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A micromorphological approach to the study of soils

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a MiegoMoaHaoLosic.it m
mmm m m
« r o r op s o ils
m
1 * Johnetoe
A flies Is lt$>isi%t©.i to th e Graduate F acu lty
f o r tJj# Pegree o f
M e te * or f g & e r a s f
lU je r
S o tl » f f t e lo g y and Genesis
A pproved,*
1^,
a « t®
Iowa S ta te Celleg®
I f il
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UMI Number: DP13308
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P resen tatio n , discussion and conclusions concerning #1 emmtwry
s o il fa b ric types and s o il R&crostrueture , , .» * * . . . » *
It
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Hi-eroseopla D escrip tio n o f th e S o ils Studied and Btsens®lea o f
t&s P hysical snd Chesioal P ro f*rtl.« s o f These t o ils * * * * «
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Tbm:oathor wiafoim to oxpr®## M * tftaoor# *p$roo£at£«B to fir. J. 1,
.Ifc&orses. f t r ooovtres& lt# c ritic is m s th a t h»
th e owls: *o p o rt#4
'SmemSn. mi tm
vm/Bm *&mmglsast
» & € ia g th » iMsaMtertffc-*
©f
fh© »»tfe#r .»!«©
extend® oi& oor* ttaafc# to H r* * * I . R u s s ell, to 8 r * Roy W. iiw m s o a sail 'to
D r. «f* f . ItS&a&kl* f o r t » lf f t s l oo gfttsttoa* ottoooiwtag o o rto ia phases o f th #
w r it w A
-of tls * aM«g«ex&$t*
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«*
The
«»
«wl m&mmmwpl®
of $&*■
I# ftl®##ly
allied ftttt* the rapid grelftli e# the %i©lofle»I. -m iwm m *
tSertata phases of
e te a ts try ami .g*«tl©g§r f* J y e» M erftseo p l# %®etai<p#» fo r
mmrimg mmmmsf
ia fo r s fttt*
mmmml «g
th e p ro p e rti# # @f * t f c # r ,
isteter&Qgk-Ht ter®' t*S»«
th e .n oil ¥i«X«giart « i
a d w ia g # o f tit® m iereeeep* ami. « s « i 1%. la
4 » ra # tl$ o tio a « o f tit® « e £ l* the fetswsr
the o rd in a iy
M e lftg ie a l s i« re # # 0p« and
t t e le t t e r the f« i» g **a p h ie *& er»*eop#,
1 M .1#
s e w r ia g
o s g u e s t p r o £ # « « r *%
K u fc ie a # ls t » I » iM M t *
# $ * i * 4 # . # a e » t i« l3y
s o il a iw r o lo v
m m m p & n m a ih l a
. m s * ie » p h a s e s o f « # i i p h y t f lf t e
*tr»**ed th# iaportsra## of
aB#i«%«rted state*
to
im
s tu d y o f
o f . t li # .« s # ©.£ t h e n le r e s & e p e . i s
« A
»*ed i:a hi#
tk »
I» w » . S t a t e
lS f ? # 8 r *
T h i*
th e
s ts ^
W*
a p p ro a c h « * * »
# f .■ • o il M e la g y , .
m&A e h m t le t v f *
f ir *
the ,»41. ia.it* .aatural habitat axA la-it®
.several ad&reaeepio tsehmigiie® that h# had
of *oii*» la ««aji*wt.4* with tit® work of 'fir, 'fuMea#
!«#» Agricultural teperi»«»%
the
«%»%• with'a
parposet First, to iBvsstigat© #*» p»»aIMliti*s of ag^iyiag atewwteofie
sie%ho#« to the
of
aad ®«#ewt, te apply
tftfttatifttes,.
.of the## *m *
to
iatiea of »m » *eil.« d®wlepii ta the tft&ied .State#,
of .the o-hw»e%«r»
fho m m w A
of this study
ifeft maim part of tki® tiftitt#*.
H i t # iareftitgeiiea m tu m lly f a ll# la te th re e p a rts *
© fr« e i^ ti© » s ,
mmrnA#'
f i r s t , s o il s tru c tu re
and w M rtheilag s ta ll# # . % use o f th is
eootl-oae « i heavy M f u lil s e p a m ti*# ,. amd th ird *.
s ta lls # m l.
t h e ir reXoM aa to eerfcain ahserved $ h y e ie *l p ro p o rtio * o f th e p rta e ip a l Sseiisea*
is*. » te # ® # il % -fe
pfmttlm*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
W I
•
s o u s fs m m s f m sgM m m am
W-mnmm
MmimfSmrn'nwmm«t «oSl m m&tm m * pnwhim s*
■Soil structure, its formation .«&& it#
amh *# tillag®,
and erosion
has fees®. 8t«#i«i. by »il. :iw«l*tl*
gators fsr ee®» pwrl,©* a# tl®#* Certain liiwt® ®# soil strwiiire sr© associated
with mrMln Imgm groups o f s a ils i for ®mtagrMt m .gmmMt* g^rmtvm' &£ ^
mmfmm.
©hsj»#t®rtsrrte of the ChenietSa*
«*# lr«w Sail great
s oil grasps* [email protected] probl** of soil s.t*wbu» and its rstntlsa to the classi­
of soils has hmn
fication aai
%y two grtntp»'of workers in
soils# .First, #la#sifle*ti« of soil strostnre.ha* *#©» ««*■&#& o» % soil in*
vestl^&tors dealing with soil elitesifioatiou, ftad mm®a#.*, 'il» sieohteiss of
soil strwtt*r« £ orwatic® Mid its relation to soil
praettc*# las been
isrostifatsi by soil physicists;*
S r. EmMci® ia tr « te o « i th®. t * w *» 3*s*«r&Mry s o il fa b r ic * d a rin g the e a rly
p a rt o f th e l » t d*«*& «.
©wring.. h i* g » s t
h ip a t Iowa, S ta te C ollog#
ia i 37 h# @!M» le c tu re # p M rta iisiiig %o these clcM cntary s o il fa b r ic types*,
flies® .leotares »er« la te r
la. h i# hook
w» i# r« f« 4o l o ^ .
ft» . gnrgoac o f th e work re p o rt# # ia t l i l * p a rt o f th e % M si# is t© e xp lain
b rie fly , th e p r in c ip a l #l#aca1» r j s e ll fa b r ic % ps« as# t s t r y to rs s liii# them
to w e ll i# ,fia e i. aacwwccpi© s o il s tra e ta r# % f# s * asd to p o in t o a t «©a® p o s s i*
b i lit i e s fo r fiita r® rcswuraii work re g a rd in g the
of. s o il s tm e -tw e *
H is to ric a l
la l i f t S a tta rrr (84) present## & syste a o f #»11 s tru c tu re © la s s ifl-o a tio a *
S is c la r if ic a t io n o s w l® t#4 ##*w m tial'ly ®f th re e © »t#gftrle«,
Jfcltii t e i
ft* tff«
ty p e ,
ia th is §yst«st designate# the general cb&pe o f th e
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
■*» -§ m
# o il *g g r# g a t» *
ffcis
mtk&r mm m m d
th ro # t ® # n
( I ) 0Bto»lSJ» strnotnr® *
4mmlope# a lo ag Wstm, ®qm% msM (em tio
fto m to ry * o l l
m
is c ry s ta l­
lography}* ( t i p rio a-J lle # ® t w t e # t soesaisry c o il p « r tie l* » deifoloped 'alo ag
« t elongated m tfc io a l
(S-) p la to -life * #%r«etar»> «#®o»toj*y # e ll. ;j& # tie l* *
asafe along the ilr e r h io a o f both h o rls o n ta la s *# .
w r t io a l o alo *.
rmiSm® tta iii
along,
the ,k.ta€ o f s trw e tw * w ith in t hem p ris e ip a l t f f « « '«*#
d iffe re n tia te d o» the e h & m e ^ r o f the faces awt
m4gm
o f the :#*ooada?y s o il
p a rtic le ® *
f h i* * |* t e s o f s tru c tu re e la s s ifle a tlo s Included two Je ads o f
s tru c tu re t
(1 ) o lo iiy
t o r i to
«M
re w ith the «g g r#g at* fas*® rough, w e e s and
C f)
aggregate face® tawj a s g le e *
n a tty s tru c tu re w ith J is t is e i and c le a r ly defined
The th ir d category, t i t * * $ *e ie # , o f Sakharov*®
system o f .s o il ffa m e tw # c la s s ific a tio n m e bmm&. m the s t# e o f the
u n it*
fit#
Ametmm
t o i l S u rrey 4 » *o c ia tio n (.81) In IS IS a o it f t o i la k to ro r*®
o f s o il s tre e t**** e la m iflo a t& o n f o r uaw in
t i e r to d two fr«mj>« o f a tra s tn r# *
-work,* f k l# ja o d ifim *
{ I ) S is fii# *trm tu ip * t» which th e j» rfc i© l# #
■
m m not f i#«eulat® d,; ami ( t ) #*g$r**ad
flm e w !a t» 6 o r a b ro g a te d *
tio M
in whieh %&§ p a r t i* ! * # were
lig h t xyose # f s o il afcraottar* were 4mmtt'bw4. l a
th is isystoa* %fere# « d w ife# ®«§Hw»d # trm ta r# .grot# wad f i m
m ater th e #i® ple
#tru$twr* grw#* the ttow* type® la $&* «#%$«#&£ structure grwf corresponded
w ltti t f * tfe re * types o f $«Jetor®ir*g o r ig in a l »y«tea. o f s t r u c t * * « l» » « lfle s tlo n #
l* # » , m fc e -lik # , o e lw ® *
or p ria w llie e and f l» % o r f la te -lita s *
f&# f i m
typ e*
o f *tra © tu re Is the f la p ! * « tr a o to » group m m e iiig l* g rain # aiaofp-toae* massive,
p „lv o ru le » t mwI
each o f the## t e a * m * te s e rlp tt'# * o f the type
•tract*# I t r» fr « « # a t* i* . the third m t# *® ry o f ife i# *y#te» o f # # ll #tro*t.ar*
ela«#lfie&% 4©» was tosed la r g e ly o®
#1## o f th# saswtorF ®®H parti*!«#*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
«*. 7 -**
irnrnw (S) h*«
ft w.lificatios of S*Mj%r©ff* #yat#» #f soil #tra«-
turo olftft#ifi®ftti®» on ti» h«*l* of tho ft*raag«»»t of tit# porti©!®* oitMa the
otrooturol «nit» SM» iflodifiea'tion plaood oil coil otrttotar® ia thro® group®»
(1). Soil ooaolotisag chiefly of #«eatery portieS#®* (B) soil ooatiofclag;
chiefly . of primary parti©!®#, and (S> * ftoil w ith « aistwr# o f priiwy and
is
iwMtoaiftry.
<4»w tends to ho a
« ith & » th o la rg e r oooaaawy jm rtic le s #
air&ageiaeat
B *t» r
th a t. g$ft&u2fttio& is tit®
flsK.1 froioet of ooit «tsn»rha*« formit tm* aai that nay for©*- feat toads to
"bemk 4 & m
4&® » H ntsit# £**»®d hy gras«1ftti©» is sot ooftotrootioo* hut,
rftthor a dostruotivft sad d«floooaIstire process* fts® iatoraodifct® stage h«»
‘tps**i ^msalatioa {grftmilftr or cabe-liko) and dofloeculfttloft
mart platc-liko) * 8w§r ho* iad io ato d a s#rr#l»»
is
tlw a tatocmm typ©# o f ®tn»tuo* wmI Sis- §r®»% s o il §**©*##»
fftlle g g {14} I*® as«d i » w » l to rs if to dooofife©
s o il, fttra s ta p e *
fh * #®r® is p e rtw a t t® r» * « » i or® frisaatl© .,,, a « tlifc « # e ® ls ® * f#
o r * f*ftg o # a tftl* p h y llifo m « a i t w
f l a t y , «?©&&*
of
w aits o f
s ta g l# gim ia sad a iw s im *
fit®##
twrsw to- IM ie a t® ft la c k
%»rm mm
oowam ly » p f l i * i to
s o il i t e l w i w ait# hy s o il swrecfors.*
Hkif#roff (If) hft* pt-opo^d a»
.11©
t «ysheu of soil asc»»stractar®
th a t ta e re mm £ m * tjf» ® . o f s a il fttnarta**®*
m n o ly * plafcy, c#l«w *ap#, hleoky « d ^ b « M p .#
m m M la g to ow ra© * s is # ftggf**gfti»s
ft hrea&dowa o f ttaw® types ia to
to c la r if y S » eoafooios
twwag s o il# w©A#r« rogfcrdlag. th® s i*® o f # ® il ftggrofs-to®*
aissd ft th ird categ o ry is *# 11 a»»oroatraetftr* © Iw ssif
s a t# * ft® g » 4 ® *
s % r » te » »
th is worker -rooog*
which h« i® »ig »
ffc i# category is booed ®» tho w tlfttiy ® d£® ti& sto **« a t s o il
® » girodoft o f « ® tl
f t » , ft# « o riia g 'to liM f o r o f f * 'dotor*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
mined % W a faster#* isgr the
of
d ta m b iiity , « i h f th e degree o f
of the aggregates and their
o f th # adjacent aggwtgafe## to
e&oh
la n c e , a e ea rd in f fe# X lle M o re ff, tlm r# ##« th re e d l# tia ® t and w eli*d ef£n ed
oategeri® # o f s o il. a*are#ts*#iln fw *
% os# o f ttssa# categories.
c la s s ific a tio n of s o il a w w iilR is to fe ess b* i» **tw d *
tim es a re #ia.£*K te«i tar owAftla.
m workable
the S e ll isac re s tru c tu re
ti® fee# o f sbrttetar# in Quasi;ion.
ffc# ayafeel f o r 'f la t y # b t# e fe r* is *»* f o r # © i« a » r 1 1 , fo r t&eefey 3. and fo r'
.p w w tls r 0.*
Id le s t# # th e s e ll stru cfear# #1mw#» a r# d®»f0 » t # i by symbols *
-w ry fiw e -*# ® * fi® ***® ..t. n s ila jfe ^ * ^ * w
- 6, «®J reray e«wrs»*«»*
s o il s fe s s ta r# a * * # » « % » # # # by .ffg«rs«.* I * # * , p o o r -l^ -w e ^ t*
gsed-* « d - e x c e lle n t-§ .
Par testa® ##* «&#»
mm mdtmm to
The grades o f
mo&mmtm*®,,
« p a rtic u la r « o tl
sfcwctweis "hi. say fsrofor t o tun# spis#!® m ttw r W orn tfeo # # s *riffe tw m a e .
m%w apt® ,
vmmm
'Am
ft. tlo e k v otftiotnr® '* oafttiiiji i s s is # and « f a moderate g rs ia *
Btmnr { « ) anggnatMi the d e s ir a b ility of' te tla d t& g the in te rn a l a&keup o f
th # aggregate® in a « -te ® .® ifi*tio n o f stnresfKr#* ■ In past © la s s ifie a tio n s o f t o l l
s tru c tu re lawstetgateor# hare stressed th e #*& er»»l fe&twres o f s i*# * shape and
character o f tfe® t o i l aggregates trttfccete ©©asM em tlesi
of tb «
r e la tio n of the
»ltets»te# s o il f & r t ic ls * t o -wadi «6i»®r w ith in teh# steraeferal a i t * .
esdsttng between p rtn a ry #©11 p tr tie ie # he# f o r th e past
p ic tu re
item and mom*
tm
The r e la tio n
y e a r* o o « In to th e
1 km»- re te te io s s iiip i se«a to depend upon a t e t t e r under**
standing, o f the- ph ysical n a tu re o f th e c o llo id a l a a te r la l o r binding a g e n t.
S ld e rl (2 4 ) has don© s«a© ®®*ic on the- a f f in i t y o x ta tla tf between sand grain®
®atd # « H « li® *f-la o *^ n io an# orgM *!©.
lie .elate©# th a t the - ® il w l le ld is a
» # « Q r ^ i4 system d ir iie t . In to two categsrt#® o f aeiaati©
mi
saeetio c o llo id s .
Be e x p te te e t th a t th«' s » « t i« eollteiAs approach th e lower l i » i t s tte® sseao-
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
*» 0' **-
mrphta systes and hem
aaeiter*
mm
p ro p ertl««- fa r t w ia w ith th# amorphic state o f
th is system g im s
fig « r« # a r t h e * M r e lr tn a m * t a t does not
$ tm X » « y M tf m o tlm .p attern **
f l» mamMm
isa-ttsr »ppr«®li®# the
#g$*r 3,.iait o f th e mmemvphl* s ta te a r t seam th e »«rpfel«= s ta te -o f n a tte r*
th e s w o tf e o a llo lia l
s h e ** strong e p tle e l o i& re e ts r a rt. -strong M«*
re frif« tte # # -and y ie ld * d e fin ite * » » y iif fm o tio a p a tte rn **
S iie r i pointed
■out th a t the e o lle id e l p a rtie le s alsorfeei «® th e suarfae* o f send g r a in # are
e rie s te d ia a d e fin ite g e tte ra wliteli aalcss I t possible- fo r o p tic a l i* w e * ti»
gatl-on a r t establishm ent o f tfa* ch aracter of th e sdsoffeed
Ina
mWri&l*
s e tte e o f paper* (8 4 , 2 6 , 28* i f ) % d * r i presented h i* 'view* eon-*
ceraisg tfe# e e ilo ii& l pr® fe»tie.s o f
mil
eolloM* a r t ife® r e la tio n e x is tin g
between saad p a rtie le s end e e lle ld a l m S eo-tals*
S id e d h a *
the
probls® o f s e ll stirestsape foim % i«s- la a mxamr s lu ile r to S u b le t**
Seek o f
these worker# m m tMwm %tw r e la tio n e x is tin g heteeea Ha# m m g ra in # and th e
e o lle lia l m a te ria l o f s e lls *
between H ie s ta r# ***
thereon*
®t saafi
S lie r 1 *t# *s *s d tlie .gfcysieai re-laMcaj. e x is tin g
grain® a rt. o rie n te d e e & e ld e l p s r tle le * adsorbed
Xubiem (I-'6) deserifeed eerfcaist r e la t io n e x is tin g between the fa h rie
skeleto n * a r t f a i l l e p la s m ** th a t s e re found ia t o i ls ia ta ii*tw *% e i s ta te ,
sad d id not r e ly on t w
«p s t« g as h e a v ily a# S ile r l*
f n M e * (1 6 ). h e * re e o g n ts e d s ix i^ o r ts u a t ty p e * o f e le m e n ta ry ..s e ll f a h r le * A
c h .|« ^ y i# ^ ifp h i© e le n s n ts ry s o i l f a h r ie is a s tr u c tu r e w here Hie- s o i l m in e ra l
g ra in s o f cart, -a rt s i l t s it e a re c o a te d w ith d is p e rs e d o r fts y tis e d e e lle id e i
msk%ortmt*
th e i a t e r g » a » le r -speees i » t h is ln s 'tn a n e e r e m e w t *
X u M eae
e x p le ia r t t h a t H d s s o i l f a t a l # fo r m when th e s e ll is w e tte d a r t d r ie d
■a® in e r t p o r tio n o f th e s o il—- s i l t , mm d end g r a v e l*
* * That m a te ria l e n a b le o f s&raste&t is th e s o il-—s o il "«# l« ti6S end e o ile id s l
m t o r ia l.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
«* 2 0 «*
my
ftUfi th e © e lle id a t w tttr lis l
t e t t e r being e h ie fly ir® » hydroxide*
be e it h e r organ!#
m
This s o il fa b ric has been
In tr g r a i# , the
fmmi
ia the
B h r n r lftm #£ i r m and tevatm pod®©!#.*
. PteeteeK & etl# s e ll fs b rie te * fa b r ic ty p e in
e re eafeedded i»
th e « ta e ra l grains
or peptized fa b ric ftessa®,
mk
s n ffte te iit e e U e ig r t %&t»rlaX © a ritie ® , per® spa®#®- and
ia th e absence © f
im^rgr&smMr braces
:
w i l l be fsreewti#
The w & m m l g ra te #
&i th i®
fa b ric type are w e ll coated. .
This fa b rie type is s ia lt e r to its® ©hte®yi«!a»riiiie fa b ric ia th a t the fa b ric
p t e ® » 1* ;pep'ti®ei and the g rs ia s a re seated , b at d iffe r® 'ia th a t i t has
h ig h ** p re p e rtie h o f fa b ric plasms to m in eral g ra te s *
a
th is , fa b r ic type 1® ,
e s s e n tia lly th e same as th e porphyropeptle fs b rl© type* © sly the t e t t e r has a
s t i l l higher p ro p e rto n o f fa b rl® plasma eeateisfe to the a ia e ra l g rain ® *
t e t t e r tem o n ly a few i f any pore space® and e a u itle e .*
,.
fa b ric is foraawt when m e s o il e o la tio n
and fensing. braces teriteee** th e g ra in # *
She
Flectoaaaietie s o il
coating the m ineral grains
th e braees ©ostiane to 'g re w as the
' s o lu tio n ©mporate®* e re m tm lly f«m i»g . a © sw iiy e n tir e ly surrounded by fa b r ic
pte«M® s tt& o ria l*
T M e s e ll fa b r ic type ims [email protected] « £ © » § .'i» the B h © ri« m o f iro n
ta d s e le asd fe d s o lie Brew® e a rth # *
B afp h y r^ e p ti© .s s il fa b r ic i« a type in which th e wiasorai g ra in s a re
e o a te i w ith
mm*
pep&ised fa b r ic pte.®»a mi «n&«dded i» & dense grmsal mass o f the
U ti# fa b r ic type has few i f any © a rtti* # and fo re spa#*®.
stem ® th a t m i# fa b r ic type
desert, © rests*
hm
%##»
lu b ie m
tmm& im MmAMmrmmm. red ea rth s and
th is fa b r ic type corresponds w ith p le e te a s d e tle and ehteayde-
/
w rjfc t® fa b r ic type®* though i t '.test- a m s I h ig h er -peoporfetea o f fa b ric p la s m
to fa b r ic skeleto n a & te ria l -man these ter©' typ e s *
,
A g g lo asratle s a il f atari# type 1® a type is which th e s k e le ta l grain® a re
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1 1 -
e n tir e ly b a re *
St# fa b r ic p$mm- I t is . & flo c c u la te d s ta te sad has a® a f f in it y
£mt th e sd&eral.
