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THE NEGRO INVASION OF THE WASHINGTON PARK SUBDIVISION

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THE UNIVERSITY OP CHICAGO
THE NEGRO INVASION OP THE
WASHINGTON PARK
SUBDIVISION
A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO
THE FACULTY OP THE DIVISION OP THE SOCIAL SCIENCES
IN CANDIDACY FOR THE DEGREE OP
MASTER OF ARTS
DEPARTMENT OF SOCIOLOGY
BY
FREDERICK BURGESS LINDSTROM
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS
JUNE, 1941
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
PREFACE
Few v o ic e s have heen r a is e d about Negro hou sin g in Chi­
cago in r e c e n t y e a rs w ith ou t m en tioning th e W ashington park Sub­
d iv is io n and the r e s t r i c t i v e covenant th e r e .
T h is stu dy i s an
attem pt t o o b ta in some s p e c i f i c d a ta on th e m a tte r , to a n a ly ze
i t , and to o rg a n ize i t in terms o f r e s i d e n t i a l se g r e g a tio n and
r e s i d e n t ia l s u c c e s s io n .
Among th o s e who have been e s p e c i a l l y kind and h e lp f u l
in making a v a ila b le d ata on the m a tter are the Chicago P lan Com­
m issio n through i t s sp onsored p r o je c t the Chicago Land Use Survey,
whose p erson n el undertook, among o th e r t h in g s , a s p e c ia l ta b u la ­
t io n o f d a ta f o r t h i s study; the Chicago R e lie f A d m in istra tio n ,
whose p erso n n el a s s i s t e d in o b ta in in g d a ta from the r e l i e f r ec ­
ords; and Alderman E a r l B. D ic k e rso n , Chairman o f the Subcommit­
tee to in v e s t i g a t e Housing Among the C olored p e o p le , who made
a v a ila b le a t r a n s c r ip t o f testim o n y g iv e n b e fo re th a t com m ittee,
and h is p re lim in a ry r e p o r t.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
TABUS OP CONTENTS
PREFACE.................................................................................................................
Page
ii
LIST OF T A B L E S ....................................................................................................
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS...............................
v
vi
Chapter
I . THE WASHINGTON PARK SUBDIVISION...............................................
2
The Development o f the S u b d iv isio n
C h a r a c te r is tic s o f the S u b d iv isio n
The P la ce o f th e S u b d iv isio n in Chicago
The R e la tio n o f th e S u b d iv isio n to th e Negro
Community
II.
DEPOPULATION OF THE SUBDIVISION BY WHITE RESI­
DENTS ...................................................................................................
11
The G eneral S h if t o f P o p u la tio n to Other
Areas
Threat t o the S u b d iv isio n by Nearness o f
Negroes
The D ep ressio n and Negro in v a s io n
Panic
D ep op u lation by w hite r e s id e n t s o f area ad­
ja c e n t t o Negroes
P h y s ic a l c o n d itio n o f h ou sin g abandoned by
w h ite r e s id e n ts
R ents and land v a lu e s
The Covenant
V io la t io n o f the covenant
III.
THE NEGRO INVASION OF THE SUBDIVISION...........................
26
The O verpopulation o f th e Negro Community
The A ttr a c tio n o f th e S u b d iv isio n f o r Negro
R esid e n ts
L o c a tio n o f the F ir s t in vad ers
U norganized Negro In v a sio n
O rganized Negro In v a sio n
R e sista n c e and Acceptance o f Negroes
IV.
THE CUMULATIVE EFFECT OF THE NEGRO INVASION AND
THE WHITE DEPOPULATION OF THE SUBDIVISION..................
The S e g r e g a tio n o f W hites and Negroes w ith in
th e Invaded B locks
A v a ila b le Data by Race in the Invaded B lock s
The Negroes Who Moved in t o the invaded B locks
ill
Reproduced with permission o f the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
36
1I
Page
Chapter
The W hites Who Remained i n th e Invaded
B lock s
Rent D i f f e r e n t i a l s i n th e Invaded B locks
a3 a R e f le c t io n o f Race and S ta tu s D if­
fe r e n tia ls
CONCLUSIONS ................................................................
49
BIBLIOGRAPHY.............................................................................
51
V.
iv
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
LIST OP TABLES
Table
1. p ercen tage o f Home Ownership i n th e S u b d iv i­
s io n , and in A djacent Areas t o th e West and
E a 3 t .................................................................................
2.
Page
4
T o ta l P o p u la tio n by Numbers, and P ercentage of
Change i n t h e S u b d i v i s i o n ...............................
5
C om position by N a t iv it y o f P o p u la tio n in th e Sub­
d i v i s i o n , by P e r c e n t a g e s ........................................
5
C om position o f F oreign-B orn White P o p u la tio n in
th e S u b d iv is io n , by N u m b e r s .......................................................
5
p h y s ic a l C o n d itio n o f Negro-O ccupied S tr u c tu r e s
in th e S u b d iv is io n , by P e r c e n t a g e s .........................................
18
Adequacy o f Negro-O ccupied D w ellin g s U n its in th e
S u b d iv is io n , by P ercen ta g es .......................................................
18
P ercentage o f 1929 Value o f Land V alues in the
S u b d iv is io n and in A reas to th e West and to th e
E a s t .............................................................................................................
21
Occupancy o f S tr u c tu r e s by Race in th e Invaded
B locks
...........................................................................................
36
9.
A v a ila b le Data by Race in th e Invaded B l o c k s ..................
38
10.
R e la tio n o f White Owner-Occupied S tr u c tu r e s t o
A ll W hite-O ccupied S tr u c tu r e s in th e Invaded
B l o c k s ........................................................................................................
43
C om position by N a tiv it y o f White P o p u la tio n in th e
invaded B lo c k s, by P e r c e n t a g e s ..................................................
44
C om position o f F oreign-B orn White p o p u la tio n In
th e Invaded B lo ck s, by N u m bers......................
44
Rents P aid fo r W hite-O ccupied and Negro-O ccupied
D w ellin g U n its in th e Invaded B lock s . . . .
..................
46
D i f f e r e n t i a l s between Average Rent per u n i t , NegroO ccupied and W hite-O ccupied D w ellin g U n its in the
Invaded B lock s ......................................................................................
48
5.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
LIST OP ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure
Page
1.
Map o f Community Areas o f C hicago
........................
1
2.
Map o f P ercentage o f T o ta l p o p u la tio n in Chicago
N egro, 1 9 1 0 ........................................................................................
8
Map o f P ercentage o f T o ta l P op u lation in Chicago
N egro, 1920 ........................................................................................
8
Map o f P ercentage o f T o ta l p o p u la tio n in Chicago
Negro, 1930 ......................................
8
Map o f P ercentage o f T o ta l P op u lation in Chicago
Negro, 1934 ........................................................................................
8
Map o f V acancies and Negro-Occupied D w ellin g s in
th e Invaded B locks ,
................................................................
15
Map o f Average Monthly Rent p er U nit by B locks in
th e S u b d iv isio n and in the Area t o the W est, Ex­
cep t in th e Three Invaded B lock s Where the
Average Monthly Rent per U n it fo r W hite-Occupied
U n its Only I s i n d i c a t e d ...............................................................
20
Map o f Average Monthly Rent per Unit by B locks
in the S u b d iv isio n and in th e Area to th e W est,
E xcept in the Three invaded B lock s Where the
Average Monthly Rent per U n it fo r NegroOccupied U n its Only i s I n d i c a t e d ......................
32
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
vi
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
MAP OP
C O M M U N ITY AREAS OF CHICAGO
AS ADOPTED BY CENSUS BUREAU, 1 9 3 0
1U H V 7 2 0 0
DEVON 9400
BRYN NAW R 9600
.L A W R E N C E 4 6 0 0
IR V IN G
PARK 4000
\ BELMONT J200
. fU L L E R T O N 1 4 0 0
N O R TH 16 00
CMICACO 6 0 0
M A O 'S O N /
ROOSEVELT 1200
r - y . r ' - I fr - v - \ 2 2 S T R E E T
A
'34
V\ J / S T R E E T
35
PERSHINO
3900
4 7 STREET
63 S T R E E T
LEGEND
NO
/
2
3
4
5
6
7
Q
9
10
-rr
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
2!
22
23
24
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
STREET
NAM E
3 9 KENW OOD
4 0 W ASH IN GTO N P K
4.1 H Y D E P A R K
4 2 WOOOLAWN
4 3 SO U TH SH O RE
4 4 C HATHAM
4 5 AVALO N PARK
4 6 SO U TH CHICAGO
4 7 BURN SID E
4 6 C A LU M E T HEIGHTS
4 9 R O S E LAND
5 0 PU LLM AN
51 SOUTH DEERING
5 2 E A S T SID E
5 3 W EST PU LLM AN
5 4 R IV E R D A L E
5 5 HEGEW/SCH
5 6 GARFIELD RIDGE
5 7 A R C H E R HEIGHTS
5 8 B R IG H T O N P ARK
5 9 M S K /N L E Y P A R K
6 0 BR ID G E P O R T
6 ! N E W C IT Y
6 2 W E S T E L SD O N
63 GAGE P A R K
'WEST'GARFIELD PK. 6 4 C L E A R IN G
E A S T GARFIELD PK. 6 S * £ SJ } - * * N
N E A R W EST SID E
66 CHICAGO L A W N
N ORTH LAWNDALE 6 7 W E S T ENGLEWOOD
SOUTH LAWNDALE 68 ENGLEWOOD^
69 GREATER GRAND CR.
LOWER WEST SIDE
70 A SH B U R N
LOOP
N E A R SOUTH SIDE 7 / AUBURN GRESHAM
72 B E V E R L Y
ARMOUR SQUARE
7 3 WASHINGTON HGTS.
DOUGLAS
74 M O U NT GREENWOOD
OAKLAND
75 M O RG AN PARK
F U L L E R PARK
GRAND BLVD.
NAM E
ROGERS P A R K
W EST RIDGE
UPTOW N
L IN C O L N SQUARE
N O R T H C EN TER
L A K E VIEW
L IN C O LN PARK
N E A R N O R T H SID E
EDISON P A R K
NORWOOD P ARK
JEFFERSON P ARK
F O R E S T GLEN
N O R T H PARK
ALBAN Y PARK
PORTAGE PARK
IR V IN G P A R K
DUNNING
M O N T C LA R E
BELM ONTCRAG IN
HERM OSA
AVON DALE
L O G A N SQUARE
HUM BOLDT P A R K
W EST TOWN
T9 s T R E E t
103 S T R E E T
III STREET
119 S T R E E T
I t 7 STR E E T
134 S T R E E T
136 S T R E E T
W ashington Park S u b d iv isio n
P ig . 1 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER I
THE WASHINGTON PARK SUBDIVISION
The Development o f th e S u b d iv is io n
The W ashlngton Park S u b d iv is io n on th e South S id e o f
Chicago In clu d e s an area o f tw e n ty -th r e e b lo c k s in the northw est
part o f the Woodlawn community (P ig . 1* page 1 ) .
The S u b d iv isio n
i s bounded on th e n o rth by 6 0 th S t r e e t , fa c in g W ashington Park;
on the e a s t by C ottage Grove Avenue; on th e so u th by 63rd S t r e e t ;
and on the w est by South Park Avenue.
I t was annexed t o the c i t y
in 1889 a s p art o f th e Township o f Hyde P ark .1
At th a t t im e , the S u b d iv is io n c o n s is t e d o f two d i s t i n c t
p a r ts.
The sou th ern tw o -th ir d s , from 6 1 st S t r e e t t o 63rd S tr e e t
between South Park Avenue and C ottage Grove Avenue, wa3 th e
W ashington Park Club ra ce tr a c k .
The n orth ern t h ir d , between th e
race tra ck and W ashington Park, was in the p r o c e ss o f b e in g sub­
d iv id e d fo r developm ent by M itc h e ll and o th e r s .^
In 1 9 0 5 , th e W ashington Park Club tr a c k c lo s e d a s a r e ­
s u lt o f the a n t i - b e t t i n g law o f t h a t y e a r ,^ and in Ju n e, 1906,
the s i t e o f th e tr a c k was su b d iv id ed as the W ashington park Club
C ity o f C h icago, Department o f P u b lic Works, Bureau o f
Maps and P l a t s , "Map o f C hicago Showing Growth o f th e C ity by
Annexations and A c c r e tio n s ," M unicipal Code o f C h icago, R evised
(Chicago: C ity C ou n cil o f C h icago, 1 § 3 9 ).
