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A CRITICAL STUDY OF THE ORGANIZATION, ADMINISTRATION AND FINANCING OF THE ARTS COLLEGES OF THE EVANGELICAL AND REFORMED DENOMINATIONS

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University Microfilms
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LD3907
.E3
Shtunaker, Joseph McDonough. • * ***'•“
19U1
A critical study of the organization,
r.Sl;5
administration and financing of the
arts colleges of the Evangelical and
reformed denomination.
228 i, tables,diaprs.
Final document (Ed.D.) -F.Y.TJ.,
School of Education, 19lA«
Bibliography: o.c185,-193*
A6U591
copy-
mmm
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T-C.U 1:-*
Xerox University Microfilms,
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106
T H IS D IS S E R T A T IO N HAS BEEN M IC R O F IL M E D E X A C T L Y AS R E C E IV E D .
‘•■a
P in a l Docirsont’
Accepted,
A oritioal Study of the Organization, Administration
and Financing of the Arts Colleges of the Evangelical
and Reformed Denomination
Joseph McDonough Shumaker
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree of Doctor of
Education in the School of Education of
New York University
1939
PLEASE NOTE:
Some pages may have
i n d i s t i n c t print.
F i l m e d as received.
University Microfilms, A Xerox Education Company
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.
PAGE
THE PROJECT AND THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
Statement of the Problem and Purpose
of the S t u d y ...........................
1
Importance of the Problem................. 2
II.
Definitions of Terms Used ...............
2
Organization of the Remainder of
the Document......................
3
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
Surveys of Higher Education .............
5
Statement of Method of Procedure........
8
Sources of D a t a .......................... 11
III.
REPORT OF THE STUDY
Historical Setting of the Colleges . . . .
Catawba
Heidelberg
Cedar Crest
Hood
Elmhurst
Ursinus
13
Franklin and Marshall
IV.
ANALYSIS OF THE COLLEGES................... 32
Organization
with Summary........... 32
Administration ... with Summary........... 62
Finanoing........with Summary........... 99
General Summary .......................
131
Questionnaire (with General Summary). . . 133
A Q -I ", 9 1
CHAPTER
V.
COMPARISONS............................. 162
Within the Denomination
.............
162
Colleges for Men
Colleges for Women
Coeducational Colleges
With Colleges of Other Denominations . .
VI.
169
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS..................177
Findings and Interpretations .........
177
Conclusions............................ 181
Recommendations........................ 183
BIBLIOGRAPHY............................ 185
LIST OF SURVEYS
194
APPENDIX . . .
195
LIST OF TABLES AND GRAPHS
Page
I.
Continuing Regulatory Supervision After Charters
............................ 35
have Been Granted
II.
Organization of College Boards as Provided in
Original Charter............................... 42
III.
Organization as Provided Through Charter
Amendments.....................................43
IV.
Summary Chart of Organization
V.
Accredited "A” Colleges and the Accrediting
A g e n c i e s ..................................... 92
VI.
Minimum Administrative Staff.................... 97
VII.
Rating of Administrative Organization
.......... 59
........ 98
VIII. Comparison of Public-Private College Sources
of Income.................................... 124
IX.
Graph showing grouping of Colleges on the
Basis of Non-expendable F u n d s ................. 162A
X.
Graph showing grouping of Colleges According
to Value of Physical P l a n t ................... 162B
XI.
Higher Educational Institutions Established
by 1860-1890
170
Comparison of Salary Scales
172
XII.
.........
PREFACE
This document is the outcome of a conviction that educa­
tional institutions may he studied while they are in action and
even while they are in transition.
To attempt to control an
institution in order to see how it functions, has always seemed
to he an incongruity.
Within the study, taken as a whole, the purpose is to
indioate growth, not only in the individual oollege, but growth
in a group of autonomous institutions which, nevertheless, are
interrelated.
This approach reveals the units of the study as
interdependent and makes possible a correlation of the life of
the colleges with the life of the denomination.
Because of
this unity, it is hoped that in reading the document, no one
college will be lifted from the oontext.
The investigator has sought to oatoh the "spirit" of the
colleges as well as to Interpret the intricacies of adminis­
trative control.
Recognizing personal limitations, he has
based his conclusions on authorities.
The Bibliography contains the sources used as well as
a list of surveys, both those made for this study and others
read by way of preparation.
Documents in the Appendix are
listed and arranged to supply examples of administrative con­
trols and to Supplement the story of the colleges pp to the
first General Synod of the new denomination, June 19, 1940.
Materials for this Document were assembled at the cost
of annoying seven kindly oollege Presidents, namely:
Dr. Howard Rufus Omwake, Ped.D., Catawba College, Salisbury, N.C.
Dr. William Franklin Curtis, LL.D., Cedar Crest College,
Allentown, Pennsylvania
Dr. Timothy Lehman? LL.D., Elmhurst College, Elmhurst, Illinois
Dr. John Ahlum Schaeffer, Ph.D., Franklin - Marshall College,
Lancaster, Pennsylvania
Dr. Clarenoe E. Josephson, D.D., Heidelberg College, Tiffin, Ohio
Dr. Henry Irvin Stahr, LL.D., Hiood College, Frederick, Maryland
Dr. Norman Egbert McClure, Ph.D., Ursinus College, Collegeville,
Pennsylvania
Speoial mention, oonveying sinoere appreciation, is ex­
pressed to three exaoting but most helpful faculty members of
New York University, my sponsoring committee:
Dr. Albert Barrett Meredith, Chairman
Dr. John Oscar Creager
Dr. Charles Edward Skinner
Many faithful friends gave aid and encouragement; of these
Dr. A. 0. Reiter, ohurohman and parliamentarian, Mr. Frank M.
Cressman, banker, Dr. Amos Ettinger, historian of Moravian
College, and Dr. Harry Hess Reiohard, professor of Language of
Muhlenberg College discussed the text.
Miss Mabel Mulock of
the English department of Allentown High School, generously
edited the document.
My thanks to these; my errors on my own
head.
I have sought to prepare a critical study of seven live
colleges and to add my bit to the field of college surveys.
Joseph McDonough Shumaker
CHAPTER I
THE PROJECT AND PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
Statement of the problem and purpose of the study.
The Evangelical and Reformed Denomination sponsors seven
colleges, located in five different states.
age and type of institution.
They are varied in
They have developed under widely
different sooial and economic circumstances.
three distinct types:
(3) Men’s Colleges.
(1) Co-educational
They represent
(2) Women1s Colleges
Located in different states, they are
controlled by charter as granted in each particular state.
Having differing degrees of economic independence, they show
varying degrees of autonomy and of external control.
In studying the individual institutions it has seemed ad­
visable to follow a two-fold plan.
First:
1.
To secure authorization for the study from the presi­
dents of the colleges.
2.
To secure from the administrative offioers of the
several institutions factual materials by means of
questionnaire, printed reports and documents, and by
personal visit to the plants.
Second:
1.
To establish (as a basis for drawing conclusions)
criteria for judging the value of the materials.
2
2.
To summarize findings for the use of the denomina­
tion and to make recommendations*
Importance of the problem*
importance in two main directions:
The present problem assumes
(1) to the denomination
(2) to the general field of education.
To the denomination
it is pertinent (1) because there has been no previous sur­
vey of all of these particular institutions; (2) because a
new denominational constitution has recently gone into effect
making necessary a readjustment of educational control and
finance;
(3) because the study lays a ground-work upon which
further studies may be built;
(4) because at this time a con­
stitutionally established Commission of Higher Education de­
signed "to cultivate closer relationships between the education­
al institutions themselves and the church” is emerging.1
To
the general field of education it is pertinent because any
comprehensive and accurate survey is desirable just now, when
the subject of educational relations is a moot question.
Definitions of terms used. "Critical study" is a term less
pretentious than "survey" and in the present use signifies a
less technical and more sympathetic method of researoh.
Classls,
Synod, General Synod are three terms used by the particular
denomination under consideration.
Formerly the Reformed Church
consisted of congregations, classes, synods and the General
Synod.
1.
2.
Acoording to the new Constitution,2
within the merger,
Constitution of Evangelical and Reformed Church Admini­
stration Boards, Article III.
Ibid.
3
the Evangelical and Reformed Church is composed of ministers and
lay members organized into congregations which constitute Synods;
the Synods, through elected delegates, constitute the General
Synod (with a General Council).
It is important to note that
under the new constitution the earlier Classis disappears as a
legislative organ, but it is still a vital legal factor because
schools, synods, and classes were separately incorporated, and
some colleges were financed by the classis in which they ori­
ginated.
The term "President of the Church" is now applied to the
head of the Church at large, namely, of the Evangelioal and Re­
formed Church, as it assembles for the first session at Lan­
caster, Pennsylvania, June 19, 1940.
Organization of the remainder of the Document.
The general
question of surveys of higher education confronts one who would
make a study of a college or a group of colleges• For this
reason Chapter II concerns itself with (1) the literature of
surveys, (2) the method followed in this document, (3) the
sources from which this material was drawn.
Chapter III deals with the historical materials of this par­
ticular study, examining the charter development of each college
separately.
jected.
Against this background the true analysis is pro­
Chapter IT studies, compares, and summarizes the or­
ganizing, the administering, and the financing of each.
Finally,
the chapter presents a comprehensive general summary.
Chapter V includes two comparisons growing out of Chapter
4
IV: (1) a comparison of the colleges within this denomination;
(2) a comparison of the Evangelical and Reformed schools with
other private^ controlled Arts Colleges.
Finally, Chapter VI
(1) summarizes the findings,
(2)
indicates conclusions, and (3) offers recommendations.
i
CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
Surveys of Higher Education. For present purposes
higher education means education In schools ahove the high
sohool rank:.
The colleges are established and on a definite
mission with or without academies or seminaries which tend
to divide the. purpose and allegiance of the student body.
The history of surveys, with their oontent and techni­
ques is amply treated in the monumental work by Walter Crosby
Hells, under the encouragement of Dr. Henry Suzzallo.1
How­
ever, later surveys are available in University libraries and
the Office of Education, and unusual collections may be found,
as for example, the collection available at Teachers College,
Columbia University.
The clawsifioation of educational institutions by a
standardizing agenoy was started by the Methodist Episcopal
Church University Senate in 1898.
This method was adopted
later by the New England Association, the Association of the
Middle States and Maryland, and the North Central Association.
The American survey of higher education is only one phase
of surveys in general.
Barring the group from Great Britain
in 1903, the f i r s t % t u d y o r "survey” , although called by another
1.
Walter Crosby Eells "Surveys of American Higher Education"
The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaohing.
New York City, N.Y., 1937, out of publication.
6
name, was undertaken in Oberlin College in 1908*
Earlier, however, work by such educators as Dr. Barnard in
1844-45 gave direction to the movement, and soon State Educa­
tional Commissions began to use this method of gathering
much needed information.
Dr. King, as President of the Ohio
College Association, Introduced his ideas into the Association,
and another fertile souroe of surveys developed.
The Ml awl
survey, and later one at Drezel Institute, followed.
Under the
gift of Andrew Carnegie a $10,000,000 foundation was created
which soon beoame the nucleus of the survey movement.
The study
of medical eduoation in the United States and Canada was auth­
orized in 1908.
By a further gift of $1,250,000 the Carnegie
Corporation endowed a separate Division of Educational Enquiry
which authorized the Vermont study in which was developed a
technique for state sohool surveysI
The Carnegie Foundation
for the Advancement of Teaching has also sponsored valuable
studies pertaining to higher eduoation, to the field of teabh*r's retirement, and to economy in eduoation.
Before 1915 at least two denominations had started surveys,
one under the guldanoe of the Board of Education of the Metho­
dist Episcopal Church 1912-16, the other under the guidance
of the Board of Eduoation of the Northern Baptist Convention,
whioh in 1912-13 made a thorough study of its colleges.
This
denominational tendency to evaluate the worth of educational
work by use of surveys spread until, under the leadership of
Dr. Robert L. Kelly, many denominations united to form the
1.
Handel in foot note page 30 opp cite.
Eells.
7
Interohurch World Movement.
This again led many denomination­
al schools into the Association of Amerioan Colleges, whioh
further encouraged surveys and invited a summarizing of those
completed.^
This, in a general way, "brings the survey into the field
of church organizations.
Meantime, universities and commer­
cial organizations entered the survey field.
Brookings In­
stitute and kindred organizations began to secure trained
men to make special studies.
Dr. F. I. Kelly reported on
higher education for the Mississippi study.2
Later Dr. Kelly
and his associates studied the Amerioan Arts Colleges.
Other
men became known for their work in surveys.
This brief review of surveys can not even attempt to
list all the persons who have developed projects, headed
commissions, and in many ways done yeoman service for eduoa­
tion.
Each has contributed some valuable or original idea
which has gone into the whole development of this phase of
scientific investigation.
Through this period of development techniques one after
another have emerged.
As they were needed, men had to devise
new methods of gathering information, to formulate ideals
toward which to aim, to find methods of weighing materials as
g
well as ways of presenting their findings and conclusions.
One significant conclusion with regard to surveys is made by
1.
2.
3.
F.L. McVey, Association of American Colleges Bulletin
(March 1930) XVT pp 121-36.
See Eells "Surveys of Amerioan Higher Education" pp 53.
Study No. 518.
Ibid, pp 63 and foot note.
6
Dr. Ellwood P. Cubberley, writing on "University Surveys" in
4
National Eduoation Association Proceedings,
"Its purpose
should be helpfulness, and the recommendations made should
be constructive and helpful."
This fairness, which has marked
the many studies made in the past sets a high standard for
the future.
Those who look ahead and attempt to anticipate
the trend in this field appear to feel that future surveys
will aim at the fundamentals and the philosophy of the whole
educational process.
They feel they will more and more empha­
size quality rather than figures; that statistics will become
a means to an end.
It looks as if, eventually a critical study
might presumably attempt to evaluate the spirit which animates
the movement as well as the budget which oontrols the institu­
tion.
Statement of method of procedure. The method of pro­
cedure in any study must include the attitude and personality
of the investigator.
The attitude in this oase aims to be
natural, candid and helpful.
The approaoh to the presidents
was arranged with this in mind.
The visits to the plants
were planned and carried out in an unobtrusive manner.
Frank
discussion of problems of each particular institution ensued
without more than passing reference to the other colleges
involved.
The general plan developed along definite steps;
formulation of criteria
1.
1915, pp. 755.
II.
I.
The
The preparation and submitting
9
of the questionnaire
III.
The personal visit to the oollege
plant and subsequent evaluation of materials in the light of
criteria oolleoted.
I.
The formulation of oriteria.
The formulation of oriteria required extensive reading
and checking of authentic sources of evidence.
These sources
appear in the bibliography.
1.
The oriteria established three measuring rods for
eaoh of three phases of study.
a.
The legal and functional organization of the
college.
b.
Standard practice in administration.
o.
Ways and means of funding and financing the
institution.
2.
The oriteria established were adequate for
a.
Comparison to indicate operative differences of
eo-eduoation or of menTs or women's colleges
within the group of seven colleges.
b.
Comparisons of the Evangelical and Reformed
Colleges with those of other denominations of
similar size.
o.
Comparisons of denominationally controlled and
privately controlled oolleges.
(Arts Colleges)
Preceding the questionnaire and dealing direotly with
documentary evidence a Data-Conference sheet'*' was developed.
This followed the four division plan of (1) Organization
1.
Appendix C, pp 198.
10
(2) Administration
(3) Financing and
(4) Miscellaneous.
Accompanying this sheet was a letter to each of the oollege
presidents.
In some cases the data was obtained in connection
with a personal visit.
The preparation of the questionnaire was done in con­
sultation with the sponsoring committee.
The questions fol­
lowed the four general divisions of the topic* organization,
administration, financing and miscellaneous.1
To he more
searching, the questionnaire recognized the main headings
found in Sr. Eell»s Surveys of American Higher Education,2
and within the bounds of the problem these topics were used.
In order to secure the necessary consent of the presidents
a letter was read to the presidents by a member of Cedar Crest
College who was attending a meeting of the group in Columbus,
Ohio.
The presidents agreed to supply the data requested
and these questionnaires made a valuable contribution to the
whole body of data.
Concurrent with the questionnaire and the examination
of material generously supplied by each school, conferences
were arranged with all the presidents of the institutions
inoluded.
Eaoh president gave freely of his time.
Each dis­
cussed freely and introduced members of his faoulty.
In
several schools the Investigator remained overnight, dined
with the student body, and was esoorted through the buildings
1.
2.
3.
See Questionnaire, Chapter IF. pp 133
Walter Crosby Eells "Surveys of Amerioan Higher Eduoation".
The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, .
New York, 1937
See Appendix A, pp 196.
11
either by the president himself or by a faculty member or a
member of the personnel.
In most oases the Investigator had
known and visited the schools before.
the presidents several times.
He conferred with all
Incidental to the visits and
conferences, several projects to which reference will later
be made, were launched in different colleges.
All material
gathered was filed in a metal filing case.
Sources of data.
(In every case the college co-operated
fully in supplying the data.)
Catalogues, bulletins, etc. were supplied.
Histories of the College were supplied in several instances.
Copies of the Charters were supplied or oopies made.
Copies of constitution and by-laws were given when avail­
able and access to minutes was granted.
Student hand-books, annuals, and views of the campus
were supplied.
Personal visits to campus, farms, etc. were arranged.
Salary soales, retirement set-ups, were included in the
questionnaire.
Data on social background and student relations were
amplified in the questionnaire and in conference.
Annual reports in full were supplied.
With few exceptions full information was received on
finances, investments, resources, distribution of the
treasurer•s report.
Copies of Church Constitution and blue books were secured.
Additional data were secured through the Pennsylvania State
12
Department questionnaire submitted to Arts Colleges,
Several documents dealing with the proposed constitutional
Commission on Higher Education and its scope were received.
Personal acquaintance with the denomination as a layman,
schoolman, member of Classis Beneficiary Board, representa­
tive to General Synod, member of Classical Committee on the
Constitution, and personal acquaintance with men from the
denomination at large furnished the investigator with a
valuable working background of additional knowledge.
This distinction should be noted.
For the most part,
materials of a documentary nature were used to supply the
factual basis.
The questionnaire, to a considerable extent,
attempted to discover the spirit animating the several in­
stitutions.
These two await oorroboration.
(The Question­
naire and criteria are treated at length in the General
Summary.)
CHAPTER III
REPORT OP THE STXJDY
Historical setting of the colleges. The variety of
causes, circumstances and geographical settings in which
the denominational colleges had their genesis makes it de­
sirable to present these oauses, circumstanoes and geograph­
ical settings in some detail.
The present purpose, then,
is to review the beginnings of the seven colleges.
The
source material is fragmentary and is found in private docu­
ments or in histories published by the college or boards of
trustees.
For this reason the books will be inoluded in the
bibliography, even when they are not inoluded by way of cita­
tion.
This ohapter aims to present a picture of the institu­
tions from their origin to the present time, stopping short
of any evaluation of their present status.
The seven colleges
comprising the group will be treated in alphabetical sequence,
as follows:
(1) Catawba
Franklin and Marshall
(2) Cedar Crest
(5) Heidelberg
(5) Elmhurst
(6) Hood
(4)
(7) Ursinus.
The general plan will follow the catalogue and a study of the
oharter and obarter changes.
The seoond part of the ohapter will deal with a three­
fold analysis of the functional aspects of the oolleges,
taking up in turn the organization, the administration, and
the financing of each institution within the three divisions.
14
At the end of eaoh particular section a summary of all
seven schools will be made.
For example, after studying the
seven colleges In their organization, a summary will be pre­
sented before proceeding to the next, the administrative
phase.
By this prooedure it is hoped to isolate findings
that lend themselves to the formulation of conclusions.
The final step in this ohapter will concern itself with
a summary of summaries, by means of which the reader will be
enabled to follow the reasoning of the investigator in his
task of winnowing the evidence.
The first study, then, is of the historical setting of
Catawba College under Reformed influence in Salisbury, North
Carolina.
The local lore has it that the word "Catawba" came
from the Indian tribe whioh lived along the banks of a river
of the same name.
The eleventh edition of the Encyclopaedia
Britannloa has it as a Choctaw word meaning "dldiddd".
Be
that as it may, when the oollege was looated at Newton,
December 3, 1851, there seemed to be no question of what it
should be oalled.
College.
By common consent it was named Catawba
This name went along when, later, the school was
re-established at Salisbury, N.C.
The early reason for a
school in this Piedmont district would seem to be the same
as the reason for Franklin College in Pennsylvania or
Heidelberg in Ohio.
The faithful in North Carolina felt the
need for eduoation, but found the distance to an established
oollege too great.
It was under these circumstances that
Catawba College, for men only, until 1880 when women were
also admitted, was opened In the old academy building in Newton,
North Carolina, December 3, 1851.*
A year later, in 1852, Cataw­
ba College was formally chartered by the State legislature,
was empowered to receive and hold property under the title of
"The Trustees of Catawba College", and was permitted the right
"of conferring degrees or marks of literary distinction as are
usually conferred in colleges and seminaries of learning".
The
charter provided for a designated number of trustees and pro­
vided for their continuity by dividing them into three classes
so that one third should be chosen every year.2
It is significant that in this case the oharter has been
amended at least four times,
the purpose each time being to
change the allotment of members of the Board.
An interesting feature of Catawba College is that only ten
miles away, at Hickory, there was another school, the Claremont
Female College, under the influenoe of the Reformed Church.
This school was organized under a charter from the state as of
1880, with "a perpetual succession and common seal.
The indi­
vidual corporators shall not be individually liable for the
debts of said corporation".
The ideals were high; faoulty mem­
bers had to be "graduates from Wellesley or Smith or from schools
their equal in scholastic standing."
Eventually, however,
Catawba College moved away from Newton to Salisbury, North
Carolina and Claremont College was no longer a ohurch school.
A similar situation with a different solution appears in the
1.
2.
3.
Rev. J.C. Leonard, History of Catawba College.
printed, 1927.
Ibid.
Amended Charter of Catawba College, 1934.
Privately
16
the oase of Franklin and Marshall College.
(See page si).
After the academic year 1922-23 Catawba was located in new
i
buildings at Salisbury, North Carolina. The happy oiroumstanoes
in whioh the school found itself were due to sad oiroumstanoes
which overtook a private Normal and Industrial Institute.*
To­
day on the eighty-one acre campus, just outside the oity limits
of Salisbury, a city of about twenty-five thousand population,
the school is functioning - old in tradition, rich in memories,
but occupying a new plant and looking ahead.
The second oollege in whioh we are interested is Cedar
Crest, Allentown, Pennsylvania.
The historical evidence has
not been marshalled and awaits the chronicler.
Sources in­
clude statements from private articles within the sohool and
a statement from the President, William F. Curtis.
"Before 1866 the community of Allentown, led by the
Reformed and Lutheran Churches, they being the strong
denominations in the oity and oommunity, organized what
was known as the Allentown Academy for Boys and Girls.
In 1866 they realized that the enrollment was becoming
too large and that the majority of the executive oommittee controlling the academy favored segregation of
the sexes.
"Through what is still considered as a gentleman*s agree­
ment, presented verbally but never officially recorded,
the Lutheran denomination volunteered to take care of
the boys and the Reformed Churoh assumed the respon­
sibility of educating the girls in the oommunity.
"In 1866 the Reformed movement was taken under the care
of three territorially contiguous classes who became
the owner and controller of the institution. In 1906
the movement was started whioh plaoed the institution
under the oare of the Eastern Synod of the Reformed
*
Buildings, furniture and equipment along with forty-three
acres of land were purchased from the Salisbury Normal and
Industrial Institute for $44,000. See J. C. Leonard
?Hist6ry of Catawba College", pp. S31.
17
Churoh, Including all Reformed Congregations east of
the Susquehanna River." *
The new oharter of Allentown Female College, now Cedar
Crest College of the Reformed Churoh, substituted the term
"Women" for "females".
On September 6, 1909, the number of
Trustees was raised from nine to twenty-four.
When power of granting degrees was questioned by the State
Department, the Trustees, in May 1926, sought amendment to the
charter to rise above the protest Af the State Counoil of Edu­
cation.^**
On May 7, 1926 the state Counoil approved the degree
granting rights, and on approval, the Court ordered that the
amendments proposed be allowed, and that the oharter "as now
further amended shall constitute the Charter of Cedar Crest
College of the Reformed Church".1
Cedar Crest College, in Allentown, Pennsylvania, as now
established, is the youngest member of the Reformed branch of
the new denomination.
The site is well chosen, and work is
progressing along the lines of organized college work.
Being
young, yet energetio, the quality of adaptability is present.
With seventy acres of campus, beautifully landscaped, adequate
buildings, and ample room for expansion, the college of Cedar
Crest, fifty miles from Philadelphia, ninety miles from New
York, located in a thriving city of ninety thousand population,
has the elements of future greatness.
The third study concerns itself with the historical setting
1.
*
**
Copy of Charter of Cedar Crest College.
Quoting Dr. W.F. Curtis, See Questionnaire to the President.
Artiole II was amended to specifically authorize the grant­
ing of "certificates and diplomas and to confer the A.B. and B2.
degrees."
The oharter as amended.
18
of Elmhurst College, Elmhurst, Illinois, the college of the
Evangel!oal group.
The merging of two denominations, which is
now in 1940, in process of completion, brings to the Evangelioal
and Reformed Church its latest Arts College.
To traoe the back­
ground of Elmhurst College requires a new departure.
The simi­
larity between the founding of other Reformed Aoademies and
Colleges and the founding of Elmhurst beoomes obvious when we
realize that both academy and college were concerned with fron­
tier problems.
The frontier situation of North Carolina, the
frontier situation of German Reformed congregations in a manydenominational area like Pennsylvania, is similar to the mid­
nineteenth century situation in the Middle West when immigrant
groups came to America.
culture.
The pioneers needed to provide group
They sought the traditional privilege of training the
young as their forefathers had done.
Through the college they
sought to train ministers and teachers, and in this they had
ample precedent.
Elmhurst grew out of two distinct efforts
along this line, one in Cincinnati, Ohio, the other in Waukegan,
Illinois.
"The German Evangelical Synod of the West" in 1867, at
Cincinnatti, Ohio, foxmed a school whioh later removed to Evans­
ville, Indiana.
"Synod of the North-west" in and around Chicago
in 1865 took over a private seminary whioh had been established
at Waukegan, Illinois, and in 1870 moved it, under the new name
of "Melanohthon seminary", to Elmhurst, where a gift of ten acres
of land and the purwhase of twenty acres provided a splendid
campus.^
1.
In the following year, 1871, when the Synod of the
Catalogue, 1939-40.
19
Northwest and the German Evangelical Synod of the West united,
the latter moved its pro-seminary from Evanston to Elmhurst,
where it was combined with Melaochthon Seminary.
This establish­
ed Elmhurst as a college in 1871.
As public schools emerged, Elmhurst lost its character as
a normal school, but retained the pro-seminary characteristics
until 1919 when it was reorganized as Elmhurst Academy and
Junior College.
In 1923-24 the Junior year of College work
was added, and in 1924-25 the senior year courses were also
added, and the A.B. course became a reality.
The school is situated in the center of the suburban city
of Elmhurst, sixteen miles west of the "Loop District" of Chi­
cago.
Metropolitan facilities extend throughout the town and
make aocess to Chicago convenient.
The unique features of the college in this study are found
in the constitutional phase.
Elmhurst has no oharter, as such,
nor has it any budget, as such.
The problem here encountered
is one of many in a readjustment of denominational lines.
The
charter in this case belongs to the Evangelical Synod of North
America,1
while in the other colleges they belong to the
sohool itself, even though the different church districts con­
trol stock or exercise nominal supervision.
The obvious discovery growing out of the union of the
Evangelical and Reformed Churohes is expressed by the secretary
of the General Synod: "The Committee on Constitution and Charter
of whioh I am secretary, found that the Evangelical Synod had
1.
Constitution and By-laws of Evangelical Synod of North
America. Eor incorporation see Appendix. L, pp. 222.
20
been incorporated1 but that the (Reformed) General Synod had
not been.”
It might not be amiss here to indicate again that many
classes, synods, and colleges in the Reformed group have their
own charters.
This is aside from the study, but may be en­
lightening in approaching the more complex problems of the
general oontrol.
Within the denomination, then, Elmhurst is supported by
the Evangelical Synod of North America,2 now soon to become a
part of the new churoh, the Evangelical and Reformed.
For the
time being, the college is controlled by trustees as follows:
”the Board of Trustees of Elmhurst College shall consist of the
President of Elmhurst College, ex officio, and fifteen members,
of whom the General Conference shall elect six pastors and
three lay members.
These in turn shall elect the remaining
six members, subject to the approval of the General Council.
At least five members of the board shall be residents of the
State of Illinois."
In this situation Elmhurst becomes a proper factor in the
study, a college equipped to grant degrees, and an interesting
unit in the seven colleges of the Evangelioal and Reformed de­
nomination.
There is a charter for the whole organization;
therefore there are a constitution and by-laws prescribing a
clearly defined procedure.
It remains for the new Evangelical
and Reformed General Synod to adjust the details.
1.
2.
Act of Incorporation, German United Evangelical Synod of
the Northwest. See Appendix L, pp.222.
Elmhurst College Catalog, 1939.
21
The fourth college, Franklin and Marshall, oarries us hack
to national beginnings*
On December 11, 1786 a petition was presented by a group
of ohurohmen to the representatives of the General Assembly of
Pennsylvania requesting a charter of incorporation conferring
upon the Trustees when eleoted such usual powers and privileges
as are given to colleges.
The motive was an Impelling "con­
viction of the necessity of diffusing knowledge through every
part of the state, in order to preserve our present republican
system of government, as well as to promote those improvements
in the arts and sciences whioh alone render nations respectable,
great and happy".1
The proposal included a plan for locating the college at
the then largest inland town in the United States, Lancaster,
Pennsylvania.
This town was chosen because of "its central
and healthy location, the character of its inhabitants, and
the convenience with which students can be accomodated."
It
was likewise proposed that the institution be governed by
forty trustees, and the proposal included the suggestion that
it be named for the then-president of the Supreme Executive
Counoil, Benjamin Franklin, "from a profound respeot for the
talents, virtues, and services to mankind in general, but
more especially to this country."
Franklin's signature appears at the head of the list of
contributors to the college with a gift of two hundred pounds.*
1.
*
Rev. J.H. Dubbs, History
printed privately, 1903,
In the fourth section of
land together with a six
the Trustees of Franklin
of Franklin and Marshall College
pp. 18.
the oharter "ten thousand aores of
per centum allowanoe" are granted tot
College. (See Dubbs.History, pp. 28)
22
In a very real sense lie is the founder and patron of this third
oldest college in the state.
He appears to have been present
at the "laying of the cornerstone".
The oharter for this college was granted March 10, 1787,1
and although the original copy is not available, an exact
transoiipt is in servioe.
The Board of Trustees, which met first
on June 5, 1787, included the names of four signers of the De­
claration of Independence, seven officers of the American Revol­
ution, and three future governors of the State of Pennsylvania.
G-.H.E. Muhlenberg, eminent ohurchman and scientist, was chosen
president.
Of this man and his faculty, Benjamin Rush wrote
in the Pennsylvania Gazette, June 28, 1787, "A cluster of more
learned or better qualified masters, I believe, have not met
in any University."
Franklin and Marshall College was formed in 1853 by the
union of Franklin College of Lancaster, and Marshall College
of Meroersburg, Pennsylvania.
Marshall College was founded in
1836 with the primary purpose of preparing youth for the ser­
vioe of the Church.
The Reformed Church in the United States
opened a theological seminary at Carlisle, Pennsylvania in 1825.
In 1831 a Classical High School was founded at York.
This
school was again moved, this time to Meroersburg and prepared
the way for the organization of Marshall College.
One needs to keep in mind a very essential fact, that
in most of these developmental activities the Reformed and
Lutheran denominations worked together, and later side by side.
1.
Dubbs, History of Franklin and Marshall College, pp. 24.
S3
The oharter of March 31, 1836 stated "In testimony of
respect for the exalted character, great worth and high mental
attainments of the late John Marshall, Chief Justioe of the
United States, the said college shall hereafter he known by the
name of Marshall College, at Meroersburg."