th !« fa b r ic by§» fcsw a# twsiy m r coherence and is
f« tt® su b ject to wind s s i w s t# r ero sio n *
f b i * fa b r ic type can b© isdtstw d la
i&e M borabory fey stxisg; %«srta* sand w ith «ea» fre s h ly p re c ip ita te d f e r r ic ,
hydroxide sad a w a l l « t» w tt o f © a lc im h jd rs x ii® *
la M e s e M ® fsuad fe i®
fa b r ic type £& soiae * » d y p r a ir ie s o ils e f'w e s te rn S aaeiets,: a&d ia «oswe
m lc « ,r» e » mmk. s o i l * *
J a te rte x tl# t o i l fa b ric is a ty p e is whlsh fee w & m m t gr&ia® a re slsaost
fre e # f e e a tta g , though this" f t 1st* and tc a » tia » « ssatll f ragpssts- occur on fee
.gf»to% sad mm s a ittd w ife each o th e r by ia te rg m » « la r braces or a re embedded
4a * ferew s g r # « d » a « o f flo c c u la te d o r crumbled c o llo id # ,
w f-s o ils w ith low sfeoietal a s h s ris l content * r *
eimm-iutA iats*
The a ia e r a l grains
«. greasdhs**
slewing e a rltie # o f m a y shape#« th e re a re tn ree m r la tio a * o f fe e ia te r te x tlo
fa b ric 'th a t iwtw
hmm
d##®rIbed by lu b i« » *
Y s r ls tic a A t$ & *©.£1 f^ feric ia
which fe e fa b ric $>3*s»# is dark brosm to hledfcidh i a c o lo r e o a a ia tia g o f
b lackish p a rtic le s o f han&s* coagulated is e rg a a l* c c llo li# a«<3 a peptised hreen
h rn ie
which is w ise s t in so lu b le la w ater b a t s a la b le is d ila te
a lk a li* * I- th is m r la tio a is c a lle d ©hemes#® fa b r ic *
f a r ia t ie a B is a fh b rie
type ia which the fa b r ic p 3 » « » is a la e e t e a tir e iy coagulated brown to yello w
ia s rg a o ic e e lle id a *
t h i * v a ria tio n , is wet a* stab le ia w a te rs ® m r ia tlo a 'A *
Y s rts tio n € 1 * a fa b r ic type in which fee in tergr& nul& r lam es* are. foracd o f
fle *c w 'la t*d © o lle M # * raineral fts p te a k * sad ia s o la b l* •s p lin te r# o f h w ie #ub*
la t# r» p e ri» d #»d saibsd by I t * # mmmmMM.mm*
¥ a rta tto o ■&. o f i»% #rt*x% l# s e tt fa b ric type occurs £nG h#rm $m m t Chestnut
s o ils and
Smmm
sad ® » y earth® o f th e «*w d«ds«*rt*»
This typ e o f s o il fa b r ic
i * fee w e*t d e s ira b le fr o * , a s o il w a a .fe » a t wfswpelttt*
I t 1® re s is ta n t to
* r * * i« a ia * » r k e d dWgrw* becsw** o f th e s t a b ilit y o f bb® aggregate fons»d ia
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
«© s5«© ti® a:
Is
tom&
is
th is fa b r ic ty p e *
m*t
o f th e
V a ria tio n I o f the t*& «rfe#tftto -s o il fa b rle
Wtom sad
earth® o f t& * M
l re fio s s * and
a ls o ia littB f l& fe o ritie sell® .* T a r is tlo a © » f th is s o il fa b r ic tyjN®,-.!»® been
£#«*&■ is* A u s tria n
smk
s e lls by
s e ll fttb rle type is a type ia which the » 4 » e » l g r«to » a re
IMP# sad
la &
gmmi m m
■#£ fa b ric p la s * th a t
my
o r m y not b©
fl«B © «i»t.ei*. ' fh # fa b r ic ptoss* i» » »o n f f la i t y f o r the itln e ra l g ra in s t o
e ith e r ease*
The aggregates*, i » which th is fa b r ic ty p e oocars* a re coherent
no t beeawse la 4 l? |# » l grains are .®ps#ffi$#d ia to * .fa b ric b at because the
grotuadae*# fbrsts- a eoiatisw »s system in which t i e g rain s a re es&ed&NU
th is
type o f fa b ric has bees obsemred in fin e ly a is fe rs e d M Ck s o ils r ic h to c a lc in s
oarboaat® s till# to® dispersed « rl& «% has bees ol*s*-r##d in a n e a te r o f la t e r it i c ^ I f t e le a *, s o ils *
Th© v a ria tio n o f th is type in ethlsh the fa b ric p la s m
is dispersed b a t s t i l l has- m a f f in i t y fo r toe c ry s ta l grains is perhaps the
a»s% in te re s tin g *
Presentation, discasaion and conclusions eeaecratof «to»»nta,iy s o il fa b ric
types a a i
fig u re 1 #hew# some drawings o f to# e ls as in elem entary s o il fa b ric types©
a® ie s c rib e i .by S a b i# * ( I 6) *
$&##* fa b r ic type# are fre s e a te d la a schem ti©
arraagssaeat which t l l w t i ’mte® the m M t im o f e a * fa b ric type to another *
It
i® < p lt« evid en t th a t Xt0i<em ha® used tm® stftto satogoti*.® fo r c la s s ify in g s o il
fa b ric ,. i-*e *, grain® coated o r uncoated.
I t eaa be observed by examining
fig u re 1 'that -w ito la the -too main # » t# g e rie s r
gmim
coated and grain® uneoated,
the #lm®9Sfesry s o il fa b r ic type# are dependent m toe tentew t o f fa b ric p la s m .
I t appear® th a t the®# fa b ric type# arc dependent, f i r s t * on the stab® o f the
W le S m S T 'lE lF lg w e wT lS »"% .e k ea from KuMena*® book
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
*
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Plectoamictio
Porphyropeptio
Intertextio
Porphyropeotio
Grains
Unooatod
Grains
Coated
Chlamydomorphio
increasing fabrio plasma oontent -
Aggloraeratio
Figure 1.
Elementary s o il fa b rio types a fte r Kubiena.
Porphyropectic
Figure 2.
Porphyropectic B
Intertextic A
Photomicrographs of three elementary soil fabric types
occurring in some soils developed in the United ^tates.
Magnification 40X.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
m 14 m-
f® brio
piassii aasg* stfesonSly,
f lii* '
m
the proportiofi' o f fab ric:
t® the .prebitm o f .t o il s tru c tu re
tio n is as# i s sway 'respect# sad f t e r ly •
mammm.
* b i« a t e f *
by th e
worker# 1» s o li jiiy #£©•*.
beam
mat
rm?%cue w orkers*
i# a
fbrmii
to fa b ric
r and e l» a e ifi« *i“
8 m» for®#® e e tia g %© M ad s o il
co n stitu en t# in to ft stable *$ r# e h u ra l aws®.
fcy
pUwm
tom imm
im »«M g »te4
la a y th e o ris e w aw ralssg 8 k » t w « f o r *
o f ifeiefc t e w b««n e x p la in «# by dates efet&laed
l o p w * to date th e »e#teM «s © f *#41 s tru c tu re
problem *
& M « s » { I 6 ) & **
a n i -© la # *lfl# (l
a s te rs ! re la tio n s h ip * « ie t t « g between th e fW brle p la s m and fa b r ic skeleto n
o f s o ils tk»ugh#«% tit.# -world*
s tru c tu re
H its »s» a ffr m r tt a t e a li Is* t e l f f n l la s o il
*a £ # la » ® lflo a tl# a # altteugfe a thorough study o f a wide
e ftrie ty o f s a ils a tti d iffe r e n t types @f *©11
f in a l w i» lw f i» #
mn
be » i« #
.^ ® t# » l« r# g » |& # (t&&}
sow
Qwmsm
smet be and# before
th re e @l®aeatery s o il fa b ric % p » ttefc occur la
s o ils developed t» tfe# U nited gt&tes a re presented la fig w re f *.
th e f# r^ jy r » f« # tlo s o il fa b r ic type p&ahesj&ewg**|fe sms
UO” > o f tittd le y s i l t !*» % ft
6my*hmwm B adsolia
tmMmirm
th e C her!son
s o il 4eveloped ia lo w *
Shi# « 2 e » » tftry fab ric- type i» s heea id e n tifie d ia t ie 1 te ris o a o f it e lb y s i l t
1mm,
« P r a ir ie s o il, o u t ia the I' Sterisea # f f l i w i s i l t Im s , ft SwigM^eim
Peistelio s o il*
till*
A ll f e w t o f tte s e s o il ty p e * hove tees 4 « r iw i f m
g l« o i« l
I t he* bftfta f r e r is t e ly po inted o u t t t e t th is eleiw tatftrir #@ il fa b r ic type
consists o f & floseuSftted g ra w & M s w it
te r# « 4 a e » l g fftia e lo o sely embedded
M w re iii*
A
o f th e jwxphyvegMMit&e fftferte type* p if^ y r o p e e ii* S» has been
id e n tifie d ia th e I herisem o f ft lo ft
Wmimll®
s o il dew leped frost giwasftstd
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
IS -
m arl
#susfc**» f«wM U
Th® s e ll typ# ia which tfel-s p a r tic u la r fa b r ic type
© w ar# is » « a g it ototm sandy M m *
This f e&Hpie type
Asss* Amorphous { iis f* ? # * # } g r « a ^ .s #
.saiwsiiAfti t ie a iia *
aas* is * #»*$*
g ra in s
*m
o t w a t t a liy o f *
-wS-vmml$mim
sake* o r
th is fa b ric type i s Illu s tr a te # is f
4*xk0 red
ju re 2 .
f t » grown#**
d o U o M u l a **# which is s ta b le i a « t i r *
3®e®*iy h#M *a d m kod.
$t» mine m l
th is fa b ric type r©s©»bles th e peiphyr® *
p e e tl# f* * y i® type iasoaash th a t th e saner®.! g ra in s a re na&eft* as# w *e a & les
Item-
fa fe rt* type fey h « rl» g -.«• i*a # e p«g»ti#«<l fa b ric p la tta ,*
Spfe«.rfcsxtl« 4 o r A « i » i «
Is
an
la te ro s tia g fa b r ic
s o il f a b r ic , i l l w t r s . i e i ia t tgwreii 1 and i *
' ffc# adaeraX g rain s arc- felosohs# as# take#
w ith an esoftsioiMfcl #$«*« deposit o f © © llo lis l » t # r l « I , w felA is high in o r*
gaols m a tte r* &U e ria g to the M » im l '-gm iss*
dsrle sad ia * flocow lat® # s ta ts #
fU am * & »t ft# space deposit#
fto# c o llo id a l im te r is l 1® w r y
I t dee* n e t c lin g to iti# siaer& I. grains as
tb# M n e ra l g ra in s *
b o il# * eont&et th e s iw tr a l g ra in s a f iim fees# ro s a lts *
[email protected]*e. th»#» c o llo id a l
Is m t » r A tfcrl* prepar­
a tio n * sfeaiios th is fa b r ic type was f o w i to d lsia to g m t® w r y l i t t l e
a « l t r s ta b le s o il ® trt*tw r© .
Bio $hetosdere£m g& o f ifc ls s o il f atari© % f#
m ® iiie ta . fro a tta# tf* la y e r o f & -Boras# fIs © »»«% Jew®
t i l l la lorfcfe Bafeeta#
ia d le a tis g
U cro so o p i# « » « l*» tis ia ® o f th e
mrim®
on g la c ia l
s o il or
fesrisen o f 'ftm iri# .s o ils , # !» » # # » % €h#*tgiitt s o ils and B ro w s o ils In d ic a te
& « if « lw
w r y much lilts* the m » i*s© rlfe»# slum #-
I t is f o * * ib l* th a t
frrnt s l« » « e » p ic
# * * w i» tio » s is miis%wrfe#*§ stoat# o f
various -hsa’isens Area -several greet s o il gr®%« a system o f s o il a i« r * * tr » c ts r *
'lE E e F ^ B H iT ^ e p m H o n ^ ie prepared by placing a s n a il pi®®# o f s ® il m. a
glass s lic e and dropping on© drop o f n * t * r ®n I t * M t m 4 sh o rt p®ri®4 o f
soaking th® glass s lid e is g e n tly ,|«r»sd fey tappisg w ith tfe# fin g e r c a w in g
the s tru c tu re to d is in te g ra te i f th e M » iis g * t # r i » l is sater^ selu fele*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
4ft I f ' •»
way be ie e e ie te A *
fo r s o il
S ie jfo s s tM ltty «# ft* !* a »3&««ifi:©aMem
i s e u tlts e d ia f ig * * # I *
f&» d e s c rip tiv e t e w
used
h j ta feie a* f m dfefcsigaetloa # f e le a e a te ry s a il fa b r ic t$pes e re as#4 ia & is
cimsMSlm&mi*
la th is sysbsst # f s o il « ie re s tra e tw « «la.#sl£i.© et*s» t& ere e re fe re e
eetegerless
t$ p e * k iw i * 4
species*
She type category I# b»*ed ea the
pliysiesl'-ob.eaieel s ta te #£ th e c o llo id a l m a te ria l* i« e » # s h a tte r 'the © olio tria l
m a te ria l 1 * p*© tl«N § o r f«f% iee€*
th a t la iie a te s «.
4®mrtptxm
ihe te m •sfoaagf^' is. *
e e a d itie a »■# tb # s e ll c o llo id a l
e- fc^e smse t # r a breed group «£ sd<m>strusrtural
form*
e a t is used, a t
'the te r a ®«uaerp:&©Mew
1« a 'd e s c rip tiv e term th a t iM ie a tc s a peptlsad » » 4 itl« *a
m m mi
mm
t« t&
of %im s e ll
ec&oldal
is used. a t & I f f # ssase to r a broad gr® «f ©£ 'M e ie e tre e tw a i fo r© #*
Sews#, the ty f# »os!*itsaHi i a th is a le iw e tra e ta r# e l*# « & £ ie *tio a « iw » © are
«4
®a»»*pl«e®.* f!» kind of sier#e%r»twre deponis. *a the relative
ehush&ee# «£ ergeai* sobber Is H i* c o llo id a l
tb #
specie* o f stiere--
streetur* ie hm m i m the r e ia t liw ifombmm ® f d c lt e iia l n a te r le l la the s o il*
fo r
e fe e ii# » ie re # irt» e t« » in d ic a te # a s e ll srtth S& to IS© psrowat
eolieidel seterlel, aero tt*« i t percent o f c o llo id * ! nafeerial I® erg*»ie ia
afttere am i Hi® e o lt e iie i
ie is .'*
poetised *r spsasy e e a d ltim .
I a west e l l « * • * * m c e rta in . esto&ai o f overlapping o f species ie lifc e ly
to © eew *
lb s upper
m.m& low er
lis t t ® «£ ©lay eeabeafc ia iti® iu te rte s c tie ,
pttpbfrepeetio***#.,. fo * fiij» p « © tio * p le e te a s d e tle * p er|ity.rafep tie«e^ ftM
per^tyrope|% lo a ie re e tre e tu r* specie# ar# s e t up a r b it r a r ily
b# adjusted
mi m m ta lly
dofiiisMl la te r*.
stanastare- e is s s ifie s tiw t i t f e r
mvkmi
twm
mi
say hare to
£«rt&*raejpe* this- i f sb®» o f .saisre-
e e ^ l# t# and w i l l have to be eddei to
from tim e to iiaat *s sere s e ile e re studied' m A
m* fcnowleig#
s d e i» * fe p u e t« r,« ■ea®HS«d*.*
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*
II
It.sMty Is®' ■sa-IH ia waetasioa that fasa®wi®%# ©amsmlag soil atjpueiasp# fw»astio n
g«s«*t® is far fw»
JAtaw»i*« soil strwtaw «ln®sifie.»«
fcion |.« t» it s « « *ly stag®* o f
m i wmi. * 1fe«F# ifeoiiM h®
eeraiag soil atraetar* f
Hewawr* as a w tool® are 4«r**l®f>«£
wmi i«s# alt*** m i swap# «ai m m «i*##r »»•'
azut afMWifieattoa* ft m y forth#? h» ««**
■eiwSM that tm£@m m t opSorly
«f soli »%«o%a» olftssifioatloa'e«a Is®
»s » : a t t « * t i ® » awsst be g iiw a %® i » ®
$ & * # * * o f s o i l o tr tw to r o #
f i r s % # B l# m # fe ra ® tttr* C « t® m « fi*r y )g. i t ® g « e .« 4« #. jf® R n#tioa a s <3 © la s s if ie & t io a *
a w o n d * » f t r o 8tr a « t » p «
}#
it®
g m e t l * * £ ® m m k im m i . o l w o i f i o a t i o a *
m & M iia r l, t # r t i» s r y s o i l a t n w t ® * * , . i t # . §®mmi n * f f t r a f t i l s a * a d o l w o t f i c a t i o s u
By %®i»%i«ry s o i l atpwstasp* i s «®fcat th»: &¥?&ag«st#&& &£ tiw s o i l f r r f i l ® h a r l~
'mnm vfoioh h a w
« ® * i» ia . a io i» ® t e » % ’a r a l a a i- s « ® fo s tin *© tw a tl
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
•
m iit t w ie t t
w
■»
ism m m m w m s m m t m m
is a
m m m smmrn- abb
asm
mmm
flito w o tta e * « f ro e la * o f tooeawtlAfttoA
mti&amofem mA of
twwsn tt#o4 %y |^%ro||?sfl#®rit' onA #@tt worfeirii t»
o f rooks* m&lmmtw and s o ils .
ia w s tig a tio w
In mmm% ysars to® hhia
to ® to # ® o a s g lo p it i a s o i l t n - w . * t % a t i« i8 f o r -
e J ttrs s & w im tlw * s o il
mimmlmgy
(1 8 )
s iw ti•-«*■
bam stress®#
• o ils haw
toolaiifa®
mt& f « f « apt®®
ifco w in e o f to t® sections ia
I t m ® tte a g h t th a t to i® sootioa stad ias on a s o il
p m ftl# w o ali to to tp fw l Is obtfctoisg m m M tm m M m sto at tfe* .a&w m logioal,
®o«p»*itt«» as# s o il fonstsig fw#®*«®s Aafciw to soil*.*. Stow th®
»®0fe l«
to # n o t tows, w&fy&f « t® * Is t o i l ® ia ® » io g i« s ,l i» w s tig # ti« m s ,
i t m « ttoraghfe th a t some f w lit a t t o ® « i fw s a ftlte tiw
■woaM w |^ to a « a S th® Iftsto
port®# to r®
am* to
to te n ain at ions
amafc&m o to o rw tfo s w * Ttrn pmrpmm- » f
to© work r « *
»%«% it o w is e o f t t o th to w o o tio a tsw taaiim to - s o il
a$mtm3m$y*
H is to ric a l
t t o a p p liim tio a o f fsMmMtmtfstm tooto!#*® # to th e sttojjr o f s e lls is not
sew*
Mm»m ft® , 1 1 ) to # «agg**it«t gw ttets o f ttoiw *® estl«. pwpwm tioas fo r
sells' to' sons work Aons
m ssAlasrats a to
A ll*® C l) *ttftoyw 4 t o is
a n to ris ls o f various
to « t e M « #a 'poorly
■ I i w & ^ t r m -m ri& m M s to mi .gtostol t i l t to Il l i n o i s .
a to A .th ia
dmimmi
s o ils
faM-ima. ( to * 16)
o f s o ils fo r sep f& sw atsry t o f o * » t it o on t t o f a t r io type#
ooearrtag ts s o il fr o fll® # %hroagtoat th#' w * r l4 .
fo lk «sd .torpor (-08) t o w
!
a»®# to ts sse&les to o la i^ te s a# a wrfstoi mi otouwsotsrIs tog as# studying s is #
and d is tr lto tia ft o f para# to. s o il ja w ftls s ..
Sssuosoa « « l ftetorsssi (SO) stmdied.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
m J !|| m
. fo r #
aim
MafcMbaablaa i » ««13t« la t it la .sootles® ," 'f fe» assttior C lt ) , la » « »
jp w tra l s ta ll# * ®» s o il p r o file s ,
£mm& th a t such
Jettrlma
X i& io a**# th is section, technique s a l
« * • m * id 1» »@H» ia w s tlp E -tio a s ,
(» } 'S w «p*d th e
wey' itm mmi. fra c tio n &£ «
Hagerstom -s i l t
l«g&. p ro f 11* l» d o to llo d a ia ® » lo g i© a l w ife ^w tw tadtef to so®.© F e® at*yi**«i*
.s o ils , . fa s irtc l;# ' wwt
f:S) w w i tli# flu # aaaii fra e tle iis ; o f m itm fo r
a l» » l« g l,# a l ora&y*i##,
ooaeiudod th a t th is fra c tio n can he « *•€ saetfe
♦ 4 i» a ta f» « * ly f o r M a o ra le g io a l o la s s llie a tls tt « f s o ils ,
i s t i .«: a le rt.
they a ls o # « j«
a f f e r is * miwiftil .'wetfcel o f §ra#«
lag ..so il, a s s o rtin g to -Si® r##»FV® o f ItttMM wr&ch they co n tain in th « form o f
« i o f jtts tia fa lfih in g the## »id.«fe §mm l i t t l e such r«##r*® *
. B rm A ott m i f v m i
(b) have fo u s i tfeot fr a a ta m t of s o ils m A m i l e o llo ii#
« 4 tli lf.S a it s t l» ra w e ral o f fre e i r * # *M s w hich in te rfe re s w ith »eh «iai© ftl
sasi a i» « l.o g ie a l separatio ns.
Truog* -tb y t« r# i^ a rs o ii, 'Wwefc® sad Simonson ( s i)
f«MMt th a t a t i i t i a a o f o x a lic a c id to #*11
fid # i® mm®
l# M s
mm
a r t i» iy
©oatalstiag
s « i»
in r«sft«t»g tu rn iro n #5ti#§ fr« *. s o ils ® »i -s o il o e l*
hyim$m
s u lfid e ,
I» e«w®*®ti«a w ith s « ® fofea#gitt».
f e r t ilis a t io n e x p o ria e s tf,
YoUc (S t) ia w l« f« 4 a spsetfiio gfM t'tgr astfawl fo r » l » r » l ssqsaraiiesis,
wwfcer newt
# f ts tm h rm o ^ ia s ®
This
G ra v ity 3 .0 ) a n i n itr o ­
benzene |» p ie lf l« g ra v ity 3,,.f ) t # © its ,in heavy tifaMssr w ith s fs e ifle g ra v itie s
■wryiilg feetwuw 3 ,0 and I , i i ,
t#rai& ad 'by m ia ii r e o t method,
mut 4»teradta#d w ith
s p e c ifio §rw rl.ty
fh #' s p s a tfic g ra v ity £ # r# *« h a ix tis ra ■«**« 4 * *
the ia i m
of* - m tr m tim «£■ tt»» liq u id M is tvam
m Abb® ra £ra o te n » t*r» m i by r« f» w « e # t o a $*#$& sdtb
ag ain st i n l « # f :re frs e ti« i'. th e s p e c ific g ra v ity of
the liq ts id s lx ta ra ©#«M be # « t# m in « € .
B itfo re s t groups o f a la « ra ls
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
mmmvAlag
** 1 1 »
to
g ra v ity
m m *#p&rm$e$ fey
e e s trifu g a tio s is
Immy
§0 » i c eeferlfig e
ta b e s *
■t&sn Ifo beter © la y , a. te p re w n te tiv e e f th e Slesenboden g re a t s e ll tree # -,
m s e e le c te t.ffe r t e l * ete& y* lb® Webster © lay t * » develop*# fr w * felghly
®al©8up#«w d r i f t m t e r ia l e f tb s la te W iacoiwta ie # sbeeb asd 'w si*r th e in flu e n c e
«f
.g rate*# m A «#% »#*
m t w a lly fe a r ly d ra is e d *
I t aaeura ©a le v e l te
r e l i e f an# is
ft®- surface a e tl t» ve ry dark g » fiA -% rQ « r» to black
e la j and i« g e n e ra lly I t to 20 inches tfe-ide*
ffe* mmrim® s o il is. o a it r la is
a lt e a tr a il s il t y s la y least la y e r ranging is
from 1 0 -to 1® I »®kes*
th is .layer eb»sg®« re tS ie r a b ru p tly in to tbs 0
a t about S i to S® inches.
f&e € b ar1sea Is- a g ra y , g r it t y © lay l « a s e ttle d w ith ru s ty brews lin e a s i
ir e s s ta in s ,
ffei# t o r i* ® * e c s ta is a a M-ga. aueaat o f « B *te te er*d rack Ibagw m te
as# u m lto r e i
gt&mry mis e ra i# *
th e auspice © f th is s o il p r o file uere ta k e s 10
sA le# a e rte o f Baa Soiiw w , Iowa*
f t t la section te© tetifti® « f o r lo o se , f r ia b le aadlaeate as i a a ila a * developed
by lo s s (2 0 , 21) trnA. by Kublesa ( 15, 16)
aa#& f a r m i# » tu # y*
msA fey
mmm
e s frlc y e t to- prepare te a eeetlose
fis# procedure fa r t e la aaafclea g r« p tm ii© » used by loss.
