3.00
4.00
.821
.416
2.46 3 «00 3.46
.37
.51
.57
.08
.12
.13
.08
.46
.05
.14
1.60
3.28
94
100-
1.33
1.66
1.66
2.66
2.66
2. 66
2.66
3.00
3.00
2.66
2.33
2.33
3.00
3.33
2.66
3.00
2.33
2.66
2.33
3.33
2.56
.49
.11
1.33
1.66
2.00
2.66
2.33
2.66
2.33
2.66
2. 66
2.66
3.00
2.33
2.66
3.00
2.66
2.66
2.33
2.66
2.3o
3.33
2.00
3.33
3.33
2.66
3.00
3.00
2.33
2.66
2.66
3.00
3.00
2.00
3.66
2.33
3.33
2.33
2.33
4.00
3.00
3.33
3.00
2.66
4.66
4.33
4.00
3.00
3.00
3.33
3.33
4.00
3.00
3.33
4.00
3.33
3.33
3.00
2.66
5.00
3.00
4.00
.558
.804
2.50 2.86 3.49
.41
.56
.69
.09
.13
.16
-.0 6
.63
-.07
.14
-.8 6
4.50
80
100-
PRONUNCIATION
C ontrol
Experim ental
Group
Group I
PT
ET
PT
ET
(23) (24) (25) (26)
1.33
2.00
1.66
2.66
2.66
2.66
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
2.66
2.00
3.00
3.00
2.66
3.00
3.00
2.66
2.66
3.00
2.63
.42
.10
1.33
2.00
2.00
2.33
2.33
2.33
2.66
3.33
2.66
3.33
3.00
2.33
2.66
3.00
2.66
3.00
2.66
2.66
2,33
3.00
2.00
3 . 33
3.33
3.00
3.33
3.00
2.00
3.00
2.66
3.00
3.00
2.66
3.66
2.00
3.33
2.00
2 . 00
4.00
3.00
3.33
3.00
2.66
4.66
4.33
4.00
3.00
3.00
3.33
3.00
4.00
3.33
3.00
4.00
3.00
3.00
2.66
2.66
5.00
3.33
4.33
.833
.697
2.58 2.88 3.47
.46
.60
.97
.11
.14
.22
-.0 5
.59
-.0 5
.16
-1.00
3.70
88
100-
This group had no in s tr u c tio n in speech f o r fo u r months between p r e - te s t
and e n d -te st*
This group stu d ie d p o e try fo r fo u r months between p r e - t e s t and e n d - te s t.
PT — p r e - t e s t
ET — e n d - te s t
59 -
no c h a n g e , one r e t r o g r e s s e d , and f i f t e e n
improved*
The
a v era g e im provem ent was .6 3 w ith a C r i t i c a l R a tio o f 4 .5 0 .
In P r o n u n c ia tio n (T a b le V I ), one s tu d e n t showed no
c h a n g e, two r e t r o g r e s s e d , and s e v e n te e n im proved.
The
a v era g e im provem ent was .5 9 w ith a C r i t i c a l R a tio o f 3 .7 0 .
In F lu en cy (T a b le V II, page 6 0 ) , t h r e e s tu d e n ts
showed no c h a n g e, two r e t r o g r e s s e d , and f i f t e e n
im proved.
The a v era g e improvement was .5 5 w ith a C r i t i c a l R a tio
o f 3 .4 4 .
In Rhythm (T a b le V I I ) , one s tu d e n t showed no
ch a n g e, two r e t r o g r e s s e d , and s e v e n te e n im proved .
A verage
improvement was .5 0 w ith a C r i t i c a l R a tio o f 3 .5 7 .
In V a r ie ty and R ate (T a b le V I I ) , t h r e e s t u d e n ts
showed no c h a n g e , two r e t r o g r e s s e d and f i f t e e n
im proved.
A verage improvement was .4 9 w ith a C r i t i c a l R a tio o f 3 .0 6 .
In N a tu r a ln e s s (T a b le V I I I , page 6 1 ) , fo u r s t u d e n t s
showed no c h a n g e , one r e t r o g r e s s e d , and f i f t e e n
im proved.
The a v era g e improvement was .6 1 w ith a C r i t i c a l R a tio o f
. .
6 10
In G en eral Im p r e ssio n (T a b le V III) , fo u r s t u d e n ts
showed no c h a n g e , two r e t r o g r e s s e d , and f o u r t e e n im proved.
The a v e ra g e improvement was .7 7 w ith a C r i t i c a l R a tio o f
6 .4 2 .
To summarize i t may be s a id th a t th e P o e tr y Group
60
TABLE V II
Mean I n d iv id u a l R a tin g s o f Twenty S tu d e n ts i n E x p e r im e n ta l Group I
and Twenty S tu d en ts i n C on trol Group on P r e -T e s t and E n d -T est i n
E le v e n Speech Q u a l i t i e s
S p e e c h
Q u a l i t i e s
FLUEBCY
RHYTHM
C ontrol*
Experim ental** C ontrol
Experim ental
Group
Group I
Group
Group I
p-p* BT** PT
ET
PT
ET
PT
ET
(27) (28) (29) (30) (31)
(32) (33) (34) (35)
VARIETY-RATE
C ontrol
Experim ental
Group I
Group
PT “ ET
PT
ET
(36) (37) (38) (39)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
2.33
2.00
2.00
2.66
2.00
2.00
2.33
2.66
2.66
2.46
2.00
2.33
2.33
2.00
2.00
2.33
2.66
2. 33
2.33
3.00
r
M
SD
2.33
2.00
2.66
2.66
2.33
2.00
2.33
3.00
2.66
2.33
2.00
2.33
2.33
2.00
1.66
2.33
3.00
2.33
2.66
2.66
2.38
.3 4
.08
D
^t)
CR
Chances
*
1.33
2.33
2.33
2.00
2.33
2.66
2.66
2.33
2.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
2.66
3.00
2.00
2.66
3.00
2.00
2.00
2.66
2.00
2.66
2.66
3.33
3.33
2.00
3.00
2.33
3.00
3.33
2.00
2.33
4.00
3.00
3.00
2.33
2.66
4.00
3.33
3.00
2.33
2.00
4.66
4.00
4.00
2.66
3.00
3.00
2.66
4.33
3.33
3.00
4.00
3.33
3.33
3.33
3.00
4.66
3.33
4.33
.568
.880
2.45 2.86 3.41
.43
.84
.60
.10
.19
.14
.07
.55
.05
.16
1.20
3.44
88
100-
2.00
2.00
2.33
2.33
2.33
2.00
2.00
2.66
2.66
2.33
2.00
2.33
2.53
2.33
2.00
2.33
2.66
2.33
2.33
3.00
2.31
e 30
.07
1.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.33
2.00
2.33
2.33
2.66
3.00
2.66
2.33
2 . 33
3.00
2.66
2.33
2.66
2.00
2.00
3.00
1.66
3.33
o.OO
3.00
3.00
2.00
2.66
2.00
2.66
3.33
2. 66
2.66
3.66
2.66
3.00
2.33
2.00
4.00
3.00
3.00
2.33
2.66
4.33
4.00
3.33
2.66
3.Q0
2.66
2.33
4.00
3.33
3.33
3.66
3.00
3.33
3.00
3.00
4.66
3 .00
4.00
.467
.717
2.32 2.73 3.28
.57
.52
.64
.13
.15
.12
.01
.50
.11
.14
.09
3.57
10053
2.33
.30
.07
1.33
2.33
2.00
2.33
2.33
2.00
2.33
2.00
2.33
3.00
3.00
2.33
2.33
3.00
3.00
2.33
2.66
2.00
2.00
2.66
2.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
2.00
2.66
2.00
2.66
3.00
3.00
2.66
3.00
3.00
3.00
2.33
2.33
4.00
3.00
3.33
2.33
2,66
4.00
4.66
3.66
2.66
2.33
3.00
2.66
4.00
3.33
3.00
3.33
3.00
3.33
3.00
3.00
4.66
3.00
4.00
.775
.271
2.36 2.80 3.29
.44
.45
.94
.10
.22
.11
.49
.03
.16
.11
.27
3.06
61
100-
This group had no in s tr u c tio n in speech f o r fo u r months between p r e - t e s t
and e n d - te s t.
** This group stu d ie d p o e try fo r fo u r months between p r e - t e s t and end-test®
±
PT
p re -te s t
.*♦ ET — e n d -te s t
-6 1
TABLE! V I I I
Mean I n d iv id u a l R a tin g s o f Twenty S tu d e n ts i n E x p er im e n ta l Group I
and Twenty S tu d e n ts i n C o n tr o l Group on P r e -T e s t an d E n d -T est i n
E le v e n Speech Q u a l i t i e s
Sp e e c h
Stu- _
dents"
NATURALNESS
Control*
Experimental**
Group
Group I
PT1
ET
ET1& PT
(42)
(44)
(40)(41)
(43)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
6
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
r
M
SD
& l\
2*00
2.00
2.33
2.33
2.33
2.00
3.00
3.00
2.66
3.00
2.00
2.33
2.33
2.33
2.00
2.66
3.00
2.33
2.66
3.33
2.48
.40
.09
D
<n>
CR
Chanoes
*
2.53
2.33
2.33
2.53
2.33
2.33
2.33
3.00
2.33
3.00
3.00
2.66
2.66
3.33
2.33
2.66
2.33
2.00
2.00
3.00
.538
2.53
.36
.08
.05
.08
.63
73
2.00
3.00
3.00
3.33
3.00
2.00
2.66
2.33
2. 66
3.00
3.0P
2.66
3.66
3.00
3.00
2.33
3.00
4.00
3.00
3.33
2.89
.53
.12
2.66
2.66
4.66
4.66
4.00
2.66
2.66
3.00
2.66
4.00
4.00
3.33
4.00
3.33
3.33
3.33
3.00
5.00
3.00
4.00
.746
3.50
.65
.15
.61
.10
6.10
100-
Q u a l i t i e s
GENERAL
Control
Group
PT
ET
(45)
(46)
IMPRESSION
Experimental
Group I
PT
ET
(48)
(47)
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.33
2.33
2.00
2.66
3.00
2.66
2.66
2.00
2.33
2.33
2.33
2.00
2.33
2.66
2.33
2.66
3.00
2.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
2.33
2.66
2.33
2.66
3.00
3.00
2.66
4.33
2.66
3.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
3.00
3033
2.38
.33
.07
1.33
2.33
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.33
3.00
2.33
3.00
3.00
2.33
2.33
3.00
2.66
2.00
2.66
2.00
2.00
3.00
.375
2.36
.48
.11
-.0 2
-.11
—*18
66
2.89
.59
.14
2.66
2.66
5.00
4.66
4.00
2.66
2.66
3.00
2.66
4.00
4.00
3.33
4.00
3.33
4.33
3.33
3.00
5.00
3.00
4.00
.736
3.56
.80
.18
.77
.12
6.42
100-
This group had no instruction in speech for four months between
p re-test and end-test*
** This group studied poetry for four months between p r e -te st and
end-test*
.* PT — p re-test
** ET — end-test
-
62 -
showed s i g n i f i c a n t improvement a s a group in a l l o f th e
e le v e n q u a l i t i e s t e s t e d .
Improvement was g r e a t e s t in
G en eral I m p r e s s io n . P le a s in g Q u a l i t y , E n u n c ia tio n , and
N a t u r a ln e s s . and th e s m a lle s t amount o f improvement was
made in A u d i b i l i t y , F l e x i b i l i t y , and A n im ation .
The D ram atic M a te r ia ls Group
The r e s u l t s f o r Group I I , whose i n s t r u c t i o n a l
medium was D ram atic M a t e r ia ls , a r e g iv e n in T a b les
IX th rou gh X I I , w hich a re s i m i la r t o T a b le s V th rou gh
V III in th e ite m s th e y c o n t a in .
In A u d i b i l it y (T ab le IX , page 6 3 ) , fo u r o f t h i s
group showed no change in s c o r e , fo u r r e t r o g r e s s e d , and
tw e lv e improved*
The a v e ra g e im provement was .2 2 w ith
a low C r i t i c a l R a tio o f 1 .6 9 , in d ic a t in g t h a t th e
im provement i s n o t e n t i r e l y r e l i a b l e .
In P le a s in g Q u a lity (T a b le I X ), two s t u d e n t s o f
t h i s group showed no change in s c o r e , two r e t r o g r e s s e d ,
and s i x t e e n im proved.
The a v e ra g e improvement was .7 2
w ith a h ig h C r i t i c a l R a tio o f 5 .1 4 .
In F l e x i b i l i t y (T a b le I X ), f i v e s tu d e n ts showed
n e it h e r improvement nor r e t r o g r e s s i o n , one s tu d e n t
r e t r o g r e s s e d , and f o u r t e e n im proved.
The avera g e
im provem ent was .5 2 w ith a C r i t i c a l R a tio o f 4 ,7 3 .
In A n im ation (T ab le X, page 6 4 ) , se v e n s tu d e n ts
-63-
TABLE IX
Mean In d iv id u a l R atings o f Twenty Students in E xperim ental Group I I
and Twenty S tudents in C ontrol Group on P re -T e st and End-T est in
Eleven Speech Q u a litie s
Q ua l i t i e s
S p e e o h
Stu­
dents5
PLEASING QUALITY
AUDIBILITY
C ontrol*
Experim ental** C ontrol
Experim ental
Group
Group I I
Group
Group I I
prjwt
pT
ET
PT
ET
PT
ET
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(3 )
(4)
(5)
(1) (2 )
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
r
M
SD
2.66
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.33
3.00
3.66
3.33
3.00
3.00
3.33
3.00
2.00
3.00
2.66
3.00
3.33
3.33
3.03
.35
.08
D
CR
Chances
*
2.66 3.00
3 .0 3 2.66
3 .3 3 3.33
3 .3 3 3.66
3 .0 0 3.33
3 .0 0 3.66
3 .6 6 3.00
3 .0 0 3.66
3 .0 0 3.33
3 .3 3 3.33
3 .0 0 3.00
3 .0 0 3.00
3 .3 3 4.00
3 .0 0 3.00
3 .0 0 4.00
3 .0 0 3.33
3 .0 0 3.33
3 .3 3 3.00
3.00 4.00
3 .3 3 3.00
3.00
3.00
2.66
3.33
3.33
4.00
4.00
3.33
3.33
4.00
3.33
3.33
4.00
3.66
3.33
3.66
3.66
3.66
4.66
3.66
.518
.365
3.12 3.33 3.55
.5 8
.40
.40
.13
.1 3
.09
.09
.22
.13
.13
1.69
.70
76
96
2.66
1.66
1.33
2.66
2.33
3.00
3 .00
3.00
3.00
3.00
2.33
2.66
2.33
2.66
2.00
2.66
2.66
2.66
2.66
3.00
2.56
.45
.10
2.66 2.33
1.33 1.33
1.66 2.66
2.00 3 .00
2.00 3.00
3.00 2.66
2.33 2.66
3.00 2.66
2.33 1.33
3.00 2.66
2 . 53 3.00
2.66 2.3 3
3.00 3.00
2.66 2.66
2.66 3.00
2.66 3.00
2.66 3.00
2.33 2.66
2.00 3.33
2. 66 3.00
3.00
2.00
2.33
4.00
3.00
4.00
3.66
3.00
2.66
3.66
2.6 6
3.66
3.33
3.33
3.00
4.00
3.66
3.66
5.00
4.00
.528
.528
2.45 2.66 3.38
.52
.69
.43
.10
.12
.16
-.1 1
.72
-.10
.14
-1.10
5.14
86
100-
FIEXIBILITY
C ontrol
Experim ental
Group
Group I I
PT
ET
PT
ET
(10) (11) (12) (13)
2.00 1.66 2.66
2.33 2.33 3.00
2 .00 2.00 3.33
2.33 2 .33 2.66
2.00 2.00 3.00
2.00 2.33 3.00
2.33 2.33 3.00
3.00 2.66 2.66
2.66 2.33 2.00
2.33 2.6 6 2.66
1.66 2 .66 2.33
2.66 2. 66 2.00
2.33 2.6 6 3.00
2.00 2.00 2.66
2.00 2.66 3.00
2.33 2 .00 3.00
2.66 3 .3 3 3.33
2.33 1.66 2.33
2.66 2.33 3.33
3.00 3.00 3.33
2.33
.35
.08
3.00
2 .33
3.33
3.33
3.00
4.33
4.00
3.00
3,66
3,66
2.66
3.33
3.66
3.00
3.00
3.66
3.33
3.00
4.00
3.33
.528
.334
2.38 2.81 3.33
.47
.41
.42
.09
. 10
.11
.05
.52
.09
.11
.56
4.73
71
100-
This group had no in s tr u c tio n in speech f o r fo u r months betw een p r e - t e s t
and e n d - te s t.
** This group stu d ie d dram atic m a te ria ls and ex p ressio n f o r fo u r months between
p r e - t e s t and e n d - te s t.