Seotion Eight of
the charter stated, "Persons of everyreligious denomination
shall be capable of being elected trustees, nor shall any per­
son either as principal, professor, tutor or pupil, be refused
admittance into said college, or denied any of the privileges,
immunities or advantages thereof, for, or on account of his
sentiments in matters of religion."*
Parenthetically, the so called "Meroersburg Theology"2
developed here with the issuance of an alumni quarterly oalled
the Meroersburg Review of 1848*
Under the name "The Reformed
Church Review", this publication, later edited by William Rupp
and 6. W. Riohards (first president of the present Evangelioal
and Reformed denomination), continued down to 1930, a decade
ago.
Much of the theological discussion of this period was
carried in its columns.
For financial reasons, and in spite of sentimental con­
siderations, it was finally, after seventeen years of its ex­
istence, decided that Marshall College and Franklin College
should unite.
Marshall College was moved from Meroersburg to
Lancaster, and the united colleges became the present Franklin
and Marshall College of Lancaster, Pennsylvania.
In 1853 the
plant of Marshall College at Meroersburg developed into the
1.
2.
Catalog of Franklin and Marshall College, 1937-38.
Dubbs, History of Franklin and Marshall College.
£4
present Meroersburg Academy.
In 1853, James Buchanan lived at "Wheatland" near Lan­
caster.
Familiar with Franklin and acquainted with Marshall
College, it beoame most natural that he should head the
Board of Trustees.
Beoause of this intimate tie his career
as President of the United States appears frequently in local
history.
Under favorable and unfavorable oircumstances the oollege
developed in historic Lancaster.
The nature of both colleges
persisted, Marshall in the literary and scientific field,
Franklin in the training of youth for the ministry.
The loca­
tion of the Theological Seminary of the Reformed Churoh in the
United States at the same plaoe indicates a close harmony of
interests.
Our study of Franklin and Marshall may reasonably conclude
by noting the great advance in the institution.
In 1856 Old
Main was dedicated.
Under Ur. Henry H. Apple the era of ex­
pansion took place.
The Faokenthal Laboratories and Library
contributed, along with other buildings, to the physical plant.
The present ciroumstanees of Franklin and Marshall give the
institution the right to claim for itself the honor of being
"the man’s" college.
orable environment.
Historically, it was nurtured in a fav­
Its possibilities are unbounded, for it
has breadth of purpose and a nioeness of balance in both ad­
ministration and scholarship.
The college seeks greater in­
dependence in choosing members to the Board.*
*
By action of Eastern Synod, May 14, 1940, the board was
made self perpetuating. See Appendix K, pp. 819.
25
The fifth college, Heidelberg, requires a journey to
Tiffin, Ohio, where In a progressive city of eighteen thousand
inhabitants the pioneer college in coeducation flourishes.
Seotion I of the oharter, granted by "the Grand Assembly
of the State of Ohio", February IS, 1851, states that certain
enumerated gentlemen, "and their associates and successors
forever, be and are hereby created a body eorporated and politic
for the promotion of religion, morality, and learning by the
name and *style Heidelberg College**."
In Section II property
holdings were limited "not to exceed fifty thousand dollars in
value".
In Section III the eighteen petitioners were designated
as the trustees, with eight set as the quorum.
Section TT
specified organization and officers, and provided that they
prescribe the duties and powers and terms of office.
Accord­
ingly, following this brief and explicit oharter we find ap­
pended a complete set of by-laws.*
In 1890 the corporate name was changed by amendment to
read "Heidelberg University", and the title of the Board of
Trustees was ohanged to that of "Board of Regents".
However,
on Ootober 29, 1926, the Board of Regents again became the
Board of Trustees, the name "Heidelberg College" was restored,
and provision for a change in the number and the election of
trustees was made.
Finally, "agreeable to the amended charter,
sixteen of the twenty-four trustees are elected by the Ohio
Synod, four by the alumni of the college, and four by the board
itself".
1.
*
Co-optation was thereby limited.
Charter and By-Laws of Heidelberg College.
For further reference see Appendix G, pp. 205.
86
The excellent by-laws have been revised at stated times
and constitute a valuable aid to administration.
for amending the by-laws appears significant.
Provision
"The by-laws
may be amended or repealed at any regular meeting of the Board
by a vote of two-thirds of all members present, provided a
majority of the tmistees shall be present and participating
in the meeting."^"
The college has the distinction of being one of the
first coeducational institutions in the United States, fol­
lowing the pioneer Oberlin by thirteen years.
It is distinc­
tive in that it graduated a woman in the first class.
Aooording to the catalogue, the college belongs to the
Reformed Church of the United States.
Its trustees are elect­
ed in ipart by the Ohio Synod of that denomination, and as to
the future, "The College will have a definite relation with
the new denomination, the Evangelical and Reformed Churoh,
although the exact nature of that relationship has not been
2
determined."
The late President of Heidelberg College,
Charles E. Miller, had an unusually long term of servioe,
thirty-five years.
The new President, Clarence E. Josephson
entered on his duties in 1937.
Today the College occupies an exoellent campus in the
city of Tiffin.
Buildings formerly oocupied by a Seminary
are now used by the College.
some are new.
Some of the buildings are old,
The financial eiroumstances and the progres­
sive policy, a conservative progress, bodes well for the future.
1.
2.
Charter and By-lawB of Heidelberg College.
College Catalog, 1938-1939.
27
Hood College, the sixth in order of presentation, is a
woman's oollege in the oity of Frederick, Maryland. In 1839
the Frederick Female Seminary had heen ohartered and by 1845
had begun its activities.
In 1893 Hood College was organized
as the Woman's College of Frederick, Maryland, by the trans­
fer of the department for young women from the Meroersburg
College.
The Frederick Female Seminary had done commendable
work and its graduates still maintain an active and inde­
pendent alumnae association.
The oollege was incorporated in 1897 and later, in
recognition of a benefactor, changed the name to Hodd College,
as effeoted by oharter amendment of May, 1913.1
In September 1915 the College moved to a new site in
Northwest Frederick, where It was established on a forty-five
acre campus. The preparatory department, which had remained
separate, was discontinued in 1920.
Meantime the campus has
been extended to include one hundred twenty-five acres, new
buildings have been added, the courses of study and faculty
personnel have been increased greatly.
The historical interest and proximity of the school to
Baltimore and Washington lend charm to the setting, but of
even more interest is the ideal grouping of the buildings and
the atmosphere of the institution.
The oollege was originally under the direction of the
Synod of the Potomac of the Reformed Church in the United
States, but in 1916 the Pittsburg Synod joined in the control
1.
Hood College Bulletin, Series XEII; No. 80, March, 1938.
28
and support.
The oharter specifies the purpose of the
oollege: "creating and maintaining a college for the pro­
motion and advancement of eduoation of women and the culti­
vation and diffusion of Literature, Science and Art
A significant statement appears in Article 17 of the
Charter.
"The time of the existence of this corporation
shall be perpetual."2
In 1905 the charter was amended to
provide for seven members of the board instead of the
former five, the additional two to be chosen by the five.
In Deoember 1913, the board was increased to fifteen, and
again in 1916 the number was raised to eighteen members.
In
June, 1926, the board was increased and the charter amended
to create a board of twenty-four members chosen as follows:
six by the Pittsburgh Synod, six by the Potomac Synod, six by
3
the alumnae, and six by the twelve synodical members.
There is significance in this allotment of board membership.
The college was fortunate in a long and successful presidency
under Joseph Apple, who retired some years ago.
Scholasti­
cally, Hood sets a high standard for herself and selects her
student body carefully.
With ample financial baching as she
controls ample campus acreage, Hood College may look to the
future with assurance.
Ursinus, the seventh oollege, although associated with
the denomination and active in the cause of Christian Educa­
tion, is controlled by the Act of Incorporation, and consti­
tutes an independent institution.
1.
2.
3.
Charter of Hood College.
Ibid.
Amended Charter, 1926.
29
Under an Act of Incorporation granted toy the Legisla­
ture of Pennsylvania, February 5, 1869, the founders incor­
porated the institution as "an institution of learning" and
styled themselves "The Board of Directors".1
In 1869 the
corporation was organized at a meeting of the directors who
had as yet no place in which to develop the oollege.
Attrac­
ted toy the Perkiomen region, they chose to purohase and take
over what had formerly been known as Yreeland Seminary.
This
they incorporated into Ursinus College, as a preparatory
department.
The academy was discontinued in 1910.
While the village was small the postoffice was named
Collegeville, and as the town increased the name was applied
to the town.
The college received its name from that of the
great reformer and scholar at Heidelberg University,
Zaoharius Ursinus.
Instruction began September 6, 1870, with only men in
attendance.
In 1881 the college became coeducational.
The Ursinus School of Theology whioh had been establish­
ed in 1871 was moved to Philadelphia in 1898, and later beoame part of the Central Theological Seminary at Dayton, Ohio.
This union, however, was dissolved by mutual agreement and
in 1934 Central Theologioal Seminary became united with Eden
Theological Seminary at Webster Grove, Missouri.
The school differs from the others in organization.
The oharter is in Itself so stabilizing a force that it is
1.
Ursinus College Charter, Constitution and By-laws
Supplement, January, 1910.
quoted at length*
In this connection the by-laws, so often
absent in colleges, have been revised, and the whole program
of edueation is made understandable. The College Itself in­
cludes the charter in the oatalogue, at least in the issue of
1937-38.2
Collegeville, looated twenty-five miles northwest of
Philadelphia, is easily reached from all directions.
The
large campus of eighty-nine acres is fully utilized.
The
school is a thriving unit of the denominational work.
President McClure best expresses the relationship which
exists between the oollege and the denomination.
In his
inaugral address he states, "Ursinus College was founded in
1869.
It owes its origin to the vision of a few members of
the Reformed Church, devout and publio-spirited men who
sought to establish in Montgomery County what they desorlbed
as an institution where youth could be 'liberally educated
under the benign influenoe of Christianity'"•
Again in his
concluding paragraph he states, "The Ursinus College of
the future will be built on the old foundations.
The per­
vading influenoe must be Christian - an influence that will
oontinue to bring discipline and grace into our lives, pur­
pose and meaning into our work. And: Ursinus must oontinue
to be a college of liberal arts, must oontinue to produce
scholars and scientists, men and women who are intellect­
ually superior, men and women who will live happy useful
1.
2.
See Appendix, Ursinus Charter and By-laws, pp. 209.
See Appendix, Ursinus Charter and By-laws.
31
lives, and who in the years to come will lead us toward that
great society of which we dream, but which we may not live
to see."
Again in his Founders' Day address President MoClure
concludes the main part of his address, "Every part of our
campus, every stone in our buildings, every dollar of the
two and one-half million dollars that have gone to the build­
ing of Ursinus College, for the benefit of the students of
today and tomorrow, has been the gift of people who believe
the Ursinus tradition, a good and great tradition."^
1.
February 16, 1939.
CHAPTER 17
ANALYSIS OF THE COLLEGES
Organization. It was Edmund Burke who, after the
treaty of Vienna, said, "We ought to venerate where we are
unable presently to comprehend."
Were this true now muoh
of disagreement would disappear and much of our social chaos
would disappear.
Many of the questions arising in :our
appraisals of institutions are due not so much to inherent
weaknesses in the institutions as to our present tendency
to question fluid to discount that with which we axe not in
full accord.
The student should survey and withhold judgment until
all the evidence is in, or until a wide array of faots has
been marshalled.
In treating the organization of the several colleges
it is the purpose of the investigator to marshal relevant
evidence without oomment, and having stated a ease, to
summarize the faots and arrive at pertinent findings.
With
these findings at hand one may draw certain conclusions
and on this basis offer recommendations.
For this purpose,
then,, colleges are reviewed in alphabetical order and the
materials are those of the colleges as presented in question­
naire, reports of officials, fluid documentary source materials
of various kinds.
33
The historical background of colleges reflects the chan­
ges whioh work untiringly in human society.
The oharter in
its original form is basic legal fact whioh changes gradually
by means of amendment.
The oharter requirements whioh obtain
at a given year may vary with time and cause new items to
appear in the document itself.
For this reason a slight di­
gression is necessary to bring these schools into accord with
the historical sketoh whioh precedes this topic.
One cannot proceed very far in the study of education
in its legal aspeot before he realizes that the state is much
concerned with education.
The charter in this sense is a sort
of permit from the state.
It sets forth what rights and pri­
vileges are granted by the state.
Needless to say, the stu­
dent very early meets the decision of John Marshall in the
Dartmouth College case and finds therein the particular "Bill
of Rights" whioh gives not only to eduoation, but to business,
its great security against arbitrary ohange of contractual
agreement
The generous state recognizes in eduoation a sooial good.
The generous state grants freely when it seeks a good.
The
guarantee of privileges oarries with it protection for the
state from any abuse of those privileges so bestowed.
It is a commonplace pronouncement that the educational
institutions of the United States sprang from the individual
commonwealths, not from the looal units nor from the national
state but from the successors of the colonies and their later
1.
See Evans Cases, Constitutional Law, Fourth Edition, Fenwick,
Callaghan and Co., Chioago, 111, pp. 334 ; 919. Due Process, 995.
34
progeny.
The necessity of state supervision is obvious.
The
recognition of tasks conscientiously performed is desirable,
if not necessary, for the general well-being.
The question with whioh we are concerned, then, is the
"how rnuoh" and "how little" of recognition, the "how much"
and "how little" of oontrol, beginning with the state and
following through the general control of the Church, to the
board of trustees and into the presidency of the college,
gravitating finally to the faoulty in each organization, or
on oooasion to the student body.
As early as 1897 the United States Office of Education
conducted a study for the. purpose of finding out to what ex­
tent the several states exercised control over degree granting
institutions, at the inslstance of the National Educational
Association, which recommended that the states should supervise
degree-granting institutions by fixing minimum standards, and
of course, by refusing to grant status to those not qualified
to meet the standards.
Fundamentally, this right of the state
to supervise is couched in the right to grant or to withhold
charter rights.
To grant or to withhold is decisive.
To
grant and withdraw, there the question becomes involved, and
the Supreme Court has spoken.1
But to alter or amend goes on,
with both original parties participating.
There is, however, a striot control where the state is
approaohed by new corporations seeking charter fights, and as
1.
See Elliott and Chambers, Dartmouth College Case, The
Colleges and the Courts, pp. 117, Carnegie Foundation,
1936; also see Charter of Dartmouth College, pp. 83,
Dartmouth College Press, Hanover, N.H.
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36
time goes on these younger organizations may (or may not) be
drawn into more striot alignment.
With all this in mind one must survey the sohools whioh
are the basis of this document as they stand in their parti­
cular states,1
subject to varying supervision.
This material, it should be understood, is based solely
on what the statutes of the states have provided; it does
not take into consideration what the courts by their decisions
may establish.2
In these colleges under consideration we have some spe­
cial provisions whioh oondition their present organization.
Maryland, for example, prohibits the acceptance of gifts or
devises by any denominational institution without first or
final sanotion by the state legislature.
North Carolina ex­
ercises wide supervision sinoe 1923 when regulatory legisla­
tion was enacted.
In Ohio Heidelberg College must submit its
curricula to the State Director of Education and must show
that all eduoational facilities are proportionate to faculty
and property, and to the number of students in actual atten­
dance, to warrant the issuing of degrees.
Pennsylvania col­
leges are subject to visitation subsequent to the charter grant.
Moreover, in Pennsylvania the right to grant degrees may be
rescinded through the local court after recommendations have
been made to the County Judge.
It is unlawful in Pennsylvania
to sell an academic degree; the penalty is one hundred dollars
1.
2.
Bulletin 1934, No. 8, U.S. Dept, of Interior, Office of
Education. B. Goodyxoontz.
For far reaohing signifioanee of court decisions see
citation, Evans, opp cite.
37
fine or six months imprisonment, or both.
The general tendenoy in respect to control of colleges
by the state seems to be toward greater constitutional, le­
gislative, or judicial oontrol, accomplished, to a considerable
extent, by close scrutiny of the degree-granting power of the
schools.
Within the oourts a distinction of far-reaching signi­
ficance has developed; "a corporation is either public or
private and there is no middle ground"... If the institution is
owned by a private corporation, its private character is
essentially unchanged by such incidents as the reoeipt of public
aid, or compliance with statutory requirements prohibiting
oertain types of discrimination in the admission of students,
or the appointment of officers and employees".1
As in our own study charters of colleges in denomination­
al bodies are not always held by the religious corporation,
and attempts of the denominational body to exercise control
would meet with defeat.
This does not malce the institution
public, however, but its status is subject to the charter oontrol.
There is another anomaly whioh enters into our study arising from uncertainty of responsibility; this often grown
out of long-time charters or uncertainties as to legal fact.
"Where there are slight formal irregularities in the creation
or succession of a corporation, unrecognized and unchallenged
at the time, the body assuming the corporate functions under
color of legal authority is Known as a de faoto corporation
1.
Elliott and Chambers, the Colleges and the Courts, Pp. 179
The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaohing, 1936.
38
to distinguish it from de jure corporations) which exists under
aotually complete and unimpeachable legal sanctions.... The
only way in which it can be deprived of its right to function
is by a direct action for that purpose... Until such action is
brought, its oontraots are good as against itself or any other
party except the state” .1
Many cases of this nature undoubtedly exist, though the
party be absolutely innocent of its existence.
One such case
arose in the denomination with respect to the Claremont Peo
male College.
Its charter was filed in an office other than
the one designated by statute.
In 1909 the charter was amended,
thereby recognizing the legality of the college as a de faoto
corporation; its name was changed to Claremont College; and
when later the college attempted to dissolve, its existence
could not be terminated by the state.
It still existed as a
corporate body with rights and privileges.
This signifies
the permanent nature of the corporate personality with whioh
we have to deal.
It remains for the relationship to be established between
the denomination and the oollege.
It need hardly be stated
that the traditional ties exist - the ties of honor which ex­
tend bach to the time when the finances were supplied by private
or by group organizations.
These institutions exist beyond
the striotly legal bonds in -chose of less tangible, but none
1.
2.
Ibid 192, 193. See also Johnson and Robinson, Readings,
Recent .American Constitutional History, Due Process,
cite Coke, Pp. 31. Scribner’s 1937.
See "Catawba"
39
the less binding obligations.1
It Is in this relation, and because these verities must
be, that the denomination faces a transitional period unafraid.
Today the churoh organization is in transition.
The Synods
are reorganizing, - some consolidate, some appear for the first
time.
It is as Ralph Waldo Emerson said, "The immortality of
man is as legitimately preaohed from the intelleotions as from
the moral volitions” .
In 1940 the new church order will be
consummated, and the Evangelical and Reformed Churoh with its
component elements will arise from the former two bodies.
This is of the spirit of continuity, with the legal aspects
in abeyance for the time being.
The legal reality will be
expressed in oorporate changes in whatever shape they may take,
but the spirit needs amplification before toe can understand
the relation whioh existed yesterday and exists today in the
church at large.
In any attempt, therefore, to indicate the organization
of these colleges, it becomes manifest that those with inde­
pendent charters of a private corporate nature are free from
control by the denomination.
Those whioh are in the status
of wards of the Church go along with the Church.
Those which
were creatures of Classes must of neoessity find new allegianoes, since the Classis as a unit disappears.
It is the ex­
pectation that these transitions will be accomplished, and
that new organs of oontrol will unify the hitherto non-olassi1.
R.L. Kelly, Tendencies in College Administration, Pp. 186,
The Science Press, Lancaster, Pa., Daniel Webster said "I
know Dartmouth is a small college but there are people who
love her."
i
40
fled integers into a working organization, both from the legal
and the traditional aspects.
This looks toward the function-
ing of a Commission on Eduoation, which remains to be considered.1
There is another general aspect of oontrol apart from a
particular review of the individual colleges with which the
treatise is concerned.
This is the place of the oollege con­
stituency in the actual denomination.
Traditionally these
schools all belong to the Churoh; actually they were private
corporations with the blessing of the Church.
The Church ex­
tends its protecting arm and the historical college appears,
not legally, not categorically, but with influence from the
church at large.
From the viewpoint of the people, then, these
are church schools.
the people.
From the angle of the sohools, they serve
From both sides influence flows to make necessary
a strong bond of association.
The alumni are in and out of the Church as such, but the
fidelity of the *old grad* is a bond well known.
the school serves, the people have confidence.
confidence continues, the school serves.
fident that the other will keep faith.
So long as
So long as
Both seem to be con­
This is the main tie
whioh exists between these colleges and their constituency.
Despite a present day tendenoy to disoredit and belittle,
there exists a bond of fidelity between the oollege and its
local following, between this following and the ohurch at
large.
With this preliminary attempt to picture the invisible
1.
See "Recommendations" hereafter.
Chapter VI. Pp. 183.
41
ties of student to college, to church, it follows to show by
available evidence that there is an ordered procedure back
of these institutions*
The Board of Trustees in eaoh college
oon&Ltutes the board of supervision and organization*
The following tables indicate the oharter provisions
as enumerated in the original oharter^ and the organization
as it stands at the present time*2
The majority of the
amendments had to do with the change of name and the distri­
bution of board representation as the growing institution
oreated ever wider fields of influence*
1.
2*
See Table II. Pp. 48.
See Table III* Pp. 43*
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Board now elected By co-optation.
See minutes for Eastern Synod. 1940, at Lanoaster
For full text of resolutions for amending of the charter, see Appendix.
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44
Catawba College. Salisbury. N.C.*
In terms of general
organization Catawba College is goyerned by a board of twentyfour trustees, eight elected by the North Carolina Synod,
eight by General Synod, and eight by the board.
The college
is closely related to the Churoh and submits reports to the
Synod and Classis.
In its church relations it is financed to
some extent by organizations within the ohuroh.
In its organi­
zation it seeks successful well-poised men to form a balanced
group in the administration of the college.
The Board of Trustees is organized in regular form. The
Board, Executive Committee, and usual sub-committees oreate a
continuous control, with sub-committees submitting their acts
and minutes to the Board for approval and review.
The policy with regard to investments and budgetary oontrol is conservative.
The vice-chairman of the Board is chair­
man of the finanoe committee.
The tentative budget, prepared
by the president in consultation with the Board members, is
approved in the full Board meeting.
For Board meetings the President of the College in con­
sultation with officials prepares an agenda.
This tentative
agenda is presented to the assembled Board whose president
presides.
The President of the College is there only in a
consultative capacity.
Occasionally courtesy visitors are
present at the meetings, but no other persons attend.
As to the size of the Board, twenty-four is considered the
right size, according to the President.
1.
The size is justified
Questionnaire to the College President. (See Chapter 17) Pp.133
45
by the spread of the constituency which extend to the Glasses
and Synods of the South.
The Board meetings are fully reoorded, and copies of the
proceedings of the Board are supplied to the members.
In all
business prodedure, the welfare of the school is uppermost) and
in its attitude to the denomination the administration looks
toward a strengthening of the bonds which unite the parent de­
nomination and Catawba.
The cordial relations which exist between the personnel
of Catawba College and the officials of the State of North
Carolina indicate a confidence on the part of the State that
this oollegs is meeting requirements and filling a definite
need in the eduoatlonal field.
The same cordial attitude would
indicate that the organization meets more than minimum state
regulations.
Academically the school belongs to several in­
dicated accrediting associations,^*
which, although not strictly
part of the organization problem, indicates that the thorough­
going Board of Trustees have contributed their share in build­
ing a structure which stands the searching tests given an
emerging sohool.
As of April 13, 1936, the President issued an ordinanee
defining the departmental set-up.
Concluding the prefatory
remarks the dooument states, "As we all gain more experience
under this plan, changes may appear desirable from time to
time".
1.
This at least is a beginning for a laudable end.
See Table V.
Fp« 92.
46
Cedar Crest College. Allentown. Pa. In choosing pro­
spective members for the Board of Trustees, this Board uses
six tests: 1. Prestige in the community
fessional career
lity
3.
Churchman
5. Business aoumen
2. Successful pro­
4. Recognized exeoutive abi­
6. Manifest interest in education.^*
The Board gives each quality a value of five and feels that
any man should score at least twenty on this scheme to meet
the requirements of membership.
Of transaction of business, the President, answering the
questionnaire says, "In general, the business of the Board
is transacted in sub-committees and is then referred to the
exeoutive oommittee, composed of thirteen of the twenty-four
members, for thorough disoussion and aotion."
is reached in the Board.
Final approval
The report of the President and the
sub-committee reports are made directly to the Board.
Often
these are referred to a sub-oommittee for furthdr consideration.
Regarding the question, What broad policy do you follow
with regard to financial investments and budgetary control?
the exeoutive answers, "The finance oommittee makes all the
investments and directs the financial polioy of the institu­
tion by thoroughly reviewing a proposed budget prepared by
the treasurer and the president of the college.
Here also there
are times when the budget is changed before being adopted by
the Board.
The investments made by the financial oommittee
are never made until each of the five members has been con­
sulted and has given his approval of the investment."
1.
Questionnaire to the College President.
47
The President of Cedar Crest College is a creature of
the Board and therefore he never has a vote.1
There are
other non-voting members; three alumnae association represen­
tatives may attend, but they have no voice.
The faculty has
no representative save as the President serves as one - al­
though action in this direotion is contemplated.
Thirteen
constitute a quorum, but an issue is usually not settled by
less than a two-thirds vote.
The attitude of the President
is that twenty-four members are not too many if you desire
an adequate representation of the qualities referred to in
the beginning of this seotion.
All minutes are faithfully recorded, and all absentee
members, provided they have requested excuse from the session
for any reason, are supplied with copies.
Question number six in the questionnaire for this parti­
cular oollege was inserted in the historical sketch because
it had to do with the background of the college.
The Board of Cedar Crest College is made up largely of
representatives of old native families.
These men and women
live close to the school and consist of a large per centage
of successful business men.
It might be interesting to know
that the group includes eight attorneys, including an ex-Attorney General of the State, two judges of the State's higher
courts, one former member of the national House of Representa­
tives, one former State Senator, several ministers, doctors,
and bankers, and a former president of the Comptrollers' In1.
Questionnaire to the College President.
48
stitute of Amerioa.
This would appear to indicate that this
Board includes an unusually well qualified and representative
group of men and women,*1
In the new adjustment of synodioal lines, since Cedar
Crest College is incorporated as a stock corporation, it is
suggested that the forty-one shares of stock now held by East­
ern Synod be distributed to the synods of Pennsylvania as
follows:
Lehigh Synod, six; Beading Synod, six; East Pennsyl­
vania Synod, six; Lancaster Synod, six; Susquehanna Synod, six;
Central Pennsylvania Synod, five; Philadelphia Synod, six;
the synods shall eleot the trustees•*
p
•B&mhnTwfc College. Elmhurst. 111.
The oontrol of Elmhurst
differs from that of the other colleges of this study, in that
it is under oontrol of the Evangelical denominational organi­
zation.
For this reason the review will be largely in the
words of the President himself.
The authority for the oontrol
is found in the constitution of the denomination, page 36,
article 17, section 149, and will be found in the General
Synod after the merger in 1940.
The President of Elmhurst says, "Prospective members of
our Board have thus far been ohosen by the General Synod.
The intention in the future is to find men and women who are
deeply interested in education on Christian principles, and
are willing to give time and money to support such a program.
The business of the board is transacted mainly in exeou1.
2.
*
College oatalog, Trustees.
Questionnaire to the College President.
For proposed Amendment, see Appendix. Pp. 217.
49
tive session, although all resolutions and all recommendations
have to be approved by the Board, whioh meets about three times
a year.
’’Our investments are in the hands of the Board of Endow­
ment and Trust Funds.
The budgetary oontrol is ezeroised by
the comptroller and the finanoe committee."
"The President of the College prepares the agenda for
the meetings of the Board.
He also serves as intermediary be­
tween the faculty and the Board and vice versa.
While he has
no vote, his suggestions are usually given serious consideration.
We do not have faculty or alumni representatives on the Board.
Thus far the membership of the Board has oonsisted of those who
came from the "E" and "R" Church."
"Our Board of fifteen is considered somewhat large.
On
that account the executive oommittee meets more frequently, at
least once a month.
Minutes of the meetings of the Board are
fully recorded by the secretary and copies supplied to the
members, which we oonsider essential."
"Our college is the outgrowth of the inspiration and en­
thusiasm of some of our fathers back in 1865.
pro-seminary.
It was largely
Throughout all of its history a good portion of
its finanoial current needs were supplied from the denominational
budget.
Consequently we feel obligated and should consider it
most unfortunate to loosen the tie between the Church and the
School."
These paragraphs correspond to the questions which appear
in the Questionnaire (Chapter IV).
50
Business methods set forth in the Constitution of the de­
nomination make necessary a very careful supervision of every
item in the administration of this ooliege.
As it is the only
college under the control of the denomination^ it has received
ohoice representatives for the board and has made rapid pro­
gress in its organic growth.
The next oollege is of more ancient vintage, and has fully
perfected its oontrol under the reformed branch of the new chureh.
Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, Pa.2
In answer­
ing the questionnaire the President of Franklin and Marshall
College requested a briefer, more direct approach.
As a result
the following correspondence took place.
"If you will boll down that questionnaire to a short one
I will be very glad to help you in every way possible.1*3
To which the investigator responded by summarizing the
questions in I. Organization, as follows: - **Do you maintain a
realistic, parliamentary form of organization, based on distinct
delegation of functions and direct responsibility, to the Trus­
tees?
Yes.
No. "
With the oondensed questions was sent the
following cover letter in part:
**Will you, then, in the spirit
of direct response, give me the answers to the four following
questions*
which summarize the whole questionnaire, but which
are direct and unvarnished?"
1.
2.
3.
*
That is, before the merger, in 1940. Further discussion
of Elmhurst appears.
Abbreviated questionnaire to the College President. See
Appendix. Pp. 200.
Letter from President.
See abbreviated Questionnaire in Appendix.
51
"I enclose the questionnaire so that the implications
may he clear."
In reply the President promptly returned the following
reply "Yes1,1•
Franklin and Marshall College has served the cause of
education for a total of one hundred and fifty-two years. The
board is oomposed of outstanding personalities who give utmost
loyalty to the interest of the school.
In a speech at the
sesqui-centennial celebration, the President of Franklin and
Marshall said, "Mr. Buchanan (James Buchanan) was the first
President of the Board of Trustees of the consolidated insti­
tution, succeeded in turn by the Honorable John Cessna, George
F. Baer, Esq., William Uhler Hensel, Esq., and Dr. Benjamin
Franklin Fackenthal, Jr. who has served as president of the
Board for the past twenty-two years."
This, in terms of what follows, will determine the quality
of organization at Franklin and Marshall College.
The next
organization is in transition because of the short period during
which the present head of the College has been in office.
Heidelberg College. Tiffin. Ohio. The control of Heidel­
berg College is in the hands of twenty-four trustees drawn from
Ohio and eleoted by the Ohio Synod and the alumni of the College.8
Four are elected by the Board itself.
This oollege is at present
ordering its course of development by codifying its rules and
regulations.
1.
2.
This being done by a review and crystallization
For full text of Abbreviated Questionnaire, see Appendix. Pp 200
Questionnaire to the College President.
52
of the minutes of the former trustees and faculty.1
In choosing eligible candidates for the Board of Trustees
these men seek: 1. Business ability; 2. Prestige in the community
and throughout the State; 3. Frankly they seek men of means who
can supply help and who know where funds may reasonably be
found for institutional support.
The business of the college is transacted mainly in Board
session, with interchange of ideas and appointment
of sub­
committees under guidance of an executive committee who serve
ad interim.
The financial investment policy is conservative, and the
finance committee is of long standing. For this committee
chairman the college seeks a man who has proven ability, and
continue not only him but his colleagues from year to year.
In Board meetings the President is presnnt in an advisory
capacity, free to speak, but hesitant unless it becomes apparent
that his voice will olarify the issue.
In such case the Board
is presided over by the President of the Board.
The Board, having constituted representatives from the
alumni, invites no non-voting groups, although they would not
consider such attendance unthinkable. The Board as constitu­
ted is, in the opinion of the President, large - twenty-four
members,
This does not constitute a problem, however, but
may be altered if desirable under the new organization of the
Church.
This remains to be seen.
The minutes of the Board meetings are fully recorded,
1.
Codification completed Nov. 1939 under Captions "Rules and
Regulations of the Faculty" and Special Faculty Regulations" •
53
but the practice of supplying absentees with copies is not
instituted, probably because absence from Board meetings is
very rare.
The school exists under its parent organization, the
Ohio Synod, which may condition its existence as a wholly
responsible denominational arts college.
This again is a
body corporated and. politic, for the promotion of religion,
morality and learning.
Just by way of amendment experience,
this college changed to a university and styled its board a
"Board of Regents", but it later returned to the former termin­
ology, both "Heidelberg College" and "Board of Trustees".