2R ecords o f Cook County, Index o f P la t s , S j o f th e SE|o f S e c tio n 1 5 , Township 3 8 , Range 14.
3Homer H oyt, One Hundred Years o f Land V alues in C hicago
(Chicago: U n iv e r s ity o f Chicago p r e s s ,’ 1 9 § 3 ), p . 227.
with permission o f the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
3
A d dition to C hicago. 1
The a rea was b u i l t up alm ost s o l i d l y from
1908 to 1 9 1 2 .2
C h a r a c te r is tic s o f th e S u b d iv isio n
The W ashington park S u b d iv isio n has alw ays been con­
n ected w ith some form o f mass commercial amusement in C hicago,
prom 1883 to 1905, i t was th e 3 it e o f a race tr a c k .
s e l f ad ja cen t to the P a ir In 1893.
I t found i t ­
For some y e a r s , i t s n orth ­
e a ster n b lo c k was th e lo c a t io n o f an e la b o r a te c a f e , l a t e r a
dance h a l l , the Midway Gardens,
i t s e a s te r n boundary now f a c e s
the Trianon B allroom , i t s so u th e a ste rn boundary the T i v o l i , a
la r g e neighborhood movie h ou se, and I t s sou thw estern boundary the
White C ity Amusement Park.
W hile th e se e n te r p r is e s d id n ot n e c e s s a r ily determ ine
the c h a ra cter of the a r e a , th ey probably were a f a c t o r i n in h ib ­
i t i n g i t s use f o r u p p e r -c la ss r e s id e n c e .
F or, u n lik e the area t o
the west w ith I t s o l d - s t y l e r e s id e n c e s , and the area to th e e a s t
w ith i t s o l d - s t y l e and modem fram e-houses and r e s id e n c e s , the
S u b d iv isio n was b u i lt up w ith a m ixture o f stu c c o and frame
bungalows, b r ic k bungalows, o l d - s t y l e t w o - f la t b r ic k b u ild in g s ,
modem t w o - f la t b r ic k b u ild in g s , and sm a ll apartment b u ild in g s.®
And th e u n u su ally h ig h degree o f home ow nership, i n d i­
cated by th e fo llo w in g data^ (Table 1 ) , in t h i s l e s s than upper
^Document 3883717, Book 9 1 , Records o f Cook County,
P la ts .
o
H oyt,
0£ .
c l t . , p. 227.
g
Geo. C. O lc o tt 8c Co. I n c ., O lc o t t«b Land V alues Blue
Book o f C hicago. 1939 (C hicago: Geo. C. O lco tt & Co. i n c . ) ,
maps 124 and 125.
4
S ou rces: E rn est W. Burgess and C h arles s . Newcomb ( e d s .) ,
Census Data of th e C ity o f C hicago, 1920 (C hicago: u n iv e r s it y o f
Chicago P r e s s , 1 9 3 l) .
E rnest W. Burgess and C h arles S . Newcomb ( e d s . ) , 0ena\i3
with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission
c la s s type o f a rea seems to in d ic a t e a c o n s e r v a tiv e , m id d le -c la s s
type o f neighborhood.
TABLE 1
PERCENTAGE OP HOME OWNERSHIP IN THE SUBDIVISION
AND IN ADJACENT AREAS TO THE WEST AND EAST
Area
y ea r
*1920
1930
1934
Area to
We3t
West H a lf o f
S u b d iv is io n
E ast H a lf of
S u b d iv is io n
Area t o
E ast
17.66
5 .8 0
5 .2 0
3 7 .3 9
1 5 .6 5
1 4 .3 3
3 7 .3 9
2 4 .0 2
1 8 .9 8
1 6 .7 1
6 .4 6
7 .2 2
*The 1920
which are a d ja c en t
the t r a c t s o f 1930
cluded i n a s i n g le
d ata I s f o r the cen su s t r a c t s o f th a t y ea r
t o th e S u b d iv is io n , but not congruent w ith
and 1934. In 19 2 0 , th e S u b d iv is io n was In­
census t r a c t .
The a v a ila b le d a ta on th e economic s t a t u s o f f a m ilie s in
the S u b d iv isio n on the b a s is o f economic c l a s s e s by median r e n t­
a ls in d ic a te d In 1930 th a t th e f a m ilie s were m iddle t o high.-*In 1934, the w estern h a l f , where Negroes were moving i n , was h ig h ,
and the e a s te r n h a l f lo w .2
The p o p u la tio n o f th e S u b d iv is io n has alw ays been p re­
dom inately n a tiv e w h ite .
The s h i f t s in th e p o p u la tio n , a s in d i­
cated by th e fo llo w in g data^ (T ab les 2 , 3 , and 4 ) , have been
toward a d ecrea se in t o t a l p o p u la tio n , an in c r e a s e in fo r e ig n born w h ites from e a ste r n E urope, and th e b eg in n in g o f Negro
Data o f th e C ity o f C h icago, 1950 (C hicago: U n iv e r s ity o f Chicago
P re ss, 1 9 3 3 ).
C h arles S . Newcomb and Richard 0 . Lang ( e d s . ) , Census
Data o f th e C ity o f C h icago. 1934 (C hicago: U n iv e r s ity o^" Chicago
P ress, 1 9 3 4 ).
^Census Data o f C h icago, 1 9 3 0 , Appendix, Map 2 .
2
Census Data o f C h icago, 1934, A ppendix, Map 2 .
s
S o u rces; Census Data o f C h icago, 1 9 2 0 ; Census Data o f
C hicago, 1930; and Census D ata o f C h icago, 1 9 5 4 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
occu pation o f th e a r e a .
TABLE 2
TOTAL POPULATION BY NUMBERS, AND PERCENTAGE OP
CHANGE IN THE SUBDIVISION
Year
T o ta l
% Change
1910
1920
1930
1934
2094
8151
8124
7138
289.26
.003
- 1 3 .8 1
• • •
TABLE 3
COMPOSITION BY NATIVITY OP POPULATION IN THE
SUBDIVISION, BY PERCENTAGES
N a tiv ity
Year
1920
1930
1934
N ative
W hite
T o ta l
N ative
White
N ative
Parentage
8 1 .1 6
7 4 .2 3
7 3 .5 8
• • •
• • •
35.55
3 9 .1 0
38.68
3 4 .4 8
N ative
White
Other
F o re ig n Born
White
1 8 .6 0
2 5 .5 3
2 2 .5 3
Negro
• • •
..0 7
3 .8 2
Other
.24
.17
.07
TABLE 4
COMPOSITION OP FOREIGN-BORN WHITE POPULATION IN THE
SUBDIVISION, BY NUMBERS*
Country o f
B ir th
I r is h Free S t a t e ,
and Northern
Irela n d .......................................................
England and W a l e s ................................
Canada, Other Than French . . . .
S cotland .......................................................
Germany .......................................................
Sweden ...........................................................
A u s t r i a ....................... ..............................
Hungary ......................................................
Belgium .......................................................
Russia ...........................................................
P o la n d ....................... ....................................
Greece ...........................................................
L i t h u a n i a ..................................................
Roumania .......................................................
Year
1920
196
126
168
37
297
168
66
61
26
129
49
46
1930
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
. .
. .
66
43
. .
152
^Omitted are th o se c o u n tr ie s whose numbers in both 1920
and 19S0 i n the S u b d iv isio n c o n s t it u t e d l e s s th an o n e -h a lf o f one
per cen t o f th e t o t a l p o p u la tio n th e r e .
with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
The P lace o f the S u b d iv isio n In Chicago
The W ashington Park S u b d iv isio n i s a d ja cen t t o th e Wood­
lawn community proper to th e e a s t , and th e Midway and the U niver­
s i t y o f Chicago t o the n o r th e a st,
i t s lo c a t io n in r e l a t i o n to
th ese areas was w ithou t s ig n ific a n c e u n t i l th e expanding Negro
community approached i t on the w e st.
Both the organ ized Woodlawn community and th e U n iv e r s ity
o f Chicago were in t e r e s t e d in s t a b i l i z i n g p rop erty i n Woodlawn.
T heir i n t e r e s t extended i t s e l f to in clu d e th e S u b d iv is io n a s a
b a rrier between the Negro community and th e Woodlawn a rea .
As a r e s u l t , the S u b d iv isio n was organized a s a u n it in
1928 through an agreement d esign ed t o preven t Negroes from moving
e a st in to th e a r e a .3-
The sponsor o f t h i s agreement was the Wood­
lawn B u sin ess Men's A s s o c ia t io n .2
The U n iv e r sity o f Chicago
l a t e r acknowledged i t s in t e r e s t in upholding t h i s c o v e n a n t.5
In tu r n , th e r e s u lt was th a t the S u b d iv is io n became a
su bject o f i n t e r e s t and comment in C hicago a l l out o f p r o p o r tio n
to i t s i n t r i n s i c m e r it, fo r the covenant was a tta c k e d by members
o f the Negro community t o th e w est through a v a ila b le means o f
propaganda, and through l e g a l p roceed in gs th a t have been c a r r ie d
to the U nited S ta te s Supreme C ourt.^
^Document 9914711, Book 25525, Records o f Cook C ounty,
Deeds.
q
The o r g a n iz a tio n was done in th e name o f th e Woodlawn
Property Onwers’ A s s o c ia tio n whose o f f i c e r s were i d e n t i c a l w ith
the Woodlawn B u sin ess Men's A s s o c ia tio n , Chicago D efen d er, May7,
1927.
2
Chicago D efen d er, November 6 , 1937.
^Lee v . Hansberry, October term , 1940.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
7
The R e la tio n o f th e S u b d iv isio n , t o th e
Negro Community
With th e exp an sion o f th e Negro p o p u la tio n i n Chicago
a f t e r th e b eg in n in g o f th e c e n tu r y , and e s p e c i a l l y du rin g th e
war when la r g e - s c a le im m igration from th e South took p la c e , th e
area occu pied p rim a rily by Negroes in C hicago g r a d u a lly expanded
southward from th e Loop t o 7 1 st S t r e e t . 3By 1934, th e Negro community was c o n tig u o u s to the
W ashington Park S u b d iv is io n on the w est and s o u t h .8
W ashington
park, which bounds the S u b d iv is io n on the n o r th , was b e in g used
p rim arily by Negroes.®
The exp an sion o f th e Negro community i n t o th e W asington
Park S u b d iv is io n i t s e l f began a f t e r 1 9 3 0 .^
In 1931, Negroes f i r s t
occupied b u ild in g s on th e w est s id e o f South Park Avenue o p p o site
the S u b d iv is io n .5
And about O ctober, 1 9 3 2 , Negro te n a n ts r e n te d
a f l a t at 417-419 E ast 60th S t r e e t in th e S u b d iv is io n .5
L ater
the o th er two f l o o r s were ren ted t o N egroes, and about A ugust,
^ ? ig s . 2 , 3 , 4 and 5 , page 8 . S o u rces: P ig s . 2 and 3 ,
U. S. Census Data f o r 1910 and 1920, qu oted by C hicago Commission
on Race R e la tio n s , The Negro in C hicago (C hicago: U n iv e r s ity o f
Chicago P r e s s , 1922'V; PlgT 4 , Census' Data o f C h ica g o . 1930; and
P ig . 5 , Census D ata o f C h icago, 1934.
^ F ig . 5 .
g
B r ie f o f P e t i t i o n e r s , in th e Supreme Court o f the
United S t a t e s , October term A.D. 1940, No. 2 9 , C arl A. H ansberry,
Nannie L. H ansberry, e t a l . « P e t i t i o n e r s , v s . Anna M. L ee, Edward
Govanus, E sth er Govanus, e t a l . . R espondents.
4
Census Data o f C h icago. 1930. D ata f o r cen su s t r a c t
623, which i s th e w estern h a l f o f th e W ashington Park S u b d iv is io n ,
shows th a t th e re were no Negro f a m ilie s in the S u b d iv is io n a t the
time o f enum eration.
g
Finance Committee o f the Woodlawn P rop erty Owners*
A sso c ia tio n , l e t t e r t o members, quoted in th e C hicago D efen d er,
July 8 , 1 9 3 3 . The Negroes were a d m itted by th e Southway H o te l.