*, PT — p r e - t e s t
** ET — e n d - te s t
TABIE X
Mean I n d iv id u a l R a t in g s o f Tw enty S tu d e n ts i n E x p e r im e n ta l Group I I
and Twenty S tu d e n ts i n C o n tr o l Group on P r e - T e s t and E n d -T e st i n
S lo v e n Spaooh Q u a l i t i e s
S p e e o h
MIMA.TICK
Control*
Experimental*
Group II
Group
p$* B T~ PT
ET
(14) (15) (16) (17) (18)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
29
r
M
SD
<fk
2.33
2.33
2.66
2.33
1.66
2.33
2.33
3.00
2.66
2.66
1.66
2.66
2.33
2.33
1.66
2.33
3.00
2.33
2.33
2.66
2.38
.37
.08
D
fb
CR
Chanoes
$
*.
jUi
2.33
2.33
3.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.66
3.00
2.66
2.66
2.00
3.00
2.66
2.66
2.00
2.66
2.66
2.00
2.33
2.66
3.00
2.66
3.33
2.66
2.66
3.66
3.00
2.66
2.66
2.66
2.66
2.00
4.00
2.66
3.00
3.00
3.00
2.66
3.66
3.00
3.00
2.66
3.00
3.33
3.00
4.00
4.00
2.66
3.66
4.00
3.00
3.33
4.00
2.66
3.00
4.00
3.33
2.66
4.00
3.33
.821
.548
2.46 2.93 3.33
.37
•45
.51
.08
.10
.12
.08
.40
.05
.11
1.60
3.64
94
100-
Q u a l i t i e s
ENUNCIATION
Control
Experimental
Group
Group II
PT
ET
PT
ET
(19) (20) (21) (22)
1.33
1.66
1.66
2.66
2.66
2.66
2.66
3.00
3.00
2.66
2.33
2.33
3.00
3.33
2.66
3.00
2.33
2.66
2.33
3.33
2.56
.49
.11
1.33
1.66
2.00
2.66
2.33
2.66
2.33
2.66
2.66
2.66
3.00
2.33
2.66
3.00
2.66
2.66
2.33
2.66
2.33
3.33
2.66
1.66
3.00
3.00
2.66
3.00
3.00
3.00
2.00
3.33
2.33
2.66
3.66
2.33
2.33
3.00
3.00
2.33
3.66
3.66
3.00
2.00
3.33
3.66
3.00
3.66
4.00
3.00
3.00
4.00
2.66
3.33
3.66
3.33
3.00
3.66
3.00
3.66
4.00
4.00
.804
.765
2.50 2.31 3.30
.41
.67
.36
.08
.09
.13
-.0 6
.49
-.07
.09
-.8 6
5.69
80
100-
PRONUNCIATION
Control
Experimental
Group
Group II
ET
PT
PT
ET
(23) (24) (25) (26)
1.33
2.00
1.66
2.66
2.66
2.66
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
2.66
2.00
3.00
3.00
2.66
3.00
3.00
2.66
2.66
3.00
2.63
.42
.10
1.33
2.00
2.00
2.33
2.33
2.33
2.66
3.33
2.66
3.33
3.00
2.33
2.66
3.00
2.66
3.00
2.66
2.66
2.33
3.00
2.66
2.00
2.66
3.00
2.66
3.00
2.66
2.66
2.33
3.33
1.66
2.66
3.33
2.66
2.00
3.00
3.33
2.66
4.00
2.66
3.00
1.66
3e33
3.66
3.00
3.66
4.00
3.00
3.33
4.00
2.33
3.33
4.00
3.33
2.33
3.66
3.33
3.33
4.33
2.66
.814
.833
2.58 2.75 3.31
.43
.56
.46
.11
.10
.14
-.0 5
.56
.08
-.0 5
-1.00
7.00
88
-00 -
This group had no in stru otion in speeoh for four months between p r e -te st
and e n d -test.
This group studied dramatic m aterials and expression for four months between
p r e -te st and e n d -te st.
PT — p r e -te st
ET — end-test
-
65-
showed no improvement o r r e t r o g r e s s i o n , one r e t r o g r e s s e d ,
and th e rem a in in g tw e lv e im proved.
The a v e ra g e im prove­
ment was .4 0 and th e C r i t i o a l R a tio 3 .6 4 .
In E n u n c ia tio n (T a b le X ) , th r e e s tu d e n ts showed
no change in s c o r e and a l l th e o t h e r s , s e v e n te e n ,
im proved.
The a v e ra g e im provem ent was .4 9 w ith a
C r i t i c a l R a tio o f 5 .6 9 .
In P r o n u n c ia tio n (T a b le X ) , one s tu d e n t showed
no c h a n g e , one r e t r o g r e s s e d , and e ig h t e e n im proved.
The a v e ra g e im provem ent was .5 6 w ith a C r i t i c a l R a tio
o f 7 .0 0 .
In F lu e n c y (T a b le X I, page 6 6 ) , t h i s group had
f i v e s t u d e n t s whose s c o r e s d id n o t c h a n g e , th r e e who
r e t r o g r e s s e d , and tw e lv e who im proved .
The a v e ra g e
im provement was .2 2 w ith a low C r i t i c a l R a tio o f 1 .8 3 .
In Rhythm (T a b le X I ) , f i v e s t u d e n t s showed no
c h a n g e , two r e t r o g r e s s e d , and t h i r t e e n im proved.
The
a v e ra g e improvement was .4 6 w ith a C r i t i o a l R a tio o f
3 .2 9 .
In V a r ie t y and R ate (T a b le X I ) , two s tu d e n ts
showed no c h a n g e , two r e t r o g r e s s e d , and s i x t e e n
im proved.
A verage im provem ent was .5 0 w ith a C r i t i c a l
R a tio o f 5 .0 0 .
In N a tu r a ln e s s (T a b le X I I , page 6 7 ) , s i x s t u d e n t s
-
66
“
TABLE XI
Mean Individual Ratings of Twenty Students in Experimental Group II
and Twenty Students in Control Group on Pre-Test and End-Test in
Eleven Speeoh Q ualities
Sp e e o h
Stu­
dents
Q u a l i t i e s
RHYTHM
FLUENCY
Experimental
Control*
Experimental** Control
Group
Group II
Group
Group II
PI± ET^ PT
ET
PT
ET
PT
ET
(32) (33) (34) (35)
(27)(28) (29) (30) (31)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
r
M
SD
2.33
2.00
2.66
2.66
2.33
2.00
2.33
3.00
2.66
2.33
2.00
2.33
2.33
2.00
1.66
2.33
3.00
2.33
2.66
2.66
2.38
.34
.08
CR
Chances
*
1.33
2.33
2.33
2.00
2.33
2.66
2.66
2.33
2.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
2.66
3.00
2.00
2.66
3.00
2.00
2.00
2.66
2.66
3.00
3.33
3.00
2.66
3.66
3.00
2.66
2.66
3.33
2.00
2.00
3.33
2.66
1.66
3.66
3.33
2.66
3.66
3.33
2.66
2.00
3.33
3.00
2.66
3.33
4.00
3.90
3.66
3.6 6
2.66
3.33
3.66
2.00
2.00
3.66
3.66
3.00
4.33
4.00
.697
.880
2.45 2.96 3.18
.67
.43
.18
.15
.10
.04
.07
.22
.05
.12
1.20
1.83
88
96
2.00
2.00
2.33
2.33
2.33
2.00
2.00
2.66
2.66
2.33
2.00
2.33
2.33
2.33
2.00
2.33
2.66
2.33
2.33
3.00
2.31
.30
.07
1.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.33
2.00
2.33
2.33
2.66
3.00
2.66
2.33
2.33
3.00
2.66
2.33
2.66
2.00
2.00
3.00
2.33
2.66
2.66
2.66
2.66
3.00
2.33
2.66
2.33
3.00
2.33
2.00
3.00
2.66
2.00
3.00
3.00
2.66
3.66
3.00
2.66
2.33
3.33
3.33
2.66
3.33
3.66
3.00
3.33
3.66
2.66
3.66
3.33
2.33
2.00
4.00
3.00
2.66
4.66
3.00
.467
.394
2.32 2.67 3.13
.52
.43
.56
.12
.10
.13
.46
.01
.11
.14
3.29
.09
10053
VARIETY-RATE
Control
Experimental
Group
Group II
PT
ET
PT
ET
(36) (37) (38) (39)
2.33
2.00
2.00
2.66
2.00
2.00
2.33
2.66
2.66
2.66
2.00
2.33
2.33
2.00
2.00
2.33
2.66
2.33
2.33
3.00
2.33
.30
.07
1.33 2.33
2.33 3.00
2.00 3.00
2.33 2.66
2.33 3.00
2.00 3.00
2.33 2.00
2.00 2.33
2.33 2.33
3.00 3.00
3.00 2. 00
2.33 2.00
2.33 2.66
3.00 3.00
3.00 2.33
2.33 3.00
2.66 2.66
2.00 2.66
2.00 3.33
2.66 3»00
3.00
2.00
3.00
3.33
3.00
3.66
3.33
3.00
3.33
3.66
2.66
3.00
3.33
2.33
3.00
3.66
3.33
3.00
4.33
3.33
.271
.477
2.36 2.66 3.16
.44
.41
.50
.09
.11
.11
.03
.50
.11
.10
.27
5.00
61
100-
This group had no instruction in speeoh fo r four months between p r e -te st
and en d -test.
** This group studied dramatic m aterials and expression fo r four months between
p r e -te st and e n d -te st.
* PT — pne-test
** ET — end-test
-
67-
TABLS X II
Mean I n d i v id u a l R a tin g s o f Twenty S tu d e n ts i n E x p e r im e n ta l Group I I
and Twenty S tu d e n ts i n C o n tr o l Group on P r e - T e s t and E n d -T e st i n
E le v e n S p eech Q u a l i t i e s
S p e e oh
S tu ­
d e n ts
NATURALNESS
C ontrol*
Experim ental**
Group
Group I I
PGj*
ET-££ PT
ET
(40) (41)
(42)
(43)
(44)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
r
M
SD
2a 00
2e00
2a3S
2.33
2«33
2.00
3,00
3.00
2.66
3.00
2.00
2.33
2.33
2.33
2.00
2.66
3.00
2.33
2.66
3.33
2.48
.40
.09
D
<rh
CR
fJmncfis.___
*
2.33
2.33
2.33
2.33
2.33
2.33
2.33
3.00
2.33
3.00
3.00
2.66
2.66
3.33
2.33
2.66
2.33
2.00
2.00
3.00
.538
2.53
.36
.08
•05
.08
.63
3.00
3.00
3.33
3.00
3.00
3.00
2.66
2.66
2.00
3.00
2.33
2.66
3.00
3*00
2.33
3.00
3.00
3.00
4.00
3.33
2.92
.36
.08
3.00
2.33
3.33
3.66
3.00
3.66
3.66
3.00
3.33
3.66
2.66
3.66
3 . 33
3.00
3.00
4.00
3.33
3.00
4.66
3.33
.375
3.34
.41
.09
.42
.09
4.65
Qu a 1 i t ic e
GENERAL
C ontrol
Group
PT
ET
(45)
(46)
IMPRESSION
E xperim ental
Group I I
PT
ET
(47)
(48)
2.00
1.33
2.00
2.33
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.33
2.00
2.33
2.00
2.00
2.66
2.33
3.00
3.00
2.66
2.33
2.66
3.00
3.00
2.00
2.33
2.33
2.33
2.33
2.33
3.00
2.00
2.66
2.00
2.33
2.66
2.66
2.00
2.33
2.66 • 2.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
2.66
3.33
3.00
3.00
3.00
2.66
2.66
2.00
3.00
2.00
2.00
3.00
2.66
2.33
3.00
3.00
2.66
4.00
3,00
2.38
.33
.07
.375
2.36
.48
.11
-.0 2
-.11
6 6 - 18
5.00
1.66
3.33
3.66
3.00
3.66
4.00
3.00
3.33
3,66
2.66
3.66
3.33
2.66
3.00
4.00
3.33
3.00
5.00
3.66
.477
3.33
.64
.15
.53
.15
io o 3’ 53
2.80
.63
.14
This group had no i n s tr u c tio n in speech f o r fo u r months between
p r e - t e s t and e n d - t e s t ,
** This group s tu d ie d dram atic m a te ria ls and e x p ressio n f o r four months
betw een p r e - t e s t and e n d - t e s t.
&
PT — p r e - t e s t
ET — e n d - te s t
-6 8
showed no c h a n g e, one r e t r o g r e s s e d , and t h i r t e e n im proved.
A verage improvem ent was .4 2 w ith a C r i t i c a l R a tio o f 4 .6 5 .
In G en eral Im p r e ss io n (T a b le X I I ) , fo u r s t u d e n ts
showed no c h a n g e, one r e t r o g r e s s e d , and f i f t e e n
im proved.
The a v e r a g e improvement was .5 3 w ith a C r i t i c a l R a tio o f
3 . 53 .
To sum m arize, t h e n , th e D ram atic M a te r ia ls Group,
t h e r e f o r e , showed im provem ent a s a group in e v e r y q u a l it y
t e s t e d , and t h i s improvem ent was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t
f o r a l l q u a l i t i e s e x c e p t A u d i b i l i t y and F lu e n c y . where th e
C r i t i o a l R a tio s were 1 .6 9 and 1 .8 3 , r e s p e c t i v e l y .
The
g r e a t e s t im provem ent was made in P le a s in g Q u a lit y .
The P r o se Group
The r e s u l t s f o r Group I I I , whose i n s t r u c t i o n a l
medium was p r o s e , a re g iv e n in T a b le s X III th ro u g h XVI.
The f o llo w in g r e p r e s e n t s an a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e d a ta .
In A u d i b i l it y (T a b le X I I I , page 6 9 ) , s i x s tu d e n ts
o f t h i s group showed no change in s c o r e , fo u r r e t r o ­
g r e s s e d , and te n im proved.
The a v e ra g e improvement was
.1 0 w ith a low C r i t i c a l R a tio o f 1 .0 0 .
In P le a s in g Q u a lity (T a b le X I I I ) , fo u r s tu d e n ts
showed no c h a n g e, none r e t r o g r e s s e d , and s i x t e e n
im proved.
The a v era g e improvem ent was .8 5 w ith a
h ig h C r i t i o a l R a tio o f 5 .3 1 .
-6 9 -
TABLE X I I I
Mean I n d iv id u a l R a tin g s o f Twenty S tu d e n ts i n E x p e r im e n ta l Group I I I
and Twenty S tu d e n ts in C o n tr o l Group on P r e - T e s t and E n d -T est i n
E le v e n Speech Q u a li t ie s
Students
(1)
Q u a l i t i e s
AUDIBILITY
PLEASING QUALITY
Control*
Experimental** Control
Experimental
Group
Group III
Group
Group III
ET
PT
ET
PT
ET
PT* ET** PT
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(3)
(2)
FLEXIBILITY
Control
Experimental
Group III
Group
PT
ET
PT
ET
(10) (11) (12) (13)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
2.66
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.33
3.00
3.66
3.33
3.00
3.00
3.33
3.00
2.00
3.00
2.66
3.00
3.33
3.33
2.00
2.33
2.00
2.33
2.00
2.00
2.33
3.00
2.66
2.33
1.66
2.66
2.33
2.00
2.00
2.33
2.6 6
2.33
2.66
3.00
r
M
SD
&k
D
db
CR
Spe e c h
3.03
.35
.08
Chanoes
*
2.66 3.33 3.33
3.33 4.00 4.00
3.00 3.33 3.33
3.33 4.00 4.00
3.00 4.00 4.00
3.00 3.66 4.00
3.66 4.00 3.33
3.00 3.66 3.00
3.00 3.66 4.00
3.33 4.00 3.33
3.00 3.00 4.00
3.00 3.66 4.00
3.33 3.66 4.00
3.00 4.00 4.00
3.00 4,00 4.66
3.00 3.66 4.00
3.00 4.00 3.33
3.33 3.33 4.00
3.00 3.66 4.0p
3.33 4.00 4.33
.518
.507
3.12 3.73 3.83
.58
.30
.48
.13
.07
.11
.09
.10
.13
.10
.70
1.00
76
84
2.66
1.66
1.33
2.66
2.33
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
2.33
2.66
2.33
2.66
2.00
2.66
2.66
3.00
2.66
3.00
2.56
.45
.10
2.66
1.33
1.66
2.00
2.00
3.00
2.33
3.00
2.33
3.00
2.33
2.66
3.00
2.66
2.66
2.66
2.66
3.33
2.00
2.66
2.33 3.00
3.00 3.00
2.33 3.66
3.00 3.66
3.00 3.33
2.66 3.66
2.33 2.66
1.66 1.66
2.33 4.33
3.00 3.00
1.00 2.66
2.33 3.66
3.00 3.66
3.00 3.66
3.66 4.66
2.00 3.00
3.66 3.66
3.33 4.00
2.33 3.00
3.00 4.00
.528
.466
2.45 2.54 3.39
.71
.66
.43
.15
.10
.16
.85
-.1 1
-.1 0
.16
-1.10
5.31
86
100-
1.66
2.33
2.00
2.33
2.00
2.33
2.33
2.66
2.33
2.66
2.66
2.66
2.66
2.00
2.66
2.00
3.33
1.66
2.33
3.00
2.66
3.00
2.33
3.33
3.33
2.66
3.00
2.66
3.00
3.33
2.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
4.00
2.00
4.00
2.33
3.00
3.33
3.33
3.00
3.00
3.33
3.33
3.00
3.33
2.33
3.00
3.33
3.00
3.33
3.33
4.00
4.66
3.00
4.00
3.33
3.00
3.33
.528
.927
2.38
2.95 3.29
2.33
.52
.35
.41
.41
•09
.08
.09
.12
.05
.34
.09
.14
.56
2.43
71
99.3
This group had no instruction in speech for four months between p re-test
and en d -test.