This
first change coincided with a similar change in many Ohio Iso
called?1universities.
Reference is made to this specifically
because the investigator finds the term "regent" used in litera­
ture emanating from the denomination.
This corporate body oreated by-laws wherein each office
is indicated and its field of activity defined.
They like­
wise created an ordinance for the guidance of the president
and the faculty.
One example, Article 17, Section I defines
the duties of the president as follows:1
"The President of the College shall be elected by the
Board of Trustees and shall hold his office until he
resigns, or is removed by the Board. He is the chief
executive officer of the College and, with the faculty,
is responsible for the government and administration
of the institution. He shall discharge all the duties
and be entitled to all the rights which usually per­
tain to his office."
The minutes of the Board were available, but under the cir1.
By-laws of Heidelberg College.
See Appendix G. Pp. 205.
54
cumstanoes examination was considered unnecessary.
Heidelberg
has a rioh heritage in terms of organization, and facilities
for delegated action on the part of the president, faculty,
and even extendingto the student body.*
The next college presents an exampleof rapid growth and
attainment of high scholastic status.
Hood College, Frederick, Maryland.1
With little fuss
but with exoellent results this institution looks for
serve on the Board who have
tion
men to
1. A definite interest in educa­
2. A willingness to give the college definite service
5. Ability to interest others in the oollege.
They draw their
board servants from a wide field, a field which, we suspect,
is destined to grow even wider as the General Synod assembles.
With regard to the transaction of business the President
says, "We have efficient oommittees, and an executive com­
mittee, but responsibility is about equally divided between
the oommittee and the board itself.
When the budget is pre­
pared it is done in consultation with the Treasurer and the
chairman of the finance committee.
This past year a trust
company was named to supervise endowment instruments.
The president of the college is an ex-officio member of
the Board and is chairman of the executive committee of the
Board.
He presents reports at each meeting and submits an
annual report at the fall meeting.
Six alumnae members with
power, attend meetings of the Board.
1.
*
Questionnaire to the College President.
See By-laws in the Appendix. Pp. 205.
55
The board of twenty-five (President ex-officio) is con­
sidered satisfactory, so far as size is ooncerned.
The ques­
tion mentioned before would be with regard to the distribu­
tion of those members of the board in terms of denominational
units.
The oollege board provides for careful minutes, whioh
are recorded, and copies are supplied to the members.
This
is considered reasonable business practice.
The President states the position of the oollege; nHood
is not a wholly responsible denominational college.
It is a
self-perpetuating institution, very definitely related to the
Evangelical and Reformed Church both historically and vitally".
Considerable importance is attached to the question of
supplying the faculty with information.
ties in this respect are excellent.
At Hood the facili­
The President issues
an ordinance at the beginning of each school year, setting
forth such topics as follows: - Organization of the faculty,
divisions, meetings, oommittees, assignments, organization
of departments, and annual reports.
Complete instructions
are thus available for new members, and serve as solid
reminders for the old.
One item is significant, "Salaries
are paid by check in ten monthly installments, beginning
with Ootober 15 and thereafter on the corresponding dates
of succeeding months".
Ursinus College, Collegeville, Pa.1
The next college
presents another aspect of organization in that the Board
1.
Questionnaire to the College President.
56
is known as the Board of Directors.
Here the freedom of
action is evident, as the college is fully conscious of its
independent origin.
In his inaugural address in 1936 the
President, Norman E. MoClure, sounds this note when he says,
"To these three presidents (J.H.A. Bomberger, H.T. Spangler,
George L. Omwake) whose terms of offioe cover almost the
entire life of Ursinus College, goes the gratitude of all vfco
love Ursinus.
Their far-sighted planning built Ursinus
College, but they did not build alone.
Our gratitude goes
also to all who have served the college, to those direotors
and teachers whose wisdom and unselfish labors have been
invaluable; to the members of many congregations whose gifts
through early years kept the oollege alive; to those friends
whose benefactions have enabled the College in later years to
extend its influence; to those alumni whose loyal support
has aided the College and whose lives have brought it honor
and distinction; and finally to the present Board of Directors,
Faculty and Students, whose fidelity to a great tradition will
build, I must believe, a greater Ursinus in the years to come."
The Ursinus tradition, the tradition of liberal learning
in a Christian environment, is the natural outgrowth of the
plan of the founders.
It has shaped the growth of Ursinus in
the past, and it must shape the growth of Ursinus in the
future.
Ursinus must remain essentially a oollege of the
liberal arts, and Ursinus must remain essentially a Christian
College."
This distinctive tradition finds eoho in the organization
57
tion itself.
Those who qualify for Board membership should
have "the oonvietion that Ursinus College offers a type of
education more valuable than many institutions of higher
learning can offer."
The Board of Direotors function mainly in the Exeoutive
Committee, referring baek to the body for action and for advice.
The financial policy as expressed by the President is,
"We seek first of all safety of principal funds.
Investments
are planned by the Finance Committee, and the actions of this
committee are subsequently approved by the Executive Committee
and the Board of Direotors.
The budget is planned by the
President and Vice President and subsequently approved by
the Finance Committee of the Board."
The function of the President of Ursinus College in
Board meetings is "to submit to the Board of Directors a
report showing the work and the needs of the College."
There are no non-voting members who attend the sessions
of the board of twenty-five.
The size of the Board seems
satisfactory aooording to the will of the Directors.
The circumstances which have conditioned the relation­
ship between Church and College have been reviewed briefly
in this and in the historical sketch.
It is sufficient to
say that Ursinus has its directions outlined by the letter
of the Charter - by the Constitution as drawn and revised in
keeping with the Charter and the Board of Direotors; by the
Ordlnanoe or By-laws drawn for the advice and guidance of the
President, Deans, and Faculty and for the instruction of the
student body.
58
A significant section of the Constitution might be
quoted.
Article II, Section 6 reads, "Direotors shall be
elected for a term of five years.
The seat of any member of
the Board who shall have neglected to attend three consecu­
tive stated meetings of the Board, without satisfactory ex­
cuse, shall be declared vacant."
And a section from the Laws of Ursinus College reads,
Artiole IX, Section 6. "The election of professors of any
class shall be upon nomination by the President or Vice Pres­
ident, but only after an investigation of the fitness of the
nominee by the faculty to which the appointment is to be made.
"Whenever a faculty shall reoeive from the President or
Vice President a nomination for a professorship, the faculty
shall, after proper deliberation, vote by ballot, yea or nay,
upon the nomination, and certify its action to the Board of
Directors, with any reason it may see fit to submit."
It is interesting to know that the Charter of the College
definitely forbids diversion of bequests or donations from
their purpose.
For efficient organization Ursinus College
offers a high example.1
1.
Constitution and By-laws - See Appendix H (b) Pp. 209.
59
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60
SUMMARY OF ORGANIZATION
Two discrepancies appear on reviewing the organization
of these denominational arts colleges: 1. The indistinct
relation existing between the ohurch at large and the colleges.
2.
The laok in some instances of an ordinance or by-laws
or instructions to the faculty.
The first is of course due to style of organization,
difference of method of attaining legal sanction in the several
states, - differences, in fact, of obtaining sanction at dif­
ferent times in the same state.
But in a very real sense this
difference is due past and present to the decentralized nature
of the parent organization, the Church.
In seeking the reason
for this disunity one has only to review the ideology within
the organization.
The Church sought to be democratic.
Classis arose from the congregations.
The
The Synods had their
origin in representatives from Classes, while the General
Synod was a oomponent of Classes via Synods to the general
organization.
Hence there was a diffusion of influence
father than a direct delegation of authority.
The seoond discrepancy is found in the lack of delega­
tion of functions within the college itself.
This occurs
where the school has been under the influence of the Chur oh
and where the basic charter was obtained in a local area by
a denominational group.
When the charter created a corpora­
tion the document usually (not always) required that a con­
stitution should follow.
In these cases a Constitution,
Laws, or By-laws appeared in logical sequence and an autonomous
61
institution resulted.
Another source of guidance might pre­
sumably have developed, but it appears only in rare cases;
had the actions of the Boards been recorded and reviewed from
time to time, a system of precedents would have developed.
This in reality did occur, but only by way of "traditional
form"; had these minutes been crystallized and reoorded they
could have resulted in a code of ordinance.
Two interpretations emerge as possible solutions: 1. A
definite defining of status within the group of colleges;
2.
Where a set of principles is not already in existence a
review of minutes and the ereating of laws, by-laws, ordi­
nance or resolutions (whatever term is desired) in keeping
with the genius of the institution and at the same time in­
corporating general ideals of academic procedure.
These steps are under way in all the colleges, but are
by no means uniform.
62
ANALYSIS OF THE COLLEGES
Administration. The need for oritioal observation in the
administrative field of study Impressed itself on the investi­
gator as he realized that very few surveys have concerned them­
selves with that particular field of educational research*
Searohing study into administration is imperative.1
"Faculties,
student bodies, libraries, and physical plants require time to
be built and coordinated*
They cannot be disbanded and assemp
bled again on a 'Stop - and go* basis".
Time for growth and coordination requires that neither
growth nor coordination shall stop the machinery of eduoation,
but that each shall give way in order to perfeot the other*
"If the privately controlled institutions are destined
in the aggregate not to increase their number of students as
rapidly during the next fifty years, there are many indica­
tions that they will have better students.*
That will be a
great gain for them and for the cause of American democracy."3
Continuity and coordination are not incompatible with
institutional growth so long as the personal factor does not
intervene to frustrate natural development.
So long as these
three factors harmonize, a hopeful outlook is possible in
1.
2.
*
3.
Research on the Foundations of Education, AERA or NEA
Official report 1939, Pp. 116.
National Survey of the Eduoation of Teachers, Vol. VI,
Pp. 246, U.S. Department of Interior, Office of Education,
Bulletin No. 10, 1933.
For policy of these colleges in this respect see
Questionnaire, Chapter IF, Pp. 133.
Robert Lincoln Kelly, the Next Fifty years in American
Colleges of Liberal Arts, Pp. 419, Association of
American Colleges, Bulletin, Dec. 1938.
63
democratic education.
"The fundamental conditions of the demo­
cratic prooess is heterogeneity as opposed to homogeneity of
culture and practice.
Creativeness produoes differences, and
without free sway of the oreative abilities no progress Is
possible in the cultural and spiritual realm."1
Given then,
a staff commensurate with the student body, a oounoil with
duties adequately defined, the Liberal Arts College ought
to be in a position to make an increasing contribution to
democratic sooiety both quantitatively and qualitatively.
This study will attempt here to evaluate the spirit which
animates the administration as presented by the presidents
of the several institutions in the questionnaires.
Catawba. This college has now buildings adequate for
present needs, and a faculty of thirty-two men and women to
instruct 446 co-educational students.
The catalog reveals the
administrative setup as including a secretary of the College,
Deans of Women and of Men, a registrar, a resident nurse, a
recorder, a superintendent of buildings, and a Personnel Dir­
ector.
The Trustees, twenty-four in number, have committees
of Finance, Buildings, and Grounds, Instruction, Audit, and
Budget.
These are published in the catalog of 1937-38.
Faculty committees, such as Executive, Curriculum, Stu­
dent Counseling, Religious Activities, Library, Placement,
Student Activities and Publications are listed in the catalog.
In addition the college is developing a system of ordi­
nances by legislation and classification of minutes.
1.
As of
E. George Payne, Personal versus Social Control, Pp. 139,
The Journal of Ed. Sociology, Nov. 1939.
64
April 1936 the faculty committee summarized and repassed, in
faculty meeting, aotions reaching baofc to November 1, 1933*
The Supervisors of student teaching are listed with the sub­
jects involved*
Departmental organization was created by an
ordinance issued to the faculty in April, 1936*
In answer to the questionnaire* President Omwake voices
the following observations: - The President, Faculty, and Board
concur in recommendations, and function with mutual understand­
ing and confidence.
The organization is based on definite
delegation of authority and on consultation.
As yet there is
no formal provision for faculty retirement, but this does not
mean that faculty members will be shunted aside.
Tenure is
oreated by mutual understanding under annual eleotions, namely, that three appointments assure regular tenure.
The
salary rates are fixed by the creation of a minimum soale
sponsored by the Southern Association of Colleges.
The scale
is not b? departmental seniority, but is fixed under general
oontrol.
The faculty turnover is practically nil, as indicated
by one vacanoy, by death, in four years.
Observations of general scope elicit the following infor­
mation.
The basic objeotive for the future is to maintain and
develop
the general program of arts and sciences.
The minimum
student enrollment should be 500, and still the personal touch
could be maintained.
The oollege is in favor of building in
terms of coordination, redefining of curricular fields, and
closer union with the denomination and its schools.
1.
Questionnaire - See Chapter 17, Pp. 133.
The attitude
65
toward coeducation is that it acts to restrain and stimulate
a well wounded student life.
This leads to student control
which expresses itself in a Student Senate.
The great contri­
bution of the Liberal Arts College is found in its continuing
to be the seat of liberal education.
In Catawba there is no
fraternity question of an administrative nature because there
are no fraternities; instead there are ’groups* within the
college•
As to the question of control of racial groups, the loca­
tion of the college makes the question nonexistent.
Transfer
students are rare, and when they apply they must meet strict
requirements.
finance.
The great question here as elsewhere is student
Twenty-six to twenty-eight per cent of the student
body require financial assistance.
This need is met by N.7.A.
grants and rebates, as well as by student employment and by
scholarships.
Scholarships are granted by a committee com­
posed of three board members, the President of the College and
one faculty member.
Character
The qualifications are generally
(2) Scholarship
(1)
(3) Manifest need.
With thirteen of the faculty holding the doctorate, the
staff, seems reasonably well qualified, academically.
Within
this school the great task is the coordinating of churoh and
constituency.
Since the sohool is a product of two former sites
and now occupies the third, some distanoe removed from the form­
er two, the intimate relations of an old constituency are dis­
rupted.
The sohool grows d o s e to the denomination at large.
Cedar Crest College has twenty-four members on the Board
66
of Trustees, 245 students (girls) and twenty-nine members on
the faculty.
The administrative officers are designated:
Business Manager,.Associate Dean, Registrar, Assistant Re­
gistrar, Field Secretary, President*s Secretary, Accountant,
Librarian, Dietitian, House Mother, and Resident Nurse.
The
President acts in the capacity of Dean of the College; the
Secretary of the Board of Trustees is full-time Business Mana­
ger.
The Board and Faculty committees, although established,
are not listed in the catalog.
The Faculty operates under the
guidance of the President, who also retains the title of
Academic Dean.
(See catalog 1938-39.)
Within the scope of the questionnaire,^
the President
submits the following information, literally, in part.
In
terms of administrative policy he states, "Because of the
intimate relationship between the President and the Board of
Trustees, I should say that the President*s recommendation
usually prevails."
And with respect to delegation of responsi­
bilities he continues, "During the present administration a
very definite policy has been followed, namely, that Cedar Crest
should never be dominated by one personality... The only time
the President asserts any authority is when the articulation
of that department with the institution as whole produoes
friotion or is not actually "geared", then the President
exercises his freedom in bringing the department into line
with the policy of the institution."
As to retirement - "Up to the present time no provision
1.
Questionnaire.
67
has been made for the retirement of the faculty."
However,
in some oases provision has been made by delegating small work
to them and in other oases provision was made for their live­
lihood.
The tenure in Cedar Crest is taoit rather than fixed.
"There is a taoit understanding that so long as the relation­
ship between members of the force and the trustees is rea­
sonably healthy, a reappointment is considered definitely
assured."
In regard to salary scales, he states, "There is no de­
finitely established scale of salaries at Cedar Crest... There
is a taoit budgetary allowance for each department, depending
upon the increase or decrease of enrollment in that depart­
ment."
This answers the question of budgetary control which
is general.
Considering the question of "turn over" the President
says, "With a faculty running between twenty-five and thirty,
we usually count on four or even five changes during the
summer months-—
perhaps this large turnover is due largely
to the fact that such a high percentage of our faculty and
administrative foroe are women."
As to general scope, the following facts are pertinent
to administration.
The questionnaire inquiring as to basic
objective is informed as follows, "If we may judge by what
has happened at Cedar Crest during the depression, we feel
reasonably safe in believing that the financing of Cedar Crest
is on the soundest possible foundation."
"Ultimately there
68
is only one objeotive to justify the existence of Cedar Crest
College... It is to make students out of material entrusted
to our care."*
As to the size of the college, "The institution is huilt
to accomodate 400 students, - 300 resident and 100 oommuters.
The facilities in physical plant are in exoess of present
needs."
Cedar Crest hopes for significant development growO
ing out of the Commission on Higher Education.
The question
of separate sohools rather than coeducational institutions
elicits the following oomment from this college for girls. "Too
many of our college graduates have unconsciously become mannish
and the complementation and supplementation of the sexes which
is the obvious intent of nature has suffered seriously."
The student government here is established through an
advisory faculty oommittee of three which serves as an ad­
visory oounoil.
The system seems satisfactory to the students.
"What basic contribution do you anticipate from the
Liberal Arts College?"
This question is answered by Dr. Curtis.
"Indeed we are already in grave danger as a nation of ignoring
the importance of eduoational efforts which are definitely
energized by a constraining spirit whioh compels dynamic action
on the part of the recipient."*5
Frankly, to retain liberal
education for the nation.
The question of sororities does not arise since there are
no recognized sororities.
1.
2.
3.
As to racial groups the sohool sug­
William F. Curtis "The Real Objective of Cedar Crest", Letter
to the members of the Faculty, September 13, 1938.
See proposed Commission on Higher Education, hereafter, pp. 224.
Questionnaire to the president.
69
gests a quota system.
Transfers are accepted if the adminis­
tration believes that the institution can be of real servioe
to the student.
Twenty per cent of the students need financial assistance
as compared to thirty-two per cent several years ago.
N.T.A.
and scholarships as well as school employment of various IdLnds
meet the reasonable demands.
Recently the shares of stock of the corporation were re­
distributed beoause of the disappearance of Classes as a part
of the machinery of government in the denomination.
necessitates the amending of the Constitution.
This
These stock
shares, of course, indicate the nature of the corporate charter.
In this moment of transition it might be advisable to
record the constitution and by-laws and institute a crystall­
ization of Board and Faculty minutes.
by. the investigator.
This has been suggested
Since this is the youngest of the col­
leges, one recognizing this, cherishes a continuation in
growth, a tightening of the bonds whioh bind it to the denomi­
nation, and a further perfecting of its system of controls,
salary scales and retirement facilities.
Elmhurst.
Because of the merger which occurs in 1940
it seems desirable to clarify the position of this school
in the group under investigation.
In 1865 an act to incor­
porate the "German United Evangelical Synod of the Northwest"
was approved by the Legislature of I l l i n o i s B y action of
1.
See Appendix for Act of Incorporation, pp. 222.
70
the corporation the name was changed in 1889 to read "The
German Evangelical Synod of North Amerioa" and again in 1925
the name was changed to "The Evangelical Synod of North
America".
Now, in view of the merger this group will become
one with the "Reformed Church in the United States", the new
denomination to the "Evangelical and Reformed Church".
At present the College operates under the old plan,
anticipating the new.
Within recent years Elmhurst College
has had phenomenal growth.
It now has more than 365 students,
thirty-five faculty members operating under the guidance of
a Board of Trustees, sixteen in number.
Twelve miles due
west from Chicago, Elmhurst presents every aspect for rapid
growth under the new organization.
Since oomplete Constitu­
tion and by-laws are supplied in the denominational organiza­
tion,* the catalog presents the formal committees but no
charter of incorporation.
Within the College the administration has the following
officers: Dean and Registrar, Dean of Women, Business Manager,
Bursar, Librarian, Recorder, Secretary to the President, and
Manager of Commons.
Standing committees are:
Executive,
Curriculum, Library, Religious Life, Graduate Placement, and
Student Employment.
The Board committees are:
Executive,
Faculty and Curriculum, Finanoe, and Buildings and Grounds
The buildings though sometimes antiquated are supplemented
by excellently appointed modern ones.
*
1.
For Act of Incorporation see Appendix L, pp. 222.
College Catalogue 1937-38.
71
Quoting from the questionnaire which Dr* Lehmann answered
fully and amplified in conversation we find, "The administra­
tive policy is formulated hy the Board upon suggestions and
recommendations of the President*
It is our sincere effort
to have a democratic administration.*•.by the olosest coopera­
tion.”
As to retirement "the College has provided a retire­
ment polioy for its faculty at the age of seventy.
It has not
become cooperative.”
Tenure develops on the basis of one and two, then three
years, and only if both parties are satisfied can it become
permanent.
As to the policy with regard to salary rates and
increases, the sohool has a scale which provides sums based
on the position, i.e. Instructors, Assistant Professors,
Professors, and Heads of Divisions, - each Division requiring
certain educational qualifications.
Automatic salary raises
were abolished in 1932 and have not been reinstated.
Sal­
aries are based on merit and are under general control.1
The question of ’turnover* is considered not large.
Two
cases are cited: one, a woman was married; another, a man
left to attend the University.
In terms of general scope the President states, "Our
basic objective for the future is to improve our scholarship
emphasis and the integration of a Christian point of view
into all relationships on the campus I"
The question of con­
stituency sufficient to carry the school is answered in this
way - ”1 should like to have the Mississippi Valley area
1.
Questionnaire to the College President.
72
assume responsibility for this institution". As to oooperation among schools and in the denomination, the President
believes the closest cooperation is desirable.
Heading a coeducational school, it is not surprising
that the President believes in educating young women and
young men together.
He says, "I am definitely convinced by
my experience that a coeducational institution has its deoided
advantages", believing as he does that it offers a more
normal relationship.
The student body is represented on practically all com­
mittees in the college and is therefore a very important
factor in campus life.
Faculty representatives are assigned
to all groups.
To the question of the basic contribution of the Liberal
Arts College to the general educational program of the Nation,
President Lehman answers: "The fathers of our country were
the produot of a olassioal liberal arts education.
exoellent foundations.
They laid
Much of the turmoil and the confusion
of the present day is due to our lack of an objective in
life, which, after all, only our relationship to God can pro­
vide.
We are naturally divided into those that are secular
minded and those who are spiritually minded.... The Churchrelated College has no alternative but to magnify the spirit­
ual point of view."1
The next questions ashed refer to social groups.
Elm­
hurst has no fraternity question because she has no frater1.
Questionnaire to the College President.
73
nities.
Likewise the racial question has not reached Elmhurst*
The question of transfer In the student body is mostly In the
second year.
This transfer is from the College to the pro­
fessional schools.
Incoming students who have been at other
Colleges must measure up to the strict standards of Elmhurst
College.
The Dean reports retention figures at sixty-six
per cent over six years.
Student aid is necessary for about one third of the
student body.
Available jobs, student funds, and personal
assistance within the town limits are some of the ways in which
the need is met.
This college exercises every effort to find
part time employment for its students.
Dr. Lehman recognizes the last question on the question­
naire, namely, "If you have a problem or information relevant
to this study, will you indioate it in this space" by respond­
ing, "If this study oould bring about a closer coordination
of the program of schools within the denomination, it would
be exceedingly worth while.
The administration at Elmhurst is direct and effective.
One medium of guidance is afforded in the college bulletin,
issued three times during the school year.
importance are discussed.
Topics of vital
Within the voluminous reports of
Deans and officers one finds discussions interspersed with
statistical analyses.
The President's report is most compre­
hensive and the tone is direot and assured.
One quotation
from the President's report of 1937 will illustrate.
1.
Questionnaire to the College President.
"Aca­
74
demically, we are striving to perfect our curriculum and to
measure our achievements in accord with standards set up by
the North Central Association.
Our students receive a liber­
al arts training with such professional courses as shall
enable them to take their places with distinction in graduate
and professional schools or to occupy with satisfaction some
positions of limited responsibility in teaching, or commeroe
or agriculture."1
In a similarly stimulating report the Dean analyzes the
student enrollment.
"There are primarily two factors which
account for the increased enrollment this year.
First, and
foremost is the high percentage of retention whioh Elmhurst
College has achieved... During the past six years we have
had an average retention of sixty-six per cent.... The second
source of increase was due to the fact that we were able to
register 13 more new students this year than during the school
year 1935-36."2
The western area of the new denomination is open to
Elmhurst.
Excepting Mission House in Wisconsin, the Missi­
ssippi Valley area is untouched by the Churoh.
With present
facilities the College is rapidly outgrowing its physical,
plant.
The administration is capable and thorough-going.
The
transition from being the single sohool of the former group
to that of one of seven colleges may require some adjustment.
Herein lies the virtue of a strong alignment of the colleges
1.
2.
Annual report of the President, 1937.
Report of the Dean and Registrar, 1936-37.
75
in a unified program, a program which may Well be somewhat
removed from the intimate relationship whieh was formerly the
lot of the College, but none the less conducive to progress in
the field of denominational education.
Somewhere the golden
mean between dependence and independence may appear.
Franklin and Marshall, located at Lancaster, Pennsylvania,
combines age, organization, and basic administrative tradition.
The College is admittedly a man’s college and nicely combines
the religious and diplomatic traditions, coming as they do
from Franklin College and Marshall College.
The school now
has thirty trustees, forty-seven faculty members, and fifteen
assistants, and serves adequately the needs of 850 students.
The President assures1 that trustees are selected for reasons
of high qualification and that they maintain executive and
committee relations of high standards of practice.
The Board-
Fresident relations are delegated so that administration, al­
though headed in the President, is subject to scrutiny of the
Board.
The Board is considered adequate to the needs of the
College, neither too large nor too small.
Standard practice
is maintained with regard to minutes and notice of meetings.
Franklin and Marshall’s administrative organization recognizes
reasonable obligations as well as prerogatives with respect
to general control, investment funds, specific endowment,
placing of scholarships, (under adequate oontrol), and offers
the advantages of deferred payment where adequate reason is
revealed.
1.
The sohool business policy adheres strictly to
Questionnaire to the College President.
MEW YORK U N I V E R S I T Y
SCHOOL OF EDUCATION
e
UBRARY
76
budgetary oontrol and C.P.A. audit of accounts.
"Franklin and Marshall College does not consider the
admission of both sexes.
It has been a man's college for one
hundred and fifty-two years and at present we see no reason
for change".1
In terms of policy.... "We hope that our College will
have a closer relationship with the Church in view of the
union of the Evangelical and Reformed Churches.
We are making
an earnest effort to make the Church oognizant of the educa­
tional institutions and if we can we may be assured of a closer
2
relationship"•
As an earnest of the above we quote,3 "This Commission on
Higher Education is charged with one of the most important
duties of the Church in its study of the problems which oonfront
us.
If this Comaission on Higher Education serves as it should
and must, our institutions will solve these problems and will
be able to hold their heads high as they have done through the
years in eduoating the youth of our Church."
In terms of eduoational policy the President says in his
questionnaire,1 "We do not plan a wider field of endeavor,
but propose to carry on in liberal arts eduoatlon, soienoe and
business administration, always trying to strengthen those
oourses not only from a physioal standpoint but from a faoulty
standpoint.
We feel that there is a definite plaoe for the
Liberal Arts College, and that is the function Franklin and
1. Questionnaire to the College President.
2. Ibid.
3. Dr. J.A. Sohaeffer, Critical Situation Facing Our Church
Colleges, an address before the Commission on Higher Edu­
cation, April 18, 1939.
77
Marshall College hopes to fill.”
In terms of administrative machinery the college func­
tions under nine committees <f the Trustees, nineteen standing
committees of the Faoulty and Student Body.
In addition, idle Alumni Association holds an unusual
plaoe in this College, in the fact that the Association has
its own Charter, Constitution and By-laws.
presents unique qualities.1
This Charter
Article two states ”The purposes
for which this corporation is formed are to promote inter­
course and friendships among the alumni of Marshall College
and of Franklin and Marshall College and advance the inter­
ests of liberal education."
Again in Article three "The busi*
ness of the corporation is to be transacted in the City of
Lancaster,
Pennsylvania."
Article four provides that "the
term for which it exists is perpetual" and Article five states
"There is no capital stock, nor are there any shares of stock."
The Charter was granted and recorded January, 1901.
In the
Constitution the purpose is defined and set in motion.
Article
17 (in part) states, "It shall be the duty of this Council to
consider all matters brought before it for the purpose of furth­
ering the general welfare and best interests of the college and
communicate for the consideration of the Faculty or the Board
of Trustees its deliberate judgment on such college matters as
may seem desirable.
This Council shall report on its work at
the annual meeting of the Association."^
1.
2.
As the College President
Charter of F. & M. Alumni Association Catalogue of offioers
and studenbs, 1903, pp. 125; The Lord Balitmore Press, The
Friedenwald Co., Baltimore, Md.
Constitution of the Alumni Association.
78
is ex officio a member of this Council the apparent super-oontrol
is absent.
This organization is instrumental in choosing two
members to the Board and regional associations supplement its
work in financial and recruiting ways.*
Supplementing the Board and the President are literary
societies of long standing - which although not so active have
sooiety halls which formerly housed the groups when in session.
Despite the decline in interest in literary and parliamentary
procedure, the Alumni of former years still are loyal groups.
The buildings are now used in part for other purposes.
Fraternities of various kinds also help to convey the
traditions of groups and frequently act in the general interest
of the student enrollment program.
In terms of College life
the various units on the campus are headed up in a Student Senate,
oomposed of eleven fraternity men and eleven unorganized members.
In coordinating administrative units, the Presidents
report for the year 1936-37 contains in addition to the Treas­
u r e r s report, the following: Report of the Librarian, Report
of the Alumni Seoretary, Report of the Direotor of Personnel
and the Report of the Museum.
All reports and unit organiza­
tions act in systematic accord, oreating the opinion that
administrative delegation, along traditional lines is efficient
and effective.1
The burden of judgaent in this sohool would
rest on whether there might be a too great decentralization
of administrative functions although the decision would of
*
1.
See amended oharter re this representation, in Appendix,
Pp. 219.
Report of the President 1936-37.
79
neoessity be a nioe one.3internal policy is exemplified in the attitude toward
retirement.2
"Two professors were retired on full pay and
the foimer President was retired on half salary."
It is
also exemplified by the denominational interest of the Col­
lege Administration in promoting the Commission of Education
under the merger Constitution.
Externally the President has assumed aggressive leader­
ship within the state in his stand on the discriminatory pol­
icy of the State in granting aid to State-supported institu­
tions, and the requiring of the so-called report of degree
granting institutions.®
Y/ithin the scope of this study it may suffice to quote
from the unusually complete reports of the President to his
Board of Trustees.
These reports were made available to the
investigator and they form an example of excellent and com­
plete information to the Board of Trustees.
"The Coxnoittees
of the Board of Trustees deserve our thanks for the work which
has been done, particularly the Finance Committee, and the
Committee on Grounds and Buildings.
The Finance Committee has
been especially active in this very trying year and we have
A
reason to believe that our Investments are in splendid shape."*
"Three new members have been elected to the Board of
1.
2.
3.
4.
The proposed amendment would seem to bear this out; see
Appendix.
Report of Degree Granting Institutions to the state
Council of Education, Harrisburg, 1938. Department of
Publio Instruction.
Ibid.
Report of the President, 1937-38.
80
Trustees since writing the last report.
Frank D. Fackenthal,
LL.D., Provost of Columbia University, and Joseph H. Appel,
LL.D., formerly exedutive head of John Wanamaker, New York,
were elected by the Board of Trustees to fill two unexpired
terms, one oaused by death and the other by resignation.
The alumni of the College elected S. G. Pontius, M.D., Sc.D.,
a prominent surgeon of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, as their
representat ive.
The aggressive administrative attitude of Dr. Sohaeffer
has given significance to the statement of Chancellor Chase,
who at the sesqui-centennial celebration at Franklin and
Marshall College8 said, "Benjamin Franklin once said something
which struok a ohord more responsive, I sometimes fsar, to
something which was in the hearts of our ancestors than is
in our own.
'They that oan give up essential liberty to
obtain a little temporary safety deserve neither liberty nor
safety*."
One might characterize this administration as jealous
of liberties to the Student, to the College, to the Denomina­
tion, and to Education in its national social setting.
Heidelberg College with twenty-four trustees guiding a
student body of 415 students by the aid of thirty-nine faculty
members has established its administrative oontrol through
the following committees:
Executive, Finance and Investment,
Professors and Teachers, Health Service, Degrees, Library,
1.
2.
Opp cite. 1.
Address (1937) at Sesqui-centennial celebration, Franklin
and Marshall paper.
u
81
Grounds and Buildings, and a committee on Nominations.