SsMasa m s a lte re d s llg trfe ly fo r te e m i® se ctio n # used is t e le s tu d y*
<** apactlaaa of soil, about lw * 1® as i* ia site, m s aeleeted from a. aaapl*
#f undlaterbad #©11* as# s a tu ra te d wtte feSteelite lacquer wier reduced pr##»
sure« A fte r e a ters tie s v& te lae® «er tee asceple
«a« alleeed to dry a t recta
temperature far 1 bear# i#»» tee saapl# m « d ry ateugfe I t m s heated f o r 4
te § tour® s t „ Q ° c a s # te e s for
% beer
a t * # ' %© [email protected]®G*
te»' k e | » p t© polym eria# «sd beeowe ‘v ery b ard *
fh® b e s t eattaad
tins s o il A lp , teue feateae
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
mwf- Mwi- *m& mm ia gs»# m m & M m
tor thin section griiiifatg, Hi® .griming
fm m m teassiirt®# of the f#l:lowiag
(1) Sriailag wife
of four degrees of t«xtwre* first, wife & sours©
dual
seee®#,, third « # fourth
with finer textur® 4w**s wti.1 * m r f maefe f*»» mm ebtefa&N m mm si#® of
the soil d %p to * gists* sill® wife melt## kollo-
fe© soil ship, (2)
Mfe or Cmstis tel««as, (s) grinding: fe#.fefefe#fi soil shift- to a uniform thick­
ness of 0.08 ran. to 0.08 s®, by the nmm steps ss «s«<J l» (1}# resov&l of
©arberusdwi and grinding is s t frm , fee feiii
wife js m iff® @i|.# .aai (&)
essexing the ecjng&ete# fein section wife sever #1% as# afprefrtste labeling
mi the section,
%»** «lsfe of parlous imgrm® of
mm found to giv®
mtlsfsotosjr rssnlte for lb© grin d in g prases*-*
1'he feta section. of the § h m rim m CSi®| #f fee Webster slay m s «*#» by
S*f**ogairfeiaf fe e s s ll. «fc% w ith k o ilo lit h
.m&
g rin d in g .« s aeestrihed
ahoy#*. It was fean# feet hotter 1M» ««e%io»s ooaM be e&fel&e# of ra fe s r
mmmm
te x tu re # s o ils 'lo w in organic matter- by t^ w ^ g M tla f w ife l e l l s l l f e
Iw lt a i o f
tmqmmr*
i s w w , th e g rin d in g
mum. f e i * rm&ia m s ms«i «
pmmm
was #1mm* an#
a M s iia g ag**s%, #f a®® ©sdrer*
mm
m*m
te d le w
had to be «*» •
erei-se# .te f aremafe g o ffe a in g m i fe e .k®3loi*'th b y fa s t §.rtw ft»g»
■A feln 'sestiaa mm m4m for fee A hertsm im tf& m }* A hm€&m. flS-*)# *
hsrieon (20 *) an#
0
feorlsaa (.8 ®*)- of fee soil
A ^ot*iorogmph,
nagBiflcatism -®S, m s »#e ffw» thin sent!ess of -mmk sell teiison* fit#
|A0t«lerogifat>|is were «rrsa*f«l la n eoajsoslte jfeofemlcrogrspti eeeerdxng to
the scquenc® of the hoHson* in fee soil profile* figere 8 . '
the flue's*®#
fr«*s ®«®!t o f fe e principal harlssas o f fee Webster
c la y m s obtain®#, by fe e fife tt® » t h o i o f seehaslc#! analysis sad w e # ia
some m ineral sfedlee..
*1m #isf#r«[email protected] a nefeed fe r seehaaieel » « ly » i# «« ie*»
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
Ug m
veloped by QSsM-twni, M e a n d e r mA liia id te n . CIS) « • * »#*4 fo r dispersing the
s o il sample** sod th e in te rn e tiattftl p a r tic le # 1 » . d @ elp »tio *i fo r »»«h«sfe*l
analysis w * seed.
ftesults o f %li«r s&siumleal mm&gmwt mm jptrea i a table 1 ,
the- fin® j»»«I f r m t i m mm g&ww a# fa rth e r brest&M&t f r i a r to ad a® »l#g io «l
isvrest&gabiane.
fit® f t w
m*A
sand
fear a te e r a l stadia® was s e t f i r * aaseeat
hydrogen s u lfid e ttm to s a t as o u tlin e d t y tw .# f « i . a<M*of£«>re (3 1 )
e ls e *
ttst® frm e tie n m s obtained I f tb # standard aethod o f aeokaaioal a n a ly s is 'a n d
e*«eque$fely 1 *4 rece iv e # ao prej»f»ti<s». o th e r than e x id a iio a o f ergptaie n a tte r
w ith S f® * ® a t Ifdrsggen peroxide s a i dlspt f t i « nAth a d ilu te s o lu tio n o f
a o d i» © salat•«
ffee ap«#tfS,«' g ra v ity o f th e lip o id fo r th e d iffe re n t separations m i i« ~
te im ia o i ia d iro o tly by th e a *t£ *d th a t toll? seed (3 2 ).
o f th e mixed liq u id s
mm
d etem issd by
Wim- mm
o f th e
fl*e Isdes
mi mirmi&m
AWm-
and
by reference to a graph previously j» .p r » 4 dheaiag A ® re la tio n o f t« p « r a tn ro #.
index -of r e f l a t i o n s& i s p a e ifie g » v it y *
th e methods o u tlin e d by fm o g and .ae-sroarkera (31) fo r rostoval o f fro # ir e s
« i i # sad th e procedure used by tolls: f o r e p e o ifie g ra v ity .separations were so t
follow ed is d e ta il fo r thees sm ly se s *
d&owti #*-1 g rsaH ref' f l * * a m i a s *
weighed out is §9 « l* heavy duty pyrwx e « itrifw g « tabes a it k sharp angle b o ttetas
mi
afeeafe IS * 1 , o f t® tr«% r«w *tli8a© ware
tm
i js ia ^ e s w ith
a t 1500 rmp*»*
m
a s p ira to r jwiap*
' fh© li< p i4 s y sie a
th e s lx tu m mm cen trifu g ed
m» mmemimi
tm
S9 miautes
©»re m # taken m th a t *1 1 a S a e » l« were t a e e ata e t w ith th e
liq u id a t th e twgtiaa&Bg o f t t * e s n trlfttg a tio a p e rio d .
A fte r a 30-rainute
e e a t-rffs ta tio n period# i f th e liq u id ttwt clear* th e lig h t Minerals a t t t » top
w r e apedispereed w ith m glass re d .
©ere was takes. «®t t » d is tu rb the m ineral®
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
- 24 -
Figure 4. Thin section of a granitic
gravel found in the C horizon (38M) of
Webster clay. Magnification 40X.
Q * quartzj A = apatite; H • hornblende;
01 * oligoclase; PF * potash feldspar;
W P ■ weathering products and PS * pore
space.
60
40
30
m rn m
A-Surf,
'
A -12"
iQuartz group
B-20"
C-38"
Heavy mineral group
Figure 6. Thin sections
of the principal horizons
in a Webster clay.
Magnification 40X.
EzzzzaFsldspar group EZEZsaCarbonate group
Figure 5. Mineral group distribution in
the fine sand fraction of the principal
horizons of Webster clay.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
*► 2 # ■**
fa b le 1 * Meehanleal a n a ly s is , ergas't# a » tt« r esattafe and b a ie exchange
■ w fa e lty # f Wetwrtar ©toy p r a f il#
In
p r o file
* sand * sand i S i l t
t
% .i ^ t
t %
tC lay
s m tte r texehoage
.. -# j£
te a p a e ity
A - S u rf• » .is
IS * « I
4 1 ,2
-it*S
9 .IS
s * .is
A - UP* ''£U 08
16.08
4 0 .1
auT
S«ftS '
ta *&
8 * SO1*
If,# # -
17 . f t
37 .9
80*4
m i
*» •**
» *§ »
ts -ft
s i* #
x o .0
«u
12*49
e ** 18F
'
*Base ex©i»»g« :e *fw t«l% © f s o il before
peroaelde*
'
wiMa fiplr© §e»
fa b le # * m » » I» g .t « a l jyaaXjHiifit « f Hi© fin ® . sand £msk-§m®
o f the
W»bB%0T © lay
p r o f ile
In
*
sCta&e&otet Quarts i Feld spar i r©sorer©4 la
p r s ftt# *»tae»*l.»i' Sion# t group * group iJwetfy U fa id
. «
ff
«
%
i V
> jt
t — gwwuantt jt
A -~ S e rf,
1 4 ft
i.s t
81.41
»<«*
0*08
79.31
It,#© -
4 ,§ 0
A • li*
-i.s §
A - 20 ’*
S*-«#
X-.SE
f® ,4S
2 3 ,3 *
§.» #
;C * Si®
* .4 0
? .M
??*«&
» •**
S*§#
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
mm-
in the b e t t m 'e f th e tu b e .
fa r *»
If t ir
miis^wrAm Wm'm&xlmm w s msfcrSftjgMl
SO. i& m tm mi l rQO r ■*#«&*
H um
was m s $ le te m $9&§®i. by
o f th e l i f a l i the
lig h t K&aerals and liq u id mmm- je e re d e& te a f i l t e r *
fit® f » » y
were
held fir m ly in. th e bottom o f th e tufee by a eerk p ltK g er*. a a ie by a ttac h in g a
glees rod to » ©ork atopper o f desired *% m m t A ll# th e l i t w i i a m lig h t
m inerals were being .peered o f f *
By th is method t « * r gr©t#« o f a d n e rtfls , (1J
> I* f S #. | l l
w ith e jie e ifie g ra v ity
w ith s jw e lfte g ra v ity etw ees. f *#§ &m&
(s ) a ts e ra ls
w ith S fe e lilo .p w rib y iN itm en 2*63 sad 2*68* and (4 ) adnem le w ith sf® oil"ie
g ra v ity < ?*«S w#f# .ebtfclswl f t m
th© fin e t& s i f m o tio n o f th e ls % # t» r © lay*
M t « f th e U ^ul4. b a l f ilt e r e d through, i t m s rm m m m A wswt e to re i f o r
fata**® w e *
The »im er».ie m m ia in g os Ohs f i l t e r .jstper were m ehed several
ttsM # w ith m e te s * *
'9km the- s im r s le worn i f f ; th ey were 4arm#fe rred to 50 w l.
e e a trifa g # ta b # * tritfe a lawny I f f a i i wlilek hm& a S jpeeifie g ra v ity # f » l to the
l o r n It a J t o f th e m a t la m * .grouf o f
Car® h*& to he e *® re i# # i .la
th^s b m m fe r m th a t m m im m M m m fm i, ftA e rta g to th e f i l t e r p&$®r*
fim adtawral # e g *rs ti# i» * w#y© m « l» i w iH i •« % # » » t to 3 M aes by i*#e of
-item- e-estrifmge'ftai trm#f*rr»a t®. fr#fl#«sSy weighed smil p o rc e la in e rn e ib le® ,
tried m i rmei^et*
Cftleslatloii* «er« then mA»m
F e tre g m fM ® » ^ o i » f o r s e iia w s t a m ly s le m m w e t to g e t * t m lit & t lm
d w te rs im tlm o f the r t w a i motamfc o f the. d iffe r e n t a im r e i gres##-*
heavy a lm r a l
& on®
* roagis fa & n iit& b ite M ^ w r te o f th e s » ® t a o f
* p M rtie e le r adsw-arel p ra m s t m e » # •
lb # el-de m r le t y o f adaem le p » # « a t la
#4® heavy g rw p e ffe rd e d * gooft © j^ irtm n ity fo r a d aerei «%wly.*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
Z 't m
of
-
F ig a ro 4 at*#** * ifa la # e ® t4 * $h<Hamlarog?«f!h # f *
th# 38* dopth i» tti# 0 horlsoa o f
ISihoior oHoy*
met
fra g s e a i f e w i « t
fte&rogrophlo «tudy o f th#
thin «#«tlo& of th# r«sle £jmp»«fc- «&«»» mwatriarty of al»»r«l# 1» thto -o®
#
p w a ltt# g » « l ,
<&**«&*» potash feld sp ar, oltg#®!###* h©r»M«ii4% O fo tlt*
iio s t lt y eon be r##eg^.»#4,*.
-«$&. wootherwl gtthorlfti'. o f
th# *®&%k«r«S
s lm m le at wSmmm M ««feity occur la ©lot© fr®att»S%- to th # hernhtwog* «®4
fold###?
*»€ oftonM as* a a o ll kor&hl«w$» ftropumh# « « h©
w ith in
o f th #
a»fc#rl#l*' 5% i# Sj*#r#«tl*ag t# not# t t * t
km wm§Mm**tk « * i« r ia l adhering th ereto , wMmh
■th# wig# o f th# «w&
inaliaaM O .ly*
to- how# egtlew l fr« f® rti# w s ia liiw r to th a t « f the- # o l-
lo li& I m aterial in th#- C hmAmm. {S S *)*
frew th in s#efA «s i t
$&«& th # 6 h«ri#®» |ff® } o f th# Ifohfttor ©lay
ho# * high ©antes* o f l«rg # g ia # « ti g » ia *: j » « * « * * £ Iger# i * ' th is ohaervatloa
i * fa rth e r #tth st«atl*’l#4 hy iwslasnical oaolyaeo d«to g lto a is ta h l# 1*
20.98
peroaat o f th # -mbkmA-ml fw e tla s la ©ear#® #*a4 *rA 26,70 p*.?re#»% 1« f la *
.fiei4,
^iw rts., flagioeX### £«M »far»#
or% h#eM^#'..-k#i,&fe:iea^#.
ougito, c & le ite #. M o t it * «mS m. fm aim or n&mml® eeaid ho w # © p il*e i la th#
th in soetiea o f th i# 7te r i* ia »
’
fh# m l w r & l ' b i t t e n o f th# etfoo-r thro# la y e r*'fo llo w & soswifeat
ffcttom, ## tha t horlsea {SS*}, K inrrail atadles #sd obasiwofciotts
hoton# store « d aero -ttffie ra lt a# th# oosfcaat of organic s e tte r iw - r w t s ,
low oror, quart** a&eroelin#* pl& gioel##* foXdO^o##* p r r « « »
fetotlt# nai «ieit« em- h# r#«ogsl.».#d -la %
&
» A «&£ 8
ORjMkat#
h»*4s®»* fw®
^ ia
that tst«rf#r» 'wtth. mi*er»A stadi-##. ©f #®11# is
*r# (1) the r«ad*
sf th® aia»ral g«-lw «®i (B) tite
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
d i f f i c u lt
o f fe e Beefc# I i m
of
oesurrlag in $t gressd-
m m high ia wrgeaie sm feer*
ta M *. 1 glees fe e
eetnpesiiloa* ergtrale a it t s r eoafenfc « tf. base
efehsmge ©apsei'ty o f ©i«ti la y e r o f fee Webster © lay p r o file used is th is study*
L i t t l e feeage Sm mmhamoe l es»|w»i%i®n eeewrs l a fe e 4 h o riso a (su rfm ee),
4 fe ris e n (H ** ) a n t i herisea- (20” ) j t o w i r , fe e C herlsem fees a much h ig h e r
esxraat s f o m rm send, fin e sand tm& . s i l t M il jp re p o rtle e s ts ly le s s © la y *
though fe e re is l i t t l e
Iw a
i f f fmmmm is © ley content, le s s than two pereeab* be­
tween fe e 4 to ria e n (s u rfM # ) m A A hmriwm '{ 1 * * ) fe e re ?i» e#n sM e»tb le
d lf § « *« © » In base «®«ls»§e e a p e e ity between these two la y e rs *
The eurfeee
la y e r te*» * tease emBhesqge eegmus&ty ©# M *6 6 m*e* per 10© grams s o il w h ile fe e
efefeag e © « p » ltjr f o r fe e A h o riso a ( I t * ) is f§ *S m*®* per 100 grw ®, s o il*
A
s im ila r deerees* la o rg w i# m atter content ami bmm easehsag* « p » o ity is noted
hefeetK fee A fe«r£««a (IS t*) « i i .8 h e rife a (2 0 " ) feesfgb fe# © lay e o n te a t toes
n e t s a ry more than ©as f r e e s t *
fa b le t fir e s a ffe m tita b iire m in eral © © ^position
o f fe e serio u s layers ®£ fe e W ebster © la y*
of th e
fin s sand fm o tto n
fits fe&sy m in e ra l# a re present in
fe e 'w w m t m i l* t t i p e reeat la fe e s e rfe e * * 1 1 , m i- semswhah ax iw r is fee
o th e r la y e rs *
2.*80 pereeah o f fee fin e send
tvnstim Sm fe e
A . h erisea (1 2 ").
1 * eee$CN»«d « f fcemey M w s re le , ® * ii p e ro ra t # f fe e fin e se a l in. fe e B horizon
{8©®} Is eeagMMNNi o f henry sdw fet® .,.
mM
0 herlsom (if® ) l» eeapeeed o f hwwgr
&*$& pereest
mi 'fee
fiis e sand i s fe e
ftes ©mount o f m im m ls - Sm fee
esfteom fe group m ri.e e eew ertet between fe e snrfh.ee end fe e meet fe e 'la y e rs ,
m hieh a re s la ile r in f e l* re sp e e t *
th e h ig h e s t » 0SBt o f fe e ' m & b o m t* group
in any eee la y e r 1# la fe e C teerlssw *
ffljle is te be expeeted s-lne* th e C
Jtorieos was nofed to be h ig h ly eslesrew u# in fe e f ie ld e xm n im tlo a o f th is
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
m- HH «*■
p r o f ils *
layers
la
iw ria tio a f a tpwrfes
eg llif®
t a l l p r o fit# *
fit®.
Mmtmm
I t status fey t t e m rio u ®
te s tt® highest sasunfe ff^sent* i l * 4
pejitetefe* »s4 th e 1 h o riw a (I® * ) & **
« w « r t ytessmfe* ?e*4 f# ra e » t»
tie f#M®f»r e « t» t o f Us* A h& rlxm {» m t» m *»si It**)
ssotieeafel#
S» low f®Mej®r
*n<3 diffiei&fe %
e
not
v & r j in
fa the Cterisoa.i* w*3sjr«®t®d
Ordinarilytte f#liifwir eowtesfc i®
'-to fe®
iil^#r ta fete taster layer* of a toll profile.
fig u re § stews the a fo o t* ! oo9Eg?o#itlon of tt# #S®» mm& fraetim of fte
if®fe#%«r #1»y p r o fit#
y*
la feafe.1# S feh* te w y a f t e r * ! * p r###»t im the f i t # »iiiwt
o f th e
Wefetier «J&f p r o f ile e re liafeed s u i fete r e t e t iw a fe m fc ti* » f each
Is
lo ra fe le a ie »ad w g ife
fete feewsy
gwmp.«
nta"* !•*
th e
are
present
K is e te t* p re te s t la
mm m m
tie s #
€ te rlte s t (S S *| 'fetes* fetey
is
mm
'Mmml
in the
S Iw r f ® « {SO") a » i
im the mmtmm. aw l & h e r i t «
( It ® ) *
Ip t te t e
M.$ter ia 'Si# s a rfte e . f& yer it« a la :* ® y o th e r la y e r * I f Is- la t e r *
e s tia g .to » t # fe te i tisf* sptfeMse B it e r * !
throughout the s o il p r o f ile *
ia s ig n ific a n t anetefee*
9.
9mrmt
mn%mi t
i® s m lt,. i® i ttB if© «tg r#®
is fete o a ly a f t e r a la e rm i th a t. Is p reseat
M a e ra l® id e n tifie d a a i p re te s t l a
mmil mm-mim are
tifs w ff# *. s ttu r e lii® * e y s a ite # t e t e lw it e * rwtetle aa<! a
few o tte r® *
C |» r tt I * «s® « f the
-mmmmly :
$mm&
ia « # il® p « a i since i t Is
highly r««i«ttat to «tefeterlag* 1% teals fee fesneoas « fei^ter jrefsrtiea «# the
to t a l a la « » l* jr s te & t as fete feldspar® «te ftetes»g*»® 4«a .a liw ra l# tetet& er
o u t*
13te la rg e r afewates®# o f ferpsim gi® #!*® ir ta trs ls * «ettfe% li«r® |jleate- and
®agl%®, la th e 8 s ^ i g feeris«te- ladl.w tefe' fetet d iffe r e a fl& l w e e th # rl% is
m%tm
i» th is s o il*
fh #
of
ia fete .surfate s o il ia »
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Jab!®.®* Sela-tiir# ttew &m em m i ,h m 9y m im m lm In f i m
& Webster clay
*
'
p r o f il#
i
fi
*
.
M in eral
*
$
- 12* i B - 20* ! C * i t *
i
s
Sernblesda* .
Tt t■*.
»T*V
A u g ite **
TTT
444*
tSaraet ■■
44-
%[email protected] t®
•»-.«
T-T'T Tu
i. »
.*
sand
-t. *
“ t t t
itfri
'T?W
lAntfi-
.
TT *rT
A
..,-*.-
*v
4
44
M.
. 44+
44
TTf
44
44*.
44
4+'
4
4 ;
♦
4
iir a t ®
♦
♦
4
♦
f lt a & it #
4
4
.44*
.A-
..
■
*..•«
,
A A
♦
MmwmWs®
C yanite
*
4
4
♦
A ndalusite
4
♦
4
+
R u tile
4*
4
4
#
© tber ttHnarala
4
♦
♦
4
♦
Juagbibolaa » hornblende pe*&m£mx& m&mml*
* * Pyroxenes «* augit© predominant m in e ra l.
4+44 Very abundant.
44+ Abundant.
44* P resent in m m ll amount®.
4Present in tr a e * proportions .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
mi
' * .$1 **
d le s te s th is itia e r& l .1* re s is ta n t to w efttliafisg,,
However, d e fin ite
mmUhst
th© gfifla©v«
q u a rtz .
cannot fee wade, «!»«# the p a re n t m a te ria l 1®
g la c ia l t i l l and is g e n e r a lly not homogeneous.
Examination &£ th e earfeomte group p e tre g ra p fe ie a lly in d ic a te s th a t £ m
m inerals a re present ether than ealcite, iolosit© tini aragonite*
o f a m c a lik e s in e ra l '*«& be id e n tifie d o c c a s io n a lly *
A fragment
This group o f m inerals
is f a i r l y © lean, i» e « , only « ra re heavy m in e r * !,■fsafcrt# o r feldspar is found
to be p re s e n t.
f b » o m h m m te minerals are not extremely ©loan in that they
are coated with a A r t y gray sateri&l, possibly * weathering /product.
The a-utstaadiag d i f fores®® in the carbonate i&B©rfcl » « p o s itio n o f the
Webster ©lay p r o f ile is th e much la rg e r amount >p resen t is the C horisen ($ § **).
As eaqjl&iaed :*ls*M here t h i s was to be expeeted*
S aim tB fctlon o f the
group from th# su rfa ce la y e r of th e fin # sand
fm e tio a o f th is s o il IMieatea th at th is s e p a ra tio n is n o t as ©lean as it
should fee* $esm © a le tte *tm b e h s ^ s m s and s h e ll £ m & a m t* are .present* Some
o f the
Klntswls- east be id e n tifie d ,
east fe® lie a t if ie i*
l* a a l» tlo a o f
ifeae f#w .a lo ro e lia o .grain®
% m ttt gm w* £ tm the A h o ris o s {12w)
shews that t M ® s«psr®fei.«i 1*®- mush less e«rfeeaete'.ead ylsgleelase minerals
present.*
Sreetieelly a l l of the
mm fee id e n tifie d a# quartsi how*'
e v e r, th e re are tea* few M w sra ! grata® that are s o t ©least i» re gard to seat*
tugs and are d if f ic u lt to i# t« ra la ® »
k
sefMs^bi®® fo r th e quartz g ro t#
in the 1 horttes {$ 0 *} mm o fe t*ia e € | $ m t an
g ro t# ©sat fee Id e n tifie d *
v e ry slew s*
Tfi# f«,r% a. §r©«p obtained
m im m % .fo re ig n to the
£mn
the c horizon i * n o t
S everal earfeo»t«. stinem ls and a. few *eee«#oary s to e ra l® can fee
ia th is g ro t# .