** This group studied prose for four months between p re-test and en d -test.
*, PT — p re-test
** ET — end-test
-7 0 -
In F l e x i b i l i t y (T a b le X I I I ) , e i g h t s t u d e n ts
showed no ch a n g e, one r e t r o g r e s s e d , and e le v e n im proved .
The a v e ra g e improvement was .3 4 w ith a C r i t i c a l R a tio
o f 2 .4 3 .
In A n im ation (T a b le XIV, page 7 1 ) , s i x s tu d e n ts
showed no change in s c o r e , th r e e r e t r o g r e s s e d , and
e le v e n im proved.
The a v e r a g e improvement was .1 4 w ith
a C r i t i o a l R a tio o f 1 .4 0 .
In E n u n c ia tio n (T a b le X IV ), s i x s t u d e n t s showed
no c h a n g e , fo u r r e t r o g r e s s e d , and t e n im proved.
A verage
im provement was .2 8 w ith a C r i t i c a l R a tio o f 1 .7 3 .
In P r o n u n c ia tio n (T a b le X IV ), s i x s tu d e n ts showed
no c h a n g e , fo u r r e t r o g r e s s e d , and t e n im proved.
A verage
im provem ent was .3 9 w ith a C r i t i o a l R a tio o f 2 .6 0 .
In F lu en cy (T a b le XV, page 7 2 ) , s i x s t u d e n t s
showed no c h a n g e, fo u r r e t r o g r e s s e d , and te n im proved.
A verage improvement was .3 8 w ith a C r i t i c a l R a tio o f
3 .1 7 .
In Rhythm (T a b le XV), s i x s t u d e n t s showed no
change in s c o r e , th r e e r e t r o g r e s s e d , and e le v e n
im proved.
The a v era g e im provem ent was .3 7 w ith a
C r i t i c a l R a tio o f 3 .0 8 .
In V a r ie ty and R ate (T a b le XV), fo u r s tu d e n ts
showed no c h a n g e, fo u r r e t r o g r e s s e d , and tw e lv e im proved.
-71-
TABIE XIV
Mean I n d iv id u a l R a tin g s o f Twenty S tu d e n ts i n E x p er im e n ta l Group I I I
and Twenty S tu d e n ts in C o n tro l Group on P r e -T e s t and E n d -T e st in
E le v e n Speech Q u a li t ie s
Spee c
Stu- _
dents
ANIMATION
Experimental**
Control*
Group III
Group
PT± ET^ PT
ET
(14) (15) (16) (17) (18)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
r
M
SD
2«33
2.33
2.66
2.33
1.66
2.33
2.33
3.00
2.66
2.66
1.66
2.66
2.33
2.33
1.66
2.33
3.00
2.33
2.33
2.66
2.38
.37
.08
D
CR
Chances
*
2.33
2.33
3.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.66
3.00
2.66
2.66
2.00
3.00
2.66
2.66
2.00
2.66
2.66
2.00
2.33
2.66
3.00
3.33
3.33
3.33
3.33
2.66
3.33
2.66
2.66
3.33
2.33
3.00
3.00
3.33
3.33
3.00
3.33
2.66
3.00
3.00
.821
2.46 3.04
.38
.36
.08
.08
.05
1.60
94
3.33
3.00
3.00
3.33
3.33
2.66
3.00
2.33
3.00
2.66
2.66
3.66
3.33
3.66
4. 33
3.00
3.33
3.66
3.00
3.33
.416
3.18
.44
.10
.14
.10
1.40
92
h
Q u a l i t i e s
ENUNCIATION
Control
Experimental
Group
Group III
ET
ET
PT
PT
(19) (20) (21) (22)
PRONUNCIATION
Control
Experimental
Group III
Group
ET
PT
ET
PT
(23) (24) (26) (26)
1.33
1.66
1.66
2.66
2.66
2.66
2.66
3.00
3.00
2.66
2.33
2.33
3.00
3.33
2.66
3.00
2.33
2.66
2.33
3.33
1.33
2.00
1.66
2.66
2.66
2.66
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
2.66
2.00
3.00
3.00
2.66
3.00
3.00
2.66
2.66
3.00
2.56
.49
.11
1.33
1.66
2.00
2.66
2.33
2.66
2.33
2.66
2.66
2.66
3.00
2.33
2.66
3.60
2.66
2.66
2,33
2.66
2.33
3.33
3.00
5.33
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.33
3.00
2.33
3.00
3.66
3.66
3.66
2.33
3.66
2.33
3.33
3.00
3.33
3.00
3.66
3.66
3.00
2.66
3.00
2.00
3.00
3.00
3.33
3.66
3.66
3.66
4.66
3.00
4.00
3.66
3.33
4.00
.804
.405
2.50 3.08 3.36
.59
.41
.58
.09
.14
.13
-.0 6
.28
-.07
.15
-.86
1.73
80
96
2.63
.42
.10
1.33
2.00
2.00
2.33
2.33
2.33
2.66
3.33
2.66
3.00
3.00
2.33
2.66
3.00
2.66
3.00
2.66
2.66
2.33
3.00
3.33 3.33
3.00 3.00
3.00 4.00
3.00 3.66
3.33 3.00
3.00 2.66
3.33 3.33
3.00 2.33
3.33 3.00
3.00 3.00
2.33 3.6 6
2.66 3.33
3.00 3.66
3.66 3.66
3.66 4.66
2.00 3.00
3.33 4.00
2.33 4.00
3.00 3.00
3.00 4.00
.209
.833
2.58 3.02 3.41
.58
.56
.37
.08
.13
.11
-.06
.39
-.0 5
.15
-1.20
2.60
88
99.5
This group had no instruction in speech for four months between p r e -te st
and end-testo
** This group studied prose for four months between p re-test and end-test.
.* PT — p r e -te st
Afc ET — en d-test
-72-
IABLE XV
Mean Individual Ratings of Twenty Students in Experimental Group III
and Twenty Students in Control Group on Pre-Test and End-Test in
Eleven Speech Q ualities
Speech
Q u a l i t i e s
FLUENCY
RHYTHM
Control*
Experimental** Control
Experimental
Group
Group III
Group III
Group
pt *l ET-22. PT
PT
ET
ET
PT
ET
(27) (28) (29) (30) (31)
(32) (33) (34) (35)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
r
M
SD
<fk
2.33
2.00
2.66
2.66
2.33
2.00
2.33
3.00
2.66
2.33
2.00
2.33
2.33
2.00
1.66
2.33
3.00
2.33
2.66
2.66
2.38
.34
•08
D
(ft
CR
Chanoes
*
1.33 2.66 3.33
2.33 3.33 3.00
2»33 3.00 3.66
2.00 3.33 3.00
2.33 3.33 3.33
2.66 2.00 2.00
2.66 3.33 3.33
2.33 2.66 2.66
2.00 3.00 3.00
3.00 2.66 2.66
3.00 2.00 2.66
3.00 1.66 3.33
2.66 3.00 3.66
3.00 3.00 4.00
2.00 3.00 4.66
2.66 2.66 3.00
3.00 3.33 4.00
2.00 3.00 4.00
2.00 3.00 2.66
2.66 3.66 3.33
.477
•880
2.45 2.88 3.26
.43
.44
.63
.10
.10
.14
.07
.38
.05
.12
1.20
3.17
80
100-
2.00
2.00
2.33
2.33
2.33
2.00
2.00
2.66
2.66
2.33
2.00
2.33
2.33
2.33
2.00
2.33
2.66
2.33
2.33
3.00
2.31
.30
.07
1.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.33
2.00
2.33
2.33
2.66
3.00
2.66
2.33
2.33
3.00
2.66
2.33
2.66
2.00
2.00
3.00
2.66
2.66
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.33
2.66
3.00
3.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
3.00
3.66
2.66
3.00
2.00
2.66
2.66
3.00
2.66
3.00
3.66
3.00
2.66
3.00
2.66
3.00
2.33
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.66
4.33
3 .00
4.00
3.33
2.66
3.33
.467
.042
2.32 2.74 3.11
.49
e 52
.49
.12
.11
.11
.01
.37
.11
.12
.09
3.08
53
100-
VARIETY-RATE
Control
Experimental
Group
Group III
ET
PT
PT
ET
(36) (37) (38) (39)
2.33
2.00
2.00
2. 66
2.00
2.00
2.33
2.66
2.66
2.66
2.00
2.33
2.33
2.00
2.00
2.33
2.66
2.33
2.33
3.00
2.33
.30
.07
1.33
2.33
2.00
2.33
2.33
2.00
2.33
2.00
2.33
3.00
3.00
2.33
2.33
3.00
3.00
2.33
2.66
2.00
2.00
2.66
2.66
3.00
2.33
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.33
2.66
3.33
3.33
2.00
2.00
2.00
3.00
3.66
2.33
3.00
2.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
2.66
2.66
3.33
3.00
2.66
3.33
2.66
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.33
3.00
3.66
4.66
3.00
4.00
4.00
3.00
4.00
.271
.312
2.36 2*78 3.26
.44
.50
.49
• 11
.11
.11
.03
.47
.11
.15
.27
3.13
61
100-
This group had no instruction in speech for four months between p r e -te st
and en d -test.
** This group studied prose for four months between p r e -te st and e n d -te st.
PT - - p re-test
ET — end-test
-7 3
A verage im provem ent was .4 7 and th e C r i t i c a l R a tio 3 .1 3 .
In N a tu r a ln e s s (T a b le XVI, page 7 4 ) , f i v e
s t u d e n ts showed n e i t h e r r e t r o g r e s s i o n nor im provem ent,
t h r e e r e t r o g r e s s e d , and t w e lv e im proved .
The a v era g e
im provement was .3 7 w ith a C r i t i c a l R a tio o f 3 .0 8 .
In G en eral Im p r e s s io n (T a b le X V I), f i v e s t u d e n t s
showed no c h a n g e , th r e e r e t r o g r e s s e d , and tw e lv e
im proved.
The a v e r a g e im provem ent was .4 2 w ith a
C r i t i c a l R a tio o f 3 .5 0 .
The P ro se Group a s a w hole showed improvement in
a l l q u a l i t i e s t e s t e d , th e im provem ent b e in g h ig h ly
s i g n i f i c a n t in a l l c a s e s e x c e p t A u d i b i l i t y , F l e x i b i l i t y ,
A n im a tio n , E n u n c ia t io n . and P r o n u n c ia t io n , in w hich th e
C r i t i c a l R a t io s w ere l e s s th a n 3 .0 0 .
The g r e a t e s t
im provem ent was made in P le a s in g Q u a l i t y , th e l e a s t
im provem ent in A u d i b i l i t y and A n im a tio n .
The C o n v e r sa tio n Group
The r e s u l t s f o r Group IV , whose i n s t r u c t i o n a l
medium was c o n v e r s a t io n , a r e g iv e n in T a b le s XVII
th rou gh XX.
In A u d i b i l i t y (T a b le X V II, p age 7 5 ) , fo u r
s t u d e n t s o f t h i s group showed no change in t h e i r
s c o r e s , two r e t r o g r e s s e d , and f o u r t e e n im proved .
The a v e r a g e im provem ent was .3 7 w ith a C r i t i c a l R a tio
- 74-
TABLB XVI
Mean Individual Ratings of Twenty Students in Experimental Group III
and Twenty Students in Control Group on Pre&Test and End-Test in
Eleven Speeoh Q ualities
S p e e o h
Stu- _
dents”
NATURALNESS
Control*
Experimental**
Group III
Group
ET** PT
PT±
ET
(44)
(43)
(42)
(40) (41)
1
2
5
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
r
M
SD
<fk
2.00
2.00
2.33
2.33
2.33
2.00
3.00
3.00
2.66
3.00
2.00
2.33
2.33
2.33
2.00
2. 66
3.00
2.33
2.66
3.33
2. 48
.40
.09
0
<fb
CR
Chanoes
*
2.33
2.33
2.33
2.33
2.33
2.33
2.33
3.00
2.33
3.00
3.00
2.66
2.66
3.33
2.33
2.66
2.33
2.00
2.00
3.00
.538
2.53
.36
.08
.05
.08
.63
73
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.33
3.00
3.33
3.00
2.33
2.33
3.00
3.00
3.66
2.66
3.66
2.66
3.00
3.00
2.99
.42
.10
3.33
3.00
3.33
3.66
3.00
2.66
3.33
2.66
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.33
3.66
3.66
4.66
3.00
4.00
4.00
3.00
4.00
.354
3.36
.53
.12
.37
.12
3.08
100-
Q u a l i t i e s
GENERAL
Control
Group
PT
ET
(45)
(46)
IMPRESSION
Experimental
Group III
PT
ET
(47)
(48)
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.33
2.33
2.00
2.66
2.00
2.66
2. 66
2.00
2.33
2.33
2.33
2.00
2.33
2.66
2.33
2.66
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.33
3.00
3.33
3.00
2.00
2.33
3.00
3.00
3.66
2.00
3.66
2.33
3.00
3.00
2.38
• 33
.07
1.33
2.33
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.33
3.00
2.33
3.00
3.00
2.33
2.33
3.00
2.66
2.00
2.66
2.00
2.00
3.00
.375
2.36
.48
.11
-.02
-.11
-.18
56
2.93
.45
.10
3.33
3.00
3.33
3.66
3.00
2.66
3.33
2.33
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.33
3.66
3.66
4.66
3.00
4.00
4.00
3.00
4.00
.415
3.35
.51
.12
.42
.12
3.50
This group had no instruction in speeoh for four months between
p re-test and en d -test.
** This group studied prose for four months between p r e -te st and e n d -te st.
± PT — p re-test
jfcfc ET — end-test
-
75-
TABIE XVII
Mean I n d iv id u a l R a tin g s o f Twenty S tu d e n ts i n E x p erim en ta l Group 17
and Twenty S tu d e n ts i n C o n tr o l Group on P r e -T e s t and E n d -T e st i n
E le v e n S p eech Q u a li t ie s
Speeo
Stu- _
dents"
AUDIBILITY
Exper iment&l**
Control*
Group 17
Group
PT- ET­* * - PT
ET
(4)
(5)
( 1 ) ( 2)
CS)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
2.66
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.33
3.00
3.66
3.33
3.00
3.00
3.33
3.00
2.00
3.00
2.66
3.00
3.33
3.33
r
M
SDdM
D
3.03
.35
.08
<fb
CR
Chances
2.66
3.33
3.00
3.33
3.00
3.00
3.66
3.00
3.00
3.33
3.00
3,00
3.33
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.33
3.00
3.33
2.66
3.33
3,00
3.66
3.66
3.33
3.00
3.33
5.33
3.00
3.33
3.66
3.66
2.66
3.00
3.66
3.66
3.33
3.66
3.33
3.33
4.00
3.66
3,66
4.00
3.66
4,00
3.66
4.00
3.66
3.33
3.33
3.66
3.66
3.33
3.66
3.33
3.66
4.00
4.00
.518
.209
3.12 3.31 3.68
.58
.36
.24
.13
.08
.06
.09
.37
.13
.09
.70
4.11
76
100 -
h
Q u a l i t i e s
PLEASING QUALITY
Control
Experimental
Group
Group 17
PT
ET
PT
ET
(6)
(7) (8) (9)
FLEXIBILITY
Control
Experimental
Group
Group 17
PT
ET
PT
ET
(10) (11) (12) (13)
2.66 2.66
1.66 1.33
1.33 1. o 6
2.66 2.00
2.53 2.00
3.00 3.00
3.00 2.33
3.00 3.00
3.00 2.33
3.00 3.00
2.33 2.33
2.66 2.66
2.33 3.00
2.66 2.66
2.00 2.66
2.66 2.66
2.66 2.66
2.66 2.33
2.66 2.00
3.00 2.66
2.00
2,33
2.00
2.33
2.00
2.00
2.33
3.00
2.66
2.33
1.66
2.66
2,33
2.00
2.00
2.33
2.66
2.33
2.66
3.00
2.56
.45
.10
2.00
2.66
2.00
2.66
2.66
3.00
2.66
2.33
2.66
2.33
2.00
2.66
2.33
2.66
2.00
3.00
2.33
3.00
3.00
3.00
1.66
3.66
3.00
3.00
3.66
3.33
3.33
3.00
3.33
3.00
3.00
3.33
3.00
3.33
2.66
3.33
3.66
3.33
4.00
3.00
.628
2.45 2.55
.43
.33
.1 0
.08
-.11
-.10
- 1 .1 0
86
.648
3.18
.47
.11
.63
.08
7.88
100 -
2.33
.35
.08
1.66 1.66
2.33 3.00
2.00 2.33
2.33 3.00
2.00 3.00
2.33 2.33
2.33 2.66
2.66 3.00
2.33 3.33
2.66 3.33
2.66 3.00
2.66 2.66
2.66 3.0$
2.00 2. 33
2.66 2.66
2.00 2.66
3.33 2.66
1.66 3.00
2.33 3.00
3.00 3.00
2.00
3.33
2.66
3.00
4.00
3.00
4.00
3.00
3.33
3.66
3.00
3.00
3.33
3.00
3.33
3.33
3.66
3.66
4.00
3.00
.528
.508
2.38 2.78 3.26
.39
.51
.41
.09
.09
.11
.05
.48
.09
.10
.56
4.80
71
100 -
This group had no instruction in speeoh for four months between p re-test
and en d -test.