Tie
faculty, ordered under the by-laws, has the following stand­
ing oommittees: Executive, Admission and Registration, Cata­
logue, Chapel Curriculum, Discipline, Examinations, Faculty
Study of Educational Problems, Lectures and Concerts, Library
and Bookroom, Literary Societies, Physical Education and Ath­
letics, Schedule, Scholarships and Loans, Student Organiza­
tions, Student Publications.
The Charter and By-laws is very
explicit as to the form the administration shall take and
defines the province of President, Faculty and Student Body.3,
The President submits a detailed report to the Board of
Trustees.
One significant item in that report of 1938 follows:
That Committee (faculty committee on insurance) has
worked in conjunction with the most authoritative body
on the subject in America today, i.e. the Carnegieendowed Teacher*s Insurance and Annuity Association of
America, and is ready to report at this meeting. My
recommendation is that while we may not be able to do
all that this Association recommends, we make some
start immediately on a more scientific pension plan
than we now have - more scientific in that it (1) set
aside funds yearly out of the current budget to take
oare of future retirements, (2) require some contribu­
tion from the college employees themselves, and (3)
recognize differences in lengths of service in various
employees.**2
The alumni of the college maintain offioes on campus and
are a very real factor in administration, electing four trustees,
maintaining a regional committee as an Alumni Council.
The
local Alumni Associations are represented on campus by the
Council•
In ohoosing board members this school frankly seeks those
1.
2.
For By-laws of Heidelberg, see Appendix,G. Pp. 205.
President's Report to Heidelberg College Board of Trustees
Annual Meeting, June 4 , 1938.
82
who possess business ability, social prestige, and financial
connections which will lead to legacies and effioient admini­
stration of the College.
Sessions of the Board are Important
as most of the business is transacted in the Board meetings.
The Financial Committee is a long term group who have this
as a special interest.
In all Board meetings the president
of the Board presides and the College President guides.
In
Board session it would not be unthinkable that outside per­
sons (intimately interested persons) might attend.
The
outside group is amply represented, however, by the A l u m n i
Council representatives.
The Presidents suggestions are
traditionally accepted and the authority is delegated by
by-laws.
Tenure is established by one, two, three year
appointment, and three appointments assume continuity, as
under the ordinance removal is defined as a prerogative of
the Board.
Departmental salary control is followed and in­
crease in salary is established.
The College oonsiders ten
as the norm of faculty turnover.
In general terms the College considers the raising of
$1,000,000 for endowment and the oonstruotion of a chapel
and a men's dormitory as the immediate objective, financially.
The College Administrator believes 550 - 400 the ideal number
of students to carry the present program.
As to closer affiliation the President awaits develop­
ments under the new denominational charter.
this an open question.
He considers
Tbe question of advantages of co-edu­
cation appears to rest in the valuable preparation for life
83
which the mixed group affords, with proper restrictions.
Through the Council, student government is oarried on, care­
fully planned to conform with by-laws as laid down by the
Board.
The significant contribution of the Arts College, as
here found, lies in the direction of "Distinctive development social consciousness", and the school supervises this life
carefully.
In Heidelberg, students are accepted with care; the
committee is always wary of transfers., However, there are
some transfers from the college to professional schools.
Scholarships, work, grants in aid, rebates and loans
enable two-thirds of the group to continue in college.1
An added phase of Heidelberg*s administrative and ad­
vertising set-up is found in the annual College Glee Club
excursion.
Properly scheduled, adequately supervised, the
group travels through the Eastern states, offering cm
excellent program.
Heidelberg stands in a strategic position among the
colleges.
The prestige of a long presidential administration
requires some adjustment.
When the new administration re­
cently entered upon its task a thorough revision of the
faculty regulations was undertaken.
A codification of faculty
rules and regulations has been oarried through, and a far
reaching program has been inaugurated.
1.
A wide field for ag-
Questionnaire to the College President.
84
gressive education is open to this College, and eminent men
and women are available for carrying through every adminis­
trative problem*
Closer denominational relations under the
constitutionally created Commission seem possible.
Hood College designates its governing board a Board of
Directors.
In number of students, Hood has the large enroll­
ment of 485 and the ample faoulty of fifty-six professors
and eight assistants.
The directors are chosen by Synods, the Alumnae Asso­
ciation, and by the Board members.
of the Board are:
The standing oommittees
Executive, Building and Grounds, Finance,
Instruction and Reference.
The Faculty oommittees are:
Curriculum and Catalogue, Entrance Requirements and Standing,
Permanent Sohedule, Academic Honors, Keystone, Absence, Ex­
tension, Public Relations, Library, Public Events, Commission
on Government and Discipline, Student Organizations, Co­
operative Government Council, Halls of Residence, House, Vo­
cational Guidance, and Health.
The delegation of administra­
tive functions is further extended by placing the student
government direotly in the hands of the group.
This functional
set-up is presented in the Appendix beoause of its complete­
ness and obvious utility.^
The following material is quoted in part from the Presi­
dent.2
1.
2.
The College seeks men who have a "definite interest
Students Handbook 1938-39, Hood College,
pp. 213, for Student Government.
Questionnaire to the College President.
See Appendix I,
85
in eduoation, willingness to give the College definite ser­
vice, ability to interest others in the College** for service
on the Board of Direotors.
As to delegation of authority in administrative areas,
Responsibility is about equally divided between the Commit­
tees and the Board."
Hood College formulates its policy co­
operatively with President, Treasurer, and Board in consul­
tation.
Responsibility is definitely delegated.
In view
of unforseen events the pension plan has been retarded al­
though such a plan is formulated.
In a formal statement to the Faculty, the College indi­
cates its policy on tenure.
"After a probationary period
of approximately six or eight years in any professional rank,
indefinite tenure shall be granted unless notice is given
in writing at least one year prior to the expiration of the
term of appointment that the teacher is not to be continued
in service after the expiration of that period."^”
The whole
salary question is handled by the Administration in consul­
tation and is on an individual basis.
The Faculty is very
firmly established and "only a few changes eaoh year" take
place.
The President indicates that a more detailed defini­
tion of faculty status is being worked out.
To the ijuestion
on redefining lines and curriculum the Administration answers
"No", but to the idea of the Commission he is receptive.
In regard to types of education the President replies
that "Eaoh type has its advantages,"2
1.
2.
The great contrlbu-
Directions to Faculty - Appointments.
Questionnaire to the College President.
86
tion of this type of school Is "Its Christian atmosphere and
program*
A small Liberal Arts College with certain major
interests."
As to transfers the school has only a few re­
quests which are dealt with on standard basis.
The students
of Hood require comparatively little aid, estimated at twenty
per oent.
This is supplied by N.T.A. and scholarships.
The
figures used overlap so that an exaot percentage is not pos­
sible.
The general organization of this College is for
earnest work.
The sorority question does not appear.
The
need is supplied by olubs within the group.
The distinctive administrative unit appears to be the
student organization.1
However, in every phase delegation
of authority and adequacy of controls appear.
Hood College
presents a rather oomplete example of delegated authority,
carried on to considerable extent by current instructions
to the Faculty.
Hood College achieves, to a great extent, an integration
of culture.
This is accomplished in part by the democratic
control in administration, but it is furthered by a wise
ohoice of Faculty and a judicious ohoioe of oollege events
in the yearly program of leotures, artists and speakers.
This,
too, has its origin in the educational program and facility
personnel.
Hood impresses one with its organic balance.
Urslnus College.
Although, strictly speaking, Ursinus
College history goes back to 1869, actually the eduoational
history of the town of Collegeville begins with the Pennsyl1.
See Appendix, pp. 213•
87
vania Female College founded in 1851.
The grant of land to
Y/illiam Penn was secured from Maughoughsin, Indian ohieftain,
in 1684, in consideration of a gift of "Two match coats, four
pair of stockings and four bottles of cider."1
As the site
of the Pennsylvania Female College, Collegeville is entitled
to credit for fostering one of several early colleges for
women, and evincing a genuine educational interest.
The present institution is under the direction of a
Board of Directors numbering twenty-five.
The student body of
526 is instructed and controlled by a faculty of forty-five.
The Board of Birectors provides a complete setup of ordinance
inoluding a charter, constitution and laws, with provision
for periodic revision.
The Act of Incorporation is inserted2
in the Appendix as an example of a satisfactory basis for
ordinance.
For purposes of administration, the Board of Directors
maintains the following committees:
Executive, Finance,
Buildings and Grounds, and Instruction.
The Faculty with
designated functions of administration acts under committees
as well as in general session, and with an Academic Council
and specific Advisors to the student groups.
committees are:
The faculty
Admission and Standing, Library, Scholarships,
Discipline, Student Organizations, Council on Student Activities, and Student Expenditures.
The College exercises unusual care in the selection of
1.
2.
3.
Facsimile of Deed. Ursinus College Book of Views, 1939.
See Appendix, charter, constitution and Laws; pp. 207-213.
College Catalogue, 1937-58.
68
students as an administrative function and to this end issues
a booklet of requirements.
to the investigator.
This, although unusual, appeals
The book bears the legend "Ignorantia
legis neminem excusat."
Possibly a bit bold in these days,
but realistic, none the less, to those who oonstrue it.^
"Two years ago (1935) the Board of Directors restored
one-half of the ten per cent reduotion in salaries and one
year ago (1936) the improved financial condition of the col­
lege enabled the Board to restore the remaining five per cent
reduction.... This action was most welcome to my oolleagues
o
in the faculty, whose thanks I wish to express to you,"
or
again, "The administration is under constant pressure to
introduce new oourses of study and in general to extend the
scope of our work
We have certain definite tasks to per­
form, and our duty, as I see it, is to perform these tasks
even better than we have in the past performed them, and not
to undertake other tasks that temporarily may seem profitable
or attractive."3
Ursinus publishes the reports of offioers
in full, that is, the reports of the President, Dean, and
Treasurer•
The field of endeavor that the College cherishes is that
of teacher training and pre-professional.
The sohool views
A
high accreditation as of first importance.'
On being elevated to the presidency Dr. McClure said,
1.
8.
3.
4.
Ursinus College "Requirements" 1931 Booklet.
Report of the President, 1937-38.
Ibid.
See Table No. 7, pp. 92.
89
"The chief function of the Liberal Arts College is to aid
the boy and girl of exceptional promise to become a superior
kind of man, a superior kind of woman.
For those students
who plan to enter the learned professions - the ministry,
law, medicine, teaching - the College must provide the pre­
paration for their work in the seminary or in the profession­
al schools, and for all the students, whatever their plans
for the future, the College must provide the education that
will enable them to lead "the good life" - the life of civi­
lized men and women in a democratic society!"*1*
Again on Founders* Day, February 16, 1939, Dr. McClure
summarized the purpose of the College as Christian and of
the Arts.
"On this Founders* Day it is fitting that dir­
ectors, faculty, and students pledge themselves once more
to preserve and strengthen at Ursinus the tradition of liberal
©
learning and Christian living in an independent college."
In administration the President formulates the policy.
In terms of delegation of authority the Faculty follows a
definite departmental system.
Retirement is optional at
the age of sixty-two and obligatory at seventy.
An allowanoe
of one third of his average annual salary during the preced­
ing fifteen years is granted, beginning June 1940.
Tenure is assumed after six or eight years of service
unless for serious cause.
Automatic salary increases are
maintained on a definite scale, based on merit and length of
1.
2.
Inaugural Address of President McClure, Ursinus College.
Founders* Day Address, President McClure, 1939.
90
service.
Departmental assignment and oontrol are the basis
of salaries as well as of maintenance.
The faculty turnover
is very low, not more than ten per cent and possibly less.
The oollege considers 550 students as about the ideal
number which can be handled effectively.
Ursinus favors the Commission plans which are looking
toward a closer relationship among the colleges of the de­
nomination.
Obvious and great advantages accrue from co­
educational training of young people at Ursinus.1
The Student Council system of oontrol is in use and is
created by election of students and assignment by faculty of
advisiors.
The fraternity groups are local and canae no ad­
ministrative problem.
The Administration sets no definite policy on group
quotas.
"We set no quota for any racial group although we
have always discouraged negroes from applying for admission
and have refused admission to members of other racial groups
who do not seem likely to be readily assimilated in our
student body."2
A frank evaluation of pre-professional
quotas^shows that the College cannot always enter graduates
in universities for such professions as medicine, for example.
When this is true the applicant for entrance is told exactly
the situation.
Ursinus finds many transfers undesirable, hence most
applications from transfer students are refused.
The College
has a very high percentage of students who oontinue through
1.
2.
Questionnaire to the College President.
Ibid.
91
four years.
Most students entering continue through to gradua­
tion or leave for professional schools.
The question of self help looms large, with about fifty
per cent of the student body receiving help through grants
or work.
Ursinus avowedly cherishes excellence in mind, body, and
soul.
The straightforward pronouncements challenge the student
body and the faoulty alike.
being raised.
Increasingly the standards are
The vital principle of creating adequate instru­
ments of government and definitely lodging functions in the
Board, Faculty and Student Body gives opportunity to all to
grow quietly, but realistically, into a superior, self-assured
institution.
The geographical situation combined with the
steadily emerging oonviotion of excellence in a limited educa­
tional sphere, bespeaks a life of usefulness for Ursinus. The
administrative funotions seem most adequate and efficient.
One visiting the college is immediately aware of a smooth func­
tioning administrative set-up and a well ordered program.
Ursinus stands the test of the most desirable institutional
government; namely, the less government the better, so long as
well being is established and maintained.
92
TABLE NO. V
Accredited A Colleges and the Accrediting Agencies
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Elmhurst
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Ohio
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Hood
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LEGEND:
<8
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X
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X
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X
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Summary table of the seven oolleges of the
Evangelical and Reformed denomination.
X
93
SUMMARY 07 ADMINISTRATION
In other studies much effort has been used in evaluating
the office of the President, and considerable emphasis has
been put on the duties of single officers such as Dean,
Treasurer or Registrar; but there has been little attempt at
a general evaluation of the functions of administrative organi­
zation.
Since this study hopes to make recommendations on
the basis of which the colleges, as well as the denomination,
may oorrelate functions, it would seem desirable to evaluate
the foregoing organizations in terms of functional qualities
and to indicate, if possible, a plan whereby they may (while
retaining their particular local system of organization)
conform more and more to a general pattern of administrative
procedure.
To suggest, in t h & connection, that all of the schools
have developed through a system of natural trial-and-error
is to state the obvious.
This being the case, a field of
interesting research appears: namely, to bring together the
minutes of all these colleges, - the board, faculty and sub­
sidiary groups and analyze them for common principles of
action, thereby developing a code of common law for denomina­
tional guidance.
In the face of the foregoing analysis, then,
one might oonsider the method by which these differing organ­
isms may be harmonized.
This is the theme of the summary.
Given then the machinery, the administration is func­
tioning.
The President has his ideas of prooedure, the plan
of administration is established, and dearly or dimly there
94
is a pattern in the mind of the administrator.
"The final
objective is perfeotly definite, but the details are fluid
and must be kept so throughout."1
Although the pattern can­
not be explained in detail, there are necessary certain
structural forms which must be used "like the scaffolding
of a building, indispensable in the process but removed when
the structure is finished."2
This requires that the Presi­
dent be frank, and yet wary of attempting to tell every de­
tail lest he be drawn from the general plan by a defense of
a minor or incidental part.
This is easily possible where the President attempts to
show the pattern as a whole to the professor who naturally,
looks at it from a specialized point of view.
"But the pro­
fessors in a university ol; college are not, and should never
be considered, the subordinates of the president.
They are
colleagues, striving to ascertain and impart truth, and any
attempt to treat them as agents employed to carry out direc­
tions degrades both them and the scholarship for which they
3
stand."
The faculty should have a sphere wherein they may
labor, and hence their province should be outlined in tradi­
tion, by an ordinance, or in the by-laws which have the
effect of finality.
"But the President though not in a
position of command, must be the leader if he has a pattern
to carry out."4
1.
2.
3.
4.
To carry out a constructive program, then,
A. Lawrenoe Lowell, What a University President Has
Learned, New Tork; The Macmillan Co., 1938, pp. 5.
Ibid, pp. 10.
Ibid, pp. 11.
Ibid, pp. 12.
95
the President should have his pattern in mind and on record.
This would facilitate coordinate aotion with his Board and
mutual confidence in all.
In many cases (in the oolleges under study) this oondition
exists.
missing.
But to some degree at least some of the parts are
This may be due to lack of instruction to the faculty,
or in lack of delegation of functions, or in remote control,
wherein the waste of time is apparent and the prerogatives of
the administrator suffer as a result of that control.
It is significant that all the colleges in this group
have done something to ameliorate these conditions.
Would
it be desirable to create an approximately uniform practice
in all of the oolleges?
Under a Commission of the type now under way it would
be possible to bring together, in a committee of its own
creation, the ordinance, constitution and by-laws of the
several sohools, along with board, faculty and student min­
utes and regulations, and by sifting and codifying to arrive
at a substantially complete system of ordinance.
This thing
is being done locally in several of the schools.
It could
easily give rise to a unifying implement, and without in any
way having a mandatory nature, it would tend to create a
closer spirit of administrative and collegiate unity.
This view is in no wise critical of the forms looally
employed.
The administrative standing of these colleges is
high and compares favorably with others of similar stature.1
1.
See R.L. Leonard.
cited pp. 916.
United Lutheran Survey, Vol. 2, pp. 4,
96
In a study of the administrative phase of each institu­
tion we see a definite stress laid on improved methods, and
an evident desire for common denominational implementation.
"In human affairs all the constants are in fact more or
less variables, and functions of the reoognized variables
and of one another."1
So with administrative procedure.
No
one system can be perfect for all colleges; variations appear,
conditioned by personalities, eoonomic, geographic and social
factors; yet within the seven colleges there are consistent
and desirable trends in administrative policy.
These could
be resolved into a wide policy of action, oall it an ordinanoe
or by-laws or what you will.
1.
A. Lawrence Lowell, What a University President Has
Learned, New York; the Macmillan Co., 1938; pp. 113.
97
TABLE HO. VI.
Minimum Administrative Staff
Student Enrollment
Home of Officers
200-400
400-800
General Administration
President
Soorotary to President
Soorotary to Field
full time
full time
full time
full time
full time
full time
Instructional Administration
Dean of the College
* Department heads
Librarian
half time
full time
full time
3/4 time
full time
2 full time
Student Aiisietants
Student Personnel Administration
Dean of Men
Doan of Women
Registrar
Assistant Registrar
Director of health, eto.
Physician
t
half time
half time
full time
Businoss Administration
Business managor
Assistant, aooounts
Superintendent of
grounds & buildings
full time
part time
full
full
full
full
full
part
time
time
time
time
time
time
full time
full time
full time
2 full time
full time
full time
Adapted from Leonard
Lutheran Survey, Vol. 2, page 4
LEGEND:
*
Basis of evaluating the administrative personnel, as
usod by R.J. Leonard in the Survey of Higher Education
for the United Lutheran Church in Amerioa, using this
as a basis of oriteria the following table is arrived at.
In place of Direotor of Research.
98
TABLE NO. VII.
Hating of Administrative Organisation
1
1
Adequacy
of staff
(40)
Definition
Provision
of Functions for Admin­
(40)
istrative
Council
(20)
Index
(100)
Catawba
40
59
19
98
Cedar Crest
59
58
19
96
Elmhurst
40
40
19
99
Franklin A Marshall
40
40
20
100
Heidolborg
39
40
19
98
Hood
40
40
19
99
Ursinus
40
40
20
100
Adapted from Leonard
Lutheran Surrey, Vol. 2, page 15.
LEGEND:
1.
By using the criteria established by Leonard, the
above estimate of the seven oolleges is made.l
See Leonard, Evondor, O'Rear "Survey of Higher Education
for the United Lutheran Churoh in America", 5 vol. Bureau
of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1929.
99
ANALYSIS 0? THE COLLEGES
Financing.
The general scope of administration and
finance is closely allied in time and place.
Trends change
and statistics become significant as ciroumstanoes of time
and plaoe are comprehended.
So in this appraisal of finance
in the seven oolleges, Catawba, Cedar Crest, Elmhurst, Frank­
lin and Marshall, Heidelberg, Hood and Ursinus, soattered as
they are in North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Ohio and
Maryland, the social and economic conditions will affect
their progress.
However, at this particular time these con­
ditions are admittedly general and for this reason general
trends may be cited from the Office of Education.
"Income
from student fees in institutions attended by white persons
increased from 1927-28 to 1931-32, dropped in 1933-34, but
has inoreased steadily since that year."
"Expenditures for
eduoational and general purposes in institutions attended by
white persons dropped to their lowest point in 1933-34, but
they have increased steadily since that time."
outlay showed great fluctuations.
"Capital
Sharp decreases are shown
until the low point of 1933-34 is reached, with some increase
since that year.
The 1937 total is, however, far below the
peak reached in 1927-28.wl
These constitute general tendencies for the period under
consideration.
1.
They are essential to a fair consideration
Henry G. Badger and Frederic I . Kelly, College Income
and Expenditures, Preliminary Sampling Report, Circular
No. 175. Office of Education, Department of Interior,
pp. 2,3.
100
of the statistics of finance which follow.
To what extent
do these colleges follow the general trend oited?
In the light of the definition of a "study", earlier
recorded, the statistics of the several oolleges have been
assembled and critioally examined.
They have been arranged
in chronological order and weighed in the light of all materi­
al facts appertaining thereto.
The adequacy of the physical
plant enters vitally into the evaluation.
The faculty increase
along with the student growth appears to be a factor.
The
personnel of the boards involved is a consideration aside
from, but related to, the financial policy.
Side excursions
into the ethics of finance, praotices in other fields of
business, governmental policy and practice, and comparative
conditions of stability in other denominations, have been made,
with a view to establishing in the mind of the investigator
a proper basis of judgment for the work at hand.
The actual
statistics studied cover a period of seven years, from 1931 to
1938, including therefore, the trough of the depression.
Supplemental statistics to 1940 are added in part.
By starting with the physical plant, in each case, this
treatise will be concerned with revealing relevant facts which
in their entirety w\ould indicate the true status of these
seven oolleges as to property, receipts, expenditures and long
term liabilites.
The summary will evaluate so far as possible
significant findings, using North Central Bases of Accreditation1
1.
North Central Association of Colleges and SeoondaxySchools.
Statement of policy, 1934. Quoted in "Accredited Higher
Institutions 1934. Office of Education Bulletin 16, pp. 20.
101
as a f|rame of reference1 , in the following characteristics
as they relate to the financial competence of the colleges'
finance, physical plant, library and administrative personnel*
Catawba College is located within the city limits of Salis­
bury, North Carolina*
The campus is within the path of city
growth and the eighty-one acres of ground are adorned with m o d e m
brick or granite buildings, all of which are well adapted to edu­
cational use.
The large administration building houses the
chapel, the library, the administrative offices, the kitchen
facilties and laboratories,
for 120 boys.
of 104*
and provides dormitory facilities
Two dormitories for girls have a total capacity
A home eoonomios building with excellent appointments
contains rooms for junior and senior majors in home economics*
A conservatory of music is fully equipped with organs and pianos.
The gymnasium is fully adequate with 7,000 feet of floor space.
There is an excellent athletic field without the ponderous "bowl"
expense.
The President's home is well in keeping with the other
appointments, while a system of faculty residences and a program
of unit dormitories for students completes the group of thirteen
buildings.
Within this area one finds excellent laboratories
and the 24,000 volume library (not too large) which is now a
depository of the Federal Government• The plant is adequate,
but for growth additional dormitories, heating facilities (for
the South), and shrubbery are needed.
The facilities are used
for a summer school while some of the facility extend their
1.
Accredited Higher Institutions, 1934, Bulletin 16, U.S.
Department of Interior, Office of Education, Pp. 20,
Article 3.
102
endeavors to community classes in the Piedmont section*
The oollege property values have been on the increase
from 1981 to the present time, with a characteristic slump
in 1935.^
From the statistics covering these years the amounts
are as follows: total value of property, including library,
grounds, buildings, e quipment, endowment, annuity funds and
loan funds, 1931 - $919,785; 1983 - $988,825; 1985 - $946,793;
1938 - $949,153; and 1940 - $ 9 9 1 ,1 2 0 .*
In texms of total receipts, aside from auxiliary activities
and receipts for increase of permanent funds, 1931 - $102,523;
1933 - $130,403; 1935 - $93,078; and 1938 - $123,014.
The same periods show similar totals in respect to expen­
ditures, namely:
1931 - $104,488; 1933 - $121,114;
1935 -
$108,479; and 1938 - $132,576.
Long term liabilities shown only in 1938 amount to $22,202.
To cover exigencies, the by-laws of the college read in
part, "The endowment funds shall neither be expended nor hypo­
thecated for current expenses, but shall be retained and pre­
served inviolate.”2
There appears to be every indication that
this oollege, running on a narrow margin, finds itself in
healthful, if not robust cireumstances.
The study recognizes
the fact that the life history contains an unusual experience,
namely that the institution was lifted bodily from its original
mooring in the western part of the state and was reestablished
1.
*
2.
Statistics of Higher Education, Office of Education,
U.S. Department of Interior.
Statistics for 1940 from Yearbook and Almanac, Evangelical
and Reformed Church, 1940.
J.C. Leonard, History of Catawba College, 1925, By-laws
of Catawba College.
103
at Salisbury in 1925.
Full rating was given in the state, and
this was made permanent and unconditional in 1926.
To correlate
personnel and finances, the following figures are inserted;
In
1931, faculty 28, students 342; in 1933, faculty 31, students
367; in 1935, faoulty 34, students 375; and in 1940 the pro­
portion reaches faculty 36, students 448.
These latter figures
do not include student assistants and helpers of various kinds
retained for the sake of promoting student-help. Weighing
"time and place", the investigator sees a vary definite asset
in Catawba, namely the service created by virtue of accepting
students from backward areas and the obvious success she has
had in building a high scholastic standing in spite of equally
obvious limitations in finance and in traditional prestige.
Cedar Crest College, the second college of the group,
stands din the edge of Allentown, a thriving city of about
95,000 population.
This college stands in the rich Lehigh
Valley area, important because of its
Pennsylvania German tradi­
tions of plenty, frugality, and of institutional importance for
its cleanliness and the thoroughgoing fidelity of local help.
The site is supplied with city conveniences, electricity, gas,
polioe and fire protection.
Seventy-two acres of campus stand
in the path of suburban growth, with a main highway crossing
the southern edge.
The whole area has been landscaped, creating
a rich area of trees and shrubbery, which in turn have been
. planned about an amphitheatre, or open stage, which is used
for the annual presentation of Greek tragedy.
is of classic desi&i mixed with colonial.
The architecture
The entire atmosphere
104
is calculated to express the "girls* college", The main
building, dedicated in 1913, houses the olassrooms and ad­
ministrative offices, the library, and the conservatory of
music.
The main dormitory, of the most modern construction,
is equipped with kitchen facilities, and along with Crest Hall,
houses two hundred sixty students.1
Hillside House is used exclusively for home economics.
The president's home with separate heating facilities, faces the
main campus from the north side.
The central heating plant,
located shuth of the other buildings, furnishes ample heat by
way of underground channels.
The six buildings conform in gen­
eral architecture but are distinctive as to their uses.
The in­
firmary is in the large dormitory, the laboratories are in Hill­
side House and the administrative building.
Particularly of in­
terest are the excellent appointments, the freedom from urban
interference, and the rising standards of academic accomplishment.
Here too, as at Catawba, the college was moved, but from
a frame building within the oity, to fireproof brick construc­
tion on the edge of t;own.
This all points toward an apprecia­
tion of land values and a minimum depreciation in buildings*
Over the same periods of time, and in the same approach
as of Catawba, Cedar Crest College has had a gradual growth.*
In 1951-32 the property value was set at $919,795.
In 1933
it had grown to $988,325, and characteristically in 1935 it
had dropped to $946,793, with a rise again in 1938 to $949,153.
1.
*
Catalog of Cedar Crest College, 1938-39.
Statistics of Higher Education, Office of Education, U.S.
Department of Interior.
105
With the upturn continuing In 1940, the total endowment and
value of grounds reached the total of $1,025,882.*
In the
same year the library contained 24,000 volumes.
Financially the reoeipts were set in 1931 at $100,079.
They dropped in 1933-34 to $87,500 and again olimbed to
$94,231 in 1935, and to $187,984 in 1938.
Expenditures in the same years were:
1931, $81,537;
1933, $63,683; 1935, $89,265; and in 1938 they rose to
$179,852.
Within this period a large new dormitory - known as
Curtis Hall - was financed by a bond issue, and in 1938 the
college had liabilities to the extent of $570,000.
Curtis
Hall provides a source of income which may increasingly re­
duce the overhead.
Meantime a faculty out of about ten per
cent in salary is gradually being restored.
The finances of
this institution are assiduously guided by a full-time busi­
ness manager and seoretary of the Board.
Cedar Crest, distinctly a woman’s oollege, meets a need
in the denomination.
The region has many colleges, it is
true, but it is likewise true that a majority of these are
men’s oolleges, with no opportunity for coeducation in the im­
mediate vicinity.
The financial .problems are for the most part
the adventures of a youthful institution, which though born in
1868, has as recently as 1913 reached maturity.
Some business
ventures which looked hazardous in 1930, look favorable in
*
Statistics from the Yearbook and Almanac of the Evangelical
and Reformed Church, 1940.
106
1939.
To indicate growth in student fees and capital outlay,
the faculty and student ratio is expressed as in 1939, fac­
ulty 31, to student body 268, or one faculty member to less
than nine students.
The tuition rates shown elsewhere are in keeping with
the usual rates in women*s oolleges, higher than coeducational
nohools for the most part.
Recently the student body has been
augnented by many local day students who supply a less pro­
portionate amount of income.
Again it appears that a gradual increase is visible,
the trend confonning to the general trend indicated in the
preliminary remarks.
The general financial policy is in
the hands of a highly selective group of business and pro­
fessional men.
Here again in terms of denominational policy there is
an indication that some form of association of interest,
nuch as the oooaaission, might do much by way of easing the
burden which comes with a too close margin of available funds.
Within the last few years this college has received some
substantial private bequests. For sentimental reasons Cedar
Crest has never sought large bequests, but rather a greater
number of smaller sums.
The oollege enjoys the unstinted
support of a large group of loyal alumnae and friends.1
Elmhurst College represents the new unit of denomlna1.
K.E. Laros and J.M. Shumaker "Twenty years on the Sea
of Education1* Twentieth Anniversary issue, June 7, 1928, Ppt 9
107
tional growth by way of the merger.
Financially it has taken
its portion of assistance from the Church along with several
other institutions.
In the new arrangement, the status of
institutions still remains to he adjusted.
Fundamentally
then, the sohool possesses a partnership in the denomination,
receives annual funds, and at the same time controls endow­
ment, only as a proportional part of the total annual funds
accruing to the parent organization, the Evangelical Churoh.
The college is situated on a thirty aore campus in
the suburban city of Elmhurst, located twelve miles due west
from the "loop” dlstriot of Chioago.
This seems important,
because the city of Chicago expands westward in a series of
highly desirable suburban units, so that this school too,
lies in the path of population growth.
Unlike Catawba and
Cedar Crest, the plant at Elmhurst is older.
Some of the
Buildings are modern, as the four occupied by faculty fami­
lies.
The music hall, built in 1873, is the oldest of the
group and is used for administrative offices, class rooms
and laboratories.
The dining hall, remodeled in 1926, contains
a cafeteria, the kitchen, and hospital rooms.
More m o d e m
quarters are found in the dormitory for women, and in South
Hall, a dormitory for men, the first affording accommodation
for the entire group of woman and the School of Musio, and
the latter oocupied by one hundred men.
An adequate gymnasipm building adds greatly to the
athletic facilities and serves also as an auditorium for
large meetings and for dramatic productions.
Of the fifteen
108
buildings, the library Is the most Important, educationally.
It houses 34,000 books.
As the functional center of the
campus, It Is highly regarded and Impresses the visitor as
symbolio of the Institution.
This building was financed by
the Young Peoples* organizations of the denomination.
all, fifteen buildings comprise the group.
In
The central
heating plant, although rendering faithful service, is due
for either renovation or replacement.^
The various labora­
tories are in themselves so complete and well ordered that
one wishes they ilight be amply housed.
They are now scat­
tered throughout the administration building.
Of particular
note are the chemical laboratories, for which provision has
been made on the third floor of the administration building.