S e c r e ta r y o f th e Woodlawn P roperty Owners* A s s o c ia tio n ,
le t t e r t o members, quoted i n th e C hicago D e fen d e r . O ctober, 2 2 ,
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
8
LEG
END
is»o>mo
* xW 7777k
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W ashington Park
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P ig . 3 . —Map o f P ercen t­
age o f T otal P o p u la tio n Negro,
1920.
P ig . 2 . —Map o f P ercen t­
s'fre o f T o ta l p o p u la tio n
Negro, 1910.
90-99
80-89
70-79
60-69
50-59
40-49
30-39
®.s6
Mffi
20-29
10-19
A R EA S WITH L E S S THAN
ON E P E R C E N T NEGRO
POPU LATIO N NOT SHOWN
a ; e o^Si ,otai~¥o^ u 2atIon C|e g r o ,
19'oQ,
F ig . 5 . — Map o f p e r c e n t­
age o f T o ta l P o p u lation Negro
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
9
1933, th ree Negro ten a n ts moved in t o 423 E a st 60th S t r e e t . 1
In
the meantime, oth er Negro ten a n ts had moved in t o apartm ents in
the S u b d iv isio n on the e a s t sid e o f South Park A venue.2
But l a t e in 1933, Negro expansion in to the S u b d iv is io n
was checked when an order to move was ob tain ed by w h ite s a g a in s t
the Negro te n a n ts who had moved in t o 417-419 E a st 6 0 th S tr e e t.®
in March, 1934, I t was announced th a t every Negro fa m ily th a t had
moved in to the W ashington Park S u b d iv isio n s in c e June 2 3 , 1933,
had been e v ic t e d , and th a t s u i t s were pending a g a in s t f a m ilie s
that had moved in t o the area b efore June, 1 9 3 3 .^
But a t the tim e o f the 1934 c en su s, there were s t i l l a t
l e a s t . 65 Negro households in th e S u b d iv isio n .®
And betw een 1934
and 1939, th ere was a minimum in c r e a se o f te n N egro-occu pied
d w ellin g u n its i n th e S u b d iv isio n .®
During t h i s p e r io d , a Negro
bought the b u ild in g a t 6140 Rhodes Avenue, th ree b lo c k s e a s t o f
South park Avenue.?
Negro in v a s io n o f the W ashington Park S u b d iv is io n was
resumed on a la r g e s c a le In th e sp r in g o f 1 9 3 9 .8
By September
^Chicago D efen der, August 5 , 1933.
2
Finance Committee o f A s s o c ia tio n , l e t t e r to members,
quoted in th e Chicago D efen d er. Ju ly 8 , 1933.
5Chieago D efen der. August 5 , 1933.
4
Report o f the p r e sid e n t o f the Woodlawn P rop erty Owners'
A s s o c ia tio n , p u b lish ed in th e Woodlawn B o o s te r , and quoted by
the Chicago D efen d er, March 10‘i 1934.
'5
Census Data o f C h icago. 1934.
g
Census Data o f C h icago. 1934 in d ic a te d 64 Negro house­
holds in th e S u b d iv is io n . The enum eration by th e C hicago Land
Use Survey in September and O ctober, 1939, in d ic a te d th a t 74
d w ellin g u n its i n th e S u b d iv isio n had been occu pied by Negroes
fo r a t l e a s t a y ear p receding th e date o f th e enum eration, or
w ell b e fo re th e in f lu x o f Negroes in 1939.
7
B r ie f o f p e t i t i o n e r s , Lee v . H ansberry.
8Chicago D efen d er, ‘A p r il 2 2 , 1939.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
;!
io
aprt O ctober, 1 9 3 9 , th e Negro community had expanded to in c lu d e
three b locks i n th e S u b d iv is io n .
Negroes were now l i v i n g on th e e a s t s id e o f South park
Avenue from 6 0 th S t r e e t to 62nd S t r e e t ; on Vernon Avenue, a b lo ck
e a st o f South Park Avenue, on both th e w est and e a s t s i d e s from
60th S tr e e t t o 6 1 s t S t r e e t , and on th e w est s id e betw een 6 1 st
S tr e e t and 62nd S t r e e t ; on E ast 6 0 th S t r e e t from South Park Ave­
nue to vem on Avenue; and on E ast 62nd S t r e e t , between Sou th Park
Avenue and Vernon Avenue. •*•
in March, 1941, Negroes were l i v i n g in the s i x most
w e ste rly b lo c k s o f the S u b d iv is io n , and in sm a ll numbers in o th e r
b lo c k s .2
1
C hicago Land
October, 1939.
2
A ddresses o f
is tr a tio n , D is t r ic t 5 ,
f i l e s o f c a se w ork ers,
Use S u rvey, enum eration in September and
Negro c l i e n t s o f th e C hicago R e l ie f Admin­
were l i s t e d i n th e se b lo c k s in th e add ress
March 1 9 , 1941*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER I I
DEPOPULATION OF THE SUBDIVISION BY
WHITE RESIDENTS
General S h i f t o f P op u lation to Other Areas
In common with, o th e r c i t i e s , Chicago has reached a p o in t
where th e in c r e a se in p o p u la tio n in the c it ^ i t s e l f has sto p p ed ,
and a r e d is t r ib u t io n o f i t i s ta k in g p lace a t the p e r ip h e ry .
By 1 9 3 4 , the W ashington Park S u b d iv isio n had become a
part o f the t r a n s it io n a l zone between the p o in ts o f In c r e a sin g
and d e c re a sin g p o p u la tio n s in th e c i t y . l
I t s lo c a t io n away from
the Lake and th e I l l i n o i s C en tral E le c t r ic Suburban t r a i n s , the
only good tr a n s p o r ta tio n to the South S id e , to g e th e r w ith the
lo c a t io n on the South S id e o f the Stock Yards and heavy Indus­
t r i e s , in d ic a te th a t I t s a t t r a c t io n f o r w hite r e s id e n t s i s not
l ik e l y t o in c r e a s e .
W hile th e h ig h e r percentage o f home-ownership In th e
S u b d iv isio n th an in the a rea s t o the e a s t and w e s t ,2 to g e th e r
w ith I t s com p aratively h ig h er percen tage o f r e s id e n t s who have
been th e r e f i v e y e a r s or more,3 and low er percen tage who have
been th e re under one y e a r ,4 a l l seem in gly In d ic a te a c e r t a in s t a ­
b i l i t y , the w h ite p o p u la tio n in th e S u b d iv isio n had begun to de­
crease by 1930, and had d ecreased markedly by 1934.®
•^Census Data o f C h icago. 1934, Appendix, Map 1 3 .
2
Table 1 , page 4 .
s Census Data o f C h icago, 1934, Appendix, Map 4 ,
4l b l d . . Map 5 .
5Table 2 , page 5 .
11
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
12
1
I
!i
Threat t o the S u b d iv is io n by th e
Nearness o f Negroes
In C hicago, Negro c o m p etitio n w ith w h ites f o r dominance
seem ingly has been thought to b e g in when th e f i r s t r e s i d e n t i a l
in v a sio n o f an area by Negroes ta k e s p la c e .
.
I
j
The u n w illin g n e s s o f
w h ites in Chicago t o l i v e n ext t o Negroes had been n o ted in 1908,^some tim e b efo re th e la r g e - s c a le m ig r a tio n s o f th e war p erio d
aroused popular i n t e r e s t in the p resen ce o f Negroes i n th e c i t y .
Between 1920 and 1930, a s th e expanding Negro community
on th e South S id e approached th e W ashington Park S u b d iv is io n ,2
th ose in t e r e s t e d in m ain ta in in g w h ite dominance attem p ted to
a n tic ip a te th e p o s s ib le Negro r e s i d e n t i a l invasion ® by o r g a n iz in g
the S u b d iv isio n a g a in s t i t by an agreem ent n ot t o perm it Negro
r esid en ce in th e a r e a .4
At the tim e , however, th ey took no s t e p s t o a n t ic ip a t e
the Negro in v a sio n o f th e S u b d iv is io n through th e common u se o f
the tr a n sp o r ta tio n f a c i l i t i e s and p u b lic i n s t i t u t i o n s in th e a rea .
When th o se in t e r e s t e d in m a in ta in in g w h ite dominance undertook in
1934 t o c o n tr o l t h i s type o f in v a s io n by r e d i s t r i c t i n g th e sc h o o l
area o f the S exton S c h o o l, a p u b lic sc h o o l lo c a t e d In th e Subdi­
v i s i o n , i t was brought out th a t 600 Negro c h ild r e n from th e com­
munity t o th e w est had been coming i n t o th e S u b d iv is io n d a i l y t o
i!
^Economist. August 8 , 1908. wAs soon a s he (th e f i r s t
c o lo r e d man t o move in t o a community) i s d is c o v e r e d , . . . . i t
i s w ith d i f f i c u l t y th a t any one i s secu red to occupy a d jo in in g
f l a t s or h o u s e s .”
2
[.-j
p ig s . 3 and 4 , page 8 .
3
Spokesman f o r th e Woodlawn P roperty Owners* A s s o c ia tio n ,
quoted i n th e C hicago D efen d er. October 2 2 , 1932: "The p rop erty
owners o f the Woodlawn d i s t r i c t a n t ic ip a t e d t h i s Negro in v a s io n
or in tr u s io n fo u r y ea rs ago."
4
Document 9914711, Book 25525, R ecords o f Cook County,
D eeds.
i j
jj
n
I!
M
r.'i
with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
’i
rl
"I
atten d t h i s sc h o o l lo c a te d i n th e e a s te r n part o f the S u b d iv isio n .-1-
! -':k
'■1
j
The D e p r essio n and Negro in v a s io n
The g e n e ra l economic d e p r e ssio n a f t e r 1929 was a p e r io d
in Chicago when even la n d lo r d s went on r e l i e f , f o r in th e e ig h t -
?
een months fo llo w in g December, 1 9 3 1 , r e l i e f a g e n c ie s i n Chicago
would not pay t h e i r c lie n t s * r e n t .2
This c o n d itio n , i n a d d it io n t o the g e n e r a l tr e n d o f popu­
la t io n out o f the S u b d iv is io n , h elp ed to accou n t f o r th e marked
decrease i n hom e-ownership in the S u b d iv is io n betw een 1920 and
1 9 3 4 .3
I t was du rin g t h i s p e r io d a f t e r 1929 th a t th e f i r s t
Negro in v a s io n o f the S u b d iv is io n to o k p la c e .
And e f f o r t s t o
meet i t in 1932 were b lo ck ed when §500 co u ld n o t be r a is e d by the
white p rop erty owners to p o st a bond n e c e ssa r y f o r an in ju n c tio n
to keep the Negroes from moving i n . 4
i t was n ot u n t i l the n ex t
year th a t th e group in t e r e s t e d in k eep in g N egroes out began,
under th e d ir e c t io n o f i t s fin a n c e com m ittee, t o take s te p s t o
meet the Negro in v a s io n .5
Panic
D ep op u lation hy White R e sid e n ts o f Area
A djacent to Negroes
The movement o f w h ite r e s id e n t s out o f th e W ashington
Park s u b d iv is io n d if f e r e d in one way from th e g e n e r a l s h i f t o f
^Chicago D efen d er, March 1 0 , 1934.
2
E d ith A b b ott, a s s i s t e d by Sophonisba P. B reck in rid ge
and Other A s s o c ia t e s , The Tenements o f Chicago 1908-1955 (Chicago:
U n iv e r sity o f C hicago p r e s s , 1 9 3 6 ), p . 444.
3T able 1 , page 4 .
4
I
5
C hicago D efen d er. October 2 2 , 1932.
C hicago D efen d er, J u ly 8 , 1933.
\
1
with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
I
14
||
p o p u la tio n t o o th e r areas In th a t the d w e llin g u n its th a t became
vacant were not s c a t t e r e d , but formed a d e f i n i t e p a tte r n .