The feldspar group has saere osata«i,»tioB than any o f the groi# # *
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Ib is is
eeqpeeted* h < r n ir t f o r two
{1} H I
w&mml»
w ith any adhering ■«&»■
«te&e# o f le v sfweoifl# g r « i t j r Ts«r» held. up 1» the M a y y liq u id « d n o t 'allowed
to eefcfcl» o a t in to th e jgtoaiwJ, group to whisk i t r ig h t fu lly hele&ged* and (2 )
any swhstaae# o r » S re x *l gresy*- tfe&t d id n o t com out w ith the other m ineral
groups. j» ts a « lly f a ll, ia th is group*
th is .group ha-ve
fhe f a s t th a t
m ay tit th e
m inerals la
adhering to i&s su rfee# eeg&N&s*# th #
tw » tia # a i to ®l#s» the t&ddyid&ftl g ra in s *
of
As. y ro v io a e ly # t# t» 4 the fin e sand
fp a e tio a ###£ ia m i# study wk# ««rt. tre a te d w ith neatest hydrogen e u lfld e as
auggested hy f r w g fo r' e a g le t® r«we«%l ©f #11 e e lle id fe l
rrs in # *
1» the fe ld s p a r g « ft# o f th e fin e # * M
ea the
fpmsttm. of #a#fc
s o li,
.layer i t appears th a t adore# 1 i» * s a t M rtiw o ifca*, fo tM tt fe ld s p a rs , a w the
predominant m in e ra ls .
m% m mmh, as
Th® pl& gioolas# feld s p a rs
th e pet&sti fe ld s p a r# *
o f th e fe ld s p a r .group o f aAaeral#
tm
wm
quit® « h w d « t.r though
Gbmrm%iom of mmoml
a i« ro *e o p lo fie ld #
«a«& s o il p ro f'fl# la y e r isd ieat® # th®
esatsnt o f potass fe ld s p a r i»e*#w®e# eessi& eis& ly w ith, *« e e # # *iw *iy 1ewer
herlS eas*
J e ffr t# # ( If i) also noted an
la eoBtsenfc o f os# o f th # potash
feldspar#,, e d e re e lln e , w ith tw ? m s # i p r o file depth t»
towa s i l t l«agi*
g ra in s .
stw ti##. on a Bagerc-
A 3*rg® p « i« f t 4 « i o f the feld s p a rs l a th # Wsfesiwr s la y ,
e s p e c ia lly th # pet&ah f o l d e r # , ess&iMt
mmr&l
mm
i&rk © oatiag#
on th e ta ttv lA s a i
J e ffr ie # (1 1 ) h a * ae&sd a veetltered fe ld s p a r In th e potash
fe ld s p a r# ooourrlsg' In a Ssgerste*® *11% le s s f r e f i t # , awt ha# #**& i t as a
# r it « r i# a ia detersdUglsg: th# e x te n t o f waetherlag; in the # e t l*
1% i# q u ite
lo g le a ! to oonoetir# th a t fchl# im rk « « atiag s e te r le l ti& t, adhere* to th e potash
fe ld s p a r* In th e
e le y 1 * a efem&eal [email protected] a$o*it£*» pftKftwt th a t d»-
w t# p # A # s th # p o tM s iu a , sodiwa. end oaleitaa elnsdae .s ill# a t® « watorg#
ehesdeal twwtttosriag*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
mW m m rs estt Cor«eluslons
fb #
wm
o f «. sow ta e lis ifo e i a studying s o ils fw rn lv e # «, eerfeais. amount o f
e ^ w i» iit iis g is o rd er to e w e r ta in il*e v a lid it y o f such. * now jaettted o f «tady*
lino® fchln-iwwtl'aa
tea'*®. sfeVbeea e x i^ aiA v e J f
m«4
la s o il la e w e tt-
work e.cerfeais tweosb o f supples® nfcary ir fo w o tlo a must be obtained
before m m M m l& m m um m kng tb e v&lue o f th e w m nebbed* mm be « *rre ® tly
W4®:»
tfe ia e e e tio a * o f s o il fre^seafc* takea f v w th e p rin c ip a l
imrtmm
in
m
Webster ©lay s s il ffeew th a t & w ii# v a r ie ty wf « # ii s ia e m l# eats be id e n tifie d
by th in ®«©ti®» ebady w ith » getrographie
e e p e ^ tl& a * o f the
e la y provide a
However, th in
tIs #
wmm®
S p eo ifi© g ra v ity
# * # fre e b ie s * in tb® g rla e lf& l, korlsoas o f the Webgter
o f more d e ta ile d m ineral a ttsdy 'than th is sections a lo w do*
--.studies -have eerb&ia *& reata& «e*
% e th in sections can
be s«*S l a .»fcl»g a good* ra p id % w lit& b t*s detem in& tie® o f the M n e ffe l* ia
th * s o il sad e«a be q u ic k ly rn d e, w here** s p e c ific g ra v ity deterjsinations re­
q u ire e « M ti® r» b l» tiase*
Furtherm ore, t h is seoMoas r®v»®l the m inerals in
tfe e lr statural p w rltio a a i a r * le tie & to the e th e r a ts w ra l* *®S o o w tite e a ts o f
ifee t o i l , i» f o r » t io a which is s e t » § f« * » b wt*#» the ««a$le 1 * sixed as fo r
8 t# ® ifio g ra v ity ie to ra d im tie n **
which ©g» be re fe rre d to
tvm
fit® th is s e e tie a is als o *, p erm seat record
hisas to Mis#
m
new
shies# sad grableas a r is e .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
** -$<4 »■
m ix « t
tm 't f s e iis a * b tmsL m m nm m e is m f* m$mmw T m m m
.. psopixfus Qf m t fsm sw a, nm im m m m m son, pn* xbptixss
SSESt
I t was thought th a t th is s e e tia *
Iw h ie m «eaM .-he « f « l »
e ls ii& tr to those i t t f l s p l hy
t a ob tainin g a j#are aem irats p le ta r#
® l*sr*«terls% i#« o f the ##11 p ro file *-
Is order
to
&i
the. n a tu ra l
te s t tit# m l m ® f stash
sethed* l a IttW # tig ® tlo a # f s e ll ajaffstalegy, & study e a t pleased
to Amtomtm
to® relationship# bmimmm mmvtoto Sheialeal eat physical .frejwrtie® of the soil
and tfe® a l:# y®s#®fls features-. efeserw i ia 1hi& s e e tls a # *
I i » - s o il ty p e s ,
r# p r»« *fitis |§ seven g reat ##11 groups, eer® e#Jested fo r th is .study*
o f s o li typo# was # # le ® t*i Is o rd e r th a t any
lo g y apparent ta IM »
© ateleguei
ms a. hast#
th is number
d if f e r * # # # la m i ffeo»
o f A # m r iw ® s o ils s ig h t be [email protected]##rlfc#i. sad
f o r fu rth e r iws#&r#& #a tii# ssetflwjegy end genesis o f
the## g re e t s o il groups*
D escrip tio n o f Soil®
®b# s o il# s ta tie d is th is l« f# # tig a ti© » r#pr#.s#»t s rrs n g re a t s o il grooms*
t&@ s o ils studied a re F ayette s i l t le e s , * #rsy»%row. F o is o lls e o ilj; N orfolk
I® ® , &
P o d |# iio s o il# i%«#gd®efa#s ssasdy lo s s , a H ei y o is o lie a o ilf
fi&arriiigtea s i l t lim a , Shelby s i l t y c la y lo ss ami Ih irs h e ll s i l t y © lay loam,
P r a ir ie « o ila .i f « f » » c la y I omj, * @h#rs##sm s a il* ie h s te r olayv s' W l##s»*
TsedSsft# -sad S&uste® ©Jay*. a Kend-gisa s o il*
fh© .fa y e tte s i l t
.
leest is a S m y»b r® ss ¥ # d s » li# s o i l d # r# l® f# d fr w a lo e ss
d e p o s its ia . s w rth am etem lows end northw ester® , I 2 1 i » I s *
f t .secure ® a -r o llin g
to s tr o n g ly - r e llliig to p o g rap h y,, m i i s a f r i a b l e sad w # ll d ra in e d s o il*
th e
te s ta r # o f th # 4 , 1 sad 0 h e rts o n * 1# r a th e r e a tfe rs e ly •*• s i l t loam o r s i l t y -
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
m ,$S m
e la y ! * » *
th is s n il m t im m m g e n tle slopes %*' u tilis e d t m
and e» s teep er slopes I t la feast nd&pted to f & * t iir * erops*
|W » 1 © rs-pi
Swapl## war© ts&ea
'mm Itixm&srg*- Xewn*
WmtsM.'tmm is
$&*
[email protected]» mA
sandy e la y s *
and s i l t ao»fc««t*
* fe llo w Pod&elie s o il derived
tnm
toaeonaolidated
The sorftt## s o il is ft lig h t yellow la sm.high in , sand
f i t s la y e r Is a boot 8 inshss .-think*
"Min, fey a la y e r o f y#ll®wlsli*»fr&y fr ia b le s i l t Is # * *
y e lls * , s lig h tly n e ttle d seat w ith a considerable
fits s a il is g e n e ra lly s lig h tly a a li ta
mM*.
fra itta tio s . © f ©sttem , teln etm and peanuts.
fife# surfne# is 'm A m *
fhe C" li& tim a is &
m&m&
o f © lay a a i s i l t ,
1% l.« u tilis e d ® M © £ lj f a r the
the tatsplss mmm ©ifctnlned near
ifewskteim# M is s is s ip p i *
•fhm laeagdaA as
mmA
ssndy la w , is a la d fodsoii©- s o il d e v e ls fe i
tmm, .green-
o a rl*.- I t ow nra an tM dulating to g e n tly r o llin g ta fs g m jijf' and- i s w a ll
fo r a s o il w ith *»«h a h ig h s l a y oentsnt*. . S » surfnee s o il is a red d ish *
gray s-aMy
torn w ith. m a y
h.oris<m i® n s u s liy
,pmmMr, re #
a n a ll* psfefelfv
■faafa'towm Iro n
e e a e rs tle a e *
th is
aheat I f in sh s* think-* S3» 1 le r is s a :t * m brittle -«»&
« l« y wfcieh is n e t f M e tis m ls s s v e ry w©t| tr© a
p reseiit la th is la y e r-a ls o ,*
are
B horison extends to * depth o f sheet I f
fhm .6 ho rinsa is & lig h t re d s la y srhiefe 1® q u it* fr ia b le *
c ry s ta ls and sea s h e lls a re ’fr» -« « » t
Im&m an
$3nueenlh*
avernge depth o f 5 o r S fe e t*
She s «b^ 1 s * t f th in p f ® f il« ’'»Rr# ^ k s « f n i l * * e a s t #£ isoogiesfessi,
ttt
till*
Cm^ingitm u l l t
lo w is , « f^ n ir ie s e ll deveXsgted £*>#»
l i d * t i l l is -SsMmmI te -s a average depth
is sh eet 13
imhm
TrinMlm m &
loess *
»t
t i fe e t*
tmm
g la e is l
ffee « a r£ *e * s o il
th in k «*#. i# a i& rlt gim ytsh-ferow s i l t loam
whmh. im q u its
th e snrffcee s a il is m aterl-sln fey a ferowaisfe s i l t y s la y
1®«» to a, s i l t y e la y lo w *
% is ie r ls s a Isas fre q u e n t ru s t ferona -stains la i t *
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
*» .$$ ■**
m i l ty p o © tears *
o r ily ite in s M l*
w iia la tin g %« fu llin g te|M agtegliy * a t i© s a tis fa c t­
Cot®, te ts i* tla s -th y M ti ©I#©#*** and. woylHMaui arts ttw m jo r
©rop# y ro ite te #» th is t e ll*
ft# a«afl«> g lim © f tM * p ro fII# is te a r
rtefe* f© » **
ft® Shelby s ilt y .c k f l i e
© arfhte*.
i« s. P p iir i# # ® il nrltb a d&sie g ra y !#&*fcr®#a
f t # srasrftee t# y # r o r A ter£so& 4 * shout -1® to S
th e s o il has saffasrtti l i t t l e i f « « f ere#!#® *
g r it t y fo llo w ite -b rw s s s ilt y s la y *
g l& e ia l t i l l ,
fli® t i l l
is
flue
imhm
tM « k wtesr#
is w d erl& ia: by *
ib is .s o il typ® has developed from l« a s a »
o w r ls ia fey m th is.felash w t o f 1®®##*-
s o il ©tear® « . g e n tly #©£ s te s r& te lf r o llin g topography*
ra th e r m km m l’m ly la mmMmm Mam- and
I t 1# t e t e lo f e i
Klsaosari a s i 1® mm lsgK»rt&»t
s o il % f« fo r tts* fro i« ® tlo » o f g r a f t sad pastor# crops.
s o il typ# were taicea f r o * tb *
th is
Sit# ® w pi#a t f tfats
toil Erosion Erperiswt S ta tio n plot* ioeatte a t
B#tfesaty# lls s o w rf*.
th e S araisitll s i l t y « la y lo w * i# a f » i r t o s o il ■ im im i t r m
p o s its i a tester® . Iowa # « t # l« « » a rt teat ta s te rs 8 « l » i a »
Is e s s ia l <te»
fh i# © o il typ#
mmmrs m g ta h ly w ilin g to sharply r o llin g tefw gfsf& y n a l is w a ll d ra fte d *
ffe# # # r£ *e * s o il I * a t e r y dnrit; grayish-brown. •s i l t y © lay lo a» and ia a s m lly
10 t # 16 ftehes th ic k *
fh » I itorison is I t to I I inch## in tb ia te e *# sad
w r i « fro® a g te y lth -fe te is i s i l t y c la y in ttt# S j h.#riso» to a y # llo *is h *fe r« m
s ilt y ©lay in
tfe« %. h o riso a* ft.# C ho riso a 1* aty # llw 4 * li-fe w w to g ra y is h -
yello w s ilt y s la y ted is
o fte n c & lte m m s *
f t i # s e ll la h ig h ly p ro d s© tir# and
is mm o f th # aost i^ « r% « a t s o il# dte«3agN»& Is lo w *
p r o fit# ■#»*# ■kmkmn ia
Zmm nm r- C l© rin d s*
ffca ftanaws t la y loasi is a
lis o o a a ia d r if t is
th e #*apl#« o f th is s o il
s o il d#telog>#& from h ig h ly ta le a re ta #
lorth and fo trth Safest#*
ft#
la y e r it a black
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
tmm
e la y
and has a d ia tia e t
Him
10 taohos ih ie k *
gmmlmt
Mm
s trw e tn r# *
is a brown- lows
th is la y e r I s f
m§
mm M
to
[email protected] about 10 iaehe®. tM e k *
The s e a t lower la y e r Is a lig h t gjpayiste^hWiBa %» lig h t gray c la y lo a a and Is
about I t ineiie#. fh isfc*
a t ® s o il is
4mml®fed
S ic ily ©aleareon* g lfto la l d r i f t lie s below the
sm..smooth to slo p in g topography and is w e ll drained*
Spring wheat is th e s e a t vlsqpertaaerfc. ewp^grew* #» th e s e ll*
e a s ts ® ..part o f Sooth Sa&eta
«a th is s o il*
mtum*
mm,,. o a ts
l o w w , in the
a a i b a rle y a ® .grows. ra t& e r eeasso&ly
the samples o f %Ms p re fix # were bsfcea s e a r fe w e r.6it.y». 'lo r th
Bskota.*
S » *#h ® ter ©l&y is a ®Xe««b©#®» « a i is described on page H i*
th e Itewstoa © lay is a Ita is ls jft s o il ie w f c f M f t m h ig h ly ©al«&r»o«s
» r ls
in ©en&ral T # » s and AXahaaa*
fis i suri&c® is a r * r y daric grayish-brown
to black c la y which heeeass' irerjf s tie k y wfeea » t *
d e s ira b le ■gmmmMr shrttotar® •
When t r y the s o il la s a
the subsoil is 'a brwm to y e llo w h ig h ly 'sale*
dense «2*y# r e a d ily f« » tr a t® d by p la n t r o o t* is s p ite o f i t s d e n s ity .
fh » so il.,.
&mvatrtag
on suooth to r o llin g topography, 1# is ^ o rta n t a g r ie a ltu m lly
sad prod nee® a m r ie ty ©f ©reps*
aai
mm
« a l t g ra ta a le e grodnoed*
f i l e were obtained
mm
feupXe, fe rn s *
g ra in
mmgkwm
C etto a is . the
e re p , w ith corn,
fh # .s a b le s ® f th is pro­
®q>egi.3wmtal
1b ob tainin g seo&attieal cojiipositaoa o f the p rin c ip a l herisows o f each
s o il p r o file the
mm§l« •
were f i r s t d is p e rs e ! by th e Method deeerlbed by
QXastsfcd* A ie m a ie r * a i Iftd d lo to n (1 8 ) •
fh # p a rtto l# e ls e designat-los o f the
ia t» rs a ti© » X wethed fo r seeb eaieel an a ly s t# m s used#
S in e* th # s i l t and
©lay fra « t,i# s « war# to he used fo r fa ta ® .asineralogleal w ork, th e d e ta ile d
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
* It »
procedure -c a lle d fo r i» the re g u la r j>ijsebte nethcd o f m m b m lm t analysl® m®
re rfe e d ,ao »«rtat*
tfct# re e l# Sc® e o a s l-ite i m m m tt a lly o f e e je rn tta g the s i l t
m il eja-y b y repeated e e d im a fce tici* end d e e m te b le n *
fh l.« -se paration m s
obtained by pM®l&g the s i l t and c la y .»«tp»@ i©» in a lOO# m l. g » i w t « , f i l l *
la g ih # gm dm te to ils-e lot© s i*
. w ittt m te r * a ta tiig the s i l t and c la y
thoroughly ia tfe# graduate by ton s m
osd actions,. and ie e a a *in g .
0£ the
upper 20 ©a* o f suspoastsa a f t e r s u ffic ie n t ti* ® * a® m lcm latcd by Stokes* tarn*
had « & ^ * * tT fb r p a rtic le ® 2j* in diam eter to f e l l from the ®«rf«w® o f the- liq u id
to a -dcptix o f
cm*
lit is process m s repeated u n til th e upper 20 ©a. o f the
8«j»3m fa»% liq u id showed »
tu r b id ity a f t e r s e ttin g the required tim e fo r
parti©!.#® iif t li fiiw #% #r o f f-yu to f a l l 20 ©m*
m s d rie d cad weighed*
f ie s i l t r*m ix& n g isi the' c y lin d e r
fe # -w suat o f ©.lay mm detersiia## by d iffe fe a o # .*
.He*
* u lt * «£ th e a M t e i l w l analyses are g im n .in ta b le i *
fe b tn ssa (IS ) ia f» « M g » t« d the use o f hydrogen peroadie fo r s o il o rg a n ic
ja n ito r diM bcrssim tie®# -and eeaspared ,-th l* a e th o i w ith H i# o rd lm ry d ry aiwi w et
e « * s s tio o M sthods*
2« tm m i th a t th e hydrogen p ro x i-i® method gam re s u lt®
in w if t t © « im m h lm to th e m sb-w ebi-m sM sttiol o f o rg a n ic a a tto r do te ra ln a tie r *
S « W « r» * h i« w cthcd d id n o t g iw re lia b le .re s u lts w ith s o ils h ig h ia m l© lean
carbonate,
d io x ife « r chrtas&m s# » t« io xid » »
Im p re p a rin g s o ils fo r
aeohaaiosl a n a ly s is O lin s tm i, 41«s«d#n and « 4 tl# io » (IS ) re » T # d tit# o rg a n ic
m tt» r b y u*« o f hydrogen peroxide •
few s o lu tio a lo s s , upon hydrogen pe roxid e
tre a ta m t, was m ra lfe fw d th e s m » mm organic- s e tte r co a tw st*
th is m s n o t
true- fo r a ll s o il® * b u t fo r » o » t -s o il# i t w w t r m *
fe e n in e s o ils s tu d ie d in th is
were tre a te d w ith § p e rce n t
hydrogen p e fc x ii# u n til [email protected] ©arbon d io x id e was e yo lm d wpms. fu rth e r a A titio m o f
the hydrogen. p e ro x id e *
fe e s o lu tio n le e # ugwa tr m ta s s t w ith hydrogen pe ro xid e
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
fa il# 4 . rn ^ 'k m lm t cojapos^txoa o f tfe* priaeigRl horlsotsr of aise s o il
% j» p r o file s
; lorlscw i
*
*
*
11 3 .0 0 r&tory *Peyeeut i Peroent *Bereent
Kane of soil * rnd
i Septh
t number
t sand t s ilt » el&y
*
Sae©i4e«ii»-s
sandy loan
Carrington
s ilt loam
I
«
7• .
e
8*2
5.4
S.3
7.1
72.3
74,1
68.6
m *a
•
10
n
45*0
25.2
41*6
5C.2
' $?,?
A • -SAriifte* 12
10”
13
20®*
14
. Si*
IS
69.3
50*3
24*2
S2.2
26.4 4,2 ■
30.0 It.? .
16.0 60*0
26.8 41*1
IS
17
IS
25.4
21*4
80.7
« * § 18.9
57.1 21.3
SO.2 10 .0
19
20
21
21A
22.8
27,4
SO.6
46,®
48*8 313*8
ii.f
$7*9 30*4
m * 9. so«s
63.4 » J 9
61.6 35.1
61.0 35.7
61.7 33*1
I
1
Payette s ilt 4 **■ .8*
loam
A » 5»1S*
1 «P
C - it*
A - 3*
1 - 12* * 16“
0 - 37*
A ■* 3* '
» - 20*
C * 36*
ffeibstiaar olay A - 2- 4”
A - 12*
1 - 20°
e * 38*
10*4
20.3
26.0
27*8
: S*&18.5
18.7
*
Starf&e*
IS*
22*
40*
22
23
24
26
7,5
3.3
3.3
4.2
Shelby s ilty A *
A•
slay loam
B6 *
Surface
B-12*
20*
20*
2?
28
if
SO
18.7
6.5
8.9
14 a
8US
SS*S
61*5
m *i
Mom^m * 3*y
A «* lw fs «e
10*
20*
SO*
31
si
S3
84
11.7
7.3
6.8
6*4
St .5 49,2
40.4 52.3
41.6 51*5
44*1 49*6
Barnes el&y
loam
A - Surface S *
A - 12*
37
39
■St*
40
42*
82.1
40.6
26 .0
48,0
44.8
88. 8
43.5
36 .7
Marshall
s ilty el*y
loam
A
A
8
0
.
m *»
40,1
39.8
27.6
23.1
23.4
30.0
20 *S
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
was o o a s ia s re i m ' ia iio a f i m
o f t t » e rg e a ie sattto r
o f th e a n il*
ffeer*
wee a substea®# or some eti’b steaeea ia th e Houston ol**y th a t p » ^ « fe © i o x l& tio a
o f th e organic s e tte r by hydrogen peroxide*
I t is po ssible th a t th e h ig h ly
calcareous nature o f '’• i t * * ® il p ro m s fe i
hydrogen peroxide.
o f th # orgaalo a a tt« r % th©
Furthers®**©, wmg&tmm dioxide mmy Hava been present which
would h a w %««a oxid ised before organi® w att#? *
ft® organic m a tte r content of
each o f ft® p rin c ip a l ■bor&eoos ia e ig h t s o il p ro file s is given ia t«hl® ■§*
. Tim
hea* excliiisg* cejw sity of th # priaeip & i Herlsea*
o f
eeeh s o il typo
stu d ied wee o lts im d % leachin g -w ith.jtasnasl
«*#«»*
washing ffe®
io n s* end d is t illin g th e msma&A {tftS-l*:
ewMtaps
Basalts o f th e m has#
g e rm in a tio n s are lis te d ia %*¥!« i* "
th e p i o f th e p rin c ip a l horizon® o f th # s o ils t»»SE%ig«t#d w
lay th #
o f
glmm elmtmiM
w »ttK *i,
The pR
€»% #«in#d
d s trn s is a tlo h # nr# glvw a.tsi ta b le S.
