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THE RELATIVE ACCURACY OF OFFICIATING BASKETBALL FROM DIFFERENT POSITIONS

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Osborne, W i l l i a m Terry.
1941
The r e l a t i v e a c c u r a c y o f o f f i c i a t i n g
.07
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THIS D ISSER TATION HAS BEEN M ICROFILM ED EXACTLY AS RECEIVED.
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NOV 29 1940
THE RELATIVE ACCURACY OP OFFICIATING BASKETBALL
FROM DIFFERENT POSITIONS
WILLIAM TERRY OSBORNE
S u b m itte d i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e
r e q u i r e m e n ts f o r t h e d e g r e e o f D o c to r o f
P h ilo s o p h y i n t h e S c h o o l o f E d u c a tio n o f
New Y o rk U n i v e r s i t y
1940
PL E A S E NOTE:
S o m e pa g e s m a y have
i n di st i ne t print.
Fi l m e d as received.
U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s , A Xe r o x E d u c a t i o n C o m p a n y
TABLE OP CONTENTS
C h a p te r
P age
PREFACE...............................................................................................................
I.
INTRODUCTION...................................................................................
The P ro b le m .....................................................................................
II.
1
3
PROCEDURE................................................................................................ 12
I n f o r m a t io n N e c e s s a r y f o r t h e S t u d y . ......................... 12
S o u r c e s a n d C o l l e c t i o n o f D a t a ..............
14
III.
ORGANIZATION AND ANALYSIS OP DATA...................................... 18
R e c o r d s ................
18
R e c o r d i n g s ........................................................................
18
B a s ic D a t a ....................................................................................... 20
P e r s o n a l F o u ls A c c o rd in g t o A r e a s ............................
25
T a b u l a t i o n o f V i o l a t i o n s A c c o rd in g t o A r e a s . . . . 29
T a b u l a t i o n o f H eld B a l l s A c c o rd in g t o A r e a s . . . . 33
C o m p a riso n o f A greem en t b e tw e e n P o s i t i o n s I r ­
r e s p e c t i v e o f O f f i c i a l s ..............
• • • • 36
O r g a n iz a t i o n a n d A n a l y s i s o f W e ig h te d S c o r e s . . . 48
R e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n t h e S c o r e s o f E a c h P o s i ­
t i o n i n Term s o f P e r c e n t a g e , a s R e c o rd e d by
E a c h O f f i c i a l , A lo n e , w i t h One O t h e r , w i t h
Two O th e rs a n d w i t h T h re e O t h e r s .............................. 56
The R e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n t h e S c o r e s o f E a c h
P o s i t i o n I r r e s p e c t i v e o f O f f i c i a l an d I r ­
r e s p e c t i v e o f W h e th e r t h e I n f r in g e m e n t Was
C a l l e d b y O ne, Two, T h r e e , P o u r o r F iv e
P o s i t i o n s .................................................................................. 80
C om bined S c o r e s o f P e r s o n a l s , V i o l a t i o n s an d
H e ld B a l l s by P o s i t i o n I r r e s p e c t i v e o f O f­
f i c i a l s ....................................................................................... 85
R e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n t h e S c o r e s o f E a c h O f f i ­
c i a l , i n Term s o f P e r c e n t a g e , I r r e s p e c t i v e
o f P o s i t i o n .............................................................................. 87
R e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n t h e S c o r e s ( i n Term s o f
P e rc e n ta g e ) o f E ach P o s i t i o n , by E ach O f f i­
c i a l I r r e s p e c t i v e o f W h e th e r C a l l e d b y O ne,
Two, T h r e e , F o u r o r F i v e . . . . .................................
94
A6 7 8 5 4
ii
TABLE OP CONTENTS (C o n c lu d e d )
C h a p te r
Page
R e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n A l l P o s i t i o n s i n Term s
o f P e r c e n t a g e , b y E a c h O f f i c i a l , w i t h Com bined
S c o r e s o f P e r s o n a l F o u l s , V i o l a t i o n s , and
R e id B a l l s • ......................................... .......................................... 103
The R e l a t i v e A b i l i t y o f "G o o d n e ss” o f E a c h Of­
f i c i a l I r r e s p e c t i v e o f P o s i t i o n ...................
107
IV .
GENERAL SUMMARY ANDCONCLUSIONS.............................................. I l l
V.
RECOMMENDATIONS.................................................................................. 121
BIBLIOGRAPHY.....................................................................
123
APPENDIX...........................................................................................................
131
/
ill
LIST OP TABLES
T a b le
I ,*
Page
Form f o r C o l l e c t i o n o f O r i g i n a l D a t a ............................ 15
I I , * R e c o rd in g s
I I I ,*
19
I n f r in g e m e n ts b y E a c h P o s i t i o n R e c o rd e d A lo n e ,
w i t h O ne, Two, T h re e an d P o u r O t h e r s . ......................
21
IV .*
T a b u l a t i o n t o Show I n f r in g e m e n t s by E a c h O f f i c i a l
A lo n e , w i t h One O t h e r , Two O t h e r s , T h re e O t h e r s ,
22
and P o u r O t h e r s .................................. . ....................
V .*
I n f r in g e m e n t s Not R e c o rd e d by E a c h P o s i t i o n b u t
R e c o rd e d b y O ne, Two, T h r e e , P o u f O t h e r s .................... 23
V I .*
T a b u l a t i o n s t o Show I n f r in g e m e n ts Not R e c o rd e d
by E a c h O f f i c i a l b u t R e c o rd e d b y One O t h e r , Two
O t h e r s , T h re e O t h e r s , an d P o u r O t h e r s ........................... 24
V ila *
V III.
IX .
X.
X I,
X I I .*
#
i n O ne-M inute U n i t s . . . . .
T a b u l a t i o n s t o Show t h e Number o f I n f r in g e m e n ts
T h a t Was C a l l e d by E a c h P o s i t i o n i n t h e E ig h t
A r e a s ................................................
26
The Number an d P e r c e n ta g e o f P e r s o n a l F o u ls
C a l l e d by E a c h P o s i t i o n i n T w e n ty -F iv e Games by
A r e a s , I r r e s p e c t i v e o f t h e F iv e O f f i c i a l s ................. 27
The Number a n d P e r c e n ta g e o f V i o l a t i o n s C a l l e d
b y E a c h P o s i t i o n i n T w e n ty -F iv e Games by A r e a s ,
I r r e s p e c t i v e o f O f f i c i a l s . . . ......................................
30
The Number a n d P e r c e n ta g e o f H e ld B a l l s C a l l e d
b y E a c h P o s i t i o n i n T w e n ty -F iv e Games by A re a s
I r r e s p e c t i v e o f O f f i c i a l s ...............................
34
The S c o re s o f E a c h P o s i t i o n w i t h E v e ry O th e r Po­
s i t i o n , T o t a l s o f T w e n ty -F iv e Gam es, T hose
S c o re d A lo n e , w i t h One O th e r , Two O t h e r s , T h re e
O t h e r s , a n d F o u r O t h e r s ...................................
• • • • • • « . 37
T o t a l s o f T w e n ty -F iv e Games Show ing I n f r i n g e ­
m e n ts ........................................
Form s f o r c o m p i l a t i o n o f d a t a ,
iv
38
LIST OP TABLES (C o n tin u e d )
T a b le
X III,
X IV .
XV.
X V I.
X V II.
X V III*
Page
P e r s o n a l F o u l s ...................................................................................40
V i o l a t i o n s ............................................................................................. 43
H e ld B a l l s ............................................................................................. 46
P e r s o n a l F o u l s . C o m p ariso n o f P o s i t i o n s by
W e ig h te d S c o r e s . ........................................................................
50
P e r s o n a l F o u l s . C o m p a riso n o f P o s i t i o n s by
W e ig h te d S c o r e s . . . . .......................................................... ..............53
V i o l a t i o n s . C o m p a riso n o f P o s i t i o n s b y W e ig h te d
S c o r e s .................... ..............................................................................
54
X IK .
V i o l a t i o n s . C o m p a riso n o f P o s i t i o n s b y W e ig h te d
S c o r e s . ..............
• • • • • 55
XX.
H eld B a l l s . C o m p ariso n o f P o s i t i o n s b y W e ig h te d
S c o res.
....................................................................................... 51a
X X I.
X X II.
H eld B a l l s . C o m p ariso n o f P o s i t i o n s b y W e ig h te d
S c o r e s ....................................
56a
P e r s o n a l F o u l s . R e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n t h e S c o r e s
o f E ac h P o s i t i o n a s R e c o rd e d by E a c h O f f i c i a l
A lo n e .
.............................................................................................. 56b
X X I II .
V i o l a t i o n s . R e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n t h e S c o r e s o f
E a c h P o s i t i o n a s R e c o rd e d b y E a c h O f f i c i a l A l o n e .. 61
XXXV.
H e ld B a l l s . R e l a t i o n s h i p B etw een t h e S c o r e s o f
E a c h P o s i t i o n a s R e c o rd e d by E a c h O f f i c i a l A l o n e .. 63
XXV.
P e r s o n a l F o u l s . R e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n t h e S c o re s
o f E a c h P o s i t i o n a s R e c o rd e d b y E a c h O f f i c i a l an d
One O t h e r
.............
«................. 66
XXVI.
XX VII.
X X V III.
V i o l a t i o n s . R e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n t h e S c o r e s o f
E a c h P o s i t i o n a s R e c o rd e d b y E a c h O f f i c i a l an d
One O t h e r .
..............................................................68
H e ld B a l l s . R e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n t h e S c o r e s o f
E a c h P o s i t i o n a s R e c o rd e d by E a c h O f f i c i a l and
One O t h e r ...............................................................................
69
P e r s o n a l F o u l s . R e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n t h e S c o re s
o f E a c h P o s i t i o n a s R e c o rd e d b y E a c h O f f i c i a l and
Two O t h e r s ............................................................................................. 7 1
v
LIST OP TABLES (C o n tin u e d )
T a b le
XXIX.
XXX.
XXXI.
X X X II.
X X X III.
Page
V i o l a t i o n s . R e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n t h e S c o r e s o f
E a c h P o s i t i o h a s R e c o rd e d b y E a c h O f f i c i a l and
Two O t h e r s ................................................................................................. 72
H eld B a l l s . R e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n t h e S c o re s o f
E a c h P o s i t i o n a s R e c o rd e d b y E ach O f f i c i a l an d
Two O t h e r s ........................
74
P e r s o n a l s . R e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n t h e S c o re s o f
E a c h P o s i t i o n a s R e c o rd e d b y E a c h O f f i c i a l a n d
T h re e O t h e r s .........................................................
75
V i o l a t i o n s . R e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n t h e S c o r e s o f
E a c h P o s i t i o n a s R e c o rd e d b y E a c h O f f i c i a l and
T h re e O t h e r s .................................
77
H e ld B a l l s . R e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n t h e S c o re s o f
E a c h P o s i t i o n a s R e c o rd e d b y E a c h O f f i c i a l an d
T h re e O t h e r s . . . . . ..................................................
78
XXXIV.
P e r s o n a l F o u l s . R e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n t h e S c o re s
o f E a c h P o s i t i o n I r r e s p e c t i v e o f O f f i c i a l s ................... 81
XXXV.
V i o l a t i o n s . R e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n t h e S c o r e s o f
E a c h P o s i t i o n I r r e s p e c t i v e o f O f f i c i a l s ....................... 82
XXXVI.
XXXVII.
XXXVIII.
XXXIX.
XL.
X L I.
H eld B a l l s . R e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n t h e S c o r e s o f
E ach P o s itio n I r r e s p e c tiv e o f O f f i c i a l s . . . . . . . . . . .
84
C om bined S c o r e s o f P e r s o n a l F o u l s , V i o l a t i o n s an d
H eld B a l l s by P o s i t i o n I r r e s p e c t i v e o f O f f i c i a l s
G iv in g P e r c e n ta g e o f N o tic e a n d P o s i t i o n R ank
86
P e r s o n a l F o u l s . R e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n t h e S c o r e s
o f E a c h O f f i c i a l I r r e s p e c t i v e o f P o s i t i o n .................
88
V i o l a t i o n s . R e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n t h e S c o re s o f
E a c h O f f i c i a l I r r e s p e c t i v e o f P o s i t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
H eld B a l l s . R e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n t h e S c o r e s o f
E a c h O f f i c i a l I r r e s p e c t i v e o f P o s i t i o n . ...............
92
P e rso n a l F o u ls .
o f E ach P o s itio n
F iv e Games U s in g
Two, T h r e e , F o u r
95
R e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n t h e S c o r e s
and E ach O f f i c i a l in U n its o f
S c o r e s R e c o rd e d b y One A lo n e ,
a n d F i v e . . . . . . . . ...................................
vi
LIST OP TABLES (C o n c lu d e d )
T a b le
X L II.
X L III.
XLIV.
XLV.
XLVI.
X L V II.
P age
V i o l a t i o n s . R e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n t h e S c o r e s of
E a c h P o s i t i o n an d E a c h O f f i c i a l i n U n its o f
F iv e ,G a in e s U s in g S c o r e s R e c o rd e d b y One A lo n e ,
Two, T h r e e , P o u r a n d F i v e . . . . .........................................
99
H eld B a l l s .
R e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n S c o re s o f E a c h
P o s i t i o n and E a c h O f f i c i a l i n U n i t s o f F iv e Gaines
U s in g S c o r e s R e c o rd e d by One A lo n e , Two, T h r e e ,
.............................................
F o u r an d F i v e
102
R e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n E a c h P o s i t i o n b y E a c h O f f i ­
c i a l w i t h C om bined S c o r e s o f P e r s o n a l F o u l s , V io ­
l a t i o n s and H e ld B a l l s . ..........................................
R e la tiv e A b ility o f E ach O f f i c i a l I r r e s p e c tiv e
o f P o s i t i o n . C om bined S c o re s o f P .V .H ., I n c l u d ­
i n g F iv e P o s i t i o n s , C a l l e d A lo n e , a n d w i t h O ne,
Two, t h r e e , an d F o u r O t h e r s ...................................................
C o m p ariso n o f t h e P e r c e n ta g e o f H a n d ic a p o f Po­
s i t i o n s a n d t h e C o m p ariso n o f t h e "G o o d n ess" o r
A b i l i t y o f O f f i c i a l s .....................................................................
C o m p u ta tio n o f t h e R e l i a b i l i t y o f D i f f e r e n c e b e ­
tw e e n t h e S c o r e s ( i n T erm s o f P e r C e n t) o f E ach
P o s i t i o n ....................................................................
v ii
104
108
120
141
PREFACE
In t h e t e n y e a r s t h a t have e l a p s e d s i n c e t h e f i r s t e x ­
p e r i m e n t s w i t h m eth o d s o f d e t e r m i n i n g a b i l i t i e s o f b a s k e t b a l l
o f f i c i a l s , a n d m eth o d s o f im p ro v in g o f f i c i a t i n g b y d e te r m i n a ­
t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i v e a c c u r a c y o f o f f i c i a t i n g fro m d i f f e r e n t
p o s i t i o n s , t h e c h a n g e s i n t h e game o f b a s k e t b a l l w a r r a n t m ore
a c c u r a t e d e c i s i o n s by t h o s e who a r e r e f e r e e i n g t h e game o f
b a s k e tb a ll.
T h is t h e s i s i s p r e s e n t e d w i t h t h e hope t h a t i t may c o n
t r i b u t e some e n lig h te n m e n t t o t h e p ro b le m o f t h e m o st a d v a n ­
ta g e o u s p o s i t io n s f o r o f f i c i a l s .
I w i s h t o ack n o w le d g e t h e a d v ic e a n d a s s i s t a n c e g iv e n
5
/.
me b y P r o f e s s o r s F ra n k * L lo y d , E r n e s t .Wood a n d A lonzo,, M y e rs,
a l l o f whom hav e c r i t i c a l l y e n c o u r a g e d me i n t h e p u r s u i t o f
th is th e s is .
To D r. Raymond F r a n z e n I am i n d e b t e d f o r h i s u n
t i r i n g fo rm u la tio n o f s t a t i s t i c a l p ro c e d u re s .
I am g r a t e f u l
a l s o t o my s t u d e n t s a t A c a d ia U n i v e r s i t y who r e c o r d e d a n d
t a b u l a t e d m uch o f t h e p r e l i m i n a r y d a t a .
T h an k s i s l i k e w i s e
e x p r e s s e d t o o f f i c i a l s V ernon E v i l l e , K e i t h F o r b e 3 , F r e d
K e l l y , N e i l S a n f o r d , a n d G e r a ld P o r t e r .
I w is h t o e x p r e s s
g r a t i t u d e a l s o t o P r o f e s s o r Roy S te e v e s who a s s i s t e d i n
s e t t i n g u p e l e c t r i c a l e q u ip m e n t s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r com m unica­
tio n .
P a r t i c u l a r th a n k s i s e x p r e s s e d t o E s t h e r M. O sborne
v lii
f o r c o n ti n u e d i n s p i r a t i o n an d a s s i s t a n c e i n r e a d i n g t h e
m a n u s c rip t.
And f i n a l l y ,
I w is h t o th a n k D r . R o b e rt C o n k lin
f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e in th e c o r r e c t i o n o f th e m a n u s c rip t.
W illia m T e r r y O sborne
ix
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
The r e s u l t s o f s e v e r a l y e a r s o f e x p e r i m e n t a l e f f o r t have
c o n v in c e d t h e a u t h o r t h a t p r e s e n t m eth o d s o f o f f i c i a t i n g gam es
a r e f r e q u e n t l y a n t i q u a t e d , i n a c c u r a t e , an d i n e f f i c i e n t .
The
t e c h n i q u e s a n d m e th o d s o f o f f i c i a t i n g o f many te a m games h av e
changed b u t l i t t l e
s in c e t h e i r o r i g in and a re s t i l l c a r r i e d
on u n d e r o l d t r a d i t i o n s .
The gam es th e m s e lv e s a n d t h e c o n d i ­
t i o n s tin d e r w h ic h t h e y a r e p l a y e d h a v e , i n many c a s e s , gone
t h r o u g h lo n g p e r i o d s o f t r a n s i t i o n .
By r e c o g n i z i n g t h e n e e d s
f o r m ore a c c u r a t e o f f i c i a t i n g , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o s t u d y way3
an d m eans o f t a k i n g
u p some o f t h e l a g t h a t h a s o c c u r r e d .
L e a d e r s h ip t h a t
i s g u id e d by t h e are s u i t s o f e x p e rim e n ­
t a l r e s e a r c h m u st p o i n t t h e way t o g r e a t e r e d u c a t i o n a l e f ­
fic ie n c y .
U n d e r t h e s t r a i n a n d e x c ite m e n t o f c o m p e ti t io n
p l a y e r s s h o u ld h a v e a b s o l u t e c o n f id e n c e i n t h e ju d g m e n ts o f
th o s e who a r e i n c h a r g e .
T h is c a n o n ly be e s t a b l i s h e d by h a v ­
in g o f f i c i a l s c a l l i n f r i n g e m e n t s a s a c c u r a t e l y a n d f l a w l e s s l y
a s i s h u m an ly p o s s i b l e .
The ju d g m e n t
te n t,
o f an o f f i c i a l i s d ependent to a la rg e ex ­
h o w e v e r, u p o n how m uch o f t h e game he c a n
s e e , and t h i s
i s d e te r m in e d b y h i s p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e gam e.
C o n s i s t e n t a n d j u s t d e c i s i o n s , i n a c c o rd a n c e w i t h t h e law s o f
1
2
t h e gam e, e n c o u ra g e t h e p l a y e r s t o co m p e te f a i r l y .
On t h e
o t h e r h a n d , when o f f i c i a l s h a v e made i n c o r r e c t d e c i s i o n s , due
t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y w e re i n p o s i t i o n s t h a t o b s t r u c t e d t h e i r
v iew o f t h e p l a y , c o n f l i c t s a r e d e v e lo p e d , i n t h e m in d s o f t h e
p l a y e r s t h a t t e n d t o v i t i a t e t h e a c c la im e d e d u c a t i o n a l a n d
m o r a l v a lu e s o f c o m p e t i t i o n .
T h e re i s a g r e a t n e e d an d o p p o r t u n i t y f o r Im p ro v e m e n t.
1
As shown i n L l o y d 's s t u d y , one o f t h e m o st f r e q u e n t l y s p e c i ­
f i e d c a u se s o f a c c id e n ts in p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n a c t i v i t i e s u n d e r
in a d e q u a te l e a d e r s h i p i s i n e f f i c i e n t o f f i c i a t i n g .
The p u r p o s e o f t h i s e x p e r im e n t i s t o d e te r m in e t h e r e l a ­
t i v e e f f i c i e n c y o f o f f i c i a t i n g w i t h a v iew t o recom m ending
c h a n g e s i n p r e s e n t m eth o d s w h ic h w o u ld l e a d t o m ore e f f e c t i v e
e d u c a t i o n a l o u tc o m e s .
The a u t h o r h a s c h o s e n t h e game o f b a s k e t b a l l a s a medium
b e c a u s e o f h i s e x p e r ie n c e w i t h t h e game an d a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o
c a r r y su c h a p r o j e c t t o c o m p le tio n .
A l s o , t h i s game p r o v i d e s
th e n e c e s s a ry c o n tr o l o f th e f a c t o r s in v o lv e d , f a c t o r s i n ­
v o l v in g s i t u a t i o n s s i m i l a r t o s u c h o t h e r s p o r t s a s f o o t b a l l ,
s o c c e r, h o ck ey , and la c r o s s e .
B a s k e tb a ll i s p la y e d in d o o r s ,
on a s m a ll a r e a , w h ere l i g h t i n g an d t e m p e r a t u r e c o n d i t i o n s a r e
a p p r o x im a te ly t h e sa m e.
O f f i c i a l s p l a c e d i n d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n s w here t h e y
c o u ld s e e t h e c o u r t a n d p l a y e r s r e c o r d e d a l l i n f r a c t i o n s o f
t h e r u l e s t h a t t h e y w o u ld c a l l a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c u r r e n t i n t e r 1.
D r. P ra n k S . L lo y d , S a f e t y i n S e c o n d a ry S c h o o l s .
T h e s i s , 193&.
yitf*T CJJVtt'trfS/ Ty/.
P h . D.
3
p r e ta tio n s o f th e r u l e s .
T h e se r e c o r d s w i l l be s t u d i e d an d
a n a ly z e d t o d e te r m in e w here o f f i c i a l s s h o u ld be p l a c e d t o
o b t a i n t h e m o st a c c u r a t e r e s u l t s .
As a r e s u l t , s e v e r a l p o s i ­
t i o n s , o r p o s s ib ly a d i f f e r e n t p a tte r n o f p o s itio n s u n fa m ilia r
t o u s a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , t h a t a r e m ore e f f i c i e n t fro m t h e
s t a n d p o i n t o f e d u c a t i o n a l o u tco m es may b e d i s c o v e r e d .
The P ro b le m
A.
P u rp o s e o f t h e s t u d y .
The p u rp o s e o f t h i s s t u d y i s
t o c o n d u c t a n e x p e r im e n t w h ic h w i l l d e m o n s tr a te t h e
r e l a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y o f o f f i c i a t i n g w i t h a v iew t o
recom m ending c h a n g e s i n t h e p r e s e n t m eth o d o f o f f i c i a t ­
in g s o a s t o l e a d t o m ore e f f e c t i v e e d u c a t i o n a l o u t ­
comes •
B.
S ta te m e n t o f t h e p ro b le m .
To d e te r m in e t h e r e l a t i v e
e f f i c i e n c y o r a c c u r a c y o f v a r i o u s m e th o d s o f o f f i c i a t ­
in g .
S u b - p ro b le m s :
1.
To d e te r m in e t h e am ount o f a g re e m e n t b e tw e e n o f ­
f i c i a l s Irre s p e c tiv e o f p o s itio n .
2.
To d e te r m in e t h e am ount o f a g re e m e n t b e tw e e n t h e
sc o res of each p o s itio n irre s p e c tiv e of o f f i c i a l s .
3.
To d e te r m in e t h e am ount o f i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s
b e tw e e n o f f i c i a l s i n t h e i r a g re e m e n t w i t h o t h e r s .
T h is w i l l be t h e r a n g e .
4.
To d e te r m in e t h e r e l a t i v e v a lu e o f p o s i t i o n s .
4
5.
To d e te r m in e t h e am ount o f h a n d ic a p o f c e r t a i n
p o s itio n s in r e l a t i o n t o th e "g o o d n ess" o r a b i l i t y
o f an o f f i c i a l .
Assum pt io n s
1.
O f f i c i a t i n g o r l e a d e r s h i p i n t h e c o n t r o l o f games
i s o f v i t a l im p o rta n c e i n d e te r m i n i n g t h e e d u c a ­
t i o n a l o u tc o m e s .
2.
O f f i c i a t i n g h a s b e e n a n d s t i l l i s f a r fro m s a t i s ­
f a c t o r y i n some o f t h e te a m g a m e s, a s i s shown b y
t h e r e s p o n s e s o f p l a y e r s an d s p e c t a t o r s .
3.
The p o s i t i o n o f o f f i c i a l s h a s n e v e r b e e n s t u d i e d
th o r o u g h ly e n o u g h t o d e te r m in e w here t h e g r e a t e s t
a c c u r a c y i n o f f i c i a t i n g c o u ld b e o b t a i n e d .
4.
T h e re i s p r o b a b l y no on e p o s i t i o n i n w h ic h a n o f ­
f i c i a l c o u ld b e p l a c e d w here he c o u ld s e e t h e whole
gam e.
5.
T h e re may be s e v e r a l p o s i t i o n s i n w h ic h i t
is
n e c e s s a r y t o have o f f i c i a l s i n o r d e r t o g e t a h i g h
d e g re e o f a c c u r a c y i n o f f i c i a t i n g .
P r o b a b ly some
c o m b in a tio n o f p o s i t i o n s i n a p a t t e r n , t h a t have
n o t a s y e t b e e n w o rk e d o u t , w ould g iv e g r e a t e r a c ­
c u ra c y in o f f i c i a t i n g .
6.
P l a c i n g an o f f i c i a l above t h e c o u r t 1 2 ’ t o
14* a n d
t o t h e s i d e c e n t e r w i l l p r o b a b ly r e s u l t i n m ore
a c c u r a t e o f f i c i a t i n g t h a n fro m a n y o t h e r one p o s i ­
tio n .
S in c e he i s lo o k in g down u p o n t h e p l a y , n o
5
i n d i v i d u a l s p a s s i n g b e tw e e n him a n d t h e p l a y c a n
c u t o f f h i s v i s i o n , a s o r d i n a r i l y h a p p e n s when t h e
r e f e r e e i s on t h e same p l a n e w i t h t h e p l a y e r s .
The r e f e r e e
i s a l s o e q u i - d i s t a n t fro m e a c h e n d o f
th e p la y in g a r e a .
7.
By p l a c i n g t h e o f f i c i a l i n a s t a t i o n a r y p o s i t i o n
t h e e le m e n t o f f a t i g u e fro m e x e r c i s e i s e l i m i n a t e d ,
in c r e a s in g h i s e f f i c i e n c y and a ls o h i s y e a r s o f
s e rv ic e .
When t h i s m eth o d i s u s e d i n a game t h e
o f f i c i a l i s f u r n i s h e d w i t h a b u t t o n w h ic h o p e r a t e s
a r e l e a s e v a lv e c o n n e c t i n g a w h i s t l e and a com­
p re s se d a i r ta n k .
By t h i s s im p le d e v ic e t h e r e f e r e e
s t o p s t h e p l a y b y m e r e ly p u s h in g t h e b u t t o n .
T h is
r e l i e v e s him fro m p l a c i n g t h e w h i s t l e t o hiB m o u th .
W ith o u t l o s s o f t i m e , he s p e a k s i n t o a m ic ro p h o n e
c o n n e c te d t o a p u b l i c a d d r e s s s y s te m t h a t c a n be
h e a r d b y p l a y e r s and s p e c t a t o r s a l i k e , a n n o u n c in g
t h e i n f r a c t i o n o f t h e r u l e s and s t a t i n g t h e p e n a l t y .
By a n n o u n c in g h i s d e c i s i o n im m e d ia te ly , t h e r e f e r e e
b u i l d s u p c o n f id e n c e i n b o t h p l a y e r s a n d a u d ie n c e .
The im m e d ia te d e c i s i o n h a s a s t r o n g e d u c a t i o n a l
v a lu e .
D.
Meed f o r t h e s t u d y
1.
S in c e gam es hav e a n e d u c a t i o n a l v a lu e a n d a r e
p l a y e d by a l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e o f o u r y o u t h , a s w e l l
a s a d u l t s , a c c u r a t e m e th o d s and t e c h n i q u e s o f o f ­
f i c i a t i n g a r e n e c e s s a r y t o h a n d le th e m .
6
2.
Up t o t h e p r e s e n t , e f f i c i e n t a n d a c c u r a t e m eth o d s
have n e v e r b e en e s t a b l is h e d f o r th e o f f i c i a t i n g o f
te a m g a m e s.
3.
As f a r a s i s k n o w n , n o s t u d y h a s b e e n made t o
d e te r m in e t h e r e l a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y o r a c c u r a c y o f
o ffic ia tin g .
E.
L im it a t io n s o f t h e S tu d y
1.
The s t u d y w i l l be c o n d u c te d u t i l i z i n g b a s k e t ­
b a l l a s t h e m edium f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t , s i n c e t h i s
game i s e a s y t o c o n t r o l , I s p la y e d on a s m a ll
a r e a , and i s w id e ly p o p u la r .
2.
A p r e l i m i n a r y s t u d y w i l l b e c o n d u c te d a t New Y ork
U n iv e rs ity u s in g th e I n t e r c o l l e g i a t e B a s k e tb a ll
T o u rn am en t i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h r e l i a b l e t e c h n i q u e s .
3.
The m ain s t u d y w i l l b e c o n d u c te d a t A c a d ia U n i­
v e r s i t y , u s i n g t h e I n t r a - M u r a l L eague Games.
P.
H i s t o r i c a l d a ta
O f f i c i a t i n g o f one c h a r a c t e r o r a n o t h e r s t a r t e d a s f a r
b ack a s th e e a r l i e s t fo n a s o f c o m p e titio n .
In th e s im p le s t
gam es w here t h e r e h a s b e e n t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f d o u b t o r i n ­
a c c u r a c y i n d e c i s i o n s , c o m p e t i t o r s h av e d e s i r e d t o a c c e p t t h e
ju d g m e n t o f a t h i r d
c a lle d a r e f e r e e .
o r d i s i n t e r e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l who i s u s u a l l y
I t I s g e n e r a lly a c c e p te d t h a t th e c o m p e tito rs
d e s i r e t o a b id e b y t h e s t a n d a r d s o r r u l e s t h a t h a v e b e e n e s t a b ­
lis h e d .