** This group studied practical conversation for four months between p re-test
and en d -test.
X PT — p re-test
XX ET — end-test
NEW YORK UNIVERSITY
SCHOOL OF EDUCATION
•
LIBRARY
e
76 -
o f 4 .1 1 .
In P le a s in g Q u a lity (T a b le X V II), one s tu d e n t
showed no change in s c o r e , one r e t r o g r e s s e d , and e ig h t e e n
im proved.
The g e n e r a l improvement was .6 3 w ith a h ig h
C r i t i c a l R a tio o f 7 .8 8 .
In F l e x i b i l i t y (T ab le X V II), f i v e s tu d e n ts
showed no c h a n g e, none r e t r o g r e s s e d , and f i f t e e n
im proved.
The a v era g e improvement was .4 8 w ith a
C r i t i c a l R a tio o f 4 .8 0 .
In A n im ation (T a b le X V III, page 7 7 ) , se v en
s t u d e n ts showed no change in s c o r e , and t h i r t e e n
im proved, none r e t r o g r e s s e d .
The a v e ra g e improvement
was .4 0 w ith a C r i t i c a l R a tio o f 2 .3 5 .
In E n u n c ia tio n (T ab le X V I I I ), th r e e s t u d e n t s
showed no c h a n g e , one r e t r o g r e s s e d , and s i x t e e n
im proved.
The av era g e improvement was .4 0 and th e
C r i t i c a l R a tio 3 .0 8 .
In P r o n u n c ia tlo n (T a b le X V I I I ), two s tu d e n ts
showed no c h a n g e , one s tu d e n t r e t r o g r e s s e d , and
s e v e n te e n im proved .
A verage improvement was .4 6 w ith
a C r i t i c a l R a tio o f 4 .6 0 .
In F lu en cy (T a b le XIX, page 7 8 ) , f i v e s tu d e n t s
d id n o t change t h e i r s c o r e s , none r e t r o g r e s s e d , and
f i f t e e n im proved.
The a v era g e im provement was .4 9
-77-
TABLE XVIII
Mean I n d iv id u a l R a tin g s o f Twenty S tu d e n ts i n E x p er im e n ta l Group IV
and Twenty S tu d e n ts i n C o n tr o l Group on P r e - T e s t and E n d -T e st in
E le v e n Speeoh Q u a l i t i e s
Students
Q u a l i t i e s
ANIMATION
ENUNCIATION
Control1*1
Experimental** Control
Experimental
Group IV
Group IV
Group
Group
PT* ET2* PT
PT
ET
PT
ET
ET
(14) (15) (16) (17) (18)
(19) (20) (21) (22)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
r
M
SD
Spee oh
2.33
2.33
2.66
2.33
1.66
2.33
2.33
3.00
2.66
2.66
1.66
2.66
2.33
2.33
1.66
2.33
3.00
2.33
2.33
2.66
2.38
.37
.08
D
OR
Chanoes
*
2.33
2.33
3.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.66
3.00
2.66
2.66
2.00
3.00
2.66
2.66
2.00
2.66
2.66
2.00
2.33
2.66
2.00
3.00
2.33
3.00
2.66
2.00
3.33
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.33
2.66
3.00
2.66
3.00
3.00
3.33
3.00
2.33
3.66
2.66
3.00
4.00
3.00
4.00
3.66
3.00
3.33
3.00
3.00
3.33
3.00
3.00
3.66
4.00
3.66
4.00
3.00
.821
.568
2.46 2.91 3.31
.37
.68
.50
.08
.15
.11
.08
.40
.05
.17
1.60
2.35
94
99
1.33
1.66
1.66
2.66
2.66
2.66
2.66
3.00
3.00
2.66
2.33
2.33
3.00
3.33
2.66
3.00
2.33
2.66
2.33
3.33
2.56
.49
.11
1.33
1.66
2.00
2.66
2.33
2.66
2.33
2.66
2.66
2.66
3.00
2.33
2.66
3.00
2.66
2.66
2.33
2.66
2.33
3.33
2.00
3.00
1.66
3.33
3.00
3.00
2.66
3.00
2.33
2.66
3.00
2.33
2.66
3.00
2.66
3.00
2.66
3.00
3.33
2.66
2.33
4.00
2.00
3.00
3.66
3.00
3.66
3.33
3.00
3.33
3.00
3.33
3.00
3.00
3.33
3.66
3.00
3.33
4.00
3.00
.538
.804
2.50 2.75 3.15
.39
.41
.71
.09
.09
.16
-.06
.40
-.07
.13
-.86
3.08
10080
PRONUNCIATICSJ
Control
Experimental
Group IV
Group
ET
PT
ET
PT
(23) (24) (25) (26)
1.33
2.00
1.66
2.66
2.66
2.66
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
2.66
2.00
3.00
3.00
2.66
3.00
3.00
2.66
2.66
3.00
2.63
.42
.10
1.33
2.00
2.00
2.33
2.33
2.33
2.66
3.33
2.66
3.33
3.00
2.03
2.66
3.00
2.66
3.00
2.66
2.66
2.33
3.00
2.33 2.66
3.00 4.00
1.66 2.00
3.33 3.33
3.00 3.66
3.00 3.33
3.00 3.66
3.33 3.00
2.66 3.33
3.00 3.33
3.00 3.33
2.66 3.00
2.66 3.33
3.00 3.33
3.00 3.00
2.33 3.66
3.00 3.66
3.00 4.00
3.33 4.00
3.00 3.00
.833
.426
2.58 2.87 3.33
.46
.29
.47
.06
.11
.11
-.06
.46
-.0 5
.10
■1.20
4.60
88
100-
This group had no instruotion in speeoh for four months between p re-test
and en d -test.
** This group studied p ractical conversation for four months between p re-test
and en d -test.
& PT — pretest
j** ET — end-test
-78-
TABLE XIX
Mean I n d iv id u a l R a tin g s o f Twenty S tu d e n ts i n E x p e r im e n ta l Group IV
and Twenty S tu d e n ts i n C o n tr o l Group on P r e -T e s t and E n d -T est in
E le v e n Speeoh Q u a li t ie s
StuSpeeo
dents"
FLUENCY
Control*
Experimental**
Group
Group IV
prp* Erp*£ py
ET
(27) (28) (29) (30) (31)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
2.33 1.33 2.33 2.33
2.00 2.33 3.00 3.66
2.66 2.33 2.33 2.66
2.66 2.00 3.00 3.00
2.33 2.33 3.33 4.00
2.00 2.66 2.66 3.00
2.33 2.66 3.33 4.00
3.00 2.33 3.00 3.66
2.66 2.00 o .00 3,00
2.33 3.00 3.00 3.00
2.00 3.00 3.00 3.33
2.33 3.00 3.00 3.00
2.33 2.66 3.00 3.33
2.90 3.00 2.66 3.66
1.66 2.00 3.00 3.66
2.33 2.66 2.00 3.33
3.00 3.00 3.00 4.00
2.33 2.00 3.00 3.33
2.66 2.00 3.00 4.00
2.66 2.66 3.00 3.33
r
M
SD
✓m
D
2.38
.34
.08
fb
CR
Chanoes
*
.537
.880
2.45 2.86 3.37
.43
.33
.36
.10
.08
.09
.07
.49
.05
.09
1.20
5.33
88
100-
h
Q u a l i t i e s
RHYTHM
'
Control
Experimental
Group
Group IV
PT
ET
PT
ET
(32) (33) (34) (35)
VARIETY-RATE
Control
Experimental
Group
Group IV
PT
ET
PT
ET
(36) (37) (38) (39)
2.00
2.00
2.33
2.33
2.33
2.00
2.00
2.66
2. 66
2.33
2.00
2.33
2.33
2.33
2.00
2.33
2.66
2.33
2.33
3. QO
2.33
2.00
2.00
2.66
2.00
2.00
2.33
2.66
2.6 6
2.66
2.00
2.33
2.33
2.00
2.00
2.33
2.66
2.33
2.33
3.00
1.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.33
2.00
2.33
2.33
2.66
3.00
2.00
2.33
2.33
3.00
2.66
2.33
2.66
2.00
2.00
3.00
2.33
2.66
2.00
3.00
2.33
2.00
3.00
3.33
3.00
3.00
2.66
2.66
2.66
2.33
3.00
2.33
3.00
3.33
3.00
2.66
2.33
3.33
2.66
3.00
3.33
3.00
3.66
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.66
3.00
3.00
3.33
3.00
3.33
3.66
3.66
3. 66
3.00
.467
.385
2.31 2.32 2.71 3.18
.37
.30
.52
.42
.07
.12
.08
.10
.01
.47
.11
.10
.09
4.70
53
100-
2.33
.30
.07
1.33 1.66
2.33 3.00
2.00 2.00
2.33 3.00
2.33 2.33
2.00 2.33
2.33 3.00
2.00 3.00
2.33 3.00
3.00 3.00
3.00 3.00
2.33 2.66
2.33 2.66
2.00 2.33
3.00 3.00
2.33 2.33
2.66 3.00
2.00 2.33
2.00 3.00
2.66 2.66
2.00
3.33
2.66
3.33
3.66
3.00
3.66
3.33
3.00
3.00
3.33
3.00
3.00
3.33
3.00
3.33
3.66
3.66
3.66
3.00
.271
.568
2.36 2.71 3.20
.45
.44
.54
.10
.11
.12
.03
.49
.11
.10
.27
4.90
61
100-
This group had no instruction in speeoh for four months between p re-test
and end-test.
** This group studied praotioal conversation for four months between p re-test
and end-test.
£ PT — p re-test
*» ET — end-test
-
79 -
w ith a h ig h C r i t i c a l R a tio o f 5 .3 3 .
In Rhythm (T ab le XIX) f i v e s t u d e n t s showed no
ch a n g e , one r e t r o g r e s s e d , and f o u r t e e n improved*
A verage improvement was .4 7 w ith a C r i t i c a l R a tio o f
4 .7 0 .
In V a r ie ty and Rate (T a b le X IX ), t h r e e s t u d e n t s
showed no c h a n g e , none r e t r o g r e s s e d , and s e v e n te e n
im proved.
A verage improvement was .4 9 w ith a C r i t i c a l
R a tio o f 4 .9 0 .
In N a tu r a ln e s s (T a b le XX, p age 8 0 ) , t h r e e
s t u d e n t s showed no ch a n g e, one r e t r o g r e s s e d , and
s i x t e e n im proved.
A verage im provem ent was .4 0 w ith
a C r i t i c a l R a tio o f 5 .7 1 .
In G en eral Im p r e ssio n (T a b le XX), fo u r s t u d e n t s
showed no change in s c o r e s and s i x t e e n im proved.
The
a v e ra g e improvement was .5 1 w ith a h ig h C r i t i c a l R a tio
o f 5 .1 0 .
In su m m arizin g, t h e n , th e C o n v e r s a tio n Group as
a w hole im proved in e v e r y q u a l i t y t e s t e d , th e im p rove­
ment b e in g h ig h ly s i g n i f i c a n t in e v e r y q u a l i t y b u t
A n im a tio n , where th e C r i t i c a l R a tio was 2 .3 5 .
The
g r e a t e s t improvement was made in P le a s in g Q u a l i t y .
and t h e l e a s t in A u d i b i l i t y . A n im ation and E n u n c ia t io n .
-80-
TABLE XX
Mean, Individual Ratings of Twenty StudentB in Experimental Group 17
and Twenty Students in Control Group on Pre-Test and End-Test in
Eleven Speeoh Q ualities
Speeoh.
Stu­
dent)
i
NATURALNESS
Control*
Experimental**
Group
Group 17
PT4
ET44 PT
ET
(40) (41)
(42)
(43)
(44)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
r
M
SD
<%
2.00
2.00
2.33
2.33
2.33
2.00
3.00
3.00
2.66
3.00
2.00
2.33
2. 33
2.33
2.00
2.66
3.00
2.33
2.66
3.33
2.43
.40
•09
D
<fb
CR
Chanoes
*
2.33
2.33
2.33
2.33
2.33
2.33
2.33
3.00
2.33
3.00
3.00
2.66
2.66
3.33
2.33
2.66
2.33
2.00
2.00
3.00
.538
2.53
. 36
.08
.05
.08
.63
73
2.33
3.00
2.33
3.00
3.00
2.33
3.00
3.33
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3®00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.66
3.00
2.95
.30
.07
2.33
3.66
3.00
3.33
4.00
3.00
4.00
3.00
3.00
3.33
3.33
3.00
3.33
3.33
3.33
3.33
3.66
3.66
4.00
3.33
.628
3.35
.39
.09
.40
.07
5.71
100-
Qu a 1 i t i e s
GENERAL
Control
Group
PT
ET
(45)
(46)
IMPRESSION
Experimental
Group 17
PT
ET
(47)
(48)
2.00
2.00
2.00
2,33
2.33
2.00
2.66
3.00
2. 66
2. 66
2.00
2.33
2.33
2.33
2.00
2.33
2.66
2.33
2.66
3.00
2.00
3.00
2.33
3.00
3.00
2.66
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
2.66
3.00
3.00
2.33
3.00
3.00
3.33
3.00
2.38
.33
.07
1.33
2.33
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.33
3.00
2.33
3.00
3.00
2.33
2.33
3.00
2.66
2.00
2.66
2.00
2.00
3.00
.375
2.36
.48
.11
-.02
-.11
-.18
56
2.87
.35
.08
2.33
4.00
2.66
3.00
4.00
3.00
4.00
3.00
3.00
3.66
3.33
3.33
3.66
3.33
3.33
3.66
4.00
3.33
4.00
3.00
.528
3. 38
.49
.11
.51
.10
5.10
100-
This group had no instruction in speeoh for four months between
p re-test and end-test*
** This group studied praotioal conversation for four months between
p r e -te st and en d -test.
*, PT — p re-test
*♦ ET — end-test
81-
The C o n tro l Group
The r e s u l t s f o r th e C o n tro l Group, w hich had no
sp e e c h t r a i n i n g , have b een g iv e n in th e p r e c e d in g T a b les
V th ro u g h XX.
They are summ arized in T ab le XXI (p age 8 2 ) .
In A u d i b i l i t y , e le v e n s t u d e n t s o f t h i s group
showed no change in s c o r e , two r e t r o g r e s s e d , and se v e n
im proved.
There was an a v era g e improvement o f .0 9 w ith
a C r i t i o a l R a tio o f .7 0 .
In P le a s in g Q u a l i t y . t e n showed no c h a n g e, e i g h t
r e t r o g r e s s e d , and o n ly two im proved.
There was a mean
r e t r o g r e s s i o n o f .1 1 w ith a C r i t i c a l R a tio o f 1 .1 0 .
In F l e x i b i l i t y , e i g h t s t u d e n t s showed no c h a n g e,
s i x r e t r o g r e s s e d , and s i x
im proved.
There was a mean
improvement o f .0 5 w ith a C r i t i c a l R a tio o f .5 6 .
In A n im a tio n , f i v e s tu d e n ts rem ained s t a b le in
s c o r e , fo u r r e t r o g r e s s e d , and e le v e n im proved.
There
was a mean improvement o f .0 8 w ith a C r i t i c a l R a tio
o f 1 .6 0 .
In E n u n c ia t io n , te n s tu d e n ts showed no c h a n g e,
e i g h t r e t r o g r e s s e d , and two im proved.