The significant relation of all these facts to the
subjeot is that in Elmhurst the financial investment is being
used to the utmost.
There is no superficial equipment, but
there is evidence of hard and continuous use of all apparatus
and of all the building facilities.
These facts are borne
out by the faculty of twenty-six and a student body of 213
in 1951, as compared to a facility of thirty-one and a student
body of 365 in 1940.
The statistical figures of Elmhurst show a gradual and
steady growth from 1951 to 1940.
In the year 1931 the gen­
eral statistics2 show property values, including grounds,
buildings, equipment and endowment as being $1,166,774.
1.
2.
In
Catalogue of Elmhurst College, 1939-40, Visit to Plant.
Statistics of Higher Education, 1931-32, Office of Edu­
cation, U.S. Department of Interior.
109
1933-34 they had reached $1,175,573, and were still rising.
In 1935-36 they had reaohed $1,284,340, wnile in 1940 they
stood at $1,342,935.*
There was a gradual development,
emergent because the sohool became a full senior college as
recently as 1924.
Reoeipts for 1931 totaled $121,960; for 1933 they fell
to $103,254; in 1935 they had dropped to $100,538, but in
1937 they rose to $171,725.
In comparison, expenditures for the same years, 1931,
$107,758, and 1933, $85,766; rose in 1935 to $97,492 and in
1937-38 to $173,748.
This would seem to indicate a deteimina-
tion to advance in the face of difficulties.
With regard to liabilities the long term obligations
were $354,506 as of 1936.
This was covered by a bond issue
which is supposedly a contingency with the larger denomi­
national financial structure, which under its charter and
constitution limits obligations.
When the age of the college and the standard of work is
considered, (when the field is admitted as a future factor)
one can hope that with some considerable effort this college
may set forth upon a new era of expansion.
The General Synod
of the Evangelioal and Reformed Church has admitted Elmhurst
to direct approach to the General Synod for school funds.
This furthers consideration for the other oolleges and should
be controlled by a specifio policy on these grounds.
Whether to incorporate Elmhurst as the other institutions
*
Yearbook and Almanac for the Evangelical and Reformed
Church, 1940.
110
are incorporated, or to adjust the other charters in harmony
with a general new charter for the denomination, are questions
for aotion in General Synod sessions.
This is a mmot question
because on this action rests the question of finance for
Elmhurst as it faces the future.
This question of finanoe in
Elmhurst leads to a larger topic, the financial situation
of colleges in the new denomination.
Within this field of speculation the school presents a
nice problem of financing.
been rapid.
To date, the development has
Factors included in this study lead one to be­
lieve that with adequate distribution of funds the needs oould
be met and a thriving college would emerge.
The visit&r to
Elmhurst is impressed with the thoroughgoing earnestness of
endeavor.
Every ounce of possibility is exhausted in prepar­
ing a future school and every available means is exerted to
enable youth to attend a genuinely-in-earnest oollege.
Franklin and Marshall College is located in historio
Lancaster, Pennsylvania.
Amply supplied with traditions
(since 1787} the school has become established financially
through the years.
With a facility of forty-eight teaching
a student body of 915, (1958) this college is the largest
in the group.
In recent years the material equipment has
been greatly enlarged.
To the twenty-one buildings and
fifty-four aores of land have been added some conspicuously
excellent facilities.
The Main Hall, erected in 1855 has now become a recita­
tion hall.
It also houses the ohapel.
Literary society halls
Ill
function less than formerly.
During the Civil War they served
as hospitals - lately they have a revived activity as liter­
ary centers on the campus.
The old gymnasium is now used for
student activities and as a luncheon room.
The most recent addition to the plant is the $250,000
Fackenthal Library, a gift from the President of the Board
of Trustees.
This building houses 80,000 volumes.
The observatory is equipped for the practieal study
of astronomy.
Stahr Hall contains biological, eleotrical, and physical
equipment, and olass and group meeting rooms.
The museum
oontains the former exhibits of the literary societies.
The Biesicker Gymnasium is fully equipped for varied
athletic purposes.
Hensel Hall, architecturally conspicuous,
is used for lectures, entertainments or community services.
Fackenthal Laboratories, the generous gift of $250,000,
was presented by Dr. B. P. Fackenthal, Jr., President of the
Board.
This excellent building contains valuable equipment
for chemistry and biology.
The most complete and m o d e m
facilities are here available for the science student.
The
heating and ventilating equipment is housed on the top floor.
Fackenthal swimming pool, an $80,000 building, affords
the best of pool facilities.
The sterilizing equipment is
oapable tf refreshing the pool in eight hours.
Keiper Liberal Arts Building, ereoted at a cost of
1.
Catalogue of Franklin and Marshall College, 1957-58.
112
$150,000, provides class rooms, theatre and projection rooms,
and Is equipped with mechanical ventilation devices.
The athletic field has a concrete grandstand with accom­
modations for
6,300 people.
track facilities.
It has baseball, football and
Two buildings housing Franklin and Marshall
Academy, which is separate from the college, are owned by
the college.
The administration building is valued at $100,000.
The President and the Dean have homes provided by the college.
The central heating plant, erected in 1925, has m o d e m
equipment of boilers and stokers, and is designed to supply
heat for all the buildings on the canpus.
The steam mains
are underground.
The figures representing this college have the charac­
teristic tendencies of the times.
Property values, physical
and endowment and nonexpendable funds, are quoted from the
same period of time as those of the other colleges.
In 1931,
the total property value was $2,729,562; in 1933 the value
had decreased to $2,612,491; in 1936-37 the value was set at
$2,793,44c,1 and in 1940 had reached the sum of $3,074,349.*
The receipts follow the same order;
In 1931 they were
$276,478 exclusive of auxiliary activities.
In 1933 they
fell to $239,146, and in 1935-36 they fell again to $238,304
to rise in 1937-38 to $239,787.
These trends seem sound, the more so because FranklinMarshall College has no liabilities.
1.
*
Statistics of Higher Education, Office of Eduoation,
U.S. Department of Interior.
Yearbook and Almanao of the Evangelical and Reformed Church, 1940.
113
In a critical study, such as this, the whole picture Is
not here.
Behind these facts exist the personalities - the
Board and the Administration - who make them possible.
It
is significant that denominational leadership springs largely
from this college.
The spearhead of advance is felt in the
whole denomination.
But here, and throughout the group of sohools, the de­
sire for firmer finanoial support is felt.
Clearer methods
and greater solidarity are two of the hopes of the smaller
colleges.*
Heidelberg College. in Tiffin, Ohio, occupies a strong
strategic position among the colleges of the denomination.
It is located in the center of the group.
Halfway between
Cleveland on the north and Columbus on the south it draws
from the four points of the compass.
The school was for a long period under a continuous
leadership, and only recently began a period of reorganization
under a new president.
With prestige established, and with
excellent lay interest available, the schoollooks ahead by
way of reorganized personnel and clarified program.
Every
indication seems to point to greater prestige for Heidelberg
College provided the elements of scholastio merit are given
the necessary emphasis.
The campus of Heidelberg occupies what is locally termed
"College Hill”•
The promontory occupies the center of Tiffin
and is in a strategic position for appreciation in value.
*
See Appendix for charter amendments.
(Pp. 219)
114
Founders* Hall, a brick building, dating back to 1853,
is the combination theatre, dormitory, and classroom, and
affords rooming quarters for fifty-six men students.1
The Victorian Gothic College Hall houses the adminis­
trative offices and the chapel provides social rooms for
three literary societies; and affords space for Christian
Association rooms and for the Art department.
The gymnasium, although greatly overtaxed, affords
shelter for the great variety of activities which develop
in a coeducational institution.
Williard Hall, built in 1907 by gift of the local citi­
zens, is of grey limestone, and harmonizes with the Gothic
style predominating on the campus.
It affords rooms for
sixty women, and gymnasium space for the girls.
France Hall,
built in 1926, houses seventy women, and provides accommo­
dations for a literary society, and a lounge for the women
of the college.
This is contrary to the popular idea that in
a coeducational institution women take what is left.
Sarah
Keller Cottage is used partly for the infirmary and partly
as a girl’s dormitory.
The home economics equipment occupies one whole building,
known as Home Economics Bouse.
Science Ball, erected in 1913
contains the college museum, the laboratories, and store rooms
for materials.
This is a well equipped building, well organized,
and constantly used.
College Commons presents an inviting picture of ordered
1.
Catalog of Heidelberg College, 1938-39.
115
living quarters.
Here three hundred men are provided with
meals.
The Carnegie Library, of grey stone and red tile roof,
contains 35,000 boohs but has space for 60,000.
seminar rooms, and houses an honor sooiety.
It has six
Musio Ball, of
older construction, is used for practice in addition to aux­
iliary rooms for organ and voice in College Hall.
The Presidents house, near the center of the oampus,
is an old residence, recently reconstructed and modernized.
An adequate athletic field and Freshman facilities in
addition to tennis oourts, provide ample space for legiti­
mate athletios.
The entire oampus is covered with large
trees, so luxurious in growth that it is almost impossible
to take a satisfactory aerial picture of the buildings.
These main structures and grounds represent approximately
#700,000 capital investment.
The authorities feel reasonably
certain that the property will not depreciate rapidly; all
construction is of stone or brick.
The statistical history of Heidelberg follows the re­
gular order of property, receipts, expenditures, and lia­
bilities .
In 1931 the College estimated its physical property and
non-expendable funds at #1,709,544.
to #1,614,375.
By 1933 they had dropped
In 1935 they had recovered to #1,624,465 and
by 1937-38 they again stood at #1,642,990 and in 1940 they
reported #1,695,748.*
*
Yearbook and Almanao of Evangel!oal and Reformed Church, 1940.
116
The receipts for 1931 totaled $127,113.
By 1933 they
deolined to $105,955; in 1935 they had increased to $121,768;
in 1938 they had risen to the new height of. $187,037.
Expenses in 1931 were $114,246.
The decline in 1933
placed them at $112,125 and by 1935 they fell to $97,373 to
rise again in 1938 to $186,490, a new high.
In 1937 the liabilities, were stated as $91,000, which
appears to be low.
Among the needs listed in the oatalogue^ is that of a
new gymnasium, approximate cost, $150,000.
This addition to
the campus would make Heidelberg a well equipped arts college.
The present old buildings, though safe, give the campus a
dingy appearance not at all in keeping with her aotual char­
acter •
Heidelberg impresses the visitor with its long-term
stability.
Again the localized self sufficiency inspires
the investigator to repeat what he has said before - A
margin of seourity could be achieved by the moral support
and unified financing which can come only through coordinate
action, slight as that coordination might need to.be.
Hood College, the sixth college in the list of seven,
is situated in the southern historic oity of Frederick,
Maryland.
The basio date of this schools inception is 1893.
From
a city seminary Hood has grown to its present proportions
with the alleglanoe of the southern state constantly in evi­
1.
Catalogue of Heidelberg College, 1938-39.
117
dence.
Loyal alumnae are a constant force in financing the
college, and the alumnae groups in outlying areas are active
in promoting student enlistment.
Active development in Hood College is expressed in
faculty and student growth.
In 1931 the faculty numbered
thirty-three while the student body numbered 458.
In 1937-38
the facility had grown to fifty-six and the student body to
465.
Previous to the present administration, the leadership
of Hood was in the hands of Dr. Joseph Apple, who led the
school for a long and successful period of years.
With the advent of the present administration, the de­
tailed policy was changed, but the general policy remained
fixed.
Today the school enjoys wide distinction based on
fundamental solidarity.
In terms of property and holdings the college is pros­
perous.
Hood rejoices in its excellent location.
The 125
acres of ground within the oity provide ample oampus space
and faxm land.
The growth of Frederiolc has carried the town
beyond the college, and has brought about an apparent appre­
ciation in values.
The colonial architecture is centered on ample campus
space and presents a nice pioture of balance and proportion.
The twelve buildings are Alumnae Hall, built in 1915
and used for the a drainst rat ive force, class rooms, labora­
tories, and library of 20,000 volumes; Bradbeck Music Hall,
an excellent example of colonial structure, house the music
118
studios, art studios, speech auditorium and practice rooms*
The auditorium contains a pipe organ of excellent quality.
Shriner Hall, of red bride with white stone trimmings,
with most modern appointments, accommodates one hundred
students*
Coblentz Hall, a dining and residence hall, with facili­
ties for five hundred, has residence accommodations for one
hundred and fifty.
Social rooms are located on the third
floor and recreation facilities are afforded in the basement .3Meyran Hall, built in 1930, accommodates one hundred
and forty students.
David Strawn Cottage accommodates fourteen
seniors and a Home Economics faculty member.
The president’s house was completed in 1920.
It is of
brick construction and was presented by the alumnae and
friends•
Westview Terrace houses the nursery school and affords
apartments for faculty members.
The observatory affords excellent facilities for astro­
nomy.
The physios laboratory is in the basement of the ob­
servatory.
The infirmary, oomplete in one building, accommodates
twenty-four patients, and is so constructed as to provide
an isolation ward.
The oentral heating plant was completed in 1928.
Under­
ground conduits carry heat pipes; electricity and telephone
wires are underground.
1.
Catalog of Hood College, 1938-39.
119
The oampus Is landsoaped and driveways are asphalted,
leaving the color play of buildings and lawn In open freedom.
Property and other phases are arranged as In the former
treatises, namely, property, receipts, expenditures, lia­
bilities.
Property, consisting of grounds, buildings, equipment,
endowment, annuity funds, and loan funds were slated in
1931-32 at $1,593,722.
In 1933 they decreased to $1,570,519.
In 1935 the sum had risen to $1,596,059; in 1937-38 to
$1,642,990, and in 1940 the valuation is given as $1,713,463.*
Receipts of 1931 totaled $146,684; those of 1933 totaled
$325,756; in 1935 they deolined to $145,198, and in 1937
reached $378,510.
In the same period the expenditures totaled $186,089
in 1931; $324,665 in 1933; dropped to $186,753 in 1935, and
finally, in 1937-38 totaled $377,725.
Within the year 1937-38 the liabilities were listed
as $590,000, a bond issue which is being met with satisfactory
dispatch.
Through a study of the institution it would seem that
the field here represented justifies a denominational effort.
Hood College has a wide interest in the South and in western
Pennsylvania.
The climate invited northern students of a
serious type.
The strict student discipline in the hands of
students' organization^- makes for a selective group.
*
1.
Tradi-
Yearbook and Almanac of the Evangelical and Refoimed
Church, 1940.
See Appendix for Student Organization at Hood College, pp. 213.
120
tlonal standards have raised the name of Hood to an enviable
position among women*s colleges.
While immediate aid is not imperative, this college
accepts the idea of closer denominational coordination by way
of the Commission on Education.
All in all, the investigator sees in this college an ex­
cellent plant, a steadily increasing influence in women*s
education, and a unit of administrative effectiveness which
*
is altogether worthy of oommendation.
Ursinus College. the seventh in the group, is located
at Coliegeville, a small town north-west of Philadelphia.
The background of Ursinus is non-denominational, in
that the school originated under a separate and independent
charter.
Its constitution and by-laws provide for definite
procedure and definite delegation of authority both for the
faculty and for the Board of Directors.
Henoe, within the
Board, stipulated limits are set and observed.
To appreciate
Ursinus it becomes necessary to understand the thoroughgoing
tradition which has been developed since its origin in 1869.
Sincere dedication to religious beliefs forms an important
part of this tradition.
Among the alumni the school finds
sincere and generous persons who serve unstintingly.
The
alumni clubs carry tasks of student solicitation to local
areas.
Benefactors have been generous in gifts to the
college, so that within a brief period the school has acquired
considerable holdings in plant and endowment funds.
On the campus one finds many excellent buildings - all
12.1
used to capacity*
Bomberger Ball is of Romanesque style,
built in Pennsylvania blue marble.
It is used for the de­
partments of language and literature, social science and
history, philosophy, religion, public speaking, and music*
The ohapel and class rooms as well as administrative offices
are housed here*
The soience building, erected in 1952, is a building
186 feet by 96 feet.
On the first floor, classrooms are
arranged, and on the main floor, administrative offices are
located.
The laboratories are excellently designed, and are
provided with most expensive equipment.
The whole purpose
of the donor, Cyrus H. K. Curtis, was realized in providing
a superior structure in which extensive scientific studies
could be carried through.
The library, containing 30,000 volumes, is in the
Alumni Memorial Building.
The capacity of the library is
60,000 volumes which provides for necessary expansion.1
The gymnasium, of native brown stone, structural steel
and oonorete, is ample without being burdensome.
Freeland Hall, the original seminary building, Derr
Hall, and Stine Hall, all of stone, constitute a group for
domestic purposes, and contain some dormitories.
Brodbeck
and Curtis dormitories for men are of stone construction
in the English colonial style.
Shriner nail is a dormitory for young women, as are
New Hall, Trinity Cottage, the Maples, Glenwood, Iynnewood,
1.
Statistics of Higher Education, Office of Education,
Department of Interior.
122
Clamer Hall, Sprankle Hall, and Superhouse.
is used for Institutional purposes.
Highland Hall
As the enrollment grown,
other residenoe sites are being rented for students.
The central heating plant, not mentioned In the catalog,
Is equipped to supply heat, steam, and warm water for the
campus group of buildings.
In terms of finance, this plant constitutes a valuable
investment.
significant.
In terms of values the following figures are
Property as listed heretofore,^ was valued in
1931 at $2,243,776; in 1933 at $2,443,560, in 1935 at
$2,451,463; and in 1938-39 at $2,381,851.*
Receipts for 1931 were $215,162; for 1933, $190,354;
for 1935, $210,964; and for 1937, $377,560.
Expenditures over the same period were from 1931,
$122,176; to 1933, $144,857; to 1935, $169,882, with a
total of $383,338 in 1937.
During 1938, liabilities were
stated at $704,730.
Over this same period the faculty grew from thirtythree to forty-five, and the student body advanced from
458 in 1931 to 526 in 1937.
Again the growth, in spite cf the depression years,
has been gradual but persistent.
The institution appears
to have unusual qualities of endurance in severe times whiwh
tested otber larger colleges to the limit.
1.
*
The usefulness
Statistics of Higher Education, Offioe of Eduoation,
Department of Interior.
Yearbook and Almanac of the Evangelical and Reformed
Church, 1940.
123
of Ursinus is obvious.
The coeducational system is not else­
where represented in the denomination in the east.
cial soundness is readily apparent.
The finan­
Here again sound policy
welcomes the new unity in the Commission of Education.
The following Table is introduced to show the receipts
as distributed in public and private schools.
This has signi­
ficance in relation to the following pages which summarize the
finances of the seven colleges of the Evangelical and Reformed
Denomination.
124
TABLE HO. VIII.
Proportional distribution of Reoeipts
in publio and private schools.^
Percentages
Publio
Productive Funds
Government, State or City
Private Gifts
Student Fees
LEGEHDr
1.
Private
S.9
72.9
0.7
22.6
27.7
3.8
14.3
64.2
100.00
100.00
Showing the relative differenoe in the
proportional distribution of the reoeipts
from public colleges, univorsitios and
technical sohools as compared with private
institutions.
Trevor Arnett, "College and University Finance". General
Education Board 1922, Page 1. Table oitod from Bulletin
Ho. 54 of the 1920 series by the Commissioner of Education.
125
SUMMARY OF FINANCE
In the light of the whole Institutional setup, the fore­
going survey of finances has attempted to present a compre­
hensive picture of the resources of the seven colleges Includ­
ed In this study.
Within the statement of policy, adopted
by the North Central Association of Colleges, our purpose is
now to characterize the institutions by reference to the
"bases of accrediting” and by using the several pertinent
?
norms established-to evaluate.
is stated as follows:
The ♦basis of accrediting1
”An institution will be judged for
accreditment upon the basis of the total pattern it presents
as an institution of higher education.
While institutions
will be judged in terms of each of the characteristics noted
in this statement of policy, it is recognized that wide vari­
ations vdJl appear in the degree of conformity realized.
It
is accepted as a principle of procedure that superiority in
some characteristic may be regarded as compensating to some
extent for deficiencies in other respects.
The facilities
and activities of an institution will be judged in terms of
the purposes it seelcs to serve.”
In some detail the following features will be explored,
physical plant, library, administrative personnel, faculty,
and individuality of institutions.
The summary hereafter
will be concerned further with continuing revision of policy
and prooedure, in that the whole institutional study will
lead up to recommendations.
The seven colleges are, geographically, well located to
126
serve the needs of the whole denomination*
In the areas of
greater population they are closer to one another.
YJest they are located increasingly farther apart.
In the
They are,
in every instance, located on an adequate site which is in
the path of urban growth, hence, property will reasonably
increase in value.
Buildings are of substantial material -
mostly brick or stone.
Facilities for education are adequate
and in many cases the appointments are superior; in a few
cases the capacity of the buildings is taxed, but in no case
is there a situation demanding so extensive and immediate an
outlay as to jeopardize the financial health of the institution.
In all of the colleges the care of the plant is a source of
pride, within the possibility of dividing funds and supplying
improvements which require time.
The whole group enjoys favorable
natural environment.
All the libraries are adequate, and in several cases they
are s u p e r i o r . T h e spirit of the personnel is that of interest
and helpfulness.
Assistants are provided and administrative
interest is evident as every president seeks to build up the
resources as completely as possible.
The old belief that a
library is a repository for antiquated treatises on local lore
is nowhere evident.
The libraries express a progressive atti­
tude as clearly as the architecture does.
Standardized systems
of classifications of books are used.
Administrative personnel, as related to finance, is ex­
cellent.2
1.
2.
In the foregoing evaluation this is evident.
In
Personal visit to the plants.
See R.L. Leonard. United Lutheran Survey and Tables VI
and VII, Pp. 97 and 98.
127
addition to adequate staff, It may be said that returns are
well within the salary paid, and the salaries in the times in
whioh we live are equitable.^
In many oases the force was
retained when the expense could have been shaved, and while it
is true that reductions were made, these were in the long run
satisfactory to all.
Presidents, faculties, and administra­
tive personnel, and indeed, the local help, all participated
in salary and wage outs.
More significant, they all acoepted
conditions in the spirit of loyalty*
There exists in these institutions a personal interest of
faculty to college which makes the salary scale understandable.
To the oasual observer, the wages are low.
faculty member, they are adequate.
To the average
In fact, the salary scale
appears reasonably high when compared with that of other de­
nominational colleges.2
However, viewing the whole question
of finance in relation to the salaries of faculty, there
appears to be a satisfactory and proportionate adjustment.
In the ligjht of available funds, it would seem that the faculties
are largely content with their compensation.
In lieu of de­
tailed proof, the fact that there was no increase in the faculty
turnover at the time salaries were cut;3
that although all the
schools had reductions in salary, few if any resignations were
offered; seems evidence that confidence in security, fair
dealing, freedom from political interference and a variety of
other reasons make these positions desirable to able students,
1.
2.
3.
See comparis6n with other colleges. Chapter V, Pp. 172.
Ibid.
For faculty turnover see Questionnaire data. Chapter IV, Pp.133
128
apart from the aotual salary.1
In general, apart from a
statistical proof that the salaries are a "living wage" the
fact remains that in these colleges, the faculty members are
not victims of blind allegianoe, but they consider (in compen­
sating circumstances and advantages which accrue, and satis­
factions which are valuable) the position they occupy as wholly
desirable.*
This may be submitted as evidence of financial
sufficiency in the matter of faculty salaries.
To summarize - These colleges present an aspeot of ade­
quacy, not beoause they have a surfeit of equipment, personnel,
or financial backing, but because with adequate possessions
in all these fields the churoh and the constituency have suc­
ceeded in creating a spirit of industry, fair dealing, and self­
helpfulness, which all conspire to create an individuality.
To
those within the organization this spirit of oneness is invit­
ing and satisfying.
At the present rate of pay, the personnel
labor diligently, and all are satisfied - not to say content.
To be content and unprogressive would be fatal.
The investi­
gator is convinced by his study of the data, the visits to
each oampus, and by the activity he observed, that these insti­
tutions are not only doing an excellent work now, but that
with added unity of purpose denominationally, and ameliora­
tion of financial circumstances by denominational planning,
1.
*
The investigator found evidence of satisfaction on these
points, long tenure, low turn over, retirement provisions.
Rents, social environment, proximity to college for educa­
tion of ohildren, rebates to faculty, satisfaction derived
from the intellectual life in a small rural town or city these are some of the satisfactions expressed.
129
in a sense of pooling and equitably distributing moral and
finanoial influence, they will do an increasingly excellent
work.
By increasing the program in a qualitative sense and
by alleviating that marginal anxiety which exists even in the
face of careful husbanding of resources, the colleges may in
time increase quantitatively.
This is, however, a look into
the future.
A general view of college finances and their administra­
tion is evidence that the colleges wefe expertly guided during
the depression.3" The funda were controlled so that the ex­
penditures of one year were kept within the bounds of the
income of the previous year.
With few exceptions, the liabili­
ties were not only 4ot increased, but were actually reduced
during that time of stress.2
Pull credit should go to the able and willing boards of
oontrol which are made up of locally linterested citizens,
alumni of the college, or ministers of the denomination.*
They all constitute a working resource where value oannot be
estimated.
Here again the quality of organization and the
spirit of self negation are apparent.3
As was said earlier, these ties are varied but real.
They are found in ties of tradition and family interest, through
1.
2.
3.
*
The statement of finance above.
Contentions which are based on the foregoing section on
finance, Pp. 99.
Note: This is not offered as laudatory (although it is)
but as a genuine explanation of why small colleges can
afford and get the services of superior men - without pay.
See Elliott Chambers, Ashbrook "The Government of Higher
Education". Dedicated to "The Sentinels of Common Sense to
Guard the gates of places of Uncommon sense•"
130
religion and local loyalty.
They extend through boards,
faculties and administrative personnel
Sacrificial giving
is not unknown, and in many cases personal service is offered
without expectation of return.
The intangible result of all this is the driving foroe
behind the denominational college.
1.
Note: Again the figures do not tell the whole story.
The investigator offers as evidence of intangible assets tradition, family interest, loyalty, when they are active
in this way.
131
GENERAL SUMMARY
To set forth the factual data and the spirit which
animates the institution, the questionnaire is presented
with criteria.
In the following pages brief questionnaire returns are
presented.
Along with eaoh question are criteria bearing on
the subject under consideration.
To unify the procedure each
college is treated alphabetically in the list of seven oolieges,
that is, Catawba is numbered 1, Cedar Crest is numbered 2,
Elmhurst is 3, Franklin and Marshall is 4, Heidelberg is 5,
Hood is 6, and Ursinus is numbered 7.
To clarify the answers,
those agreeing in general with the criteria are enumerated
as corresponding criterion, those which vary are indicated
as deviating criterion.
The attempt is not to show that one is invariably right
and the other wrong, but rather to view the materials in the
light of an accepted rule of judgement.
As deviations appear
they are indicated by clarifying statements from the college.
Although there is disagreement among authorities on
all topics in all human fields of knowledge, it happens that
mature judgement in practice is quite uniform.
It is to
be hoped in this sense, then, that having chosen authorities,
recognized as suoh, there may be a large degree of agreement,
and that when deviation occurs there may be adequate reason
for it.
The plan then is:
questionnaire.
2.
1. To present the material of the
To present pertinent criteria on the
132
subject.
3.
or deviation.
In the light of the criteria to show agreement
4.
To present the answer directly if the
answer is informative or factual.
5.
To show degree or
function in case of several alternatives.
It is well to bear in mind that the factual data as
presented throughout the study are oonelusive in a realistic
sense, and that the questionnaire material is expected to re­
veal the spirit in action.
In this sense the attempt is to
glimpse the imponderabies.
In citing authorities, much use has been made of Elliot,
Chambers and Ashbrook, MThe Government of Higher Education."
Occasionally the citation gathered from the original source
is also cited in Elliot, in which case the direct citation
is used.
It should be said that the questionnaire in its prepara­
tion and presentation was cumulative.
In choosing basic ques­
tions the topics appearing more frequently in "Surveys of
Amerioan Higher Education" were used.^
Around these topics
the ifuestions were framed, with this exception however, that
questions on the administrative phases were constructed by
the investigator with the guidance of the members of the
sponsoring committee, for the purpose of more definitely re­
vealing the administrative practices.
It may be added that the answers appearing do not include
all that was said, but so far as possible the statement used
is in the questionnaire, and often is quoted verbatim.
1.
V/alter, Crosby, Eells, The Carnegie Foundation for the
Advancement of Teaching, 1937.
133
QUESTIONNAIRE
I.
ORGANIZATION
Q. 1.
Aside from business acumen, as fitting the man
for a particular part in the organization, what
qualities do you seek in a prospective member of
your board of trustees?
Criterion
>
Those who are free from the dominance of any
partisan group; conversant with the history and ideals of
the institution; leaders in their own special fields of
activity so that the public has confidence in their ability;
able and willing to devote considerable time to their duties;
and capable of regarding higher eduoation as a dynamic foroe
in civilization, and their trusteeship as a high form of
civic service.1
Corresponding criterion, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7.*
1.
*
Edward C. Elliott, nThe Board of Control1* in Higher Educa­
tion in America, Ginn and Co., 1930, pp. 42.
All schools are substantially in harmony, but emphasize
Christian education.
134
Organization:
Q. 2.
Criterion
Is the business of the Board transacted mainly
in
a* Board session
c.
Sub-committees?
-
b.
Executive committee
Students generally recommend that standing
committees should not be used when the board is small and
an executive committee
1.
only with larger
boards .-1-
a. Board session
- 1, 2,
4, 5, 6.
b. Executive Committee
- 1, 2,
3, 4, 5, 6, 7.
c. Sub-committee
- 1, 2.
E. C. Lindeman, Committees: Their Purposes, Functions
and Administration, Amerioan Management Association,
New York, N.Y., 1929.
135
Organization:
Q. 3.
What broad polioy do you follow with regard to
financial investments and budgetary control?
Criteria
-
a. Investments - Three distinot obligations de­
volve upon the board of trustees in the management of invested
funds.
The first is to keep the principal of the fund intact.
A second obligation is to keep the fund producing income at
the highest possible rate consistent with the maintenance of
a suitable degree of safety in investments.
The third impor­
tant obligation is to apply the income from the fund and the
various portions thereof to the purposes agreed upon when the
trust was oreated.1
b.
Budgetary Control - The board should adopt the annual
budget as compiled and presented by the president of the in­
stitution when it is satisfied there will be current income to
cover the proposed expenditures.
It should refuse to vote the
budget when the amount of income is in doubt or when the budget
calls for the expenditure or the hypothecation of endowment
a
or trust funds.
Corresponding criterion - 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7.
"This past year we named the —
Trust Company of Baltimore
to supervise our investments" - 6.
Investments in the hands of the Board of Endowment and Trust
Funds of the denomination. - 3.
1.
2.
F.W. Reeves, et al, The Liberal Arts College, University
of Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill», 1932, pp. 578.
Elliott, et al, The Government of Higher Education, American
Book Co., New York, N.Y., 1935, pp. 227.
136
Organization:
Q* 4*
a.
What is the function of the college presi­
dent in board meetings?
Criterion - It is frequently argued that the president is
in a better strategic position to participate in the dis­
cussion and present his ideas if he does not preside at
board meetings*1- (Participating and guiding but not presiding*)
Corresponding criterion - 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7.
b.
Do you have faculty, alumni or church board
representatives present, possibly as non-voting
members?
Yes - 2.
No
1.
- 1, 3, 5, 6, 7.
Archie U. Palmer, "The College President and His Board
of Trustees*1, Bulletin of The American Association of
Colleges, Dec. 1931*
137
Organization:
Q. 4.
o.
In total membership do you consider your
board large or small for efficient work?
How many voting members do you have?
Criterion - A study of 57 institutions by the North Central
Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools in 1934 indi­
cates that those institutions having boards of over twenty
members are generally better than those having fewer members.
This study, however, warns against drawing, solely on the
basis of these data, the conclusion that any institution
would be improved by changing the size of its board.
How­
ever., the burden of proof rests upon those who advocate
small boards.1
The colleges have declared (with two ex­
ceptions) the following satisfactory:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
-
2
2
1
3
2
2
2
4
4
5
0
4
4
5
Deviating criterion - 3 - large (although numerically the
smallest).
5 - large (although five others are as large
and two are larger).
1.
Elliott, et al, op. cit.
138
Organization:
Q,. 5.
Are board meetings fully reoorded by the secretary
and copies supplied to the members?
Do you ap­
prove of this practice?