■
' Taper presenre date w«y# ctetnlned fo r tfc« p *i® eip *!t h e rts e s * of' -each s o il
by * jie tlio i. » J » ila r to th a t ns«d by dtoelik (2P)«
A s a a lt p o rtio n , o f s o il* S
to fi g r « » * m s 'Weighed oust i a sm all glass p w trt dish®# « a i f !&«#& is *
g sslsssto r o o »tftlM »g l i percent- s s lfn rt# ;«ei&<r
evacuated w ith
th®. s o il
mem
m
f t # d esiccator m s then
eml
a s p ira to r pump end allowed. to set ia a r n r k
to a
w eig h t*
A ll A®%@«fjaa%ie*i# mans
fb « a th e s o il M i, esne to e q u ilib riu m ia th is atmosphere i t
place u n til
m.Am Im t r ip lic a t e *
mm
weighed end
tiw m sferred to another io sfeem tor co n tain in g ■£$*$ percent su lfu rl® . a c id *
ft®
d ro ln e e te r o^aitsimiJig" 4S*§ pereeafc s a lfn r io *M tii anti the- soil" sample* we*
evweneted and allow ed %@ s e t m t i l f t # s o il os®® t®
a o is tw # '
m eaewtwst
w eig h t*
fit®
o f th®- s o il ...in e q u ilib r ia * with. th e ataospl®*® in an evacuated
d e e ie e a te r cosfeaim, g 66 percent- « **lfu rie s o li m s datezwinsdi a ls o . % th is
preeedure. th*' asoietere ©«»% «* o f th e #® H in « § o Ilftr iw ii w ith f t # -etwwphere
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
** 4X •*
fa b le S* O rp ts l#
mtetmt
[email protected]
p6 m & 1m m
h&timm at a l m
* F w re e ^ **
M b . j arga»l© % SB
* I t * « m it e r t
*
t o l l type p ® -f ile «
i mm
-**
H
5
1
*«©h&»ge
iseapaeity
i r . e . / l ’OO gm s o il
11.84
13.03
14.22
17,51
Payette s i l t
loam
§
«
7
s
3 .S I
2.02
0 .2 2
0 .8 9
6 .7 0
8.94
6.80
8.0 7
ft r fo lle la m
§
10
11
1.53
0 .5 8
0*00
7.17
5*38
4*86-
2.8 1
8*86
4*01
Samgdeefee#
aandv lea®
12
13
14
IS
1.05
0 .6 1
0.4 3
0.3 5
5.31
6.17
4 .9 8
4 .8 8
2 .3 4
3.93
9 .9 9
S.17
m
5.12
3 ,00
S<80
8.77
6.10
8 .IS
18*16
14.16
12.80
9 .1 5
2.32
0 .0 0
84*85
28.32
23.85
12*49
C arrington
s i l t loa®
Webeter c la y
if
IS ­
eefeasge e a jm e lty o f fee
IS
20
21
tU
om
6*9$
70S
7.85
7.80
M arsh all s ilt y 82
23
© lay laa®
24
25
8*48
1 ,4 1
1.20
0 .0 8
6 .0 4
5.46
§ .0 4
8*71
22.09
22,86
23.02
20.48 -
Shelby s ilt y
c la y loam
27
IS
29
30
4.88
1,80
1.20
0.27
5.4 1
5.34
5*60
8.06
29*SS
23.67
23,24
7*73
Baast&m c la y
31
32
33
34
mm
■■«*
7.61
7.73
7.S3
7.52
41.29
42.24
59.66
39*62
3,15
7.57
1.81
, 1 - if
7,82
7.60
7.74
7*32
23 .99
17-46
9.81
10*77
Bara©# ©Jay
lOgsgt
Ba­
rn ■
IS
40
•
0
mm
mm
% % m it a t o f « r g « i* m atte? d eterm in atio n .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
m 4 f <•
a t -a§p:p««I.isib# rs l& titrs f c « 4 d it i# s o f 9 0 , § § # &a£ 1© « #
obtai& M t*
r o ln t iw Swwldlty was dotom inad by data .giroa by Steweas ( S t ) *
th e
the ro s u lts o f
tl».«> dhMbomimtiowr a r e *^ « © ri» t i s ta b le f *.
th e w o& atw r*
m s o b ta in e d %
o f tb s p r in c ip a l h e -rla s a * o f «ash « © ii p r o f II©
ill® s ta n d a rd pre«@<I»r© o f « # a tr ifa g a tl® ii o f th© s & tu ra ta d s o il
f o r SQ a& istB w a t 240© r * f * » *
& a s u lt* f o r ttw » i s t w »
d o to M & ja tto a s
a r a X lstsrd i a %®M« #*.
lasosfs-Mt® f f o o rw * f o r tlx® » i » s o ils are illu s tr a te d i»
.& t a e lm im . . fhs
pW mrm*
pl& ts s
1 to
i w » asaatrssbsd by determ ining fe a r p o in ts .
pF
I. ? was [email protected] as the pF ## m oisture e q u iva len t fo r oa® p o in t ©a th e -©arr».
f$ » s tb s r th re e p o in t# wore obtained from m por pressure data. and by B»i»§
the fttia a M f o r p? | | t v » b y S eh o fieM (2 5 ) .
te fio fis ti*® form ats is *
#*S + log | i ■*■ log ® ). where M is r e la tiv e hu m idity*
pF =
Hum* by p lo ttin g the
p f ag ain st th e wolat&ra- eoatsat a t a p a r tie s la r Jta» th e pF e a rv * was coma tra e ta d *
Sst*. ..fa r th e wariowa f F w « #
sirs g ti» o ia . ta b ls # *
graphic Illu s tr a tio n s
Thin ssstloas o f th e prinoijml. korisaa# o f each sell studied were m d«
according to tfca sotted daaeribod an yag* £1.
A ftetaad sro g rsp t*, s&.giiift®a.»*
iio n 409E, m s wads from a t le a s t on# t h is sectio n p r i s i l h e rls o tu
the
pfcstasrf.srofrftfhs f o r each s o il p r o file were arranged in a sowposits. photo*
sdorograpb according to the ee$aeas« o f th e soil.,
aderegrapha
mm
Illu s tr a te d In p la te s 1 to 3
hmrtmim*
These phots*
i& elw sive and a re re fe rre d to
froqwntly thr«ngh«it ih e iiseassioa*
.fto to » i€ » g » ^ i# # s te ^ s lfie s tio n 4 ® , w ith reflected lig h t were and# o f
tb # p rin c ip a l berlcews o f tfe» laoogioohos sandy loam sad is a s ta a c la y p r o file s ..
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
m 4S «*
fable #* %
@
r9
«
*e
p
l<
«aeittsre. e
o
s
&
a
is
tKm& relsttiw tasMities mi%k
® w m » p -m A tn § f f T » l*§ e , «a§ w te fe jr® equivalents o f the
f » r is « » #£ »ita» e p ti type p ro file s * Data uaHNt
fo r
0 ' w&m &m
Sense o f s o il
fe jro tto s i l t
loam
i% g r0 :s o§fiet»
*
* 1*%. * steisiu re i Reis t ir e *
$ t Jraaidilgr 1
* Ho. *
§
3.4?
1.82
0 * f0
,’r'"in,ri . l l ...
2.13
0 .8 1
w *—
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53,6
9 .5
5.107
25.23
5.937
5.808
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8*984
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3,2 8
53.5
1.14
9 ,5
w
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4.0 8
53.5
1 ,4 2
9 .5
1.25
0 .6 4
0 .3 0
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5.934
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.
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* * '4 4 «*
fufel# i
.
i
*
Warn *£ I«it * Lab.
i f©*
Caj?rii3gt0»
IS
s i l t loam
* m oisture x Hel&tiin®
* ©
©stsat $ ste a a ld ity
3.0 1
1,80
0 ,8 0
1.53
0 .3 0
18
Webster « ! » /
It
20
21
214.
i a w t e l l 811% ' 22
©lay isftsi
23
24
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zJso
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4.9 0
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5,6 3
? *99
5.26
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f ,48
4.73
2.01
3 1 .1
53.5
10*2
9 1 ,1
S3 ,8
' 10*2
92 .1
53,5
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fi a
53,5
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9 1 .1
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23,6
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6 .4 3 9
f t *76
18,0?
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28,28
i S
*9 *9 0
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
48 •
i& tla $ {wnifelswt)
.Stos a# S a il
Shelby s ilt y
c la y loam
slfygroseopicj
*'
*
i ,Lafe« * a&istttr® * la la tlT © *
* So* t eontcmfc %t
*
m
4 .1 1
2.48
0.8S
f .n
4.74
t»
2*29
m
& •»
4*36
2m
e.r?
so
4.65
2.70
W®m%m
© lay
si
14.91
11*23
S .82
36*89
11*85
8*48
12*39
7 .7 6
2 .79
I t *92
8.48
m
u
sm
m
37
.
■ «■
9.86
8.82
4*49
8.81
5.77
S . 44
S.S2
3,17
1*80
sm
a .os
1*72
pf
91.1
53 .5
13*8
91.1
65 .5
13*8
5.107
5.934
, 6*439
8*107
8*934
8,439
S .107
5.934
. 8*439
5*107
8*884
6.439
91 .1
55,®
IS *8
5.107
6.934
. 6*439
91*1
s.: 07
&8.5
18*5
fl.l
53 .6
13 ,§
f l. l
53,8
13*8
6*934
8*438
5*107
6,934
6*439
8.107
5,934
6*439
fO *4
. 54,3
13.7
80.4
. §4*8
13.7
. 90*4
5 4 .3
-. 18*7
90*4
64.8
13*7
5.141
6,923
8.486
5.141
5.923
6*436
5*141
5*923
6*436
5.141
5.923
§ .436
91.1
S3 .5
18*6
81.1
53*5
13*6
*
t M olstare
*© q u iralen t .
f t *fi
« m *' ■
.
29.46
22,77
40,16
-&ft ttft-
8 * *8 *
27*46
tI* S t
21.91
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
** 4 $ m
m m itX u s tin te d I n p la te # I I : m & 'M#.
fhm m - m f lm tm d l i g h t
m&i. mm referred t e
in $tm M m m & lm *
fk» immhmilml #wp#«i%4«%:
softer -mmtmt (s o lu tio n
la e a s *
fist® pF smvrn and taw® «®ti»ngm ospeeity o f mmh m t% profile stwtiei -mm
grapfcioaXXy illu s tr a te d
%xtflmtm
gleroscop le D escrip tio n
of the Soil®
I to IX in olu aiv® *
Studied sad
Mamumim of th®
Physio®!
and Che«tie®l Frog ertle® o f Those Soil®
mlotmm&pl®
& »t« U *4
m
th e fe lle s & ag j*g « » *
isserlffcton® o f th e
«&#*?mtlwm
f®%r»frafi»4«*«f«ro«[email protected] f® eqs&ggsent: fo r
and study.
mfmmmm: mm mm4m to
«r® glues
the fB tro frs p h lo »ii©ye»5©ps was txs«& fo r the## 4®s*»
c rip tlo a s f a -e n i*r to h*w»
a is e rs tl
mim moll p ro file ®
Throughout
thmm
Illu s tr a tio n # f a fla t# ®
d e s c rip tio n *
t to
tmqmefc
IX ia e lw i*? ® «j&& t® j3ay».
siesl -md mbmalml into. rmmdmd in .tm h lm '4*. §*-s»i §,
I»
W rnm
this aootioa® tl» A fi#rX#.«B (3**) mf t%m P syette silt, loam 1 * **. yeXIesrteh.*
s®t«ri®,i Iwwrtly *$*&£:«& w ith #a»Xt light are**#, The lig h t «*•*# ,»r®
for the rne&t p a rt s i ltw»i«e# nimml p *» iii% thou# sob* p o m mpmdm of
* i* « ««n
to r«o«gttis®4. The Mlerostraot«p® of ftti* . horizon
tit#
Xia## mm A m p «&a olo aa,
about 0,0 2 ms*
2he aggregate*
4 l# t4 a*fc *
®*ry la #£se frost
to i&trafe 1*S a®* and in th is fstrtloa4 « m l t e M n to be e » H
d is trib u te d « ® y
th® ® t*« r«8g «* Sony smsXI* t»Msspi®*eXy ^mmponmd mpa&M
f^gsest# eeear t hromffc&ot the soil aatrix*
of th is this »#o tio »
at 100 saiaifioatioa# showt the** i® m mriefy of aiaerols pre##®*^ quartz
being fait®
irit%
■ •lig h tly
a®
m 4 p lm g lm lm m
feldspar#* M-otito* ausoo«
i*s« ter»bl«®i» m n be Identified, A light brow%.. b ire frin g o n t*
oeours around the herders end ♦<%#» o f
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
gm-m
s a il
tlmmmms and
t a la rg # t t e w t t *
eosdnetlBg
ehmamlm*
Timi two ewfceteaiijsg .» fa e r& fa g l« *l fe a ta re s @f %&i® s o il
p r o file harise© is th e p r® # *® # « f M o tft®
p-rmmmm mi the,
exui th e
sdaeralU
'tfc l* as&terfal is s e t present
lig h t bysm
maseeri'fce is f a ir ly la rg e
hzmfti» § * s t
s & te rfa i,. po ssib ly s '©fay
S m ll «©a«y«ti®»8 C t t fg ia li a fte r Xafefaja&}
ifa ira tltfa s ia th is # » ii to riso m *
ws&mt*
mm §mm%A
in
■«ml1
f i s th in seo tfas o f t iii# sgul o th e r .to riseas
i a t%» « ® ii p r o file »«s ill« i.ts p »t# d ia plat® I .
ffe* &*■§ I mrimn. C1S“ I fa v a ry lig h t brewa in t o f a r « i is p p s s tis ftH y
y o i4 ® f ®[email protected]« » i t e r * t&eagh sows few fmga§®L#4i o f organt# m t t e r are
pro sen t, p » » M rt> % ia e o ^ lt t e ly iesoaposeA f.fa s t ro o ts *
sge&g#*Jik«
mi
1ms
mmmmwB
fis# s o il isabrfa is
par# egwusesi hmamur, th e i i s t i a e t c l a i m | t and
aggyegatto®. Is mob ttstissafels ia th is b o rlses as i t is l» th# Jt.
s s s ll sis® o f'iiy e
rnfcmmt g ra in # ,
s fa e m l steady'is t h is » # e ti« a « *
s i l t s i*# *,
W m m mMmml
M»M% » sad
th a t I * f » w a t ia th #
horisegt i a # % * lly w a l l
mmmtm*
is. bg&» fc#[email protected] sad th e
mmmwrnm
tag. .fester® « f th is fa y e r*
*mmlf
i t fa th e r d i f f i c u lt fo r
A
t&mm em
S» M e a tifie d .
horiatm else- ooesrs in tr is
lm i» « b l# safell iro n esaftretioas a re present
0# these
is fa© a a s i s a t# ts a i»
,
1 to rfa tm .CEE**} « f th is .p a ll is w w y lig h t brow i fa «® lor and Is ©x«
pottm it*
The a b ctas* ®f ® r§ f« i« smb-far, totfe ta w # and nmieesfflftsa^
®rg»»i# a & tte r* 1®.
mm
o f the a tm festtarss » © tis # i i » 1*1 s to rfa ® » *
jafaeratl. eorcposition o f tM « t o r i sea I# e a ry » w h llto e th a t # f th e Jk»l
(1 5 *)«
The
fiiosw t-rea o m ti* sad f w l i e#a«r#ti#as a re w e ll
lllt t a t r a t e l ia. p la t * 1 *
Wm
The
H o w rw * fnttrfes* sob® o f th e fe lis p m r
kGmblmtfi®# mmmori^p
lig h t
mkm
h&timn*
fiie l i # t hrewtt h lw frta g e ttt a&ae^sl is present Is
Tto n e e t e w ts fa a ifa f f# s ta r# : o f
p s r tie a ls r lie ris e a is
the
imrtmm
mty mm%1 m&nats«
high saaaat o f
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
- 48 -
Fayette
silt loam
Percent
P ercent
25
50
75
100
0
1 2
3
4
•H 21
Organic m a tte r
M echanical com position
P ercen t m oisture
5K
10
. 20
. 3Q
m .e. /1 0 0 fpn .so il
.
C-48
B-25
A -B -15
40
0
.
IQ
.
20
W
0
-s
o 18J
£ _
27|
s4.
+5
©
<=> 36^
45
Incom plete pF curves
Base exchange
capacity
Plate I. Photographs of thin sections (magnification 40X) and graphs
showing the mechanical composition, organic matter, base exchange
and incomplete pF curves for the principal horizons in a profile
of layette silt loam.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
■«* 4 f *»
fo r© ©fete© th & t Is o b s e rv e d *
f h» fk o k m A m o p m p k o f t h is Is o ris e n * p la t© I ,
i l l u s t r a t e * t h is f r o p r r t y *
1M «. h ig h ancnant. o f p o m s f m « I® o r d in a r ily a r t
«xp««rt«d l a te e I fc o r is m *
Senwswry te £ s s o i l s w a n m r o l l in g am4 s tr o n g ly
r o llin g topography' and « strei3 » iilw r fc tis a « i# pan #:«w iofw a% . Isas n o t 1*4
tixa® to ta& g p lfu w *
Hi® g»M »4m «t o f te e § h o r iz o n (4S*). 1« tig h t k r n im in « © l# r# te s s fjh
-mrnmmm. 4#rk
trew s. to M tsife iro n ©x4ft» s te in s e« « sr terenghent- .th e -s o il
mm.*
l» ..p s ® » spas#*' o f th is h # r l* « d iffe r fm m te e * * in the 1 horizon and re p re -
mm fc a
sweh v a s tie r gwrsent o f the volume occupied by te e s o il «& **«
Mjmmn ka re
gJwtff as# w e ll 4ef£n*4
horlzsm « *# » $ g e i » a i
mmkmm* wkmrm®
IrropAm*
mpmsm.% o n ly
the pore spaces o f te e S
sin e # th e
have a i« ia is s » d is a s te r o f atwswt .«$! * * ■ s a l
'She pore
«!turnte e
por#
«pa«®s observed
th in veetien v studied
e&e * a p te , i t sennet to #»m«I«4ed th a t these d iffe r e n c e s .* f*
e ta r« t® ri.« % io o f te e p a rtic u la r h o rizo n # * though i t is *a ia d ie & tie a *
lig h t trew s © lay sdneral Is
s te e r h e ris o a s *
mm
th e
in th is h o ris o s than i t is in the
te e s n a il areas o f th is c la y sd&eral a re shows ia th e p h o to -
sslorograph o f te l® S ite .seehlen, illu s tr a te d in p la te 1 *
‘th e ehgesee o f'
d e fin ite iro n a x i 4e eeseretie& v in th is horizon and tee p re e te to o f numerous
iro n ©aide ste la ® and gp&rtttiies is In te re s tin g *
ia th is
Mrkmn
is lllu g tr e to d ia p la te 1 *
Mm ir e s
o a tlie eploich found
She lr© » . # *I4 « ©sours in a v a rie ty
o f ISsras* tee m ost in te re s tin g ones are th e lo n g rep #»ttk»
esatarle -ease*
mm® mi
the osa-
the rope-11k® enev ere- t e ile a t iw o f fe ra e * e ® t4 « rtis g eh&mwl*
te a t 'km m km & m o f ille d by te e fm e m w m s o f
o m m & tr io m m o are p re e u a te ly erase eeeticm * Of
9 « < fe i o r eerteserm ‘here# th a t have heecne f ille d
and illu r ta tio n *
tormr ro o t
th e
teenoels* ® a »ll
o r p a r tia lly f ille d w ite
saohil© eem -titseafes during s o il de w le jew sfc*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
<*■ SQ-
WmSmsSmA
© rgeal# a e th e r e#»fet*%. hmm m & hm t0 e a j» © ltjr*
hygroscopicity# pF sad »©i#twr® equlfeismfc &■&& fe y fe # p rin c ip a l horiaoas
in t it * ftiy e fe e s i l t !«<» « r * g f e * ; t » fe b ls * ## S * s i #f
fe e tw fe a a le & l ©«BifM»#iM©a # f .P «y»ife s t ilt 1«jb.
fe « « t g re fM e a lly ia . p la te X*
ttm
dto#* n e t m#y>
fe e s * dtefe ear©:
h igher eawwwt o f elsgr 'is the B
one k«pi:®ss t®. em efeer* ftltfeewgh'feesMS is:'#,
m&
0 h a r is * * * *
fe e fe e # «*»H*a&®* e *p t« i%
i«®-r®a®es ra th e r w «i.f#faly w ith depth# being 11 .8 4 * 18*08# 14*22 end t? *fil.
»*.©.* per 100 grams s o il f a r fe e S ", IB 8# IS 8 and 40* depths* re s p e c tiv e ly ,
fh® has© exchange «*|»© itg r
mrt®
and. .©lay content e a r** (p la te I ) stare s im ila r
ia th a t they i» r# « i© w ife depth*
The h ig h e r «*§»«!© m atter eoateat ia the
8 * said IS 8 depth® <§«# n e t sees .to A ffe c t * ffr# # t« b iy th e bas© exchange
c a p a c ity ,
%
# a *» ls i» g th e .j# curves
th a t th e higher.-©lay
pP ©urvea, !•« *.# a t
© lay © osteat,
smS, e ie y mu t® at
©orree i t ie ®#ea
o f & p a r tic u la r h a rls m i» re fle e te d by fe e
m glmm “fP
Tmm. I t mm. h#
felm© the
©oateni increases w ife
s ta te d fe e t fe e femse exchange © apacity o f f e i *
s o il is d ir e c tly re la te d to fe e ©las? © «t«sat mad th a t <fe a ©oastsat p f fe e
m oisture etmfeofe "i» e®rre la te d d ire c tly w ife fe e ©lay ©safest*,
As viewed i a t h i* s # © ti« s the A [email protected] rl$-m
(S *| o f
’ .
f e * Ifayfelfc leam is
lig & t colored m i appear# to be high ia s i l t m & e e a i eoat-eat.
appears to hews no efcwmbwr®- o r s in g le g ra ta e tra e fe re .
This herleen
fe e a ia e ra l content
.1# la rg e ly fa s irt* «ad only a ra re fe ld sp ar* fg iw m m *. saa^tlbel®; « r same .
m m m m r?
©*tt he defected*
feie^feeram biem l« eeiw feaM efed %
o f th e fin e wand fra c tio n , by isamorel on. methods,,
The S herlson
( I f * ♦ IS 1*) 'lie s « lig h t brews groundnass w ife a eery faigjh © safest
♦ M l*
mi s
ilt m i
Ik e m ineral content o f th is h e ris s s is la rg e ly fa a rt*# the earn® as
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
** St '•*'
su rface,
.ia, eeeaaAesal accessory m in eral
mm
fee id e n tifie d in th e th in s e c tio n ,
te s s « ia a ti« i o f the f i a t sand sad s i l t fra c tio n s #.f th is tw rls e a tgr le n s rs ie ti
w ® ti» is shoe* m eari«fcy « f
te a ra a li& e and f lo t t r lt e ,
nam ely, *!**«.«%. ru tlX # , # y « tt%
th e c la y m in e ra l,
If
I# pNgbsbly met o f 3jfc»
» « it o e r t lle a lt # .% f# 'i»e«w®- i t ha* low M re lV im g tti*# to none a t *1.4,* ;f&§ c h ie f
d iffe re n c e ,
m
noted in th in s e c tio n , between th e A *u*d B horisosa is th e
eoapaet grouadssas* *£kfe.-,$w»t * few pore spaces th a t
mmm/
i a the 8 heriw w i*
Ihlt fl«5« grom/tomm i%, prcsmably, due to a higher e«mt«ai of elftf £a the,
B horlson. The
w m w m p tim th a t se re © lay ia p re se n t la th e
B horisom i« borne
ant by m echanical a a iifa e a : da ta presented ia ta b le 4 , H i# dense grouadmaas is
■illustrated in p la te I I ,
She C horigoa (3?“ ) i« lig h t brown. ia color end eac*
hibits a ra th e r dease # tr« e t» r® w ith
fe w per#:
w tk S f- H re fria g s u h aotwtaigse o ccu r* ia . th is Iw ris c ti*
p re s e n t,
A dark c o lo re d *
'Shi# is a b e rliil s ig h t be
on* o f te a things, « b ro w colored clay m ineral or ■*» «*£&» o f iro n *
th e .