I
In 1934, i t was ob servab le th a t the vacancy
!|
r i
1
r a te i n the
w estern h a lf o f th e S u b d iv isio n a d ja cen t to th e Negro community
.
was 1 5 .5 2 $ , w h ile i n the e a ste r n h a l f of th e S u b d iv is io n a d jacen t
to the w h ite community, th e vacancy r a te wa3 9 .9 9 $ .^
I
An exam in ation o f the r e la t io n s h ip o f v a c a n c ie s to Negro|
occu pied d w e llin g s u n its in invaded b lo ck s in September and Octo-
[;
t
b e r , 1939, ( P ig . 6 ) , showed the c lo s e n e s s o f t h i s
j;
r e la t io n s h ip .
On the Vernon Avenue s id e o f the block from
60th S tr e e t
to 6 1 s t S t r e e t , whose South park Avenue s id e had been occu p ied by
Negro te n a n ts in 1932-1933, v a c a n c ie s e x is t e d a t both ends o f the
row o f N egro-occu pied b u ild in g s from 6036 to 6044 Vernon Avenue,
j
Across the s t r e e t from t h is row o f N egro-occu pied
;
vacancy e x is t e d a t 6043 Vernon Avenue.
b u ild in g s , a
On th e Vernon Avenue sid e o f the a d ja c e n t b lo c k from
60th S tr e e t t o 6 1 s t S t r e e t , between Vernon Avenue and Eberhart
Avenue, v a c a n c ie s e x is t e d a t both ends of a row o f N egro-occupied
|
b u ild in g s from 6025 to 6031 Vernon Avenue.
The vacancy a t 6023
Vernon Avenue i s o p p o site a row o f N egro-occu pied b u ild in g s from
6022 to 6026 Vernon Avenue.
!
j
i
3
;;
■
:]
•1
':i
;j
O pposite
th e th ir d row o f N egro-occupied b u ild in g s on
the Vernon Avenue s id e o f th e block on South Park Avenue from
60th S t r e e t t o 6 1 s t S t r e e t , a vacancy e x i s t s i n th e Park-Vernon
H o te l»
The fo u r
v a c a n c ie s on the Eberhart Avenue sid e o f the
!
b lo ck on Vernon Avenue from 60th S t r e e t t o 6 1 s t S t r e e t have no
i
p a r t ic u la r r e la t io n s h ip to th e row o f N egro-occu pied d w e llin g s on
I
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
sf
pj
|
vl
$
1
Computed from d ata f o r cen su s t r a c t s 623 and 6 2 4 ,
Census Data o f C h icago, 1934.
'■fi
|
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
15
E. 60 Ti t —
:
:
N C' #
^ N
N N
,
ST.
.
**i
V~ Yaqsnolea
isj= Mwgro-Occupied
L.
D ^ elllx ^ a
?md i&re
Lte-QocUpled
m
I T
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...
.Bffl
ft w <si
m
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. 6 I5 J
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srzn
E. 6 2 1 D
'W'
S c a le o f
feel
P ig . 6 . —Map o f V acan cies and Hegro Occupied
D w ellin g s in the invaded B lo ck s.
Reproduced with permission o f the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1
16
Jj
the Vernon Avenue aid©.
J
b u ild in g s on Vernon Avenue had been occu p ied by Negro te n a n ts
I t may be s i g n i f i c a n t th a t w h ile th e
3
I
about fo u r m onths, th ere had been a l a g o f from one t o two months
j
b efore v a c a n c ie s occurred b e sid e them.
\
Negro o ccu p a tio n o f b u ild in g s on th e South Park Avenue
j
sid e o f th e b lock from 6 1 s t S t r e e t t o 62nd S t r e e t , between South
park Avenue and Vernon Avenue, took p la c e i n th e sp r in g o f 1939.
In O ctober, 1939, th ere were v a c a n c ie s a t te n a d d r e ss e s on th e
o p p o site sid e o f th e b lo c k .
Two were im m ediately a d ja c en t t o the
s in g le N egro-occu pied ad d ress on th e Vernon Avenue 3 id e o f th e
;
b lo ck .
The v a c a n c ie s th a t e x is t e d between th e row o f N egrooccupied d w e llin g u n its a lo n g South Park Avenue from 6131 t o 6153,
and th e row tu r n in g th e co rn er onto 62nd S t r e e t , in d ic a te d th a t
Negroes were in th e p r o c ess o f occupying them c o m p le te ly .
The
same seemed to be true o f th e vacancy a t th e end o f the row of
N egro-occupied b u ild in g s on 62nd S t r e e t .
P h y s ic a l C o n d itio n o f Housing Abandoned by
White R e sid e n ts
H ousing in th e W ashington park S u b d iv is io n was n o t phy­
s i c a l l y d e p r e c ia te d b e fo r e i t s abandonment by w h ite r e s i d e n t s .
A survey co v er in g s e v e r a l y e a rs b efo re 1939 in d ic a t e d t h i s co n d i­
t io n .!
Nor had the b u ild in g s in th e th ree b lo c k s In th e Subdi­
v i s i o n which were b e in g o ccu p ied in p art by Negroes i n Septem ber
and O ctober, 1939, been cheapened by much c o n v e r sio n from t h e i r
'
Istu d y o f th e W ashington Park S u b d iv is io n undertaken by
Howard Gould, R esearch D ir e c to r o f the C hicago Urban L eague. I t
was r ep o rted on by him before th e Subcommittee to I n v e s t ig a t e
H ousing Among th e C olored P eop le o f the Committee on H ousing o f
th e C ity C ou n cil o f C h icago, P r o c e e d in g s, J u ly 2 7 , 1939.
Reproduced with permission o f the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission
17
o r ig in a l form in t o k it c h e n e t te s and sm all apartm ents.^
Some
apartm ents r e n te d f o r th e f i r s t tim e to Negro te n a n ts in the f a l l
o f 1959 had been newly d eco ra ted and equipped w ith e l e c t r i c r e ­
f r i g e r a t i o n in February, 1 9 3 9 .2
That th e p h y sic a l c o n d itio n o f th e str u c tu r e s abandoned
by th e w hite r e s id e n t s was good, and th e d w e llin g u n its in them
stan dard in c o n d itio n , i s in d ic a te d by the a v a ila b le data3
(T a b les 5 and 6 ) .
Rents and Land V alues
Rents f o r t h i s p rop erty in th e W ashington Park S u b d iv i­
s io n became d is p r o p o r tio n a te ly low .
For a number o f y e a r s b e fo re
1939, i t was rep o rted th a t th e r e n ts were 33$ low er than in ad ja­
cen t
territory.^
And in J u ly , 1939, i t was estim a te d th a t w h ile
Chicago Land Use Survey enum eration. In th e b lock on
South Park from 6 0 th t o 6 1 s t , th ere had been two p a r t i a l conver­
s io n s and two com plete co n v e rsio n s out o f t o t a l o f 26 s tr u c tu r e s ;
in th e b lo ck on South Park from 6 1 st to 62nd, th ere had been one
com plete co n v e rsio n out o f 26 s tr u c tu r e s ; and in th e b lo c k from
6 0 th to 6 1 s t , Vernon to E b erh art, th e re had been th r e e com plete
co n v e rsio n s out o f 24 s tr u c tu r e s .
2
C l a s s i f i e d a d v e r tisem en ts in the C hicago T rib u n e, Feb­
ruary 2 6 , 1939. Among o th e r s was l i s t e d "6153-59 S . Park, e l e c .
r e f . , d e c ., $ 4 5 .0 0 ."
I t was rumored th a t b efore th e se apartm ents were r e n te d
t o N egroes, th e e l e c t r i c r e f r ig e r a t io n was removed and the ren t3
in c r e a se d .
2
Sources C hicago Land Use Survey enum eration, 1939. The
Land Use Survey d e f in e s i t s term s a s fo llo w s :
"in Good C on d ition - a str u c tu r e need in g no r e p a ir s or
p a in t.
wln Need o f Minor R epairs - a str u c tu r e which i s sound
s t r u c t u r a lly but which need3 such minor r e p a ir s a s p a in t in g ,
p o in tin g up masonry, e t c .
"in Need o f Major R epairs - a str u c tu r e r e q u ir in g r e ­
p a ir s . . ~ . which could n o t be n e g le c te d much lo n g e r w ithou t
im p airin g th e use o f th e p rop erty ...................
"U n fit f o r Use - a str u c tu r e co n sid ered so unsafe or un­
s a n ita r y th a t i t sh ould be d em olish ed .
"P h y s ic a lly Substandard - a d w e llin g u n it . . . . which
la c k s one or more o f th e fo llo w in g f a c i l i t i e s : (a ) i n s t a l l e d
h e a tin g equipment; (b) gas or e l e c t r i c l i g h t i n g equipm ent;
(c ) p r iv a te indoor f l u s h t o i l e t ; (d) p r iv a te bath ."
4
Study o f th e S u b d iv isio n by Howard Gould, r ep o rted on
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
18
TABLE 5
PHYSICAL CONDITION OP NEGRO-OCCUPIED STRUCTURES IN THE
SUBDIVISION, BY PERCENTAGES
113
52
9 2 .0 4
7 .9 6
1 0 0 .0 0
• • •
•
•
•
•c
U
rl
•
•
I
8 0 .0 0
2 0 .0 0
• •
** *
1
O 1
<£>CJ
o—4
U
<D
>
10
S.
61-6 2 ,
Park-Vernon
T otal R eports
C on dition
Good
Minor R epairs
Major R epairs
U n fit f o r Use
60-61,
S. Park-Vernon
B locks
•
• •
- -
____
TABLE 6
PHYSICAL ADEQUACY OP NEGRO-OCCUPIED DYJELLINGS UNITS IN
THE SUBDIVISION, BY PERCENTAGES
6 1-62,
S • Park-Vernon
113
52
-P
&
*
&
r-J a)
O £2
A w1
O
<Q £
o
a
F
©)
>
10
9 0 .7 3
9 .2 7
1 0 0 .0 0
••♦
1 0 0 .0 0
•••
60-61,
Park-Vernon
S.
B lock s
T o ta l R eports
Adequacy
Standard
Substandard
r e n ts in th e surrounding t e r r i t o r y had gone up, r e n ts i n th e
W ashington Park S u b d iv is io n had rem ained th e .same.. As a r e s u l t ,
th ey were now a t l e a s t 50$ lo w e r , and in some c a s e s , 75$ and
by hi-m b efore th e Subcommittee t o I n v e s t ig a t e Housing Among th e
C olored p e o p le , P r o c ee d in g s, J u ly 2 7 , 1939.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
19
1 0 0 $ .1
A newspaper survey o f th e area j u s t b e fo r e th e a c c e p t­
ance o f Negro te n a n ts i n a d d it io n a l b u ild in g s in the S u b d iv is io n
i n A p r il, 1 9 5 9 , in d ic a t e d th a t many f l a t s were h a lf f u l l , and
te n a n ts were demanding even low er r e n ts t o
stay. 2
S ix months a f t e r some o f th e b u ild in g s had been opened
t o Negro t e n a n ts , th e r e were v a c a n c ie s i n good p h y s ic a l c o n d i­
t i o n in th e b lo ck s on South park Avenue ad ja cen t t o th e Negro
community a t r e n t a ls a v era g in g 22$ below th o se b e in g paid by
Negro te n a n ts in the same b lo c k s.®
The com p aratively low er r e n t a ls asked o f w h ite s in th e
th r ee b lo ck s which were a d ja c e n t to th e Negro a r e a , and which
were p a r t i a l l y o ccu p ied by N egroes, i s in d ic a te d by th e p a tte r n
o f average monthly r e n t per u n it by b lo c k s in th e S u b d iv is io n
(P ig . 7 ) . 4
I t f o llo w s from t h i s , th a t th e re was no market among
w h ite p eop le f o r p rop erty i n th e S u b d iv is io n .5
Burke, P r e sid e n t
o f th e Woodlawn P roperty Owners' A s s o c ia tio n , “l e t h is p rop erty
^Statem ent by Howard Gould a s an a d d itio n t o h i s study
in testim o n y b efo re th e Subcommittee to I n v e s t ig a t e H ousing Among
th e C olored p e o p le , P r o c e e d in g s, J u ly 2 7 , 1939.