Citation - In a study of 41 selected institutions in 1932,
it was found that the secretary or the clerk in 39 instances
is charged in the by-laws with the recording of the minutes
of the board.1
Yes - 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7.
1.
W. A. Ashbrook, Rules and Regulations of Boards of
Trustees^ oited in Elliott.
139
Organization:
Q. 6*
In your particular college are there significant
historical facts or relationships which condition
your existence as a wholly responsible denomina­
tional arts college?
Please indicate.
1 - No.
2 - Incorporated as local association issuing stock.*
3 - Developed as church school under denominational
charter.
4 - Desire closer relationship.*
5 - Independent charter in Ohio Synod.
6 - Self-perpetuating institution in Maryland.
7 - Erected, established and incorporated in Upper
Providence Township.
*
See Resolutions of the Board of Trustees in the Appendix.
Pp. 217, 219.
140
II.
Administration;
Q. 1.
In terms of administrative policy would you say
that the presidents recommendations have pre­
ference or does the board formulate the policy
for the most part?
Criteria - The simple principle that boards should legislate
and presidents should execute.1
Administration is ... an indispensible total oversight
and facilitation of that process, giving it direction, unity,
stimulus, and actual guidance.2
Corresponding criterion
-
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7.
1. Edward C • Elliott, et al, The Government of Higher Educa­
tion. quoting LeEevre, pp. 187.
2. Ordway Tead, Chwrter for a College, Bulletin of American
Association of Colleges, flov. 193$, pp. 401.
141
Administration:
Q. 2.
In so far as you may evaluate objectively, does
your administrative organization define and de­
finitely delegate responsibility or is there a
dominating personality?
That is, can you see an
ascending or descending system of organization
from president to department head to instructor,
etc.?
Criterion -
"The unit type" (organization) "in which the
president is a chief executive responsible to the board for
all college activities is preferred by all students of insti­
tutional government.
Very often the institutions having the
other types of organization function smoothly, but they do
so in spite of their organization - not because of it.
In­
ternal friction is much more prevalent with dual and multiple
organization ."■*■
Corresponding criterion - 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7.
Emphasis on cooperative endeavor.
1.
Cordial relations.
P. W. Reeves, et al, The Liberal Arts College, University
of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1$32, pp. 9Tl
142
Administration:
ft. 3.
Within your administration do you have provision
for retirement of faculty?
Criterion - (EE: retirement)
If so what is it?
The institution benefits as
much, if not more, than the individual faculty members.
When there is no pension system the institution must retain
faculty members long after their period of usefulness has
diminished or ceased, or it must injure its reputation by
callously.dismissing them without any assured means of
l
support•
'
Yes - 4, 5i 7.
No - 1, 2, 3 , 6 .
Deviating criterion:
1 - No occasion for it to date. Seeking a plan.
2 - Treated on individual basis.
3 - Cooperative plan in prooess.
4 - Provided on individual basis.
5 - Carnegie plan.
6 - Retirement provisions in process of adoption.
7 - Retirement is optional at age 62, and obligatory
at 70, beginning in June 1940. Retirement allowance
equivalent to one third of annual salary over fifteen
years preceding retirement.
1.
Elliott et al, The Government of Higher Education.
American Book Company, pp. 181.
145
Administration:
Q. 4.
What cognizance do you take of tenure either by
avowed policy or tacit understanding?
Criteria - Dismissal for reasons other than immorality or
treason should not ordinarily take effect in less than a
year from the time the decision is reached.1
The members of the permanent staff.... should be un­
disturbed in their faith that the institution is clearly
conscious of its obligation to them.2
1 - Mutual understanding. Usually permanent after
third year.
2 - No established tenure. Tacit understanding of con­
tinuity if relations are healthy.
3 - New appointment for one, and two, then three years.
Permanent if both parties are satisfied, i.e. after
six years.
4.- Recognized as reasonable obligation.
5 - Recognized on three annual appointments.
6 - Probationary period of approximately six or eight
years. Becomes permanent unless otherwise notice
of one year termination.
7 - Tacit understanding after six or eight years. Re­
moval is not likely unless for serious cause.
1.
S.
Robert Lincoln Kelly, Tendencies in College Administration«
The Science Press, Lancaster, Ifea., 1925, pp. £73.
David S. Hill, Fred Kelly, Howard J. Savage, Eoonomv in
Higher Education. The Carnegie Foundation for the Advance­
ment teaching, 1933, pp. 91.
144
Administration:
Q. 5.
VJhat policy do you recognize or propose with
regard to salary rates and systematic inorease?
Do you follow
a. Departmental
b. Individual
c. A combination of the two?
Criterion - The adoption of a salary schedule is one of the
most effeotive means available to a board of trustees for
discharging one of its greatest obligations, namely, the
promotion of institutional morale.1
1 - General control. Southern Association establishes
minimum.
2 - Individual.
3 - Individual.
4 - Length of service and individual.
5 - Departmental.
6 - Based on status in departments. No systematic rate
of inorease. Status of each considered separately.
7 - Salary scale, promotion on merit and length of
service. Salary increases automatic.
1.
Elliott et al, The Government of Higher Eduoation, pp• 172 •
145
Administration:
$.6.
With respect to salaries and maintenance do you
follow a strict departmental assignment and eontrol?
What is your plan?
Criterion - The responsibility of providing money for salaries
belongs definitely to the board of oontrol.
Upon recommenda­
tion of the president, the board also establishes the scale
of pay for different groups of the staff and for individuals.1
1 2 3 4
5 6 7 -
1.
General control.
General control•
General control•
General control•
General control•
General control.
Departmental control
Hill, Kelly, Savage, Economy in Higher Education.
146
Administration:
Q. 7.
What is your faculty "turn over"?
Criterion - Since turnover is costly, and since it may be
a symptom indicating unsatisfactory working conditions, a
high rate of turnover should receive prompt investigation
by a board which is truly interested in its responsibility.1
1 - One in four years, out of a faculty of 34.
2 - Four or five annually out of 30.
3 - Small - due ter marriage or due to adesire to
continue study.
4 - One in five years out of 45.
5 - 10#
6 - Very slight, only a few changes each year.
7 - Less than ten per cent annually.
1.
Elliot et al.
147
III. Financing.
Q. 1.
Please state what spirit animates the Institution
and what policy governs the handling of the follow­
ing:
a. General control
vestment)
b. School funds
(in­
c. Specific endowment?
Criterion - Endowment funds should be classified to show,
separately:
(1) funds whose income is available for general purposes
(2) funds who«e income is restricted to purposes other
than student aid
(3) funds whose income is restricted to student aid
All other funds which are functioning as endowment funds
should be shown separately in the endowment group.1
/
Corresponding criterion - 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7.
- 3 - under control of the general
denomination.
1.
Elliott et al. See Arnett re cy pres "College and Uni­
versity Finance" General Eduoation Board, 1922, Footnote,
pp. 28.
148
Finanoing:
Q. 2.
Where scholarships or rebates of any type are
given what method of deoiding to whom
they go
is used?
Criterion - To adopt a policy and embody it in rules regard­
ing the general purpose for which scholarships and fellowships
will be given.
Generally it will be found advisable to have
the legislative body of the faculty devise and submit to the
board for adoption, all rules regarding the academic require­
ments .1
1 - Grants made by committee - Three members of Board,
President, ex-off, Member of faculty.
2 - Committee - President, registrar, and Treasurer.
3 - Scholarship committee.
4 - Committee on scholarships.
5 - Standing committee of faculty.
6 - Faculty committee.
7 - Committee of facility.
What control is exercised over this function?
1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 - Faculty control. General qualifications
for scholarship - character, scholar­
ship, manifest need.
2 - Administration committee.
1.
Elliott et al.
149
Financing:
Q. 3.
In general what is your traditional and present
policy toward deferred payments of tuition, re­
ductions to special groups (athletes, honor'
students, faculty children, ministers* children)?
Criteria - Students should be required to pay all fees within
the first few days of the quarter or term, or to make satis­
factory arrangements for their payment
Mr. Arnett said that he favored the plan of deferred
tuition payments, in the form of loans payable after gradp
uation, for students unable to meet higher tuition costs.
1 - Rebates to ministers*, schoolmen, two in a family.
2 - Individual merit.
3 - Rebate to ministers* children, pre-theologioal
students, Missionaries* children.
4 - Individual consideration.
5 - One^fourth of tuition to ministers* children.
6 - Reductions to faculty families.
7 - Faculty ohildren fifty per cent.
Deferred payments:
Fes — 1, 3, 5.
No - 2, 4, 6, 7
5 - Deferred for semester at 6% interest.
1. Trevor Arnett, CoU-ege and University Finance. General
Education Board, 1922, pp. 15.
2. Quotations, Sohool and Society. July 22, 1939, 122.
150
IV. GENERAL SCOPE.
Q,. 1.
Considering your institution on this general
"basis of organization and finance, what do you
envision as your basic objective for the future?
Criteria - It seems likely that in the future only those in­
stitutions will survive whose existence can be justified
fully on the basis of their merits.^For each individual the development and enlightenment
whioh bring their own reward.2
1 - Maintain and develop the general program of liberal
arts.
2 - To finance by many small contributions rather than
few large ones.
5 - To improve our scholarship emphasis and the inte­
gration of a Christian point of view.
4 - That our college will have a closer relationship
with the Church.
5 - Endowment of $1,000,000 and buildings.
6 - Working oufe a more detailed definition of faculty
status and responsibility.
7 - We plan no change.
1.
2.
Irene H. Gerlinger, College and University Financing.
Bulletin of American Association of Cdilfges, ttov.
1939, pp. 425.
Henry M. Wriston, Liberal Learning, quoting Bishop Grundtvieg, Association of American Colleges, Nov. 1939, pp. 367.
151
General Scope:
Q. 2.
What do you consider a minimum constituency
adequate to carry your present physical plant?
Criterion - There is a positive relationship (between the
number of members of church constituencies and the income
of denominational colleges), of these factors among Methodist
colleges.
Eight oolleges, having 30,000 or less constituency,
had average incomes of $85,118 in 1929-30; while seven
colleges having 100,000 or more had average incomes of
$227,483.1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1.
-
500 students and maintain the personal touch.
400 students.
Western Church area.
No estimate (900 students)
350 to 400 students.
350 resident, 50 non-resident students.
About 550 students.
Elliott et al, Government of Higher Education
152
General Scope:
Q. 3.
Do you feel that a oloaer coordination of super­
vision - a dearer definition of territorial
lines - and a redefining of curricular fields
would work to the benefit of all the schools of
the Denomination?
1 - Interested in closer union.
2 - Closer union under a Commission without over-supervision.*
3 - The closest oooperation appears tohe possible.
4 - We are making an earnest effortto make the Church
cognizant of the educational institutions, and if
we can, we may be assured of a closer relationship.*
5 - An open question.
6 - No.
7 - Favor Commission on Education.
*
See Appendix, pp. 217 and 219.
153
General Scope:
Q. 4.
Do you see any advantage or disadvantage in
maintaining a coeducational institution, a college
for women, or a college for men?
Will you indi­
cate primary advantages as you see them.
1
2
3
4
-
Co-educational; restraining and stimulating effects.
Women; educated as
a woman.
Co-eduoational;it is a more normal relationship.
Men; traditionally
a man’s college.No reason for
change.
5 - Co-eduoational; more preparation for life as it is with proper restrictions.
6 - Women; each type has its advantages.
7 — Co-educational; I see very great and obvious advantages.
154
General Scope:
Q. 5.
What form does your student government take?
Do
you have a philosophy concerning it or do you
allow it to develop unguided?
Criterion - Agencies of student self-government are valuable
laboratories for training and practice in oivlc leadership,
exoept when allowed to deteriorate into desuetude or corrup­
tion.1
1 2 3 4 ft 6 7 -
1.
*
Student senate.
Student government with faculty advisory oommittee.
Student government with faculty advisors.
Student senate,
Student council.
Cooperative government association.*
Student elective counoil.
Elliott, The Government of Higher Education.
For Student Government Constitution, see Appendix I, pp. 213.
155
General Soope:
Q. 6.
We recognize that all educational Institutions
operate under state charters, we remember that
these charters vary with different states, we
are aware that each college of the Denomination,
because of age, finances, etc* has differing
status before the General Synod; yet we know that
each is recognized as a denominational Arts Col­
lege.
Within this category what do you consider
to be the great contribution of the Liberal Arts
College you represent to the general educational
prooess of the nation?
Criteria - The great need of the present day is wisdom, the
calm, unimpassioned search for enduring truth, not ao much
concerned with immediate aotion as with the slow adjustment
of human relations.
The liberal arts college has been, is and should continue
to function without political, religious or other impediments.
They should aver be free to see the truth.2
1 - Liberal arts education.
2 - Definite assertion of independence in content, method,
and form of the liberal arts oollege supported by the
Church.
3 - The Churoh - related oollege has no alternative but
to magnify the spiritual point of view.
4 - We feel that there is a definite place for the liberal
arts oollege, and that is the function Franklin and
Marshall hoped to fill.
^
5 - Distinctive development of social consciousness of
students•
6 - ItsChristian atmosphere and program.
7 - Itstrue worth is to be judged by the quality of its
graduates, by the quality or their contribution to
the life of the oommunity.
1.
2.
I
A. Lawrence Lowell, What a University President Has Learned,
Macmillan Company. New York, 1938, pp. 125.
Guy E. Snavely, The Liberal Arts,College, School and Sooiety.
June 24, 1939, pp. 785.
156
General Scope:
Q. 7.
To what extent do you find the Fraternity an
administrative problem?
In what way?
Criterion - Government, whether of the state, the college, or
the group, is most successful when it prescribes least; and
government prescribes least when the individual embraces the
spirit of its principles instead of being forced to yield
to the power of its commands.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1.
-
Article VI.
Section II.1
No fraternities.
We have no recognized sororitied.
We have no fraternities.
No problem - fraternity committee.
Social groups.
No sororities.
We have only looal groups.
Dixon Ryan Fox, Chairman, Report of the Joint Committee
on Fraternities, Bulletin of Association of Amerioan
Colleges, March 38, pp. 114.
157
General Seope:
ft. 8.
What provision do you make for quota control of
racial groups?
Criterion - No one is entitled to admission to a privately
controlled institution as a matter of right.
In the absence
of stipulations to the contrary in the charter, the trustees
may lawfully exclude any applicant for any reason, or for
no reason at all.1
1
2
5
4
5
6
7
1.
-
Do not have the question.
Limit.
We have no racial problem.
No problem.
No problem.
No problem.
Refuse admission to groups who do not seem likely
to be readily assimilated in our student body.
Elliott et al, The Government of Higher Education, pp. 137.
158
General Scope:
Q. 9.
Do you accept transfer students freely and/or
do you find a growing tendency toward migration
in the second and third year?
do you have?
What expedient
What are the transfer facts?
1 - Strict requirement; very low percentage of transfer
students•
2 - Accept transfer students.
3 - We accept transfer students on the basis of their
record and recommendation. Our retention has been
high.
4 - Not usual to accept transfer. Accept them on re­
commendation from Dean of former college. Boy must
exert effort. Transfers usually make good.
5 - Wary of transfers. Migrations at the end of second
year inter-professional.
6 - Have only a limited number of applicants.
7 - We refuse admission to most. We have found most
transfer students undesirable.
159
General Scope:
Q. 10.
What proportion of your student body requires
some degree of financial assistance?
What
form does this assistance take?
1 - 26 to 28$. Rebates, scholarships, work.
2 - 20$. Scholarships, work.
3 - Better than one-third. Student aid funds, work,
volunteer assistance.
4 - Scholarships and work.
5 - Roughly, two-thirds. Scholarships, work, grantsin-aid, rebates, loans.
6 - 18$ of student body receive aid and scholarships.
12$ work. Figures overlap.
7 - About 50$ of our students. Scholarships grants,
work on campus.
160
Throughout the questionnaire, a large degree of conformity
to usual practice is apparent.
In all of the colleges, whether
in the field of organization, administration, or finance, there
is little deviation from general practice.
This is supported
especially in the field of finance, where the custom of having
the acoounts examined by a reputable accounting firm has been
established.
This conclusion may safely be drawn.
the colleges of this study apparent harmony exists.
Throughout
The ideal
would be nearer at hand if the colleges supplied some omissions.
These deficiencies lie in the field of finance for the most
part, as for example, retirement of personnel, Sabbatical leave,
and in some instances, salary.
In the organization, the
colleges still feel the need for further systematized delega­
tion of functions.
This is being accomplished in all cases
where it is most needed.
The administrative policy appears
least certain in choosing staff members.
It would appear
desirable to scrutinize applicants more carefully; if neces­
sary, to extend the probationary period somewhat, and to
guarantee tenure more fully when once the teachers qualify
under actual working conditions.
Finally, the field here reviewed leads into a comparison
of colleges of this denomination with each other.
Within
this area the purpose is to indicate points at which support
might well be applied.
The concluding comparison is to in­
dicate relative strength or weakness as the appear in a
comparison of the Evangelical and Reformed colleges with
those of similar size in other denominations.
One final
161
observation is the wholesome and hopeful situation that
appears to the investigator when he recognizes the truth
that no matter how thoroughly he has searched the field, and
no matter what weakness he has found, the individual ad­
ministrator is already aware of these shortcomings, and is
making plans to meet them.
ual college.
This is healthful in the individ­
The larger problem is recognized in the larger
denominational relations of the educational system.
This,
too, is being studied, and in due time, will be resolved
into its elements, for analysis by the Commission on Higher
Education.
In Chapter VI the investigator will endeavor to marshal
"Findings and Interpretations” , "Conclusions” , and "Recom­
mendations", to the end that these larger issues will emerge.
Within the bibliography one may find materials used by the
investigator, not only for factual material, but for rounding
out the picture of education in its social setting.
SHATTER V
COMPARISONS
Within the Denomination
The seven colleges of the denomination have a tendency
to arrange themselves in groups, as different phases of their
financial make-up are considered graphically.*
The assets,
as expressed in non-expendible funds, separate the sohools
into three groups.
In the first, Franklin and Marshall is
highest and Ursinus next.
Heidelberg and Hood are close togeth­
er in the seoond group, while Elmhurst, Cedar Crest and Cataw­
ba form the third.
Within each group the difference is small,
but from the top of the first group to the lowest in the third
group the values range from $2,729,500 down to Catawba with
a value of $919,785.
Throughout the period from 1931 to 1938
there has been a definite increase in value, with the excep­
tion of that of Catawba, which lagged from 1933 to 1936, but
whioh, since the latter date, has enjoyed a gradual increase.
In the first group, within the period from 1931 to 1934,
Franklin and Marshall declined, but since that time there has
been a remarkable rise above the foamier peak value.
In the
same period, 1931 to 1935, Ursinus increased steadily in value
*
See graphs 162A and 162B for this grouping (following pages)
The graphs are based on statistics found in section on
finance, pp. 99.
TABLE HO. IX
Proportyi Non-oxpendable Fundo: Enrionmont, Annuity, Loan Funda
1931-32
1933-34
FRANKLIN AND MARSHALL
$2,729,562
26
URSINUS
$2,243,776
20
HOOD
$1,593,722
ELMHURST
$1,166,774
CEDAR CREST
$1,078,226
SCALEt
1200,000 to the l»eh.
162B
TABIJ2 X
Propertyt Library, Grounds, Building, Equipment.
1933-34
19
18
URS INTIS
$1,739,310
17
FRANKLIN tr MARSHALL
$1,604,728
16
15
14
13
12
ELMHURST
$1,072,709
CEDAR CREST
$1,046,371
11
•
10
9
8
7
6
5
»
1931-32
SCALE»
1933-34
$200,000 to th* inch
4
163
and leveled out with a slight oontinuing rise to date.
Heidel­
berg in 1931 fell until 1933, when the value began slowly and
steadily to rise.
Elmhurst and Cedar Crest held firm during
1931-33, and each thereafter gradually appreciated in value.
Graphically the three groups appear intermixed so that there
is no coordination of reaction on the basis of type of college.
What is true in the first instance with regard to non­
expendable funds is similarly true of physical property.*
The
grouping of the colleges is different, Ursinus being highest
with a value of $1,739,310 and Catawba least with $521,264.
Again Ursinus and I’ranlclin and Marshall are close, with the
rise ooming earlier to Ursinus in 1931-33.
Hood stands alone,
maintaining an almost even plane, while Elmhurst and Cedar
Crest are close and parallel with very little rise from 1931
to 1935.
Again, Heidelberg and Catawba range with each other,
Heidelberg traveling on a plane, while Catawba rises until
1933 and declines to the starting level in 1935.
After that
time it maintains the same level of values with a slight upturn.
During this same period the receipts would appear graphi­
cally in a very different way.
Hood College has an unusual
rise in both receipts and expenditures in 1931, followed by
a similar drop of both receipts and expenditures to 1935,
with a compensating rise from 1935 to 1937.
In the other
colleges the same general reactions are seen in the general
relation of receipts and expenditures.
Without further figures
it suffices to say that the graphic presentation in each case
*
Table Number X.
Pp. 162B.
represents a general deoline in 1931-34, and at that point in
most cases the ascending figures begin.
These seven colleges
hit the bottom of the depression by 1935, and uniformly began
an upward trend in 1936.
Within the denomination the differing types of schools
present some observations and facts.
the largest and oldest.
The man's college is
The main faculty is of men.
The
leadership has been continuous and has seldom been hampered
by transitional periods in administration.
For this reason
Franklin and Marshall appears to have a surplus of buildings.
There appears to be a considerable surplus of funds.
This is
not the fact in reality, but by comparison with the other
colleges it appears to be.
The considerable difference in
size accounts in part for this.
Ursinus, a coeducational
institution, although incorporated later, runs a close second
to Franklin and-Marshall in total resources.
Heidelberg, the
second coeducational college of this group, has the same ad­
ministrative problems as Ursinus, Catawba and Elmhurst.
Dupli
cation of equipment, housing by dormitories for each sex group
divided or scheduled use of gymnasiums and athletic fields,
would appear to raise cost; - as an actual fact the cost of
operation is less in the coeducational college.^
Within this
group of seven colleges the catalog cost for boarding students
per year is as follows: - Catawba $434; Cedar Crest College
$750 and up; Elmhurst, men $490-$539, women $524 - $569;
1.
Walter J. Greenleaf: "The Cost of Going to College*
Pamphlet 52, Office of Education, 1934.
165
Franlclin and Marshall, $729; Heidelberg, either sex, $501 - $546;
Hood $750; Ursinus $675 or more, according to room.
One element of cost, that of fraternity fees, is absent
from all of these colleges excepting Franlclin and Marshall.
The oost of fraternities can increase oollege student costs
appreciably,^- as will appear in the comparison offered in a
later citation.
The ratio of faculty to students shows another definite
trend.
Within these oolleges the proportion of faculty mem­
bers to students in men*s colleges is 1 to 18, in women's
colleges 1 to 9, and in coeducational colleges 1 to 12.
With­
in the separate institutions the proportion is Catawba 1 to
13; Cedar Crest 1 to 8; Elmhurst 1 to 13; Franlclin and Marshall
1 to 18; Heidelberg 1 to 10; HOod 1 to 9; and Ursinus 1 to 13.
Salary rates for faculty members have a rather definite
adjustment to available funds rather than to any scale pre­
valent within the different types of school.
In order of
salaries to professors the schools ranlc: 1. Franlclin and Mar­
shall (men's) 2. Hood (women's) 3. Ursinus, (coeducational)
4. Elmhurst, (coeducational) 5. Catawba, (coeducational)
6 . Cedar Crest (women's) 7. Heidelberg, (coeducational).
Salaries for association professors rank: 1. Franlclin
and Marshall, 2. Elmhurst, 3. Hood, 4. Ursinus, 5. Cedar Crest,
6 . Catawba, 7. Heidelberg.
Salaries for assistants: 1. Franlclin and Marshall;
1.
Walter J.Greenleaf: "The Cost of Going to College",
Pamphlet 52, Office of Education 1934.
166
2. Elmhurst; 3. Ursinus; 4. Cedar Crest; 5. and 6. (alike)
Hood and Catawba; 7. Heidelberg*
Instructors* salaries: 1* Ursinus; 2. Franklin and
Marshall; 3. Elmhurst; 4* Cedar Crest; 5. Catawba; 6 and 7*
Hood and Heidelberg, are alike.
The shift of position as the lower brackets are reaohed
appears to indicate a choice of policy.
Some colleges regard
higher salaries desirable to retain a few outstanding men,
with mediocre men at lower salaries in lesser positions; while
others believe that a more gradual distribution of salary
will secure a maximum number of oapable teachers at a minimum
salary, or higher salaries for a few and lower salaries for
many, as over against the plan of paying more nearly the same
price for all.
There may be the question of turn over on the faculties
in other cases, but in these colleges it appears to be very
low.
One or two colleges could improve aiong this line.
The question within this group appears, not to be compara­
tive status financially, beoause they all appear sound and ade­
quately supplied with plant facilities; rather the problem
appears to be within the group and within the denomination.
"It is clearly evident that more and more the main depen­
dence for private support for colleges must be sought among alumni,
and that the colleges which have the strongest alumni associations
and ablest alumni leaders are those most likely to advance.
1.
Irene H. Gerlinger, "College and University Financing",
Bulletin of the Association of American College, November
1939, Pp. 429.
167
These colleges all have a loyal
a l um ni
. Each one may
rightfully he proud of the support of various kinds extended
by its alumni.
This support extends from the president, to
the Board president, and to the faculty and local area groups.
It is significant, when this is said, to recall that these
colleges, in this respect, have hardly scratched the surface
of their real resources.
illustrate.
The following quotation will best
"The percentage of aid given by the combined
church to this large investment is 5.99 per cent of the total
income.
This is important as showing that these colleges have
been largely self-supporting, or as gathering their funds
from local divisions of the church.*
It is further true, that
at times, a cordial antagonism existed, to the extent that
bidding for students was done. Today, with the new constitu­
tion coming into effect, these conditions can readily be changed
by the plan provided in the new constitution.
The constitution
states that the Commission on Higher Education shall consist
of the presidents of the educational institutions and an equal
number of ministers chosen by the General Synod for a term of
four years, and the executive secretary of the Board of Christian
Education and Publication."
"The function of this Commission shall be to study and
determine the Church,s program of higher education, to cultivate
closer relationship between the educational institutions them­
1.
*
John A. Schaeffer, "Critical Situation Facing Our Church",
delivered to Commission on Higher Education.
And they may desire to continue this praotisel
168
selves and the Church, and to maintain and develop the princi­
ples and ideals of the Christian religion in the educational
institutions of the Church.
The expenses of the representatives
of the educational institutions shall be borne by their insti­
tutions.”1
It would seem plausible that, having withstood the rigors
of the past decade, as indicated by a careful study, these
colleges, independent as they are, might well secure substantial
funds from the denomination at large.
With a comparatively
small, regular subsidy, they could do nicely.
With a unifying
commission, the collective and individual problems might be
clarified and solved.*
To this subject the treatise returns
in Chapter VI.
1.
*
Article III, Paragraph 115 of the Constitution and By­
laws of the Evangelical and Reformed Church, Appendix,
P p . 2S4.
It is not to be concluded that all these colleges seek
aid from the church at large.
169
COMPARISONS (Continued)
With Colleges df Other DenominatIons
The whole basis of comparison must rest on similarity
of size.
The large denominational college within the richer
church area cannot be pitted against the emerging institution
with less time in which to marshal funds.
There is possibly
as great a spread in the denominational colleges, comparatively,
as there is between the richest and the poorest universities.
For the purposes of comparison, then, it would be fair to
use schools of similar size and to use available statistics
with a wide spread so that they would represent a wide geographi­
cal distribution.
As has been earlier stated, the general tendency of colleges
was to decline in the years 1933 to 1935 and to rally thereafter.
This is a partial statement, because many did not emerge; and
this is true not ohly of denominationally controlled institutions^
but of public and private non-denominational schools as well.
The question of recuperative powers between those which are
publicly supported and those of a denominational kind, may arise.
We note that difference somewhat later in the study
From 1860 to 1890 a great number of Church schools ap­
peared, as indicated on the Table numbered XI.2
Within the bracket determined by size of student body, we
find the following comparative figures,3 of other denomina1.
2.
3.
See Hollis "Recent Trends in Financing Higher Education". Pp. 17 6
Table number XE. (Page 170)
Taken from "College Income and Expenditures, 1937-38. Sampling
Report, Circular 175, Office of Education,Washington, D.C.
170
TABLE NO. XI.
Higher Educational Institutions Established by 1860 and 1890
Methodist
Baptist
Presbyterian
Roman Catholic
Congregational
Episcopal
Luthoran
Disciples
Reformed (German)
Reformed (Dutch)
Frionds
Univerealist
Unitarian
Unitod Brethren
Christian
Roformed
Evangolical Association
Gorman Evangelist
Seventh Day Adventists
Swedonborgian
State
Semi-State
Municipal
Nonseotarian
Total
FROMt
1860
1890
34
25
49
14
21
11
6
6
4
1
2
4
2
1
1
74
44
49
51
22
6
19
20
••
6
2
1
1
1
30
mm
—
—
21
3
3
■■
—
6
4
mtm
10
—
—
mm
mm
69
207
415
Privately controlled Higher Education in the United
States. Fred J. Kelly and Ella B. Ratoliffe, Office
of Education Bulletin 1934, No. 12, Pp. 23.
171
tional schools*
Average Receipts in 1937-38
$196,857
Average Expenditures 1937-38 $188,417
Within this group, similarly arranged, for the Evangelical
and Reformed Church, we find:
Average Reoeipts in 1937-38
$261,415
Average Expenditures 1937-38 $239,074
College salaries, shown on Table XII* compare favorably with
those of colleges of similar size*
In the comparison of costs of going to college, ..he
typical cost is given for 359 Liberal Arts Colleges^ as $630
per year.
In the Evangelical and Reformed group, the average
estimated cost is $546.
In Protestant denominations, this minimum cost, by type
of school, averaged: Men’s $605; "Women’s $651; Coeducational
$590.
Within the group of Evangelical-Reformed the expenses
averaged: Men’s $729; Women’s $750; Coeducational $546.
The ratio of faculty oo students in the other denomina­
tionally controlled institutions is: Men's 1 to 12; women’s
1 to 11; and coeducational 1 to 13.
In the Evangelical and
Reformed Colleges the ratio is: men’s 1 to 18; women’s 1 to
9; coeducational 1 to 12.
Again, within the entire area of denominational colleges,
the cost of fraternities may be considered an element of some
importance.
1.
*
It is estimated that if he expects to belong to
Walter J. Greenleaf, Pamphlet 52, Office of Education,
Washington, D.C., 1934.
Following Table.
172
TABLE NO. XII.
Comparison of Salary Soalos
1935-36
38 privately oontrollod colleges
for TVomon with one
million dollars or
moro in plant and
equipment.
Median Salaries!
Cedar Croat
Eood College
Associate Assistant Instructors
Professors Professors Professors
9 months
9 months
9 months
9 months
$3150
2925
3325
$3026
2627
2725
$2512
2250
2100
$1786
1675
1476
16 privatoly con­
trolled colleges
for non with 1.5
million or more in
plant & equipment.
Median Salaries!
Franklin & Marshall
3583
4450
3000
3250
2688
2750
2052
1950
16 Coed Colleges, 3
to 8 million: 76
small colleges of
$600,000 or less.
Median Salaries!
Catawba
Heidelberg
Ursinus
Elmhurst
2812
3000
2100
3300
3200
2322
2450
1950
2650
2800
2024
2100
1850
2360
2600
1413
1650
1475
2100
1860
LEGEND:
1.
Comparative salaries in m en ’s, women’s, and t*oeducation colleges.*
W.J. Greenleaf, Office of Eduoation.
Bulletin No. 9, 1957.
175
a fraternity, the student should add from one hundred dollars
to one hundred and sixty dollars to his budget for the Fresh­
man year.1
While the foregoing comparison between the seven colleges
of the Evangelical and Reformed denomination and colleges of
similar size and attainment in other denominations show a
reasonably satisfactory achievement on the part of the colleges
under investigation, there remains to be considered the most
significant comparison between them.
The one great omission on the part oi3 this denomination
in its educational policy, through the years, has been a lack
of unity of purpose.
It is obvious from what has been said
heretofore, that there has never been a common bond.
The de­
nomination has fostered the schools through local synodical
or classical bodies, but until the recent constitution was
adopted there has been no location of educational interest
in the General Synod, in a general Board.
With the new constitution, which provides for a Commis­
sion of Higher Education, It appears that this omission should
be supplied.