« ia e « l composition o f this horlson follow® eery *«»& the temp fatter**' es the
A end B h o risa se *
it w t # is the s tro n g ly p *« i« » £ a fttto g a ta e re l p re s e n t,
Occasional accessory minerals are present*. the o o llo iie l aateriel 1® much
th e s«m#.iis\%tts% I» the 9 k m * ito n .
The S erfo B ; %&m h m
m m rrn 1
features, w s o g a ittb le % thin section '
e t» il,e t# th a t f»issl% the o o se iu sio a th a t th is s o il is leer in , fertility,
th e
nmmty#.
absence o f orgaaie itabtss* sad o f th® fe ld s p a r, fgrresea® and. faphibeie
minerals* The pi of-the I fcerieon is 6 ,S i‘ end # f th e € horizon 4,86, (table S)f
'&«: slightly alkaline reaction of the A JMjrtass* .1® sot axpledaable by the
iM fm m m ti.m k w ila k le ,
She baa© e&ehmng® c a p a c ity o f this s a il 1» a le * .J.w%,
be ing 2 *61 , f* f» and .4,01 » *« * pe r 100 ..pm:,?® s o il "fo r ‘th e A# 1 and 0 h e ris e m
re s p e o tite ly ,
th * lew j * # f th e 8 end. € hoH eooe, the. le e h a s etehaag#
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
- 52 -
P ercen t
P ercen t
3g . 50
1
n
. -Lj«
1
1
0
1 2
3
4
Norfolk loam
A -3
•*. »» *• •
.v :.
.1 2
o
r*
rC
V
'■>■‘
>;'i-y;-;-
•S 18
c
•H
IjSandj-'.
£ 24©
o
S-h!
B -12"-15"
M eohanical com position
Organic m a tte r
Percen t m oisture
IQ____ 3Q.._.—52-----40
m .e ./lO O g m .s o il
0 _____ 10
. 20
. 50
C-37"
fe
12
18
f©24-|
o
30
36
42.
Incom plete pF curves
Base exchange
c a p a c ity
Plate II. Photographs of thin sections (magnification 40X) and
graphs showing the mechanical composition, organic matter, base
exchange and incomplete pF curves for the principal horizons in a
profile of Norfolk loam.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
» s r*
« f ® « it !io r:l«® »
mi. tli#
to r m osefcet guide t» f e r t ilit y
s w ii*
o f tb e m i l theagfi e e r ts iiily la d io a tiv ® o f
Iheee d a ta eerraSsBrftt# th e th in s e « ti« i
m m m m im g th© f e r t ilit y
hygroseopieity*
mhnmmmtitms- sand
e o » la *[email protected] a s
# f th * H orfolk la m *
Umkmnl&ml ■mmiymm®#. ■m gm te
in
m v y low oontosit o f organ ie m e tie r m ®y
matter
bmm exdtamgs
eapt®t%*
pf and moisture e ^ ie e lw ii data for th e p rin c ip a l horizons
th© S orfo lfe log® mm $tm& in ta b le * 4;,. h and i *
the s i l t content i n -
crease# considerably i» the » horizon ss compared -with th© sw rfee* mmi ti®*»
.«r©w*a again ia the C horizon. % e send eosstent is qs&te high*. .#$*© percent*
in the turffeee and ao®:r#»««» to fi*f percent in the B hnrlzoa* bat Increases
to 41 .# percent .in th* C ho rizon.
Ihe clay content 1® low ia tit# surface and
Increases to 18* § mi 18»f in the B m.4 G horizons* re s p e c tiv e ly ,
The base
exchange eepseity of e&oh horizon is direstly related to th® clay contest*
hence the exchange
for the i and C horizon* Is M #er than it .1# for
the surface soil* the ff «rws for the various horizons- in this.soil profile
mm
siailar* fherir I# » blight difference ia the « » * for the- B
m i C
horizons even thoegh .the cloy oonteht for the two h«ri*SQ# 1® nearly the
same* Hie organic setter eonieat s# this *#J»J is lew* fkm email. aaotwfe
present seem® to exert little influence m the base ewls»f» eepeelty of the
«oil* .Sits same relationship is present in the Fayette silt learn*. m G m ^^b m m
Podzolle soil*
fh®
surface of th e laoogdofliee « g % le a n a # m m ta th in s e etlen is lig h t
eele re d w it® a s lig h t reddlsh^breis® tin g s mmi appear® to- be M gh ia mutd* (p la te
111. ) . *
th e 'is rf& e e i s m
to i* « k m
.s tr e e te r * ! arw «g«»»% *.
f&S* horizon
i * ® «ap l«tely vo id o f fe ld s p a r* « j# d fe © l% ^ m m m east « rb « ttS tf:..» ia o fe l# .
Titls ztbaervntioa * » .first »«4« ia thin zeetles #taSi#» end m m
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Nacogdoches sandy loam
P ercen t
P ercen t
100
;v:
u
®
A
o
A
i s
A
•P
CL, 21
a®
36
M ech an ical com position
O rganic m a tte r
cn
m .e ./lO O gm. s o i l
Percent m o is tu re
P.... ■ 10 , 20 .
■a 9.
ID
'A
S u rf
o
G
•
Hls
j
a
A
0,271
(S
36.
In com plete pF curves
Base exchange
c a p a c ity
Plate III. Photographs of thin sections and undisturbed soil (magnification 4 0X ) and graphs
showing the mechanical composition, organic matter, base exchange and incomplete
curves
for the principal horizons in a profile of Nacogdoches sandy loam.
■* § § m
corroborated fey. tntaerclea is®th®ds> fours®!!» # slretm* r a t i 3,® &»d © yasite are
present la w a a ll
s o il* .
Ira® oxide ©®»«r#ti®»« are fa it® afee&diust la ttai®
1% #&»«!<I fe* «Bg>fefte&e*d a t th is p o in t U ia t th® ©.csaeretltan® observed la
th® thia section eff th is soil ©oasist. s.# % w rt* 'greise hold tagetfeor fey f t *
fel&ok oxides ® f iros and ar® n e t p a w iron oxld® as is s©met.iste* thought
The 10* 1ayer o f fti# soil I * reddish-brown in c o lo r s » i
s trw to r® *
a n g u la r
hm &
f i » angular structure is illustrated ia fla t® I I I *
f t i s pronounced
® tm *tn r« # m ■ iojafiirtd w ith ft® surface la y e r, is p o s s ib ly re la te d to th®
h ig h e r © lay. c o n te s t*
lt*t p ? r« # a t of m® w m b m im t fraction 0f tid* la y e r
is clay and 4*1 parewdfe o f tit# m e h m & iftiil I’raetioa o f th # eurffce* la y e r is
© lay, ta il® 4 *
f t i # la y e r 1 * high, ia iro n
a&notiti © M p ® « iti« i
mi
oxide oororetiomry motorled; ft®
thi® la y e r is very mask 'til® **s» a# M i* surfa©# 'la y e r
exeept th e feldatpars ere p rw e a t in tra.ee proportions * H i# 20w la y e r has a
deep re d ils fe ftrw w .
w ith q u a rts g m lm &wS iro a oxide e o a e rs tie w
etftedded ft« r® ia * f t # s tra e ta r® o f th is .layer is distinctly a n g u la r sad v e ry
la rg e aggregates a re yreeest* The agg»jpst#*t raisg# la s i* * from about 0 ,2 m *
up to 3 and 4
la. diameter* f t # adaoml eos$i®*itl<m o f this la y e r* as
•
observed i» tM a eeetlea ami eerr«tera% «4 fey tiw - r s io s s tu d le * *w ft* fin© sand
fraoties* Is # i s l l * r to th a t o f th e
1«y®r*
ft® 20" layer *» d Mi# I t *
layer appear fee-fee sawfe alike* The d e s c rip tio n o f the 80* la y e r eaa e a s ily fee
a p p lie d to the 80* la y e r *
, ■
•■-r
Table 5 gives the organ!® mtter coatset* fll «i beefe exohafcg* ©apaoily
f o r th® p r in c ip a l horiaaas o f e e re ra l s o ils * In clu d in g , th® Sft»gd®*lMf* saady
l®a*tw
f t # organ ic a a tt« r oaatesfc # f th is s e ll I * w y
and 0*85
ifer th *
I« r #' 1*0§*
10*# 10* « a i IS® la ye rs# respectively*
0 ,43
ft®
p i is 1m m rarytag tr s m 5 *S l is Mi® m m fm m layer fee 4*88 4m f t * SB* la y e r*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
■*# 8# ■«*
•ft® ha«» mmkmmgm
capfcoit
fo r
%m m&
is
anrffeo# la y e r I® I* :i4 a *# * p er 10®
f o r th® 20® la y e r* . A s a il u tth
with *mh pr<mmum;«4- o ls fp w
pmmt'Mm
•th is s # e M « i
Ime » r§ 8tai©
A
m&
gmm» mil m4
9*® f «*«#
m®&&
fee#
pB m&
mzmgmani
eosoluetdn can %© ami# fpea th #
Ih e s c a rc ity # f
«%##bb« o f jfro x e s e
mmhmmg®-
ffc# b a **
a n ite r eonfcosfe*, I w
4 « e l*p i*w fe o rd in a rily
fo r h i # e ro f y t e li# *
f e r t ilit y *
,y«t % sit# m ria fe le *
M iaw m l# u n i -th# eeap let#
saphibel® saiaeral# c e rta in ly i® iie a t# » * low g to t# « f
fir# lew «&»%#»% -of organic anfcter «i«t laefe o f * a-apply o f adtaerei#
high ia base# a# « b *e r» d ia. th is s e c tio n in d ic a te # a. peer m M ,r m m a t fo r
h e te ro tre p h ie M e » b ie te g le « l a c t iv it y .
M icroscopic ehfl»pv& tim and study o f the p rin c ip a l !w r i* « * # o f th e Kfteeg*
deohea candy loan in la s iis tu rb e d ita t# Mife. re lle e i# # lig h t shear th a t th #
sw rfsot s o il has » l» g l# g rw iii a trtia tw *** th # 10* le y #*1 law a »f4hm .guliir aw!
porous s tru c tu re * w h ile th e 20s -and 18w la y e rs h & m «t#s»# m d at& asiw M e re *
s tru c tu re s *
fh # M e re e tro w tu re o f those s o il h o rissn s m m illu s tr a te d by
p h o to ja io ro g t^h s i» p i arte# 111*
§mag&Mmm- « f bit#
s e ctio n p h o tM le ro g re fia r e# bb® 2d *
r e l& tie m .
'Si# <Sss*#
mM $$"
t ig h t m d th in
aero# ia tw w w tta g
o f M e re e tru e tu re c x iiiM -ic d ty the low er layer#' o f
th is s o il as seen S» re fle c te d lig h t is s tro n g ly m p k m i% ® d by
th® dark
ground*
*® ** o f th e s o il a * aeon in ih l» m m tim m *
Th® l&ocgdooh*m-wm$y
l« a » # a 1*# fo ta e ll# s o il, is in te re s tin g .
analyaee* org&nie a a ttte r c o n ta c t. p i* base
mmhm,g#
leehsm leal
sap aelty* hygroscopicl'ty,
pF -and ao istw re e q u ivalen t data f o r the p rin c ip a l; borison* Is th is n o il type
e ra lis te d in b& M #*' 4*. f u n i18 end nr® g rs p M e a liy illu s tr a te d In p la te S I *
Ih e clay co ste n t
in tfe« mmtm® la y e r is 4.2 p e rce n t* increases t # 1#*7 pe rosa t
is th # 10* la y e r* lser#»s®« M i l l more in th e iO * la y e r to S i*# pereasfc. «wt
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
«r
# *
to $1*3,
$ # « » » « £ « i f as
8?
'm '
ia th© $ 8® la y e r*
mse&i as
8 » » il% c«®rfc«ft#.f tfeie 'p ro file
th© clay o @ a t« t# l» ia g 2$ *4 * S©»G#, l i * 0 and t® *§
a
f£
percen t fo r the m sfm m # m % I© and $8
to s t ia eery high i a t b * esrffcee <m£
layer#.,
Amnmm®
sand ©on-
«# th e ©lay e&abe&t increases
witfc d«pte,.. 8t * S , § 0 *8 , i # * f aad 32.2 percent s s » i f o r the sw rfae#, 10®, 20®
and SS* la y e r# , respeebim sly*
^h© base © » l*iig e c a p a c ity , theegli com paratively
lesr
o o a p a w i witfe. #«»# s o ils , ie d ir® © tty re la te d “to th# ©•lay © e xte n t,
Th# base
mweismg® cap acity
fo r
I® 2 <34, 8 *0 3 , S * f f and 0*1? sue. p e r 100 grass s o il
«© *£$*• 10* , 20* *s§, IS * la y e r® , ro s p o o tiv tly *
th e organi# #»tefeer con­
te n t o f th is s o il, is q u it* law- and the s a a ll mmmte' present s.##®# to exert,
lit t l#
is f !«#»##. #& %t» ba«« ©*®l»ag© c a p a c ity o f ttw»-
mil*
Tbs pF ©wv« f o r
th # 20* lays® <$»## a » t csBfotta w e ll w ith t t » kind o f «o rr« socpeeted#
fe rr in g to th©
By re ­
o a rrt'f in plat© I I I i t is r e a d ily 'mm® th a t the eurr© f o r
th is layar' is not a t a l l l l t e
tee « y rt# s f o r the o th e r la y e rs *
S »ter##tiag to iw M s tig ftt# th is m atter sa©*w c lo s e ly *
the
I t . slight be
S ew rrer, w ith eoastaat pF
i# d ir e c tly re la te d to tfe* c la y co tttest*
% 4b .s##tt«n
show th a t th e
A
bo riso a (3 ” ) o f t l » O orriaetoa. s i l t
!©&» i s # » li b ro w is c o lo r, is d lm tta jj th a t a *8 r i » « i o f organic ii&-fcb®r
1# preseat.*
# f« n *
A
Thm g trn s tn r#
is «1bM3g»lii.r
mi
tli# s o il
wide m r l# t y o f s M « r* l# « a be id e a t if ie i*
mma
is f ii lt e parse# and
Quarts is .sb m d tet*
ScitfolStt##, b lo t t t # , s ie r e c lia e , orthocl&s# and th # p lag leclfc*# feld s p a rs a re
f rt« » % tm f a i r asttsasfe#*
b ita s it# *. tm trsw liw e
mi
^*e##.#9ry stiser&lg .sa«fe «# g a rn e t, c p td o t# , s irc o n ,
o y a n it* a re
accessory at|n «rsls a r# wet
ptmmsb
ia m
i l maoaats* . A H th e#*
in th is s e c tio n , b a t eon b# id e n tifie d
.is te e ia#«l»«4©sl fra c tio n s b y iie » r t io s w thod#*.
H ie B terisscs {ZG*} is brews, is
> lo r, tk o ^ h l i f t e r ia e© lcr tiisa th® &
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
h ts rlz m *
S h i* %mlmm I# vwey p tm m - m & k m • tp e a ^ ^ llls *
m iser# 1 content is s im ita r t® %M%
of th #
A b ertaes*
*%k®
th® o p tic a l p ro p ertie s
o f the inorganic c o llo id t s i# d if f ic u I t t» ii*6 # ra % c h ie fly hwesass t i e ergaale
c o llo id s obscure th # t m
r g
m
i ffc i* r*ta M # » le ft m m th# e rp ta ie a !
iaorgiati.® c o llo id s sadsts i s koth th e A ftn i 8 h # *i*e & *
H i* A h # rl*e a h *s f , t t
j» r o « t m § m i® m a tte r #j»S th e 1 km % m m k m S *© i fe w e s t {%«®I.© § )* '
1%© 0 horieos (56® ) ia th in sectio n is lig h t brown la c o lo r oca appeer*
t® tm %ai%# fo ro tt**
than # p o a f# » ia « .
Shis tm rim m io#s s o t have & 4otlm it#-, s tw o tiif*# o th er
fh # m im m l co n test o f th is horisoa' is soaswfeet' d iffe r e n t
front th e A m d I Isortaeii*
I t fc&» le s s q m rts « . i considerably mors o f th#
potash foldsja ra n a i h#2& M «a£«f
© t& eiw i*# th is har-ium is « is # r# l« g ia » lljr
mutsh the sas» as th e # flw r two horisoas.
I t sea b« p « 4 i# te d fro® those th in s o o tio a observations th a t th is s o li
Is f a ir ly f e r t ile bmmm#' f i r s t , th e re Is -m k k m im m ® o f fe ld s p a r «zu3 tt8$hi«*
h o i# sainem la througheat th e p r o file -ehieh m ia r w « l o lim t io conditions
would «o ather ra p id ly «ao«gh to in sure on#, «*ta$uet# supply o f th e ’oases*
and 0seoad* th e re is
m iero b io lo g lo al flo r a *
o rg a n ic m a te ria l present fo r a b o u n tifu l
Sw s# a#»umptl©ss sad conclusions or® p a r t ia lly sub-
s te a t i stofi t y som cheats#! 4mta -which are lis te d i» ta b le §•
fh # organic
m atter content fa r th is s o il, is 8*12 percent fo r th e A horlso® (S®)> 3*00
percent fa r the: i h # ris # s $8®*} and 2.20 p $ m m k fo r the C horizon (30®)i fh #
©8 o f th # A* B and C hsris-s®® is §»??* 8*10 and 8*18* re s p e c tiv e ly *
The ■
has© exchange c a p a c ity fo r th e c&s# th re e her!sons is IB ,16* 14.16 end 12,80
a * # , p e r 100 greats s M l* ^
Study o f the mechanic#! eoB pcsitian* organic w a ite r contest* has# exchange
cap acity e»d' in e * f | s te g f curve®* illu s tr a te d ia p lat® IV * leads to th e eca*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
59 -
P ercen t
0.__
25 . ftp .
Percent
75
. 190
0
1
2
3
4
.6
6
C arrington
s i l t loam
©
&O
•H 18
f4 241
)
Q
30
36
M echanical com position
O rganic m a tte r
P ercen t m oisture
. e . / l 0 0 gm* s o il
in
. ?n
. sn
aa
Q
■ IA ■. gn ■ an
S 12J
o
t:
*H
^ 18
B-20"
30
36
Incom plete pF curves
Base exchange
c a p a c ity
P la te IV . Photographs o f th in sections (m ag n ificatio n 40X) and graphs
showing the mechanical com position, organic m a tte r, base exchange and
incomplete p* curves fo r the p rin c ip a l horizons in a p r o file of Carrington
s i l t loam.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
***' #©' *■
e lu s io n $w*t tfcg ©a*ringfc&». n i l *
im H » m
torn is
has oeenrrnd#
s o t * swpy
matim* n o il*
¥ « ry l i t t l e
Sms ©Say e«afes»t fo r fe© A , 1 sad 6
h m tm m .Is te .S * f l» 5 sag 19*0
retg sectiT ely*
Hie b a te # » la a g #
c a p a city v e rle * betssea i& » d iffe r e n t b a ris e n * e if e ia narrow ISaSLts■*• I t is
in te re s tin g to set© th a t tfe# base exchange e a p s e ity ©txrw f o r t M * m i l pre»
f i l e ap $ rex ln a t*s a s tra ig h t lim e .
Hie organic m t t e r een ten t is f a ir ly h ig b ,
6 *1&, % J » and !■»#§ s»3WHjast fo r the A* B «.»« O' t a r i s e a t*
fi» - organi# m it e r
content ***» *. to snort- sews in flu s m s on bfce baas s e w a g e c a p a c ity beeswwe as
tb s ©rgsmi© » t t e r deewesss the base ssataangs esfwslby €eer«»«*» e ls e * -th#
f f e a r**# * «■« w e ll as -tHe t» e # exchange c s p w ity endt © lay ecmbswt surges* in**
disnbe l i t t l e
d iffe r e n tia tio n in t h le s e ll p r o f ile *
th.# p? oarre® fo r
fe e A*. 'S « i G l© r i» » s * * sesn in p la t# I f e ra s im ila r*
f l » A horison. fsm rfa#*) o f t l » SkMVmr s il t y a liy lo aa is la r it brown ia
m l& e* mM I# w y parses and aj>s»ga~tit».*
*01 ent* to I *w t 4 m * i s tliw s t s r *
lb® «ggr«gates -wiry from le s s fee®
fM a h er is on h a * a .m « t « p » a tity o f sm all
n ln e re l g rain s |« il% #1®®}*" 3feo ro # # rw o f fe ld s p a r* « | i i . i l e l e a® i &$.«*
wtasriwl® in b itie k e rts e a is
l i f t e d * -feiwgfc pmmxeb l a s m tt sefiounta.
O tte r s itw m l# tfc *t a«n fee Id e n tifie d ia fe ta etetien s- # f -tfe i* horison
-%mmmIts ® * e f w t t e and rubiJke*
*m
fit# A *§ feorlssn (12**) is feremt is
e e le r* *» € e fe tM ts * fclanlsy and an g u lar s tru e ta iw «&£«& is ii s t i n e t ly d iffe r e n t
from th e -structure o f fee 4 borison ( su rface) *
e re
th e aggregates in th is horison
la rg e and- tove e fs a r s e ^ r is tie s lly round*#, fo r # sp tees*
She
M aesetl # .« [email protected] s itio n # f tb is b#ri*em is musli Hb& mum mm iise A fe o riw s *
e a ts te ttiiB f c h a ra e te ris tie o f
km im m i t fee r s t M r i « » » bleefcy s tr e r tw e *
is fw ii e n tire of a f a i r l y tdgfc e la y
f « r 1 & I* berisen *
th e
K eetealeel eaalysi® data.
4 , « !» » i t to feaw 40 1 pereest e ln y *
T6» s e rf*© *
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
•
Ito r lttm toft# 16 *8 -psr©#sfe © toy*
£ -*» # A»1 im tlm &B
§1.