There was an
a v era g e r e t r o g r e s s i o n o f .0 6 w ith a C r i t i c a l R a tio o f
. 86 .
In P r o n u n c ia t io n , s i x s t u d e n t s showed no ohange
in s c o r e , e i g h t r e t r o g r e s s e d , and s i x im proved.
There
TABLE XX I
C r i t i c a l R atio s Betvjeen th e P re -T e st and End-Test of th e Control
Group -with Respect to Speech Q u a litie s
Speech Q u a litie s
pr e _Test
C o n t r o l
End-Test
Gr o u p
D ifference
C r itio a l R atio
Voice
A u d ib ility
P le a sin g Q u ality
F l e x i b i l i ty
Animation
3.03
2.56
2.33
2.38
3.12
2.45
2.38
2.46
.09
-.1 1
.05
.08
.70
-1 .1 0
.56
1.60
D iction
E n u n ciatio n
P ro n u n cia tio n
Fluency
2.56
2.63
2.38
2.50
2.58
2.45
-.0 6
-.0 5
.07
-.8 6
-1 .0 0
1.20
Grouping
Rhythm
2.31
2.32
.01
.09
2.33
2.46
.03
.27
N atu raln ess
2.48
2.53
.05
.63
General Im pression
2.38
2.36
-.0 2
-.1 8
Tempo
V ariety -R ate
-83
was a mean r e t r o g r e s s i o n o f .0 5 w ith a C r i t i c a l R a tio
o f 1 .0 0 .
In F lu e n c y . t h r e e s t u d e n t s rem ained s t a b l e , se v e n
r e t r o g r e s s e d , and t e n im proved.
There was a mean
im provement o f .0 7 w ith a C r i t i c a l R a tio o f 1 .2 0 .
In Rhythm. n in e s tu d e n ts showed no change in
s c o r e s , s i x r e t r o g r e s s e d , and f i v e im proved.
There
was a mean improvement o f .0 1 w ith a C r i t i o a l R a tio
o f .0 9 .
In ¥ a r i e t y and R a te , se v e n s t u d e n t s showed no
ch a n g e, e i g h t r e t r o g r e s s e d , and f i v e im proved.
There
was a mean improvement o f .0 3 w ith a C r i t i c a l R a tio
o f .2 7 .
In N a t u r a ln e s s . s i x s tu d e n ts showed no change
in s c o r e s , s i x r e t r o g r e s s e d , and e i g h t im proved.
The
a v era g e im provem ent was .0 5 w ith a C r i t i c a l R a tio o f
.6 3 .
In G en eral I m p r e s s io n , se v e n s t u d e n t s showed
no c h a n g e , e ig h t s t u d e n t s r e t r o g r e s s e d , and f i v e
im proved.
There was a mean r e t r o g r e s s i o n o f .0 2 w ith
a C r i t i c a l R a tio o f . 1 8 .
To sum m arize, t h e C o n tro l Group in g e n e r a l
showed l i t t l e
change b etw een p r e - t e s t and e n d - t e s t
s c o r e s , im proving a s a w hole in s e v e n o f th e e le v e n
84-
q u a l i t l e s t e s t e d and r e t r o g r e s s in g in
f o u r , b u t w ith
none o f th e ch a n g es show ing C r i t i c a l R a tio s g r e a t e r
than 1 . 6 0 .
The g r e a t e s t change was th e r e t r o g r e s s io n
in P le a s in g d u a l i t y , th e s m a lle s t change th e improvement
in Rhythm.
Summary
I n a n a ly z in g th e r e s u l t s o f th e fo u r E x p erim en ta l
groups and th e C on trol Group, i t has b een found th a t
w h ile th e E xp erim en tal grou p s showed s i g n i f i c a n t
improvement in a l l q u a l i t i e s , th e C o n tro l Group im proved
in se v en q u a l i t i e s and r e t r o g r e s s e d in f o u r , w ith none
o f th e ch a n g es b e in g s t a t i s t i c a l l y
s ig n ific a n t.
The
P o e tr y Group showed th e g r e a t e s t improvement in G en eral
I m p r e s s io n , P le a s in g Q u a l i t y , E n u n c ia tio n and N a t u r a ln e s s ,
and th e l e a s t improvement in A u d i b i l i t y . F l e x i b i l i t y and
A n im a tio n .
The D ram atic M a te r ia ls Group improved m ost
in P le a s in g Q u a lity and l e a s t in A u d i b i l it y and F lu e n c y .
The P r o se Group im proved m ost in P le a s in g Q u a lity and
l e a s t in A u d i b i l it y and A n im a tio n .
The C o n v e r sa tio n
Group showed g r e a t e s t improvement in P le a s in g Q u a lity
and l e a s t in A u d i b i l i t y , A n im a tio n . E n u n c ia tio n and
N a t u r a ln e s s .
The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s e f in d in g s w i l l
be d is c u s s e d in Chapter V I.
CHAPTER V
A COMPARISON OF THE
FOUR EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS
AND THE CONTROL GROUP
Method o f A n a ly s is
In t h i s c h a p te r th e r e s u l t s f o r each o f th e
groups w hich have been a n a ly z e d in C hapter IV w i l l
be compared in term s o f t h e v a r io u s i n s t r u c t i o n a l
media on e a ch o f th e q u a l i t i e s t e s t e d and upon
c o n v e r s a t io n a l v o ic e and sp e e o h in g e n e r a l.
For
p u rp o ses o f e a s y r e f e r e n c e , t h e d ata o f T a b le s V
through XXI are summarized in T ab le XXII (page 86)
which g i v e s th e d i f f e r e n c e s betw een t h e mean p r e ­
t e s t and mean e n d - t e s t r a t i n g s f o r a l l f i v e grou p s
and th e C r i t i o a l R a tio s f o r t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s .
A u d i b i l it y
W hile a l l groups im proved in A u d i b i l i t y , o n ly
two— P o e tr y and C o n v e r sa tio n — showed h ig h ly s i g n i f i c a n t
im provem ent, th e l a t t e r show ing th e g r e a t e s t .
The
r e s u l t s w ith r e g a r d t o t h i s q u a l it y a r e very d o u b t f u l,
how ever, s i n c e a d ju stm e n ts were made o n the r e o o r d in g
machine when a u d i b i l i t y was t o o low f o r ju d gin g o t h e r
q u a litie s .
M oreover, s i n c e t h i s q u a l i t y may have b een
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87
a f f e c t e d in in d iv i d u a l in s t a n c e s by im proper m ic r o ­
phone te c h n iq u e , t o o much w e ig h t sh o u ld n o t be g iv e n
t o th e f in d in g s #
P le a s in g d u a l i t y
A l l th e E x p er im e n ta l grou p s made g r e a t
im provem ent in P le a s in g Q u a lit y .
In d e e d , f o r a l l
e x c e p t th e P o e tr y Group, w h ich made i t s g r e a t e s t
im provem ent in G en eral I m p r e s s io n , th e m ost
s i g n i f i c a n t im provem ents w ere made in t h i s q u a l i t y .
I t i s n o te w o r th y t h a t th e P r o se
Group, w hich in
g e n e r a l d id n o t make a s much p r o g r e s s a s th e o th e r
E x p er im e n ta l g r o u p s , r e v e a le d th e g r e a t e s t im prove­
ment in t h i s q u a l i t y .
The C o n tr o l Group, on th e o th e r
hand, showed i t s g r e a t e s t r e t r o g r e s s i o n in t h i s q u a l i t y .
F le x ib ility
A l l th e E x p er im e n ta l grou p s made s i g n i f i c a n t
im provement in F l e x i b i l i t y .
D ram atic M a te r ia ls made
th e g r e a t e s t improvement and P ro se made th e s m a l l e s t ,
w ith a C r i t i o a l R a tio o f 2 .4 3 .
A lth ou gh th e C o n tro l
Group im proved s l i g h t l y , th e im provem ent was
s ta tis tic a lly
in s ig n ific a n t.
A n im ation
A l l fo u r E x p er im e n ta l grou p s showed improvement
in A n im a tio n .
P o e tr y made th e g r e a t e s t g a in and P ro se
88
th e s m a lle s t — .1 4 w ith a C r i t i c a l R a tio o f o n ly 1 .4 0 .
The C o n tro l Group im proved v e r y s l i g h t l y .
E n u n c ia tio n
The E x p erim en ta l g ro u p s a l l made im provem ents
in E n u n c ia t io n , w ith P ro se th e s m a lle s t-— .2 8 w ith a
C r i t i c a l R a tio o f 1 .7 3 , and P o e tr y th e g r e a t e s t — . 63
and a C r i t i o a l R a tio o f 4 . 5 0 .
The C o n tr o l Group showed
a s l i g h t r e tr o g r e s s io n .
P r o n u n c ia tio n
I 11 P r o n u n c ia tio n a l l fo u r E x p er im e n ta l grou p s
im proved, P o e tr y and D ram atic M a te r ia ls show ing t h e
g r e a t e s t im provem ent and P ro se th e l e a s t .
The C o n tro l
Group showed a s l i g h t r e t r o g r e s s i o n a g a in .
F lu en cy
A l l E x p erim en ta l g rou p s e x c e p t D ram atic M a te r ia ls
made h ig h ly s i g n i f i c a n t im provem ent in F lu e n c y .
The
D ram atic M a te r ia ls Group r e v e a le d an improvement o f .2 2
w ith a C r i t i c a l R a tio o f 1 .8 3 a s compared w ith th e
C r i t i o a l R a tio o f 3 .4 4 b y th e P o e tr y Group.
The
C o n tro l Group made an i n s i g n i f i c a n t im provem ent.
Rhythm
In Rhythm a l l
E x p er im e n ta l grou p s made
s i g n i f i c a n t im provem ent.
P r o se a g a in was th e lo w e s t
w ith .3 7 and P o e tr y the h i g h e s t w ith .5 0 .
The C o n tro l
89
Group made i n s i g n i f i c a n t im provem ent.
V a r ie ty and R ate
A ll E x p er im e n ta l grou p s made n e a r ly e q u a l
and s i g n i f i c a n t improvement in V a r ie ty and R a te .
The C o n tro l Group made an i n s i g n i f i c a n t im provem ent.
N a tu r a ln e s s
In N a tu r a ln e s s a l s o , a l l E x p er im e n ta l groups
made h ig h ly s i g n i f i c a n t im provem ent, P ro se making l e a s t
and P o e tr y m o st.
The C o n tro l Group showed an i n s i g n i ­
f i c a n t im provem ent.
G en eral Im p r e ssio n
The E x p er im e n ta l grou p s made h ig h ly s i g n i f i c a n t
im provem ents.
P o e tr y made d i s t i n c t l y th e b e s t show ing
w ith an im provem ent o f .7 7 ; D ram atic M a te r ia ls and
C o n v e r s a tio n , w ith a v e ra g e im provem ents o f .53 and .6 1
r e s p e c t i v e l y , were a p p r o x im a te ly e q u a l; and P r o s e , w ith
a mean im provem ent o f .4 2 was th e l o w e s t .
The C o n tro l
Group showed a s l i g h t r e t r o g r e s s i o n in G en eral Im p r e ss io n .
I t i s o f i n t e r e s t t o n o te t h a t th e r a t i n g s in
G en eral Im p r e ssio n c o rr esp o n d v e ry w e ll w ith any
summary o f th e r a t i n g s on th e in d iv id u a l q u a l i t i e s .
G en eral I m p r e s s io n , i t w i l l he rem em bered, was a
s e p a r a te r a t i n g , and was n o t d e r iv e d by a v e r a g in g
o th e r r a t i n g s .
N e v e r t h e le s s , i t w i l l be n o te d t h a t
90 -
th e P o e tr y Group, w hich im proved in i t s G en eral
Im p r e ssio n r a t i n g by . 7 7 , showed th e g r e a t e s t
im provement in s i x o f th e t e n o th e r q u a l i t i e s - —
A n im a tio n , E n u n c ia t io n . P r o n u n e ia t io n . F lu e n c y .
Rhythm. and N a t u r a ln e s s .
The P ro se Group w ith a
mean im provem ent in G en era l Im p r e ssio n o f .4 2 , showed
th e l e a s t improvement in e i g h t o f t h e o th e r t e n
q u a lit ie s r a te d , th a t i s ,
in a l l b u t F lu en cy and
P le a s in g Q u a l i t y . and in th e l a t t e r , i t made th e
g r e a t e s t im provem ent.
D ram atic M a te r ia ls and C o n v e r sa tio n w ith
im provem ents in G en eral Im p r e ss io n o f .5 3 and .5 1
r e s p e c t i v e l y , have a b ou t th e same r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s
in r e s p e c t t o th e fo u r grou p s in a summary o f th e
o th e r t e n q u a l i t i e s .
D ram atic M a te r ia ls made th e
g r e a t e s t improvement in F l e x i b i l i t y and V a r ie ty and
R a t e . w h ile C o n v e r sa tio n made more improvement th an
th e th r e e o th e r grou p s in A u d i b i l i t y .
F u rth er Com parisons
A lth ou gh ca re had b een ta k e n , as h a s b een
d e s c r ib e d in C hapter I I I , t o match th e grou p s a s
e q u a lly a s p o s s i b l e a t th e b e g in n in g o f th e
i n v e s t i g a t i o n , no d a ta were a t t h a t tim e a v a i la b l e
f o r com paring t h e i r a b i l i t i e s
in c o n v e r s a t io n a l
-
91 -
sp e e c h and in th e q u a l i t i e s r a te d in t h e c o u r se o f
th e e x p e r im e n t.
A co m p u tation o f th e mean s c o r e s made
hy ea ch o f th e g rou p s on th e p r e - t e s t s in the e le v e n
q u a l i t i e s , h ow ever, y i e l d s th e f o llo w in g means:
Group:
I
P o e tr y
Mean
p r e -te st
s c o r e in
11 q u a l i tie s
II
D ram atic
2 .9 2
2 .8 5
III
P ro se
Mat,____ _
2 .9 7
IV
C onvers a t io n
2 .8 4
V
C o n tro l
_________
2 .4 9
These may be compared w ith th e mean s c o r e s o f th e f i v e
groups on th e p r e - t e s t in G eneral Im p r e ssio n :
Group:
I
II
III
IV
V
Mean
p r e -te st
s c o r e in
G en eral
Im p re ssio n
2 .8 9
2 .8 0
2 .9 3
2 .8 4
2 .4 9
I t i s ap p aren t t h a t th e fo u r E x p erim en ta l grou p s
were rem arkably w e l l m atched a t th e b e g in n in g ,
o p in io n o f th e ju d g e s .
in th e
The low er mean o f th e C o n tro l
Group i s e x p la in e d , o f c o u r s e , by th e f a c t t h a t t h i s group
had r e c e i v e d no sp e e c h t r a in in g a t a l l .
M oreover, a
com p arison o f th e mean p r e - t e s t s c o r e s in th e e le v e n
q u a l i t i e s w ith mean p r e - t e s t s c o r e s in G eneral I m p r e s s io n ,
shows once more how c o n s i s t e n t th e ju d g es w ere.
When th e t o t a l amounts o f improvement made by th e
gro u p s are com puted, e x a c t l y th e same r e l a t i o n s h i p i s
-
92 -
re v e a le d a s h a s b een shown by a com p arison o f im prove­
ment in G en eral Im p r e ss io n .
The t o t a l am ounts o f
im provem ent f o r th e f i v e g ro u p s ( w ith r e t r o g r e s s i o n s
su b tr a c te d ) were:
Group:
I
T o ta l
6 .0 3
Improvement
II
III
IV
V
5 .1 4
4 .1 1
5 .1 0
0 .1 4
A s im ila r r e la tio n s h ip
i s r e v e a le d by a
com p arison o f th e numbers o f s c o r e s t h a t im p roved ,
r e t r o g r e s s e d , and rem ained th e same f o r th e f i v e
g r o u p s.
T hese d a ta a r e:
Group
S c o r e s showing
no change
R e tr o g r e s s io n s
Im provem ents
I
38
21
161
II
44
17
159
III
60
27
133
IV
41
6
173
V
82
71
67
Among in d iv id u a l s t u d e n t s who c o n s i s t e n t l y
r e t r o g r e s s e d , two were in Group I , two in Group I I ,
two in Group I I I , one in Group IV, and fo u r in Group
V.
The s i n g l e stu d e n t show ing th e m ost marked
im provement was in Group I I I .
Summary
In e v e r y q u a l it y t e s t e d a l l fo u r E x p e r im e n ta l
93 -
g ro u p s made s i g n i f i c a n t im provem ents w h ile th e C o n tro l
Group showed no s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e s.
In th e f o llo w in g
c o m p a r iso n s, o n ly th e fo u r E x p er im e n ta l grou p s are
in c lu d e d .
In A u d i b i l i t y , P o e tr y and C o n v e r sa tio n showed
th e g r e a t e s t im provem ent, bu t th e f i n d in g s were mad©
in c o n c lu s iv e by th e r e c o r d in g c ir c u m s ta n c e s .