^Chicago D efen d er. A p r il 2 2 , 1939.
3
C hicago Land Use Survey enum eration, 1939. In th e 6 0 th
S t r e e t to 6 1 s t S t r e e t b lo c k , th e r e were s i x v a c a n c ie s , one o f
which was substandard; in the 6 1 s t S t r e e t t o 62nd S t r e e t b lo c k ,
th e r e were s ix t e e n v a c a n c ie s , none o f which were su b stan d ard . In
ea ch b lo c k , th e average r e n t a l was 22$ below the average r e n t a l
f o r Negroes in th e b lo c k .
4
Sources C hicago Land Use Survey enum eration , 1939.
5
B eing unable to f in d a buyer f o r prop erty i n Chicago
has been a common th in g f o r some y e a r s . That i t was e s p e c i a l l y
tr u e o f r e s t r i c t e d a r e a s , such a s th e W ashington Park S u b d iv isio n ,
was su g g ested by th e chairman o f the Subcommittee t o I n v e s t ig a t e
H ousing Among th e C olored p e o p le , P r o c e e d in g s. August 3 , 1939.
I t was confirm ed by Burke, form er P r e sid e n t o f th e Woodlawn
P roperty Owners' A s s o c ia t io n .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
2D
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p i g . 7 . — Hap o f average monthly ren t per u n it by b lo ck s
in th e S u b d iv is io n and in the area t o the Y /est, ex cep t in the
th ree invaded b lo ck s where the average m onthly r e n t per u n it f o r
■white-occupied u n its only i s in d ic a te d .
g o ,tt when he moved from the a r e a , r a th e r than t o tr y to f in d a
buyer.^
Another owner a t 6018 Vernon Avenue i s r e p o rted t o have
s a id he was w i l li n g t o s e l l h is property to anyone, i f he cou ld
fin d a buyer fo r i t .
He was l a t e r a defendant i n a 3 u lt to en­
j o in him from s e l l i n g to N egroes.^
■^Testimony before the Subcommittee t o I n v e s t ig a t e Hous­
in g Among th e C olored P eop le, P r o c e e d in g s, August 5 , 1939.
O
B r ie f o f P e t i t io n e r s , free v . H ansberry.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
21
No w h ite p erson had bought a b u ild in g f o r o ccu p a tio n by
h im s e lf in th e th r ee b lo c k s i n th e S u b d iv is io n th a t had been in ­
vaded by September and O ctober, 19 3 9 , in th e th r e e y e a r s p reced ­
in g th a t d a t e . l
Land v a lu e s in the S u b d iv is io n , as a r e s u l t , a ls o became
d is p r o p o r tio n a te ly low .
The approxim ate e x te n t o f t h i s c o n d itio n
i s in d ic a te d by th e f o llo w in g d a ta 2 (T able 7 ) .
TABLE 7
PERCENTAGE OP 1929 VALUE OP LAND VALUES IN THE SUBDIVISION
AND IN AREAS TO THE WEST AND TO THE EAST
Area
1929 Value
1934 .......................
1939 .......................
Negro Area
t o West
100
W ashington Park
S u b d iv is io n
150
Woodlawn Area
t o E ast
200
45$
35$
40$
25$
50$
........................................ .
The Covenant
The w h ite r e s id e n t s i n th e W ashington Park S u b d iv is io n
t h e o r e t i c a l ly had no c o m p e titio n from Negroes f o r homes i n th e
area because th e occupancy or purchase o f any p rop erty in the
S u b d iv isio n was d en ied N egroes, even b e fo re th e in v a s io n , by a
r e s t r i c t i v e covenant dated September 3 0 , 1 9 2 7 , and f i l e d w ith th e
Recorder o f Deeds f o r Cook County on February 1 , 1928.
I t was to
■^Chicago Land Use Survey enum eration , 1939.
2
S o u rces; 0 1 c o tt« a Land V alu es B lue Book o f C h ica g o .
1 9 2 9 , 1934, and 1935^ The’ 1929 v a lu e s are the e stim a te d market
v a lu e s per fr o n t f o o t f o r In sid e l o t s i n each b lo c k n ot coming
under c o m e r I n flu e n c e s . For pu rp oses o f com parison, th e v a lu e s
o f l o t s on n o rth and sou th s t r e e t s in s id e th e S u b d iv is io n , and o f
n orth and so u th s t r e e t s between 6 0 th S t r e e t and 63rd S t r e e t in
th e a rea s im m ediately t o th e w est and e a s t , were ch o sen .
with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
22
be e f f e c t i v e u n t i l January 1 , 1948, a t th e minimum.^
The p r o te c tio n thus g iv e n w h ites in the S u b d iv is io n from
c o m p e titio n from Negroes f o r homes was n o t dependent on th e
a c t u a l p rop erty owners i n the S u b d iv is io n , b u t, from th e b e g in ­
n in g , seems to have had the o rg a n ized support o f o u tsid e r e a l
e s t a t e o r g a n iz a tio n s , i n s t i t u t i o n s , ban ks, and mortgage companies.^
^Document 9914711, Book 25525, Records o f Cook County,
D eed s. The r e s t r i c t i o n s th a t ex clu d ed N egroes from th e S u b d iv i­
s io n were a s f o llo w s :
" 1. The r e s t r i c t i o n th a t no p art o f s a id p rem ises s h a ll
in any manner be used or occu p ied d i r e c t ly or i n d ir e c t ly by any
negro or n e g r o e s, p rovid ed th a t t h i s r e s t r i c t i o n s h a l l not pre­
ven t th e o c c u p a tio n , d u rin g t h e i r p e r io d o f employment, o f ja n i­
to rs* or ch a u ffers* q u a rters in th e basement or i n a b am or
garage in the r e a r , or o f servan ts* q u a rte rs by negro j a n i t o r s ,
c h a u ffe r s or house se r v a n ts, r e s p e c t i v e l y , a c t u a lly employed a s
such f o r s e r v ic e i n and about th e p rem ises by th e r ig h t f u l owner
or occupant o f s a id p rem ises.
"2. The r e s t r i c t i o n th a t no part o f s a id p rem ises s h a ll
be s o l d , g iv e n , con veyed , or le a s e d t o any negro or n e g r o e s, and
no p e r m issio n or lic e n s e t o use or occupy any p a rt t h e r e o f s h a ll
be g iv e n to any negro e x c e p t house se r v a n ts or j a n it o r s or chauf­
f e r s employed th e re o n a s a f o r e s a id .
"The term *negro* as used h e r e in s h a l l in c lu d e every
p erso n h avin g o n e -e ig h th p art o r more o f negro b lo o d , or having
any a p p r e c ia b le adm ixture o f negro b lo o d , and every p erson who i s
what i s commonly known a s a c o lo r e d person."
("Negro" i s s p e lle d w ith a sm all "n" throughout the
c o v e n a n t.)
©
Owners o f on ly 54$ o f th e fro n ta g e in th e S u b d iv is io n
sig n e d i t . Some o f them p r o fe s se d l a t e r th a t they thought th ey
were adding t h e ir names to a l i s t o f sig n a tu r e s f o r th e improve­
ment o f th e neighborhood, and were not t o ld about r e s t r i c t i o n s on
t h e i r p r o p e r ty . ( B r ie f o f P e t i t i o n e r s , Lee v . H ansberry. )
When some o f th e owners r en te d t o Negroes d u rin g the de­
p r e s s io n , th e o r g a n iz a tio n o f f i c i a l l y sp o n so rin g th e covenant
undertook a la w s u it , Burke v . K leim an. s t a t i n g as p a r t o f t h e i r
p u rp o se, "The is s u in g o f an in ju n c tio n and the u p h old in g o f th e se
r e s t r i c t i v e agreem ents w i l l have a g r ea t e f f e c t in p r e v en tin g
o th e r owners from r e n tin g t o c o lo r e d ."
(S e c r e ta r y o f th e Woodlawn Property Owners* A s s o c ia t io n , l e t t e r t o members, quoted in
th e Chicago D efen d er. October 2 2 , 1 9 3 2 .)
That the covenant was organ ized by peop le o u ts id e th e
S u b d iv is io n i s in d ic a t e d by th e f a c t th a t the covenant i s i d e n t i ­
c a l in wording w ith r e s t r i c t i v e coven an ts openly sponsored by the
C hicago R eal E sta te Board in Hyde park ( Chicago D efen d er. Octo­
b er 2 2 , 1 9 2 7 ), Maywood (C hicago D efen d er, November 3 , 1 9 2 7 ), and
Auburn Park (Chicago D efen d er, June 3 0 , 1928) b efore and a f t e r
th e W ashington park covenant was f i l e d .
F u r th e r , the o r g a n ize r who o b ta in ed the sig n a tu r e s l iv e d
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
25
o u ts id e the S u b d iv is io n t o the e a s t in Woodlawn p rop er, and the
f i r s t o f f i c e r s o f the Woodlawn P roperty Owners* A s s o c ia tio n (th e
main is s u e o f whose program was th e Washington park S u b d iv isio n
c o v en a n t, a cco rd in g t o th e testim o n y o f James J . Burke, i t s
form er p r e s id e n t, b efo re th e Subcommittee t o in v e s t ig a t e Housing
Among th e C olored p e o p le , P r o c ee d in g s, August 3 , 1 9 3 9 ), were
i d e n t i c a l w ith th e o f f i c e r s o f the Woodlawn B u sin ess Men’ s A sso c i­
a t io n whose t e r r it o r y in c lu d e d th e area from 6 0 th S tr e e t t o 67th
S t r e e t between Stony I s la n d Avenue on th e e a s t and C ottage Grove
on th e w e st. (Chicago D efen d er, May 7 , 1927; October 2 2 , 1 9 3 2 .)
The a c tiv e enforcem ent o f th e covenant was done "w ith
th e c o o p e ra tio n and in many In sta n c e s by the r e q u e st o f th e
mortgage companies and banks h o ld in g m ortgages," accord in g t o the
F inance Committee o f th e Woodlawn property Owners* A s s o c ia tio n in
a l e t t e r to members, quoted In th e Chicago D efen d er. J u ly 8 , 1933.
There i s an anecdote c ir c u la t in g among 'the Negro people
in C hicago about a la n d lo r d who t o l d a Negro a p p lic a n t fo r a f l a t ,
" l* d l i k e t o ren t to y o u , but th e U n iv e r sity o f Chicago won’ t l e t
me."
That the U n iv e r sity o f Chicago was among the o r ig in a l
sp on sors o f the covenant has been d en ied . On August 3 , 1939,
when Burke, former p r e sid e n t o f the Woodlawn P roperty Owners’
A s s o c ia tio n was t e s t i f y i n g b efo re th e Subcommittee to in v e s t ig a t e
H ousing Among the C olored P e o p le , he was f l a t l y c o n tr a d ic te d in
h is sta te m en ts about th e a c t i v i t i e s of the members o f the A sso c i­
a t i o n north o f 63rd S t r e e t by Alderman Sm ith. Alderman Smith
e x p la in e d h i s q u e s tio n in g o f Burke on th e ground th a t Burke had
im p lie d th a t the U n iv e r s ity was "part and p arcel" o f the e a r ly
work o f the Woodlawn P roperty Owners’ A s s o c ia t io n , an im p lic a tio n
th e U n iv e r s ity was very much in t e r e s t e d in b ein g p r o te c te d
a g a in s t . There were two oth er Aldermen p r e se n t; the Chairman,
a Negro graduate o f th e U n iv e r s ity o f C hicago, and the Alderman
from the F if t h Ward, a p r o fe s s o r a t the U n iv e r s ity .
L ater in h is te stim o n y , Burke sa id in d iv id u a ls connected
w ith the U n iv e r sity were members o f the Woodlawn P roperty Owners*
A s s o c ia tio n , but th a t the U n iv e r s ity i t s e l f was not a member.
The l a t e r support o f th e covenant by th e U n iv e r sity o f
C h icago, second l a r g e s t owner o f r e a l e s t a t e in Cook County, was
open and e n t h u s ia s t ic . George 0 . F airw eath er, o f the B u sin ess
O ffic e o f the U n iv e r s ity , made p u b lic a d d resses defen d in g the
p o lic y o f th e u n iv e r s it y , and the B u sin ess O f f ic e , p o in tin g out
th a t th e e a s te r n boundary o f th e S u b d iv isio n a d jo in s the U niver­
s i t y , a sk ed , "Would you a llo w your daughter to go t o sc h o o l in
th e m idst o f a Negro community?" ( P u ls e . November, 1 9 39).