S hi# M S tm tm m i s w w t © f etogr hsfaMKsa tfe»
is: fro b s h ly th e « *« *# ®# th # M £i® w m m i» s ^ w t a f s fee*-
fewwo th # two hotlseas.#
S« S
te&rlwm {l® mJ
ttftft ft d is tin c tly bled cy s tru c tu re ,
«ad tin# k m b I s f f« r « spa## ia th is h # r i» i* 4 ® " s » ll ©wpe-red t » the pare
#!»«§ i a th # A»g .heriftcm*- fl® S' fcftrisaa Is lig h t trew s to # « l© r*
the tw to *fta « w l w toftrftl.*
Hornblende, micros lin e , ortho ctos# ansi seas o f th©
flftfte e lfe s e a to e ra ls «r#. gretest:-*
he# e te d # sad m m lm
Quartz is
th e t hmrlMm {MS” } is brow®, i a c o lo r*
struetw *© w ith a s a » ll
a f f e w sj» # # *
1%
S i#
» it t e » Ie g i« : l fto afw eitio a is raueh lik e th a t ■«? %h« 1 h a ris e a *
th # irtru e ttttftl eoa& ittoa ® f th e smrffte# t o i l e f t ie Shelby s ilt y tto y loam
»#' ft® * is to ta -seetitm is . d e s ira b le to §o fter «# o la a t m<t s o il re la tio n s h ip s
a r# eeasem ed*
f mmmm
ffc# sf§«r#a% -s-tfjply e f b « # s ia Mm m i l m ia it-o & ie i by the
© f the to M « p a r sad f * r r ^ » .^ » s i# a « ls » j» ls is ftdfequat# to r g to a t
n u tritio n ,. sad the ese-ust & f .orgaal* m atter fre # « % should be s u ffic ie n t fo r
bim efieie.1 a i# r# b to to f$ # fti -fte tto lty *
S®tor©s»# to ta b le i fthees the ftsoast e f
organ le s fttte r t® be- 4 #88 p o rte n t to r the m rf& m leyw r o f th is s e ll, 1*®©,
1.20 t»d ■©•§? percent t o r -the 4 -S * B- am i
e teri-ss« *.,
r» « p e e tite ly «
the f l o f
th is s o il in. m the ftftii * ! # • and lim ing, is probably » « # * « a r f f o r th e growth
o f w rb s to l# p ® iw e s © rep **
I'tu % o f the- m eeta«le»l. # e ^ e » iti« n # ergft&i« s a tte r e o a te a t, has# exotonge
e « p *e ity *s # to e « |to te - pF « w * f o r t h * f f t o e t jw l hertsans is a -p ro file o f
S tolby s ilt y ©toy to w , p la t# V , shoes th a t esasiderftble horisen
t ie s %m < » # ia r« t in th is P r a ir ie © o il*-
the © toy $#&tws& o f th e aswhanienl
frfto tifta is f§ ,S percent to r th# s u rfa ce * 40*1 perewsib fo r th e A**i ban#© #
(1 2 * )*
■ (.ft*)*
percent to r th e 8 hsriso a ( if T ) sad I f *5 pe-reest fo r the C herlJKsa
th e s i l t content fo r the fo u r her!seas is M iS , S8*Sg. 6i#S m »i 4-8*2,
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
- 62-
Shelby silty
clay loam
P ercen t
Q 1__2__s a
s
Sand
M echanical com position
Organic m a tte r
P e rc en t m oisture
10
40
6
5
4
o 12
B-20
A- Z
S u rf
♦H
A -B -12
3
C-2S
30
2
Incom plete pF curves
Base exchange
c a p a c ity
Plate V. Riotographs of thirl sections (magpification 40X) and graphs
showing the mechanical composition, organic matter, base exchange and
incomplete pF curves for the principal horizons in a profile of Shelter
silty clay loam.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
»'.§3 «*
.■ p e r c M
& f c
f a
Wm mr§mm*
r
. A
* #
,
&
m i C non
«
«
» s f* e % li» Iy *
%
■fi»
Mm
«
a
*
change oap&city 1*' 18 *S ! »<*«♦ jpar 10O $ a »® : s o il i a th# #urf««# as# increases
to 23*87 m*«* j » r 203 ggraai# e o n la th # A-® horizon (1 2 * )*
2h«
mmhmgm
c a p # c ity 1# f l* 2 4 » * • * p # r 10® gras# «®1J f o r %1» 1 horizon (t®*1) *aS
m«e. por 100 gras# s o il fo r th e
d iffe r e n t la y e rs l a th is l » r i * «
uniform and e ro tt- «m»: ttio tte r
U
horisom (2 8 " }*
mm- eosan&at
ft* - pf* c a r * * * f a r the
o r a t i # , I * # . , th«gr a r# n#fc
mmmztormbly*
1to»wwr» th e p f
wrm-*
fo r the
A«S and B h o rizo n s, th o # ^ th e y eras# «de another* * r # la lin e «i%J» Hi® sore
o r le a s estab lis h e d n s l# th a t a t a eoa#ta«& pF th # s b ieiare- content. increases
w ith c la y osaztcnh*
. As v la w i t$urcn*gh a l i t #
sectio n. th#
imek b ra m im m l m
' ftlay least la
s o li ®# Hi# M a rsh a ll f d l t r
w ith a&laag
m4
an g u lar «ggragat#* (p la t# ? !} *
I t appears t# he fr ia b le aaai gorea# a s w hom & y M rf® per# spue## I f t a m 'th #
aggf»§&t»s -and- m m tl p«r®» w ith in - th # aggy^gat##* - ft » » i » m l fo r tie s #£ th#
m wSm m s o li, ia # %# © b# #« rlty b y organic m a tte r, is d i f f i c u l t t& 'a n a ly *# -with
a « ie r o » o # p # '- ;
U * ..A
h e ris c a
(.1 5 ® ) hm m m
d e fin ite m ic ro a tm c t# *#* although
th ere i« considerable coherence between the s i l t p a rtic le s and e o Iie iia X #afe*
stances,
Shi a horizon 'baa
khmS pares# *
mt @,bm&mm
o f pore apse# a irf appears to- W spongy
% »rtss i t th # meet a b is tia iit a ia tm i ia -ttti# la y e r w ith th e fe ld ­
spars, hom blwa*#. « i -the-safest# a ls o p le n t if u l* . Sbe l i « t »
t e w . fa ' m t m # s a i
asi
is a stro n g © #»!*#»«
,
%«.
h o riz o n ,
(8 2 * ) is lig h t,
tfea s i l t p a rtic le s
largo. p o » spa### s # w tteoaglioat. ifc is
p o rtio n is s im ila r to th a t o f the A horisoa-. (IS 1*}.* * lth o :aglt
H i# e a s ily w m M m 'm i m tm m ls - sueb'-aa %l» f e li^ a r # a a i f e r r o * . ^ # * im a ia » m i®
c
.are » w
a l w t e t ia t ■*« b e ris o a ,
p.M #elir6i«
wimml im fa i'te
A lig p a fy e llo w is h -ire w t* M r e f r l^ e a t *
abiatdaat, la rg e p a r tic le s of i t o c e a rria g aroimd
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
■** f|«j| ■**
■■mmll' wrftsks* ilwmm* m€ ma%
mm b® ttmm in m»
© lay
mimr&l®
Wlmmm wmmmi
sstsrark sfeiefa
or *
'th a t i f
m in e ra l, p o ss ib ly b io t it e *
il& s tr» % # « th is m t e r if t l la. fla t® V I.
s U e ls ifeis
mgr %«
sdmmt
or.© o f th#
A photomic rograph
fit® t [email protected]»a (4 0 ’*) sppwira t© fe*
s im ila r to th # Jt f e « l» S f t a w f « r , I f i# lig h te r
im w ile r ,
has la rg e r quan­
t it i e s o f th e y»llow£«h*fc#ea&* fe ir e frin g e i* , fto »eh *5©i« a£a$gwl* and has
lo c a lis e d
# f dark fer®«» to b3fe©& iro n «ei^#a&6s *
is th e p re -
d « i » s t « ia » r» i la t t t i 'horlsen* th«.#*B8* a t la lit# o th e r h o rizo n s i fear® is
an ssjple supply o f
p fm w a ® , tag& lbo l# « 4 sties a £ a» « *Is
is&leh provid#
a la rg e jrewnrw o f Ur# has*# sad. iron.
I t seen# t#asm tshl# t» p re it# '! f p » tlwrsa t M »
th a t
tb i# s o il a i l l fee Itigjh l a p o te n tia l f e r t i l i t y and a im p re fe r ssm&gaiaeat
ti<s«# w i l l prottae# h i # « « f y is ld s ,
ttM®-sferuetsr#
th # high
p ra e -
o f pore #pM » sail *p«ag#-
skeal# p e rm it rap id ' in f ilt r a t io n «stA. fa r« # l& tio a o f m f® r»
f l»
la rg e «»uafe of* f*ld e o *r» sa^Mfeel© and H ie * a ia s ra l# pr#s#at'' ®bmti0 upon
wiBftUiering*. ta rn is h an afeuadsafc supply o f
jatgsesiani*. |# t« w M iw fta i Iro n *
.«® o ri«d ia t * b l# i g. i t
th #
mm
p la n t fo#4 « 2«s#nt» e a te iu a ,
th # e rg s a i* m atter eowt#»t o f th * s e ll p r o file ,
to #wpjH»*% a rig o ro n * *i« » fe i® S # g i# a l f
though n e t feasie*. is w ith in ih # r«**g«
ot acid
1mm*
te l# i*tte # f o r moat
# » p fla tts fe # *
■ % * M ftrshall s i l t y s la y l « a 4e«« n o t '&«.#» s tro n g ly
th is is lO a # i*ftt» 4 fey th# » » « l*s le a l
■ear*## ia p la te ? ! *
th e
h e ris e n s .
m i fesse «efea»ge cap acity
s a il feelesf# to th e
Jhmtri# g re a t
th is l« * k a f horisasi iif f e r e a t is t lo a . has. boen n&t*Hi la .
s o il group,
F » tr 4 ® s o il,
ifee 0« r r la g t« i s i l t lo w .
fh# s la y eonfcent ia the snrffte# la y e r © f tis#
fc rs h a .ll i s M S permm&t*
A l l o th e r la y e rs ta th is s o il p ro f’l l # tew b i $ m r
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
o
Marshall silty
clay loam
P ercen t
Q
1
8
5
4
5
6
7
®
•§ 1£|
r
R
X
t
-P
Z'i
At
a>
° 36
Organic m a tte r
M echanical com position
Percent m oisture
m#e ./lO O gm. s o il
0
10
20
30
B-22
m?;•
A-13
A -S u r f.
t
IS
R
U
x
-p
,H 27|
C-38
At
B-22"
C-38
®
p 36
45
Incom plete pF curves
Base exchange
c a p a c ity
Plate VI. Photographs of thin sections (magnification 40X) and graphs
showing the mechanical composition, organic matter, hase exchange and
incomplete pF curves for the principal horizons in a profile of Marshall
silty clay loam.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
am @0
© lay
th© 4 h o risea (1 3 *) h»* S S *I percent
® *f
§ b&rimtm {4Qm} has
and th #
th# I to ri*© a (22®) feat
fkm base
® t *1
«x#hft»g#
© a p a tity of th e d iffo re n b h©ri#«®* la th is s e ll is # # s o t v a ry w id e ly , 22*09,
lE * 8 i0 *1 ,0 2 *a § fC M ft M * f # r 1C© grams s o il fo r the •or£&®#> A b o riso ii ( 13") »
S
h»imm
(2JS*) and C &®ri«®» {4 0 *) re s p e c tiv e ly .
f t # high
mmmfc o f
organic
iaatb#r# i* 4 § j& roo& t* ia the #urfa ce la y e r is p a r t ia lly responsible fo r th®
high has# oiwtsaag# ©«§»©1% ia th is la y e r*
fb » p f carves fo r
tii© p ria o lp a l h ® ri» « # t » % i# s o il a y * somewhat e r r a tic asd a r# i i f f I c a l t
to la to y ffo t*
&»«ev#r* th# lack o f hoftooa d iffe r e n tia tio n i s f a r t t e r shown
by th # u n ifo rm ity of th# j>f oorttMt*.
%mm
f t # 4 fc«w*l*©» (oorfOo®} o f fit® gorse# o lay
« i# s »
wkitk -M&imtm
a high
mmmt
is -w ry dark brown ia
o f ©rgtMsi# s tu tte r*
th is la y e r is ■sptte d is tin c t a a i ® h***e% ei*i«ti® *
f t # J iiem stru o tu re o f
l*h« m t r ix is sponge-like
and larg e aggregate# *•« & to b® the a#r# oeogaoa efarootwral c o a iitio a a * #o®»
p&red w ith is o la te !
mml1
aggregates*,
l« w w w r # w ith is tk # targe aggregates,
® » 11 dark segregates
aggregates are ra th e r u n lfe rs ia
s is # *. fh # type o f a& orootrw tor® 1* i l lu s tr a * # ! ia the ©oafos it # photomlcr©grsfh i a p-tat# T I I *
fM a
th# a«#h*al#a.l
t# fe# s ilf's a S «lmy*
frowssb i a tfaf« h « ri*« a *
although
in d ic a te a la rg e frap orbio B o f
to th # high orga&i# w M w y ocm teat, i s d i f f i c u lt ,
o f tb# *w »l
trrn®t$m %y
wide v a rie ty o f a& sen tl* ar® p ro seat*
«te©:3» ls * and
» ^ # d s #h © » th a t a
t w r t s , t it * f# M e fw r#0 fe rro w tg a e s lm
mmmBmty s in e m is
is dark bare*® ia e o lo r*
Id e n tific a tio n o f th e M s » » l t
#aa. b# id e n tifie d *
th e 4 horlscm ( 12M)
I t ha© a spsag«**lik# ^ O ro « tr« e tw r® , but
aggregates or®
s i l i a r t o ttioe® ia ft© oorfOeo*
tfc ir# a re
Ulm er#! study
m
m
w e ll
mm 11 dark aggregate® present*
mmi
M s a tlfic a tio a . ia thSa
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Percent
Percent
Barnes
clay loam
A -S u rf
nC.V-'V:;»
A-12"
x 24
Organic m atter
Mechanical composition
Percent moisture
in
.
20
.
m .e./lO O gm. s o il
0
30
■ 1.0 . 20 . SO
12.
W
o
O
£ 18
c
•H
^ 24]
•p
©
30
36
Incomplete pF curves
Base exchange capacity
Plate V I I . Photographs of thin sections (magnification 40X) and graphs
showing the ipechanical composition, organic matter, "base exchange and
incomplete pF curves for the principal horizons in a profile of Barnes
play loam.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
sectio n Is #*#y fo r M s %ertg*§»,
blende, earboim t#
a»st
A w ii#
#f
t * * r e e a s ily id e n tifie d *.
t!i# wind frs e tfo a fro® th is hm ritm . by
e p M o t# * fle w r its ,
ia a d d itio n to
B araw
m ir# ra l# # hem *'
of
f » s lw t i< m
Motit%
j» # ® § # shows th a t
olivine* ■gornot, sire«w , r m tlle «»d st#urolit« are present
the minerals i&kfetifiod in thin
The (8SW)
layer of.
slay loses is gray ia color, it im» * {torso#®»1 open typo o f micro*
s tru c tu re , and i t !§**.& w ealth o f
th in s o e iie s o f th is .p a rtio a la r
feldspar « J forraaftgaesian m inerals*
horisoa a ffo rd s a fee# «fp#ri«a»ity fo r m iaoral
study of s o ils - ia. « 4 iB tw p h # i s ta te *
Th#- {42") la y e r i» about the ©cm© a#
th® (3 2 *) la y e r , t h o u # 'i t 4#©# # « * to
©wrs© sand than dee* t h * la y e r
Th#
above i t *
a M # « r proportion. » f fin e #»&
'liotcmierograpHs o f th e th in «eeti<m
frm . e&eli lay- r mi t l i® s o il ere illu s tr a te d ia p la te V II.
Ik s physical mmffl&Zm o f t t il# *# 11 *# I t appear# ia tis ia w m btm la
e x c e lle n t,
I t i# * fp * r « 6 1 y high ia e r p it ie aafcior ir tr f# provides a t o f f #
.#&cHHtfc o f energy m a te rie l fo r th # * le r e M s lo # iW l fwpnl&tioit. @f th e s o il*
the presence' o f la rg e $ tM » title s o f fe ld s p a r a n i fm rm m g& m iim m iiterst#
and
ml&lm
carbonate in d ic a te s
iro n and potaaaiussu
mx abundant m m v m
o f calcium ,
last,
from U tete iit ia *#o tlo & ^ s e r r a tio n s , i t
t» po ssible to ©onolwte th is s o il is
.gives: la i* M # I tihmm th s t
highly f e r t ile ..
0dsa# mtppiewm t&ry ia ta .
thi# s o il 1* h i # 'la organic s o fte r
an
a lk a lin e re a c tio n .
The graphs illu s t r a t in g w m k m im fiL
organic m a tte r © o a ta a t,
base «x©JM©g® «*pmei,%- end i» « a § fl# b e p.f w r t f t fo r th e p rin c ip a l feorisaiw |»
-th# i« f » s c la y locus «*#■ presented in p la te \ I I ,
W M fo m tM l f m c t iw
re s p e c tiv e ly ,
Hi® otagr ®ont«at o f th #
o f th # surface « M I f * lay*®*® I# t S . l sad S3.4 p # r# « it,,.
fit® «%my o o jjttn h o f th e M echanic#! fm e tie a o f th e S I* la y e r
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
«*• 6 9 *
is $ t# § peps***! as#. 10 « i
ftst* th# i f * la y e r*
th e 32* lay er i» a
fbtaa, i t earn ts# seen that
te a * » f Inorganic c o llo id a l
-ffc# base
eschcrre c a p a city fo r a # mxttmm- *s& i f * lasers ie f $ * f f and I f *48 sue* p e r
100 gfa®« s e ll reap eetffel.y*
f t # base
eapaet t j fo r the I f
a a l 42"
layers in 3©*# f *S I.» « e *’f » r 10© grast* s e ll fo r the I f * la y e r and 10*77 a *« *
per 1€0 § r » » « ® il fo r t ie 4&* la y e r*
IM * l®e base meSmmg® c ap acity ia the
3 t * la y e r nfeicli has I ©*0 parewmt ©lay la S laa b *# th a t lit * laerg & aie ©eileSJftl
fmefttm *»y
a e t be w r y a c tiv e la .so f a r
m
la te exAaag# is eaa&araact * la
e a n tra a i t # tails'.«re H ie higher base -m€mag» eapaeIt is s
A
berlsea,*
at tit#
la y e r* in the
I t seeaus fe a s ib le « i& t t ie organic s e tte r i a the '4 herisett ie
h ig h ly e e tir e is regains: to !».«# eaetwsf# p » p # rti# S :*
te n t mm base
mmokm&g®
f i e ergaai# ae th e r con­
capacity ear r e * a re « f ib » »eae ty p e fa th a t both !« •
«*«#*»* ed'tfe depth o f » # ii ■prefi.le.*
lie
M*
la y e r o f the- «© il# e w a thoagii i t
ha* $ © # pereaat clmy, #®*#t i» t aheiw tit® type # f f t earee #xp#«t#i
M g fe
is
© . l a y #© &% *&% -•
Use
la y e r #
ia
tfe ® A , h ® r i s # a * ' b o t h
l# w s r
is
from a
c la y
s o il
e o a te a t
tfc m tfc® If** la y e r , eh®* th a t s i « $ a *l. p f w li» « the. w lab ttjre e e a fe s a i'i* h itte r
+* aa fat fit# t f * layer-*
ta ti# $km m m m m i l
I t # •*» * th a t pss# fo r gram fee orgastic ©olleiAs o f
h£3M
m m - p a te r a t a gfaswt p f Haas th# iaorgaaie- c o llo id s
4$©'*
.She aarfa «e o f th® Webster ©lay is dark etacelub® bre*® to black ia co lor
{p la te f i l l ) *
the s o il aggregat®#. mm mm&®4 to ssiaagalar•
the la rg e r pore
spaces o f tid e la y e r a re confined to the erodes «ad fis a o r** between th e
a g g » g a t# s | th e re i s i» .#iA A «»e ■«# la rg e per# apaee* t r iiM a the aggregate#*
fiw m lm m l fo r tie s o f th© «aag «wt s l i t ffw ite s w t» la rg e ly
*m # feM«f«t.rs a a i fearrewfegae^taa'riiaerale are prKNm t*
dee# a c t ‘h aw a# d e fin ite a
wbrststeoM* m
although
the A hmAmm (1 2 *)
«s® *a*rfaee:* the aggragablea s e t
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Webster clay
A-12"
A -2 "-4 "
Percent
Organic m atter
Percent m oisture
C-38"
'
B-20"
Mechanical composition
Incomplete pF curves
Base exchange capacity
Plate VIII. Photographs of thin sections (magnification 40X) and graphs
showing the mechanical composition, organic matter, base exchange and
incomplete pF curves for the principal horizons in a profile of Webster
clay.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
*»
'W ing as « « « }
per©
last###,.
meslesness la straeto r® is th # teadesey* the large
epeees* as la th® surf*© #* are n e s tly restricted to 'the. * » i l ©racks and
fteeereei te a e w r* some f a ir ly large pore spaces ©essr ia th# doss# febrle o f
f r a iM m a i e e lle id e l s m te ri& l. Q u art* I* 't h e
a ia s ra ,!, whereas
the. fe lltp a r® m 4 femswgaesisa sAm m l® are jw a iis t la seeller gtwniitiee*
3h# m a trix of the 1 h o rfw ® Is dense* and & elds# eene&tetlflw. e x is ts between
the s k e le ta l and c o llo id a l m a te ria ls ,
the -etroetsre Is m -g s ire , bloeky and
angular, fhe aim ers! f© r ti» a of th e sand and s l i t frestless is predominantly
quarts} heeeter* « £ « r # # llw p.: orthoclaa®, ollgo el& se* sad. the f©rro®[email protected]
s la e m ls
are present, ia awfil la rg e r quantifies then in fe e shrfese and A
hortwm fit1*):! » « » w * eeleihe is fetm& ia th is ten sea* the C horizon, is
desee and
weathered
Hms eelleidal substance is lig h t breaa ia #»!©r* the un­
adnexal sestest is high-in th is fcorisw tf quart® is prodesds&at* sad.
th* f«M»|»»*. f e r i* ^ g » s ia a adxawpals, selelte* sat deleadt* are q u it# abond&st*
the high o fg a a i# natter content* desirable physie&l ©sedition and & supply
of
adwrals. high ia seisins, pebaeeiea* » g » a i « sad iron © oatent, as deter*
» ifi» €
by this seebion obeerrtktles* p erm its th # e.eaelasloa that th is s o il is
highly fertile-* Bate* table §* rogariisg t i e orgmi# a t t e eentesb*. p i and
bss® eanhesge c a p a c ity sW *l*wt,t»% o# th is e e s e le e le s *
Is p o o rly
M ss# th is s o il type
drained and h ig h ly calcareous eertaia p«*© tl#e$ najr here to be
!s i% i* b * i before th® s o li beeente* a h ig h ly p ro iu o tiw sae*
. the weoteaiwl ©espwltieB* es^anie natter -ee&test, base sxetoaag# capacity
end ta to a p le t® p f ©arses f o r th e p r lt e l p t l h » % m m ia a W ebster ©lay p r o f ile
are grsphtsslly Illustrated l» plate iltl* fhe slay ©oaten* deereesee with
depth at a mtber unlfe*® rats to the 16* depth asd is nedh lower in %# C
ko rlsa a #
th® « r g » t« natter © satent Is w r y h ig h la ihe enrfaee. aa# decreases
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
•- 72 «*■
m p i& lj w ith depth*
h&rlmn
m
Th® giarfac® la y e r he* '9*15 pereeaxfc ©rg&»i© w a tte r* th# A
(1 2 *) It## I *31: p®r©«% «®<i th# lower herisew# {1 m # C) bev® p r s s tie a lly
organic w e tte r*. fhe- he.## « e te ii^ o c a p a c ity e f th is s o il
r a th e r a d fe m r e t# w ith ie p tli.*
at a
Since th# s la y co n ten t in th® 4 horison
(owrffc## and I t ”) i t « l y s lig h t ly d iffe r e n t ffmm th a t is th® § horizon (8 0 * )*
and sin©# t i e has© « « *» « § # - ^ a c it y deerwut##
» *« * j n r 100 grwat#
s e ll, is th e s « r£ a » Isyw f to IS*BS a*®# p * r 100 gm a# s e ll la th # i horizon
(8 0 *} i t is a p fa re s t t h * t teas#
e *$ fte l% ia th is s o il m rl# « -w ith o r * ■
goaf®- s e tte r ©©stoat w**» thou w ith the © ley #««&#»£*
d iffe r e n t tsorisoss is th i# s e ll a re o f the
-mm
ty p e *
? t» p f e w w # f or the
I t Is s o ta ti*,, however,
th a t is th® th r» # n fp er h»rl»jM § th ere is «a«M erm ¥I® d iffe re n c e la m oisture
« « a t# a t a t & ®«»taa% f®1 fo r
fe®tws®a th e#* la y e rs *
so -###11 tesotsife o f m r ia t ic a la c la y ecatest
I t is <j«*tt# f c s s lt l# tfeu&t gra® fo r grass th # t f j e o f
oygieti© c o llo id a l i» t ® r l» i ia th is s o il holds store. aefster® a t a given p f than
th#
/imtgmi®
o e llo id a l'iM tte ria l does*
Ik * mxtt&m la y e r o f th * gcastaa ©lay as m m in th in sectio n Is 'ferwm
ia cel®*** though not m tfo rts ty s o .