H o w ev er, t h e p r o t e c t i v e m ech an ism i n t h e m ak e-u p o f
e v e ry o n e u r g e s him t o a c c e p t o n ly o f f i c i a l s o f i n t e g r i t y , who
7
a re n o t b ia s e d a g a in s t Mm.
A c c o rd in g t o S c o t t ,
A good o f f i c i a l i n an y game m ust h a v e t h e a b i l i t y
t o se e e a c h p a r t i c u l a r p la y in e v e ry d e t a i l and
o f t e n i n l i g h t o f w hat h a s p r e c e d e d i t o r w hat f o l ­
lo w s i t .
A d e c i s i o n m u st b e made i n s t a n t l y ; a n d
t h a t d e c i s i o n may in v o lv e v a r i o u s r e a c t i o n s , s i g ­
n a l s t o b e made o r p e n a l t i e s t o b e a d m i n i s t e r e d .
I n b a s k e t b a l l w here t h e p l a y i s f a s t a n d t h e r u l e s
c o m p l i c a te d , t h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e . l
R u b in o b s e r v e s t h a t :
. . . g o o d o f f i c i a l s a r e s c a r c e , m a in ly b e c a u s e
t h e y do n o t know e x a c t l y on w hat p h a s e s o f t h e
game t o c o n c e n t r a t e t h e i r t r a i n i n g . C o a ch e s b a s e
t h e i r c h o ic e o f o f f i c i a l s m ore o r l e s s on a s u b ­
j e c t i v e ju d g m e n t, a n d t h e a t t i t u d e h a s b e e n t h a t
t o p l e a s e t h e c o a c h m eans m ore w ork f o r t h e o f f i ­
c ia l.
I t c a n e a s i l y b e s e e n how t h e game s u f f e r s .
He s t a t e s f u r t h e r t h a t :
. . . t h e c o l l e c t i o n s an d tre a tm e n t o f d a ta n e c e s s i ­
t a t e d th e p e r u s a l o f l i t e r a t u r e o u ts id e th e f i e l d
o f b a s k e t b a l l a s w e l l a s w i t h i n . V ery l i t t l e ma­
t e r i a l on o f f i c i a t i n g was fo u n d i n a c c e p t e d b a s k e t ­
b a l l t e x t s . T h e se b o o k s a r e w r i t t e n f o r p l a y e r s an d
c o a c h e s . B a s k e t b a l l o f f i c i a l s e v i d e n t l y h a d t o be
b o r n w i t h t h e k n o w le d g e , y e t t h e o f f i c i a l i n many
i n s t a n c e s d e c i d e s w h e th e r t h e game i s f a s t , i n t e r e s t ­
in g , s p e c ta c u la r o r o th e r w is e .”
D u rin g t h e p a s t tw o y e a r s t h e a u t h o r o f t h i s d i s s e r t a ­
t i o n h a s b e e n u n a b le t o f i n d an y s t u d i e s , r e p o r t s i n b o o k s , o r
1.
2.
M. G la d y s S c o t t , W r i t t e n T e s t f o r B a s k e t b a l l O f f i c i a l s .
J o u r n a l o f H e a lth an d P h y s ic a l E d u c a tio n , 8 (J a n u a r y ,
T93YTV p 7"4T ;------------------ ------------------------------R o b e rt R u b in , R a ti n g S c a le f o r B a s k e t b a l l O f f i c i a l s . J o u r ­
n a l o f H e a lth and P h y s ic a l E d u c a tio n . 7 (J a n u a ry , 1 9 3 6 ),
p . 35 .
8
p e r i o d i c a l s t h a t a tte m p te d t o d e te r m in e t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f
v a rio u s p o s itio n s in o f f i c i a t i n g .
T h e re a r e , h o w e v e r, a num 1
h e r o f a r t i c l e s on t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r o f f i c i a l s , a s w e l l
2
a s some r a t i n g s c a l e s
t h a t hav e b e e n d e v i s e d .
B ut t h e o f ­
f i c i a l s hav e a c c e p t e d t h e p o s i t i o n s f o r r e f e r e e s and u m p ire s
a s a d o p te d b y t h e r u l e s c o m m itte e a n d assum ed t h a t t h e s e w ere
th e b e s t .
N ot u n t i l a b o u t t e n y e a r s ag o w as a n y e x p e r im e n t c a r ­
r i e d on t o d e te r m in e t h e p o s i t i o n w here t h e o f f i c i a l c o u ld b e s t
s e e t h e p l a y i n g a r e a a n d t h u s r e n d e r m ore a c c u r a t e a n d j u s t
3
d e c is io n s .
At t h a t tim e t h e a u t h o r c a r r i e d on s u c h a n e x ­
p e rim e n t.
He h a d s e v e r a l t h i n g s i n m ind b u t t h e m ain o b j e c t i v e
was a n a t t e m p t t o e l i m i n a t e t h e r o u g h a n d d i r t y p l a y t h a t so
o fte n e sca p es an o f f i c i a l 's n o tic e .
The r e a s o n f o r t h i s o v e r ­
s i g h t w as assu m ed t o be t h e f a c t t h a t s i n c e p l a y e r s p a s s e d b e ­
tw e e n t h e o f f i c i a l a n d t h e p l a y i t s e l f t h e o f f i c i a l was u n ­
a b l e t o d e te r m in e t h e c a u s e o f a m ix -u p a n d i n many c a s e s c a l l e d
a h e ld b a l l .
I n t h e e x p e r im e n t r e f e r r e d t o a n e f f i c i a l was
p l a c e d 12 f e e t ab o v e t h e f l o o r a n d a t t h e s i d e c e n t e r w here
he coaid lo o k down on t h e p l a y e r s a n d f l o o r .
He was p l a c e d i n
a s t a t i o n a r y p o s i t i o n s o t h a t he c o u ld h a n d le t h e game e f ­
f i c i e n t l y w h e th e r he was i n p e r f e c t p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n o r n o t .
On o c c a s io n o f f i c i a l s h a v e b e e n a p p o i n t e d w ho, b e c a u s e o f la c k
1.
2.
3.
E . W ebb, Q u a l i f i c a t i o n f o r O f f i c i a t i n g i n G i r l s 1 B a s k e t­
b a l l . V i r g i n i a J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n . 31 ( F e b r u a r y , 1 9 3 8 ) ,
p . 218.
R u b in , o p . c l t . . p . 3 3 ,
W .T. O sE oxne, A New M ethod o f O f f i c i a t i n g B a s k e t b a l l .
A t h l e t l c J o u r n a l , X I I I (M a rc h , 1 9 3 3 ) , p . 4 0 .
9
o f t r a i n i n g o r b e c a u s e o f a g e , h av e b e e n u n a b le t o f o l l o w t h e
p la y .
T h is new method, e l i m i n a t e d t h i s s t r a i n a n d an o f f i c i a l
c o u ld h a n d le one o r m ore games w i t h e a s e a n d t h u s e x te n d h i s
p e r i o d o f u s e f u l n e s s a s a n e x p e r t f o r many y e a r s b ey o n d t h a t
w h ic h h a s b e e n a c c e p t e d a s e f f e c t i v e .
Many d i f f i c u l t i e s a r o s e , h o w e v e r.
Some w ere t h e r e ­
s u l t o f t r a d i t i o n , b u t o t h e r s w ere d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t h a d t o be
as
ov ercom es
Some m eth o d o f c o m m u n ic a tio n b e tw e e n t h e o f f i c i a l
ab o v e a n d t h e o f f i c i a l a n d p l a y e r s on t h e f l o o r h a d t o b e a r ­
ran g e d .
A r a t h e r c o m p lic a te d s y s te m o f e l e c t r i c
l i g h t s an d
s i g n s was f i r s t w orked o u t b u t i t p ro v e d a f a i l u r e b e c a u s e i t
was t o o s lo w a n d b e c a u s e v i s i t i n g te a m s w ere n o t f a m i l i a r w i t h
it.
T hen a s i m p l i f i e d s y s te m w i t h n u m b ers a n d e l e c t r i c
lig h ts
was w o rk ed o u t , b u t t h a t , t o o , p r o v e d doom ed t o f a i l u r e .
F o r t u n a t e l y , a p u b l i c a d d r e s s s y s te m w as p u r c h a s e d so o n
a f t e r t h i s tim e an d t h i s m eth o d o f c o m m u n ic a tio n was t r i e d .
Loud s p e a k e r s w ere p l a c e d i n v a r i o u s p a r t s o f t h e gym nasium an d
a m ic ro p h o n e a n d a m p l i f i e r w ere p l a c e d b e s i d e t h e o f f i c i a l .
once t h e r e was a tre m e n d o u s c h a n g e .
At
Now t h e r e f e r e e c o u ld
b lo w h i s w h i s t l e t o s t b p t h e game a n d t h e n im m e d ia te ly s p e a k
i n t o t h e m ic ro p h o n e e x p l a i n i n g w hat in f r in g e m e n t o f t h e r u l e s
h ad b e e n made a n d a n n o u n c in g t h e p e n a l t y t o b e i n f l i c t e d .
B ut t h i s s y s te m w as n o t p e r f e c t e i t h e r , b e c a u s e t h e e l e ­
m ent o f tim e n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e r e f e r e e t o rem ove t h e w h i s t l e
fro m h i s m o u th a n d s p e a k i n t o t h e m ic ro p h o n e was d i s t u r b i n g .
A n o th e r f e a t u r e w h ic h was a n n o y in g was t h a t n o i s e s o f a l a r g e
cro w d n e a r t h e m ic ro p h o n e w ere p i c k e d u p a n d a m p l i f i e d a ro u n d
10
t h e gym nasium .
A n o th e r ty p e o f m ic ro p h o n e was t h e r e f o r e p r o ­
c u r e d , t h e t y p e t h a t i s u s e d i n a e r o p l a n e s , w h ic h p i c k s up
o n ly so u n d s im m e d ia te ly i n f r o n t o f I t .
T hen s u c h d i f f e r e n t
t y p e s o f e l e c t r i c d e v i c e s a s b e l l s an d a u t o h o r n s w ere t r i e d
o u t a s a m eth o d o f s t o p p i n g t h e gam e.
T h ese p ro v e d q u i t e u n ­
s a t i s f a c t o r y a n d f i n a l l y a r e g u l a r w h i s t l e was a t t a c h e d t o a
s m a ll c o m p re sse d a i r t a n k .
The w h i s t l e was o p e r a t e d by a s m a ll
b u t t o n c o n n e c te d t o a r e l e a s e v a l v e .
A c o n s ta n t p re s s u re of
a b o u t t w e n t y - f i v e p o u n d s was m a i n t a i n e d i n t h e a i r t a n k by
m eans o f a s m a ll c o m p r e s s o r o p e r a t e d e l e c t r i c a l l y .
t h e m e c h a n ic a l f e a t u r e s w ere f i n a l l y
In b r i e f ,
s o l v e d , b u t o n ly a f t e r
many t r i a l s a n d f a i l u r e s .
An a s s i s t a n t r e f e r e e was a l s o a s s i g n e d t o t h e p l a y i n g
c o u r t t o a s s i s t t h e r e f e r e e a b o v e a n d t o aw ard t h e p e n a l t i e s .
As t h e r e s u l t o f r e f e r e e i n g m ore t h a n one h u n d re d games
b y t h e ab o v e m e th o d , c e r t a i n a s s u m p tio n s w ere f o r m u l a t e d w h ic h
c r y s t a l i z e d i n t o t h e b e l i e f t h a t o f f i c i a l s w ould r e n d e r t h e i r
d e c i s i o n s m ore a c c u r a t e l y i f p l a c e d i n p o s i t i o n s o t h e r t h a n
t h o s e now a c c e p t e d a s o r th o d o x .
The a u t h o r h a d t h e p r i v i l e g e o f kno w in g D r .^ N a is m ith ,
t h e I n v e n t o r o f b a s k e t b a l l , a n d on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s d i s c u s s e d
t h i s p ro b le m o f o f f i c i a t i n g w i t h h im .
A lth o u g h N a is m ith was
1
o p p o se d t o a n y m a jo r c h a n g e s i n t h e o r i g i n a l game a n d t h e s e t
o f r u l e s t h a t w e re draw n u p n e a r l y f i f t y y e a r s a g o , he becam e
1.
P ra n k G. M enke, E n c y c lo p e d ia o f S p o r t s , p p . 1 2 - 1 4 .
s e e A p p e n d ix f o r h i s t o r y b y N a i s m i t h . )
(A ls o
11
g r e a t l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s new k i n d o f r e f e r e e i n g b e c a u s e o f
i t s e d u c a tio n a l im p lic a tio n s .
N a is m ith a d v o c a te d a f a i r l y
r u g g e d game b u t he n e v e r c o n d o n ed r o u g h o r d i r t y t a c t i c s .
He
was i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f t h e p l a y e r ’ s p e r s o n a l i t y
t h r o u g h f a i r p l a y a n d s p o r t s m a n li k e c o n d u c t .
F o r t h i s rea so n
he s u p p o r t e d t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e r e f e r e e b e p l a c e d i n a
p o s i t i o n w here he c o u ld b e s t s e e th o s e i n f r i n g e m e n t s , p a r t i c u ­
l a r l y f o u l s , t h a t a r e f r e q u e n t l y m is s e d a n d more o f t e n m is ­
ju d g e d .
CHAPTER I I
PROCEDURE
I n f o r m a t io n N e c e s s a r y f o r t h e S tu d y
F i r s t o f a l l i t w as n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e a u t h o r t o sp e n d
c o n s i d e r a b l e tim e e s t a b l i s h i n g p r o p e r t e c h n i q u e s t h a t c o u ld be
u s e d i n t h e c o l l e c t i n g o f t h e d a t a so t h a t t h e s e c o u ld b e s y s ­
te m a t i c a ll y o rg a n iz e d and a n a ly z e d .
p a t t e r n s o f p o s i t i o n s w ere t r i e d
V a r io u s c o m b in a tio n s o r
i n t h e c o u r s e o f e x p e r im e n ta ­
t i o n , a n d i n a l l , f o u r t e e n p o s i t i o n s w e re u s e d , o f w h ic h f i v e
w ere f i n a l l y d e c i d e d upon a s a d e q u a t e .
Two o f t h e s e f i v e
p o s i t i o n s a r e t h e o n e s now u s e d , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e a c c e p te d
r u l e s , i n o f f i c i a t i n g t h e game o f b a s k e t b a l l .
stuned t h a t t h e s e tw o
The a u t h o r a s -
m ig h t n o t be t h e m ost s a t i s f a c t o r y .
T h e re m ig h t p o s s i b l y b e a n o t h e r c o m b in a tio n o f tw o o r e v e n
t h r e e t h a t w o u ld g iv e o f f i c i a l s m ore a d e q u a te s u p e r v i s i o n i n
te r m s o f j u s t d e c i s i o n s a n d h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l o u tco m es f o r
b o th p la y e r s and a u d ie n c e .
A ll t h i s e f f o r t i s f o r th e p u rp o se
o f p l a c i n g o f f i c i a l s w here t h e y c a n j u s t i f y t h e i r d e c i s i o n s ,
t o b o th p la y e r and s p e c ta to r s im u lta n e o u s ly .
Some s c h o o l s a n d c l u b s c a n i l l a f f o r d t o p a y f o r e v e n
one r e f e r e e .
B ut m ost p l a c e s c a n a f f o r d t o p a y f o r tw o , a n d
N um bered 1 a n d 2 , a c c o r d i n g t o D ia g ra m # 1 (p a g e 1 3 ) .
12
13
Legends
1-8
s
C D »(§? s
@,(4),©
fT\
=
Floor divisions or areas
Officials on the floor
■ Offioials above the playing area
Recorded
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W
DIAGRAM 1>
Playing Court Showing the Eight
Areas and Five Positions from which
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14
w here g a te r e c e i p t s a r e h i g h , c a n e a s i l y a f f o r d t o p a y f o r
t h r e e r e f e r e e s i f t h e a d v a n ta g e s a r e g r e a t e n o u g h .
S o u rc e s a n d C o l l e c t i o n o f D a ta
A.
O ver a p e r i o d o f t e n y e a r s a t A c a d ia U n i v e r s i t y a c o n ­
s i d e r a b l e am ount o f w ork h a s b e e n d one by t h e a u t h o r i n d e v i s ­
in g m eth o d s a n d t e c h n i q u e s .
T h is w ork was c o n ti n u e d b y u t i l i z ­
i n g t h e New Y ork U n i v e r s i t y I n t e r c o l l e g e B a s k e t b a l l T ournam en t
Games o f 1 9 5 8 -1 9 3 9 t o s t a n d a r d i z e m eth o d s a n d t e c h n i q u e s an d t o
c a r r y on a p r e l i m i n a r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n a s t o t h e i r e f f i c i e n c y .
The m a t e r i a l u s e d i n t h i s s tu d y was o b t a i n e d a t A c a d ia
U n i v e r s i t y d u r i n g t h e s e a s o n o f 1 9 3 9 -4 0 .
The games s e l e c t e d
w ere p l a y e d i n t h e I n t r a m u r a l L e a g u e .
B.
T h ro u g h t h e i n t e r e s t a n d c o o p e r a t i o n o f t h e Nova S c o t ia
A m ateu r B a s k e t b a l l A s s o c i a t i o n , c o m p e te n t o f f i c i a l s w ere s e 1
l e c t e d who r e f e r e e d a l l games a n a l y s e d i n t h i s s t u d y .
C.
R e c o rd e rs:
The a c t u a l r e c o r d i n g s w ere made b y s t u d e n t s
o f t h e D e p a rtm e n t o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a tio n a t A c a d ia f a m i l i a r
w i t h t h e game who h a d b e e n g i v e n i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e te c h n iq u e
o f t a b u l a t i n g t h e d a t a on t h e fo rm s p r o v i d e d .
D.
a re a s.
D iv is io n o f c o u r t.
The c o u r t was d i v i d e d i n t o e i g h t
T h is d i v i s i o n was made f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s ; f i r s t ,
t o show t h e a c t u a l i d e n t i t y o f t h e i n f r in g e m e n t s c a l l e d , w h ic h
1.
L e t t e r fro m t h e S e c r e t a r y o f t h e N .S .A .B .A . a u t h o r i z i n g a n
a c c r e d i t e d l i s t o f o f f i c i a l s f o r t h i s s t u d y . See Ap­
p e n d ix .
-ft
See T a b le I , p ag e 1 5 .
#&■ See D ia g ra m 1 , p . 1 3 .
15
IABLE I *
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16
was a n e c e s s a r y p r o c e d u r e i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e
b e tw e e n p o s i t i o n s an d o f f i c i a l s ;
se c o n d , t o d e te rm in e w h eth er
t h e i n f r i n g e m e n t s c a l l e d w e re d i s t r i b u t e d e v e n l y o v e r t h e p l a y ­
i n g c o u r t o r w h e t h e r a n y one o f t h r e e t y p e s
(p erso n al fo u ls ,
v i o l a t i o n s , o r h e l d b a l l s ) was m ore f r e q u e n t l y c o m m itte d i n
one a r e a t h a n i n a n o t h e r ; an d t h i r d , t o i n d i c a t e w h at p e r c e n t ­
a g e o f i n f r i n g e m e n t s was c a l l e d b y e a c h p o s i t i o n i n t h e e i g h t
areas*
E*
(2 )
I n f r i n g e m e n t s o f t h e r u l e s f o r (1 ) p e r s o n a l f o u l s ,
v i o l a t i o n s , a n d (3 ) h e l d b a l l s w ere r e g i s t e r e d s o a s t o
show ( a ) t h e name o f t h e t e a m , (b ) t h e num ber o f t h e p l a y e r ,
a n d ( c ) t h e a r e a on t h e f l o o r w here t h e i n f r i n g e m e n t o c c u r r e d .
1.
T h e s e d a t a w e re r e c o r d e d f o r t w e n t y - f i v e games c o n ­
d u c t e d an d r e f e r e e d by t h e p r e s e n t m e th o d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e
p re se n t in te r p r e ta tio n of th e r u l e s .
2.
p o sitio n s
The same f i v e q u a l i f i e d o f f i c i a l s a c t i n g i n f i v e
( s e e D ia g ra m 1 , p a g e 13) w i t h a s s o c i a t e s r e c o r d i n g
on s p e c i a l f o r m s what t h e y w ould c a l l a c c o r d i n g t o t h e a g r e e d
u p o n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , o f f i c i a t e d i n a l l o f t h e t w e n t y - f i v e games
used in t h i s
stu d y .
The o f f i c i a l s r o t a t e d t h e i r p o s i t i o n s
a f t e r e a c h game so t h a t e a c h one o f f i c i a t e d i n e v e r y one o f t h e
fiv e p o s itio n s fiv e tim e s.
a.
Two o f t h e o f f i c i a l s w ere p l a c e d i n t h e same
t w o - f l o o r p o s i t i o n s t h a t a r e now u s e d i n r e f e r e e i n g t h e g a m e s.
E a c h o f t h e s e r e f e r e e s was a s s i s t e d b y a r e c o r d e r who r e g i s t e r e d
a l l t h e i n f r i n g e m e n t s t h a t e a c h one c a l l e d .
b.
T h r e e o t h e r o f f i c i a l s w e re p l a c e d , w i t h t h e i r
17
a s s i s t a n t s r e g i s t e r i n g w hat t h e y c a l l e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e
agfreed u p o n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g p o s i t i o n s :
(1 ) num ber t h r e e p o s i t i o n ( s e e D iag ram 1) a t t h e s i d e c e n t e r
and 12 f e e t a b o v e t h e p l a y i n g c o u r t ;
(2 ) n um ber f o u r p o s i ­
t i o n , a t t h e n o r t h e n d and 12 f e e t a b o v e t h e p l a y i n g c o u r t ;
(3) n um ber f i v e p o s i t i o n , a t t h e s o u t h en d an d 12 f e e t above
th e p la y in g c o u r t .
E a c h o f t h e t h r e e r e f e r e e s above t h e p l a y ­
i n g c o u r t c a l l e d e v e r y t h i n g t h a t he w o u ld have c a l l e d , a c c o r d ­
i n g t o t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , h a d he s e e n i t fro m an y o t h e r p o ­
s i t i o n , and th e r e c o r d e r s t a b u l a t e d th e s e in f r in g e m e n ts .
The
t h r e e o f f i c i a l s i n t h e t h r e e p o s i t i o n s abov e t h e c o u r t d i d n o t
i h any way i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e p r o g r e s s o f t h e gam e.
P.
The r e c o r d i n g s w ere made i n one m in u te u n i t s i n o r d e r
t o i d e n t i f y t h e c a l l e d i n f r i n g e m e n t s an d o b t a i n a g re e m e n t b e ­
tw e e n o f f i c i a l s a n d p o s i t i o n s .
Two a s s i s t a n t t i m e r s w ere
p l a c e d a t o p p o s i t e s i d e s o f t h e f l o o r w here one o r t h e o t h e r
c o u ld be se e n by th e f i v e r e c o r d e r s .
Each tim e r c o n tr o lle d a
s e r i e s o f c a r d s n u m b ere d ftfom one t o t e n w h ic h w ere c h a n g e d
s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a s t h e tim e k e e p e r s c l o c k r e g i s t e r e d a c h an g e
i n e la p s e d m in u te s of p l a y .
I n t h e p r e l i m i n a r y e x p e r i m e n t s i t was f o u n d t h a t a b ­
s o l u t e i d e n t i t y o f i n f r i n g e m e n t b e tw e e n p o s i t i o n s was o b t a i n e d
by r e g i s t e r i n g t h e i n f r i n g e m e n t s i n one m in u te u n i t s a c c o r d ­
i n g t o t h e e i g h t a r e a s on t h e f l o o r .
G.
The f i v e o f f i c i a l s w e re r o t a t e d i n t h e f i v e p o s i t i o n s
f o r t h e t w e n t y - f i v e games s o t h a t e a c h o f f i c i a l was i n e v e r y
p o s itio n fiv e tim e s.
T h i s was done i n o r d e r t o s t u d y t h e s c o r e s
of each p o sitio n irre s p e c tiv e of o f f i c i a l .
CHAPTER I I I
ORGANIZATION AND ANALYSIS OP DATA
R e c o rd s
The r e c o r d s o f e a c h p o s i t i o n an d o f f i c i a l w e re c l a s ­
s i f i e d i n t h r e e d i v i s i o n s o r t y p e s o f i n f r i n g e m e n t s ; n a m e ly ,
p e r s o n a l f o u l s , v i o l a t i o n s , and h e ld b a l l s .
T h ese s e p a r a t e
c a t e g o r i e s w ere f o l l o w e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e s t u d y an d w e re f o u n d
t o be v e r y i m p o r t a n t f r o m t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d .
The r e c o r d s o f e a c h o f f i c i a l a n d p o s i t i o n w e re t h e n
t a b u l a t e d i n one m in u te u n i t s f o r e a c h g a m e , a c c o r d i n g t o a r e a s
a n d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p l a y e r u p o n whom t h e i n f r i n g e m e n t was
*
c a lle d .
T hu s f o r e a c h game t h e r e a r e f o r t y g r a p h i c p i c t u r e s
o f w hat t o o k p l a c e , w h ere t h e i n f r i n g e m e n t s w ere c a l l e d , b y
whom, and u p o n whom.
A l t h o u g h t h e q u e s t i o n o f upo n whom t h e y
w ere c a l l e d , was n o t i m p o r t a n t , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o r e c o r d t h e
r e s u l t s i n t h i s way i n o r d e r t o g e t i d e n t i t y .
The i n f o r m a t i o n
o f g r e a t e s t i n t e r e s t i s w here t h e y w ere c a l l e d a n d b y w h ic h
p o sitio n .
R eco rd in g s
A.
#
The one t h o u s a n d , one m in u te u n i t fo rm s o r g r a p h i c
See T a b l e I I , p a g e 1 9 .
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p i c t u r e s f o r e a c h o f t h e t h r e e t y p e s o f i n f r i n g e m e n t s were
t h e n t a b u l a t e d i n game u n i t s , t o show t h e num ber o f i n f r i n g e ­
m e n t s , p e r s o n a l f o u l s , v i o l a t i o n s , an d h e l d b a l l s c a l l e d by
ft
e a c h p o s i t i o n an d o f f i c i a l , an d a l s o b y e v e r y o t h e r p o s i t i o n
■5H2-
and o f f i c i a l
t o show t h e n u m b er r e c o r d e d a l o n e , by any o t h e r
o f f i c i a l , tw o o t h e r o f f i c i a l s , b y t h r e e o t h e r o f f i c i a l s a n d b y
fo u r o th e r o f f i c i a l s .
B.
T h e s e one t h o u s a n d , o n e - m in u te u n i t f o r m s , f o r e a c h
o f t h e t h r e e t y p e s o f i n f r i n g e m e n t s w ere t h e n t a b u l a t e d i n
game u n i t s , t o show t h e nu m b er o f i n f r i n g e m e n t s , p e r s o n a l
f o u l s , v i o l a t i o n s , a n d h e l d b a l l s , t h a t w ere n o t c a l l e d by
•SHHt
ftftftft
each p o sitio n
and o f f i c i a l ,
b u t r e c o r d e d by e v e r y o t h e r
p o s i t i o n a n d o f f i c i a l a s w e l l a s t o show t h e n um ber r e c o r d e d
by o n e, tw o , t h r e e , and f o u r o f f i c i a l s .
B a s i c D a ta
The abo ve f o u r s e t s o f d a t a f o r e a c h o f t h e t h r e e
t y p e s o f i n f r i n g e m e n t s t h e n become t h e b a s i c d a t a fro m w h ic h
t h e t a b l e s w ere c o m p i l e d .
Hk
ftft
ftftft
ftftftft
See
See
See
See
T ab le
T ab le
T ab le
T a b le
I I I (p a g e 2 1 ) .
IV (page 2 2 ) .
V (p a g e 2 3 ) .
V I (p a g e 2 4 ) .
21
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Ve
P e r s o n a l F o u l s A c c o r d in g t o A re a s
One o f t h e f i r s t q u e s t i o n s t h a t was n e c e s s a r y t o a n ­
s w e r w a s , ’’Where do t h e i n f r i n g e m e n t s o c c u r on t h e p l a y i n g
c o u rt? ”
From t h e one m in u te u n i t g r a p h i c f o r m s , t a b u l a t i o n s
w ere made i n game u n i t s t o show t h e num ber o f p e r s o n a l f o u l s
r e c o r d e d by e a c h o f t h e f i v e p o s i t i o n s i n t h e e i g h t r e s p e c t i v e
f l o o r a r e a s , b o th as to p o s i t io n and o f f i c i a l .
T a b u la tio n s
w ere t h e n c o m p i l e d f o r t h e t w e n t y - f i v e games b y p o s i t i o n , i r ­
r e s p e c t i v e o f o f f i c i a l s , b e c a u s e t h e i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r was t h e
p o s i t i o n f r o m w h ic h t h e f o u l s w ere c a l l e d r a t h e r t h a n t h e o f ­
f i c i a l who c a l l e d th e m .
E ven more i m p o r t a n t , h o w e v e r, was t h e
a r e a i n w h ic h t h e p e r s o n a l f o u l s w ere c o m m i tt e d .
T a b l e s were
t h e r e f o r e d raw n u p t o show t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f n o t i c e by e a c h
o f t h e f i v e p o s i t i o n s f o r t h e t w e n t y - f i v e g a m e s.
I t has
o f t e n b e e n assu m ed t h a t p e r s o n a l f o u l s o c c u r more f r e q u e n t l y
in c e r t a i n a r e a s , e . g . aro u n d th e b a s k e t , t h a n in o t h e r a r e a s
b u t , u n t i l now t h e r e h a s b e e n no s p e c i f i c p r o o f o f t h i s a s ­
su m p tio n .
A.
I t was n o t e d t h a t t h e f o u l s c a l l e d b y p o s i t i o n one
w ere n o t d i s t r i b u t e d e v e n l y o v e r t h e p l a y i n g a r e a b u t w ere
c a l l e d t w i c e a s f r e q u e n t l y i n a r e a s tw o a n d s e v e n a s i n any
o t h e r o f th e s i x f l o o r a r e a s , tw e n ty -tw o p e r c e n t b e in g c a l l e d
i n a r e a 1?wo, a n d t w e n t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t i n a r e a s e v e n .
The
p e r c e n t a g e o f d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n t h o s e c a l l e d i n a r e a s o n e ,
#
See T a b l e V I I (p a g e 2 6 ) .