In an a r t i c l e in th e Chicago D efen d er, November 6 , 1937,
the p r e sid e n t o f th e U n iv e r s ity i s quoted a s s t a t in g : "One of
the neighborhood a s s o c ia t io n s t o which the u n iv e r s it y belongs has
defended r e s t r i c t i v e agreem ents." In a l e t t e r t o the American
Stu dent Union on th e su b je c t l a t e r , th e p r e sid e n t w rote, " i am
a u th o r iz e d by the S p e c ia l1Committee on Community i n t e r e s t s o f the
Board o f T ru stees t o say th a t i t en d orses my l e t t e r o f October 29
t o th e Chicago Defender (th e l e t t e r s t a t in g the con n ection o f the
U n iv e r s ity w ith th e r e s t r i c t i v e covenant) and th a t i t has n oth in g
to add t o i t . "
(Quoted by Horace R. CAyton, "Negro H ousing in
C hicago," p . 30.
The f i r s t d ir e c t o r o f the Woodlawn C on servation P ro je ct
formed in 1938 to attem pt to s t a b i l i z e the a rea from 60th S tr e e t
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
24
T his t h e o r e t i c a l p r o t e c t io n , which was g iv en w h ite r e s i ­
d e n ts in th e W ashington Park S u b d iv is io n a g a in s t Negro com p eti­
t io n f o r homes t h e r e , was v ery r e a l p r o te c tio n from 1935 to
A p r il, 1939.
In 1933, a new a d m in is tr a tio n to o k over th e Wood­
lawn P roperty Owners* A s s o c ia t io n , and by March, 1934, i t had
e v ic t e d a l l Negroes who had moved in t o the S u b d iv is io n in th e
l a s t y e a r , and i t had s u i t s pending a g a in s t th o se Negroes who had
come in b efo re th en .
F u r th e r , I t had su cceed ed in h avin g the Board o f Educa­
t i o n r e d i s t r i c t the area
served by th e p u b lic sc h o o l in th e Sub­
d i v i s i o n by moving th e w estern boundary from S ta te S t r e e t , in th e
main Negro community, e a s t t o South Park Avenue, th e w estern
Boundary o f the S u b d iv is io n .
A l l Negro c h ild r e n were th u s r e ­
moved from the sc h o o l In th e Subdivision.-*The In crea se in th e number of N egro-occupied d w e llin g
u n it s b efo re 1939 was n e g l i g i b l e . 2
in a d d it io n , th e purchase o f
p ro p erty a t 6140 Rhodes Avenue by a Negro was c o n te s te d , and th e
s u i t was n ot dropped u n t i l 1 9 4 0 .3
V io la t io n o f the Covenant
In s p it e o f th e
c o v en a n t, Negro ten a n ts were a c c e p te d
in the W ashington park S u b d iv is io n in b lo c k s a d ja c e n t t o th e
Negro community i n th e s p r in g r e n tin g season o f 1939, and the
t o 6 7 th S t r e e t , between Ston y Is la n d Avenue and C ottage Grove
Avenue, w ith the W ashington Park S u b d iv is io n j u s t to the w est i n ­
t e n t i o n a l ly ex clu d ed from th e P r o je c t because o f th e Negro s i t u a ­
t io n t h e r e , was a member o f the B u sin e ss O ffic e o f the U n iv e r sity .
"^Report o f p r e s id e n t o f the Woodlawn P roperty Owners*
A s s o c ia t io n , qu oted i n C hicago D efen d e r , March 1 0 , 1934.
21 0 , a c co r d in g t o the e stim a te on page
9.
^Lee v . H ansberry♦
Reproduced with permission o f the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
25
i n f l u x o f N egroes in t o th e S u b d iv is io n b egan .1
The move was
made a t the r e q u e st o f the w h ite owners through t h e ir a g e n t s .2
Those who ren ted t o Negroes a t t h i s tim e in c lu d e d th o se
who had a c t u a l ly sig n e d the agreement n ot t o r e n t or s e l l to
N egroes.
In f a c t , th e th ree b u ild in g s on th e Vernon Avenue s id e
o f th e b lo c k from 6 0 th S t r e e t t o 6 1 st S t r e e t , betw een Vernon
Avenue and E berhart Avenue, which were th e p o in ts o f f i r s t in v a ­
s io n in the b lo c k , were a l l among the 54$ Those owners had a c tu ­
a l l y sig n e d th e coven an t.
At th e same tim e, th e owners were uphold in g th e cove­
nant in the S u b d iv is io n in b lo c k s to th e e a s t . 3
c o n tr a d ic tio n i s p a rt o f th e covenant i t s e l f .
T his seem ing
I t s t a t e s , "No
r e s t r i c t i o n imposed hereby s h a l l be abrogated or w aived by any
f a i lu r e to en fo rce the p r o v is io n s h e r e o f no m a tter how many v io ­
l a t io n s or b rea ch es may o ccu r.
^Chicago D efen d er. A p ril 2 2 , 1939.
O
I b id . "My owners have a d v ise d me to seek r e sp e c ta b le
c o lo r e d te n a n ts ," a "white r e a l e s t a t e operator" t o ld th e De­
fen d e r i n e x p la in in g the move.
g
The covenant had been upheld a g a in s t Hans berry two
y e a r s b e fo r e , and the a p p e a l o f Hansberry t o th e I l l i n o i s Supreme
Court was d ecid ed a g a in s t him in Jun e, 1939.
d ocu m en t 9914711, Book 25525, Records o f Cook County,
D eeds, p . 7.
5
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER II I
THE NEGRO INVASION OP THE SUBDIVISION
The O verpopulation of the Negro Community
The p ressu re on w hite neighborhoods in Chicago to r e n t
t o Negroes has e x is t e d sin ce the e a r ly p eriod o f C h icago's h i s ­
to ry .
By 1 9 58, i t was estim ated th a t 50,000 more Negroes were
l i v i n g in th e Negro community on the South Side than could be
a d eq u a tely accomodated.®
In October, 1939, i t was s ta te d th a t
th ere were no v a c a n c ie s fo r Negroes on the South S id e , and th a t
th e re had n o t been any f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s .3
M ain tain in g t h is p r e ssu r e , in p a r t, i s th e fa c t th a t
w h ite com m unities in Chicago are organ ized f o r the purpose o f
k eep in g Negroes o u t.
i t i s e stim a ted th a t 80% o f the r e s i d e n t ia l
area of C hicago i s under covenants d e sig n ed to prevent Negro oc­
c u p a tio n . ^
F a cto r s which have tended to in c re a se t h is p ressu re are
th e d e m o litio n between 1934 and 1937 o f tw en ty-seven hundred
^Horace R. C ayton, "Negro H ousing in Chicago," S o c ia l
A c tio n , A p ril 1 5 , 1940, p . 7 .
^ Ib ld . , p . 4.
5
D. E . Mackelmann, M etrop olitan Housing C ou n cil, t e s t i ­
mony b efore the Subcommittee to I n v e s t ig a t e Housing Among the
C olored P e o p le , P r o c e e d in g s. October 9 , 1939.
4
The e stim a te i s th a t o f Robert Taylor o f th e Chicago
Housing A u th o rity in th e Chicago D efen d er. January 1 4 , 1939.
He s t a t e s th a t no s t a t i s t i c s are a v a ila b le , but th a t the fig u r e
i s based on r e l ia b l e e s tim a te s .
The Chicago T i t le and Trust Company s t a t e s th a t no data
has been com piled on the s u b je c t.
The Chicago C i v i l L ib e r tie s U nion, a c tiv e in opposing
r e s t r i c t i v e c o v en a n ts, knows of no a v a ila b le data on the s u b je c t.
26
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
27
d w e llin g u n its in th e Negro community w ith alm ost no new con­
s t r u c t io n ,^ the talcing over o f the n orth ern p a rt o f the Negro
community f o r com m ercial and m anufacturing
p u r p o s e s ,
2 and an in ­
c re a se in th e Negro p o p u la tio n a t the r a te o f ap p roxim ately one
thousand in d iv id u a ls a y ear.®
The p r e ssu re o f th e ov erp o p u la tio n o f th e Negro com­
m unity i s in d ic a te d by a com parison o f c o n d itio n s th e re and con­
d it io n s in th e w h ite community to th e e a s t in 19 3 4 .
W ith the
e x c e p tio n o f the s e c t io n betw een 22nd S tr e e t and 3 1 st S t r e e t , and
between 63rd S t r e e t and 6 7th S t r e e t , the d e n s ity o f the p o p u la tio n
i s g r e a te r in th e Negro community th a n in th e a d ja cen t w h ite com­
m unity.
In th e b lo c k s in the Negro community e a s t o f South Park­
way between 39th S t r e e t and 55th S t r e e t , the d e n s ity i s ap p roxi­
m ately 5 3 ,0 0 0 and 7 0 ,0 0 0 p er square m ile a r e a .
In the corresp ond­
in g w hite a r e a s , the d e n s ity i s 3 4 ,0 0 0 and 3 7 ,0 0 0 per square m ile,
r e s p e c t i v e l y . 4
And in the e ig h t comparable a r e a s , 10$ t o 28$ o f
the f a m i li e s in th e Negro community are doubled up in d w e llin g s
planned f o r s in g le f a m i l i e s , w h ile in th e w h ite community the
r a te runs from 5$ to 9$.®
The vacancy r a te in 1934 i n the comparable a r e a s showed
th a t in f i v e o f the e ig h t Negro a r e a s, th e r a te was l e s s than
8$ .
None o f th e w hite a r e a s was as low .
was th e vacancy r a te h ig h e r than 1 0 $ .
In o n ly one Negro area
S ix o f th e e ig h t compa­
r a b le w h ite a r e a s had a r a te t h i s high.®
^Horace R. C ayton, cyo. c i t . . p. 1 3 .
gI b id . . p. 1 4 .
4I b ld . . p . 1 9 .
^ I b id .
5 I b id . . p . 20.
^Horace R. C ayton, "A Short Statem ent o f th e H ousing
Problem in the Negro Community o f C h ic a g o ,” prepared f o r the
Subcommittee t o I n v e s t ig a t e H ousing Among th e C olored P eople o f
the Committee on H ousing o f the C ity C o u n cil o f C h icago, p . 8 .
with permission o f the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
28
The o v e rp o p u la tio n o f the Negro community, and the r e ­
s u l t i n g c o m p e titio n f o r a p la c e t o l i v e , i s r e f l e c t e d in the
com parative median r e n t a ls p er month in d o lla r s fo r l i v i n g u n its
in a d ja c en t Negro and w hite a r ea s in 1934,
in f i v e comparable
a r e a s , th e Negro r e n t a ls were 37$, 30$, 75$, 5 8 $ , and 31$ h ig h er,
r e s p e c tiv e ly .
And th e Negroes who pay th e s e h ig h er r e n ts are the
lo w e st income group in Chicago.-*The A ttr a c tio n o f* th e S u b d iv is io n f o r
Negro R e sid e n ts
The W ashington park S u b d iv isio n has been su b je c t to
p a r t ic u la r p r e ssu re by the Negro community t o the w e st.
Spokes­
men f o r the Negro community have p o in ted out th a t the S u b d iv isio n
i s lo c a t e d on South Park Avenue which runs through the c e n te r o f
th e community o f a t l e a s t 150,000 N egroes, th a t the S u b d iv isio n
i s surrounded by Negro p e o p le , and th a t i t " c o n s t it u t e s a white
p o ck et w ith in a co lo r ed a r e a .”2
They have charged th a t th e S u b d iv is io n i s an " is la n d o f
w h ite s," th a t i t i s in d ir e c t l in e of n a tu r a l expansion o f the
Negro community, and th a t i t i s the most l o g i c a l area in t o which
th e e x c e ss Negro p o p u la tio n should move.®
Among th e im p lic a tio n s in th e se ch a rg es i s th a t the
w h ite people do not b e lo n g in th e S u b d iv is io n .