If the group of colleges were able, independently,
to achieve their present stature, reason would argue that
unitedly they ought to achieve even greater things.
Because of the ground work which must be done in this
respect, we consider at some length the steps by which other
denomination? have aohieved a system of educational coordination
1.
3P. J, Kelley and Ella Ratcliffe, Privately Controlled Higher
Education, 1934, Bulletin 12, Office of Education, Department
of Interior, Washington, D.C.
174
by means of a Board or Foundation or Commission, seeking In
our study to reveal a course of procedure by way of recommenda­
tion to the church.
Significant problems appear early in the other denomina­
tions.
For example:
"Protestant church bodies needed some sort of central
authority to coordinate their educational efforts and to ex­
ercise direction over the institutions established under
their auspices. An especial need for an organization of
this kind arose in some denominations from the necessity of
giving financial support to their institutions, particularly
the newer ones in the West, if they were to continue."1
In 1843 a joint board was formed by the Congregational
and Presbyterian Churches.
In 1921, the National Council of
the Congregational Church created an agency known as the Con­
gregational Foundation for Education.
The Disciples of Christ
accomplished an organization after difficulty with the local
attitude against centralized control.
The board was formed
around this significant pronouncement in Article X of the
By-laws.2
"Nothing in the articles of incorporation or these by-laws
shall in any way be construed as interfering with or violating
the complete autonomy of any cooperating educational institu­
tion in the free and unhindered management of its ovm affairs
by its own board of trustees."
The Northern Baptist Convention Board was established
in 1912.
The Presbyterian Board of Education became the Board
of Christian Education in 1922 and assumed general supervision.
1.
2.
F. J. Kelly and Ella Ratcliffe, Privately Controlled Higher
Eduoation, 1934 Bulletin 12, Office of Education, Department
of Interior, Washington, D.C.
Ibid.
175
The Church had stated its own position in 1906, by action of
the General Assembly, ”It is called upon to support its colleges,
to develop them, to give them means of real growth and to put
before them the highest educational opportunity.”
Board has existed for some years.
The Lutheran
Reoently the Methodist
i
;Episcopal;Church approved a committee report, setting up a
Board of Education to oversee the institutions of the new
United Church.^
There are many other boards in the denomination.
This may suffice to introduce the fact that these seven
colleges have been doing satisfactory work, disunited as they
were. With a strong commission established, favorable results
would seem likely, even though the amount of supervision were
limited to an advisory relation.
Within the General Synod the
advisory voice should be heard, and denominational recognition
of an excellent system of colleges would naturally follow.*
This is undoubtedly the purpose behind the Commission
on Higher Education as it was created by constitutional
ratification.
There are definite benefits which may accrue
in the administrative, educational, financial, and spiritual
realm.
These benefits accruing to the denominational area,
should bring these colleges to their rightful place among
the larger privately supported educational institutions.
So far we have spoken of unity within the individual
denomination.
The general view would lead to the inter-denomi­
national and national aspects of privately supported liberal
1.
*
Educational Notes, School and Society, May 12, 1939, Pp.605.
See ”Re commendations” in Chapter VI, Pp. 183.
176
education.
"It would be erroneous to conclude that, more than
other social agencies, private colleges and universities are
geared to the capitalistic system and must be concerned to see
that it is preserved and kept working orderly.
All social
institutions and individuals are tied together tfm the same
bundle of life.
None of them can long defy the trends of
business life.
Tax-supported institutions only seem more
removed; they feel the pinch of depression less immediately
but none the less surely, and they recover from the downward
trend ever so much more slowly and uncertainly."3The sum of social effort is represented here, not within
seven colleges, but within the greatest group of colleges in
the United States, namely, the denominational and the private
colleges.
What is true of some is true of all.
A better
society is oreated if all free colleges work toward higher
standards within the limits of social betterment.
"The sum of social effort may be happy, commonplace, or
tragic in any plaoe or time but, with widening knowledge and
experience, man is driven to every fresh attempt to make new
disooveries in the hope that they will light the way forward."**
When the public oil burns low, may the lamp of private educa­
tion still light the way.
1.
2.
E. V. HOllis, "Recent Trends in Finanoing Higher Education,
The Phi Delta Kappan, April 1939, Pp. 391.
Isaiah Bowman, The Graduate School in American Demo eraoy,
Office of Education, Bulletin No. 10, 1959, Washington, D.C.
CHAPTER VI
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Findings and Interpretations
With a common background of religious and intellectual
sincerity, the seven colleges herein studied grew in differ­
ing times and places under varied conditions and various
influences.
The civil control was established at different times
and in different states, so that guidanoe, or absence of
guidance influenced the form which each college assumed.
Local bodies, whether church, community, or sponsoring group,
put their stamp on the institution, and as a result the insti­
tutions differ widely in their character.
Again, the period
in which they grew had something to do with the moulding of
the type of college which emerged in each case.
This is by way of saying that the schools grew by tra­
dition and local circumstance, but with one common ideal be­
fore them, the ideal of religious and intellectual integrity.
This integrity allowed the colleges, within limits, to
develop by natural growth and selective processes, whioh, in
turn, firmly established them on tradition.
In natural con­
sequence the future program will of neoessity recognize these
traditions and trends of development and will approach them
with evidences of respeot or it will not enlist the interests
178
of the whole group.
The redeeming feature, as revealed by the study, is that
these groups are progressive, intelligent, and energetic.
They
see clearly that measures of adjustment are desirable when
tried and proved.
The idea of outting loose from the mooring
does not and will not appeal to them unless they are sure
that the vessel is seaworthy and the power to control is
available.
This is equivalent to saying, by way of another
figure, that they will advance but they will not be stampeded.
This is not only true in terms of program; it is equally true
in finance, both in acquisitive and expending senses.
The
whole range of organization, administration, and financing
shows frugality and liberality in a nice balance.
The status
of these institutions does not suffer when they are placed
in fair comparison with the colleges of other denominations.
The denominational vinification of the colleges will re­
quire careful procedure, with extreme caution, where the auto­
nomy of each is ooncerned.
It seems the part of wisdom to
approach the Commission on Higher Education with deliberate
clarity of purpose.
Several question^ invite disoussion:
(a) whether the personnel of the commission should not in­
clude lay members as well as ministers;1
(b) what the scope
of action will become as time lessens the initial enthusiasm;
(c) what relationship will develop between the program of the
educational institutions, as such, and the looal sponsors of
1.
See Recommendation number 8 hereafter,(pp. 184).
179
Christian Education in the whole denomination.
These are
vital questions.
There appears to be a field in which little has been
attempted but much might be done, the creation of inter­
college activities and academic amenities.
For example, the
adjusting of credit exchange, the inter-college interest of
faculties and personnel, have hardly been touched.
What the
procedure will be is not known; what it might easily be is
not hard to conjecture.
One pleasant revelation to the in­
vestigator was the generous reception he found awaiting him
when he had arranged for a conference.
It caused one to
ponder why there were not more cordial visits among the
faculty members of the several church colleges.
The reason for this aloofness may be found in the origin
of the colleges.
They were developed not as schools of the
church, but as denominational colleges at this or that place.
They were sponsored within a Synod or a smaller subdivision
called the Classis, and belonged to that area as a matter of
traditional thought, or they were independent colleges under
a legal charter, although considered by the Classis or Synod
or General Synod as of the Reformed faith.
Some were little
universities in their organization, although small colleges
in fact.
This leads to the surmise that gradually the question of
closer church relations will lead to the larger question of
180
college support.1
This may be desirable or not - time alone
will tell.
There is possibly one safe element of conjecture.
The
local areas are very definitely opposed to any infringement
of local autonomy, in church or in college.*
There is no
group which would attempt to force centralization upon them.
There may well be a gradual self-helpfulness developed in
the Commission which will in fact create unity.
The investi­
gator believes that he sees this probability, which might
possibly be enhanced if able laymen were included in the
personnel of the Commission.
The church has been entertaining a multiplicity of pro­
blems: the merger of the Reformed with the Evangelical group creating the new church; the depression as it struck the fin­
ancial groups within its local divisions; the problem of
finance and the question of social action (so called), all of
which are acute in these days.
With the same fortitude which animated the founders,
the church will solve all these problems.
It may be that
the larger task will fall on the colleges. If unanimity of
purpose is possible, then it may be that a great part of the
denominational spirit can be evinced, not in social action
but in the deeper, more profound endeavor of Christian edu­
cation in well founded, well financed, and spiritually ani­
mated denominational colleges.
1.
*
Note: The Commission
overtures from
strengthen the
This is in the mores
itself argues this. Acceptance of
individual colleges for support
contention.
or tradition.
181
Conclusions
The investigation led to the following conclusions:
That each college is reasonably sound in organization, ad­
ministration, and finance.
There is room for advance in
some respects by creation of constitutions and by-laws.
That the colleges might improve their organizations and
inter-college relations by creating a committee for codifying
the minutes of the boards, facilities and student organizations.
That the Commission on Higher Education is, in the in­
vestigator’s opinion, a desirable addition to the life of the
colleges within their own autonomy and the Constitution of
the Evangelical and Reformed Church.
That the financial aid, where needed, ought to flow from
local or general sources, in each case, in proportion as that
college’s autonomy will allow the use of local or general
funds .*
That within the sphere of possibility, amicable pro­
vision should be made for approaching the General Church for
funds, on an equitable scale.
That the best interest of all might be served if Elmhurst
were permitted to seek a separate charter in the State of
Illinois.
That the most valuable asset is the intangible loyalty,
visible in the board membership and in all phases of the life
of the colleges, which flows from the faithful constituency.
*
This is the question of College autonomy and general
church aid; the granting of funds and general control.
See pp. 167-168.
182
That the relations of faculty to faculty within the
colleges might be more cordial, and an exchange of interests
would promote unity of purpose and good fellowship.
That the best evidence of progress is found in the
almost unanimous decision among the colleges to stay within
the present enrollment limits and to perfect the qualitative
program of education.
That accreditation is a vital factor to some of the
colleges, and might be of value to others.
That the wise control of honorary degrees is of vital
importance.
With the advent of the united church as the Evangelical
and Reformed Church, the bureaus and commissions will need
to recognize the new relationship to the church created in
the colleges.
Re commendations
Clarifying of charter provisions in the light of the
denominational constitution.
Harmonizing of Boards and Commissions in terms of de­
legated authority in the Church at large.
Recognition of institutions in the light of a unified
church policy.
Alignment of educational institutions with the tradition­
al policy by way of
a. Boards of Control (Study projects in codifying
minutes of the Board).
b. Faculties (Developing a code of ordinance by self­
survey and study of Faculty Minuted.)
c. Delegation of Faculty procedure by by-laws authori­
zed by the Board of Trustees.
Close study by individual colleges of college policy
(i.e. salary scale, tenure, retirement, teaching load
and appointment) as denominational policy clarifies.
Interchange of amenities between faculties of the several
colleges in terms of advancing conscious educational
ideals.
Careful scrutiny of faculty recruits in terms of Christian
character without drawing denominational lines too
loosely or too severely.
184
8.
Judicious discrimination in the general fields of activity
seeking to distinguish and utilize the various abilities
as found in the ministry, laity and professional ranks.*
9.
The question of finance is definitely tied up with the
excellence of educational personnel.
Emphasis could well
be placed on superior faculty, higher accreditation and
intensive application to a judiciously limited student
body.
10.
Character building is a vital contribution of the denomi­
national arts colleges.
Where character is considered an
asset, there the graduate will be needed. - whether in
Church, School, Profession or State.
11.
Variety in national educational offerings, makes a case
for the denominational college.
As Emerson says of the
philosopher, "If Spinoza cannot, then perhaps Bant."1
12.
A question emerges from the study.
Namely, is it more
desirable, nationally, to have public funds voted to the
amount of 72.9# of the total receipts, to maintain a
Government, State or City institution, or to have indivi­
dual students who freely choose their college and contribute
(by way of student fees) 54.2# of receipts to maintain a
private institution?
Nominal State Supervision being
conceded?**
1.
*
**
R. W. Emerson. Essay on Intellect.
See pp. 129 and footnote.
See Table VIII, pp. 124.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
186
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McConaughy, James L., "The Chicago Meeting of the Association
of American Colleges; Address of the President",
School and Society, 47: 129-133, Jan. 29, 1938.
* Mercersburg Quarterly Review, 1856, The Dedication of Frank­
lin and Marshall College. 1856,pp. 466-466.
* Morrison, Henry C., The Management of the School Money, Chi­
cago; University of Chicago Press, 1966, pp. fes2.
Murphy, Ray D., "Sale of Annuities by Governments", The Asso­
ciation of the Insurance Presidents, New York, 1939.
Omwake, Howard R., "The History, Achievements and Purposes
of the Association of Schools, Colleges and Seminaries
of the Evangelical and Reformed Church". Read to the
initial session of the Commission on Higher Eduoation
of the Evangelical and Reformed Church, Pittsburgh,
Pa., April 18, 1939.
192
* Patterson, Homer L., American Educational Directory, Chicago
American Educational Company, 1938. pp. 1056.
Payne, E. George, "Personal versus Social Control", the
Journal of Educational Sociology. 13: 132-139.
NovemberT939 , TTTSTiTT
Reeves, Floyd W., Report of the Advisory Committee on
Education, *Pne U.S. Department of the Interior,
Office of Education, Washington; U.S. Government
Printing Office, 1938, pp. 243.
Reeves, F. \V«, Peik, W. E., Russel, J. D., Instructional
Problems in the University. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press, 1933, pp.245.
Schaeffer, J. A., "Government Activities in the Field of
Higher Education", Conference of Trustees of Col­
leges and Universities, New York; Consolidated
Printing Co., 1938.
* Schaeffer, J. A., "Critical Situation Facing Our Church
Colleges", Delivered before the Commission on Higher
Education of the Evangelical and Reformed Church,
Pittsburgh, Pa., April 18, 1939.
Seaton, J. L., "Report of the President of the Association
of American Colleges", Bulletin of the Association
of American Colleges. 25: 88-98,“March 1939.
Seaton, J. L., "The Obligations of the Church Related College
to the Past," Bulletin of the Association of Ameri­
can Colleges. 24: 423-4357 December 1938.
Spencer, H. L., "The State and Education", Journal of Educa­
tional Sociology. 12: 214-225, December 1938.
State Council of Education, Harrisburg, Pa., "Report of
Degree Granting Institutions" to Department of
Public Instruction, 1938.
Stoddard, Alexander, "Presentation of the American Educa­
tion Award to Dr. Payson Smith", School and Society.
49: 261-265, M&rch 4, 1939.
Stone, Natalia S., "The College Girl and the Depression",
The Stournal of Educational Sociology, 336-351,
FeWaryTWffT---------------------
Strang, Ruth, Behavior and Backgrounds of Students in Colleges
and Secondary Schools, New York fTSarper's. 1557. pp. 5l5.
Strang, Ruth, Counselling Techniques in Colleges and Seoondary
Schools'! New York; Harper *s 1957, pp. 139.
193
Strang, Ruth, Personal Development and Guidanoe in College
and Secondary Schools. New YorE? jHart>erfs. 1934, pp. 341.
* Studebaker, J. W.1
, Biennial Survey of Education. Bulletin.
No. 2 . U.S. Department of the Interior, Office of
Education, Washington; The U.S. Government Printing
Office, 1937.
Studebaker, J. W., Survey of the Education of Teachers.
Bulletin 1933. NoT T$, TJ.S. Department of the In­
terior, Office of feducation, Washington: The U.S.
Government Printing Office, 1935.
* Studebaker, J. W., Biennial Survey of Education. Bulletin
1933, No. 2, fhe tJnited States department of the
Interior, Office of Education, Washington: The U.S.
Government Printing Office, 1935.
Studebaker, J. W. Educational Directory. 1938. Bulletin
1938, No. 1; The tf.S. Department of the Interior,
Office of Education, Washington, The U.S. Government
Printing Office, 1938.
* Studebaker, J.W., College Income and Expenditures. 1957-38.
Preliminary Sampling deport, Circular 175, Th eU. S.
Department of the Interior, Office of Education,
Washington: The U.S. Government Printing Office, 1940.
Tead, Orway, "Charter for a College", Bulletin of the Asso­
ciation of American Colleges. 25: 39^-40Tj Nov. 1939.
Walters, Raymond, "Statistics of Registration in American
Colleges and Universities, 1939", School and Society.
50: 769-788, December 16, 1939.
Wiley, George M., "Whither Democracy*s Schools", School and
Society. 49: 717-724, June 10, 1939.
Wilkins, Ernest H., "Proposals for Educational Change",
School and Society. 49: 357-364, March 25, 1939.
Works, George A., "A Statement of Policy Relative to the
Accrediting of Institutions of Higher Learning",
Accredited Higher Institutions. Bulletin 1934, No. 16,
The U.S. Department of the Interior, Office of Edu­
cation, Washington: The U.S. Government Printing
Office, 1934.
Wriston, Henry M., "Report of Commission on Academic Free­
dom and Academic Tenure", Bulletin of the Association
of Amerloan Colleges. 24: 1CW-110, March 1§38.
Yearbook and Almanac of the Evangelical and Reformed Church
1940, Board of Christian Education, Philadelphia, Pa.
194
LIST OF SURVEYS:
Survey of Colleges (Auxiliary)
a. For permission to study colleges (Letter)
b. For Data: Questionnaire (To Presidents)
c. Personal visits to the Plant and Conference
d. Study of the Plant by Escort
Survey of statistical Sources, Charts, Drawings, Tables
a. Representation of Trends by Graphs
b. Tables (Statistical)
Survey of Literature of Colleges: Criteria
a. Books, magazines, bulletins, periodicals
b. Evaluation of Surveys
c. The Courts, Civil Control: Canon Law
d. Charters, Constitutions, By-laws
Survey of Surveys
a. History of Surveys
b . Study of Surveys
Surveys
Heston, F.M., Survey of College Surveys
Kelly, R.L., The Arts College
Palmer, A., "Smaller College" Bulletin of Association of
American Colleges
Reeves and Russel, Liberal Arts College
Monroe, W.S., "Survey Types of Investigation" School and Society.
Denominational Surveys
Brown, B. Warren
Presbyterian (152)*
Reeves, F . W .,
Disciples (153)
King, Henry C.
Congregational (150)
Leonard, R. J.
United Lutheran (154)
Kelly, R. L.
Friends (158)
Noffsinger, John F.
Brethren (151)
Reeves, F. W.
Methodist Episcopal (157)
Robinson, Mabel L.
Women*s Colleges (178)
*
Numbers indicate listing of surveys in Eells* Surveys of
American Higher Education.
APPENDIX
LIST OF DOCUMENTS
Page
Appendix A.
Letter of Request (to Presidents)
196
Appendix B
Personal Request for Data
197
Appendix C
Data-Conferenoe Sheet
198
Appendix D
Abbreviated Questionnaire
200
Appendix E
Responsibility of Boards
201
Appendix F
Tendencies in College Administration
203
Appendix G
Charter and By-laws, Heidelberg
205
Appendix H
Act of Incorporation, Ursinus
207
b. Constitution
209
c . Laws
210
Appendix I
Student Government, Hood
213
Appendix J
Amendment to Charter, Cedar Crest
217
Appendix K
Amendment to Charter, Franklin and Marshall
219
Appendix L
Act of Incorporation, Elmhurst
222
Appendix M
Constitution and By-laws of the Evangelical
and Reformed Church.
Appendix N
Certificate of Incorporation of the
Evangelical and Reformed Church.
224
226
196
Appendix A
LETTER OF REQUEST TO PRESIDENTS
Allentown, Pennsylvania
June 20, 1938
The Rev. E. W. Kriebel
Cedar Crest College
Allentown, Pennsylvania
My dear Mr. Kriebel:
As you know, my years of effort in education have led
me up to the preparation of a document in partial fulfill­
ment of the requirements for the Ed.D. Degree.
My sponsoring committee has now advised that I begin
gathering data. The topic chosen for development is as
follows: n Critical Study of the Organization, Administra­
tion and Financing of the Arts Colleges of the Evangelical
and Reformed Denomination.” In order that I may proceed,
it is obvious that I must have the consent of the colleges
and the willingness of the Presidents to make available
information on the above subject.
To this end, in view of the approaching meeting of the
Presidents in Columbus, Ohio, I am asking that you read this
communication and so far as possible acquaint them with my
background both educationally and personally so that they
may better respond to my personal communication at a later
date.
It is my opinion that the study will be mutually de­
sirable. It must be frankly arrived at, impartially weighed
and independently conducted. It will not be made public cut
will, when completed, constitute my document for the doctor­
ate degree.
To obtain the necessary material, I propose to submit a
questionnaire concerned primarily with the Mspiritw which
animates the administration in meeting its several problems.
General financial statements will be necessary over several
years and catalogues and supplementary material ought to be
obtainable on a personal visit to the school.
I realize the confidence which needs to be present if
the full value of the study is to accrue. For this reason
I approach the Presidents as a group and as individuals.
With kind regards, I am,
Cordially yours,
197
Appendix B
COPY OF PERSONAL REQUEST FOR DATA
Ootober 10, 1939
The Office of the President.
My dear President —
:
In keeping with my request and the willingness you
expressed to Rev. Kriebel at Columbus, I am enclosing a
list of the data I will need to develop my topic ”A Cri­
tical Study of the Organization, Administration and Finan­
cing of the Arts Colleges of the Evangelical and Reformed
Denomination."
To *try out* my basic request I have visited three of
the eastern colleges and have gone over the list with
Presidents McClure, Schaeffer and Stahr. Their willingness
to supply substantially all the items by bulletins, reports,
catalogues, etc. encourages me to send the same list to
you rather than to visit you at this time when you are be­
ginning the school year, since you may not have the last
yearfs annual report as yet. My plan is to prepare, mean­
time, criteria for judging the material; and I shall not
attempt an evaluation of any until I have most, or preferably
all of it at hand. Obviously the information is confidential
and will be so treated.
In addition to this factual data I shall ask your in­
dulgence in answering a questionnaire which I shall finally
prepare when I have studied the data. My regular work and
this task leave little time at my disposal, but I shall
visit your plant this winter or spring. May I ask that
you respond at your earliest convenience as fully as your
documentary sources will allow; on my part I shall bend
every effort to make the study a thorough-going piece of
work of signal value to the denomination as well as to the
field of education.
Very truly yours,
Cedar Crest College
Allentown, Pennsylvania
198
Appendix C
DATA-CONFERENCE SHEET
NOTE: The following topics indicate particular and general
material* Where a particular document is not indicated a
general suggestion of the field of interest is made.
ORGANIZATION:
Status before the State - Charter (copy)
Status in Denomination - a. General Synod
b. Educational Commission
c. District Synod
Board of Trustees - election, personnel, term, etc.
Constitution and By-laws - (copy)
Historical background (basic facts)
Ordinances - (copy) or access to minutes of the Board.
Rules and regulations - (copy) or access to minutes
of faculty.
Catalogue of College (copy)
Bulletins for 1937.
Publicity.
Prizes, scholarships, fellowships - instructions for
distribution.
Air view of plant.
Student hand-book 1937.
ADMINISTRATION:
Plant - dormitories, campus, farm, etc. - administration.
Salary scale of faculty.
Retirement set up.
Administrative chart showing departmental set up.
Budgetary set up.
199
Faculty - teaching load; seniority; tenure; freedom.
Students - enrollment; mortality; survival.
Student social background; self help, etc.
Fraternities, sororities, honor societies (control)
Alumni relations - In Board; In administration;
In Finance.
Annual report of President - Dean - Registrar - Treasurer.
FINANCING:
Finanoial reports for 1935, 1936, 1937; Unit costs total costs.
Complete distribution of treasurers report for 1937-38.
List of investments of endowment.
General resources.
Any data throwing light on the individuality of your
college.
200
Appendix D
ABBREVIATED QUESTIONNAIRE
393,6_Hamilton Street
Allentown, Pennsylvania
March 3, 1939
My dear Mr. President:
Tour letter drives straight to the mark.
In com­
parison my questionnaire was of necessity designed to
elicit information from differing types of personalities.
Will you then, in the spirit of direct response, give me
the answers to the four following questions which summarize
the whole questionnaire but which are direct and unvarnished.
I.
Do you maintain a realistic, parliamentary form
of organization, based on distinct delegation of
functions and direct responsibility to the
trustees?
Yes.
II.
Does your administrative policy recognize reason­
able obligations as well as prerogatives? (In the
light of items in Section II of the Questionnaire).
Yes.
III.
Do you adhere strictly to budgetary control, in­
violate endowment practices and C.P.A. audit of
accounts as well as a business basis for all
scholarships and loans? Decidedly so.
IV.
In terms of policy: Do you anticipate oloser denominationallsm, admission of both sexes or a
wider field of endeavor in any direction? What
do you envision as your future trend in Liberal
Education?
I enclose the questionnaire so that the implications
may be clear.
A brief statement on each of the above will
serve my need.
Of course I apologize for the inconvenience, but as the
"candidate" I like your direct method. May I bother you this once?
Cordially,
201
Appendix £
RESPONSIBILITIES OF BOARDS
President Elliot, of Purdue University, has attempted
to formulate a summary of the responsibilities of boards
which are not adequately described, he says, by "the bare
phraseology of charter and statutes".
With full recognition of their limitations, and in
the interests of a concrete brevity, the following list of
inescapable obligations of the competent board of control
is presented:
1.
The selection of the president and, upon his recom­
mendation, the other principal executive officers of the
institution.
2.
The firm guidance and sympathetic support of the
president and executive officers in all institutional matters.
2.
The devising of ways and means for raising adequate
funds with which to provide and to secure a well-balanoed
support for the educational and scientific program of the
institution.
4.
The preparation of a comprehensive plan for the
future physical development of the institution, and the
utilization of only a proper proportion of the resources of
the institution for such development.
5.
The requirement of regular, concise, and intelligent
financial and educational reports from officers and depart­
ments, which will enable a ready understanding of the results
of the operation of the institution.
/
202
6.
The service of the individual members as agents for
effective contact with the public and consequently a better
understanding and sounder confidence in the work of the
institution.
7.
The understanding of the educational aims and goals
of the institution as formulated by the faculty.
8.
The approving of an annual budget which protects
the institution from debilitating deficits.
The budget should
represent that business acumen and foresight which are among
the principal constructive contributions of the board of
control.
9.
The formulation, in clear terms, of the fundamental
duties of the faculty, and the recognition of the right and
the responsibility of the faculty to organize itself got the
proper performance of the designated duties.
10.
The creation of proper mechanisms whereby the board
may be brought into cooperative relations with the faculty
and the organized student body.1
1.
*
E.C. Elliot, "The Board of Control" in Higher Education
in America" (Kent), Ginn 5c Co., Boston, 1930, pp. 619-621.*
Quoted from Hill, Kelly, Savage, "Economy in Higher Educa­
tion", Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teach­
ing, New York, 1933, pp. 6-7.
203
Appendix F
TENDENCIES IN COLLEGE ADMINISTRATION
by
Robert Linbpln Kelly
Definition of a College of Liberal Arts and Suggested Stan­
dards for Classifying such Institutions.1
(Authorized by the American Council on Education)
II.
SPHERES OF AUTHORITY
(From Transactions and Proceedings Vol. XXII, National Asso­
ciation of State Universities, November, 1924).2
It may be helpful to attempt to define the generally
accepted sj?heres of authority.
While all authority lies
finally in the trustees, practice and policy usually have
distributed the initiative and deoision as follows:
TRUSTEES:
1.
Select president.
2.
Select secretary to board, comptroller, or respon­
sible financial exe cutive.
3.
Make official appointments of all members of staff.
4.
Maintain harmony and cooperation in university.
5.
Present financial needs to Legislature.
6.
Determine educational aims, initiate and authorize
new schools, colleges and departments.
7.
Vote degrees on recommendation of faculties.
8.
Final authority for landscape plans, building plans,
buildings, operation of plant.
9.
1.
2.
Vote budget.
Robert L. Kelly "Tendencies in College Administration"
Appendix. The Science Press, Lancaster, Pa., 1925, pp. 262.
Ibid.
204
TRUSTEES THROUGH SECRETARY
1.
Collect all money due the university.
2.
Responsibility for det-alled care of Income and ex­
penditures under budget.
3.
Responsibility for details of all building operations.
4.
Housing and boarding students.
5.
Care, operation and maintenance of buildings and plant.
6.
Care of trust funds.
7.
Nominate appointees to all positions in business and
operating departments.
PRESIDENT
1.
Present budget to trustees.
2.
Large responsibility for securing support.
3.
Responsible to trustees for seeing that all depart­
ments are manned and operating effectively.
4.
The official representative <3f the university to
the public.
5.
The official representative of the university to
the students.
6.
Chairman of the general faculty.
7.
Recommend faculty appointments and promotions to
trustees.
FACULTY
1.
Teach.
2.
Fix requirements for degrees.
3.
Nominate candidates for degrees.
4.
Determine courses offered by departments.
5.
Control research.
6.
Responsible for discipline
205
Appendix G
CHARTER AND BY-LAWS
of
HEIDELBERG COLLEGE', TUFIN, OHIO - 1933
ARTICLE IV - President and Faoulty
Section I
President.
(a} The President of the College shall he elected by
the Board of Trustees and shall hold his office until he
resigns, or is removed by the Board. He is the Chief Execu­
tive officer of the College and, with the Faculty, is respon­
sible for the government and administration of the institution.
He shall discharge all the duties and be entitled to all the
rights which usually pertain to his office.
(b) The President shall recommend to the Board, through
the Committee on Professors and Teachers, all promotions and
appointments on the teaching staff. He shall preside at the
meetings of the Faculty and shall be the official medium of
communication between the Faculty and the Board of Trustees.
(c) The President shall present an annual report to the
Board of Trustees at the June meeting, reviewing the work of
the year, setting forth the conditions and needs of the College,
and proposing such measures as he shall deem necessary and
practicable•
Section II.
The Faculty.
(a) The Faculty shall consist of the President, the
Deans, and all members of the teaching staff, classified as
follows: Professor, Associate professor, assistant professor,
instructor.
(b) The Faculty shall meet monthly during the College
year and shall appoint such officers and committees, and
adopt such rules of procedure as may seem necessary in the
promotion of the work of education.
(o) The Faculty, subject to the approval of the Board,
shall prescribe the oourses of study, the requirements for
admission, the conditions of graduation, the rules and methods
for the faithful conduct of the work, and through the Dean
of the College, shall recommend for degrees those students
who .have sAtisfactor£ly completed the prescribed course of
study and have made full payment of all fees and other college
bills.
(d) Professors shall not hold their positions as a life
tenure. The Board reserves to itself the right to demand the
806
resignation of any teacher or officer, or to declare the position
vaoant, whenever, in its judgment, the interests of the College
may require such a course of action*
(e)
No teacher shall, without the express permission
of the Board of Trustees, engage in any pursuit or occupation,
with or without compensation, which shall in their judgment
interfere with the faithful discharge of his duties as an
instructor•
Section III*
Discipline.
In all matters relating to the government and discipline
of students, the President and the Faculty are responsible. It
is their joint duty to investigate all cases of misconduct,
all violations of rules, and to administer without fear or
favor, such discipline as the circumstances require.
207
Appendix H
AN ACT
TO INCORPORATE URSINUS COLIEGE
Seotion 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of
Representatives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in General
Assembly met, and it is hereby enacted by the authority of
the same, that there shall be and hereby is erectdd, estab­
lished and incorporated in Upper Providence Township, in the
County of Montgomery, in this Commonwealth, an institution
of learning, for the purpese of imparting instruction in
science, literature, the liberal arts and learned professions,
by the name, style, and title of Ursinus College.
Section 2. Said college shall beunder the care and
management of a Board of Directors not exceeding twenty-one
in number, who, with their successors in office, shall be
and are hereby deolared to be one body politic and corporate
in deed and in law, to be known by the name, style and title
of Ursinus College, and by the same shall have perpetual
succession, and shall be able to sue and be sued, plead and
be impleaded in all courts of law and equity, and shall be
capable in law and equity to take, hold and purchase for the
use and benefit of said college any estate in any messuages,
lands, tenements, goods, chattels, moneys and other effects
of any kind whatever, by gift, grant, bargain, sale, conveyance
assurance, will devise or bequest from any person or persons,
body politic or corporate, either municipal, or otherwise
whatsoever capable of lawfully making the same, and the same
from time to time to grant, bargain, sell, convey, mortgage,
farm, let, place out on interest, or otherwise dispose of
for the use and benefit of said college; Provided, however,
That no bequest or donation made to and accepted by said
Board for specific educational objects shall ever be diverted
from the purposes designated in the conditions of such gift
and acceptance.