See T a b le V I I I (p a g e 27)_.
for
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28
t h r e e , f o u r , f i v e , s i x , an d e i g h t was s o s m a l l t h a t i t
s ig n ific a n t.
is not
The p e r s o n a l f o u l s c a l l e d fr o m p o s i t i o n one o c ­
c u r r e d fro m e i g h t t o e l e v e n p e r c e n t o f t h e t i m e i n t h e s i x
a r e a s n u m b ered o n e , t h r e e , f o u r , f i v e , s i x a n d e i g h t ; w h e r e a s ,
t h e y o c c u r r e d t w e n t y - t w o a n d t w e n t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t o f t h e tim e
r e s p e c t i v e l y , i n p o s i t i o n s tw o a n d s e v e n .
B.
T h e r e was a b o u t t h e same p i c t u r e f ro m p o s i t i o n t w o , e x ­
c e p t t h a t t w e n t y - f o u r p e r c e n t o f f o u l s c a l l e d w ere n o t i c e d i n
a r e a tw o a n d t w e n t y - o n e p e r c e n t i n a r e a s e v e n .
T h i s c h an g e
m ig h t b e e x p e c t e d , s i n c e t h e o f f i c i a l s i n p o s i t i o n one c o v e r e d
th e e a s t s id e o f th e f l o o r and th e n o r t h
fic ia ls
end w h ile th e o f ­
i n p o s i t i o n tw o c o v e r e d t h e w e s t s i d e o f t h e f l o o r a n d
th e so u th e n d .
The p e r c e n t a g e o f f o u l s c a l l e d i n a r e a s o n e ,
t h r e e , f o u r , f i v e , s i x , and e i g h t ran g e d from e i g h t t o t e n
p e r cen t and a re n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t .
G.
P o s i t i o n t h r e e i n d i c a t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same r e ­
s u l t in th e p e rc en ta g e of n o tic e
in th e v a rio u s a r e a s .
T w e n ty -
f o u r p e r c e n t w e re n o t i c e d i n a r e a tw o w h i l e t w e n t y p e r c e n t
w ere n o t i c e d i n a r e a s e v e n .
I n t h e o t h e r s i x a r e a s t h e ra n g e
was f r o m s e v e n t o t e n p e r c e n t .
T h is fo llo w e d v ery c lo s e ly
t h e tw o p r e v i o u s p o s i t i o n s .
D.
P o s i t i o n f o u r was a t t h e n o r t h e n d and i n d i c a t e s a
s l i g h t l y h ig h e r p e rc e n ta g e o f n o t ic e in a re a seven th a n in
«•
See T a b l e V I I I (p a g e 2 7 ) .
29
a r e a tw o .
How ever, t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s a r e c o m p a r a t i v e l y s l i g h t
and a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t fro m t h e p r e v i o u s r e s u l t s .
T h e re i s t h e same s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e o f more t h a n t e n p e r
c e n t b e tw e e n t h e num ber t h a t w ere c a l l e d i n a r e a s tw o and s e v e n
a s co m p ared w i t h t h e o t h e r s i x a r d a s .
E.
P o s itio n f iv e a t th e so u th end, in d ic a te d a s l i g h t l y
h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e o f n o t i c e i n a r e a tw o t h a n i n a r e a s e v e n ,
p r o b a b l y b e c a u s e t h e p o s i t i o n was ab o v e a r e a tw o on t h e
flo o r.
H ow ever, t h e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h e same s t o r y .
Summary
C o n sid e rin g th e p e rc e n ta g e of n o tic e of p e rs o n a l f o u ls
i n t h e e i g h t a r e a s f r o m t h e f i v e p o s i t i o n s , i t was f o u n d t h a t
t h e r e was a s t r i k i n g d i f f e r e n c e a s t o w h e re t h e p e r s o n a l f o u l
o ccu rred.
Prom t w e n t y - t w o t o t w e n t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t e a c h o c ­
c u r r e d i n a r e a s tw o a n d s e v e n , w h e re a s fro m e i g h t t o t e n p e r
cen t each o ccu rred in th e s ix o th e r a re a s .
A p p ro x im ately tw ic e
a s many f o u l s o c c u r r e d i n e a c h o f t h e tw o a r e a s u n d e r t h e b a s k e t
a s i n any o t h e r one a r e a on t h e f l o o r .
■aT a b u la tio n o f V i o l a t i o n s A c co rd in g t o A reas
I n c o m p i l i n g v i o l a t i o n s t h e same p r o c e d u r e was f o l ­
low ed a s i n c o m p i l i n g p e r s o n a l f o u l s .
A.
*
A f a i r l y even d i s t r i b u t i o n of v i o l a t i o n s o v e r a l l th e
See T a b l e IX (p a g e 3 0 ) . _
30
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31
a r e a s was r e c o r d e d f r o m p o s i t i o n o n e .
The r a n g e was f r o m
e l e v e n p e r c e n t i n a r e a s one an d e i g h t t o f i f t e e n p e r c e n t i n
area f i v e .
A re a s f o u r a n d f i v e , t h e tw o c e n t e r f l o o r a r e a s ,
had a s l i g h t l y h ig h e r p e rc e n ta g e o f n o t i c e t h a n t h e o t h e r s i x
areas.
A r e a s one a n d e i g h t h a d t h e l o w e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f r e ­
c o r d i n g ; n a m e ly , t e n - a n d - o n e - h a l f a n d e l e v e n p e r c e n t r e s p e c ­
tiv e ly .
B.
The p e r c e n t a g e o f r e c o r d i n g s f r o m p o s i t i o n two showed
a g r e a t e r ran g e in th e v a rio u s a r e a s , ra n g in g fro m e ig h t p e r
c en t in a re a s ix t o n in e te e n p e r c en t in a re a f i v e .
Ten p e r
c e n t o f t h e v i o l a t i o n s w ere c a l l e d i n a r e a s s e v e n an d e i g h t ,
e le v e n p e r c e n t in a r e a s t h r e e , tw e lv e p e r c e n t in a r e a o n e ,
f i f t e e n p e r c e n t in a re a f o u r and s ix te e n p e r c e n t in a re a
tw o .
C.
The r a n g e was n o t q u i t e s o p r o n o u n c e d when c a l l e d fro m
p o sitio n th r e e .
co rd ed .
A rea one was t h e l o w e s t w i t h n i n e p e r c e n t r e ­
A re a s t h r e e , e i g h t , s i x , f i v e , s e v e n , a n d f o u r r e ­
co rd ed th e fo llo w in g p e r c e n ts r e s p e c t i v e l y :
e le v e n , t h i r t e e n , f i f t e e n and f i f t e e n .
te n , e le v e n ,
P o s i ti o n t h r e e found
t h a t v i o l a t i o n s o c cu rred l e s s f r e q u e n tly in th e f o u r c o m e r
a r e a s t h a n i n t h e c e n t e r o f t h e f l o o r a n d i n t h e tw o a r e a s
under th e b a s k e ts .
D.
P o s i t i o n f o u r r e p o r t e d a v ery even d i s t r i b u t i o n o f
t h e v i o l a t i o n s i n t h e f o u r c o m e r a r e a s , i n e a c h o f w h ic h t h e
o ffic ia ls
i n p o s i t i o n t h r e e Bad n o t i c e d t e n p e r c e n t o f t h e
32
%
in frin g e m e n ts.
A g a in a r e a s f o u r , f i v e , t w o , a n d s e v e n h a d
a s ig n if ic a n tly h ig h e r in c id e n c e .
E.
From p o s i t i o n f i v e t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n was c h a n g e d o n l y
s l i g h t l y , f o l l o w i n g more c l o s e l y t h e p i c t u r e f o u n d i n p o s i ­
t i o n s one a n d tw o ; n a m e ly , t h a t a r e a s t w o , f o u r a n d f i v e h a d
th e h ig h e s t p e rc e n ta g e of in f r in g e m e n ts , w ith a re a seven d ro p ­
p in g back t o e le v e n p e r c e n t , a p p ro x im a te ly e q u a l t o th e f o u r
co m er p o s itio n s .
Summary
The c o m b in e d s c o r e s o f t h e p o s i t i o n s , t h a t
i s , con­
s i d e r in g th e p e rc e n ta g e of n o t ic e by a r e a s i r r e s p e c t i v e o f po­
s i t i o n , i n d i c a t e s v e r y s t r o n g l y t h a t t h e f o u r c o m e r a r e a s on
th e p la y in g c o u rt had a p p ro x im a te ly an e q u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of
v io la tio n s.
A rea one had 1 0 .4 p e r c e n t , a r e a t h r e e had 1 0 .7
p e r c e n t , a r e a s i x h a d 1 0 . 6 p e r c e n t , a n d a r e a e i g h t h a d 1 0 .1
p e r c e n t of th o se c a lle d in a l l e ig h t a r e a s .
A r e a s f o u r and
f i v e h a d a b o u t t h e same d i s t r i b u t i o n a s a r e a t w o , w i t h 1 4 .9 p e r
c e n t , 1 5 . 3 p e r c e n t a n d 1 5 .2 p e r c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y .
A rea s e v e n
w i t h 1 2 .4 p e r c e n t o f t h e v i o l a t i o n s c a l l e d i 3 s l i g h t l y lo w e r
t h a n a r e a two w h ic h i s i n t h e same c o r r e s p o n d i n g p o s i t i o n on
th e p la y in g c o u r t.
The d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n a r e a s s e v e n and two
i s h ig h ly s i g n i f i c a n t w ith a c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 3 .
J u s t why
t h e s e tw o a r e a s s h o u l d be d i f f e r e n t c a n n o t be e n t i r e l y e x -
See T a b l e IX (p a g e 3 0 ) .
33
p l a i n e d fro m t h e m a t e r i a l .
T a b u l a t i o n o f H e ld B a l i a A c c o r d i n g t o A re a s
The p e r c e n t a g e o f h e l d b a l l s c a l l e d by p o s i t i o n s i n
t h e v a r i o u s a r e a s was o b t a i n e d by f o l l o w i n g t h e same p r o c e d u r e
a s t h a t e x p l a i n e d i n S e c t i o n IV f o r t h e t a b u l a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l
fo u ls.
A.
Prom p o s i t i o n one a c o m p a r a t i v e l y h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f
h e l d b a l l s was c a l l e d w i t h i n a r e a s two an d s e v e n .
The d i s ­
t r i b u t i o n was e q u a l , b e i n g 1 9 .2 p e r c e n t i n e a c h a r e a .
The
o t h e r s i x a r e a s had a b o u t h a l f th e in c i d e n c e , w ith 8 .4 p e r
c e n t i n a r e a s one a n d e i g h t , 1 0 .7 p e r c e n t i n a r e a f i v e ,
1019 i n a r e a f o u r , 1 1 .1 p e r c e n t i n a r e a s i x , a n d 1 1 .5 p e r
cent in area t h r e e .
B.
P o s i t i o n tw o r e c o r d e d a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e o f
h e l d b a l l s i n a r e a s tw o , one a n d s e v e n ; w h i l e a r e a s t h r e e and
f i v e d r o p p e d s l i g h t l y ; a n d a r e a s f o u r , s i x a n d e i g h t r e m a in e d
q p p r o x im a te ly t h e same a s fr o m p o s i t i o n o n e .
0.
P o s i t i o n t h r e e c a l l e d t h e l o w e s t n um b er i n a r e a e i g h t
w i t h 6 . 7 p e r c e n t , w h i l e t h e o t h e r a r e a s r e m a in e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y
t h e same a s w ere c a l l e d i n p o s i t i o n tw o .
D.
Prom p o s i t i o n f o u r a c o n s i d e r a b l e c h a n g e was f o u n d i n
t h e num ber o f h e l d b a l l s c a l l e d i n a r e a s i x , w h ic h i n c r e a s e d
See T a b l e X (p a g e 3 4 ) .
34
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t o 1 4 .7 p e r c e n t , w h ile a r e a s e v e n d r o p p e d t o 1 7 .4 p e r c e n t .
T h is i s a s tr a n g e r e s u l t , p a r t i c u l a r l y s in c e p o s i t i o n f o u r i s
d i r e c t l y above a re a se v e n , u n le s s i t
i s assu m ed t h a t t h e i n ­
f r i n g e m e n t s c a l l e d by p o s i t i o n f o u r i n a r e a s e v e n w ere more
j u s t l y a n d a c c u r a t e l y c a l l e d t h a n f ro m t h e o t h e r p o s i t i o n s i n
th is area.
I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t f r o m t h i s p o s i t i o n t h e p e r ­
c e n t a g e o f p e r s o n a l f o u l s was g r e a t e r i n a r e a s e v e n .
th e re
i s no d e f i n i t e p r o o f t h a t t h i s
A l th o u g h
i s th e tr u e e x p la n a tio n ,
i t seem s t h e p r o b a b l e o n e .
E.
P o s i t i o n f i v e d id n o t v ary g r e a t l y fro m th e o t h e r p o s i ­
tio n s .
Summary
The co m b in ed s c o r e s o f t h e p o s i t i o n s show c l e a r l y t h a t
t h e r e i s g r e a t e r c o n g e s t i o n i n t h e tw o a r e a s , tw o a n d s e v e n ,
w h ic h a r e n e a r e s t t o t h e b a s k e t s .
Of t h e h e l d b a l l s , 2 1 .3
p e r c e n t w e re c a l l e d i n a r e a t w o , w h i l e 1 9 .5 p e r c e n t were
c a lle d in a re a seven.
A p p r o x i m a t e l y t w i c e a s many h e l d b a l l s
w ere c a l l e d i n e a c h o f t h e s e a r e a s a s i n a n y one o f t h e o t h e r
six a re a s .
A rea e i g h t had t h e l o w e s t n um ber o f t h o s e r e ­
c o r d e d , n a m e ly 7 . 8 i n t e r m s o f t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e t o t a l
c a lle d .
The o t h e r a r e a s v a r i e d o n l y s l i g h t l y , t h e h e l d b a l l s
b e in g d i s t r i b u t e d q u ite ev en ly w ith in th e s e f l o o r a r e a s .
A rea
f i v e r e c o r d e d 8 . 8 p e r c e n t ; a r e a one r e c o r d e d 9 . 3 p e r c e n t ;
a r e a t h r e e r e c o r d e d 9 . 6 p e r c e n t ; a r e a f o u r r e c o r d e d 1 1 .2 p e r
c e n t ; and a re a s i x r e c o r d e d 1 1 .9 p e r c e n t .
36
C o n c lu s io n s
By c l a s s i f y i n g t h e i n f r i n g e m e n t s a n d s t u d y i n g them
i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e e i g h t a r e a s on t h e p l a y i n g c o u r t where
t h e y were c o m m i tt e d , i t was f o u n d t h a t more t h a n t w i c e a s
much c o n g e s t i o n i n t e r m s o f f o u l s a n d h e l d b a l l s o c c u r r e d i n
a r e a tw o an d i n a r e a s e v e n a s i n a n y o t h e r s i n g l e a r e a on t h e
flo o r.
V io la tio n s w ere d i s t r i b u t e d more e v e n l y o v e r a l l a r e a s .
W ith in th e c lo s e s c o r in g r a n g e , t h e p la y o f b o th o ffe n s e and
d e f e n s e became h e a v i e r a n d a p p a r e n t l y m ore s t r e n u o u s .
Prom
t h i s i t w ould seem r e a s o n a b l e t o p l a c e t h e o f f i c i a l s i n t h e
p o s i t i o n s w here t h e y c o u l d j u s t i f y t h e i r d e c i s i o n s m ost
e a s i l y , p a r t i c u l a r l y when c a l l i n g p e r s o n a l f o u l s .
C o m p a riso n o f A greem ent B etw een P o s i t i o n s I r r e s p e c t i v e o f
O ffic ia ls
I n a d d i t i o n t o sh o w in g t h e amount o f a g re e m e n t i n
t e r m s o f num ber o f i n f r i n g e m e n t s c a l l e d a n d p e r c e n t a g e o f
■»
a g re e m e n t b e tw e e n t h e p o s i t i o n s i n t h e t w e n t y - f i v e gam es,
->Kr
t h e r e c o r d s o f e a c h game w ere t a b u l a t e d u n d e r t h e c a t e g o r i e s
o f p e r s o n a l f o u l s , v i o l a t i o n s , and h e l d b a l l s , i n o r d e r t o
show t h e num ber o f i n f r i n g e m e n t s t h a t w ere c a l l e d i n e a c h o f
th e p o s itio n s .
In a d d itio n t o l i s t i n g th e in frin g e m e n ts c a lle d
by e ac h
p o s i t i o n , t h e num ber c a l l e d by e a c h o f t h e o t h e r p o ­
sitio n s
was a l s o r e c o r d e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f i n -
# See T a b l e X I (p a g e 3 7 ) .
R e c o rd s a s on f a b l e I I — b a s i c m a t e r i a l f o r e a c h o f t h e
t w e n t y 9 f i v e games - - c o m p ile d f o r t h e t w e n t y - f i v e
games a s i s shown in . T a b l e X I .
See T a b le X I I (p a g e 3 8 ) .
37
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TABLE X II *
Totals of Twenty-Hire Gamas Showing Infringements Recorded by
Position
For
porded by
i this
Gome Position
1
|
2
i
Also Reoorded by
Positions
:5 Ii
6
1
7
,
8
I
9
10
11
|
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12
|
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I
14
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|
16
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17
I
18
1
19
|
20
I
I
21 J
22
|
23
I
24
25
|
26
]
Totals
* Form for compilation of data.
Also Reoorded by
0
others
1
2
others
3
others
others
4
others
39
fringements that were al30 seen from the other p o sitio n s.
*•
A,
P e r s o n a l F o u ls
1.
Of t h e p e r s o n a l f o u l s c a l l e d by p o s i t i o n o n e ,
s i x t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t w ere c a l l e d by p o s i t i o n t h r e e , f i f t y f o u r p e r c e n t by p o s i t i o n tw o , f i f t y - o n e p e r c e n t by p o s i t i o n
f o u r , and f o r t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t by p o s i t i o n f i v e .
In o t h e r
w o r d s , a l t h o u g h some o f t h e p e r s o n a l f o u l s c a l l e d by p o s i t i o n
one w ere n o t c a l l e d by a n y o t h e r p o s i t i o n , t h e r e was s i x t y e i g h t p e r c e n t a g re e m e n t w i t h p o s i t i o n t h r e e .
P o s itio n fiv e
had t h e l e a s t a g re e m e n t w i t h p o s i t i o n o n e .
2.
Of t h e f o u l s c a l l e d b y p o s i t i o n t w o , s i x t y - t h r e e
p e r c e n t w ere c a l l e d by p o s i t i o n o n e , f i f t y - s e v e n p e r c e n t by
p o s i t i o n f i v e , f i f t y - s i x p e r c e n t by p o s i t i o n t h r e e , a n d
f i f t y - f i v e p e r c e n t by p o s i t i o n f o u r .
P o s i t i o n one h a d a
h i g h e r a g re e m e n t w i t h p o s i t i o n tw o t h a n w i t h a n y o t h e r p o s i ­
tio n .
3.
Of t h e f o u l s c a l l e d b y p o s i t i o n t h r e e , f i f t y - o n e
p e r c e n t w ere r e c o r d e d by p o s i t i o n f o u r , f o r t y - s e v e n b y p o s i ­
t i o n f i v e , a n d f o r t y - t w o by p o s i t i o n s one a n d t w o .
P o s itio n s
f o u r a n d f i v e a g r e e d more n e a r l y w iti* x, o s i t i o n t h r e e , w h ic h was
a l s o a b o v e t h e p l a y i n g c o u r t , t h a n w i t h t h e tw o f l o o r p o s i ­
t i o n s one a n d tw o .
4.
Of t h e f o u l s r e c o r d e d by p o s i t i o n f o u r , f o r t y -
n i n e p e r c e n t w ere r e c o r d e d by p o s i t i o n t h r e e , f o r t y - s e v e n
* See T a b l e X I I I (p a g e 4 0 ) .
40
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41
p e r c e n t by p o s i t i o n f i v e , f o r t y - t w o p e r c e n t by p o s i t i o n o n e,
and o n ly t h i r t y - n i n e p e r c e n t by p o s i t i o n tw o .
T h r e e and
f i v e , t h e two u p p e r p o s i t i o n s , w ere i n g r e a t e r a g r e e m e n t w i t h
p o s i t i o n f o u r t h a n w i t h t h e tw o lo w e r p o s i t i o n s .
5.
Of t h e f o u l s c a l l e d by p o s i t i o n f i v e , f i f t y p e r
c e n t w ere a l s o c a l l e d by p o s i t i o n f o u r , f o r t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t
b y p o s i t i o n t h r e e , f o r t y - f o u r p e r c e n t by p o s i t i o n tw o , and
f o r t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t by p o s i t i o n o n e .
H ere a g a i n t h e t h r e e
u p p e r p o s i t i o n s w e re i n g r e a t e r a g re e m e n t w i t h t h e m s e l v e s t h a n
w i t h t h e two l o w e r p o s i t i o n s on t h e f l o o r .
Summary
I t w i l l be n o t e d t h a t t h e t h r e e u p p e r p o s i t i o n s ,
t h r e e , f o u r , a n d f i v e , c a l l e d a l a r g e r num ber o f p e r s o n a l
f o u l s a n d h a d a l a r g e r p e r c e n t a g e o f a g re e m e n t b e tw e e n th e m ­
s e l v e s t h a n w i t h t h e tw o lo w e r p o s i t i o n s .
H ow ever, o n l y a b o u t
h a l f o f t h e p e r s o n a l f o u l s c a l l e d by a n y one p o s i t i o n w ere
r e c o r d e d by any o t h e r .
The t o t a l a g re e m e n t
b e tw e e n p o s i t i o n s
was a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - f i f t h t o o n e - f o u r t h o f t h o s e c a l l e d .
The a g re e m e n t was s l i g h t l y h i g h e r i n t h e c a s e o f p o s i t i o n tw o ,
n a m e ly t w e n t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t , b u t p o s i t i o n tw o a l s o c a l l e d t h e
l e a s t nu m b er o f p e r s o n a l s .
We c a n a s s u m e , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e
f o u l s s e e n b y a l l f i v e p o s i t i o n s w ere p e r f e c t l y o b v io u s o n e s .
A n o th er i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t r e v e a le d i s th e f a c t t h a t
t h i r t y - o n e p e r c e n t o f t h e p e r s o n a l f o u l s c a l l e d fr o m p o s i ­
t i o n f o u r w ere n o t c a l l e d by a n y o t h e r p o s i t i o n , an d t h i r t y
#
See T a b l e X I I I (p a g e 4 0 ) .
42
p e r c e n t o f t h o s e c a l l e d by p o s i t i o n s t h r e e a n d f i v e w ere n o t
c a l le d by any o th e r p o s i t i o n .
T w en ty -six p e r c e n t and n in e ­
t e e n p e r c e n t o f t h e f o u l s c a l l e d by p o s i t i o n s one a n d tw o
r e s p e c t i v e l y w ere n o t c a l l e d b y a n y o t h e r p o s i t i o n .
T h is i n ­
d i c a t e s s t r o n g l y t h a t p e r s o n a l f o u l s a r e s e e n more f r e q u e n t l y
a n d p r o b a b l y more e a s i l y f r o m t h e t h r e e u p p e r p o s i t i o n s t h a n
i n t h e tw o a c c e p t e d p o s i t i o n s on t h e f l o o r .
it
B.
V io la tio n s
1.
Of t h e v i o l a t i o n s s c o r e d i n p o s i t i o n o n e , f o r t y -
t h r e e p e r c e n t w ere a l s o s c o r e d b y p o s i t i o n t h r e e , f o r t y - t w o
p e r c e n t by p o s i t i o n tw o , and f o r t y - o n e p e r c e n t by p o s i t i o n s
f o u r and f i v e .
The v i o l a t i o n s c a l l e d f r o m p o s i t i o n one show,
t h e r e f o r e , l e s s a g re e m e n t t h a n was t r u e i n t h e r e p o r t o f p e r ­
sonal fo u ls.
2.
Of t h e v i o l a t i o n s c a l l e d b y p o s i t i o n t w o , f o r t y -
f i v e p e r c e n t w ere a l s o c a l l e d by p o s i t i o n t h r e e , f o r t y t h r e e p e r c e n t by p o s i t i o n o n e , f o r t y - t w o p e r c e n t by p o s i ­
t i o n f i v e , a n d f o r t y - o n e p e r c e n t by p o s i t i o n f o u r .
P o s itio n
t h r e e a g r e e d s l i g h t l y more w i t h p o s i t i o n t w o .
3.
Of t h e v i o l a t i o n s c a l l e d b y p o s i t i o n t h r e e , f o r t y -
two p e r c e n t w e re c a l l e d by p o s i t i o n f o u r , f o r t y p e r c e n t by
p o s i t i o n f i v e , t h i r t y - 3 e v e n p e r c e n t by p o s i t i o n tw o , and
t h i r t y - s i x p e r c e n t by p o s i t i o n o n e .
I t w i l l be n o t i c e d t h a t
p o s i t i o n s f o u r a n d f i v e , w h i c h a r e abo ve t h e p l a y i n g f l o o r ,
had a h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e o f a g re e m e n t w i t h p o s i t i o n t h r e e t h a n
#
See T a b l e XIV (p a g e 4 3 ) ,
43
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d i d p o a i t i o n a one a n d tw o .
4.
Of t h e v i o l a t i o n a s c o r e d b y p o 3 i t i o n f o u r , f o r t y -
t h r e e p e r c e n t w ere c a l l e d a l s o by p o s i t i o n t h r e e , t h i r t y e i g h t p e r c e n t by p o s i t i o n f i v e , t h i r t y - s i x p e r c e n t b y p o ­
s i t i o n one a n d t h i r t y - f o u r p e r c e n t by p o s i t i o n t w o .
5.
Of t h e v i o l a t i o n s r e c o r d e d by p o s i t i o n f i v e ,
f o r t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t w ere a l s o s c o r e d by p o s i t i o n t h r e e ,
t h i r t y ^ n i n e by p o s i t i o n f o u r , and t h i r t y - s i x by p o s i t i o n s
tw o a n d o n e .
P o s i t i o n f i v e i s i n s l i g h t l y h i g h e r a g re e m e n t
w ith p o s itio n th r e e th a n w ith th e o th e r p o s itio n s .
Summary
The h i g h e s t amount o f a g r e e m e n t b e tw e e n a n y tw o p o s i ­
t i o n s i n t h e c a l l i n g o f v i o l a t i o n s was f o r t y - f i v e p e r c e n t .
The h i g h e s t amount o f t o t a l a g r e e m e n t i n t h e c a l l i n g o f v i o ­
l a t i o n s was t h i r t e e n p e r c e n t o f t h o s e c a l l e d b y p o s i t i o n t w o .
Here a g a i n , a s i n p e r s o n a l f o u l s , p o s i t i o n tw o s c o r e d t h e
s m a l l e s t nu m b er o f v i o l a t i o n s , a n d p o s i t i o n t h r e e s c o r e d t h e
g r e a t e s t n u m b e r.
I t i s c l e a r from th e s e r e s u l t s t h a t p o s i ­
t i o n t h r e e saw more t h a n t h e o t h e r p o s i t i o n s s i n c e t h e s e s c o r e s
a re c o n sid e re d ir r e s p e c tiv e of o f f i c i a l s .
T h e s e r e s u l t s w o u ld
a l s o s u g g e s t t h a t v i o l a t i o n s w e re s l i g h t l y more d i f f i c u l t t h a n
p e rs o n a l f o u ls to ag ree upon.
T o ta l ag reem en t o f p o s i t i o n s
ran g e d fro m t e n t o t h i r t e e n p e r c e n t , w h ic h i s a p p ro x im a te ly
h a l f o f t h e am ount o f t o t a l a g re e m e n t b e tw e e n p o s i t i o n s w i t h
referen ce to p erso n al fo u l3 .
45
*
C.
H e ld B a l l s
H e ld b a l l s c o n s t i t u t e a d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f i n f r a c t i o n
fro m t h e o t h e r tw o t y p e s o f i n f r i n g e m e n t s a n d s h o u l d be e a s i e r
to in te rp re t c o rre c tly .
T h e r e f o r e t h e amount o f a g re e m e n t
b e tw e e n p o s i t i o n s r e g a r d i n g h e l d b a l l s s h o u l d b e h i g h e r t h a n
t h a t r e g a r d i n g p e r s o n a l f o u l s and v i o l a t i o n s .
A n o th er f a c t o r
t h a t e n t e r s i n t o t h e c a l l i n g o f h e ld b a l l s i s th e f a c t t h a t
no p e n a lty i s a tta c h e d t o t h i s s o - c a lle d in frin g e m e n t.
When
a n o f f i c i a l i s u n a b l e t o s e e c l e a r l y j u s t w hat h a p p e n e d , b u t
knows t h a t s o m e th in g d i d h a p p e n , he i s more l i k e l y t o c a l l a
h e ld b a l l th a n t o p e n a liz e a p la y e r o r team .
The r e a s o n he
has n ot seen th e a c t io n o f th e p la y e r s in v o lv e d i s u s u a lly
b e c a u s e he was i n a p o s i t i o n w here o t h e r p l a y e r s p a s s e d b e ­
tw e e n him a n d t h e p l a y .
1.
Of t h e h e l d b a l l s c a l l e d by p o s i t i o n o n e , s i x t y -
s i x p e r c e n t w ere c a l l e d b y p o s i t i o n t w o , s i x t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t
b y p o s i t i o n s t h r e e an d f i v e , an d f i f t y - e i g h t b y p o s i t i o n f o u r .
T h i r t y - f o u r p e r c e n t o f t h o s e c a l l e d b y p o s i t i o n one w ere
c a lle d by a l l th e o th e r p o s i t i o n s .
O nly s e v e n t e e n p e r c e n t o f
t h e h e l d b a l l s c a l l e d by p o s i t i o n one w ere c a l l e d by n o one
e ls e .
2.
Of t h e h e l d b a l l s r e c o r d e d b y p o s i t i o n tw o , p o s i ­
t i o n one c a l l e d s i x t y - n i n e p e r c e n t , p o s i t i o n s t h r e e a n d f i v e
c a l l e d s i x t y - s i x p e r c e n t , and p o s i t i o n f o u r c a l l e d s i x t y - f o u r
per c e n t.
#
T h e r e was t h i r t y - f i v e p e r c e n t t o t a l a g re e m e n t an d
See T a b l e XV (p a g e 4 6 ) .
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f i f t e e n p e r c e n t t o t a l d isa g re e m e n t.
3.