A c tu a lly , th a t the
w h ite people should be l i v i n g th e re i s I n c o n s is te n t w ith the a t ­
t it u d e th e w h ites i n C hicago have m aintained toward th e Negro
community.
F or the S u b d iv is io n i s w est o f C ottage Grove Avenue,
and C ottage Grove Avenue has been co n sid er ed by the w h ite s to be
^Horace R. C ayton, "Negro Housing in C hicago," p . 17.
2
B r ie f o f p e t i t i o n e r s , Lee v . H ansberry.
g
Horace R. C ayton, "Negro H ousing in C hicago," p . 2 9 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
29
th e e a s te r n boundary o f the Negro community.
L o cation o f the F ir s t Invaders
J u st b efore the r e s t r i c t i v e covenant in th e W ashington
Park S u b d iv isio n was put in to e f f e c t in 1928, Negroes were
^Testimony b efore the Subcommittee to I n v e s t ig a te Hous­
in g Among the C olored P eo p le, P ro ceed in g s, July 2 7 , 1939:
Newton C. P arr, form er p r e s id e n t, N a tio n a l A s s o c ia tio n
o f R eal E sta te Boards: "Cottage Grove Avenue, which i s th e e a s t
boundary o f the South Park Gardens p r o j e c t , i s the d iv id in g l i n e
between w h ite and co lo red te r r it o r y ."
The Chairman: "By whose d eterm in a tio n i s that?"
Mr. parr: "By the d eterm in ation o f the owners o f th e
p ro p erty."
E f f o r t s t o m ain tain i t as the boundary l in e have in ­
clu d ed coven an ts and in tim id a tio n . L i l l i a n p r o c to r , su p e r v iso r
o f the W ashington Park R e lie f S t a t io n , t e s t i f i e d b e fo re the Sub­
committee to I n v e s tig a te H ousing Among the C olored P eo p le , pro­
c e e d in g s , October 9 , 1939, "You have, o f c o u r se , more o f your
w h ite c la s s l i v i n g e a s t o f C ottage Grove and most Negroes l i v i n g
w est."
The Chairman, l a t e r : "Do you know i f any o f th e c o lo r e d
c l i e n t s move over to the east?"
M iss P roctor: "Very few , because you have the r e s t r i c ­
t io n s ."
In tim id a tio n has tak en variou s form s, one o f w hich,
a cco rd in g t o the Chicago D efen d er. September 3 , 1927, was a l e t ­
t e r , sen t by w h ites t o Negroes l i v i n g e a s t o f C ottage Grove
Avenue, which read in p a r t, "Dear B rother: I , a lo n g w ith 50
o th e r C olored men, l o s t ny job tod ay, because you and a few
o th e r s i n s i s t upon l i v i n g in a w hite neighborhood where you are
n ot wanted. One hundred Chicago b u sin e ss houses have a lr e a d y
adopted a ru le not to employ C olored peop le who l i v e e a s t o f
C ottage Grove Avenue. . . . ."
That w h ites do not belong w est o f C ottage Grove Avenue
was im p lied in a statem ent by a w hite r e a l e s t a te d e a le r th e re
d e s c r ib in g a c o lle a g u e a s "the d i r t i e s t w h ite b a sta rd who e v e r
s e t f o o t w est of C ottage Grove."
The e x is te n c e o f C ottage Grove Avenue a s a boundary l i n e
i s known t o the Negro community whose C hicago D efender on numer­
ous o c c a sio n s urged i t s read ers t o "move e a s t o f C ottage Grove."
An id ea o f the con troversy about the whole m atter i s
g iv e n in th e comment o f a c o lle a g u e t o a Negro w r ite r who, in
d efen d in g the s e l e c t io n o f th e s i t e fo r the Ida B. W ells h ou sin g
p r o je c t f o r N egroes, p o in ted out th a t C ottage Grove Avenue, on
th e e a s t , was a -wide s t r e e t and would form a p r o te c tiv e boundary
a g a in s t encroachment by a d ja cen t b lig h te d a r e a s . "As a m atter
o f diplom acy and str a te g y ," th e c o lle a g u e w ro te, " I would n o t
m ention th e e a ste r n boundary."
with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission
so
s c a t t e r e d in sm all numbers throughout the Woodlawn area to the
east.-*-
A fte r the covenant was ad op ted , th e p a tte r n o f Negro in ­
v a s io n o f the S u b d iv is io n was not one o f random occu p a tio n o f the
S u b d iv is io n , but o f s u c c e s s iv e occu p ation o f the s id e s o f b lo c k s
co n tigu ou s t o the main Negro community to th e w e st.
The f i r s t p o in t o f in v a s io n was on th e w est sid e o f
South Park Avenue in a b lock whose w estern sid e was alrea d y occu­
p ie d by N egroes.
The n ext p o in t occu pied was a c r o s s South Park
Avenue and a lo n g 60th S t r e e t a d ja c en t to th e park, which was a l ­
ready surrounded on two s id e s by N egroes.
Then th e block in th e
S u b d iv is io n fa c in g South Park Avenue from 6 1 st S t r e e t to 62nd
S t r e e t was invaded fo llo w in g th e in v a s io n o f th e b lo c k on th e
o p p o site sid e o f South Paik Avenue.
The Vernon Avenue s id e o f the two b lo c k s in the S u b d iv i­
s io n which fa c e South Park Avenue from 60th S t r e e t t o 62nd S t r e e t
were invaded a f t e r th e South Park Avenue s id e s were occu pied by
N egroes.
The in v a s io n o f th e so u th Park Avenue sid e o f th e b lo ck
from 60th S t r e e t t o 6 1 s t S t r e e t preceded th e in v a s io n o f the
Vernon Avenue sid e by some tim e .
The Sou th Park Avenue s id e o f
the b lo c k from 6 1 s t S tr e e t t o 62nd S t r e e t has on ly r e c e n tly been
in v a d ed , and only one p o in t o f in v a s io n has d evelop ed on the
Vernon Avenue sid e o f i t .
The in v a s io n o f th e Vernon Avenue s id e o f the b lo c k from
60th S t r e e t to 6 1 s t S t r e e t , between Vernon Avenue and E berhart
Avenue, took p la c e a f t e r th e o p p o site s id e o f th e Vernon Avenue
^Chicago D efen d er, May 7 , 1927. The announcement th a t
sig n a tu r e s were b e in g s o l i c i t e d fo r the W ashington Park covenant
was cou p led w ith one th a t a fa m ily "not white" had been persuaded
to move from 6145 E l l i s Avenue, which i s e a s t o f the S u b d iv is io n ,
and th a t o th e r c o lo r e d p erson s had moved from e a s t o f C ottage
Grove Avenue. "No fo r c e was u sed , but an a t t r a c t i v e p r o p o s itio n
was a ccep ted ," a spokesman f o r th e A s s o c ia tio n s a id .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
51
in th e b lo ck f a c in g on South Park Avenue, had been invaded.
The Hansberry occu p a tio n a t 6140 Rhodea Avenue, a p o in t
n o t c o n tig u o u s t o th e l a s t p o in t o f Negro in v a s io n , r e p r e se n ts
an o rgan ized e f f o r t t o Invade a l l o f the S u b d iv is io n .
Unorganized Negro In v a sio n
The w illin g n e s s o f Negroes t o pay a premium fo r a p la ce
t o l i v e had g o tte n them a fo o th o ld on th e South park Avenue and
on th e 60th S t r e e t s id e s o f th e b lo ck from 60th S tr e e t t o 6 1 st
S t r e e t , between South Park Avenue and Vernon Avenue, du rin g the
d e p r e ssio n p e r io d when w h ite te n a n ts r e fu s e d t o p a y .2
T his w illin g n e s s t o pay a premium f o r a p lace t o l i v e
got them d w e llin g u n its a f t e r the o u ts id e i n t e r e s t s r e la x e d th e
r e s t r i c t i o n s i n 1 9 5 9 .3
In f a c t , th e p a tte r n o f th e average
m onthly r e n t p er u n it by b lo ck s in the S u b d iv isio n a f t e r 1959 in ­
d ic a t e s th a t th e premium was demanded o f them ( p ig . 8 ) .4
O rganized Negro In v a sio n
The a tta c k on th e l e g a l i t y o f th e r e s t r i c t i v e covenant
in th e W ashington Park S u b d iv isio n r e p re sen ted an organ ized a t ­
tempt by th e Negro people t o move in t o th e S u b d iv is io n , i t
begun in 1 9 5 7 , and i s s t i l l
"h?age 35.
was
p e n d in g .5
^Chicago D efen d er, August 5 , 1953.
^ P rosp ective Negro te n a n ts , se e k in g t o rent from w hite
la n d lo r d s , were sometim es asked e x o r b ita n t r e n ts t o d iscou rage
them , but th e y sometim es took the d w e llin g u n its a t the p r ic e
a sk ed , anyway.
^Sources C hicago Land Use Survey enum eration, 1939.
5
The s u i t was begun about th e tim e Burke ended h is p r e s i­
dency o f th e Woodlawn p roperty Owners* A s s o c ia tio n . He i s a de­
fen d an t i n th e s u it to g e th e r w ith th e N egroes concerned as one of
th e c o n sp ir a to r s t o v i o la t e the r e s t r i c t i v e agreem ent, accord in g
with permission o f the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
32
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P ig . 8 . —Map o f average monthly r e n t per u n it by b lo c k s
in the S u b d iv isio n and in th e area to the w e st, e x ce p t in th e
th ree invaded b lo ck s where th e average monthly r e n t per u n it fo r
N egro-occu pied u n its only i s in d ic a te d .
t o the charges brought by the group r e p r e se n tin g th e A s so c ia tio n .
The d efen se i s based p rim a rily on th e f a c t th a t the cove­
nant was in v a lid by i t s own term s, because the req u ire d fro n ta g e
co n se n ts o f 95$ o f the prop erty in the S u b d iv is io n , needed b efo re
i t should become e f f e c t i v e , were not ob tain ed ; on ly 54$ were ob­
ta in e d . ( B r ie f of p e t i t i o n e r s . Lee v . H ansberry) .
This fact' was known ‘t o the A sso c'fa tfo n , and to remedy
th e s i t u a t i o n , they undertook a dummy s u i t , Burke v . K iel m a n , f o r
th e s o le purpose o f e s t a b lis h in g the i n t e g r i t y and in v u ln e r a b ilit y
o f the coven an t. (O pinion o f the C h an cellor in t r i a l c o u r t,
B r ie f o f P e t i t io n e r s , Lee v . Hansberry. )
The in v u ln e r a b ilit y o f the covenant was a t t a in e d through
th e sim p le m atter o f never h avin g the m atter o f n o t h avin g enough
fro n ta g e co n sen ts ru led on. I n s te a d , a s t i p u l a t i o n was e n ter ed
in t o by both s id e s th a t the c a se sh ould be t r i e d on s t ip u la t e d
f a c t s w ith ou t th e n e c e s s it y o f producing e v id e n c e . Among the
with permission o f the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
33
S p onsorin g t h i s attem pt I s th e Supreme L ib e r ty L ife
Insurance C o m p a n y ,o n e o f whose i n t e r e s t s i s making lo a n s on
rea l e sta te .
They were e n jo in e d from fin a n c in g a mortgage on the
p rop erty o f a Negro r e a l e s t a t e d e a le r 2 who bought a home in th e
S u b d iv is io n a t 6140 Rhodes Avenue.
One o f th e a tto r n e y s f o r th e sp on sorin g group i s , in
a d d itio n t o b e in g g e n e ra l c o u n s e l fo r th e in su ran ce company, head
o f the C hicago Urban League, alderm an o f the Second Ward, and was
chairman o f the Subcommittee to I n v e s t ig a t e H ousing Among the
C olored p e o p le .
R e sista n c e and A cceptance o f Negroes
But as lo n g as th e o u tsid e r e a l e s t a t e o r g a n iz a tio n s ,
i n s t i t u t i o n s , banks, and mortgage companies through th e d e v ic e o f
r e s t r i c t i v e covenant were I n te r e s te d in p rev en tin g Negroes from
occupying b u ild in g s in th e W ashington Park S u b d iv is io n , th ere was
l i t t l e th a t Negroes could do to g e t a home In the S u b d iv is io n .3
s t ip u la t e d f a c t s agreed upon, was th e term s o f th e covenant had
been com plied w ith . To g iv e i t added in v u ln e r a b i l it y , th e case
was tak en t o th e A p p e lla te Court and confirm ed i n 1934. ( A f f i ­
d a v it s o f Helman and Burke o f th e Woodlawn Property Owners'
A s s o c ia t io n , d e sc r ib e d In B r ie f o f P e t i t i o n e r s , Lee v . H ansberry.)