In P le a s in g Q u a l i t y , P ro se made th e g r e a t e s t
im provem ent, and th e o th e r s were f a i r l y e q u a l.
In F l e x i b i l i t y . D ram atic M a te r ia ls made the
g r e a t e s t im provem ent, P ro se th e l e a s t .
In A n im a tio n , P o e tr y made th e g r e a t e s t im prove­
m en t, P ro se th e l e a s t .
In E n u n c ia t io n , P o e tr y made t h e g r e a t e s t
im provem ent, and P ro se th e s m a l l e s t .
In P r o n u n c ia t io n . P o e tr y made th e g r e a t e s t
g a i n s , and P ro se a g a in th e l e a s t amount o f
im provem ent.
In F lu e n c y , P o e tr y improved m o st, D ram atic
M a te r ia ls l e a s t .
In Rhythm, P o e tr y had th e g r e a t e s t g a i n , P ro se
th e l e a s t .
In V a r ie ty and R a t e , a l l g ro u p s were v ery
n e a r ly e q u a l in im provem ent.
94 -
In N a t u r a ln e s s . P o e tr y made th e g r e a t e s t g a in ,
P ro se th e l e a s t .
In G en eral I m p r e s s io n . th e P o e tr y Group improved
th e m o st, and P ro se th e l e a s t , w ith D ram atic M a te r ia ls
and C o n v e r sa tio n c l o s e l y m atch ed .
The P o e tr y Group showed th e g r e a t e s t improvement
in s i x q u a l i t i e s and G en eral I m p r e s s io n : th e D ram atic
M a te r ia ls Group im proved most among th e fo u r grou p s in
two q u a l i t i e s ; th e P ro se Group su r p a sse d th e o th e r th r e e
grou p s in improvem ent in one q u a l i t y , as d id t h e
C o n v e r sa tio n Group.
A l l fo u r E x p er im e n ta l grou p s were v e ry e v e n ly
m atched in p r e - t e s t s c o r e s .
The t o t a l amounts o f
improvement made, a s w e ll a s th e r e l a t i v e numbers o f
s c o r e s im p ro v in g , r e t r o g r e s s i n g , and rem ain in g th e
same, showed th e P o e tr y Group t o have made th e most
p r o g r e s s and th e P ro se Group th e l e a s t .
CHAPTER VI
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS,
AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
Summary o f Problem and P roced u re
B e fo r e sum m arizing th e f i n d in g s o f t h i s
i n v e s t i g a t i o n and p r e s e n tin g th e c o n c lu s io n s
su g g e ste d , i t
i s in ord er to r e c a l l th e problem s
and m ethods o f p roced u re s t a t e d in e a r l i e r c h a p t e r s .
The pu rp ose o f th e s tu d y , an e v a lu a t io n o f th e
e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f fo u r ty p e s o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l media
in im proving sp e e c h and v o ic e in c o n v e r s a t io n ,
in v o lv e d th e c o n s id e r a t io n o f f i v e s p e c i f i c problem s:
1.
Which o f th e fo u r i n s t r u c t i o n a l media
p ro d u ces th e g r e a t e s t improvement i n th e c o n v e r s a t io n a l
sp ee ch o f th e stu d e n ts ?
2.
What i s th e co m p a ra tiv e e f f e c t o f th e
d i f f e r e n t i n s t r u c t i o n a l m edia upon th e c o n v e r s a t io n a l
sp e e c h o f th e stu d e n ts ?
3.
What i s th e e f f e c t o f e a c h o f th e
i n s t r u c t i o n a l m edia upon th e v a r io u s f a c t o r s o f
c o n v e r s a t io n a l sp eech ?
4.
What recom m endations a s t o th e o b j e c t i v e s ,
-
96-
methods and m a t e r i a l s o f a c o u r s e in c o n v e r s a t i o n a l
sp e e c h grew out o f t h i s stu d y?
5.
What recom m endations a s t o th e s c i e n t i f i c
s t u d y o f sp e e c h e d u c a t i o n a r i s e from th e method and
r e s u l t s o f t h i s stu d y ?
The i n v e s t i g a t i o n c o n s i s t e d o f t e s t i n g
the
c o n v e r s a t i o n a l sp e e c h o f one hundred young women,
s t u d e n t s in th e upper freshm an and sophomore y e a r s
a t Hunter C o lle g e o f
th e C i t y o f New York.
Of t h e s e
one hundred s t u d e n t s , tw en ty com p rised a C o n tro l Group
which r e c e i v e d no i n s t r u c t i o n i n s p e e c h .
The r e ­
m aining e i g h t y were d i v i d e d i n t o fo u r grou p s o f tw e n ty
s t u d e n t s e a ch r e c e i v i n g t r a i n i n g
in v o i c e and d i c t i o n
f o r f i v e months th rou g h t h e u se o f one o f fo u r
i n s t r u c t i o n a l m edia: p o e t r y , d r a m a tic m a t e r i a l s ,
p r o s e , and in fo r m a l c o n v e rsa tio n ®
At th e b e g in n in g
and a t th e end o f t h e f iv e - m o n t h p e r io d ea ch s t u d e n t
made a r e c o r d in g o f a s h o r t p a s s a g e o f c o n v e r s a t i o n a l
p r o se and th r e e m in u tes o f in fo r m a l sp o n ta n e o u s
co n v ersa tio n .
These r e c o r d in g s were th e n r a t e d by a
group o f t h r e e j u d g e s , members o f th e Speech D epartm ents
o f Hunter and A d e lp h i C o l l e g e s .
The r a t i n g s o f t h e
t h r e e ju d g es were a v e r a g e d t o o b t a i n s c o r e s on each
r e c o r d in g in e l e v e n sp ee ch q u a l i t i e s :
P le a sin g Q u a lity ,
-
97 -
F l e x i b i l i t y , A n im a tio n , A u d i b i l i t y , E n u n c ia t io n ,
P r o n u n c ia t io n , F lu e n c y , Rhythm, V a r i e t y , N a t u r a l n e s s ,
and G en eral I m p r e s s io n .
Mean s c o r e s on p r e - t e s t and
e n d - t e s t r e c o r d in g s were s e c u r e d f o r each o f th e f i v e
groups and improvement or r e t r o g r e s s i o n was measured
by th e d i f f e r e n c e b etw een p r e - t e s t and e n d - t e s t s c o r e s .
Summary o f F in d in g s
A n a l y s i s o f t h e data o f t h i s stu d y has produced
the fo llo w in g fin d in g s :
The P o e t r y Group showed s i g n i f i c a n t improvement
i n a l l o f th e e l e v e n q u a l i t i e s t e s t e d .
Improvement
was g r e a t e s t i n G en era l I m p r e s s io n , P l e a s i n g Q u a l i t y ,
E n u n c i a t i o n , and N a t u r a l n e s s , and t h e s m a l l e s t amount
o f improvement was n o te d i n A u d i b i l i t y , F l e x i b i l i t y ,
and A n im a tio n .
The D ram atic M a t e r i a l s Group improved i n e v er y
q u a l i t y t e s t e d , th e improvement b e in g h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t
f o r e v e r y q u a l i t y b u t A u d i b i l i t y and F lu e n c y , and the
g r e a t e s t improvement b e in g made in P l e a s i n g Q u a l i t y .
The P ro se Group improved in e v e r y q u a l i t y , but
t h e improvement in A u d i b i l i t y , F l e x i b i l i t y » A n im a tio n ,
E n u n c i a t i o n , and P r o n u n o ia t io n had C r i t i o a l R a t i o s o f
l e s s th a n 3 . 0 0 , i n d i c a t i n g l e s s s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e
th an improvement in o th e r q u a l i t i e s t e s t e d *
The l e a s t
98
improvement was made i n A u d i b i l i t y and A n im a tio n .
th e most in P l e a s i n g Q u a l i t y .
The C o n v e r s a t io n Group improved in e v e r y
q u a l i t y , the C r i t i c a l R a t i o s b e in g g r e a t e r th a n 3 .0 0
f o r e v e r y q u a l i t y b u t A n im a tio n .
G r e a t e s t improvement
was made in P l e a s i n g Q u a l i t y . l e a s t i n A u d i b i l i t y ,
A n im a tio n , and E n u n c i a t io n .
The C o n tro l Group showed l i t t l e
change b e tw een
p r e - t e s t and e n d - t e s t s c o r e s , im proving as a whole in
se v en q u a l i t i e s and r e t r o g r e s s i n g in
f o u r , b u t w ith
none o f the changes show ing C r i t i c a l R a t i o s g r e a t e r
than 1 . 6 0 .
The g r e a t e s t change was t h e r e t r o g r e s s i o n
i n P l e a s i n g Q u a l i t y . t h e s m a l l e s t change th e im prove­
ment i n Rhythm.
I n A u d i b i l i t y . P o e t r y and C o n v e r s a tio n groups
showed th e g r e a t e s t im provement, bu t t h e f i n d i n g s were
made i n c o n c l u s i v e by th e r e c o r d in g c ir c u m s t a n c e s .
In P le a s i n g Q u a l i t y , P ro se made th e g r e a t e s t
improvement, and th e o t h e r s were f a i r l y e q u a l.
In F l e x i b i l i t y . Dram atic M a t e r i a l s made th e
t h e g r e a t e s t im provem ent, P r o s e th e l e a s t .
In A n im a tio n . P o e tr y made th e g r e a t e s t im­
provem ent, P r o s e th e l e a s t .
In E n u n c i a t i o n , P o e t r y made t h e g r e a t e s t
-9 9 -
and P ro se a g a in th e l e a s t improvement.
In F lu e n c y . P o e t r y showed t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t
g a i n , Dram atic M a t e r i a l s th e l e a s t .
I*1 Rhythm. P o e t r y improved th e m o st, P ro se th e
le a st.
In V a r i e t y and R a t e . a l l grou p s were v e r y n e a r l y
eq u a l.
In N a t u r a l n e s s . P o e tr y a g a in made th e most
im provem ent, P r o s e t h e l e a s t .
In G en eral I m p r e s s io n , P o e tr y improved th e m o st,
P rose l e a s t .
D ram atic M a t e r i a l s and C o n v e r s a t io n were
a lm o st e q u a l l y m atched.
P o e t r y improved most i n s i x q u a l i t i e s and in
G en eral I m p r e s s io n : Dram atic M a t e r i a l s showed th e
g r e a t e s t improvement i n two q u a l i t i e s ; th e Conver­
s a t i o n and P ro se groups were improved more th an t h e
o t h e r g r o u p s in one q u a l i t y .
A l l fo u r E x p er im e n ta l grou p s were v e ry e v e n l y
matched i n th e p r e - t e s t s c o r e s .
The t o t a l amounts
o f improvement made, and th e r e l a t i v e numbers o f
s c o r e s im p r o v in g , r e t r o g r e s s i n g , and rem aining t h e
same, showed t h a t t h e P o e tr y Group made th e g r e a t e s t
g e n e r a l improvement and t h e P r o s e Group th e l e a s t .
100-
The R ecordin g P roced ure
In t h e c o u r se o f th e s tu d y c e r t a i n q u e s t i o n s
n a t u r a l l y a r o se a s t o th e e f f i c i e n c y o f th e r e c o r d in g
procedure.
In th e f i r s t p l a c e , th e employment o f
r e c o r d s was l i n k e d w ith th e u se o f s u b j e c t i v e judgm ents.
With what s u c c e s s c o u ld th e ju d g e s e s t i m a t e v o i c e and
s p e e c h from a r e c o r d in g ?
The data g i v e n i n Chapter I I I ,
showing th e c o n s i s t e n c y o f t h e j u d g e s 9 r a t i n g s , and
t h e i r agreem ent among t h e m s e l v e s , seems t o i n d i c a t e
t h a t r e c o r d in g s o f f e r no o b s t a c l e t o r e l i a b l e
s u b j e c t i v e judgments o f sp e e c h perform an ce.
A se co n d and more i n t e r e s t i n g q u e s t i o n
con cern ed th e e f f e c t which th e r e c o r d in g p r o c e s s
m ight have on th e sp ee ch perform ance o f t h e v a r io u s
stu d en ts.
I t w i l l be remembered t h a t p r a c t i c e was
g i v e n e a ch s t u d e n t i n r e c o r d in g on th e sou nd -m irror
b e f o r e a c t u a l l y r e c o r d in g f o r th e e x p e r im e n t.
M oreover, w hatever t h e e f f e c t o f th e s i t u a t i o n , i t
was th e same f o r a l l s t u d e n t s , so t h a t t h e r e would
be l i t t l e
r e a s o n t o e x p e c t any d i f f e r e n c e s among th e
v a r io u s g ro u p s which m ight be a t t r i b u t e d t o d i f f e r i n g
r e a c t i o n s t o th e r e c o r d in g s i t u a t i o n .
In o r d e r to
s e c u r e more d e f i n i t e in f o r m a t io n , h ow ever, each s t u d e n t
was asked t o w r i t e a s h o r t d e s c r i p t i o n o f h er f e e l i n g s
101-
a t both t h e p r e - t e s t and e n d - t e s t r e c o r d i n g s .
A stu d y o f t h e s e i n t r o s p e c t i v e a c c o u n t s r e v e a l s
t h a t th e r e was n o t o n l y no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e
in
th e r e a c t i o n s o f the v a r io u s g r o u p s , b u t t h a t t h e r e was
c o m p a r a tiv e ly l i t t l e
d if f e r e n c e in th e r e a c tio n s o f th e
i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s t o f i r s t and se co n d r e c o r d i n g s .
A
s t a t i s t i c a l a n a ly s is o f th e s e in tr o s p e o tiv e statem en ts
d id n o t seem p r a c t i c a b l e , b u t th e f o l l o w i n g s e n t e n c e s
from th e s t u d e n t s * d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e i r f e e l i n g s are
g iv e n a s sa m p le s o f t y p i c a l r e a c t i o n s :
F i r s t R e c o r d in g s
"N ovel e x p e r i e n c e ” ;
“M arvelous and e x c i t i n g ” ;
r e c o r d in g ” ;
“A l i t t l e
" In te r e stin g ” ;
“At e a s e when making th e
nervous” ;
I had n e v e r r ec o rd ed b e f o r e ” ;
a d is tr a c tio n ”;
“E x c i t e d b e c a u se
“The machine a c t e d a s
“One o f t h e b i g g e s t t h r i l l s o f my
c o lle g e l i f e ”.
Second R e c o r d in g :
“Looked forw ard t o i t w ith e n t h u s ia s m ” ;
“F e l t more a t e a s e ” ;
“Absence o f ‘ mike f r i g h t * ” ;
“F e l t much more n a t u r a l ” ;
co n fid e n c e ” ;
“D evelop ed more
“N ot a t a l l n e r v o u s , b e c a u se I knew
what t o e x p e c t ” .
On t h e whole o n l y a few s t u d e n t s spoke o f
-1 0 2 -
n e r v o u s n e s s a t t h e f i r s t r e c o r d i n g , and t h e s e same
s t u d e n t s m en tio n e d t h e i r n e r v o u s n e s s a t th e se co n d
r e c o r d in g a s w e l l .
M oreover, t h o s e s t u d e n t s who
spoke o f i n c r e a s e d c o n f i d e n c e a t th e se co n d r e o o r d in g
c la im e d n o t t o have e x p e r i e n c e d any n e r v o u s n e s s a t
the f i r s t r e o o r d in g .
I n d e e d , i f th e i n v e s t i g a t o r ,
who had t h e g i r l s o f t h e E x p e r im e n ta l g ro u p s i n h e r
c l a s s e s f o r s i x m onth s, may s u g g e s t a g e n e r a l i z a t i o n ,
i t i s t h a t th e b e t t e r s p e e c h s t u d e n t s were c o m p a r a t iv e ly
u n a f f e c t e d by t h e r e c o r d in g s i t u a t i o n , w h ile t h o s e
c o n s c i o u s o f i n f e r i o r s p e e c h were t h e o n e s who were
u n u su a lly nervou s in r e c o r d in g .
These l a t t e r s t u d e n t s ,
h o w ev e r, were n e r v o u s i n c la s s r o o m s p e e c h r e c i t a t i o n s
a l s o , and t h e n e r v o u s n e s s was a p p a r e n t ly a r e g u l a r
p a r t o f t h e i r s p e e c h b e h a v i o r , r a t h e r th a n an e f f e c t
o f th e r e c o r d in g s i t u a t i o n .
L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e C o n c lu s io n s
B e fo r e l i s t i n g t h e c o n c l u s i o n s t o w hich t h e
f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s tu d y p o i n t , i t seem s a d v i s a b l e t o
make c l e a r t h e ways i n w hich t h e s e c o n c l u s i o n s are
lim it e d in t h e i r a p p lic a t io n .