Splotch#® a a i'* t » « k s o f v e ry dark brown
» a t * r ia l occur l&iwsgfeewfe th # s o il m tr tx .*
th e s e ll 1 # $«dt#
open asd
porous.
th e aggregates se«a- to fee r e r y la rg e , » a y m sglsg from t m * to 4 «m* la
iia » e t# r *
the s atrisr o f these *gggwgftfc*#. 1# 4*»#» w ith a w * l i amount o f p e r*
g f « « prwpBBt*
th # s la e im l
o f the s i l t sari tend f m o tio n ® , as
&#%«?9&8#4 fey th in oeetlos. study, Is- la rg e ly q m r t i -a a i ©arlxjsab® a la e rs tls ,
c o le it# « a i a rs g o a it# *
Is a a lm tlo a &£ th # s ilt - «s*4 sa».i. f m otio n# fey la a e rs io n
asthods show# th a t « few o f th® iro n oxide sstneral® are prmmmi together w ith
m eeea-sloim l s e e w s H y a to s m l ewdh as m t il# * g *m # t* e ta u r o lite and z irc o n .
£he 1©W la y e r o f th is s o il Is s w b the sss# as th® surface s e ll la m im m i
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• fI «
#iWjMa#t%ioa m& ©«!«**' f h*
brawn. s tre a ks «®i ag&atahaa «« n s tio e l. la th e
sw ferilf # f th e « *rfa » e s e ll are f
f» th is la y a **
ffe® is a tr fjt i f
to r i* *
« « is net as «gwwi sal jwaw®* a* 'Bit layer »^f» I t # th e aggregates i » nans
an g u lar.
f it * 19* la y e r I s .grayi#h**br®m i» c o lo r .and to # jg&aergsw to rfc torewn
*tr*a fc * th r to g to ttt tit® to & y ix (p la t# II: ) *
S!S*# «siepas% rtt#t«# Is dense and
a u M iw w ith few rseaaptiUfebte. pore sjtaset*
m inerals a r t th e p r e i# is i» « i a ia e ra l# I®
The w t o a t s ^
this la y e r,
iw
§ « «% ** « . ©ocas**
' i« a a l accessory »lw >r#l. *»d tits ire ® ea&de rJn © r»l# are present*
fit# 80” la y e r
is .little i f any d lfie iw is f r m the £0n l#y«r*flie -Sstisfkcm c la y be# litre # outstanding fe e tu re # th a t are recognised fey
th in section study « M e to e r w tie a ,
fto e e a re ( 1) t t o ta il: t a * » •g&ctetoa
and streak# thw tt#en% . th e p r o file rftio h probably rep reseat p re e ip tt*tin $
e r g « le c o llo id a l s a rto rial# ( 2 ) the Mgjb ssioaat o f e a ito a a te M in eral# end a®®**
o f fe ld s p a r and f# r r w « g a » # i« is J » m l# # 'tad
($}'■*
ra th e r iis * *
t in o t ly «#mA m -ai«r#s% ««t«r# which to ® *# # mem ® » s lw w ith depth o f s e ll*
1% i# probably
im
la
m inerals a rc trts lh l#
rmmrvm
f e r t i l i t y ®4»©e [email protected] fe ld s p a r # r
imtrmmg&mAm
in.th e iM a* sections which aig£tt »®w® m a sour®# o f
p w » I p la n t food elaaasata*
Microscopic © to e rm tiw . and study o f A&i# s e ll in tadA ataftod co n d itio n
w ith re fle c te d lig fc t stows th a t t tm s tru c tu re in. th e
«pi%® angular « s i d is tin c t*
jft^ioBierogrfspbs.
IQ1®' to p er i *
fit® .ftf® sad SO* la y e r# appear [email protected] to dense and-
nasalva »!%& l i t t l e - evideaee o f
■principal la y e r# o f th is s o il
mrim®. sad
mm *««a
s tru c tu re ,
She a ie r e a tr to ta r e o f th e
w ith re fle c te d lig h t 1® illu s tr a te d w ith
t t o darker ##$#r a f tha jto i« A # r « g r a f} » f a r th e to rito e *
as# 10* la y e rs Is « r « m I by h ig h e r oi^gsale m a tte r content*.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Houston clay
Mechanical composition
Percent moisture
Incomplete pF curves
Plate IX, Photographs of thin sections and undisturbed soil (magnification 40X) and graphs
showing the mechanical composition, base exchange and incomplete pF curves for the principal
horizons in a profile of Houston clay.
,n -
traplti# illmatratione ®# -III# «eiAolml #®afetiM«i aad !»»# #*«l«ag«
capacity for tb® Ifswrtsii elay profile* plat* K* sheer that ifels profile 1ms a
rather uniform w m i of ei&y ttoptgkeut the solum aad the k w exehaag#
capacity is. act af^rwlahly wrlahl# [email protected] «a* Jajer t© aaether* Hi# ol&y «®«*
■teat #f the weheaieal f y m M m for th e m r f im * It 4t*t fHsreeah mlsy* §2*3
p*w«at f*«r hit* 1# layer* §'3US percent f m the 20® layer «ii 4t*l fewest
for the S5® layer* H». %a#» #*«teisg*'
$$.*£&
1#
42*14* St*§§ aad
m*e» per 100 grass soil far the sarfsee* 10* * W n aaat 10* layer#,, re*-
s jw e tiw ly *
the ft eerw* for tit# differeat la y e r* ere similar*
Stajgaary
and Conclusions
ft&a seetiea#* prepared la a. waser mrngmmhlm t© .Use method used %
I®« {tO, 21) a a i 1i j ItiM® m Cl<6’l
p r o file # & t
group
*M l# f® r
tl» p r l» « lf * l layer# in tho
alas tall type#* $»wa .great m i l groups & m represented im th is
of ala s s o ils .i §»j^%r®was fo is o lie * fo llo w fedsolic* Ksd P c is o lie *
jPreirie, ©her®©*#** Wieseshedea s a i
f i»
Ifela s#«% i«s of the various
'layer*'la these t»41« haw heea elesely ebeerwd *sS dsserifced by us# ■©£ the
p *tr#g rap h t#
s tltw t#
s&ereseepe* the s&ereseoplc desoriptioa# o f Ui«s# sell* eoa*
the mala jw rtiw a & t this wpert*
Oerfeala p h ysical *asi ehtaloal properties of H i# s o il* .studied m m d#»
tera&UMt aa# used f o r «§sfie»#a1»;^ iafernatiea* M w im niosl oeapesltiea* base
exehsage capacity*, ergpale setter eeateBfc, .assisiur# coatwet a t w i » « wpor
pressures m3. » i» t a r »
Thea® p ro p ertie s a r t
i# S « r ig t l« » ar©
The
e^ujtwlests are Use p rta c ip & l pwpertiee dNfterndited*
dleeaeeed sad their releiiosahip® to Hi# sieroseople
foisted out*
sore obvious a a i eatita&diag feattsre#. » f s o ils that «a& be studied by
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
*» fS *
th in « # © t i a r e
( 1) awvwacat o f s o il
s titu e n ts , ( f ) » M I
ml%mMml m
t t a r cad ®t&#r w obilc con­
s&A jMKfiMSity* us# (s ) th e ^ a e a l cow*
-poclties la respect to cfeeMt&cr 13mm M tm abramse* o r s c a rc ity o f the
M s e ro l* M gh i» e d o lm * m p m im , p c ta ® # !*,. jiioiigh ora* su# iro a *
fm
o f ib e c e il# stoftisd* th e JfeeogAmfcoc censor losa %M the Hottc&m
clay, incre.acrofolly etudled with tit#, soil ssicroseop# « » re fle cte d , lig h t*
hetsceea ea.llcM % l m t o r ia l as#
-Sack studios 'chewed th e r e la tio a
s k e le ta l m a te ria l o f the c o il#
fh ic tc c iw ifw prwrl&cs & g©s# raj»l<! » « *
o f a tw iy lag c e il M icro*tsm stare «s# c o il p o ro s ity in s a ta ra ! undisturbed s ta te ,
«&<!
tmm
cade-#
«»«!* c tu & c c lim it# # . p ro ttio titts s
m io iw rc
I t I * also po ssible by «#» o f U do
mil
be
to study a lc rc c c c p is fo r *
m t i« s * th a t -a*y y t# M ia fc ra a ti< a i c © » # *» la f. t&o
#<m stlt«c»f« « « t crcsc o tte r
mmmmb® mu
wmmxA
o f a© M 3* c o il
fp a e tl# free###® **
m .® re»«ofi# ctu^y of colic in th is s e c tio n o r in omiotwrfecA state !**•*
AlachoA new © lfK l.fi
fo r © « rts .iji .tworoccopie fte ts ro s o f the .coil# to
mac a few cxaaplcc* the s e ttle # Cfigocira&eo o f colic la tit® f le t# hoi &n
« t f r » ly d iffe r e n t appears*## tm tfcia ccciton* c c p e e la lly « t» s ■the coil
s c c ttm is .m gaifls-i. 4© %» IS© tiewe*- "fit# Aoaco mmtptoow mtorial th a t m s
frequently found oeewwiag ia ro o t etowsolc «s*I ®»11 saaiwsl burrow* in un­
disturbed coils m # e#«B to hero definite optical «wt m ^ h im im t properties
when studied is this scotiaa.
It e»j&s th a t ttisroccor**- staiy o f soils, both thia c e e tio n observe tio a s
aa# direct e t » % w ith ref le c te # llg ^ tt* aa»
tfe# morpliology aa# g*»ssi«.#f s s i l t *
bm a
wclccblo a t# is is te rp ro tto g
Two aotchle s a m p les* o f sisilar » t « r c #
o f soil g e n e tic |» » « « 8 ©hscrrsi is t h i* # ta % wore ( 1) the ®©©«r»»eo o f a
ycllcsd ^ w b ro w i plcochroie cs&ctasee ia the fayw th* s l i t la m &»i Ukreh&ll
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
** 77
■ s tiff e la y loam wfeioii a#©«r 'la s n a il eracfcs,
©wdtl#®. o f w ria o a f a f f * * ® »i I t ) the » f h # r
o f dark streaks
fl*# w » s ,.
ro o t ehatm el* asd sm all
prtnmmwA
iiw a f w e a t
t t » Soustoa © lay p r o fit# wbiek a re presumably,!
deposit# o f ® rg « ii« © o lIo M a l m a te ria l*
s h ta rifti# la .s e lls ® orfcainly’##wa to
Mm
fto
mvem&t
o f tlawse o e llo id * !
• s ig a iffs s i* r e la tio n t® th e I l l w i a -
tle n and o lw ria tio a fro s e s *** is s o ils *.
a © eorrelmtlon o f s a il types b©%«w» two &r m m area# is sea o f the
major problems ia s o il ® la # sif.ie a tio a.* Wwmmm d if fic u lt ! # # arts® when m,
* tt # s $ t is nado to ,oorrolm t# s o ils b«%#»«& s ta ts * m & between w id e ly ssptrat®#
regions* ©pasM eraM # fr# g r# *« la s been t * i # i». #® tr® latiag: s o ils * f i »
naorosoople :4®s®ripti©a o f sells, s^lsswatoHi with'soa# physioa! a a i ohostieal
d a ta , is
ting. s o il
m om .
sad
*»&#& m fo r th# -sorrolotion of soil types* 'th is »#th»i. «f c o rre la ­
typo# has not prosed entirely » .ti* fa e t© fy ia th® fa it # 4 Stats®#* I t
that aiorosoopio * e * « r tp tio » o f s o il# m y j»r»ire h e lp fu l .fo r c o rre la tio n
otftsslfiosiion pisrjww®#* I t is © g rte ia iy tru e that m near# d e ta ile d <S#»
eorlptioa of a s o il Iiortaoa ta n b® obtained by uoisg. a a t ©r®seeps* « i® » a
s o il %*p« 'is s e t
i# s « rlb s d « « t
aee#g»t#d a# a new on# i t Is thought th a t
thin potion sad ia & lie a t lig h t doserlptlons o f ®«eb distinct la y e r in addition
be iMKorosoc^is dteseriptioa w s n li slloviato- m a y problem* ia s o il c o rre la tio n
and © l*» s 4 fl* » tle * u
fit® os®
proais#. hmmm»
th# thin
as a twshai^o® i» soil olsssification has
thin ###tio®s «wt be n&i# gaii&ly a s i w ith a w a l l outlay o f
exfuifWMmt, « i b*e&as« th ey a rt® possible a s o r* accurate « # «®aplet# i« »
s .o riftio tt
to
of t o ils *
Furth#fw»r#, th# thia s s o tio a is snail, ecwf»«rfe. and easy
hsndl#, *11 of s M h nah«« i t po ssib le to ea.t&2ogo# «n4 f i l e th # seotlos#
f o r $u£#gc r e f 9m m ® and *%«%«, Ia # % « r w o rts, * set
of th in sostlons
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
■m n
th e
« «
pzimtpkt h&H*om &i th e
would fee an eeaet to
m
A ls o , th e th in so stio s i» o f
pimm with- a
**
s e ll t j j * # wagped w ith in a s ta te o r
s i ^ a i i s l l s a to *#»«» Iram ledg* o f s o il# is m fc & b le *
mwe§i a
th a t i t «aa be -sent fw m .p la e e to
;
adaiiaw* « f eoet and e e re * %l,w# JP&elXitetisg e a a ^ r e tlr e e te iy ,
c o rre la tio n « * l e la s s x f AC&t&oia o f s o ils *
Bmet p h y s io s !
and shswieal d e te ra im f& m e »»cfc as
mmimkiml
e o a fo sitio a *.
orgeat.# wattser eemte&t,. te e # exefeeag# e a jw M *!^ w e iite a r*.e e ateat a t yarioas
iwpa-r preesa roe s a t lastater© o fa im le a t# were ebb&ined by standard sie ttio ie f o r
eaah. o f H»® f r i » i p e l &eris«*w is •»» n in e s o il % f#.g shedied*
'th e m
ta ts are
lis te d la te b !* s 4 , § & M S and a re illu s tr a te d g rm p M o slly ia. p la te s 1 to IX ,
ia e l« « im » *
Stedy © f these date end il l« s t » M . « s discloses sou# in te re s tin g
re la tfe a * *
1 # the base
te n t*
mefomg# « & j» © ity
th is r e la tio n vws
e a tte t*
tbm orgeat#
fftesenbedeB
m s d ir e c tly c o rre te te i w ith t£ » ©lay con­
mt m pmmmami. w ith m % M
high ia © rgasi# w itte r
s e tte r present ia P r a ir ie ,.
f t w .fo r $ram# had higher
le a d s !# * and
imm- em fcenfe m & m t M m
then
in&rgka le e e lle ld a X w a te r l* !*
t« A ffftre a tly the # rg « a i« w e tte r prw eaai Is the §jmy»b*#*® fe d te ile * fe llo w
% i» # l.|© and le d JPeisell#
d ll set
isflw es m the bate exshasge ee$*«it£ee
.of these s a il* a * strongly «# the © rgf*i# s e tte r lafleeseed the has# exchange
eapsaiM ee o f the
l»fce rs«« *
m
S* th # base #s»l»ji-g« e s $ » e tiy o f
4 $te*e»badea s o il® *
e&eh t e r isos, ia the le d and fe llo w
fftfisedl© s o ils was «aee»disg % . lew *
4 * A t ee se ta a t j»? « l w * th e ieel#.tar» eos&eante o f fee s o il# stu d ied v aried
d ir e e tly « itfe fee e ia y
mmkmh*
i * ffe* date obtained fo r th e la m e * ©lay !© *» and Webster ©lay indieatied
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
**- ^ 0 m
Sat Si® # rp *4® B a tte r ia these t ciis, grass for grws* heli ware mfeer at a
giiwa ft* than the inorganic eetloiial s»t*r3»l.
8«
thm ftm ir i#
s o ils
4M
a o t show p r« # as e # 4
between
h o rizo n s, £«•« * S h it* m e l i t t l e change in »@©hs»S©#sl e«nsp«isi4i©a and base e x change cap acity wi$b in creasin g depth*
from S ii« i t wmtM appear th a t P r a ir ie
s o ils a re eosewtsftt is s » ia re «ad la c k in g 1b ho rizo n d iffe r e n tia tio n *
The o a ly
exeeptioa « * • the Shelby s o il, hot since i t 1# probably «***» t r u ly & Planes© !,
fee high clay ©©stent t » its - 8 h o rizo n is »«fe « i» p rt« in g *.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
— 8© —
M fia a W iE CITED
—j> I * A lle n ,
lm f * BatafwgrapMc #t.tn4ie# bearing on the g&meia ®&4 asrph©logy
®f X U IW U s o ils * Second In t e r m t . Cong. S o il S e i. £ *1 1 3 -1 1 7 . 1090
2+ f i i n r , L . 0 . 4 ©lass i f i c a t i on o f s o il © tra c tare sad it s r e la tio n to th©
main s o il groups*, Aster. S o il Survey M m * S a l* jLS* 107-109* 1934
S* B a w , 1* B* Fa©tors c o n trlo o tin g to th e genesis o f s o il m lcro straetare#
A jw * S o il Survey A©*» . B u i* 16>55*56« 1938
4 * B arer* L . S .
1940
S o il physics, p . 130* John W iley 4 Io n s* In c ., Sew York,
8# D rosdoff* 1 * mt& Truog, E . 4 method fo r removing sad determ ining to® fre e
iro n o x id * in s o il c o llo id s . J o u r. Jtaer# So©* 4gj*on* 27*312-217.
'
'- I f iS
—
—
6 . F ry*
W* H»Fetrogrophie methods fo r . s o il la h e m ts rie s *
Tech. B u i. 3 4 4. 1933
1 * S.* Dept. 4 § r*
7 . la rg e r* 8 * J . e-ad f o lk * G. W* 4 method fo r to# microscopic em axn&tion
o f the s u tu ra l ©tructur© and pore space in s o ils . F re e . B o ll S e t*
is o * Am#-# 1 *3 8 -4 2 . 1937
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A s t« j» la ia f, t o i l ty p e , w ith a method o f exam ination and a c o a p **i*e a
o f c e rta in English and S c o ttis h s o ils * Jo u r. A gr* S e t. 1 3 *l - I S « 1923
S.* J e ffr ie s * 0 * ©* "fee m lawrale^Lcal composition o f to# e e ry fin ®
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I f * Johnston, J . S . K ieroaorphelogy o f * fte rh b a ll s i l t y c la y lea® , a Wehoter
c la y , and a la cogdock©# aaaiy ! © « p r o f ile * Pro#. S o il S e i# See*
A» r . 4*360-363. 1939
IS * ie lle g g , C. S. B ® velojw »t end s ig n ific a n c e a f the g re a t, -©oil group# of
th© % it® d S ts.to«* 0 * S . Dept*. A g r* M is ** fa t# I f f *
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IS * tu fe le m , W. 1 *
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Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1827
— 81 —
16*
W. L . Micro pedology* pp* 9 2 , 97, !0S-*.lSf ftfii lf S * l§ 3 , €®[email protected]®
Press* la # *-, to e s , I o m u 1938
I f * S IM fo r o ff, C . C . M orphological d e fin itio n and c la s s ific a tio n o f s o il
m e ro s tru c tu re * 1 * S . S ep t* A g r. S o il Surrey S i v is io n Sews Sets®#
£ * 9 -1 8 . 1940
1§* 0In stead , b* 8 * , A lexander, L* f * ted M iddleton, 1* 1 * A p ip e tte method
o f m m h m lm l a n a ly s is o f s a ils based on improved dispersion p ro ©e«»r»* 1 * S* Ospt* A g r. fe o h . B u i* 170* 1030
If *
f e t is » n , ?f * 0 * The d e te ria im tio n of organic m t t e r in s o ils by &«&&» o f
hydrogen pero xid e* Jo u r. A gr*
search 841339*386* 1927
19A* HoMmcm, 1 , 1 * Seihod® f o r to ta l exchange c a p a c ity , t o t a l «otthAft§e®hl«
base®, and exchangeable calc iusi, magnesium and potass Sum in. s e ll® .
Unpublished m anuscript*
2 0 . lo s s , € . 3 * A method o f preparing th in sections Of fr ia b le rock*
Jour* S c i* (S e r- 8} 7 *4 8 3 -4 0 8 . 1924
feaer*
f l * moss, C. S« Hethodc o f p rep aratio n ® f .##d ittest*ry is& teriai® f o r study*
Eeon. Geo 1* £ 1 *4 6 0 -4 6 8 . 1026
it *
% a ® e ll, J . C *, OlmatsHtd*
and Hendrickson, 8 * H* forms o f s a il
s tru c tu re . A a«r* S e ll Survey Assn. ^ n l* JJt 120*138# 1929
■iS* S e lto fie M , R . E . The pF o f th e w ater ia s o il*
S o il S c i* Trans. £ *3 7 -4 9 . 193&
th ird In te rn e t* Congress
2 i* S ii e r i , B* 1 * 0a the fo im stio n o f s tru c tu re is. s o il* I * fit® s tru c tu re
e f s o il c o llo id ® . S o il g e l* 4 2 *3 6 1 -39 4 . ISSS
US. S i4 e r l, P . I . On the form ation o f s tru c tu re in s o il* I I . Synthesis © f
aggregate®* on th e bends u n itin g c la y w ith send and c la y w ith hwBus*
S o il S c i. 42*461-461* 1936
IS .
f t d e r l, lu I . On the fo rm tio n o f s tru c tu re in s o il* IY . The s tru c tu re
o f » i» d clay-sand and elay-humus form ations* Soxl S c i* 46*119-338,
1938
I f * S ls te rl* D. I . On the form ation o f s tru c tu re in '• o il* f l * le tte d o f
m icroscopic in v e s tig a tio n o f s o il s tru c tu re is re fle c te d lig jh i*
S o il S c i, 46*337-349, 1936
ti.» ia s o llk , 1 * Report m . the present p o s itio n o f b yg ro s e o p ie ity . F ir s t 'Cornu
lu tc a m t* $00 * S o il O e i., Coapt* Scad. f p . 103-108, 19S4
19* 8 te rra s * l o l l & • A method fo r studying the h a w ld ity re la tio a s ©£ fungi
la c u ltu re * Ifeytflg^thelogy £#428-432« 1116
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■
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C . L« W* * » i P e te r s o n , J * B .
^ if f e r e a e e s l i t tfe« a le r e e t r a c t u r ©
© f p ro file © o f the M arshall and. Shelby s i l t
Soe. A ;!»r. Ji *207-303 * 1940
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'$X* f r w g ,
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1 » # fa y lo r , J . 8 * , Pearson, 1 * ¥ » , Weeks, M*
Pro©* S a il Stoi*
and Simonson, R . W*
Procedure fo r s p e c ia l type o f 'w e h a n ie a l and mineralogies1 s o il
a n a ly s is * JProe. Soil Sci. So©* Amer* J.*101*112* 1SS6
32* ¥ o lk , I . J * F o jn » ti« n o f aKw ee-rit* in s o ils , sad refinem ents ia sp ecif!©
g ra v ity s e r r a t io n * * S »w « Jo ar* S-ei# 36$114*»129e 10S3
§S» T o lk a S* W* and H arfw if, 1 * «l» A re vise d me fchod fo r the s&oroseapie « * •
am instion o f n a tu ra l s tru c tu re and gore sjm.ee ia s o ils . S o il S e t*
« s l4 l- M 8 * 193S
<§4* lakli& ro v, S* A * Achievements o f Russian science In inorphology o f s o il# .
Russia© P edological In v e s tig a tio n s , I I , Academy o f Sciences o f the
1«S *S *8. 192? (O rig in a l not seen. S ite d by Saver ( 4 ) ) *
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