Of t h e h e l d b a l l s c a l l e d b y p o s i t i o n t h r e e , s e v e n t y
p e r c e n t w e re c a l l e d by p o s i t i o n t w o , s i x t y - n i n e p e r c e n t b y
p o s i t i o n s one a n d f o u r , a n d s i x t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t by p o s i t i o n
fiv e .
Only t e n p e r c e n t o f t h e h e l d b a l l s c a l l e d by p o s i t i o n
t h r e e w ere i n t o t a l d i s a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e o t h e r s , w h i l e t h i r t y s e v e n p e r c e n t w ere i n c o m p le te a g r e e m e n t .
4.
Of t h e h e l d b a l l s c a l l e d i n p o s i t i o n f o u r , s e v e n t y -
f o u r p e r c e n t w ere c a l l e d by p o s i t i o n t h r e e , s e v e n t y - t w o p e r
c e n t by p o s i t i o n f i v e , s e v e n t y - o n e p e r c e n t b y p o s i t i o n t w o ,
and s i x t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t by p o s i t i o n on e.
O nly e i g h t p e r c e n t
o f t h o s e c a l l e d by p o s i t i o n f o u r w e re i n t o t a l d i s a g r e e m e n t
w i t h t h e o t h e r s a n d f o r t y p e r c e n t w ere i n c o m p le te a g r e e m e n t .
5.
Of t h e h e l d b a l l s c a l l e d f r o m p o s i t i o n f i v e , s e v e n t y -
tw o p e r c e n t w ere a l s o c a l l e d i n p o s i t i o n s one a n d t w o , and
s e v e n t y - o n e p e r c e n t w ere c a l l e d by p o s i t i o n s t h r e e a n d f o u r .
S i x p e r c e n t w ere i n t o t a l d i s a g r e e m e n t a n d t h i r t y - n i n e p e r
c e n t were i n c o m p le te a g re e m e n t w i t h t h e o t h e r s .
Summary
T h e r e was a c o m p a r a t i v e l y h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f a g r e e ­
m ent i n t h e r e c o r d i n g s made b y p o s i t i o n s one a n d tw o an d a n
e v e n h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e i n t h e r e c o r d i n g s made b y p o s i t i o n s
t h r e e , f o u r and f i v e .
The t o t a l d i s a g r e e m e n t was much l o w e r
b e tw e e n p o s i t i o n s t h r e e , f o u r and f i v e t h a n b e tw e e n t h e tw o
flo o r p o sitio n s .
The t h r e e p o s i t i o n s a b o v e c a l l e d a s m a l l e r
num ber o f h e l d b a l l s t h a n t h e p o s i t i o n s b e lo w .
Few er h e ld
b a l l s w o u ld b e c a l l e d i f t h e i n f r i n g e m e n t s w ere more e x a c t l y
48
c a lle d a c c o rd in g t o r u l e s .
To do t h i s , o f c o u r s e , o f f i c i a l s
m ust be i n p o s i t i o n s w here t h e y c an s e e t h e f o u l s more a c ­
c u ra te ly .
O r g a n i z a t i o n a n d A n a l y s i s o f W e ig h te d S c o r e s
As s t a t e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s s t u d y , i t
seem ed e v i d e n t
t h a t w e i g h t e d s c o r e s w o u ld e m p h a s iz e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e
v a l u e s a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e tw e e n p o s i t i o n s .
Prom t h e f i r s t
t h e r e was a s t r o n g f e e l i n g t h a t g r e a t e r w e i g h t s h o u l d be
g i v e n t o t h o s e i n f r a c t i o n s t h a t w ere s e e n b y t h e l a r g e r num­
b e r of o f f i c i a l s o r p o s i t io n s , th a t i s , t h a t a p e rs o n a l fo u l
r e c o r d e d by f o u r p o s i t i o n s s h o u l d b e g i v e n a n a r b i t r a r y
w e i g h t o f s a y f o u r , w h e r e a s , a f o u l r e c o r d e d by o n ly one p o ­
s i t i o n w ou ld b e g i v e n a v a l u e o f o n e , s i n c e t h e r e was p r o b a b l y
g r e a t e r j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r c a l l i n g t h e i n f r i n g e m e n t i f i t w ere
s e e n b y f o u r p o s i t i o n s t h a n i f i t w ere s e e n b y o n l y o n e .
The
th r e e ty p e s o f in frin g e m e n ts — p e rs o n a l f o u l s , v i o l a t i o n s ,
a n d h e l d b a l l s — were a c c o r d i n g l y w e i g h t e d f o r e a c h p o s i ­
t i o n , g i v i n g a v a l u e o f one f o r i n f r i n g e m e n t s c a l l e d b y one
o n l y , tw o f o r t h o s e c a l l e d b y tw o , t h r e e f o r t h o s e c a l l e d b y
t h r e e , f o u r f o r th o se c a lle d by f o u r , and f i v e f o r th o se
c a l l e d by f i v e .
49
*
A.
P e rs o n a l F o u ls
I n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , when t h e raw s c o r e s , o r t h e
num ber o f p e r s o n a l s r e c o r d e d b y e a c h p o s i t i o n , i r r e s p e c t i v e
o f t h e o f f i c i a l s , w ere c o n s i d e r e d , i t was f o u n d t h a t p o s i t i o n
f o u r c a l l e d t h e g r e a t e s t num ber ( 7 8 7 ) , p o s i t i o n t h r e e was
second h ig h e s t
( 7 4 4 ) , p o s i t i o n f i v e was n e x t ( 7 2 0 ) , an d p o s i ­
t i o n s one an d tw o w e re t h e l o w e s t (649 a n d 555 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) .
G iv in g a w e i g h t o f one t o i n f r i n g e m e n t s s c o r e d by one
o f f i c i a l o n l y , two t o t h o s e s c o r e d b y t w o , t h r e e t o t h o s e
s c o r e d b y t h r e e , f o u r t o t h o s e s c o r e d b y f o u r , a n d f i v e by
t h o s e s c o r e d b y f i v e , d i d n o t c h a n g e t h e o r d e r o f r a n k , w h ic h
r e m a in e d t h e sa m e , n a m e ly , 2 J .6 5 f o r p o s i t i o n f o u r , 2 ,0 9 4 f o r
p o s i t i o n t h r e e , 2 , 0 4 8 f o r p o s i t i o n f i v e , 1 ,9 5 0 f o r p o s i t i o n
o n e , a n d 1 ,8 3 4 f o r p o s i t i o n t w o .
B.
V io la tio n s
The v i o l a t i o n s w e re t h e n w e i g h t e d b y t h e same p r o ­
c e d u r e a s t h e p e r s o n a l f o u l s a n d t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d by t h i s
p r o c e s s g a v e t h e same r a n k o r d e r o f p o s i t i o n s a s t h o s e o b t a i n e d b y u s i n g t h e raw s c o r e s .
P o s itio n th r e e ranked th e
b e s t f o r v i o l a t i o n s w ith a w e ig h te d s c o re o f 1 ,7 5 6 , p o s i t i o n
f o u r was s e c o n d w i t h 1 , 6 7 7 , p o s i t i o n f i v e was t h i r d w i t h 1 , 6 4 5 ,
p o s i t i o n one was f o u r t h w i t h 1 , 5 3 9 , a n d p o s i t i o n two was t h e
p o o re s t w i t h a w e ig h te d s c o re o f 1 ,5 1 3 .
#
'itit
See T a b l e XVI (p a g e 5 0 ) .
See T a b le XVI.
See T a b le X V I I I (p age 5 4 ) .
50
TABLE XVI
P e r s o n a l F o u ls
C o m p a riso n o f P o s i t i o n s by W e ig h te d S c o r e s
a l o n e s 1 , tw o s 2 , t h r e e
fo u r = 4, fiv e a 5.
to
it
We i g h t ;
1 a lo n e
2
3
4
5
T o ta l
Rank
I
171
95?
174
526
339
5*79
49 6
m
770
77?
1950
4
II
105
95?
122
526
309
579
528
62?
770
770
1834
5
III
221
954
254
526
357
579
492
624
770
770
2094
2
IV
242
280
52 ?”
375
STS
496
770
2163
1
357
484
3
6*4
770
•7 Vo
2048
S'? 9
P o s itio n
OM
V
215
SS4
222
6n4
51
C.
H e ld B a l l s
The r e s u l t s o f t h e u n w e i g h te d o r raw s c o r e s o f h e l d
b a lls reco rd ed f o r each p o s itio n ir r e s p e c tiv e of o f f i c i a l s
r a n k e d p o s i t i o n one a s t h e b e s t , p o s i t i o n tw o i n s e c o n d p l a c e ,
p o s i t io n th r e e n e x t and p o s i t io n s f i v e and f o u r a s th e
‘Si-
p o o re st.
The w e i g h te d s c o r e s c h a n g e d p o s i t i o n s one a n d two
i n t h e o r d e r o f r a n k b u t g a v e a n u n r e l i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n
th e m .
W e i g h ti n g by t h e same p r o c e d u r e a s u s e d w i t h t h e p e r ­
s o n a l f o u l s show ed p o s i t i o n two t o be b e s t , w i t h a w e i g h t e d
sc o re o f 1 ,8 1 8 .
P o s i t i o n one h a d a s c o r e o f 1 , 8 1 7 , w h i l e
p o s i t i o n s t h r e e , f i v e , and f o u r ra n k e d in t h a t o r d e r w ith
s c o r e s o f 1 , 7 8 5 , 1 ,7 5 5 an d 1 ,7 1 8 r e s p e c t i v e l y .
Summary
R e s u l t s a f t e r w e i g h t i n g by t h e a b o v e m e th o d p r o d u c e d
r e s u l t s n o d i f f e r e n t fro m t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d by u s i n g t h e
raw s c o r e s .
F u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t s i n c e one p o s i ­
t i o n was p r o b a b l y b e t t e r t h a n a n o t h e r , a n d s i n c e m ore c o u l d
b e s e e n fr o m some p o s i t i o n s t h a n fro m o t h e r s , t h e g r e a t e s t
w e i g h t s h o u l d be g i v e n t o t h e i n f r i n g e m e n t s t h a t w ere c a l l e d
a l o n e r a t h e r t h a n t o t h o s e t h a t w e re c a l l e d by a l l .
I t may
be assum ed t h a t t h e i n f r i n g e m e n t s s e e n by a l l p o s i t i o n s w ere
v e ry o b v io u s
and t h e r e f o r e sh o u ld bew e ig h te d
o th e r w o rd s,
in frin g e m e n ts t h a t c o u ld
th e lo w e s t.
be s e e n f r o m some p o s i ­
t i o n s a n d n o t by o t h e r s s h o u l d b e w e i g h t e d h i g h e r .
%
See T a b l e
See T a b le
XV (p a g e 4 6 ) .
XX (p a g e 5 1 a ) .
In
51a
TABLE XX
H eld B a l l s
C o m p a riso n o f P o s i t i o n s by W e ig h te d S c o r e s
W e ig h t: a l o n e - 1 , tw o - 2 , t h r e e - 3 ,
fo u r - 4 , fiv e - 5
P o s i t io n
1 a lo n e
2
3
4
5
T o ta l
Rank O r d e r
I
89
76
279
488
885
1817
2
II
70
66
257
560
885
1818
1
III
47
78
219
556
885
1785
3
IV
36
64
213
520
885
1718
5
V
29
80
213
548
885
1755
4
52
In acco rd an ce w ith t h i s b e l i e f th e s c o re s f o r e a c h o f
t h e t h r e e t y p e s o f i n f r i n g e m e n t s w e re a g a i n w e i g h t e d f o r e a c h
p o s i t i o n , g i v i n g a w e ig h t o f f i v e f o r t h o s e s c o r e d b y one o f ­
f i c i a l and p o s i t i o n o n l y , f o u r f o r th o s e s c o r e d by tw o , t h r e e
f o r t h o s e s c o r e d b y t h r e e , tw o f o r t h o s e s c o r e d b y f o u r , a n d
one f o r t h o s e s c o r e d by f i v e ,
£>.
P e rs o n a l F o u ls
W ith r e g a r d t o p e r s o n a l f o u l s p o s i t i o n f o u r m a i n t a i n e d
i t s ra n k in f i r s t p la c e w ith a s c o re of 2 ,5 4 7 ,
The o t h e r f o u r
p o s i t i o n s a l s o r e t a i n e d t h e i r p o s i t i o n s I n t h e same o r d e r i n
*
t h e r e v e r s e m e th o d o f w e i g h t i n g .
P o s i ti o n t h r e e had a sc o re
o f 2 , 3 7 0 , p o s i t i o n f i v e o f 2 , 2 7 2 , p o s i t i o n one o f 1 , 9 4 4 , an d
p o s i t i o n tw o , t h e l o w e s t, o f 1 ,4 9 6 ,
33.
V io la tio n s
R e g a r d i n g y i e l a t i o n s , p o s i t i o n t h r e e a p p e a r e d t o be
th e b e s t p l a c e from w h ic h t o ju d g e f o r i t ran k e d f i r s t w ith
a sc o re o f 2 ,3 6 6 .
P o s i t i o n s f o u r a n d f i v e w ere a l s o r e l a t i v e l y
h i g h w i t h s c o r e s o f 2 , 3 3 1 a n d 2 , 2 4 3 w h i l e p o s i t i o n s one and
tw o r a n k e d c o n s i d e r a b l y lo w e r w i t h s c o r e s o f 1 ,9 2 3 a n d 1 ,8 3 5
-5W2-
re s p e c tiv e ly .
C.
H e ld B a l l s
The r e s u l t s o f w e i g h t i n g t h e h e l d b a l l s w ere t h e same
i n o r d e r o f r a n k a s was t h e r e s u l t w i t h t h e raw s c o r e s ,
« See T a b l e X V II (p a g e 5 3 ) .
See T a b l e XIX (p a g e 5 5 ) .
Po-
53
TABLE X V II
P e r s o n a l F o u ls
C o m p a riso n o f P o s i t i o n s by W e ig h te d S c o r e s
W e ig h t; a l o n e - 5 , tw o - 4 , t h r e e - 3 ,
fo u r - 2, fiv e - 1
1
2
3
4
5
T o ta l
Rank O rd e r
I
855
548
559
248
154
1944
4
II
525
244
309
264
154
1496
5
III
1105
508
557
246
154
2370
2
IV
1210
560
575
248
154
2547
1
V
1075
444
357
242
154
2272
3
P o s itio n
54
TABLE X V I I I
V io la tio n s
C o m p a riso n o f P o s i t i o n s by W e ig h te d S c o r e s
W eig h ts
P o s itio n
a l o n e - 1 , tw o - 2 , t h r e e - 3 ,
fo u r - 4, fiv e - 5
1 a lo n e
2
3
4
5
T o ta l
Rank O r d e r
I
190
174
288
552
555
1559
4
II
172
186
264
556
355
1513
5
III
232
252
345
572
355
1756
1
IV
225
276
345
476
355
1677
2
V
236
208
306
540
355
1645
3
55
TABLE XIX
V io la tio n s
C o m p a riso n o f P o s i t i o n s b y W e ig h te d S c o r e s
W e ig h t: a l o n e - 5 , two - 4 , t h r e e - 3 ,
fo u r - 2, fiv e - 1
P o sitio n
1 a lo n e
2
3
4
I
950
548
288
266
II
860
572
264
III
1160
504
IV
1125
V
1180
i
5
T o ta l
Rank O r d e r
71
1923
4
268
71
1835
5
345
286
71
2366
1
552
345
288
71
2331
2
416
306
270
71
2243
3
56
s i t i o n ©ne was t h e b e s t w i t h a s c o r e o f 1 , 2 9 7 ; p o s i t i o n tw o
was i n s e c o n d p l a c e w i t h a s c o r e o f 1 , 1 7 6 ; p o s i t i o n t h r e e
r a n k e d t h i r d w i t h 1 , 0 6 5 , an d p o s i t i o n s f i v e a n d f o u r h ad t h e
l o w e s t s c o r e s w i t h 969 and 958 r e s p e c t i v e l y .
Summary
No c h a n g e i n t h e o r d e r o f r a n k o f p o s i t i o n s was f o u n d
i n a n y o f t h e t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s b y t h i s m eth o d o f w e i g h t i n g a s
c o m p a red w i t h t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e o r i g i n a l raw
sco res.
C o n c lu sio n
A lth o u g h i t h as been s u g g e s te d t h a t t h e s e r e s u l t s
i n d i c a t e d o u b le s u r e t y t h a t th e o r d e r o f ra n k o f th e p o s i t i o n s
i s c o r r e c t b e c a u s e t h e same r e s u l t s w ere o b t a i n e d by b o t h
m e th o d s o f w e i g h t i n g , t h e a u t h o r c o n c u r s w i t h D r . Raymond
P r a n z e n i n h i s b e l i e f t h a t t h e w e i g h t i n g o f t h e s e raw s c o r e s
i s n o t o n ly u n n e c e s s a r y b u t i s i r r e l e v a n t t o t h i s p ro b le m .
T h i s , o f c o u r s e , c o u l d n o t have b e e n known b e f o r e t h e d a t a
w ere c o l l e c t e d a n d o r g a n i z e d .
R e l a t i o n s h i p B etw een t h e S c o r e s o f E a c h P o s i t i o n i n Term s o f
P e r c e n t a g e , a s R e c o r d e d b y E a c h U T f l o i a l , A lo n e T w i t h One
O t h e r , w i t h Two O t h e r s , a n d w i t h T h r e e " O t h e r s
The d a t a w ere o r g a n i z e d i n t h i s f o r m i n o r d e r t o
d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r i n d i v i d u a l o f f i c i a l s t e n d e d t o be b e t t e r i n
c e r t a i n p o s i t i o n s when a l o n e , w i t h one o t h e r , w i t h tw o o t h e r s ,
w ith th r e e o t h e r s and w i t h f o u r o t h e r s o r w h eth er th e p o s i &
4Hi
See T a b l e XXI (p ag e 5 6 a ) .
See T a b l e X X II (page 5 6 b ) .
66a
TABLE XXI
Held B a l l s
C o m p a riso n o f P o s i t i o n s b y W e ig h te d S c o r e s
W e ig h ts
a l o n e - 5 , tw o - 4 , t h r e e - 3 ,
fo u r - 2, fiv e - 1
1 a lo n e
2
3
4
5
T o ta l
Rank O rd e r
I
445
152
279
244
177
1297
1
II
350
152
257
280
177
1176
2
III
235
156
219
278
177
1065
3
IV
180
128
213
260
177
958
5
V
1«©
160
213
274
177
969
4
P o s itio n
56b
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* aee Appendix,
t)
57
t i o n a t h e m s e l v e s showed r e l i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s when a l l o f f i ­
c i a l s w ere c o n s i d e r e d .
I f t h e r e s u l t s o f one o f f i c i a l showed
t h a t he w as a lw a y s b e t t e r i n one p o s i t i o n t h a n t h e o t h e r p o ­
s i t i o n when h i s r e c o r d i n g s w ere made a l o n e , o r t h a t o t h e r o f ­
f i c i a l s w ere b e t t e r i n o t h e r p o s i t i o n s when r e c o r d e d a l o n e ,
t h e c o m b in in g o f t h e i n f r i n g e m e n t s o b s e r v e d b y a l l o f f i c i a l s
w ou ld d i l u t e o r v i t i a t e t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s .
In o t h e r w ords,
t h e d a t a s h o u l d show t h e e x t e n t t o w h ic h one p o s i t i o n was c o n s i s t e n t l y b e t t e r th an th e o th e rs .
A.
P e r s o n a l F o u l s R e c o rd e d b y One A lo n e
■5K2-
O ffic ia l E
O f f i c i a l E was b e s t i n p o s i t i o n f o u r .
T here a re e i g h t y -
f i v e c h a n c e s i n one h u n d r e d t h a t he was 4 . 2 p e r c e n t b e t t e r
t h a n i n p o s i t i o n t h r e e , a n d n i n e t y - o n e c h a n c e s i n one h u n d r e d
t h a t he was 5 . 3 p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n i n p o s i t i o n t w o .
T h e re
was n o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n p o s i t i o n s two a n d f i v e
b u t t h e r e a r e n i n e t y - t h r e e c h a n c e s i n one h u n d r e d t h a t p o s i t i o n
tw o was b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n o n e .
■»
w*
The s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f d i f f e r e n c e a n d t h e c r i t i c a l r a t i o
w ere w o rk e d o u t f o r e a c h p o s i t i o n w i t h e v e r y o t h e r
p o s i t i o n . T h e s e one t h o u s a n d a n d e i g h t r e l a t i o n s h i p s
w ere w o rk ed o u t a n d c h e c k e d i n t h e o f f i c e o f D r . R ay­
mond F r a n z e n , c o m m e r c ia l s t a t i s t i c i a n , a n d a r e a v a i l ­
a b le in th e f i l e s o f th e a u th o r .
A sa m p le o f t h e f o r m u l a u s e d i n t h e c o m p u t a t i o n o f t h e
r e l i a b i l i t y o f d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n t h e s c o r e s ( i n t e r m s
o f p e r c e n t ) o f e a c h p o s i t i o n i s shown i n t h e Appen­
d i x . The f o r m u s e d i n t h e t a b u l a t i o n o f t h e s e r e l a ­
t i o n s h i p s i s g i v e n i n T a b l e XLVII (p a g e 1 4 1 ) .
E , F , K , 0 a n d S a r e t h e co de l e t t e r s o f t h e f i v e o f f i c i a l s
who w orked i n t h e t w e n t y - f i v e games i n t h i s s t u d y .
58
O ffic ia l F
P o s i t i o n t h r e e was t h e b e s t f o r O f f i c i a l P b u t n o t
s i g n i f ic a n t l y b e t t e r th a n p o s itio n f i v e .
The c h a n c e s a r e
e i g h t y - f i v e o u t o f one h u n d r e d t h a t p o s i t i o n t h r e e was 4 , 5
p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n f o u r b u t p o s i t i o n f i v e was n o t
s i g n i f ic a n t l y b e t t e r th a n p o s itio n f o u r .
The c h a n c e s a r e v e r y
g r e a t t h a t p o s i t i o n s t h r e e , f i v e and f o u r w ere b e t t e r t h a n
p o s i t i o n one an d t w o .
O ffic ia l K
P o s i t i o n t h r e e was 5 , 3 p e r c e n t b e t t e r f o r O f f i c i a l K
t h a n p o s i t i o n f o u r w i t h e i g h t y - e i g h t c h a n c e s o u t o f one h u n ­
d r e d t h a t t h i s w ould be r e l i a b l y b e t t e r t h a n a l l t h e o t h e r
p o sitio n s .
P o s i t i o n f o u r was r e l i a b l y b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n s
one, f iv e and tw o .
The d i f f e r e n c e s b e tw e e n o n e , f i v e and two
w ere n o t s i g n i f i c a n t .
O ffic ia l 0
W ith O f f i c i a l 0 , p o s i t i o n s f o u r a n d f i v e w e re a t t h e
t o p an d w e re a p p r o x i m a t e l y o f t h e same v a l u e .
T hey w ere s i g ­
n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t io n s one a n d t h r e e w h ic h w ere a l s o
o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same v a l u e .
P o s i t i o n tw o was r e l i a b l y
lo w e r t h a n t h e o t h e r f o u r p o s i t i o n s .
The c h a n c e s a r e n i n e t y -
n i n e o u t o f a h u n d r e d t h a t p o s i t i o n s f i v e a n d f o u r w ere b e t t e r
f o r O f f i c i a l 0 t h a n f o r any o f t h e o t h e r s . .
O ffic ia l 3
T h i s o f f i c i a l r a t e d p o s i t i o n one f i r s t
in th e p e r -
59
c e n t age o f p e r s o n a l f o u l s t h a t he c a l l e d t h a t w ere n o t c a l l e d
by anyone e l s e .
T h e r e was a d i f f e r e n c e o f o n l y 3 . 8 p e r c e n t
b e tw e e n t h i s p o s i t i o n a n d p o s i t i o n f i v e , w h ic h d i f f e r e n c e i s
not s ig n ific a n t.
T h e r e a r e o n l y e i g h t y c h a n c e s o u t o f one
h u n d r e d t h a t t h i s w ould be t r u e .
The c h a n c e s a r e n i n e t y o u t
o f one h u n d r e d t h a t p o s i t i o n s t h r e e a n d f o u r w ere s l i g h t l y
lo w e r t h a n p o s i t i o n one b u t t h e c h a n c e s a r e s l i g h t t h a t t h e
d iffe re n c e i s a tr u e d iffe re n c e w ith p o s itio n f i v e .
P o s itio n
tw o was c o n s i d e r a b l y lo w e r a n d i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r t h a n
a l l th e o t h e r s .
Summary
I n t h e r a n k i n g o f p o s i t i o n s w h e re t h e p e r s o n a l f o u l s
w ere c a l l e d b y one p o s i t i o n o n l y , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f o f f i c i a l s ,
p o s i t i o n f o u r was f i r s t w i t h e i g h t y - e i g h t c h a n c e s o u t o f a
h u n d r e d t h a t I t was 2 . 2 p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n t h r e e ,
n i n e t y - t h r e e c h a n c e s o u t o f a h u n d r e d t h a t i t was 2 . 8 p e r c e n t
b e t t e r t h a n f i v e , a n d 7 . 4 p e r c e n t an d 1 4 . 3 p e r c e n t b e t t e r
t h a n p o s i t i o n s one and tw o r e s p e c t i v e l y .
T hus p o s i t i o n s f o u r ,
t h r e e , a n d f i v e were c o n s i d e r a b l y b e t t e r t h a n t h e two f l o o r
p o s i t i o n s one a n d t w o .
T h ir ty - f iv e p e r cen t of a l l th e p e rso n a l fo u ls c a lle d
a l o n e , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f p o s i t i o n , w ere c a l l e d b y O f f i c i a l 0 ,
t w e n t y - t w o p e r c e n t b y O f f i c i a l F , s e v e n t e e n p e r c e n t b y O f­
f i c i a l K, f i f t e e n p e r c e n t b y O f f i c i a l S , a n d e l e v e n p e r c e n t
by O f f i c i a l E .
T h i s w ould i n d i c a t e t h a t O f f i c i a l 0 was some­
w hat s t r i c t e r i n h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l f o u l s t h a n t h e
60
o t h e r s , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f t h e p o s i t i o n i n w h i c h he was p l a c e d .
B.
V i o l a t i o n s R e c o r d e d A lone
O f f i c i a l s E and K
O f f i c i a l s E and K ran k ed p o s i t io n s th r e e th e b e s t ,
w ith p o s i t i o n f o u r n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y lo w e r.
N ine a n d t e n p e r
c e n t , r e s p e c t i v e l y , f e w e r v i o l a t i o n s w e re s e e n i n p o s i t i o n
one t h a n i n p o s i t i o n t h r e e .
P o s i t i o n s tw o an d f i v e w ere r e ­
l i a b l y lo w er i n ran k th a n p o s i t i o n t h r e e .
O ffic ia l P
P o s i t i o n f i v e was s e v e n p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n
t h r e e w h i c h was n e x t i n o r d e r o f r a n k .
T here a re n i n e t y - t h r e e
ch an ces i n a h u ndred t h a t t h i s i s a t r u e d i f f e r e n c e .
T h e re
was n o t a r e l i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n e a c h o f t h e r e m a i n i n g
p o s i t i o n s , n a m e ly : t h r e e a n d f o u r , f o u r a n d t w o , a n d tw o a n d
o n e , b u t t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n t h r e e a n d one was s i g n i f i c a n t .
O ffic ia l 0
W ith t h i s o f f i c i a l , p o s i t i o n one a p p e a r e d t o be t h e
b e s t f o r c a l l i n g v i o l a t i o n s , b u t t h i s p o s i t i o n was n o t s i g ­
n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r th a n p o s itio n s f i v e and f o u r , a lth o u g h i t
was s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r t h a n t h r e e a n d t w o .
O ffic ia l S
P o s i t i o n f i v e was t h e b e s t f o r o f f i c i a l S , b u t was
&
See T a b l e X X I I I (p a g e 6 1 ) ; a l s o p p . 7 - 1 2 i n c l u d i n g , c o m p u t a ­
tio n of r e lia b ility of d iffe re n c e s.
61
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n o t r e l i a b l y d i f f e r e n t fro m p o s i t i o n s t h r e e o r f o u r .
T here
a r e n i n e t y - f o u r c h a n c e s i n a h u n d r e d t h a t i t was s i x p e r c e n t
b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n one a n d i t was t e n p e r c e n t r e l i a b l y
d i f f e r e n t fro m p o s i t i o n t w o .
Summary
P o s i t i o n s f i v e , t h r e e and f o u r , i r r e s p e c t i v e of o f ­
f i c i a l s , were n o t a c c e p t a b l y d i f f e r e n t fro m e a c h o t h e r ,
w h e re a s a l l w ere s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r t h a n t h e tw o f l o o r p o ­
s i t i o n s , one a n d t w o .
C o n c lu s io n s
When one c o n s i d e r s t h e v i o l a t i o n s t h a t w ere s e e n by
o n l y one p o s i t i o n i r r e s p e c t i v e o f t h e o f f i c i a l s , t h e r e s u l t s
show t h a t more c a n be s e e n f r o m above t h a n on t h e p l a y i n g
c o u r t i n p o s i t i o n s one and t w o .
T h ese tw o p o s i t i o n s a r e t h e r e ­
fo re le a st d e sira b le .
'Js
C.
H e ld B a l l s R e c o r d e d A lone
O ffic ia l E
T en p e r c e n t o f a l l t h e h e l d b a l l s c a l l e d a l o n e w ere
c a lle d by t h i s o f f i c i a l .
From p o s i t i o n one he c a l l e d a s i g ­
n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r num ber t h a n f r o m an y o t h e r p o s i t i o n .
T h ir t y - f o u r p e r c e n t o f a l l th e h e ld b a l l s c a l l e d , w h ile
O f f i c i a l E was i n p o s i t i o n o n e , w e re c a l l e d b y h im .
T h i s w as
See T a b le XXIV, (p a g e 6 3 ) ; s e e a l s o p p . 1 3 t o 1 8 i n c l u d i n g
c o m p u t a t i o n o f t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n
th e sc o re s ( i n term s o f p e r c e n t) o f e a c h p o s i t i o n .
63
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f i f t e e n p e r c e n t m ore t h a n he c a l l e d w h i l e i n any o t h e r p o s i ­
tio n .
The o t h e r p o s i t i o n s r a n k e d i n t h i s o r d e r — tw o , f o u r ,
f i v e a n d t h r e e — an d i t seem s q u i t e c e r t a i n t h a t t h i s o r d e r
was a t r u e o n e .