I n th e f i r s t p l a c e ,
i t must be remembered t h a t th e s u b j e c t s o f t h i s
i n v e s t i g a t i o n were a l l g i r l s in t h e f i r s t two y e a r s
of c o lle g e .
To what d e g r e e t h e y a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e
-1 0 3 -
o f s t u d e n t s i n g e n e r a l , t h a t i s , o f s t u d e n t s o f o th e r
a g e s and o f d i f f e r e n t s e x , can n ot be d e te r m in e d .
S e c o n d ly , th e c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h i s stu d y must be
c o n f in e d t o th e fo u r t e a c h i n g media u s e d , and can
have no b e a r in g on o t h e r p o s s i b l e media or c o m b in a tio n s
o f media f o r t e a c h i n g v o ic e and d i c t i o n .
F urtherm ore,
a l l c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h i s stu d y are b a sed upon t h e
a ssu m p tio n s w ith reg a r d t o c o n v e r s a t i o n and
c o n v e r s a t i o n a l sp e e c h d i s c u s s e d in Chapter I .
F in a lly ,
t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , c o n d i t i o n s o f th e r e c o r d in g
s i t u a t i o n must be ta k e n i n t o a c co u n t in i n t e r p r e t i n g
th e fo llo w in g c o n c lu sio n s .
The means which were used
t o c o n t r o l i n some measure t h o s e v a r io u s f a c t o r s have
been d e s c r i b e d in p r e v io u s c h a p t e r s .
C o n c lu s io n s o f t h e Study
1.
A d e f i n i t e and m easurable improvement in
c o n v e r s a t i o n a l s p e e c h may be o b s e r v e d a s th e r e s u l t
o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n v o i c e and d i c t i o n , r e g a r d l e s s o f
th e i n s t r u c t i o n a l medium u s e d .
A l l fo u r o f th e
E x p er im e n ta l grou p s i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n showed
s i g n i f i c a n t improvement in a l l or most o f th e q u a l i t i e s
t e s t e d , w h ile t h e C o n tro l Group, which had r e c e i v e d no
i n s t r u c t i o n , showed no s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e s.
2.
Of th e fo u r media u s e d , p o e t r y i s t h e most
-1 0 4 -
e f f e c t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n a l medium f o r th e developm ent
o f c o n v e r sa tio n a l speech, prose i s l e a s t e f f e c t i v e ,
and dram a tic m a t e r i a l s and c o n v e r s a t i o n are about
e q u a l l y m atched.
2.
Of t h e e l e v e n q u a l i t i e s s t u d i e d , P l e a s i n g
Q u a lity ap p ears to be the one most a f f e c t e d by
t r a i n i n g , th e E xperim ental grou p s showing t h e i r
g r e a t e s t improvement in t h i s q u a l i t y .
4.
Most o f t h e q u a l i t i e s seem t o be r a th e r
c l o s e l y l i n k e d , s i n c e the P o e t r y Group n o t o n l y
improved most i n G eneral I m p r e s s i o n . bu t a l s o in
s i x o f the e l e v e n q u a l i t i e s , w h ile th e P ro se Group
showed l e a s t improvement i n e i g h t i n d i v i d u a l
q u a l i t i e s a s w e l l a s in G en eral I m p r e s s io n .
5.
The use o f p o e t r y a s an i n s t r u c t i o n a l
medium i s more e f f e c t i v e
i n im proving P l e a s i n g
Q u a l i t y . E n u n c ia tio n and N a t u r a ln e s s than F l e x i b i l i t y
and A n im a tio n .
6.
The use o f dram atic m a t e r i a l s as an
i n s t r u c t i o n a l medium i s more e f f e c t i v e i n im proving
P le a s i n g Q u a l i t y . P r o n u n c ia t io n and F l e x i b i l i t y
than F lu e n c y .
7.
The use o f p r o se as an i n s t r u c t i o n a l medium
i s more e f f e c t i v e i n improving P l e a s i n g Q u a l i t y and
-1 0 5
V a r i e t y and R ate than any o t h e r q u a l i t i e s .
8.
The u se o f c o n v e r s a t i o n as an i n s t r u c t i o n a l
medium i s most e f f e c t i v e
9.
in im proving P l e a s i n g Q u a l i t y .
A n im a tio n . E n u n c i a t i o n . P r o n u n c i a t i o n .
F lu e n c y . Rhythm. and N a t u r a l n e s s are most improved
th rou gh t h e use o f p o e t r y ; P l e a s i n g Q u a l i t y i s most
improved th rou g h the u se o f p r o s e ; F l e x i b i l i t y and
V a r i e t y and Rate are most improved through th e use
o f d r a m a tic m a t e r i a l s , w h ile A u d i b i l i t y i s most
improved th ro u g h c o n v e r s a t i o n .
10.
The r e l i a b i l i t y o f s u b j e c t i v e judgm ents
i n r a t i n g sp ee ch i s i n d i c a t e d by th e c l o s e and
c o n s i s t e n t agreement among t h e j u d g e s , and th e
s i m i l a r i t y o f t h e i r r a t i n g s on th e same r e c o r d in g s
a t d if f e r e n t tim es.
S i g n i f i c a n c e o f th e R e s u l t s
Perhaps t h e most i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t o f t h i s
stu d y h a s been t h e e v id e n c e t h a t t h e u se o f p o e t r y
as an i n s t r u c t i o n a l medium i s more e f f e c t i v e ,
g e n e r a l l y s p e a k in g , th a n p r o s e , d ra m a tic m a t e r i a l s ,
or c o n v e r s a t i o n .
T h is would seem t o c o n t r a d i c t t h e
v ie w s o f th o s e sp e e c h a u t h o r i t i e s who have c la im e d
t h a t c o n v e r s a t i o n i s t h e b e s t medium f o r the
d evelop m en t o f c o n v e r s a t i o n a l v o i c e and s p e e c h .
Y et
-1 0 6 -
t h e r e i s r e a l l y n o th in g very s u r p r i s i n g ab ou t t h i s
r e su lt.
The t r u t h would appear t o be t h a t most o f
t h e d e s i r a b l e q u a l i t i e s o f c o n v e r s a t i o n a l speeoh
a r e i d e n t i c a l w it h th e q u a l i t i e s most t o be d e s i r e d
i n sp e e c h o f any k in d , and t h a t p o e t r y o f f e r s th e most
f r u i t f u l medium f o r the e x e r c i s e and develop m en t o f
th ese q u a l it i e s .
Thus p o e t r y was found t o promote
t h e g r e a t e s t improvement in A n im a tio n , E n u n c i a t i o n ,
P r o n u n c i a t i o n , F l u e n c y , Rhythm, and N a t u r a l n e s s , as
w e l l a s G eneral I m p r e s s io n .
Of t h e s e q u a l i t i e s , o n ly
A n im ation and N a t u r a l n e s s m ight seem in c o m p a tib le w ith
t h e u se o f p o e t r y a s an i n s t r u c t i o n a l medium; t h a t i s ,
t h e s e q u a l i t i e s m ight seem more n a t u r a l l y t o be promoted
by th e u se o f d r a m a tic m a t e r i a l s or c o n v e r s a t i o n ; but
t h e r e a r e many ways o f r e a d in g p o e t r y , and th e t e a c h i n g
o f th e proper way t o r ea d i t a p p a r e n t ly r e s u l t s i n th e
e x e r c i s e o f good sp ee ch h a b i t s which may be l a c k i n g i n
poor p o e t r y r e a d i n g .
P o e tr y a s a medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n
i s w e a k e s t , h o w ev e r, in F l e x i b i l i t y and A n im a tio n , so
t h a t th e s o l e u s e o f p o e tr y i n a c o u r s e aim ing a t
c o n v e r s a t i o n a l sp e e c h a b i l i t y would s u r e l y n o t be
reommended.
C o n v e r s a tio n and d ram atic m a t e r i a l s were found
t o be o f about e q u a l e f f i c a c y a s t e a c h i n g media and,
-1 0 7
i n t e r e s t i n g l y e n o u g h , were b e s t i n t h e q u a l i t y o f
F l e x i b i l i t y . i n w hieh p o e t r y was w e a k e st*
A gain
t h i s i s a r e s u l t w hich i s su p p o r te d b y , or r a t h e r
l e n d s s u p p o r t t o , o b s e r v a t i o n and t h e n a tu r e o f t h e
m ed ia.
M oreover, th e w e a k n ess o f d r a m a tic m a t e r i a l s
in t h e d e v e lo p m en t o f F lu e n c y i s a r e s u l t t h a t m ig h t
a l s o be e x p e o t e d from t h e n a t u r e o f th e medium.
In
t h i s q u a lit y c o n v e r sa tio n r a ted f a i r l y h ig h , but i t
was e x o e e d e d by p o e t r y ,
in d ic a t in g t h a t , as f a r as
t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s e x p e r im e n t are c o n c e r n e d , e a s e
and f l u e n c y i n c o n v e r s a t i o n i s d e v e lo p e d a t l e a s t a s
w e l l b y th e r e a d in g o f p o e t r y a s by p r a c t i c e i n
c o n v e rsa tio n e x e r c is e s .
The i n f e r i o r i t y o f p r o s e i n e v e r y q u a l i t y b u t
t h a t o f P l e a s i n g Q u a l i t y o f v o i c e seem s h i g h l y
s ig n if ic a n t to th e in v e s t ig a t o r .
I f one may v e n tu r e
a s u g g e s t i o n a s t o th e r e a s o n f o r t h i s r e s u l t ,
it
would be t h a t p r o s e i s t h e m ost d i f f i c u l t form o f
l i t e r a t u r e t o read w e l l ,
d i f f i c u l t t o w r ite w e l l.
j u s t as i t
Its
i s t h e most
s u b t l e t i e s are i n many
r e s p e c t s g r e a t e r th a n t h o s e o f p o e t r y , and are c e r t a i n l y
l e s s w i d e l y and e a s i l y a p p r e c i a t e d .
For t h i s r e a s o n
p r o s e d o e s n o t seem t o be a s u s e f u l a m a t e r i a l f o r
s p e e c h e x e r c i s e a s p o e t r y , and m ight be r e s e r v e d f o r
-1 0 8 -
advanced c o u r s e s i n e x p r e s s i o n .
The h i s t o r y o f
l i t e r a t u r e and th e c o n t e n t s o f c h i l d r e n ’ s r e a d e r s
s u g g e s t c e r t a i n l y t h a t p o e t r y a s a l i t e r a r y form i s
in c e r t a i n r e s p e c t s more e le m e n ta r y th a n p r o s e .
M oreover, most p o e t r y i s w r i t t e n t o he r ea d a l o u d ,
w h ile t h e f i n e s t p r o s e d o e s n o t demand such a t t e n t i o n
t o i t s s o u n d s , hut r a t h e r s u b o r d i n a t e s sound t o
m eaning.
T h e r e fo r e t h e w r i t e r d oes n o t f e e l t h a t
p r o s e i s o f any c o n s i d e r a b l e v a lu e a s an i n s t r u c t i o n a l
medium f o r a c o u r se i n c o n v e r s a t i o n a l s p e e c h , and would
recommend v e r y l i t t l e
u se o f i t .
I t must n o t be th o u g h t t h a t ,
s i n c e p o e t r y has
proved more e f f e c t i v e th an c o n v e r s a t i o n i t s e l f ,
one
n eed n o t aim d i r e c t l y a t im proving c o n v e r s a t i o n a l
s p e e c h , or t h a t th e r e s u l t s o f s p e e c h t r a i n i n g w i l l
n a tu r a lly carry over in to c o n v e r sa tio n .
s e v e r a l o b j e c t i o n s t o su ch a c o n c l u s i o n .
There are
In t h e f i r s t
p l a c e , c e r t a i n im p o r ta n t q u a l i t i e s o f c o n v e r s a t i o n a l
s p e e c h , such a s p o i s e and group c o o p e r a t i o n , c o u ld n o t
be in c lu d e d i n t h i s s tu d y b e c a u s e t h e y d id n o t f i t t h e
means o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n c h o se n .
S e c o n d ly , e n t i r e l y
d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s c o u l d c o n c e i v a b l y be a c h ie v e d by a
t e a c h e r who had s p e c i a l i z e d i n th e u s e o f c o n v e r s a t i o n
as a medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n and w ith s t u d e n t s t o whom
-1 0 9
su ch in fo r m a l i n s t r u c t i o n was n o t so n o v e l .
Thus i t
i s p o s s i b l e t h a t a n o th e r t e a c h e r c o u ld surmount the
d i f f i c u l t y i n v o l v e d i n th e u se o f c o n v e r s a t i o n
i n d i c a t e d by t h i s s t u d y , n a m ely , t h a t i t d oes n o t
g i v e as much o p p o r t u n i t y a s p o e t r y f o r t h e im prove­
ment o f s p e c i f i c q u a l i t i e s o f v o i c e and s p e e c h .
Recommendations
Among th e s p e c i f i c problem s o f t h i s s t u d y
was th e f o r m u l a t i o n o f recom m endations c o n c e r n in g
a c o u r s e i n c o n v e r s a t i o n a l s p e e c h ,a n d t h e f u r t h e r
s t u d y o f sp e e c h e d u c a t i o n , grow ing o u t o f th e
r e s u l t s o f th e i n v e s t i g a t i o n .
These recom m endations
a r e l i s t e d b e lo w .
The f o l l o w i n g recom m end ation s a s t o t h e
o b j e c t i v e s , methods and m a t e r i a l s o f a c o u r s e i n
c o n v e r s a t i o n a l sjie ec h grow o u t o f t h i s stu d y :
1»
A c o u r s e i n c o n v e r s a t i o n a l s p e e c h sh o u ld
p l a c e most em p h asis on and d e v o te most tim e t o
poetry.
N ext i n im p ortan ce a r e c o n v e r s a t i o n i t s e l f
and d ra m a tic m a t e r i a l s .
P r o s e , h a v in g th e l e a s t t o
c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e d e v e lo p m en t o f q u a l i t i e s d e s i r a b l e
i n c o n v e r s a t i o n a l s p e e c h , c o u ld be o m i t t e d .
2.
In t h e u s e o f t h e s e m a t e r i a l s , c e r t a i n
f a c t o r s s h o u ld be g i v e n s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n .
For
110-
exam p le, when p o e t r y i s u s e d , p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n
sh o u ld be p a id t o F l e x i b i l i t y and A n im a tio n , s i n c e
th e u se o f p o e tr y in i t s e l f seems t o be l e s s
e ffe c tiv e
in b r in g in g about improvement in t h e s e
q u a l i t i e s than in c e r t a i n o t h e r s , such a s P le a s i n g
Q u a lit y and E n u n c ia t io n .
The f o l l o w i n g recommendations f o r f u r t h e r
r e s e a r c h a r i s e from th e method and r e s u l t s o f t h i s
stu d y :
1.
The s u b j e c t i v e r a t i n g s o f jud ges may
p r o f i t a b l y be u sed i n sp ee ch s t u d i e s , but care
sh o u ld be ta k e n t h a t the ju d ges f u l l y u n d ersta n d
th e q u a l i t i e s t o be r a t e d .
2.
G reater f a m i l i a r i t y w it h th e r e c o r d in g
proced ure on th e p a r t o f th e s u b j e c t s t e s t e d would
be a g e n u in e c o n t r i b u t i o n t - th e r e l i a b i l i t y o f
such s t u d i e s .
3.
There i s a fundam ental n eed f o r an
e x p e r im e n t a l stu d y i n t o t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f
v a r io u s sp e e c h and v o i c e q u a l i t i e s .
This was
f o r c e f u l l y im pressed upon the i n v e s t i g a t o r in
h er a tte m p t t o d e f i n e and d i s t i n g u i s h between
t h e v a r io u s q u a l i t i e s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f
speech.
-Ill
4.
There i s need f o r a s t u d y o f th e n atu re
o f c o n v e r s a t i o n a l sp ee ch a s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from
sp e e c h in g e n e r a l .
The p r e s e n t s tu d y h as i n d i c a t e d
t h a t many v o i c e and sp e e c h q u a l i t i e s d e s i r a b l e in
c o n v e r s a t i o n are b e t t e r ta u g h t th r o u g h th e u se o f
p o e t r y than th r o u g h c o n v e r s a t i o n i t s e l f .
But i t i s
p o s s i? jle t h a t t h e r e are c e r t a i n q u a l i t i e s p e c u l i a r
t o c o n v e r s a t i o n a s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from o t h e r forms o f
sp e e c h which have n o t been examined in t h i s stu d y ,
and which m ight be more p r o f i t a b l y d e v e lo p e d through
c o n v ersa tio n e x e r c i s e s .
Such a q u a l i t y , f o r exam p le,
m ight be th e a b i l i t y t o ta k e p a r t in group d i s c u s s i o n .
A s a t i s f a c t o r y d e t e r m in a t io n o f j u s t what a d d i t i o n a l
q u a l i t i e s a r e p e c u l i a r t o c o n v e r s a t i o n a l sp ee ch would
g r e a t ly f a c i l i t a t e fu rth er s t u d ie s .