Section 3. That the Board of Directors shall have power
to establish from time to time in said college such depart­
ments of study and instruction as they may deem expedient,
and to provide libraries, apparatus, cabinets, endowments
and all other needful aids for imparting full and thorough
courses of instruction therein. They may appoint a faculty
or faculties, professors, lecturers and teachers, prescribe
their pespeotive duties, fix their compensation, and remove
them or any of them as, from time to time, the interests of
the college may require; they shall have power to purchase
or erect buildings for the accommodation of students, profess­
ors and officers, and for other needful purposes; to establish
rules and regulations for the government of students and
officers, and to do all and singular such other things and
matters as may be requisite for the well ordering and proper
management of the affairs of said college.
Section 4. That the said Board of Directors shall at
208
first consist of the persons herein named, ********* who, or
any nine of them, on the passage of this act, or at any time
within three months thereafter, may meet and organize by elect­
ing a president and secretary, and accepting this act, the
evidence of which shall be the duly authenticated record of
such meeting and action.
Section 5. That the Board of Directors shall have power
to fill all vacancies in their own body, to expel any member
thereof who shall be guilty of infamous conduct, and to de­
clare vacant the seat of any member who shall have, for three
consecutive years, failed to attend the stated meetings of the
Board, to appoint, from time to time, such additional officers
and agents of their own body as may be deemed requisite, in­
cluding a treasurer, who shall always give ample security for
the funds entrusted to his keeping; to adopt a common and cor­
porate seal, by and with which all deeds, certificates, appoint­
ments and acts of said Board, signed by their president, and attest­
ed by the secretary, shall pass and be authenticated, and the
same seal at their pleasure to break, alter or renew.
Section 6. That the said Board of Directors at any
meeting subsequent to their organization called for the purpose,
and of which due notice shall have been given to each member,
may adopt and establish a Constitution and By-laws for the govern­
ment of their own body, not inconsistent with this act, the laws
of the state or the laws of the United States; which Constitution
and By-laws shall not thefeafter be altered, amended or repealed
except in the manner therein provided.
Section 7. That the faculty of any organized department
in the college may, with the advice and consent of the Board of
Directors, and under such regulations as they may prescribe,
confer the degfees, honors and dignities usually conferred by
similar departments in the colleges and universities of this
Commonwealth.
Section 8. That no misnomer of this corporation shall
defeat or annul any gift, grant, devise or bequest to or from
the said corporation; Provided. That the inrent of the parties
shall sufficiently appear upon the part of the gift, grant,
will or other writing whereby such state or interest was in­
tended to pass to or from said corporation.
JOHN CLARK
Speaker of the House of Representatives.
WILMER WORTHINGTON
Speaker of the Senate.
Approved. The 5th day of February, A.D., one thousand eight
hundred and sixty-nine.
JOHN W. GEARY
209
Appendix H (b)
CONSTITUTION OF URSINUS COLLEGE
ARTICLE I.
Purpose and Principles.
Section 1. The purpose of the Directors of Ursinus
College is to provide and maintain an institution where the
youth of the land can be liberally educated under the be­
nign influences of Christianity.
Section 2. The religious and moral principles of
Ursinus College shall always be those of the evangelical
protestant church, in essential historical harmony with the
principles represented by him whose distinguished name the
Institution bears.
Seotion 3. No student who sustains a good moral chara­
cter and is willing to comply with the rules and regulations
of the Institution shall be excluded from its privileges on
account of his religious opinion.
ARTICLE II.
Membership.
Section 1. Members of the Board shall be elected only
on nomination of a Committee consisting of the President of
the Board, the President of the College and the alumni dir­
ector longest in service.
Section 2. No person shall be nominated for membership
in this Board who is not in accord with the purpose and
principles set forth in Article I of this Constitution.
Section 3. Elections for members of the Board shall
be held only at the stated meetings, and at such special
meetings as may be called for the purpose, written notice
of which shall be issued to every member ten days before
such meeting.
Section 4. No person shall be elected a member of this
Board except by a majority of three-fourths of the members
present.
Section 5. Not less than one-fourth of the members of
the Board at any time shall be graduates of the Institution.
Of this number, five may be nominated by the Alumni Asso­
ciation of the College.
Seotion 6. Directors shall be elected for a term of
five years. The seat of any member of the Board who shall
have negledted to attend three consecutive stated meetings
of the Board, without satisfactory excuse, shall be declared
vacant.
ARTICLE III.
Offioers and Their Duties.
Seotion 1.
The officers of the Board shall be a
210
President, a First and a Seoond Vice-President, a Secretary,
and a Treasurer. These officers shall be elected annually,
and shall discharge the duties usually pertaining to their
respective offices. The Treasurer shall give bonds for the
security of the funds in his hands in such amount as the
Board may determine.
Section 2. The Board shall appoint five of its members
to whom the President and Secretary of the Board shall be
added, ex-officio, who shall act as an Executive Committee
in the intervals between meetings of the Board, and shall
be vested with power to attend all matters reouiring immediate
action.
Section 3. The Board shall appoint a suitable person
as Auditor, who shall examine all claims and accounts against
the College, and when properly authenticated and settled,
shall draw his vouoher on the Treasurer for the amount thereof.
ARTICLE IV
Meetings
ARTICLE V
Amendments
Appendix H (c)
LAWS OF URSINUS COLLEGE
I. THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS
1. Under the authority conferred by the Charter of the
College, the Board of Directors has supreme control over the
institution in all its departments, including its property,
its management, and its employees.
2. The officers of the Board, its President, its VicePresidents, Secretary, Treasurer, and Auditor, the Chairman
of the Executive Committee, and the members of its Standing
Committees, shall be elected at the annual meeting of the
Board. Vacancies in their number may be filled any any
legally called meeting.
3. Nine members shall constitute a quorum for the
transaction of business.
4. There shall be three regular meetings of the Board
in each year. One, the Annual Meeting, on the day before the
College Commencement, at ten o'clock, a.m.; one in the Fall,
at a time to be fixed by the Executive Committee; and one in
Winter, at a time to be fixed by the same committee. Printed
or written notice of the Fall and Winter meetings must be
given by the Secretary to eaoh member thirty days in advance
of the date fixed upon. Other meetings shall be held as
provided for in the Constitution, The meetings of the Board
shall be opened with prayer.
5. The college year shall begin on the first day of
September, and close on the thirty-first day of August. The
211
Annual Report of the President, of the Treasurer, and of all
College Officers shall cover the period of time included by
these dates*
6* The President, the Vice President, the Deans of the
several faculties, Heads of Departments, all full Professors,
Aoting Professors, and Assistant Professors, shall be elected
by the Board. Such election may be held at any legally called
meeting, and shall be by ballot; said ballot to be for or
against the person nominated as hereinafter provided, and not
to be by a single open vote cast by any one person, but by
the ballots of all present.
7. The following standing committees shall be appointed
by the Board; The Committee on Buildings and Grounds, the
Finance Committee, the Committee on Government and Instruction,
and the Auditing Committee. These committees shall have charge
of the respective interests of the College indicated by th®ir
names; and shall make an annual report to the Board in writing.
The members of each shall hold office until their successors
are appointed. The chairmen of the standing committees shall
be appointed members of the Executive Committee.
8. The Committee on Buildings and Grounds shall have
general charge of the realty belonging to the College, and
of the officers and employees engaged in the care thereof.
It shall report to the Executive Committee and to the Board
of Directors, from time to time, in regard to the condition
of the property under its care, and shall make such recom­
mendations with reference to it as the welfare of the insti­
tution may seem to demand.
9. The Finance Committee, of which the Treasurer shall
be a member, shall have oversight of the business of the
institution, shall manage the finances, and shall have charge
of all uhe invested funds of the College. In the absence of
specific directions, the Committee shall have authority to
invest funds as it may deem best. It shall report annually
to the Board the investments and assets of the College, to­
gether with an estimate of the income for the ensuing year.
10. The Committee on Government and instruction, of
which the President, the Vice President, the Dean of the
College and the Principal of the Academy shall be members
ex-officio, shall have the immediate supervision of all
officers and departments of instruction, the courses of study
and the equipment of the institution, and shall act as an
Advisory Committee to the President. With the consent of
the President it may recommend to the Board or the Executive
Committee changes in the organization of the work or in the
personnel of all officers of Government and Instruction, in
the oourses of study, or in the equipment as the faculties
may request or the Committee may deem expedient. Nominations
by the President to the several faculties or to the Board or the
Executive Committee for appointment shall be made with the advice
and consent of this Committee. The work of the Committee shall
be embodied in the reports the President is required to make
to the regular meetings of the Board.
212
11. The Auditing Committee shall make a careful ex­
amination of all the accounts of the Auditor and of the
Treasurer; shall compare the registered list of students in
the institution with the names of students entered in the
Treasurer’s books, shall compare the amount of securities
and money in the possession of the College with the amounts
indicated in the Treasurer’s report, and, in general, shall
satisfy itself by proper scrutiny that the assets of the
institution are secure and the finances correctly adminis­
tered.
12. The expenses incurred by Directors in attending
the meetings of the Board, and of the Executive Committee,
shall be audited and paid by the Treasurer.
II.
THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE.
Article III, Section 2, Constitution, "The Board shall
appoint five of its members, to whom the President and Sec­
retary of the Board shall be added ex officio, who shall
act as an Executive Committee in the intervals between
meetings of the Board, and shall be vested with power to
attend to all matters requiring immediate action.”
1. The head of the" Executive Committee shall be a
Chairman elected by the Board at the Annual Meeting who
shall serve until his successor is elected. The Secretary
of the Board shall act as secretary of the Executive Committee.
A majority of its members shall constitute a quorum. Its power
is limited to "matters requiring immediate action”, and must
be exercised in accordance writh the acts and resolutions of
the Board.
2. The Executive Committee may, when necessary, elect
Lecturers, Instructors, Teachers, and any other officers or
employes, except those whose election is restricted to t*1*©
Board. Instructors shall be elected for a period not exceed­
ing two years, and Lecturers and Teachers for one year or less.
213
Appendix I
STUDENTS* HAND BOOK
HOOD COLLEGE
1938-1939
Frederick, Md.
Agreement Between the Faculty and Students of Hood
College Concerning Student Government.
The President and Faculty of Hood College, with the
con eurrence of the Board of Directors, vest in the Co­
operative Government Association executive, legislative,
and judicial authority over the conduct of individual
students on and off campus for the maintenance of a hi$i
standard of honor in all phases of college life.
These powers, in whole or in part, shall be subject to
revocation at any time at the discretion of the President
and Faculty.
CONSTITUTION
Preamble
We, the students of Hood College, Frederick, Maryland,
desiring to assume individual and community responsibility
in the life and conduct of the college, to bring about sym­
pathetic understanding with the faculty, to develop self
control and to promote loyalty, do, with the concurrence
of the faculty, hereby adopt the following constitution.
Article I
Name
Article II
Purpose
Article III
Honor System
Section 1. Honor.
A. We, the student members of the Cooperative Government
Association, do hereby resolve to uphold individually and
collectively, the honor of the college by doing all that
is within our power to prevent any form of dishonesty in
our academic work and in our college life, and to create a
spirit of honesty and honor for its own sake.
We consider it dishonest to ask for, give or receive
any help in examination® or quizzes, or use in them any
papers or books in any manner not authorized by the instruc­
tors, fcr to present oral or written work that is not entirely
Our own except in such ways as may be approved by the
instructor.
214
We consider it disloyal to violate the rules and regu­
lations of the Cooperative Government Association which
pertain to any phase of our social life in the Hood College
community•
Any student aiding another to violate a rule or to
avert the consequences of suoh action is liable to the same
penalty as that imposed for the violation of the rule.
B. We, the faculty members of the Cooperative Government
Association, do hereby resolve to promote and facilitate
the functioning of this Association, for the improvement
of the general well-being of the college oommunity.
Section 2. Pledges.
A.
Before entering college each student shall familiarize
herself with the laws as set forth in this constitution.
After a short period of orientation in college life, she
shall sign the following pledge of honor: "I hereby solemnly
promise on my honor to assume the responsibilities of a
citizen of the Holld College oommunity by upholding the con­
stitution of the Cooperative Government Association and by
obeying its laws. I further pledge my honor that in case
I myself should violate any of these rules I will report
myself to the President of the Association. Also, should I
be aware of the unreported breach of honor on the part of
any fellow student, I will do all in my power to help her
maintain the ideals and social honor of the community by
persuading her to report herself.”
B.
At the close of every examination, each student shall
attach to her paper the following confirmation of her pledge,
with her name signed underneath: "I have neither given nor
received aid in this examination."
Students shall have the privilege of using a tap system
if cheating occurs during classes or examinations. The
first tapping will serve as a warning; the second will be
an order to the culprit to report her offense; the third will
indicate that cheating will be reported by the observer. Or
the student may speak to the offender in private and use her
influence in persuading the offender to report herself to the
President of the Association.
Article IV
Membership
Article
Dues
V
Article VI
Meetings
Article VII
Officers and Boards
215
Section 1. General Officers.
The general officers of the Association shall he a
President, a ‘Vice-President, a Secretary, a Treasurer, a
Fire Marshal, two Assistant Fire Marshals, an Auditor, and
two Assistant Auditors.
Section 2. Exeoutive Board.
A.
The Executive Boafcd shall consist of the President,
Vice President, Secretary, Treasurer, a Representative from
each class, a Representative of the non-resident members,
the Director of Student Personnel, two members of the fac­
ulty elected by the student body and two members of the
faculty chosen by the faculty from the Commission on Govern­
ment and Discipline.
B.
No student member of the Executive Board, with the ex­
ception of the President and Vice President may hold office
far more than two consecutive years.
C.
House Presidents shall serve on Executive Board, at the
discretion of the President, when members of their respective
houses are to be tried or when their advice is desired.
Section 3. Lower Board.
The lower board shall consist of the President of the
Association, ex officio, the Vice President, the Presidents
of the several houses, and two assistants from each house.
Section 4. House Councils.
Each residence hall shall have a House Council consisting
of the President of the Association, ex officio, the Vice
President, the President of the house and her two assistants.
Section 5. Fire Committee.
A fire drill system shall be maintained under a committee
composed of two faculty advisers, of whom one shall be the
Director of Student Personnel and one appointed by the Presi­
dent of the college, the Fire Marshal, the Assistant Fire
Marshals, a House Fire Marshal,fbfc each dormitory, and the
President of the Cooperative Government Association, ex officio.
Article VIII
Nominations and Elections
Article EC
Installation
At the installation of an officer, the Secretary shall
read that portion of the constitution having reference to
the duties of her office. Thereupon the President shall
administer the following pledge: "You have now been made
acquainted with the nature and extent of the duties assigned
to you by the Association. Do you solemnly promise to exe­
cute the same with strict impartiality and faithfulness to
216
the best of your ability?
If so answer, *1 dot*."
Article X
Vacancies
Article XI
Duties and Powers of the Officers
Artiole XII
Meetings. Duties and Powers of Executive Board
Article XIII
Meetings, Duties. and Powers of Lower Board
and the House Councils
Article XIV
Right of Protest
Section 1. If any member of the Association protests her
sentence after having been tried by the Lower Board, she
may appeal to the Executive Board, which may re-open the
case. In this event the Lower Board shall be present at the
trial.
Section 2. If any member of the Association protests her
sentence after having been tried privately by the Executive
Board, she has the right to appear before an open meeting
of the Board at which all members of the Association shall
be present. This shall constitute an open court with the
Executive Board aoting as jurors.
Article XV
Impeachment
Article XVI
Amendment
Any proposed amendment shall be submitted to the Execu­
tive Board for consideration or shall originate there. To
adopt an amendment, it must be passed by a two-thirds majority
vote at a mass meeting, after a notice of it has been posted
for at least a week on the bulletin board, and must be ap­
proved by the faculty.
Article 2VII
Parliamentary Procedure
In all disputed points of parliamentary procedure,
Roberts* Rules of Order shall be the authority.
217
Appendix J
IN THE MATTER OP THE AMENDMENT OF THE CHARTER
1
CEDAR CREST COLLEGE 0f
OF THE REFORMED CHURCH1
OVERTURE made to the Eastern Synod of the Reformed Church
in the United States with respect to the shares of stock of
Cedar Crest College of the Reformed Church held by Synod and
with the intent that said shares shall be transferred to those
subordinate Synods of the Evangelical and Reformed Church, and
so as to make possible amendments to the charter of the
College and which shall include the ultimate surrender and
cancellation of all shares of stock and the election of trustees
thereafter by such bodies and in such ways as the shareholders
may detenhine, but so as to preserve to said subordinate synods,
or those who will accept such transfers, the power to control
said corporation by distributing amongst them the right to
elect a majority of the trustees and in such proportions as
may be fixed in the amendments.
NOV/, THEREFORE, BE IT
Resolved by the Eastern Synod of the Reformed Church in
the United States that the forty-one (41) shares of the
capital stock of Cedar Crest College of the Reformed Church,
held and belonging to the former, be and are hereby directed
to be assigned, transferred and set over by the proper
officer or officers of the Eastern Synod of the Reformed
Church in the United States to the following named subordi­
nate Synods of the Evangelical and Reformed Church, as now
or hereafter erected in accordance with the Constitution
and By-laws and action of said Church, or to such of them
as will accept the assignment and transfer of the number
of shares allotted to them respectively, and to their
successors and assigns, in the following proportions, vis:
Six (6) shares thereof to Lehigh Synod; six (6) shares
thereof to Reading Synod; Six (6) Shares thereof to East
Pennsylvania Synod; Six (6) shares thereof to Lancaster
Synod; Six (6) shares thereof to Susquehanna Synod; Six
(6) shares thereof to Philadelphia Synod; and the remaining
five (5) shares thereof to Central Pennsylvania Synod; it
being the intent nhat said shares of stock shall be so
assigned, transferred and set over with the view of carrying
out the purposes set forth in the foregoing Resolutions, and
in view of the fact that this Synod may go out of existence
before the amendment of the charter of said College can be
effected.
1.
For full text see, Acts and proceedings of the Eastern
Synod of the Reformed Churoh in the U.S. Annual Meeting,
(Maxatawney, Pa.) May 15-18, 1939. Board of Christian
Education, 1505 Race Street, Philadelphia, Pa.
218
Resolved Further. that if any one or more of the here­
inafter named Synods of the merged church shall refuse to
accept the shares of stock so directed to be assigned, trans­
ferred and set over to the Synods or Synods so refusing to
accept the same, shall be either assigned, transferred and
set over to said College, or be surrendered unto it for
cancellation, as its Board of Trustees may elect.
Resolved, that after such transfer and assignment of
said stock shall have been made or such surrender or can­
cellation of stock shall have been effected, all legal
interest of this Synod in and to the assets and property of
said College and in and to a share in the government and
control thereof, shall cease and terminate so that said
corporation and the persons and bodies, who shall at that
time be holders of its outstanding capital stock, shall
have full power and authority to take any and all action
and actions whatsoever in the conduct of its business and
affairs, and in the amendment of its charter, without any
action or actions, direction, approval, confirmation or
ratification, or let, bar hindrance or objection on the
part of this Synod.
Resolved. Further. that the Eastern Synod of the Reformed
Churck in the United States does hereby agree to lawfully
execute and deliver such future agreements, consents, trans­
fers, assignments, or other legal documents as may be necessary
to carry into effect and full force the intent and purpose
hereof.
Resolved. Further. that the President and Seoretary
of this kynod be directed to certify the above Resolutions
under their official signatures and to deliver a certified
copy thereof to said College and to each of the hereinabove
named subordinate Synods of the Evangelical and Reformed
Church.
Certificate
The undersigned do hereby certify that the foregoing
is a true and correct copy of the Resolutions passed as
therein set forth, and as the same appear on the minutes
of the meeting of the Eastern Synod of the Reformed Church
in the United States, held at a duly convened meeting of the
Eastern Synod of the Reformed Church in the United States,
on the 17th day of May, A.D., 1939.
Calvin M. DeLong, President
J. Rauch Stein, Seoretary
The report was adopted as a whole.
219
Appendix K
PROPOSED AMENDMENT TO THE CHARTER OF
FRANKLIN AND MARSHALL COLLEGE.
RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED AT A MEETING OF THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES
OF FRANKLIN AND MARSHALL COLLEGE; REGULARLY AND LEGALLY
HELD AT THE PRINCIPAL OFFICE OF THE CORPORATION ON FRIDAY,
DECEMBER 8th, 1939, AT WHICH MEETING A MAJORITY AND QUORUM
OF THE SAID BOARD WAS PRESENT AND VOTED THROUGHOUT.
MEE IT RESOLVED, That Section 3 of the Charter of Frank­
lin and Marshall College, as amended, which reads as follows
»SECTION 3. The ownership of the property of Franklin
and Marshall College and management of the Institution
shall as heretofore vest in said Board of Trustees, and
By them to be held in trust for the Eastern Synod, the
Pittsburgh Synod, and the Synod of the Potamac, of the
Refoimed Church in the United States, and be carried
forward in the interest of said three Synods.
*That hereafter the Eastern Synod shall elect twelve,
the Pittsburgh Synod three, and the Synod of the Potomac
six members of the Board of Trustees, in such manner as
said Synods may respectively determine; and the General
Alumni Association of Franklin and Marshall College shall
elect two members in such manner as said Association may
determine; and the Board of Trustees shall choose the
remaining seven members. The terms of service of said
Trustees shall begin on the first day of January next
succeeding their election and they shall continue in
office for the period of ten years thereafter.*;
be and the same is hereby amended to read as follows: 'SECTION 3. (A) All property, real, personal and mixed,
of the corporation, shall be vested in the Trustees of
Franklin and Marshall College for the use of said Franklin
and Marshall College;
*(B) The Board of Trustees of Franklin and Marshall
College shall be composed of thirty members; a majority
of the members of the Board, shall at all times be
members of the Evangelical and Reformed Church; and a
majority of the members of the Board shall constitute
a quorum for the transaction of any and all business at
all meetings of the Board, either regular or special;
*(C) The terms of office of all of the present Trustees
shall terminate on July 1st, 1940;
220
*(D) At the annual meeting of the Board of Trustees,
to he held during the College Commencement of 1940, the
Board shall elect thirty members, who shall assume their
Offices on July 1, 1940; three members of the Board shall
be elected to serve for terms of one year each from July 1,
1940; three members of the Board shall be elected to serve
for terms of two years each from that date; three members
of the Board shall be elected to serve for terms of three
years each from that date; three members of the Board shall
be elected to serve for terms of four years, each, from
that date; three members of the Board, one of whom shall be
nominated by the General Alumni Association of Franklin and
Marshall College, shall be elected to serve for terms of
five years each from that date; three members of the Board
shall be elected to serve for terms of six years each from
that date; three members of the Board shall be elected to
serve for terms of seven years each from that date; three
members of the Board shall be elected to serve for terms
of eight years each from that date; three members of the
Board shall be elected to serve for terms of nine years
each from that date; and three members of the Board, one
of whom shall be nominated by the General Alumni Associa­
tion of Franklin and Marshall College shall be elected to
serve for terms of ten years each from that date;
*(E) At each annual meeting of the Board of Trustees,
beginning with the meeting to be held during the College
Commencement of 1941, three Trustees shall be elected by
the Board to serve for terms of ten years each, beginning
the first day of July thereafter; every five years, one
of the three Trustees to be elected by the Board shall be
nominated by the General Alumni Association of Franklin
and Marshall College;
1(F) Vacancies in the Board, by reason of death, re­
signation or otherwise, shall be filled by a majority vote
of the remaining members of the Board; Trustees so elected
shall serve the unexpired terms of the Trustees whom they
shall succedd in office.*;
"BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED, That B. F. Fackenthal, Jr.,
President, and Horace R. Barnes, Secretary of the Board of
Trustees of Franklin and Marshall College, be and they are
hereby authorized, empowered and directed in the name of
this Corporation, as andfor its corporate act and deed
and under its corporate seal, to execute Articles of Amend­
ment to the charter and to present to and file such articles
of amendment in the Court of Common Pleas of Lancaster County,
Pennsylvania, and to execute and file any and all other
instruments required to procure the proposed amendments to
the Charter of the Corporation;
"BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED, that the officers of the Cor­
poration shall cause due and legal notice of the filing in
the Court of Common Pleas of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania,
221
of the said proposed Articles of Amendment to the Charter
of the Corporation to be published and to pay all costs and
expenses incident to the proposed amendments."
X, Horace R. Barnes, do hereby certify that I am the
duly elected, qualified and acting Secretary of the Board
of Trustees of Franklin and Marshall College, and that the
foregoing is a full, true and correct copy of Resolutions
unanimously adopted at a meeting of the Board of Trustees,
regularly and legally held on Deoember 8th, 1939, at which
meeting a majority and quorum of the said Board was present
and voted throughout.
Secretary
Bated January 15, 1940.
222
Appendix L
AN ACT TO INCORPORATE THE GERMAN UNITED
EVANGELICAL SYNOD OF THE NORTH WEST.
Section 1. Be it enacted by the People of the state
of Illinois represented in the General Assembly. That the
clergymen and persons now compesing the German United Evan­
gelical Synod of the Northwest in the State of Illinois
are hereby created and constituted a body politic and cor­
porate under the name and style of the German United Evan­
gelical Synod of the Northwest and by that name shall have
perpetual succession and shall have power to contract and
be contracted with, to sue and be sued, to plead and be
impleaded, to do and perform all such acts and things as
are or may be necessary and expedient for the furtherance
and advancement of the purpose of said corporation as
fully and completely as a natural person might or could do.
Section 2. The objects and purposes of this corporation
shall be the advancement of the Christian Religion, the
establishment of schools, seminaries and colleges for the
education of youths and of clergy, the erection of Churches,
of other and any religious and charitable institutions to
promote and advance the interests of the Christian Religion,
of education of the Arts and Sciences and for charitable
purposes generally.
Section 3. The said corporation may have a common seal
and alter the same from time to time, may receive, take and
hold by gift, purchase, devise, bequest or otherwise any
real or personal estate for the use and purposes of said
corporation whether the same be purchased, given, devised,
bequeathed or conveyed directly to said corporation or to
any of the officers thereof for the use of the said corpora­
tion and all such property real or personal held by or for
the use of said corporation shall be exempt'from taxation.
No real estate to which said corporation shall have acquired
title shall be it be alienated or leased for a longer term
than one year except by a vote of the majority of the mem­
bers present at the regular annual meeting or at a special
meeting called for that purpose to be specified in the notice
of said meeting.
Section 4. The Constitution, rules and regulations
and by-laws of the said German United Evangelical Synod of
the Northwest existing at the time of the passage of this
act shall be the rules and by-laws of this corporation
until the same shall be regularly repealed or altered by
said corporation in accordance with the provisions thereof.
Section 5. The Officers of this Corporation may con­
sist of a President, Vice President, Secretary, Treasurer
and of such other officers, trustees and committees as the
223
said corporation in its constitution, rules and by-laws
may provide.
Section 6. The said corporation may taake such by-laws,
rules and regulations for the reoeption, rejection or ex­
pulsion and for the government of its members and for the
Management of its business as may be expedient and necessary.
Seotion 7. Said corporation may constitute and appoint
oommlttees of reference and arbitration and committees of
appeal who shall be governed by such rules and regulations
as may be ppjscribed in the by-laws, rules and regulations
of said corporation for the settlement of such differences
by arbitration as may arise between the members thereof
and as may be voluntarily submitted by other persons not
members of said corporation. Any and every award agreed
upon or adjudged shall be reduced to writing before publi­
cation thereof. And each and every party litigant upon
final rendition of such award shall have the right to appeal
from such final award to any court of record of the County
where such arbitration was made having jurisdiction in
causes of arbitration and award. Any such Court of Record
may entertain such appeal, adjudicate and adjudge the same
as other causes of arbitration and award.
The acting chairman of either of said Committees of
reference and arbitration aforesaid shall have power to
administer oaths to parties litigant and to witnesses.
Section 8. It shall be lawful for said corporation when
they shall think proper to receive and require of and from
their officers or any of them whether elected or appointed
good and sufficient bonds for the faithful discharge of
their duties and trusts.
Allen C. Butler,
Speaker of the House.
Wm. Bross,
Speaker of Senate.
Approved February 16th, 1865.
Richard J. Oglesby,
Governor.
224
Appendix M
The
CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS
of the
EVANGELICAL AND REFORMED CHURCH 1
Adopted by the General Synod - June 16, 1936
(Adopted and put into effect June, 1940)
Preamble
Section 1.
For the maintenance of truth and order in the
proclamation of the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ and the
advancement of the Kingdom of God in accordance with the
Word of God, the Evangelical and Reformed Church, formed by
the union of the Evangelical Synod of North America and the
Reformed Church in the United States, ordains this constitu­
tion to be its fundamental law and declares the same to
have authority over all its ministers, members, congregations,
and judicatories.
INCORPORATION
40.
a. The EVANGELICAL AND REFORMED CHURCH shall be
incorporated.
b. The General Synod shall have power to determine the
place of incorporation and the terms and provisions
of the Articles of Incorporation.
1.
Excerpts from the Constitution and By-Laws of the Evan­
gelical and Reformed Church.
225
ARTICLE III
Commission on Higher Education
115.
The Commission on Higher Education shall consist of the
presidents of the educational institutions and an equal
number of ministers chosen by the General Synod for a term
of four years and the executive secretary of the Board of
Christian Education and Publication.
The function of this commission shall be to study and
determine the Church’s program of higher education, to
cultivate closer relationship between the educational in­
stitutions themselves and the Church, and to maintain and
develop the principles and ideals of the Christian religion
in the educational institutions of the Church.
The expenses of the representatives of the educational
institutions shall be borne by their institutions.
226
Appendix N
CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION
Of
EVANGELICAL AND REFORMED CHURCH
We, the undersigned
officer, and __________
, the presiding
the clerk, of the Evangelical
and Reformed Church assembled in General Synod, an unincor­
porated body having jurisdiction over a number of Synods and
churches, some of which are located in the State of New York
and the others in other states and elsewhere, the said pre­
siding officer and cieek being natural persons of full age
and citizens of the United States and members of the Evangeli­
cal and Reformed Church, and the latter being a resident of
the State of New York, do hereby, pursuant to section fifteen
of the Religious Corporation Law of the State of New York,
as amended by Chapter 192 of the Laws of 1927 of the said
State, make, execute and acknowledge this Certificate, as
follows:
More than two-thirds of the members of the said Evangeli­
cal and Reformed Church, assembled in General Synod, are
citizens of the United States.
A meeting of the said Evangelical and Reformed Church
was duly held in First Evangelical and Reformed Church,
No. 42 East Orange Street, in the City of Lancaster and State
of Pennsylvania on Thursday, the Twentieth day of June, 1940,
at ___ o ’clock in the forenoon.
The undersigned, ______________ , a n d ______________
227
acted as the presiding officer and clerk, respectively, at
the said meeting.
There were present at said meeting__________ of the
__________ members of the said Evangelical and Reformed
Church assembled in General Synod, all of whom were of full
age and being a sufficient number to constitute a quorum.
The following Resolutions wefce offered for adoption at
the said meeting, to wit:
"RESOLVED that the Evangelical and Reformed Church hereby
determines to become incorporated, pursuant to section
fifteen of the Religious Corporation Law of the State of
New York, as amended by Chapter 192 of the Laws of 1927,
of the said State; and further
"RESOLVED that the name of said Corporation shall be
EVANGELICAL AND REFORMED CHURCH; and, further
"RESOLVED that the presiding officer and clerk of the
said body be, and they are, hereby directed to make, exe­
cute, acknowledge and file in the manner prescribed by
the provisions of the said section, as amended and added
to as aforesaid, a certificate for the purpose of forming
a corporation in conformity with the said section, as
amended and added to as aforesaid; and further,
"RESOLVED that this meeting now proceed by a plurality
vote of the members present to elect six persons to be
the first trustees of such corporation."*
*
"The marked sections on page 26, which I enclose, are an
exact copy of the Act of Incorporation of the General Synod.
228
This was taken to Albany, New York, and was properly recorded
with the Secretary of State and the Evangelical and Reformed
Church was declared an incorporated body."*
*
Citation from letter of W.E. Lampe to the investigator,
July 12, 1940.
Tinw YORK u n l ' O S I T Y
SCHOOL OF FO'JCATIO'I
e
HORARY
o
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