O f f i c i a l s F and K
L ik e t h e p r e v i o u s o f f i c i a l , t h e s e tw o o f f i c i a l s , F a n d
K , c a l l e d t h e g r e a t e s t num ber f r o m p o s i t i o n o n e .
tw o a n d t h r e e w ere i n s e c o n d a n d t h i r d p l a c e .
P o sitio n s
O ffic ia l F
ran k ed p o s i t i o n f i v e n e x t, w h ile O f f i c i a l K ranked p o s i t i o n
f o u r in f o u r th p la c e .
O ffic ia l 0
The o r d e r o f r a n k i n g was somewhat d i f f e r e n t i n t h i s
c a s e w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f p o s i t i o n one w h ic h a g a i n p l a c e d
first.
The n e x t t h r e e p o s i t i o n s , f i v e , t w o , a n d t h r e e , w ere
n o t r e l i a b l y d i f f e r e n t from p o s i t i o n one.
P o s itio n fo u r
d r o p p e d c o n s i d e r a b l y lo w e r i n t h e r a t i n g .
O ffic ia l S
T h i s w as t h e o n l y o f f i c i a l who g a v e p o s i t i o n tw o a
f i r s t p la c e r a t i n g .
H ow ever, t h e r e was n o r e l i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e
b e tw e e n p o s i t i o n s f o u r , o n e , a n d t h r e e , w h i l e p o s i t i o n f i v e
was w e l l b e lo w t h e o t h e r s .
Summary
T h i r t y - f o u r p e r c e n t o f a l l t h e h e l d b a l l s c a l l e d were
r e c o r d e d b y O f f i c i a l 0 , w h i l e O f f i c i a l s K a n d S r e c o r d e d t w e n ty
p e r c e n t e a c h , O f f i c i a l F re c o rd e d f i f t e e n p e r c e n t , and o f ­
65
f i c i a l E rec o rd ed e le v e n p e r c e n t.
T here a re n in e ty - s e v e n
c h a n c e s i n a h u n d r e d t h a t p o s i t i o n one was s e v e n p e r c e n t
b e t t e r th a n p o s i t i o n tw o .
T here i s a r e l i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e b e ­
tw e e n tw o a n d t h r e e a n d t h r e e an d f o u r , b u t n o t b e tw e e n f o u r
and f i v e .
C o n c lu s io n s
T h e s e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t o o many h e l d b a l l s a r e
c a l l e d f r o m t h e f l o o r p o s i t i o n s , one an d t w o .
abo ve c a l l more p e r s o n a l s a n d v i o l a t i o n s .
The p o s i t i o n s
H e ld b a l l s w ould be
c o m p a r a t i v e l y l i m i t e d i n num ber i f t h e o f f i c i a l s w ere i n p o ­
s i t i o n s t h a t gave th e m a b s o l u t e s u r e t y i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n s .
When t h e r e i s some d o u b t i n t h e m ind o f t h e o f f i c i a l a s t o t h e
in frin g e m e n t t h a t o c c u rre d th e p la y i s sto p p e d and a h e ld b a l l
is c a lle d .
E v id e n tly t h i s o c cu rs about tw ice as f r e q u e n tly in
t h e f l o o r p o s i t i o n s a s fro m a b o v e .
#
D.
P e r s o n a l F o u l s R e c o r d e d b y Two
From t h e r e s u l t s , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f o f f i c i a l s , p o s i t i o n
f o u r was t h e b e s t b u t n o t r e l i a b l y b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n t h r e e .
P o s i t i o n f i v e was n e x t .
T h ese t h r e e p o s i t i o n s w h ic h a r e ab ove
t h e p l a y i n g c o u r t w e re r e l i a b l y b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n s one a n d
tw o w h ic h a r e on t h e p l a y i n g c o u r t .
T h e r e was s t i l l a r a t h e r l a r g e r a n g e i n t h e p e r c e n t ­
a g e o f t h e n um ber c a l l e d b y t h e f i v e o f f i c i a l s .
O ffic ia l 0
c a lle d fif ty - n in e per c e n t; O ffic ia l F c a lle d fo rty -fo u r p er
See T a b l e XXV (p a g e 6 6 ) ; a l s o p p . 1 9 -2 4 , c o m p u t a t i o n o f
r e l i a b i l it y of d iffe re n c e s.
66
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c e n t; O f f ic ia l K c a lle d t h i r t y - f i v e p e r c e n t; O f f ic ia l E
c a l l e d t h i r t y - t w o p e r c e n t ; w h ile O f f i c i a l S c a l l e d tw e n ty n i n e p e r c e n t o f a l l t h e p e r s o n a l f o u l s c a l l e d by tw o o f f i c i a l s
i n t h e t w e n t y - f i v e g am es.
E.
V i o l a t i o n s R e c o rd e d by Two
P o s i t i o n s f o u r a n d t h r e e c a l l e d f i f t y an d f o r t y - s i x
p e r cent of t o t a l v io la tio n s re s p e c tiv e ly .
T h e re was n o r e ­
l i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n t h e tw o b u t t h e r e a r e e i g h t y - f i v e
c h a n c e s o u t o f a h u n d r e d t h a t t h e r e was a f o u r p e r c e n t b e t t e r
o p p o r tu n ity o f s e e in g th e v i o l a t i o n s fro m p o s i t i o n f o u r .
T here a re n in e ty - s e v e n c h an c es o u t o f a h u ndred t h a t p o s i t i o n
t h r e e was e i g h t p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n f i v e .
P o s itio n s
f o u r a n d t h r e e w ere r e l i a b l y b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n s tw o an d
o n e , b u t f i v e has o n ly e i g h t y - t h r e e c h an c es out o f a hundred
o f b e i n g b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n tw o by f o u r p e r c e n t , a n d n i n e t y t h r e e c h an c es o u t o f a h u ndred o f b e in g b e t t e r th a n p o s i t i o n
one b y s i x p e r c e n t .
fr it
P.
H e ld B a l l s R e c o r d e d b y Two
The p i c t u r e o f h e l d b a l l s r e c o r d e d b y tw o i s somewhat
d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t o f t h e h e l d b a l l s r e c o r d e d by one a l o n e .
I n t h e f i r s t c a s e p o s i t i o n s one a n d tw o w ere c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r
t h a n t h r e e , f o u r a n d f i v e , b u t i n t h e c a s e o f t h e n u m b er r e ­
c o r d e d b y two p o s i t i o n s , t h e r e was n o r e l i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e b e See T a b l e XXVI (p a g e 6 8 ) ; a l s o p p . 2 5 - 3 0 , c o m p u t a t i o n o f
r e l i a b i l i t y of d if f e r e n c e s .
-sh* See T a b l e XXVII (p a g e 6 9 ) ; a l s o p p . 3 1 - 3 6 , c o m p u t a t i o n
of r e l i a b i l i t y of d if f e r e n c e s .
68
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tw e e n p o s i t i o n s f i v e , t h r e e a n d o n e .
F o rty -fo u r p er c e n t,
f o r t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t , a n d f o r t y - t w o p e r c e n t w ere r e c o r d e d
b y p o s i t i o n s f i v e , t h r e e , a n d o ne r e s p e c t i v e l y .
P o s i t i o n s tw o
and f o u r re c o rd e d t h i r t y - s i x and t h i r t y - f i v e p e r c e n t of th e
t o t a l num ber c a l l e d .
A l t h o u g h t h e r e was a n e i g h t p e r c e n t d i f ­
f e r e n c e b e tw e e n p o s i t i o n s f i v e a n d f o u r , t h e num ber o f i n ­
f r i n g e m e n t s was so s m a l l t h a t t h e r e was n o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ­
f e r e n c e b e tw e e n an y o f t h e f i v e p o s i t i o n s .
&
G.
P e r s o n a l F o u l s R e c o rd e d b y T h r e e
As t h e r e c o r d i n g s o f e a c h p o s i t i o n a p p r o a c h c o m p le te
a g re e m e n t , t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f d i f f e r e n c e s becom es l e s s and t h e
v a lu e o f p o s i t i o n s d e c r e a s e s u n t i l t h e r e
i s c o m p l e t e a g re e m e n t
and one h u n d r e d p e r c e n t r e c o r d e d b y a l l .
A lth o u g h p o s i t i o n f o u r r e c o r d e d s i x t y - f i v e p e r c e n t of
t h e t o t a l c a l l e d , p o s i t i o n s t h r e e an d f i v e , s i x t y - t w o p e r c e n t ,
and p o s i t i o n one f i f t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t , t h e r e was no r e l i a b l e
d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n any o f t h e s e p o s i t i o n s .
T h e r e was a r e ­
l i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e o f e l e v e n p e r c e n t b e tw e e n p o s i t i o n s f o u r
an d t w o .
F o r some r e a s o n p o s i t i o n tw o h a d an u n r e l i a b l e d i f ­
f e r e n c e o f f i v e p e r c e n t b e lo w p o s i t i o n o n e .
H.
V i o l a t i o n s R e c o r d e d by T h r e e
P o s i t i o n s t h r e e an d f o u r w ere o f t h e same v a l u e , h a v i n g
&
See T a b l e XXVIII (p a g e 7 1 ) ; a l s o p p . 3 7 - 4 2 , c o m p u t a t i o n
of r e l i a b i l i t y of d iffe re n c e s .
See T a b l e XXIX (p a g e 7 2 ) ; a l s o p p . 4 3 - 4 8 , c o m p u t a t i o n o f
r e l i a b i l it y of d iffe re n c e s.
71
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reco rd ed s ix ty -s e v e n p e r c e n t of th e in frin g e m e n ts.
T here a re
n i n e t y - t w o c h a n c e s o u t o f a h u n d r e d t h a t p o s i t i o n f i v e was
e ig h t p e r c e n t p o o re r th a n p o s i t i o n s t h r e e and f o u r .
T here
was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e o f e l e v e n p e r c e n t b e tw e e n p o s i ­
t i o n s t h r e e a n d o n e , a n d o f s i x t e e n p e r c e n t b e tw e e n t h r e e an d
tw o .
P o s i t i o n f o u r h a d t h e same r e l a t i o n s h i p a s p o s i t i o n
th re e .
T h e r e was n o r e l i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n p o s i t i o n s
f i v e , one and t w o ,
«■
I,
H eld B a l l s R e c o rd e d by T h r e e
T h e re a r e n i n e t y - s i x c h a n c e s o u t o f a h u n d r e d t h a t p o ­
s i t i o n one was e l e v e n p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n t w o .
Po­
s i t i o n one was r e l i a b l y b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n t h r e e b y s i x t e e n
p e r c e n t an d p o s i t i o n s f o u r and f i v e b y s e v e n t e e n p e r c e n t .
P o s i t i o n s t w o , t h r e e , f o u r a n d f i v e w ere n o t r e l i a b l y d i f ­
feren t ,
J,
P e r s o n a l F o u ls R ecorded by F o u r
When t h e f o u l s w ere c a l l e d b y f o u r p o s i t i o n s , a s t h e r e
was a l m o s t c o m p le te a g r e e m e n t , t h e r e c o u l d n o t be a r e l i a b l e
d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e v a lu e o f e a c h p o s i t i o n .
H ow ever, t h e r e a r e
e i g h t y - s e v e n c h a n c e s i n a h u n d re d t h a t p o s i t i o n tw o was b e t t e r
t h a n p o s i t i o n s one and f o u r b y f i v e p e r c e n t .
The c h a n c e s a r e
n i n e t y o u t o f a h u n d r e d t h a t p o s i t i o n two was b e t t e r t h a n p o s i -
#
##
See T a b l e XXX (p a g e 7 4 ) ; a l s o s e e p p . 4 9 - 5 4 , c o m p u t a t i o n
of r e l i a b i l i t y of d if f e r e n c e s ,
See T a b l e XXXI (p a g e 7 5 ) ; a l s o s e e p p . 5 5 - 6 0 , c o m p u t a t i o n
of r e l i a b i l i t y of d if f e r e n c e s .
74
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t i o n t h r e e b y s i x p e r c e n t and n i n e t y - f o u r o u t o f a h u n d r e d
t h a t p o s i t i o n tw o was b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n f i v e b y s e v e n p e r
c e n t.
P o s i t i o n s o n e , f o u r , t h r e e an d f i v e w ere n o t s i g n i f i ­
c a n tly d if f e r e n t .
&
K«
V i o l a t i o n s R ecorded by F o u r
E i g h t y - s i x p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l v i o l a t i o n s r e c o r d e d by
f o u r w e re c a l l e d i n p o s i t i o n t h r e e , e i g h t y - o n e p e r c e n t w ere
c a l l e d in p o s i t i o n s f i v e and tw o , e i g h t y p e r c e n t i n p o s i t i o n
one, and se v en ty -tw o p e r c e n t i n p o s i t i o n f o u r .
The d i f f e r e n c e s
b e tw e e n p o s i t i o n s t h r e e , f i v e , tw o , a n d one w ere n o t e n t i r e l y
r e l i a b l e , b u t t h e c h a n c e s a r e e i g h t y - e i g h t o u t o f one h u n d r e d
t h a t p o s i t i o n t h r e e was f i v e p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n
f i v e , n i n e t y c h a n c e s o u t o f a h u n d r e d t h a t p o s i t i o n t h r e e was
f iv e p e r c e n t b e t t e r th a n p o s i t i o n tw o , and n in e ty - th r e e chances
o u t o f a h u n d r e d t h a t p o s i t i o n t h r e e was s i x p e r c e n t b e t t e r
th an p o s i t io n one.
P o s i t i o n t h r e e was f o u r t e e n p e r c e n t r e ­
lia b ly b e tte r th a n p o s itio n fo u r.
P o s i t i o n f i v e was r e l i a b l y
b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n f o u r b u t p o s i t i o n s one a n d tw o w ere n o t
re lia b ly d iffe re n t.
L.
H eld B a l l s R e c o r d e d by F o u r
P o s i t i o n s tw o , t h r e e , an d f i v e
sc o re d a p p ro x im a te ly
t h e same p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e t o t a l r e c o r d e d b y t h r e e o t h e r s a n d ,
##
S ee T a b l e XXXII (p a g e 7 7 ) ; a l s o p p . 61-66, c o m p u t a t i o n o f
r e lia b ility of d iffe re n c e s.
See T a b le XXXIII (p a g e 7 8 ) ; a l s o p p . 6 7 - 7 2 , c o m p u t a t i o n o f
r e lia b ility of d iffe re n c e s.
77
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79
t h e r e f o r e , w ere n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i n t h e i r v a l u e .
T h e re a r e n i n e t y - t w o c h a n c e s o u t o f one h u n d r e d t h a t p o s i t i o n
tw o was s i x p e r c e n t " b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n f o u r .
P o s i t i o n tw o
was r e l i a b l y b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n o n e .
I t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o te t h a t O f f i c i a l
S re c o rd e d n in e ty - tw o p e r c e n t o f th e t o t a l w h ile O f f i c i a l 0
re c o rd e d o n ly s e v e n ty - f o u r p e r c e n t o f th e t o t a l .
Summary:
I n f r i n g e m e n t s G a l l e d by F o u r P o s i t i o n s
The d i f f e r e n c e s a r e n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y g r e a t b e tw e e n t h e
p e r c e n t a g e s o f s c o r e s o f p o s i t i o n s when c o n s i d e r i n g t h e i n ­
f r i n g e m e n t s t h a t w ere c a l l e d b y f o u r p o s i t i o n s .
I t is q u ite
c l e a r t h a t th o s e in frin g e m e n ts se e n and c a l l e d by f o u r p o s i ­
t i o n s w ere v e r y o b v i o u s .
A c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f th e p e rc e n ta g e o f re c o r d in g s by
o f f i c i a l s i n a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h r e e o t h e r s shows t h a t O f f i c i a l
F c a lle d e ig h ty -s e v e n p e r c e n t of th e p e rs o n a l f o u l s .
T h is
i s t h e h i g h e s t num ber c a l l e d b y any o f f i c i a l i n a g re e m e n t w i t h
th re e o th e rs.
O f f i c i a l K c a lle d th e h ig h e s t p e rc e n ta g e o f
v i o l a t i o n s , w h ile O f f i c i a l S c a l l e d th e h ig h e s t p e rc e n ta g e o f
h e ld b a l l s .
C o n c lu s io n
As t h e a g re e m e n t b e tw e e n p o s i t i o n s i n c r e a s e s , t h e d i f ­
f e r e n c e s d e c r e a s e , an d t h e r e f o r e t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e v a l u e
o f a n y p o s i t i o n , o r t h e ’’g o o d n e s s ” o f any p o s i t i o n i s l e s ­
sened.
80
The R e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n t h e S c o r e s o f E a c h P o s i t i o n I r r e s p e c ­
t i v e o f O f f i c i a l a n d I r ' r e 3 p e c t l v e o f W h e th e r t h e i n f r i n g e m ent Was C a l l e d b y 6 n e , frwo, T h r e e , F o u r o r F i v e P o s i t i o n s ' ^'
A.
P e rs o n a l F o u ls
The c h a n c e s a r e n i n e t y - t w o o u t o f a h u n d r e d t h a t p o s i ­
t i o n f o u r was tw o p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n t h r e e .
P o si­
t i o n f o u r was r e l i a b l y b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n f i v e b y f i v e p e r
c e n t , p o s i t i o n one b y e i g h t p e r c e n t , a n d p o s i t i o n two by
th irte e n p er c e n t.
P o s i t i o n t h r e e was n o t r e l i a b l y b e t t e r
t h a n p o s i t i o n f i v e b u t was s i x p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n
one a n d e l e v e n p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n t w o .
P o s itio n
f i v e was r e l i a b l y b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n s one a n d t w o .
C o n c lu sio n s
I r r e s p e c t i v e o f o f f i c i a l s an d w h e t h e r
th e f o u l s a r e c a l l e d by o n e , tw o , t h r e e , f o u r o r f i v e p o s i ­
t i o n s , t h e game o f b a s k e t b a l l i s now b e i n g o f f i c i a t e d f ro m t h e
tw o w e a k e s t p o s i t i o n s o f t h e f i v e when a l l t h e p o s i t i o n s a r e
co n sid e re d .
More a c c u r a t e d e c i s i o n s a n d p r o b a b l y a g r e a t e r
f e e l i n g o f s a t i s f a c t i o n on t h e p a r t o f p l a y e r a n d s p e c t a t o r
w o u ld r e s u l t i f a n y o f t h e p o s i t i o n s , n a m e ly , t h r e e , f o u r o r
f i v e , w ere u s e d e i t h e r i n c o m b i n a t i o n o r a l o n e .
B.
V io la tio n s
P o s i t i o n s t h r e e , f o u r an d f i v e r a n k e d i n t h i s o r d e r o f
Hg o o d n e s s ” w i t h o u t a n y a p p r e c i a b l e o r r e l i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e b e ­
tw e e n t h e m .
P o s i t i o n t h r e e was s i x p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n p o s i ­
t i o n one a n d s e v e n p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n t w o .
#■ See T a b le XXXIV (p a g e 8 1 ) .
See T a b le XXXV (p a g e 8 2 ) .
P o si-
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t i o n f o u r was f i v e p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n one a n d s i x
p e r c e n t b e t t e r tb a n p o s i t i o n tw o .
P o s i t i o n f i v e was f o u r
p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n o n e , and f i v e p e r c e n t b e t t e r
th a n p o s i t i o n tw o .
The one p e r c e n t d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n p o s i ­
t i o n s one a n d two i s n o t a t a l l r e l i a b l e .
C o n c lu s io n :
Prom t h e s e r e s u l t s , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t
o f f i c i a l s s h o u l d b e e s t a b l i s h e d i h one o r m ore o f t h e t h r e e
p o s i t i o n s above t h e f l o o r .
#
C.
H e ld B a l l s
P o s i t i o n one was tw o p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n
tw o i n e i g h t y - f o u r c h a n c e s o u t o f a h u n d r e d .
re lia b le d iffe re n c e .
T h is i s n o t a
P o s i t i o n one was r e l i a b l y b e t t e r t h a n
p o s i t i o n s t h r e e , f i v e , and f o u r by f i v e , e i g h t , and n in e p e r
c e n ts r e s p e c tiv e ly .
P o s i t i o n tw o was t h r e e p e r c e n t b e t t e r
t h a n p o s i t i o n t h r e e i n e i g h t y - s e v e n c a s e s o u t o f one h u n d r e d .
P o s i t i o n two was f i v e p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n f i v e and
s ix p e r cent b e t t e r th an p o s itio n fo u r.
T h e r e was n o r e l i a b l e
d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n p o s i t i o n s t h r e e , f o u r , a n d f i v e .
C o n c lu sio n :
A l a r g e r p e r c e n t a g e o f h e l d b a l l s was
c a l l e d f r o m p o s i t i o n s one a n d tw o t h a n fr o m p o s i t i o n s t h r e e ,
f o u r and f i v e .
T h i s w ould be a n i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n t h e p l a c ­
i n g o f o f f i c i a l s i f h e l d b a l l s w ere c o n s i d e r e d a s s e r i o u s a n
in frin g e m e n t a s v i o la t io n s and p e r s o n a l f o u l s .
H ow ever, s i n c e
h e l d b a l l s c a r r y no p e n a l t y and s i n c e many o f t h e h e l d b a l l s
&
See T a b le XXXVI (p a g e 8 4 ) .
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as to th e s p e c if ic v i o la t io n , th e p la c in g of o f f i c i a l s
in th e
l i g h t o f t h e s e f i n d i n g s i s l e s s i m p o r t a n t t h a n a p p e a r e d fro m
t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e f i n d i n g s c o n c e r n i n g v i o l a t i o n s and p e r s o n a l
fo u ls.
Combined S c o r e s o f P e r s o n a l s , V i o l a t i o n s an d H eld B a l l s by
P o s itio n ir r e s p e c tiv e of 6f ? ic la i s
’
T h is i s not so im p o rta n t as th e p r e v io u s a n a l y s i s ,
*
b e c a u s e i t d o e s n o t show t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e tw e e n t h e p o s i t i o n s .
I t m e r e ly g i v e s a c o m b in ed p i c t u r e o f t h e w h o l e , a n d much o f
t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i s b a l a n c e d o u t i n c o m b in a ­
tio n .
v a lu e s
N e v e r th e le s s , th e p o s i t io n s ranked
t h r e e , f o u r , f i v e , one a n d tw o .
A c o m p a r is o n
b ers 1
in th is o rd er of
of th e sc o re s
o f t h e p o s i t i o n s b e lo w (num­
a n d 2) v e r s u s t h e s c o r e s o f t h o s e above (n u m b ers 3 , 4
an d 5 ) shows t h a t t h e a v e r a g e s c o r e o f t h e t h r e e p o s i t i o n s
abov e was 2 0 p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n t h e a v e r a g e s c o r e o f t h e tw o
p o s i t i o n s b e lo w when c a l l i n g p e r s o n a l f o u l s .
The above was
f i f t e e n p e r c e n t b e t t e r when c a l l i n g v i o l a t i o n s a n d t h e b e lo w
was t e n p e r c e n t b e t t e r when c a l l i n g h e l d b a l l s .
The c o m b in a ­
t i o n o f p e r s o n a l f o u l s , v i o l a t i o n s a n d h e l d b a l l s g i v e an
e le v e n p e r c e n t a d v an tag e t o th e p o s i t i o n s above s u c h th o s e
b e lo w .
*
See T a b le XXXVII (p a g e 8 6 ) .
tio n
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R e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n t h e S c o r e s o f E a c h O f f i c i a l , i n Terms o f
P e rc e n ta g e / i r r e s p e c t i v e o f P o sitT o n
&
A.
P e rso n a ls
1.
R e c o rd e d a l o n e .
O f f i c i a l s ranked in t h i s o rd e r —
0 , P , K, S , and E — w ith O f f i c i a l 0 r e l i a b l y h ig h e r th a n
any o f th e o th e r s .
O f f i c i a l 0 ran g e d from t h i r t e e n t o tw e n ty -
th re e p e r cen t b e t t e r th a n th e o th e r f o u r o f f i c i a l s .
Each of
t h e o f f i c i a l s named i n t h e a b o v e o r d e r was r e l i a b l y h i g h e r
t h a n t h e one f o l l o w i n g w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f O f f i c i a l K who
was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n O f f i c i a l S .
2.
R e c o r d e d b y tw o .
The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n t h e
r a n k i n g o f o f f i c i a l s was p r a c t i c a l l y t h e same when r e c o r d e d
b y tw o a s was t h e c a s e when r e c o r d e d a l o n e .
O f f i c i a l 0 wa 3
t h i r t e e n to tw e n ty -e ig h t p e r cent b e t t e r th an th e o th e r o f­
fic ia ls,
O f f i c i a l P was t e n t o f i f t e e n p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n
O f f i c i a l s K, E , and S,
K was n o t r e l i a b l y b e t t e r t h a n O f­
f i c i a l s E and S.
3.
R e c o r d e d by t h r e e .
A l t h o u g h P r a n k s f i r s t , he
was n o t r e l i a b l y h i g h e r t h a n O f f i c i a l s 0 a n d K.
He was b e t t e r
t h a n O f f i c i a l s S and E by t w e l v e a n d s i x t e e n p e r c e n t r e s p e c ­
tiv e ly .
T h e re a r e o n l y s e v e n t y - f o u r chaneies o u t o f a h u n d r e d
t h a t O f f i c i a l 0 was t h r e e p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n O f f i c i a l K.
4.
R e c o rd e d by f o u r .
A greem ent b e tw e e n f o u r o f f i ­
c i a l s l e s s e n s t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n t h e " g o o d n e s s ” o f one
o f f i c i a l and a n o th e r.
#
O f f i c i a l P ran k s f i r s t w ith a s l i g h t
See T a b le XXXVIII (p a g e 8 8 ) ; a l s o p p . 7 6 -7 9 , c o m p u ta tio n
of r e l i a b i l it y of d iffe re n c e s .
88
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89
u n r e lia b le d iffe re n c e w ith O f f ic i a ls K and 0 .
T h e r e was a r e ­
l i a b l e a d v a n t a g e o f e i g h t p e r c e n t b e tw e e n O f f i c i a l s P a n d S
as w e ll as a n in e te e n p e r c e n t a d v an tag e o f O f f i c i a l P o v er
O ffic ia l E.
O f f i c i a l K was r e l i a b l y b e t t e r t h a n O f f i c i a l E
b u t n o t b e t t e r th a n O f f i c i a l s 0 and S.
B.
V io la tio n s
1.
R e c o rd e d b y one a l o n e .
O f f i c i a l P was r e l i a b l y
h ig h e r in t h e r e c o r d i n g o f v i o l a t i o n s th a n any o f th e o t h e r
o ffic ia ls.
O f f i c i a l P wa 3 f i v e p e r c e n t h i g h e r t h a n 0 , e i g h t
p e r c e n t h i g h e r t h a n K, f o u r t e e n p e r c e n t h i g h e r t h a n S , and
n in e te e n p e r cent h ig h e r th an E.
T here a re n i n e t y ch an ces out
o f a h u n d r e d t h a t 0 was two p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n K.
O ffic ia l
0 was n i n e p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n S , a n d f o u r t e e n p e r c e n t b e t ­
t e r th an E.
O f f i c i a l K was r e l i a b l y b e t t e r t h a n O f f i c i a l s
S and E by se v en and tw e lv e p e r c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y .
T h e re a r e
n i n e t y - s i x c h a n c e s o u t o f a h u n d r e d t h a t O f f i c i a l S was f i v e
p e r cent b e t t e r th an O f f ic ia l E.
2.
R e c o r d e d by t w o .
O f f i c i a l K was r e l i a b l y b e t t e r
t h a n P b y e l e v e n p e r c e n t t h a n O f f i c i a l S by f o u r t e e n p e r
c e n t , t h a n O f f i c i a l 0 by f o u r t e e n p e r c e n t , a n d t h a n O f f i c i a l
E by tw e n ty -fiv e p e r c e n t.
T h e r e was n o r e l i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e
b e tw e e n P and S , a n d P a n d 0 .
cent b e t t e r th an E.
O f f i c i a l P was f o u r t e e n p e r
O f f i c i a l S was n o t b e t t e r t h a n 0 b u t was
t w e lv e p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n E .
O f f i c i a l 0 was e l e v e n p e r c e n t
b e t t e r th a n E .
#
See T a b le XXXIX (p a g e 9 0 ) ; a l s o p p . 6 0 - 8 3 , c o m p u ta tio n o f
r e l i a b i l it y of d iffe re n c e s .
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91
3*
R ecorded by th r e e *
T h e re was o n l y one c h a n g e i n
t h e r a n k i n g o f o f f i c i a l s f r o m t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n and t h a t
was a n u n r e l i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n o f f i c i a l s S a n d P .
4.
R e c o rd e d b y f o u r .
O f f i c i a l s r a n g e d i n ''g o o d n e s s ”
i n t h e f o l l o w i n g o r d e r — K , S , 0 , F , an d E .
T here a re n i n e t y -
f i v e c h a n c e s o u t o f a h u n d r e d t h a t O f f i c i a l K was s i x p e r c e n t
b e t t e r th a n O f f i c i a l S.
O f f i c i a l K wa 3 t w e l v e p e r c e n t b e t t e r
th a n O f f i c i a l 0 , f i f t e e n p e r c e n t b e t t e r th a n O f f i c i a l P , and
tw e n ty -tw o p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n O f f i c i a l E .
O f f i c i a l S was
n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r t h a n O f f i c i a l 0 , b u t was n i n e p e r
c e n t b e t t e r t h a n O f f i c i a l P and s i x t e e n p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n
O ffic ia l E.
Summary
When c o n s i d e r i n g t h e g o o d n e ss o f o f f i c i a l s
in t h e i r
r a n k i n g w i t h e a c h o t h e r when c a l l i n g v i o l a t i o n s , P an d K
r a n k e d t h e sa m e .
T hey w ere t h r e e p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n 0 ,
s e v e n p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n S , and s i x t e e n p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n
E.
T h e s e a r e r e l i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s b a s e d on t h e t w e n t y - f i v e
games i r r e s p e c t i v e o f p o s i t i o n s .
C.
H e ld B a l l s
1.
R e c o rd e d b y one a l o n e .
O f f i c i a l 0 was r e l i a b l y
b e t t e r th a n O f f i c i a l s K and S by f o u r te e n p e r c e n t , b e t t e r
th a n O f f i c i a l P by n in e te e n p e r c e n t , and b e t t e r th a n O f f i ­
c i a l E by tw e n ty -th re e p e r c e n t .
*
T h e r e was n o a p p r e c i a b l e
See T a b le XL (p a g e 9 2 ) ; a l s o p p . 8 4 -8 7 , c o m p u ta tio n o f
r e l i a b i l i t y o f d iffe re n c e s .