5.
F i n a l l y , t h e r e i s n eed f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n
o f th e r e s u l t s o f i n s t r u c t i o n a t th e v a r io u s l e v e l s
o f sp e e c h a b i l i t y .
In the p r e s e n t s t u d y , a s w e ll a s
in t h o s e o f D r u s h a l1 and J o h n so n ,^ th e s u b j e c t s had
had l i t t l e
p r e v io u s sp e e c h t r a i n i n g , so t h a t the
r e s u l t s , t o a marked d e g r e e , i n d i c a t e d improvement
1.
2.
Above, pp. 2 7 -2 9
Above, pp. 2 6 -2 7
-1 1 2 -
or l a c k o f Improvement in s p e e c h fu n d a m e n ta ls.
It
would be o f v a lu e t o stu d y t h e e f f e c t s o f v a r io u s
m ethods o f t r a i n i n g w it h s t u d e n t s who have a lr e a d y
m a ste re d th e fu n d am en ta ls o f s p e e c h .
-1 1 3 -
BIBLIOGRAPHY
B r ig a n c e , if. N. and Immel, R. K ., Speechm aking.
York: F. S. C r o f t s and C o ., 1 9 3 8 .
New
C a b le , If. A r th u r, e d i t o r , C u ltu r a l and S c i e n t i f i c
E d u c a tio n Today. B o sto n : E x p r e s s io n C o ., 1930.
C o u lto n , T. E . , Trends in Sp eech E d u c a tio n i n American
Col l e g e s . U n pu blished M. A. T h e s i s , New York
U n i v e r s i t y , 19 35.
D a v is , E. H. and Mammen, E. W., The Spoken iford in
L i f e and A r t . New York: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . ,
1932.
Drummond, A. M ., e d i t o r , A Course o f Study i n Speech
T r a in in g and P u b lic Speaking f o r Secondary
S ch o o ls.
New York: The Century C o ., 192 5.
D r u s h a l, J . G arber, An O b j e c t iv e A n a ly s i s o f Two
T ech niqu es o f T eaching D e l i v e r y in P u b li c
S p ea k in g .
Q u a r te r ly Journal o f S p e e c h , XXV
(December, 1 9 3 9 ) , pp. 5 6 1 -6 9 .
D yer, If. P . , D e v e lo p in g th e Art o f C o n v e r s a tio n as
a Form o f C u ltu r e . E n g lis h J o u r n a l , XV
( A p r i l , 1 9 2 6 ) , pp. 2 7 6 - 8 0 .
F r i t z , C h arles A . , C o lle g e Speech b e f o r e 1 8 5 0 .
D. T h e s i s , New York U n i v e r s i t y , 1928.
Ph.
.... - .... - —— E a r ly American iforks on Speech
T r a in in g .
Q u a r ter ly Journal o f Speech
E d u c a t i o n , X I II ( A p r i l , 1 9 2 7 ), pp. 1 5 1 - 6 0 .
— ----------------- The Teaching o f P u b lic Speaking in
th e E a r ly American C o l l e g e . American
S p e e c h , V (December, 1 9 2 9 ) , pp. 1 0 7 -1 3 .
G a r r e t t , H. E . , S t a t i s t i c s i n P sy c h o lo g y and
E d u c a tio n . New York: Longmans, Green
and C o ., 1938.
-1 1 4 -
Gray, G i l e s W., R e g io n a l P reponderance in
R e s p ir a t i o n in R e l a t i o n t o C e r ta in A s p e c t s
o f V o ic e . S t u d i e s in E x p erim en ta l P h o n e t i c s .
Raton Rouge, L a.: S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 3 6 .
________________ and W ise, C. M., The Bases o f S p e e c h .
New York: Harper and B r o t h e r s , 1934.
H u lb e r t , G. W., The C o n v e r s a t io n a l B a s i s .
E n g lish
J o u r n a l . XVI ( A p r i l , 1 9 2 7 ) , pp. 3 0 2 - 0 7 .
J oh n son , A . , T eaching th e Fundam entals o f Sp eech
through Group D i s c u s s i o n .
Q u a r te r ly Jou rn al
o f S p e e c h . XXV (November, 1 9 3 9 ) , pp. 4 4 1 - 4 8 .
Karr, H a r r is o n , Your Sp eaking V o i e e . G le n d a le , C a l i f :
G r i f f i n P a t t e r s o n P u b li s h in g C o ., 1 3 3 8 .
l i l e i s e r , G r e n v i l l e , How t o Improve Your C o n v e r s a t io n .
New York: Funk and W agnalls C o ., 1 9 3 3 .
M ahaffy, John P . , The P r i n c i p l e s o f th e A rt o f
C o n v e r s a t io n . New York and London: G. P.
Putnam’ s S o n s , 1 8 8 8 .
Manser, Ruth B . , A Manual o f Sp eech C o r r e c t i o n .
New York: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1935.
M a rin er, S y l v i a D . , Sp eech Survey o f Jun ior C o l l e g e s .
Q u a r ter ly J o u r n a l o f S p e e c h , XXIV ( A p r i l ,
1 9 3 8 ) , pp. 2 3 9 - 4 4 .
Nock, A lb e r t J . , The D e c lin e o f C o n v e r s a t io n .
H arper9s M a g a zin e. 152 (May, 1 9 2 6 ), pp.
6 9 6 -7 0 2 .
Ogg, H. L . , and Immel, R. K ., S p eech Improvement.
New York: F. S . C r o f t s , 1 9 3 6 .
O l i v e r , Robert T . , The Growth o f I n t e r e s t i n
C o n v e r s a tio n . E n g l i s h J o u r n a l , XXI
(O c to b e r , 1 9 3 2 ) , pp . 6 5 4 - 5 7 .
S w i f t , Jonath an, H in ts Toward an E ss a y on
C o n v e r s a tio n . The P rose Works o f Jonathan
S w i f t . e d i t e d by Temple S c o t t , V ol. X I.
London: G. B e l l and S o n s, 1 9 0 0 -1 4 .
-1 1 5 -
T a f t , Henry W., K indred A r ts : C o n v e r s a tio n and
P u b l i c S p e a k in g . New York: The M acm illan
C o ., 1929
Weaver, J . C . , A S u rv ey o f Speech C u r r i c u la .
Q u a r te r ly J o u r n a l o f S p e e c h , XVIII
(November, 1 9 3 2 ) , pp. 6 0 7 -1 2 .
Weaver, A. T . , B o r c h e r , G. L . , and W o o lb e rt, C. I I .,
The New B e t t e r S p e e c h . New York: H a r c o u r t,
Brace and C o ., 1 9 3 7 .
W illo u g h b y , Raymond R . , The F u n c tio n s o f C o n v e r s a t io n .
J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , I I I (May, 1 9 3 2 ) ,
pp. 146-59.
Winans, James A . , P u b l i c S p e a k in g .
C entury C o ., 1 9 1 5 .
New York:
W oolb ert, C h a rle s H. and N e ls o n , S . E . , The Art o f
I n t e r p r e t a t i v e S p e e c h . New York: F. S.
C r o f t s and C o ., 1935.
appendix
-1 1 7 -
UNIVERSITY OP MICHIGAN
Department o f Speech
Ann A rbor,
M ichigan
March 5 , 1940
M iss D orothy Doob
Department o f Sp eech and D ram atics
Hunter C o l l e g e o f th e C it y o f New York
New York, N. Y.
My d ea r M iss Doob:
In r e p l y t o your l e t t e r under d a t e o f
March 2nd, our Department d o e s n o t o f f e r c o u r s e s
which s t r e s s th e c o n v e r s a t i o n a l a s p e c t o f S p ee c h .
We b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s phase o f Speech E d u c a tio n
i s an i n d i r e c t b y -p r o d u c t o f a l l c o u r s e s in s p e e c h .
In our b e g in n in g c o u r s e s where we d e a l w ith th e
sp ea k in g p e r s o n a l i t y , we f e e l t h a t t h e r e i s a very
d i r e c t c a r r y -o v e r t o c o n v e r s a t i o n a l sp e a k in g .
L ik e w ise we f e e l t h a t any t r a i n i n g in d i c t i o n ,
p r o n u n c i a t io n , a r t i c u l a t i o n , a l s o c a r r i e s o v e r to
c o n v e r sa tio n a l sp eech .
I am very much c o n v in c e d t h a t t r a i n i n g in
Speech i s d i r e c t l y r e f l e c t e d in an improved s t y l e
o f sp ee ch i n c o n v e r s a t i o n and p o i s e .
S in c e r e ly yours,
( s i g n e d ) G. E. Densmore
Chairman
GED:DB
-1 1 8
PURDUE UNIVERSITY
Department o f E n g l i s h and Speech
L a fa y ette,
In d ian a
March 1 3 , 1940
Miss D orothy Doob
Department o f Sp eech and D ram atics
Hunter C o l l e g e o f t h e C it y o f New York
Bedford Park Blvd. and Navy Avenue
New York C i t y
Dear M iss Doob:
I am e n c l o s i n g a copy o f our Summer S e s s i o n
c i r c u l a r and have ask ed t h e R e g i s t r a r t o send you
a copy o f th e U n i v e r s i t y c a t a l o g u e . May I c a l l
p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n t o c o u r s e s numbered Speech 106
and 1 1 6 , b o th o f w hich d e a l w ith c o n v e r s a t i o n a l or
th e d i s c u s s i o n t y p e s o f s p e e c h a s c o n t r a s t e d w ith
p u b l i c sp e a k in g or d r a m a tic p r e s e n t a t i o n .
I
assume t h a t t h i s i s what you meant by th e term
" c o n v e r s a tio n a l” .
I f , h o w ever, you u se th e term
c o n v e r s a t i o n a l a s op p osed t o “o r a t o r i c a l ” th e n a l l
o f our c o u r s e s in p u b l i c s p e a k in g , sp e e c h com p osi­
t i o n , and extem poraneous sp e e c h are c o n v e r s a t i o n a l .
S in c e r e ly ,
(sig n e d )
A lan II. Monroe
Chairman, Speech S t a f f
AHM:dt
Enc.
-119
LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY
C o l l e g e o f A r ts and S c i e n c e s
U n iv e r sity ,
L o u is ia n a
March 1 1 , 1940
M iss Dorothy Doob
Department o f Sp eech
Hunter C o lle g e
B ed ford Park B o u leva rd and Navy Ave.
New York, N. Y.
Dear M iss Doob:
Such work a s we do w ith th e c o n v e r s a t i o n a l
a s p e c t s o f Speech i s done m a in ly in our two
fun dam ental c o u r s e s : t h e g e n e r a l fundam ental c o u r se
i n Sp eech 3 -4 and th e s p e c i a l i z e d fundam ental c o u r se
i n Speech 5 5 - 5 6 .
In t h e s e c o u r s e s a c t u a l e x e r c i s e s
a r e pursued w ith c o n v e r s a t i o n a s th e e x e r c i s e m a t e r i a l .
I d e s c r i b e t h i s assum ing t h a t I am t a l k i n g about th e
t h i n g s c o n c e r n in g which you i n q u i r e .
I f , on t h e o t h e r hand, you a r e t h in k in g m erely
o f c o n v e r s a t i o n a l s t y l e in p u b l i c s p e a k in g , I may s a y
t h a t e v er y o n e o f our p u b l i c sp e a k in g c o u r s e s un dertak e
t o em p hasize t h i s s t y l e .
I am h a v in g your name pu t on f i l e to r e c e i v e
one o f our g e n e r a l c a t a l o g u e s when i t comes o f f th e
p ress.
Very t r u l y y o u r s ,
(S ig n e d )
CMW:dh
C. M. Wise
-1 2 0 -
I t i s my o p i n io n t h a t th e p r o s e s e l e c t i o n s l i s t e d
below a r e exam p les o f s u p e r io r t y p e s o f p r o s e .
1.
W ashington I r v i n g
S e l e c t i o n s from “ The
S k e tc h Book”
2.
R. W. Emerson
E ss a y s on “F r i e n d s h i p ”
“S e l f - R e l i a n c e ”
3.
R. L. S t e v e n s o n
4.
C h a r le s Lamb
“D i s s e r t a t i o n on a R oast P i g ” ,
“Dream C h ild r e n ”
5.
Edgar A l l a n Poe
E ssa y on P o e t r y , S t o r i e s
(se le c te d )
6.
A ddison and S t e e l e
S e l e c t i o n s from “The
S p e c t a t o r P a p e r s”
7. Sholem
Asch
“T r a v e ls w it h a Donkey”
S e l e c t i o n s from “ The N azarene”
8.
Emil Ludwig
S e le c tio n s
C le o p a tr a “
9.
Ruskin
10«
Ruskin
11®
Thomas Mann
12.
De Quinoey
13.
The B ib le
from “L i f e o f
S e l e c t i o n s from “S t o n e s o f V e n ic e ”
S e l e c t i o n s from “H eroes and Hero
Worship”
“Jo sep h i n E gy p t”
(S e le c tio n s)
“C o n f e s s i o n s o f an Opium E a t e r ”
A p p r o p r ia te s e l e c t i o n s
(sig n e d )
Howard R. D r ig g s
P r o f e s s o r o f E n g l i s h E d u ca tio n
New York U n iv e r s i ty
-1 2 1
I t i s my o p in io n t h a t th e s e l e c t i o n s l i s t e d below
are exam ples o f s u p e r i o r t y p e s o f p o e t r y .
1.
Wordsworth, W illiam
“T in t e r n Abbey” , “Ode
on I n t i m a t i o n s o f I m m o r t a lit y ” , “She
was a Phantom o f D e l i g h t ”
2.
S h e l l e y , P er cy B.
“ I n d ia n Summer” , “ To a
S k y la r k ” , “Ozymandias” , “Ode t o
th e West Wind”
3.
K e a ts , John
“Eve o f S t . A gnes” ,
G r e ec ia n Urn”
“Ode on
a
4.
Housman, A l f r e d
5.
M i l l a y , Edna S t . V in c e n t
S on n ets,
“B a l la d o f th e Harp Weaver”
6.
Tennyson, A l f r e d
“New Y ears E v e” , “Lady o f
S h a l l o t ” and s e l e c t i o n s from “ I d y l l s
o f th e K ing”
“A S h r o p s h ir e Lad”
“R e n a sc e n c e ” ,
7.
R ob in son , Edward A r l i n g t o n
“T r is tr a m ”
S e l e c t i o n s from
8.
Browning, R obert
D u ch ess” ,
9.
L o n g fe llo w , Henry W.
“E v a n g e l in e ” ,
S on n ets,
“C o u r ts h ip o f M ile s S t a n d i s h ” , S o n n e ts
w r i t t e n t o accompany t r a n s l a t i o n o f th e
“D iv in e Comedy”
“Pippa P a s s e s ” ,
“E v e ly n Hope”
“E l e g y ”
“My L a s t
10.
Gray, Thomas
(S e le c tio n s)
11.
Byron, Lord
“She Walks i n B e a u ty ” ,
“C h ild e
H arold” , “The P r i s o n e r o f C h i l l o n ”
12.
Whitman, Walt
13.
S e l e c t io n s from th e B i b l e
S e le c tio n s
from “L eaves o f G r a ss”
Psalm s
( s ig n e d )
J o sep h J . R e i l l y
Department o f E n g l i s h
Hunter C o l l e g e
-1 2 2
I t i s my o p i n io n t h a t th e p l a y s l i s t e d b e lo w are
exam p les o f s u p e r io r t y p e s o f d ra m a tic m a t e r i a l
(lite r a tu r e ).
1.
S h ak esp eare
2e
P a s s a g e s ta k e n from “She S to o p s t o Conquer”
-—G o ld sm ith
3.
P a s s a g e s ta k e n from “The R i v a l s ” — S h e r id e n
4.
P a s s a g e s ta k e n from “Cyrano de B e r g e r a c ”
— R ostand
5o
P a s s a g e s ta k e n from “Medea” and “O ed ip u s,
King o f T h eb es” by B u r ip e d e s and
S o p h o c le s
6.
P a s s a g e s ta k e n from “P yg m alion ” , “Candida”
and “Major B arbara” — Shaw
7.
P a s s a g e s ta k e n from “The D o l l ’ s H ouse” ,
“Hedda G a b b ler” — Ib se n
P a s s a g e s ta k e n from “The Im portance o f
B eing E a r n e s t ” , “Lady Windermere’ s
Pan” — Oscar Wilde
8.
S e l e c t i o n s from
“As You Like I t ”
“R ich a rd I I ”
“Henry IV - P a r t I ”
“H am let”
“O t h e l l o ”
( s i g n e d ) E l i z a b e t h P. S t e i n , Ph.D.
A s s is t a n t P r o fe sso r o f E n g lish
Hunter C o lle g e
NEW YORK UNIVERSITY
SCHOOL OF EDUCATION
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