92
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93
d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n o f f i c i a l s K a n d S .
The c h a n c e s a r e n i n e t y -
f o u r o u t o f a h u n d r e d t h a t O f f i c i a l K was f i v e p e r c e n t b e t t e r
th an O f f ic ia l F .
O f f i c i a l K was n i n e p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n Of­
f i c i a l E.
2.
R e c o rd e d b y tw o .
The d i f f e r e n c e s w ere n o t a s
g r e a t b e tw e e n t h e o f f i c i a l s when t h e h e l d b a l l s w ere c a l l e d
b y tw o o f f i c i a l s .
The o r d e r o f r a n k i n g w a s: O f f i c i a l s K and
0 f i r s t w i t h a n u n r e l i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n th e m , a n d O f f i ­
c i a l s S , E , a n d F w i t h s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e s b e tw e e n t h e m .
3.
R ecorded by t h r e e .
Here a g a i n t h e o r d e r o f r a n k
b e tw e e n o f f i c i a l s was c h a n g e d , w i t h O f f i c i a l P f i r s t , K s e c o n d ,
S th ir d , E fo u rth , and 0 f i f t h .
The d i f f e r e n c e s w e re n o t
p a r t i c u l a r l y g r e a t e x c e p t w h ere O f f i c i a l 0 d r o p s down t o t h e
b o t t o m p o s i t i o n , e i g h t e e n p e r c e n t lo w e r t h a n P who was a t t h e
to p .
4.
R ecorded by f o u r .
O f f i c i a l S r a n k e d f i r s t an d
r e l i a b l y h ig h e r th a n any o f th e o t h e r s .
O f f i c i a l S was e i g h t
p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n K, f o u r t e e n p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n P ,
e ig h te e n p e r c e n t b e t t e r th a n 0 , and n in e te e n p e r c e n t b e t t e r
th an E.
O f f i c i a l s K and P , P an d 0 , P a n d E , an d 0 a n d E w ere
not s ig n ific a n tly d iffe re n t.
O f f i c i a l K was t e n p e r c e n t
b e t t e r th a n O f f ic ia ls 0 and E.
Summary
Of t h e t o t a l h e l d b a l l s c a l l e d i r r e s p e c t i v e o f p o s i ­
t i o n O f f i c i a l s K and S c a l l e d s ix ty - o n e p e r c e n t , O f f i c i a l 0
c a lle d f if ty - n in e per c e n t, O ffic ia l P c a lle d f i f ty - f i v e per
c e n t , an d O f f i c i a l E c a l l e d f i f t y - t w o p e r c e n t .
94
R e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n t h e S c o r e s ( i n T erm s o f P e r c e n t a g e ) o f
E a c h P o s i t i o n , b y E a c h O f f i c i a l I r r e s p e c t i v e o f W h e th e r C a T le d
by dfrie, I w o , T h r e e , K u r o r F i v e
4t
A.
P e rs o n a l F o u ls
O ffic ia l E
In a n a ly z in g t h e p e rc e n ta g e o f t o t a l re c o rd e d n o t ic e
o f p e r s o n a l f o u l s i t was f o u n d t h a t O f f i c i a l E was r e l i a b l y
b e t t e r in p o s i t io n f o u r th a n in any o th e r o f th e f o u r p o s i­
tio n s .
P o s i t i o n f o u r was n i n e p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n t w o , f i f ­
te e n p e r c e n t b e t t e r th a n p o s i t io n t h r e e , se v en te en p e r cen t
b e t t e r th a n p o s i t i o n o n e , and tw e n ty p e r c e n t b e t t e r th a n p o ­
sitio n fiv e .
T h e re a r e n i n e t y - t h r e e c h a n c e s o u t o f a h u n d re d
t h a t p o s i t i o n tw o was s i x p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n t h r e e .
P o s i t i o n tw o was s e v e n p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n o n e , and
n in e p e r c e n t b e t t e r th a n p o s i t io n f i v e .
The d i f f e r e n c e b e ­
tw e e n p o s i t i o n s t h r e e , o n e , an d f i v e w ere s l i g h t and u n r e ­
lia b le .
O ffic ia l F
O f f i c i a l F was e q u a l l y good i n p o s i t i o n s t h r e e , f i v e ,
and f o u r .
T h e re was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n t h e s e
t h r e e p o s i t i o n s above th e p la y in g a r e a .
Each o f th e s e p o s i t io n s
ab o v e was r e l i a b l y b e t t e r t h a n t h e tw o f l o o r p o s i t i o n s , one a n d
tw o .
T here a re e ig h ty - n in e c h an c es o u t o f a h u ndred t h a t p o ­
s i t i o n tw o was b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n o n e .
P o s i t i o n t h r e e was
See T a b le XLI (p a g e 9 5 ) ; a l s o se e p p . 8 8 -9 2 , c o m p u ta tio n
of r e l i a b i l it y of d iffe re n c e s .
95
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o lo
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96
e l e v e n p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n t w o , an d f i f t e e n p e r
cen t b e t t e r th an p o s itio n one.
P o s i t i o n f i v e was n i n e p e r
c e n t b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n t w o , and f o u r t e e n p e r c e n t b e t t e r
th an p o s itio n one.
P o s i t i o n f o u r was n i n e p e r c e n t b e t t e r
t h a n p o s i t i o n tw o , a n d t h i r t e e n p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n
one.
O ffic ia l K
T h i s o f f i c i a l r a t e d p o s i t i o n s t h r e e , f o u r , an d f i v e ,
i n t h i s o r d e r , c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r t h a n p o s i t i o n s one a n d tw o .
T h e r e a r e e i g h t y - s e v e n c h a n c e s o u t o f a h u n d re d t h a t p o s i t i o n
t h r e e was f o u r p e r c e n t h i g h e r t h a n p o s i t i o n f o u r , an d f i v e
p e r c en t h ig h e r th a n p o s itio n f i v e .
P o s i t i o n t h r e e was f i f ­
te e n p e r cen t h ig h e r th a n p o s itio n one, and s ix te e n p e r c e n t
h ig h e r t h a n p o s i t i o n tw o .
same v a l u e .
P o s i t i o n s f o u r and f i v e w ere o f t h e
P o s i t i o n f o u r was e l e v e n p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n
p o s i t i o n s one a n d t w o .
P o s i t i o n f i v e w as t e n p e r c e n t b e t t e r
t h a n p o s i t i o n one and e l e v e n p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n
tw o .
P o s i t i o n one was n o t n o t i c e a b l y d i f f e r e n t fro m p o s i t i o n
tw o .
O ffic ia l 0
O f f i c i a l 0 r a t e d p o s i t i o n s f o u r , f i v e and t h r e e as
t h e b e s t w i t h no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n th e m .
T h e re
a re o n ly e ig h ty - s e v e n c h a n c e s o u t o f a hundred t h a t p o s i t i o n s
f o u r a n d f i v e w e re f o u r p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n o n e .
P o s i t i o n s f o u r a n d f i v e w ere t w e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n
p o s i t i o n tw o .
P o s i t i o n t h r e e was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r
97
t h a n p o s i t i o n o n e , b u t was t w e n t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n
p o s i t i o n tw o .
P o s i t i o n one was t w e n t y - t w o p e r c e n t b e t t e r
t h a n p o s i t i o n tw o .
O ffic ia l S
T h i s o f f i c i a l r a t e d p o s i t i o n one r e l i a b l y h i g h e r t h a n
p o s i t i o n s f i v e , f o u r , t h r e e , a n d tw o b y e l e v e n , f o u r t e e n , f i f ­
t e e n , and tw e n ty - f iv e p e r c en t r e s p e c t i v e l y .
P o s i t i o n f i v e was
n o t s i g n i f ic a n t l y h ig h e r th an p o s itio n f o u r .
T here a r e e i g h t y -
s i x c h a n c e s o u t o f one h u n d r e d t h a t p o s i t i o n f i v e was f o u r p e r
cent b e tt e r th an p o s itio n th r e e .
p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n tw o .
P o s i t i o n f i v e was f o u r t e e n
P o s itio n s f o u r and th r e e
w ere o f t h e same v a l u e b u t w e re t e n p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n p o ­
s i t i o n tw o .
Summary
C o n sid e rin g th e p o s i t io n s i r r e s p e c t i v e o f o f f i c i a l s
a n d i r r e s p e c t i v e o f t h e num ber o f p o s i t i o n s t h a t c a l l e d e a c h
p erso n al f o u l, i t
i s f o u n d t h a t f o r t y - s i x p e r c e n t w e re c a l l e d
fro m p o s i t i o n f o u r , f o r t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t from p o s i t i o n t h r e e ,
f o r t y - t w o p e r c e n t from p o s i t i o n f i v e , and o n ly t h i r t y - e i g h t
an d t h i r t y - t w o p e r c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y fro m p o s i t i o n s one and
tw o .
C o n c lu sio n
C han ges i n t h e r u l e s o f b a s k e t b a l l s h o u l d b e made i n
o r d e r t o p l a c e o f f i c i a l s w h ere t h e y w o u ld n o t be h a n d ic a p p e d
t o t h e e x t e n t o f t h i r t e e n p e r c e n t when c a l l i n g p e r s o n a l f o u l s .
98
&
B.
V io la tio n a
O ffic ia l E
W ith o f f i c i a l E Dank o f p o s i t i o n s when c a l l i n g v i o l a ­
t i o n s was t h r e e , f o u r , f i v e , t w o , a n d o n e .
a n d f o u r w ere o f t h e sam e v a l u e .
P o sitio n s th re e
T hey w ere t e n p e r c e n t
h i g h e r t h a n p o s i t i o n s f i v e an d two and s i x t e e n p e r c e n t h i g h e r
th a n p o s itio n one.
P o s i t i o n f i v e w as o f e q u a l v a l u e t o two
and f i v e p e r c e n t h ig h e r t h a n p o s i t i o n one.
O ffic ia l F
P o s i t i o n s f i v e , f o u r and t h r e e w ere n o t r e l i a b l y d i f ­
f e r e n t from e a c h o t h e r .
P o s i t i o n f i v e was t h i r t e e n p e r c e n t
h i g h e r t h a n p o s i t i o n tw o a n d t w e n t y p e r c e n t h i g h e r t h a n o n e .
P o s i t i o n s f o u r and t h r e e were t e n p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n p o s i ­
t i o n t w o , an d s e v e n t e e n p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n o n e .
P o s i t i o n tw o was s e v e n p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n o n e .
O ffic ia l K
The c h a n c e s a r e n i n e t y - f o u r o u t o f a h u n d r e d t h a t p o ­
s i t i o n t h r e e was s i x p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n f o u r .
Po­
s i t i o n t h r e e was e i g h t , n i n e , a n d t h i r t e e n p e r c e n t b e t t e r
t h a n p o s i t i o n s t w o , f i v e , an d one r e s p e c t i v e l y .
P o s itio n fo u r
was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n s two a n d f i v e b u t
was s e v e n p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n o n e .
P o s i t i o n s tw o ,
f i v e , a n d one w ere n o t r e l i a b l y d i f f e r e n t .
■st
See T a b le X L II (p a g e 9 9 ) ; a l s o p p . 9 3 - 9 7 , c o m p u ta tio n o f
r e l i a b i l i t y of d iffe re n c e s .
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O ffic ia l 0
O f f i c i a l 0 was n o t h a n d i c a p p e d go m uch b y p o s i t i o n a s
w ere t h e p r e v i o u s o f f i c i a l s .
P o s i t i o n s o n e , f i v e , f o u r an d
th r e e ran k ed in t h i s o r d e r , b u t a re n o t r e l i a b l y d i f f e r e n t
f ro m e a c h o t h e r ; w h e r e a s , a l l a r e r e l i a b l y d i f f e r e n t fro m p o ­
s i t i o n tw o .
O ffic ia l S
P o s i t i o n one h a s n i n e t y - t h r e e c h a n c e s o u t o f a h u n d r e d
of b e in g s ix p e r cent b e t t e r th a n p o s itio n f i v e .
P o s i t i o n one
was b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n s t h r e e , f o u r an d t w o , b y e i g h t , n i n e
and tw e lv e p e r c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y .
The d i f f e r e n c e s b e tw e e n
p o s i t i o n s f i v e , t h r e e , f o u r , and tw o a r e n o t e n t i r e l y r e ­
lia b le .
Summary
V i o l a t i o n s w e re r e c o r d e d f o r t y p e r c e n t o f t h e t i m e
f r o m p o s i t i o n t h r e e , t h i r t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t o f t h e t im e fro m
p o s i t i o n f o u r , t h i r t y - s e v e n p e r c e n t o f t h e tim e fro m p o s i t i o n
f i v e , t h i r t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t o f t h e tim e f r o m p o s i t i o n o n e ,
a n d t h i r t y - t w o p e r c e n t o f t h e t i m e fro m p o s i t i o n t w o .
C o n c lu sio n
V i o l a t i o n s w e re s e e n more f r e q u e n t l y fro m t h e t h r e e
p o s i t i o n s a b o v e t h e f l o o r t h a n i n t h e tw o p o s i t i o n s on t h e
flo o r.
I t i s r e l i a b l y t r u e t h a t o f f i c i a l s w ould r e f e r e e games
more s a t i s f a c t o r i l y f r o m an y one o f t h e t h r e e p o s i t i o n s above
t h a n f r o m t h e tw o p o s i t i o n s now u s e d .
101
«C.
H e ld B a l l s
O ffic ia l E
T h e r e was o n l y one t r u e d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n t h e p o s i ­
t i o n s and t h a t was t h a t p o s i t i o n one was r e l i a b l y h i g h e r t h a n
any o f th e o th e r f o u r .
P o s i t i o n one w as f i f t e e n p e r c e n t
h ig h e r th a n p o s i t i o n tw o , s e v e n te e n p e r c e n t h ig h e r th a n po ­
s i t i o n s f i v e a n d t h r e e , and e i g h t e e n p e r c e n t h i g h e r t h a n p o ­
sitio n fo u r.
P o s i t i o n s t w o , f i v e , t h r e e , a n d f o u r w ere o f
eq u al v a lu e .
O ffic ia l F
The p o s i t i o n s w ere r a n k e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g o r d e r w i t h ­
o u t a r e l i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n a n y tw os
tw o , o n e , t h r e e ,
f iv e , and f o u r .
O ffic ia l K
W ith t h i s
o f f i c i a l , p o s i t i o n t h r e e was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y
h i g h e r t h a n p o s i t i o n s one a n d f i v e b u t w as r e l i a b l y h i g h e r
t h a n p o s i t i o n s tw o a n d f o u r , b y t e n and t h i r t e e n p e r c e n t
re s p e c tiv e ly .
T h e r e was n o t a r e l i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n
p o s i t i o n s o n e , f i v e , tw o a n d f o u r .
O ffic ia l 0
P o s i t i o n t h r e e was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n p o ­
s i t i o n s two and one b u t was r e l i a b l y h i g h e r t h a n p o s i t i o n s f i v e
*
See T a b le X L I I I (p ag e 1 0 2 ) ; a l s o p p . 9 8 - 1 0 2 , c o m p u ta tio n
of r e l i a b i l i t y of d iffe re n c e s .
102
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103
and f o u r b y e ig h t e e n p e r c e n t .
P o s i t i o n tw o w as n o t b e t t e r
t h a n p o s i t i o n one b u t was t h i r t e e n p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n p o s i ­
t i o n s f i v e and f o u r .
P o s i t i o n s o n e , f i v e , a n d f o u r w ere n o t
r e l i a b l y d i f f e r e n t , a l t h o u g h t h e c h a n c e s w ere n i n e t y - f i v e o u t
o f one h u n d re d t h a t p o s i t i o n one was n i n e p e r c e n t b e t t e r
t h a n p o s i t i o n s f i v e an d f o u r .
O ffic ia l S
O f f i c i a l S f o u n d p o s i t i o n s t w o , f o u r , a n d one o f e q u a l
v a l u e , and t w e n t y p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n s f i v e an d
th re e .
Summary
The d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n t h e p o s i t i o n s was c o m p a r a t i v e l y
s m a l l c o n s i d e r i n g t h e num ber o f c a s e s c a l l e d .
Of t h e t o t a l
h e l d b a l l s c a l l e d i r r e s p e c t i v e o f o f f i c i a l s p o s i t i o n one r a n k e d
f i r s t w i t h s i x t y - t w o p e r c e n t ; p o s i t i o n tw o r a n k e d se c o n d w i t h
s i x ty p e r c e n t; p o s i t io n th re e ran k ed t h i r d w ith f i f t y - s e v e n
p e r cen t; p o s itio n f iv e ranked f o u r th w ith f i f t y - f o u r p e r
c e n t ; and p o s i t i o n f o u r r a n k e d l o w e s t w i t h f i f t y - t h r e e p e r
c e n t.
R e la t io n s h ip b e t ween A l l P o si t i o n s , in Terms o f P e r c e n ta g e ,
b y E a ch o f f i c i a l , with.' Combined S c o r e s o f P e r s o n a l ffoulsV
V i o l a t i o n s , anH"~Held B a lls '*
&
See T a b le 3CLIV (p ag e 1 0 4 ) ; a l s o p p . 1 0 3 - 1 0 7 , c o m p u ta tio n
of r e l i a b i l i t y of d iffe re n c e s .
104
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105
O ffic ia l E
P o s i t i o n f o u r was r e l i a b l y h i g h e r t h a n p o s i t i o n t h r e e
b y f i v e p e r c e n t , p o s i t i o n tw o b y s i x p e r c e n t , p o s i t i o n s one
and f i v e by e le v e n p e r c e n t .
P o s i t i o n t h r e e was n o t r e l i a b l y
h i g h e r t h a n p o s i t i o n t w o , b u t was s i x p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n
p o s i t i o n s one a n d f i v e .
P o s i t i o n two was b e t t e r t h a n p o s i ­
t i o n s one a n d f i v e by f i v e p e r c e n t .
P o s i t i o n s one a n d f i v e
w ere o f e q u a l r a n k .
O ffic ia l F
O f f i c i a l F d i f f e r e d from O f f i c i a l E i n ra n k in g o f th e
fiv e p o s itio n s .
O f f i c i a l F p la c e d p o s i t io n s f i v e and th r e e
f i r s t w ith e q u a l " g o o d n e ss."
T hey w ere n o t , h o w e v e r, s i g ­
n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r th an p o s itio n f o u r .
P o sitio n s f i v e , th re e ,
a n d f o u r w ere r e l i a b l y b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n s tw o and o n e .
Po­
s i t i o n tw o w as f i v e p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n o n e .
O ffic ia l K
P o s itio n th r e e ran k ed h ig h e r th an any of th e o th e r po­
sitio n s .
I t was s i x p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n f i v e , s e v e n
p e r c e n t b e t t e r th a n p o s i t i o n f o u r , tw e lv e p e r c e n t b e t t e r
th a n p o s i t i o n tw o , and t h i r t e e n p e r c e n t b e t t e r th a n p o s itio n
one.
P o s i t i o n f i v e was n o t r e l i a b l y h i g h e r t h a n p o s i t i o n f o u r ,
b u t was s i x p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n t w o , a n d s e v e n p e r
c en t b e t t e r th a n p o s itio n one.
P o s i t i o n f o u r was s i x p e r c e n t
b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n s tw o a n d o n e .
ran k w ith p o s i t i o n o n e.
P o s i t i o n two was o f e q u a l
106
O ffic ia l 0
P o s i t i o n s o n e , t h r e e , and f i v e w ere o f t h e same v a l u e
an d p o s i t i o n f o u r was n o t r e l i a b l y l o w e r t h a n a n y o f t h e a b o v e .
P o s i t i o n tw o was e l e v e n p e r c e n t l o w e r t h a n f o u r , t h i r t e e n p e r
c e n t lo w e r t h a n t h r e e a n d f i v e , a n d f o u r t e e n p e r c e n t lo w e r
th an one.
O ffic ia l S
O f f i c i a l S r a n k e d p o s i t i o n one r e l i a b l y h i g h e r t h a n
any o f t h e o th e r p o s i t i o n s .
P o s i t i o n one was s e v e n p e r c e n t
h i g h e r t h a n p o s i t i o n s f o u r an d f i v e , e l e v e n p e r c e n t b e t t e r
th a n p o s i t i o n t h r e e , and t h i r t e e n p e r c e n t b e t t e r th a n p o s i t io n
tw o .
P o s i t i o n f o u r w as n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n p o s i t i o n s
f i v e a n d t h r e e , b u t was s i x p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n tw o •
T here a r e n in e ty - tw o c h an c es out o f a h u n d red t h a t p o s i t i o n
f i v e w as t h r e e p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n t h r e e .
f i v e w as s i x p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n t w o .
P o s itio n
P o s itio n th re e
was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n t w o .
Summary
The r a n k i n g o f t h e f i v e p o s i t i o n s a f t e r c o m b in in g t h e
s c o r e s o f p e r s o n a l s , v i o l a t i o n s , and h e l d b a l l s i r r e s p e c t i v e
o f o f f i c i a l s g iv e s th e t o t a l p ic tu r e o f th e v a lu e s .
P o s itio n s
th r e e and f o u r s c o re d f o r t y - f o u r p e r c e n t o f th e t o t a l n o t i c e ,
and a r e r a t e d a t t h e t o p .
P o s itio n fiv e
scored fo rty -tw o
p e r c e n t and ra n k e d n e x t w i t h n i n e t y - s e v e n c h an c es o u t o f a
h u n d r e d t h a t t h e r e i s a two p e r c e n t d i f f e r e n c e .
P o s i t i o n one
s c o r e d f o r t y p e r c e n t , and p o s i t i o n tw o s c o r e d t h i r t y - s e v e n p e r
cent •
107
C o n c lu s io n
Any one o f t h e t h r e e p o s i t i o n s a b o v e t h e f l o o r w ou ld
be b e t t e r f o r o f f i c i a t i n g t h a n e i t h e r o f t h e tw o now u s e d i n
t h e game o f b a s k e t b a l l .
The R e l a t i v e A b i l i t y o r " g o o d n e s s ” o f E a c h O f f i c i a l I r r e s p e c ­
tiv e of P o s itio n *
A.
P e rs o n a l F o u ls
O f f i c i a l 0 r a n k e d f i r s t by c a l l i n g f i f t y - t w o p e r c e n t
of th e t o t a l n o tic e of p e rs o n a l f o u l s .
He was e i g h t e e n p e r
c e n t b e t t e r th a n O f f i c i a l F , tw e n ty -se v e n p e r c e n t b e t t e r th a n
O f f i c i a l K, t h i r t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n O f f i c i a l S a n d
th ir ty - n in e p e r cent b e t t e r th a n O f f ic ia l E .
O f f i c i a l F s c o r e d f o r t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t , a n d w as e l e v e n
p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n O f f i c i a l K, e i g h t e e n p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n
O f f i c i a l S, and tw e n ty - f iv e p e r cen t b e t t e r th a n O f f i c i a l E .
O f f i c i a l K ran k ed t h i r d by s c o r in g t h i r t y - e i g h t p e r
cent o f th e t o t a l n o tic e *
He was e i g h t p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n
O f f i c i a l S and s ix te e n p e r c e n t b e t t e r th a n O f f i c i a l E .
O f f i c i a l S s c o r e d t h i r t y - f i v e p e r c e n t a n d was e i g h t
p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n o f f i c i a l E who s c o r e d t h i r t y - t w o p e r c e n t
o f th e t o t a l n o tic e of p e rs o n a l f o u l s .
B.
V io la tio n s
O f f i c i a l F had t h e m o st a b i l i t y i n c a l l i n g v i o l a t i o n s .
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109
He s c o r e d f o r t y - t w o p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l n o t i c e b u t was n o t
r e l i a b l y b e t t e r t h a n O f f i c i a l K who s c o r e d f o r t y - o n e p e r c e n t .
O f f i c i a l F w as e i g h t p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n O f f i c i a l 0 , e i g h t e e n
p e r c e n t b e t t e r th an O f f ic ia l S, and t h ir ty - n in e p e r cent b e t­
t e r th a n O f f i c i a l E.
O f f i c i a l K h a d t h e same r a t i n g a s O f f i c i a l P .
O f f i c i a l 0 who s c o r e d t h i r t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t o f t h e
t o t a l n o t i c e was t e n p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n O f f i c i a l S a n d t h i r t y th re e p e r cen t b e t t e r th an O f f i c i a l E .
O f f i c i a l S who s c o r e d
t h i r t y - f o u r p e r c e n t was t w e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n Of­
f i c i a l E who s c o r e d t w e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l n o t i c e .
0.
H e ld B a l l s
O f f i c i a l s S an d K r e c o r d e d s i x t y - o n e p e r c e n t o f t h e
t o t a l n o t i c e and w ere t h r e e p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n O f f i c i a l 0 ,
e ig h t p e r c e n t b e t t e r th a n O f f i c i a l F , and f o u r te e n p e r c e n t
b e tte r th a n O f f ic ia l E.
O f f i c i a l 0 scored f i f t y - n i n e p e r cent of th e n o tic e
an d was 3 i x p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n O f f i c i a l P a n d e l e v e n p e r
cent b e tt e r th an O f f ic ia l E.
O f f i c i a l P sc o re d f i f t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f th e n o tic e
a n d was s i x p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n O f f i c i a l E who s c o r e d f i f t y two p e r c e n t .
Summary
The com b in ed s c o r e s o f p e r s o n a l f o u l s , ^ a b l a t i o n s , and
h e ld b a l l s p la c e d O f f i c i a l 0 a t th e to p in "goodness" o r
a b ility .
He r e c o r d e d f o r t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l n o t i c e .
110
O f f i c i a l P was s e c o n d w i t h f o r t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l
n o tic e *
O f f i c i a l K was t h i r d w i t h f o r t y - f o u r p e r c e n t o f t h e
to ta l n o tic e .
O f f i c i a l S was f o u r t h w i t h f o r t y p e r c e n t o f
th e t o t a l n o tic e .
O f f i c i a l E was a t t h e b o tto m w i t h t h i r t y -
s i x p e r cen t of th e t o t a l n o tic e *
CHAPTER IV
GENERAL SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
The p u r p o s e o f t h i s
stu d y h a s been t o conduct an e x p e r i ­
m ent t h a t w o u ld d e t e r m i n e t h e r e l a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y a n d a c c u r a c y
o f o f f i c i a t i n g ^ a s a f f e c t e d b y t h e d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n s i n w h ic h
t h e o f f i c i a l s w e re p l a c e d , w i t h a v ie w t o recom m end in g c h a n g e s
i n t h e p r e s e n t m e th o d o f o f f i c i a t i n g t h a t w o u ld l e a d t o more
e f f e c t i v e e d u c a ti o n a l o u tco m es.
I t h a s b e e n a ssu m e d f o r a num ber o f y e a r s by t h e a u t h o r
t h a t t h e p o s i t i o n s u s e d by r e f e r e e s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e
c u r r e n t r u l e s o f b a s k e t b a l l gave a n i n a c c u r a t e v ie w o f t h e
t o t a l p la y in g a re a .
I t was a l s o assu m ed t h a t s e v e r a l p o s i ­
tio n s or p o ss ib ly a d if f e r e n t p a tte r n of p o s itio n s u n fa m ilia r
t o u s a t t h e p r e s e n t t im e m ig h t b e d i s c o v e r e d t h a t w ould g iv e
more e f f i c i e n t r e s u l t s .
The t e c h n i q u e s u s e d i n o b t a i n i n g t h e d a t a f o r t h i s
s t u d y w ere d e v e l o p e d i n a p r e l i m i n a r y s t u d y a t New Y ork U n i­
v e rs ity ,
The d a t a u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y w ere o b t a i n e d fro m t w e n t y -
f i v e games p l a y e d i n t h e i n t r a - m u r a l l e a g u e a t A c a d ia U n i v e r ­
sity ,
The same f i v e q u a l i f i e d o f f i c i a l s r e f e r e e d t h e games
r o t a t i n g t h e i r p o s i t i o n s so t h a t e a c h o f f i c i a l h a n d le d f i v e
games f r o m e a c h p o s i t i o n .
R e c o r d i n g s w ere made on s p e c i a l
fo rm s, b y t r a i n e d a s s i s t a n t s , o f a l l t h e i n f r i n g e m e n t s t h a t w ere
111
Ill-A
c a l l e d by th e r e f e r e e s .
The o f f i c i a l s i n p o s i t i o n s one and
tw o r e f e r e e d t h e games a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c u r r e n t r u l e s .
O ffi­
c i a l s i n p o s i t i o n s t h r e e , f o u r and f i v e r e c o r d e d i n f r i n g e m e n t s
in acco rd an ce w i t h th e p r e s e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f th e r u l e s b u t
d i d n o t i n a n y way i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e p l a y i n g o f t h e gam e.
The
d a t a w ere o r g a n i z e d so t h a t t h e r e c o r d i n g s o f e a c h o f t h e t h r e e
t y p e s o f i n f r i n g e m e n t s , n a m e l y , p e r s o n a l f o u l s , v i o l a t i o n s , and
h e l d b a l l s , c o u l d be a n a l y z e d f r o m e a c h p o s i t i o n a s w e l l a s by
each o f f i c i a l .
T hen t h e r e s u l t s w ere co m b in ed t o g iv e a t o t a l
p i c t u r e o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e tw e e n p o s i t i o n s a n d b e tw e e n o f f i c i a l s .
The r e l i a b i l i t y
o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e tw e e n t h e o b t a i n e d r e s u l t s
w ere t h e n d e t e r m i n e d .
The f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l summary a n d c o n c l u s i o n s h a v e
b e e n s u m m a riz e d i n one c h a p t e r i n o r d e r t o p r e s e n t t h e r e s u l t s
c o n c i s e ly and c o m p re h e n s iv e ly t o th e r e a d e r .
111-B
I,
The p e r c e n t a g e o f n o t i c e o f i n f r i n g e m e n t s t h a t were
re c o r d e d a c c o rd in g t o a r e a s , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f o f f i c i a l s and
p o s i t io n , g iv e s a v iv id p ic tu re
o f w here t h e c o n g e s t i o n o c ­
c u r r e d bn t h e p l a y i n g c o u r t ,
A,
P erso n al F o u ls,
T w e n ty -tw o t o t w e n t y - t h r e e p e r
c e n t o f t h e p e r s o n a l f o u l s o c c u r r e d i n a r e a s tw o a n d s e v e n .
E ig h t t o t e n p e r c e n t o c c u rre d in e a c h o f th e s i x o th e r a r e a s .
A p p r o x i m a t e l y tw o t o t h r e e t i m e s a s many p e r s o n a l f o u l s w ere
c a l l e d i n e a c h o f t h e two a r e a s u n d e r t h e b a s k e t a s i n a n y
o t h e r one a r e a on t h e f l o o r .
T h is w ould s t r o n g l y I n d i c a t e t h a t o f f i c i a l s s h o u l d be
l o c a t e d w here t h e y c o u l d e a s i l y and a c c u r a t e l y s e e a r e a s tw o
and se v en w h ic h a re n e a r e s t t o t h e b a s k e t s ,
B,
V io la tio n s.
A reas 1 , 3 , 6, and 8 , th e f o u r c o rn e r
a r e a s , had a n e q u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f v i o l a t i o n s w i t h t e n p e r
cent of th e t o t a l c a lle d in e ach a re a .
The d i s t r i b u t i o n i n
t h e tw o c e n t e r a r e a s , n a m e ly , f o u r and f i v e , was f i f t e e n p e r
112
cent each.
A rea tw o a l s o r e c o r d e d f i f t e e n p e r c e n t o f t h e
t o t a l v io la tio n s c a lle d .
S t r a n g e l y e n o u g h , a r e a s e v e n uHLch
c o r r e s p o n d s t o a r e a tw o r e c o r d e d o n l y t w e l v e p e r c e n t o f t h e
to ta l v io la tio n s .
T h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e s e v i o l a t i o n s shows t h a t
t h i r t y p e r c e n t m ore were c a l l e d i n e a c h o f t h e c e n t e r a r e a s
o f th e c o u rt th a n in any o f th e c o m e r a r e a s .
I t i s q u ite
s i g n i f i c a n t , h o w e v e r, t h a t e a c h o f t h e c o m e r a r e a s r e c o r d e d
te n p e r c e n t of th e t o t a l v i o la t io n s .
Wo e x p l a n a t i o n c a n be
g i v e n f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f v i o l a t i o n s
r e c o r d e d f o r a r e a s tw o a n d s e v e n .
C.
H e ld b a l l s .
The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f h e l d b a l l s o v e r
t h e p l a y i n g a r e a s f o l l o w s v e r y much t h e same p a t t e r n a s t h a t
fo und in th e c a se o f p e r s o n a l f o u l s .
I n e a c h o f t h e a r e a s tw o
a n d s e v e n a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i f t y p e r c e n t more h e l d b a l l s w ere
c a l l e d t h a n i n a n y one o f t h e o t h e r s i x a r e a s .
T h i s r e s u l t shows t h a t t h e o f f e n s i v e a n d d e f e n s i v e
p o w e r o f e a c h te a m was c o n g e s t e d a b o u t t h e a r e a s n e a r e s t t o
th e b a s k e ts .
I I . A n a ly zin g th e p e rc e n ta g e o f p e r s o n a l f o u l s c a l l e d .
A.
The am odnt o f a g r e e m e n t i r r e s p e c t i v e o f o f f i c i a l s
was fo u n d t o b e r e l i a b l y h i g h e r b e tw e e n t h e t h r e e p o s i t i o n s
a b o v e t h e f l o o r ( n a m e ly , p o s i t i o n s t h r e e , f o u r , a n d f i v e ) t h a n
b e tw e e n t h e tw o lo w e r p o s i t i o n s on t h e f l o o r , ( n a m e l y , one and
two).
O nly a b o u t h a l f o f t h e p e r s o n a l f o u l s c a l l e d b y a n y one
p o s i t i o n w e re r e c o r d e d b y a n y o t h e r p o s i t i o n .
The t h r e e u p p e r
113
p o s i t i o n s n o t o n ly r e c o rd e d a c o m p a ra tiv e ly h ig h p e rc e n ta g e
o f t h o s e s e e n f r o m b e l o w , b u t a l s o r e c o r d e d a l a r g e num ber
t h a t w ere n o t s e e n f r o m b e lo w .
F o r e x a m p le , p o s i t i o n t h r e e
re c o rd e d s i x t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t o f th o s e c a l l e d by p o s i t i o n o n e,
w h e r e a s p o s i t i o n one r e c o r d e d o n l y f o r t y - t w o p e r c e n t o f t h o s e
c a l l e d by p o s i t i o n t h r e e .
P o s i t i o n s t h r e e , f o u r , a n d f i v e h a d g r e a t e r a g re e m e n t
a s w e l l a s a l a r g e r num ber o f f o u l s r e c o r d e d t h a n w as t r u e o f
*
p o s i t i o n s one a n d tw o i r r e s p e c t i v e o f o f f i c i a l s .
B.
A c o n s id e r a tio n o f th e p e rc e n ta g e o f v io la tio n s
c a l l e d b y e a c h p o s i t i o n r e v e a l s t h e f a c t o f t o t a l a g re e m e n t
-a#
ra n g in g fro m te n t o t h i r t e e n p e r c e n t .
T h is i s a p p ro x im a te ly
o n e - h a l f th e t o t a l agreem en t r e c o r d e d i n c a l l i n g p e r s o n a l
f o u l s , w h ic h w o u ld i n d i c a t e t h a t s u c h v i o l a t i o n s a r e more d i f ­
f ic u lt to in te rp re t.
P o s i t i o n t h r e e had t h e h ig h e s t p e rc e n ta g e o f agreem ent
w ith e a c h o f th e o th e r in d iv id u a l p o s itio n s as w e ll as th e
g r e a t e s t num ber o f v i o l a t i o n s c a l l e d .
The p e r c e n t a g e o f
a g re e m e n t o f t h e o t h e r p o s i t i o n s was a s f o l l o w s :
p o sitio n
f o u r , p o s i t i o n f i v e , p o s i t i o n o n e , and p o s i t i o n tw o .
T h is i s
t h e sqme o r d e r t h a t was r e c o r d e d i n t h e c a s e o f p e r s o n a l f o u l s .
P o s i t i o n s t h r e e , f o u r , a n d f i v e w e re b e t t e r t h a n p o ­
s i t i o n s one a n d tw o i n a g re e m e n t a s w e l l a s i n t h e num ber o f
v io la tio n s c a lle d .
Ve
See T a b le X I I I (p ag e 4 0 ) .
S ee T a b le XIV (p a g e 4 3 ) .
114
C.
T h e re was t h e h i g h e s t d e g r e e o f a g re e m e n t b e tw e e n
th e p o s itio n s in th e re c o rd in g o f h e ld b a l l s .
The p e r c e n t a g e
o f a g re e m e n t r a n g e d fro m f i f t y - e i g h t t o s e v e n t y - f o u r p e r c e n t .
B e ca u se n o p e n a l t y i s i n f l i c t e d when h e l d b a l l s a r e c a l l e d
a n d b e c a u s e t h e h i g h d e g r e e o f a g re e m e n t b e tw e e n p o s i t i o n s
l e s s e n s t h e v a l u e o f one p o s i t i o n o v e r a n o t h e r , t h e r e s u l t s
a s t o t h e a g re e m e n t o f p o s i t i o n s i n c a l l i n g h e l d b a l l s a r e o f
l e s s v a l u e t h a n t h e r e s u l t s c o n c e r n i n g p e r s o n a l f o u l s and
v io la tio n s.
III.
The r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d b y u s i n g two m e th o d s o f w e i g h t ­
in g d id n o t change th e o r d e r o f ra n k o f th e p o s i t i o n s o b ta in e d
b y u s i n g t h e raw s c o r e s .
A lth o u g h t h e s e r e s u l t s c o u ld n o t
have b e e n p r e d i c t e d b e f o r e t h e d a t a w e re c o l l e c t e d and
-:h*
a n a ly z e d , th e a u th o r b e lie v e s
t h a t w e i g h t i n g was u n n e c e s '»;£•
sa ry and i r r e le v a n t t o th e stu d y .
IV .
An a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n t h e s c o r e s
o f e ac h p o s i t i o n in te rm s o f p e rc e n ta g e as re c o rd e d by e a c h
o f f i c i a l , a l o n e , w i t h one o t h e r , w i t h tw o o t h e r s , a n d w i t h
t h r e e o t h e r s shows t h a t t h e r a n k o r d e r i n v a l u e o f p o s i t i o n s
r e m a in e d t h e same i n e a c h o f tw o c a t e g o r i e s o f i n f r i n g e m e n t s
when t h e s c o r e s w e re s t u d i e d i r r e s p e c t i v e o f o f f i c i a l s .
In
c a l l i n g p e r s o n a l f o u l s an d v i o l a t i o n s t h e p o s i t i o n s r a n k e d i n
t h e f o l l o w i n g o r d e r o f v a l u e : f o u r , t h r e e , f i v e , o n e , and tw o .
it
itit
ititit
See T a b le XV (p a g e 4 6 ) .
A l s o b e l i e v e d by Raymond F r a n z e n .
See T a b l e s XVI-XXI.
115
P o s i t i o n s f o u r , t h r e e , a n d f i v e w ere c o n s i d e r a b l y b e t t e r
it
t h a n p o s i t i o n s one a n d t w o .
A stu d y o f th e h e ld b a l l s c a lle d
r e v e a l s a somewhat d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t .
The p o s i t i o n s h e r e
r a n k e d , o n e , t w o , t h r e e , f o u r , a n d f i v e i n o r d e r o f v a l u e when
t h e h e l d b a l l s w e re c a l l e d by one o f f i c i a l a l o n e a n d a l s o b y
th re e .
When t h e h e l d b a l l s w ere c a l l e d by tw o o f f i c i a l s , t h e
p o s i t i o n s ran k e d f i v e , t h r e e , one, tw o , and f o u r in o r d e r o f
v a lu e .
V.
T h i s s t u d y d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n t h e
s c o r e s o f e a c h p o s i t i o n i r r e s p e c t i v e o f o f f i c i a l and i r r e s ­
p e c t i v e o f w h e t h e r t h e i n f r i n g e m e n t was c a l l e d b y o n e , t w o ,
th re e , fo u r, or fiv e p o s itio n s .
An a n a l y s i s o f t h e p e r s o n a l
f o u l s a n d v i o l a t i o n s c a l l e d shows t h a t t h e game i s now b e i n g
o f f i c i a t e d fro m t h e tw o w e a k e s t p o s i t i o n s o f t h e f i v e .
Any
o t h e r c o m b i n a t i o n o f p o s i t i o n s w ould r e s u l t i n more a c c u r a t e
d e c i s i o n s an d p r o b a b l y a g r e a t e r f e e l i n g o f s a t i s f a c t i o n on
Hit
th e p a r t o f p la y e r s and s p e c t a to r s .
Prom t h e a n a l y s i s o f
t h e r e c o r d i n g s o f h e l d b a l l s i t was l e a r n e d t h a t p o s i t i o n s
one a n d two w e re r e l i a b l y b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n s t h r e e , f o u r ,
and f i v e .
H ow ever, I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t s i n c e h e l d b a l l s
c a r r y no p e n a lty th e y a r e th e l e a s t im p o rta n t o f th e i n f r i n g e ­
m e n ts , and f u r th e r m o r e , o f f i c i a l s a r e prone t o c a l l h e ld b a l l s
when a n i n f r a c t i o n o f t h e r u l e s o c c u r s t h a t t h e y a r e u n a b l e
ititit
to see c l e a r l y .
a
itit
ititit
S ee T a b le s X X II-X X X III, ( p a g e s 6 1 - 7 8 ) .
S ee T a b le s XXXIV an d XXXV (p a g e s 81 a n d 8 2 ) .
See T a b le XXXVI (p a g e 8 4 ) .
116
V I.
An a n a l y s i s o f t h e c o m b in ed s c o r e s o f t h e p e r s o n a l
f o u l s , v i o l a t i o n s , and h e ld b a l l s i r r e s p e c t i v e o f o f f i c i a l s ,
*
re v e a le d th e fo llo w in g o rd e r of v a lu e : p o s itio n th re e f i r s t ,
p o s i t i o n f o u r s e c o n d , p o s i t i o n f i v e t h i r d , p o s i t i o n one f o u r t h ,
an d p o s i t i o n tw o f i f t h .
V II.
The c o m b in ed a v e r a g e s c o r e o f t h e t h r e e p o s i t i o n s
above was e l e v e n p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n t h e co m b in ed a v e r a g e
>JrVt
s c o r e s o f t h e tw o p o s i t i o n s on t h e f l o o r .
V III.
A.
The a g r e e m e n t b e tw e e n o f f i c i a l s i n t e r m s o f
p e rc e n ta g e i r r e s p e c t i v e o f p o s i t io n in th e a n a ly s is of p e r ­
so n a l fo u ls p la c e d O f f i c i a l 0 a t th e to p w ith f i f ty - t w o p e r
c e n t agreem en t w i t h th e o t h e r o f f i c i a l s .
O f f i c i a l P was s e c o n d
w i t h f o r t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t a g r e e m e n t , O f f i c i a l K was t h i r d w i t h
t h i r t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t a g r e e m e n t , O f f i c i a l S was f o u r t h w i t h
t h i r t y - f i v e p e r c e n t a g r e e m e n t , a n d O f f i c i a l E was f i f t h w i t h
t h i r t y - t w o p e r c e n t a g re e m e n t.
B.
The a n a l y s i s o f v i o l a t i o n s show ed O f f i c i a l P t o
be th e f i r s t w i t h f o r t y - t w o p e r c e n t a g re e m e n t, O f f i c i a l K
second w ith f o r t y - o n e p e r c e n t a g re e m e n t, O f f i c i a l 0 t h i r d
w i t h t h i r t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t a g re e m e n t, O f f i c i a l S f o u r t h w ith
t h i r t y - f o u r p e r c e n t a g r e e m e n t, a n d O f f i c i a l E l a s t w i t h t w e n t y f i v e p e r c e n t a g re e m e n t.
C.
I n c a l l i n g h e l d b a l l s t h e am ount o f a g re e m e n t
b e tw e e n o f f i c i a l s was f o u n d t o be som ewhat h i g h e r t h a n w i t h t h e
#
■SBr
See T a b l e XXXVII (p a g e 8 6 ) .
Ib id .
117
tw o o t h e r I n f r i n g e m e n t s .
O f f i c i a l s S a n d K r a n k e d t h e same
w i t h s i x t y p e r c e n t a g r e e m e n t , O f f i c i a l 0 was n e x t w i t h f i f t y n i n e p e r c e n t a g r e e m e n t , O f f i c i a l P was f o u r t h w i t h f i f t y - f i v e
p e r c e n t a g r e e m e n t , a n d O f f i c i a l E was l a s t w i t h f i f t y - t w o
p e r c e n t a g re e m e n t.
IX .
fic ia ls
A.
The amount o f i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s b e tw e e n o f ­
i n t h e i r a g re e m e n t w i t h o t h e r s o r t h e r a n g e i n t h e
d i f f e r e n c e was g r e a t e s t i n t h e c a l l i n g o f p e r s o n a l f o u l s .
The p e r c e n t a g e o f a g re e m e n t b e tw e e n O f f i c i a l 0 a n d O f f i c i a l E
an d t h e o t h e r o f f i c i a l s show ed a r a n g e o f t w e n t y p o i n t s .
O f­
f i c i a l 0 h a d t h i r t y - n i n e p e r c e n t m ore a g re e m e n t w i t h t h e
o th e r o f f i c i a l s th an d id O f f ic ia l E .
p o i n t s lo w e r them o f f i c i a l 0 .
b e lo w O f f i c i a l 0 .
O f f i c i a l P was n i n e
O f f i c i a l K was f o u r t e e n p o i n t s
O f f i c i a l S was s e v e n t e e n p o i n t s b e lo w Of­
f i c i a l 0 , and O f f i c i a l E was t w e n t y p o i n t s b e lo w O f f i c i a l 0 .
B.
An a n a l y s i s o f t h e v i o l a t i o n s r e c o r d e d show ed a
r a n g e o f s i x t e e n b e tw e e n t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f a g re e m e n t o f o f f i c i a l s P a n d E i n t h e i r a g re e m e n t w i t h t h e o t h e r o f f i c i a l s .
O f f i c i a l K h a d an e q u a l r a t i n g w i t h O f f i c i a l P .
was f o u r p o i n t s b e lo w O f f i c i a l P .
O ffic ia l 0
O f f i c i a l S was s e v e n p o i n t s
b e lo w O f f i c i a l P .
C.
The a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e c o r d i n g s o f h e l d b a l l s show ed
n o t o n l y a h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e o f a g r e e m e n t b e tw e e n o f f i c i a l s
b u t a l s o l e s s r a n g e o f i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s b e tw e e n o f f i -
#
See T a b le XXXVIII (p a g e 8 8 ) .
See T a b le XXXIX (p a g e 9 0 ) . ~
118
*•
c la la .
T h e r e was a r a n g e o f n i n e b e tw e e n t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f
a g re e m e n t o f O f f i c i a l s S a n d E i n t h e i r a g re e m e n t w i t h t h e
o th e r o f f i c i a l s .
O f f i c i a l s S a n d K r a n k e d t h e sa m e.
c i a l 0 was tw o p o i n t s b e lo w O f f i c i a l s S a n d K.
O ffi­
O ffic ia l P
was s i x p o i n t s b e lo w O f f i c i a l s S a n d K .
X.
An a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e l a t i v e v a l u e o f p o s i t i o n s w i t h
r e s p e c t t o p e r s o n a l f o u l s show ed t h a t p o s i t i o n f o u r w as t h e
a#
b e st.
P o s i t i o n s t h r e e and f i v e w ere n e x t a n d p o s i t i o n one
an d tw o w e re t h e l o w e s t .
P o s i t i o n s f o u r , t h r e e , a n d f i v e w ere
n o t r e l i a b l y d i f f e r e n t b u t w ere a l l r e l i a b l y b e t t e r t h a n p o ­
s i t i o n s one a n d tw o .
Prom t h e a n a l y s i s o f v i o l a t i o n s c a l l e d , p o s i t i o n s t h r e e ,
f o u r , and f i v e ran k ed in t h i s o r d e r o f v a lu e w ith o u t a r e ­
l i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n t h e m .
P o s i t i o n s one a n d tw o w ere
r e l i a b l y lo w e r t h a n any o f t h e o t h e r p o s i t i o n s .
In c a l l i n g h e ld b a l l s th e r e l a t i v e v a lu e o f th e p o ­
s i t i o n s ranked a s fo llo w s :
p o s itio n s one, tw o , t h r e e , f i v e ,
■SHHHt
and f o u r .
X I.
I r r e s p e c t i v e o f o f f i c i a l s , t h e c o m b in ed s c o r e s o f
p e r s o n a l f o u l s , v i o l a t i o n s , an d h e l d b a l l s r a n k e d p o s i t i o n s
4HHHH‘r
t h r e e a n d f o u r t h e sam e.
#
P o s i t i o n t h r e e was f i v e p e r
See T a b l e XL (p a g e 9 2 ) .
See T a b l e XLI (p a g e 9 5 ) ; a l s o p p . 8 8 -9 2 # i n c o m p u ta ­
tio n of r e l i a b i l i t y of d iffe re n c e s .
S e e T a b l e X L II (p a g e 9 9 ) .
See T a b l e X L I I I (p a g e 1 0 2 ) .
See T a b l e s XLIV a n d XLVI ( p a g e s 104 a n d 1 2 0 ) .
119
c e n t b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n one a n d f o u r t e e n p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n
p o s i t i o n two*
P o s i t i o n f i v e was f o u r p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n p o ­
s i t i o n one a n d e l e v e n p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n two*
Po­
s i t i o n one was e i g h t p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n p o s i t i o n two*
X II.
The r e l a t i v e a b i l i t y o r " g o o d n e s s ” o f e a c h o f f i c i a l
ir r e s p e c tiv e of p o s itio n , in c lu d in g p e rso n a l f o u ls , v io la tio n s
*■
a n d h e l d b a l l s was shown t o be r e l i a b l y d i f f e r e n t i n e a c h c a s e .
O f f i c i a l 0 r a n k e d a t t h e t o p a n d was t h i r t y p e r c e n t
b e t t e r t h a n O f f i c i a l E who r a n k e d i n t h e l o w e s t p o s i t i o n .
O f­
f i c i a l 0 was s i x p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n O f f i c i a l P , e i g h t p e r
c e n t b e t t e r t h a n O f f i c i a l K, an d se v e n te e n p e r c e n t b e t t e r
t h a n O f f i c i a l S*
O f f i c i a l F was tw o p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n O f f i c i a l K ,
t w e lv e p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n O f f i c i a l S , a n d t w e n t y - s i x p e r
cen t b e t t e r th an O f f i c i a l E.
O f f i c i a l K was n i n e p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n O f f i c i a l S ,
and tw e n ty - f o u r p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n O f f i c i a l E .
O f f i c i a l S was s i x t e e n p e r c e n t b e t t e r t h a n O f f i c i a l E .
The r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e o f f i c i a l s
v a rie d c o n sid e ra b ly in t h e i r a b i l i t i e s *
X III.
The am ount o f h a n d i c a p o f t h e v a r i o u s p o s i t i o n s h a s
b e e n shown a b o v e i n S e c t i o n X I .
The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e " g o o d ­
n e s s " o r a b i l i t y o f o f f i c i a l s h a s b e e n shown i n S e c t i o n X I I .
A c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e s e tw o shows t h e am ount o f h a n d i c a p o f p o ■5H
s i t io n i n r e l a t i o n t o th e ” goodness" o r a b i l i t y o f an o f f i c i a l .
*
■a#
See T a b le XLVI (p a g e 1684).
See T a b l e s XLIV a n d XLVI ( p a g e s 104 a n d
lQ O ^ l
CHAPTER V
RECOMMENDATIONS
The r e s u l t s o f t h i s
stu d y have c o n c l u s i v e l y d e m o n s tra te d
t h a t t h e game o f b a s k e t b a l l i s now b e i n g o f f i c i a t e d fro m p o ­
s i t i o n s t h a t h a n d ic a p o f f i c i a l s in t h e i r a b i l i t y t o c a l l and
i n t e r p r e t p e rs o n a l f o u l s and v i o l a t i o n s .
O th e r c o m b i n a t i o n s
o f p o s i t i o n s c o u l d be e m p lo y e d t h a t w ould p e r m i t g r e a t e r a c ­
c u r a c y o f d e c i s i o n s and t h e r e f o r e h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c ­
tiv e s .
The t r a i n i n g p r o c e s s e s d e v e l o p e d b y m eans o f j u s t and
c o n s i s t e n t d e c is io n s e n a b le p l a y e r s t o d e v elo p m oral q u a l i t i e s
o f r i g h t a n d w rong w h ile u n d e r t h e p r e s s u r e o f game c o n d i t i o n s .
The a u t h o r ' s re c o m m e n d a tio n s may a p p e a r new a n d r a d i ­
c a l , b u t t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h a s w e l l a s many y e a r s
o f e x p e r i e n c e i n t h i s f i e l d h a v e c o n v in c e d him t h a t t h e y s h o u l d
be a d o p te d .
1.
Remove o f f i c i a l n um ber tw o f r o m t h e f l o o r a n d
p l a c e him i n p o s i t i o n t h r e e .
The tw o o f f i c i a l s s h o u l d o f f i ­
c i a t e w i t h e q u a l a u t h o r i t y f r o m p o s i t i o n s one a n d t h r e e .
2.
The o f f i c i a l i n nu m b er t h r e e p o s i t i o n s h o u l d u s e
a p u b l i c a d d r e s s s y s t e m t o a n n o u n ce h i s d e c i s i o n s .
T h ese
w o u ld b e h e a r d I m m e d ia t e l y b y p l a y e r s a n d s p e c t a t o r s a f t e r t h e
o f f i c i a l h ad pu sh ed a b u tto n o p e r a t in g a w h is tle c o n n e c te d t o
a com pressed a i r t a n k .
T h is " a p p a ra tu s i s p o r t a b l e and c o u ld
121
122
*•
be o p e r a t e d i n a n y gym nasium o r f i e l d h o u s e .
The w r i t e r h a s o f f i c i a t e d o v e r a h u n d r e d games by
t h i s m eth o d a n d f e e l s t h a t b o t h p l a y e r s a n d a u d i e n c e d e v e l o p
g r e a t e r c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e o f f i c i a l when he a n n o u n c e s t h e i n ­
f r a c t i o n s o f th e r u l e s and s t a t e s th e p e n a l ty im m e d ia te ly ,
3,
I n a l l games w h e re o f f i c i a t i n g d e c i s i o n s a r e q u e s ­
t i o n e d by p l a y e r a n d s p e c t a t o r a l i k e , r e s e a r c h s h o u l d b e c a r ­
r i e d on t o e l i m i n a t e t h e u n d e s i r a b l e f a c t o r s an d t o s t i m u ­
l a t e q u a l i t i e s o f sp o rtsm a n sh ip , h o n e s ty , and f a i r p la y .
A r e s e a r c h p r o b l e m t h a t w o u ld s h e d some l i g h t on
b a s e b a l l w o u ld be b a s e d u p o n t h e u s e o f t h e e l e c t r i c e y e i n
u m p irin g b a l l s and s t r i k e s r a t h e r th a n t h e p r e s e n t in a c c u r a te
m e th o d ,
A r o u g h p l a n o f t h i s t e c h n i q u e h a s b e e n d ra w n up b y
t h e w r i t e r b u t t h e d e t a i l s r e m a in t o be w o rk e d o u t .
#
See p . 5 o f i n t r o d u c t i o n .
)
BIBLIOGRAPHY
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A m ateur A t h l e t i c U n io n i n R e l a t i o n t o B a s k e t b a l l . A t h l e t i c
League L e t t e r . M a rch , 1 8 9 9 ,p p . 6; J a n u a r y , 1 9 0 0 , p p . 2;
J a n u a r y , l 9 0 l , p p . 8; F e b ru a ry , 1901, p p . 5 .
A s s o c i a t i o n C o n t r o l o f B a s k e t b a l l . A t h l e t i c League L e t t e r ,
F e b r u a r y , 1899, p p . 1 -3 ; F e b ru a ry , 1901, p p . 1-4•
B a s k e t b a l l a r t i c l e s i n Young Men*s E r a ( 1 8 9 3 , 1 8 9 4 , 1 8 9 5 ) ;
Men, v o l . 2 2 , p p . 6 8 7 , 664; Men, ( 1 8 9 6 ) , p p . 3 4 8 , 3 2 9 .
B a s k e t b a l l C h a m p io n sh ip a t Pan-fimpnicfcn E x p o s i t i o n .
League L e t t e r , A p r i l , 1 9 0 1 , p . 5 .
A th le tic
B row ne, T . J . , H i s t o r y a n d P h i l o s o p h y o f B a s k e t b a l l .
1898.
T h e sis,
F i r s t Game ( B a s k e t b a l l ) , P a m p h le t b o u n d w i t h E x p a n s i o n Fund
B u l l e t i n a n d E x p a n s io n Fund P a p e r s .
M a n c h e s t e r , H e r b e r t H . , F o u r C e n t u r i e s o f S p o r t i n A m e r ic a ,
1 4 9 0 - 1 8 9 0 . New Y o rk : D e r r y d a l e T r e s s .
M enke, F r a n k G r a n t , E n c y c l o p e d i a o f S p o r t s .
I n c . , 1939.
New Y o rk : M enke,
M a y e r, I . C . , H i s t o r y o f C p i l e g e B a s k e t b a l l .
T h e s is , 1911.
N a i s m i t h , J a m e s , B a s k e t b a l l . A m erican P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n
R eview (May, 1 9 1 4 ) , p p . 3 3 9 - 3 5 1 .
N a ism ith , Jam es, H is to ry of B a s k e tb a ll.
V o l. 2 2 , p . 253.
Young Men1s E r a ,
N a i s m i t h , J a m e s , The H i s t o r y ( B a s k e t b a l l ) O r i g i n a l 13 R u l e s .
T r i a n g l e , (Ja n u a ry 1 5 , 1 8 9 2 ), p p . 1 4 4-147.
N a i s m i t h , J a m e s , B a s k e t b a l l , a Game t h e W orld P l a y s .
R o ta ria n ( Ja n u a ry , 1939).
N a tio n a l B a s k e tb a ll a t C h ic a g o , 1900-1901.
L e t t e r , M arch , 1 9 0 1 , p . 5 .
The
A t h l e t i c L eague
The N a t i o n a l E n c y c l o p e d i a , v o l . I I , p p . 2 3 - 2 4 .
P . P1. C o l l i e r & S o n ,
New Y o rk :
R i p l e y , R . L . , A n c i e n t Mayas P l a y e d B a s k e t b a l l .
Men, ( J u l y , 1 9 2 9 ) , p . 4 9 5 .
A s so c ia tio n
127
S t a l e y , S . G . , H is to r y o f S p o r t s . J o u r n a l o f H ealth, and Phy­
s i c a l E d u c a tio n , 8 (Novem ber, 1 9 3 7 7 7 p p . 5 2 2 -5 5 5 .
Symposium on B a s k e t b a l l , c o l l e c t e d a n d a r r a n g e d b y L u t h e r H.
G u l i c k . A m erican P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n R e v ie w , V o l . 1 4 ,
p p . 3 76-389.
W a t e r b u r y , C o n n e c t i c u t , A m e ric an W o r l d 's V e ry F i r s t B a s k e t ­
b a l l Team. C l i p p i n g f r o m p a p e r , O c t o b e r 1 8 , 1 9 1 3 .
O f f i c i a t i n g and R u les
B a s k e tb a ll R u le s.
P h y s ic a l E d u c a tio n , V o l. 3 , p . 138.
C h a d w ic k , H . L . , Rough P l a y i n g .
Men, V o l . 2 2 , p . 8 6 0 .
C o n f e d e r a c i o n S u d a m e ric a n a de B a s k e t b a l l .
1924, 9 p p .
C ourt M a r s h a ll.
Q. R e y n o l d s .
1 93 9), p . 19.
B a se s y R e g la m e n t o s ,
C o l l i e r s , 103 ( J a n u a r y , 1 4 ,
D a h l , Edwin J . , The B a s k e t b a l l R u l e s an d O f f i c i a t i n g .
l e t i c J o u r n a l , XIV (M a rc h , 1 9 3 4 ) , p . 1 6 .
A th ­
D a h l , Edwin J . , My P h i l o s o p h y o f O f f i c i a t i n g . A t h l e t i c
J o u r n a l , XV ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 3 5 ) , p . 4 0 ; ( F e b r u a r y , 1 9 3 5 ) ,
p . 36.
F r i e r y , R obert J . , E v o lu tio n o f th e R u les o f B a s k e tb a ll .
M a s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n T h e s i s ', S p r l n g T T e ld C o l l e g e ,
Ju n e , 1936.
G a b l e , M .A ., U m p ir in g Must Keep P a c e w i t h H o ck ey . J o u r n a l o f
H e a l t h a n d P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 9 ( D e c e m b e r, 1 9 3 8 ) ,
p . 617.
G r i f f i t h , Colem an R . , E x p e r i m e n t s i n B a s k e t b a l l .
J o u r n a l, X (Ju n e , 1930), p . 9 .
G u lic k , L .H ., B a s k e tb a ll R u les f o r 1897.
A th le tic
Men, V o l . 2 3 , p . 1 2 6 0 .
G u l i c k , L . H . , P r o p o s e d C h a n g es i n B a s k e t b a l l R u l e s . A m e ric an
P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n R e v ie w , ( O c t o b e r , 1 9 0 7 ) , p p . 5 0 8 5121
I n t e r n a t i o n a l B a s k e t b a l l F e d e r a t i o n . R u l e s o f t h e Game,
1 9 3 2 -1 9 3 6 . Roma S t a d i o N a z i o n a l e . F r e f . ' 1 9 3 3 .
In
F rench and E n g lis h .
128
K e l l e y , C . C . , E x p e r im e n t i n M e a s u r in g A c c u ra c y a n d R e a c t i o n
Time I n B a s k e t b a l l " O f f i c i a t i n g " M a s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n
T h e s i s , 19 3 3 .
N ic h o ls , J . K . , T ec h n iq u e3 o f B a s k e tb a ll O f f i c i a t i n g .
p o l i s : J1. N. Raymond Company, 1 9 2 6 .
M innea­
O f f i c i a l B a s k e t b a l l G uide f o r Women. A m e ric an S p o r t s Pub­
l i s h i n g Company, 1 8 9 9 , l 9 0 l , 1 9 0 3 , 1 9 0 5 , 1 9 0 6 , 1 9 0 8 ,
1909.
O f f i c i a l Book o f R u l e s f o r t h e G overnm ent a n d P r o t e c t i o n o f
t h e Game o f B a s k e t : b a l l . P h i l a d e l p h i a : A.
ReacET
a n d Company, 1 9 0 8 .
O f f i c i a l B a s k e t b a l l R u le s a s A d o p te d b y t h e A.A. U. a n d t h e
Y .l/I.C.A. A t h l e t i c League o f N .A . A m erican S p o r t s
P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1 8 9 7 .
O s b o r n e , W i l l i a m T e r r y , A New M ethod o f O f f i c i a t i n g B a s k e t ­
b a l l . A t h l e t i c J o u r n a l . X I I I (M a rch , 1 9 3 3 ) , p . 4 0 .
R u b in , R . , R a tin g S c a le f o r B a s k e tb a ll O f f i c i a l s . J o u r n a l
o f H e a l t h a n d P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . ( J a n u a r y , 19 36) ,
p . 33.
S c h le m a n , H . B . , W r i t t e n - P r a c t i c a l B a s k e t b a l l O f f i c i a t i n g
T e s t . J o u r n a l o f H e a lth and P h y s ic a l E d u c a tio n , 3
(M a rch , 1 9 3 2 ) , p . W .
S c o t t , M .G ., W r i t t e n T e s t f o r B a s k e t b a l l O f f i c i a l s . J o u r n a l
o f H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . 8 ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 3 7 ) ,
p. 4 l.
S m i t h , Thomas H . , O f f i c i a l B a s k e t b a l l Guide a n d P r o t e c t i v e
A s s o c i a t i o n R u l e s f o r 1 9 0 6 - 1 9 0 7 . New Y o rk : P . K .
Pox, 1906.
S p a l d i n g ’ s O f f i c i a l B a s k e t b a l l Guide . 1 9 0 5 - 1 9 3 7 .
S p o r t s P u b l i s h i n g Company.
New York
Webb, E . , Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r O f f i c i a t i n g i n G i r l s ’ B a s k e t ­
b a l l . V i r g i n i a J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n , 31 ( F e b r u a r y .
19 3 8 ), p . 218.
M isc e lla n e o u s
A l l e n , F o r r e s t C . , A S t a n d a r d i z e d N o m e n c la tu re i n B a s k e t b a l l .
A t h l e t i c J o u r n a l , XIV (N ovem ber, 1 9 3 3 ) , p . 3 6 .
109
B a s k e t b a l l , A d v a n ta g e s o f Game a n d L e a g u e .
t i o n ( A p r il, 1 8 9 3 ), p . 19.
B a s k e t b a l l , New S t y l e .
P h y s ic a l Educa­
S c h o l a s t i c , 31 (D ecem ber, 1 9 1 1 ) , p . 3 2 .
Cummins, R o b e r t A . , A S tu d y o f t h e E f f e c t o f B a s k e t b a l l P r a c ­
t i c e on M o to r R e c r e a t i o n , A t t e n t i o n a n d S u g g e s t i ­
b ility .
P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e v ie w , 21 ( 1 9 1 4 ) , p p . 3 5 6 359 .
D a v i e s , W .T ., M o tiv a t i o n i n I n t r a m u r a l B a s k e t b a l l . S k i l l s .
T h e s i s "in P hy s i c a I “Educ a t I on , S p r i n g f i e l d C o l l e g e ,
1933.
E v a n s , H . L , , S i d e L ine B a s k e t b a l l .
19 3 1 ), p p . 565-568.
Mind and B ody, 38 ( J u n e ,
G ee, E r n e s t R . , A D e s c r i p t i v e L i s t o f t h e Most I m p o r t a n t Books
on S p o r t . S p o r t s m a n . 14 ( 1 9 3 3 ) , p p . 5 7 - 7 9 .
G re g g , A . J . , B a s k e t b a l l a n d C h a r a c t e r .
P re s s , 1934.
New Y ork A s s o c i a t i o n
G u l i c k , L . H . , B a s k e t b a l l , Some S u g g e s t i o n s i n R e g a rd t o I t s
U se. P h y s ic a l E d u c a tio n , V o l. 4 , p . 120.
H ager, R .H ., P e rc e n ta g e B a s k e t b a l l .
1926.
P r iv a te ly p u b lish e d ,
Howard, G len W i l l a r d , A M easurem ent o f t h e A c h iev e m e n t i n
M otor S k i l l s o f C o l l e g e We'n 3 n t h e Same S i t u a t i o n o f
B a s k e t b a l l . Few Y o r k : T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , C o lu m b ia
U n i v e r s i t y , 1937.
H ug h es, W. L . , The Book o f M a jo r S p o r t s .
B a r n e s Company, 1 9 3 8 .
New Y o rk : A. S .
I s B a s k e t b a l l a D a n g e r? Young Men1s E r a , (A u g u st 1 6 , 1 8 9 4 ) ,
p . 1 3 , and (A u g u st 2 37 1 8 9 4 ) , p . 1 4 .
L u k e , W .A ., C h a r a c t e r B u i l d i n g P o s s i b i l i t i e s i n B a s k e t b a l l ;
Summary o f I n t e r v i e w S tu d y o f C h u r c h - C e n t e r e d Teams
i n L i n c o l n , N e b r a s k a . A s s o c i a t i o n Foru m , ( J a n u a r y ,
1930), p . 10.
M ajo r, F . , F e ro c io u s F a n s .
193 7), p . 24.
L i t e r a r y D i g e s t , 124 (November 6 .
N a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n o f S t a t e H igh S c h o o l A t h l e t i c A s s o c i a ­
tio n s .
B a s k e tb a ll P la y S i t u a t i o n s . C h icag o , 1934.
New I n v e n t i o n s i n t h e F i e l d o f S p o r t s .
134 ( J u n e , 1 9 3 9 ) , p p . 1 2 4 - 1 2 5 .
P o p u la r S c ie n c e .
130
R a n c k , W ils o n M# , Guide t o S p o r t s a n d O u td o o r R e c r e a t i o n ,
a S e l e c t e d L i s t o f B o o k s. A m e ric a n P h y s i c a l B d u c a t io n A s so c ia tio n R esearch Q u a r te r ly , 6 (1 9 3 5 ), pp.
753T5T:------------------------------------------------S m i t h , W .R ., S p o r t s m a n s h i p i n B a s k e t b a l l T o u r n a m e n t s . J o u r n a l
o f H e a l t h a n d P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 1 (M a rc h , 1 9 3 0 ) ,
p . 39.
W a sh b u rn , L . P . , E f f e c t o f B a s k e t b a l l on B lo o d P r e s s u r e a n d
A lb u m in u ria . T h e s is , 1911.
A P P E N D I X
131
COPY
Nova S c o t i a A m a te u r B a s k e t b a l l A s s o c i a t i o n
P r e s i d e n t : C .G . H a r r i s , H a l i f a x
S e c . - T r e a s . : Jo h n W, Thom as, H a l i f a x
H a l i f a x , N. S .
November 2 0 t h , 1939
P r o f e s s o r W. T . O sborne
D i r e c t o r o f P h y s ic a l E d u c a tio n
A c a d ia U n i v e r s i t y
W o l f v i l l e , Nova S c o t i a
D e a r P r o f e s s o r O s b o rn e :
I n f o l l o w i n g u p o u r c o r r e s p o n d e n c e we a r e p l e a s e d t o
c o o p e r a t e w i t h y o u i n y o u r r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t . F o r a l o n g t im e
th e A s s o c ia t io n and t h e r e f e r e e s have b een i n t e r e s t e d i n th e
work t h a t you have d o n e i n t h e f i e l d o f o f f i c i a t i n g .
We a r e g l a d t o recommend a s o f f i c i a l s t h e f o l l o w i n g :
V. E v i l l e , F . F o r b e s , F . K e l l y , W.T. O s b o r n e , G, P o r t e r an d
N, S a n f o r d .
K i n d l y t h e r e f o r e c o n s i d e r t h i s a n o f f i c i a l ok fr o m
t h e P r o v i n c i a l B a s k e t b a l l A s s o c i a t i o n , i n o r d e r t h a t we may
be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h y o u r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n d e p a r t m e n t i n
th is re se a rc h m a tte r.
Y o u rs v e r y t r u l y ,
J o h n W. T hom as,
H a lifa x , N. S.
( S ig n e d ) Jo h n W. Thomas
S e c . - T r e a s . , Nova S c o t i a
B a s k e tb a ll A ss.
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The S t a n d a r d E r r o r o f t h e D i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n
Two U n c o r r e l a t e d Percentages-*-
1.
P la c e s c o r e s in t h e o r d e r o f m ag n itu d e,
2.
F ig u re th e d if f e r e n c e in p e r c e n t .
3*
Compute t h e e r r o r s o f e a c h s e q u e n c e o f p e r c e n t .
F o rm u las
I
2 iii
II
*
p2
q2
n i
4.
D i v i d e (2 ) b y (3 ) t o o b t a i n t h e C r i t i c a l R a t i o .
5.
D e c id e on t h e l i m i t s o f a c c e p t a b l e r e l i a b i l i t y , e . g .
c a l l tw o o r m ore a d i f f e r e n c e .
6.
Compute t h e d i f f e r e n c e t o o b t a i n a f i n a l o r d e r .
<
tdp =
D iff. in per cent
2
:-------- ........- = — .
J /S L S i
♦
n2
1.
2.
H. E . G a r r e t t , S t a t i s t i c s i n P s y c h o lo g y a n d E d u c a t i o n ,
p . 228.
A ppro ved b y Raymond F r a n z e n , S t a t i s t i c i a n o f R a d io
C ity .
135
H o te l A lb e rt
New Y o r k , N. Y.
Ju n e 2 4 t h , 1940
M r. F r a n k G. Menke
235 E a s t 4 5 t h S t r e e t
New Y ork C i t y , N. Y.
D e a r Mr. Menke:
A f t e r a num ber o f y e a r s o f r e s e a r c h an d e x p e r i m e n t a l
w ork on t h e p r o b le m o f a t t e m p t i n g t o d e t e r m i n e t h e b e s t p o s i ­
t i o n o r c o m b i n a t i o n o f p o s i t i o n s f o r o f f i c i a l s i n g a m e s, I
am now w r i t i n g up t h e r e s u l t s a n d w o u ld a p p r e c i a t e p e r m i s s i o n
f r o m you t o q u o te f r o m y o u r b o o k : " E n c y c l o p e d i a o f S p o r t s . "
Some o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e r e s e a r c h w i l l have a v e r y
d i r e c t a n d i m p o r t a n t b e a r i n g u p o n t h e game o f b a s k e t b a l l an d
w i l l no d o u b t i n f l u e n c e some o f t h e r u l e c h a n g e s i n t h e n e a r
f u t u r e . T h re e y e a r s a g o I h a d an a r t i c l e i n t h e B a s k e t b a l l
R u le G uide on t h i s p r o b l e m .
V ery t r u l y y o u r s ,
W. T . O sborne
D e a r P r o f e s s o r O s b o rn e :
T h i s l e t t e r was l o s t i n among some c l i p p i n g s .
If it
i s n o t to o l a t e f o r y o u r p u rp o se , t h i s i s your p e rm issio n to
u s e w h a t you w i s h f r o m t h e b a s k e t b a l l s e c t i o n .
B est w is h e s .
F r a n k G. Menke
8 /8 /4 0
136
Box 388
W o lf b o r o , N, H.
D e a r Mr. O s b o rn e :
Y our l e t t e r o f J u l y 30 h a s j u s t b e e n f o r w a r d e d t o
me.
I s h a l l be I n t e r e s t e d t o r e a d t h e a b s t r a c t o f t h e
w ork y o u h a v e b e e n d o i n g on o f f i c i a t i n g .
We h a v e a s u b - c o m m i t te e w o rk in g on game a d m i n i s ­
t r a t i o n a n d I am s u r e t h a t t h e c h a ir m a n w o u ld be i n t e r e s t e d
i n y o u r v ie w s and i d e a s . The c h a ir m a n i s Sumner D o l e ,
S to r r s , C o n n e c tic u t.
V ery t r u l y y o u r s ,
O sw ald Tower
137
C o p ie d by p e r m i s s i o n o f P r a n k M enke, fr o m h i s E n c y c l o p e d i a o f
S p o r ts , 1939, p p . 1 4-16.
B ask et b a l l i s th e o n ly s p o r t p la y e d in th e U n ite d
S t a t e s w h ic h i s p u r e l y A m erican i n o r i g i n . A l l o t h e r games a r e
e i t h e r d i r e c t i m p o r t a t i o n s fro m f o r e i g n l a n d s o r a r e h y b r i d s .
D r . Jam es A. N a i s m i t h t r e a t e d b a s k e t b a l l w h i l e he w as
a p h y s i c a l d i r e c t o r a t t h e Y .M .C .A . i n S p r i n g f i e l d , M a ssa ­
c h u s e t t s l a t e i n 1 8 9 1 , b u t t h e f i r s t r e a l game was n o t p l a y e d
u n t i l Jan u ary 2 0 , 1892.
H ere i s D r . N a i s m i t h ’ s s t o r y , a b o u t t h e c r e a t i o n o f
b a s k e t b a l l w r i t t e n i n 1937 w h i l e he was a p r o f e s s o r a t t h e
U n i v e r s i t y o f K a n s a s , i n L aw re n ce ;
’ I n t h e f a l l o f '9 1 t h e p h y s i c a l d i r e c t o r s o f t h e
c o u n t r y h a d come t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t maybe n e i t h e r t h e G e r­
man, S w e d is h o r F r e n c h s y s te m g ave u s t h e k i n d o f w ork t h a t
w ould h o l d o u r m em b ersh ip i n t h e Y ' s .
'We d e c i d e d t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d b e a game t h a t c o u l d be
p l a y e d i n d o o r s i n t h e e v e n i n g an d d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r s e a s o n s .
D r. G u l i c k a s s i g n e d me t o t h e t a s k o f i n v e n t i n g a game t o f i l l
t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p a r t o f o u r w o rk . He was l e d t o a s s i g n t h i s
work t o me b e c a u s e o f a c o u p l e o f s t a t e m e n t s I h a d made t h a t
i t was p o s s i b l e t o i n v e n t s u c h a game and t h a t m a tu r e i n d i ­
v i d u a l s d i d n o t d e s i r e p h y s i c a l d e v e lo p m e n t b u t d i d w i s h f o r
some e n j o y a b l e f o r m o f r e c r e a t i o n .
' I f i r s t t r i e d t o m o d if y some o f t h e e x i s t i n g games
s o t h a t t h e y w o u ld m eet t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s b u t f a i l e d t o make
a n y game s u i t a b l e f o r i n d o o r w o r k .
I th e n l e f t out th e id ea o f
an y i n d i v i d u a l game a n d b e g a n t o t h i n k o f t h e f u n d a m e n t a l
p r i n c i p l e s o f a l l gam es.
I d i s c o v e r e d t h a t i n a l l te a m games
some k i n d o f a b a l l was u s e d .
'T h e n e x t s t e p was t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e f a c t t h a t f o o t ­
b a l l was r o u g h b e c a u s e y ou had t o a l l o w t h e d e f e n c e t o t a c k l e
because th e o ffe n s e r a n w ith th e b a l l . A cco rd in g ly , i f th e
o f f e n s e d i d n ' t have an o p p o r t u n i t y t o r u n w i t h t h e b a l l , t h e r e
w o u ld be n o n e c e s s i t y f o r t a c k l i n g a n d we w o u ld t h u s e l i m i n a t e
roughness.
'T h i s i s t h e f u n d a m e n t a l p r i n c i p l e o f b a s k e t b a l l .
'T h e n e x t s t e p was t o s e c u r e some k i n d o f a g o a l
th ro u g h
w h ic h t h e b a l l c o u l d be p a s s e d .
In t h i n k i n g o f u p ­
r i g h t g o a l s , t h e f a c t was b r o u g h t o u t t h a t t h e more f o r c e t h a t
was p u t on t h e b a l l , t h e m ore l i k e l i h o o d t h e r e was o f h a v i n g
to p a ss th ro u g h th e g o a l.
I t t h e n o c c u r r e d t h a t i f t h e b a l l was
138
th ro w n I n a c u r v e I t w ould n o t be n e c e s s a r y n o r a d v i s a b l e t o
p u t t o o m uch f o r c e on t h e b a l l *
' I d e c i d e d t h a t by m ak in g t h e g o a l h o r i z o n t a l t h e b a l l
w ou ld h a v e t o be th r o w n i n a c u r v e , m i n i m i z i n g t h e s e v e r e
d riv in g of a b a l l .
In o r d e r t o a v o id h a v in g th e d e fe n s e c o n ­
g r e g a t e a r o u n d t h e g o a l , i t w as p l a c e d abov e t h e i r h e a d s , so
t h a t once t h e b a l l l e f t t h e i n d i v i d u a l ’ s h a n d s i t was n o t
l i k e l y t o be i n t e r f e r e d w ith .
’T hen t h e r u l e s w ere made t o e l i m i n a t e r o u g h n e s s s u c h
a s s h o u l d e r i n g , p u s h i n g , k i c k i n g , e t c . The b a l l was t o be
h a n d le d w ith th e hands o n ly .
I t c o u l d n o t b e draw n i n t o t h e
body i n t o p la y and th u s en co u rag e ro u g h n e s s .
'T h e m an n er o f p u t t i n g t h e b a l l i n t o p l a y was t h e n
c o n s i d e r e d . Two i n d i v i d u a l s w ere s e l e c t e d a n d t o o k t h e i r
s t a t i o n s i n t h e m id d l e o f t h e f l o o r . The b a l l was th r o w n
u p so a s t o l a n d b e tw e e n t h e m , g i v i n g a s n e a r l y e q u a l c h an c e
a s p o s s i b l e . The n e a r e s t a p p r o a c h t o t h e b a l l s e l e c t e d was
th e so c c e r b a l l .
'T o g e t g o a l s we u s e d a c o u p l e o f o l d p e a c h b a s k e t s ,
h a n g in g one a t e a c h e n d o f t h e gym. Prom t h i s b a s k e t b a l l d e ­
v e lo p e d .
' I n my e s t i m a t i o n , t h e r e a r e f o u r f u n d a m e n t a l p r i n c i p l e s
in b a s k e tb a ll:
1.
2.
3.
4.
T h a t t h e p l a y e r w i t h t h e b a l l m u st n o t make p r o ­
g r e s s w h ile i t i s in h i s p o s s e s s i o n .
The g o a l i s h o r i z o n t a l a n d above t h e h e a d s o f t h e
p la y e rs.
R o u g h n e ss i 3 e l i m i n a t e d a s f a r a s p o s s i b l e by
m akin g i t a n o - c o n t a c t c o n t e s t .
The b a l l b e l o n g s t o t h e p l a y e r a t a n y t i m e t h a t
he c a n g e t i t w i t h o u t m ak in g p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t .
'T h e s e f o u r I c o n s i d e r f u n d a m e n t a l a n d a n e c e s s a r y
p a r t o f b a s k e t b a l l . T hey p e r s i s t e d fr o m 1891 t o 1 9 3 7 . T h e re
i s a s l i g h t t e n d e n c y a t t h i s tim e t o m o d ify t h e l a s t o f t h e s e
p r i n c i p l e s t o d e v e l o p a s t r o n g e r o f f e n s e , somewhat a t t h e e x ­
pense o f t h e d e fe n s e .
' I t I s r a t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t tw e lv e o f th e o r i g i n a l
r u l e s w e r e , i n 1 9 3 7 , s t i l l i n t h e r u l e s w h ic h w e re p o s t e d on
t h e b u l l e t i n b o a rd i n t h e gym a t S p r i n g f i e l d b e f o r e t h e game
was a c t u a l l y p l a y e d .
Copy o f t h e O r i g i n a l B a s k e t b a l l R u l e s
1.
The b a l l may b e t h r o w n i n a n y d i r e c t i o n w i t h one o r b o t h
hands.
139
2.
The b a l l may b e b a t t e d w i t h one o r b o t h h a n d s ( n e v e r w i t h
th e f i s t s ) ,
3,
A p l a y e r c a n n o t r u n w i t h t h e b a l l . The p l a y e r m u st t h r o w
i t f r o m t h e s p o t on w h ic h he c a t c h e s i t , a l l o w a n c e t o b e
made f o r a man who c a t c h e s t h e b a l l when r u n n i n g i f he
tr ie s to sto p ,
4.
The b a l l m u st be h e l d b y t h e h a n d s , t h e arm o r b o d y m ust
not be u sed f o r h o ld in g i t ,
5.
No S h o u l d e r i n g , h o l d i n g , p u s h i n g , t r i p p i n g , o r s t r i k i n g i n
a n y way t h e p e r s o n o f a n o p p o n e n t s h a l l be a l l o w e d ; t h e
f i r s t in frin g e m e n t o f t h i s r u le by any p la y e r s h a l l count
a s a f o u l , t h e s e c o n d s h a l l d i s q u a l i f y him u n t i l t h e n e x t
g o a l i s m ad e , o r i f t h e r e was e v i d e n t i n t e n t t o i n j u r e t h e
p e r s o n , f o r t h e whole o f t h e g am e. No s u b s t i t u t e a l l o w e d ,
6,
A f o u l i s s tr ik in g at th e b a ll w ith th e f i s t , v io la tio n s
o f r u l e 3 , 4 and such a s d e s c r ib e d in r u le 5 ,
7,
I f e i t h e r s i d e makes t h r e e c o n s e c u t i v e f o u l s
it sh a ll
co u n t a g o a l f o r th e o p p o n e n ts,
( C o n s e c u t i v e m eans w i t h ­
o u t t h e o p p o n e n ts i n t h e m ean tim e m ak in g a f o u l , )
8®
A g o a l s h a l l b e made when t h e b a l l s a r e th r o w n o r b a t t e d
fro m th e grounds i n t o th e b a s k e t and s t a y s t h e r e , p r o v i d ­
in g th o s e d e fe n d in g th e g o a l do n o t to u c h o r d i s t u r b th e
g o a l.
I f t h e b a l l r e s t s on t h e e d g e s , a n d t h e o p p o n e n t
moves t h e b a s k e t , i t s h a l l c o u n t a s a g o a l ,
9.
When t h e b a l l g o e s o u t o f b o u n d s i t s h a l l be th r o w n i n t o
t h e f i e l d o f p l a y by t h e p e r s o n f i r s t t o u c h i n g i t .
He
has th e r i g h t t o h o ld i t u n m o le ste d f o r f i v e se c o n d s .
In
c a s e o f a d i s p u t e t h e u m p ire s h a l l t h r o w i t s t r a i g h t i n t o
t h e f i e l d . The t h r o w e r - i n i s a l l o w e d f i v e s e c o n d s ; i f he
ho ld w i t l o n g e r , i t s h a l l g o t h t h e o p p o n e n t .
I f any s id e
p e r s i s t s i n d e l a y i n g t h e game, t h e u m p ire s h a l l c a l l a
f o u l on t h a t s i d e .
1 0 . The u m p ire s h a l l be ju d g e o f t h e men an d s h a l l n o t e t h e
f o u l s a n d n o t i f y t h e r e f e r e e when t h r e e c o n s e c u t i v e f o u l s
h a v e b e e n m ad e . He s h a l l have p o w e r t o d i s q u a l i f y men a c ­
c o rd in g t o r u le 5 .
1 1 . The r e f e r e e s h a l l ju d g e t h e b a l l a n d s h a l l d e c i d e when t h e
b a l l i s i n p l a y ; i n b o u n d s , t o w h ic h s i d e i t b e l o n g s , an d
s h a l l k e e p a c c o u n t o f t h e g o a l s , w i t h any o t h e r d u t i e s t h a t
a re u s u a l l y p e rfo rm ed by a r e f e r e e .
1 2 . The t im e s h a l l be tw o 15 m in u te h a l v e s , w i t h f i v e m i n u t e s
r e s t b e tw e e n .
140
13.
The s i d e m ak in g t h e m ost g o a l s i n t h a t tim e s h a l l be
d e c la re d th e w in n e r.
I n c a s d o f a draw t h e game may, b y
a g re e m e n t o f c a p t a i n s , be c o n t i n u e d u n t i l a n o t h e r g o a l
i s m ad e.
’ So r a p i d w as t h e g r o w th o f b a s k e t b a l l t h a t gym nasium s
in d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f th e c o u n try m e re ly a d o p te d th e b a s i c
p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e game a n d n e v e r w a i t e d t o g e t t h e d e t a i l e d
r u l e s f r o m D r. N a i s m i t h . T h i s e v e n t u a l l y l e d t o c o n f u s i o n i n
i n t e r s e c t i o n a l p l a y , b e c a u s e c o l l e g e s h a d one s e t o f r u l e s ,
h i g h s c h o o l s h a d o t h e r s a n d t h e same was t r u e o f t h e Y.M .C.A .
a n d A .A .U . b r a n c h e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y .
B a s k e t b a l l was f i r s t p l a y e d w i t h 7 men on a s i d e , t h e n
9 , t h e n 8 , now i t i s 5 . At one t i m e t h e game c o n s i s t e d o f
3 p e r i o d s o f 20 m i n u t e s e a c h . Now i t i s 2 o f 2 0 . At one tim e
3 p e n a ltie s c o n stitu te d a p o in t.
G o a l s , w h ic h now c o u n t 2
p o i n t s , once c o u n t e d 3 .
I n o t h e r d a y s , when a f o u l was com­
m i t t e d , t h e i n j u r e d te a m c a l l e d u p o n a s p e c i a l i s t f o u l s h o o t e r .
U n d e r t h o s e r u l e s a s p e c i a l i s t a t F ordham once s h o t 28 g o a l s .
Now t h e man f o u l e d m ust t a k e t h e t h r o w .
To g e t o r d e r o u t o f c h a o s o f c o n f l i c t i n g r u l e s , a
m e e t i n g was h e l d y e a r s a g o i n v o l v i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e
Y .M .C .A ’ s , c o l l e g e s , h i g h s c h o o l s , p r e p s c h o o l s , t h e A .A . U .,
e t c . T h i s J o i n t Com m ittee p r o m p t l y s t a n d a r d i z e d t h e p l a y o f
b a s k e t b a l l f o r th e e n t i r e w o rld , and i s th e i n t e r n a t i o n a l
g o v e rn in g pow er.
B a s k e t b a l l , p o p u l a r f r o m t h e n i g h t i t was i n t r o d u c e d ,
now i s p l a y e d i n more t h a n 75 c o u n t r i e s .
I t h a s more p l a y e r s
t h a n a n y o t h e r c o m p a r a t i v e o r c o m b a tiv e s p o r t s . About 2 0 ,0 0 0 , 0 0 0
th ro u g h o u t th e w o rld , and in t h e U n ite d S t a t e s i t h a s th e d i s ­
t i n c t i o n o f d ra w in g m ore p a i d a d m i s s i o n s - - a b o u t 9 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0
a n n u a l l y , — t h a n any o t h e r a t h l e t i c c o n t e s t .
The e x t e n t o f b a s k e t b a l l p o p u l a r i t y i n o t h e r c l i m e s
i s shown b y t h e f a c t t h a t t h e w o r l d ’ s r e c o r d crow d f o r a
s i n g l e game was e s t a b l i s h e d i n P e i p i n g , C h i n a , d u r i n g t h e
1931 t o u r n a m e n t , a n d t h a t i t h a s become s o much o f a game
o f games i n P u e r t o R ic o t h a t i n 1938 t h e y h a d a n a t i o n a l d e l e b r a t i o n f o r t h r e e w eeks b e c a u s e t h a t y e a r m ark ed t h e 2 5 t h a n ­
n i v e r s a r y o f t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e game t o t h e i s l a n d .
141
TABLE XLVII
Computation of the Reliability of Difference Between the Scores
(in terms of per oent) of Each Position
Reoorded by
_____________
U s i n g ___________________ _Game_s____________
^
"
Referee
Position
In the
order of
Magnitude
N
%
Position
N
%
Differ­
ence b e ­
tween
Positions
Reliability
of Difference
C.R.
%
1
146
170
193
252
193
17.1
12.9
11.9
10.3
7.2
000970
000666
000543
000367
000346
4
4
4
4
146
146
146
146
17.1
17.1
17.1
17.1
3
2
5
1
170
193
252
193
12.9
11.9
10.3
7.2
4.2
5.2
6.8
9.9
.0403
.0389
.0365.0362
1.04
1.33
1.86
2.73
3
3
3
170
170
170
12.9
12.9
12.9
2
5
1
193
252
192
11.9
10.3
7.2
1.0
2.6
5.7
•0346
•0320
.0317
•289
•81
1.79
2
2
193
193
11.9
11.9
5
1
252
193
10.3
f>*Z
1.6
4.7
.0301
.0298
.53
1.577
5
252
10.3
1
193
7.2
3.1
.0267
1.161
4
3
2
5
1.
4.2
1.0
1.6
3.1
.29
.52
Final Order
Position
Limit of Aooeptability is
placed at _____________
_____________
As reoommended by Garrett
and also by Franzen
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