When the fra u d u le n t p ro ceed in g s were p o in ted out by the
d e fe n se in th e Hansberry c a s e , th e co u rt a g r e e d , but found th a t
th e m atter was r e s .ju d ic a ta , and r e fu s e d t o reopen th e q u e s tio n
o f th e v a l i d i t y o f th e co v en a n t. The I l l i n o i s Supreme Court up­
h e ld t h i s d e c is io n in Jun e, 1939. The U n ited S ta te s Supreme
C o u rt, in November, 1940, ordered the case to be r e t r i e d on the
b a s is th a t th e d efen d en ts were b e in g d ep rived o f t h e i r p rop erty
w ith ou t due p r o c ess of law . No r e t r i a l has taken p la c e . And
Negroes a re now moving in t o the S u b d iv is io n in numbers.
3-One o f th e f i r s t te n a n ts t o move in to th e S u b d iv is io n
In 1933 was on the s t a f f o f th e Supreme L ib e rty L ife Insurance
Company, a cco rd in g to th e Chicago D efen d er. August 5 , 1933.
2 ho l a t e r ran f o r p u b lic o f f i c e , w ith h is i n t e r e s t i n
c i v i l l i b e r t i e s a s one o f h is q u a l i f i c a t i o n s .
g
Or in any a rea a d ja cen t to th e Negro community, Horace
Cayton p o in ts out in "Negro H ousing i n C hicago," p . 12.
with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
34
When th e se i n t e r e s t s saw f i t t o r e la x th e covenant and
a ccep t Negroes in the sp rin g o f 1939, i t was o f f i c i a l l y s t a te d
th a t th e move was in s p ir e d by th e hum anitarian i n s t i n c t s o f the
ow ners.
But the reason Negro te n a n ts were e v e n tu a lly accep ted in
th e S u b d iv is io n in s p i t e o f the r e s t r i c t i v e covenant seems to
have been th e r e s u lt o f the working out o f a p ro cess th a t ta k es
p la c e a t the p o in t o f c o n ta ct o f a r e s t r i c t e d w hite area and the
a d ja c en t Negro community.
When th e co lo r ed race move w ith in c lo s e p roxim ity o f
th e w h ite s , or we w i l l say a c r o s s the b o r d e r lin e , th ere i s
a tendency on the p art o f th e te n a n ts , r e g a r d le ss o f t h e ir
s o c i a l sta n d in g , o f th e ir background or t h e i r s t r a t a o f so­
c i e t y , th ey have some, c a l l i t inborn p r e ju d ic e , and they
want to move ou t.
The r e s u lt i s th a t the ten a n ts move out and the w h ite
la n d lo r d h old s th e sack. He i s s i t t i n g there w ith h i s prop­
e r ty and he cannot r en t i t to w h ites and cannot ren t i t to
c o lo r e d . I f he does n ot get any r e l i e f , he has to g iv e i t
back t o th e mortgage h o ld e r s .2
In A p r il, 1939, the mortgage h o ld er s and la n d lo r d s In
the W ashington Park S u b d iv isio n d ecid ed to g e t r e l i e f by r e n tin g
l"The tragedy o f e ig h t p eop le burning to d eath In
cramped up apartm ents I s proof enough f o r me th a t c o lo r e d p eo p le
sh ould have more room t o spread o u t ,” s a id one property owner
w ith la r g e h o ld in g s in W ashington park S u b d iv isio n .
" i t borders on being c r im in a l to squeeze c o lo r e d peop le
in such r e s t r i c t e d d i s t r i c t s , and ex p ect them to be decent and
law a b id in g . My owners have a d v ised me t o seek r e sp e c ta b le c o l ­
ored te n a n ts ," sa id a w hite r e a l e s t a t e agen t in the S u b d iv is io n .
(Both q u o ta tio n s are from th e Chicago D efen d er. A p r il 2 2 , 1 9 3 9 .)
These se n tim e n ts, e x p ressed a f t e r a f i r e ( in a b u ild in g
c o n t r o lle d by the C hicago T i t le and T rust Company) i n which e ig h t
Negroes were k i l l e d , in d ic a te a s u r p r is in g change from th o se ex­
p r e sse d by th e chairman of th e r e n tin g d iv i s i o n o f the Chicago
R eal E s ta te Board who s a id on an o c c a sio n when th r ee Negroes were
k i l l e d d u rin g an e v i c t i o n p ro ceed in g , "We are w i l li n g to do a l l
we can t o h e lp , but i t i s im p o ssib le to compromise w ith what i s
s t r i c t l y a b u sin e ss p r o p o s itio n ." (Chicago T ribune, August 4 ,
1 9 3 1 , p . 4 .)
2
James J . Burke, former p r e sid e n t o f the Woodlawn Prop­
e r t y Owners* A s s o c ia tio n , testim on y b efo re the Subcommittee to
I n v e s t ig a t e H ousing Among the C olored P eo p le, P ro c ee d in g s. Aug­
u s t 3 , 1 9 39.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
t o Negro ten an t a. 1
35
The r e s u lt was th e b eg in n in g o f the in f lu x o f
Negroes in t o the Washington Park S u b d iv is io n .2
^page 25.
2
Page 9 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER IV
THE CUMULATIVE EFFECT OF THE NEGRO INVASION
AND THE WHITE DEPOPULATION
OF THE SUBDIVISION
The S e g r e g a tio n o f W hites and N egroes w ith in
th e invaded B locks
By September and O ctober, 1939, th r e e b lock s i n th e
W ashington Park S u b d iv is io n had been in vad ed .
In th e se b lo c k s ,
the ten dency o f w h ites and Negroes t o sta y a p a r t in two d i s t i n c t
p o p u la tio n groups was in d ic a te d by the p resen ce o f Negroes and
w h ite s to g e th e r in only th r ee s tr u c tu r e s (T able 8).-*TABLE 8
OCCUPANCY OF STRUCTURES BY RACE IN THE
INVADED BLOCKS
B lock s
n <D
H>
OJ >
O Jh
to as
HU
to as
to d
25
24
16
19
T o ta l S tr u c tu r e s
26
Occupancy
No Report
Negro
W hite
Negro-W hite
15
Whether t h i s r e p r e se n ts the ten dency o f w h ite s t o r e ­
main a p a rt from N egroes th a t was noted p ro ceed in g th e i n v a s io n ,2
^Source; C hicago Land Use Survey enum eration, 1939.
2Page 1 3 .
36
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
f
3.7
a d ie -h a r d a t t itu d e o f the w h ite s toward the N e g r o e s , o r p r e s­
sure by la n d lo r d s on vfoites by in c r e a s in g th e r e n ts once the
b u ild in g s have adm itted Negro t e n a n t s ,2 i s n ot In d ic a te d .
A v a ila b le Data by Race In the Invaded B locks
Data are a v a ila b le on the tv/o p o p u la tio n groups in Sep­
tember and O ctober, 19 3 9 , when three b lo ck s in th e W ashington
park S u b d iv is io n had been invad ed .
The d ata in c lu d e D uration o f
Occupancy, T o ta l P op u lation by Age Groups, R a tio o f M ales to
Fem ales 2 0 -6 4 , A ctiv e R e l ie f C a ses, p erson s Per Room, Roomers,
E xtra F a m ilie s Per D w ellin g U n it, F urn itu re in c lu d e d in Rent or
N ot, and R en ts.
They are p resen ted in Table 9 . 3
The Negroes Who Moved in t o th e
Invaded B locks
The Negro in vad ers o f the S u b d iv is io n d u rin g th e d ep res­
s io n seemed t o have been a c u lt u r a lly and eco n o m ica lly advantaged
group.
Of the s i x whose names are g iv e n as among th e f i r s t to
move i n , two had the t i t l e o f nD r .,w one was an a tto r n e y , and on©
was rep o rted t o have been robbed of s e v e r a l thousands o f d o lla r s
worth o f fu r n ish in g s soon a f t e r she moved in .^
But in September and O ctober. 1939, abou t s i x months
a f t e r th e i n f lu x of Negroes in t o two a d d itio n a l b lo ck s in the
S u b d iv is io n , the fa c to r o f economic advantage seems t o have become
^Of 30 a d d resses occu pied e n t i r e l y by w h ite s in th e
th ree b lo c k s , w ith no v a c a n c ie s , 26 are among th e 54$ who sign ed
th e coven an t.
2page 3 1 .
3
The d a ta , w ith th e e x c e p tio n o f th a t on a c t i v e r e l i e f
c a s e s , are from the Chicago Land Use Survey enum eration o f Sep­
tember and O ctober, 1939.
The d a ta on a c t iv e r e l i e f c a ses are from th e r eco rd s o f
th e Chicago R e lie f A d m in istra tio n , March, 1941.
^Chicago D efen d er, August 5 , 1933.
1
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
I
58
TABLE 9
AVAILABLE DATA BY RACE IK THE INVADED BLOCKS
Race
W hite
B lock s
Negro
B locks
ao
a
u
r* ©
a
8
•. 0)
r-t >
CO I
CM >
O Fi
rH Fi
CO ctf
CO
CO
Ph
•NFl
H ©
p
CO
1
O 1
co a
1
1X
iM
&
o
<A
(fa
a
aFi
W©
01
>
CO 1
H >
CO
1
« X
O Fi
CD
fa
«
oa
a
a
•>fa
<1>
o
r—1
CO
oS
Fi
cti
(fa
P*
•
•
©
_ 50---------- ___ -S3__
JQ. JtODURATION OP OCCUPANCY
Tenants by p ercen ta g es
A.
110
50
55.47
50.66
36.67
30.14
18.42
4 .0 0
2 .0 0
T o ta l Occupied
More
More
More
More
More
More
More
than
than
than
than
than
than
than
6 mo.
1 yr
2 yrs.
3 yrs.
5 yrs.
10 y r s .
20 y r s .
•
• •
10
•
•
•
• •
• •
* • • ♦
•
•
• •
• •
•
•
• •
•
•
•
•
• •
•
•
•
•
•
•
• •
• •
•
•
36
8 3 .3 3
6 6 .6 7
5 8 .3 3
4 4 .4 4
1 9 .4 4
59
100
9 4 .0 4
8 4 .5 0
6 2 .5 3
4 0 .5 6
1 8 .5 9
5 .0 7
1 .6 9
8 0 .0 0
6 5 .0 0
4 7 .0 0
3 2 .0 0
1 2 .0 0
7 .0 0
2 .0 0
5
5
«•
••
5
3
2
1
3
3
••
••
••
••
3
2
170
244
365
2 1 .7 6
1 1 .1 8
6 3 .5 3
3 .5 3
1 5 .9 9
8 .2 0
7 5 .8 1
2 4 .1 1
1 0 .6 9
6 4 .3 8
.82
•
•
•
• « •
•
•
Owners by Numbers
T o ta l Occupied
More than 6 mo.
More than 1 y r .
More th an 2 y r s .
More than 3 y r s .
More than 5 y r s .
More th an 10 yrs..
More than 20 y r s .
B.
3
3
2
••
••
••
••
2
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
• •
•
•
14 or Under
15-19
20-64
65 and Over
1 4 .4 8
5 .9 2
7 8 .5 1
1 .1 0
220
5 .4 5
5 .9 1
38.64
•
• •
43
2 3 .2 6
6 .9 8
6 9 .7 7
•••
•
• •
RAT10 OP MALES TO FEMALES, 20-64
.8 5
D.
•
POPULATION BY AGE GROUPS BY PERCENTAGES
T o ta l P op u lation ■ 456
C.
•
••
•
•
6
6
••
••
6
4
2
1
.95
1 .0 0
1 .0 4
1 .1 8
1 .0 6
1
10
NUMBER OP ACTIVE RELIEF CASESa
21
9
7
1
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
39
TABLE 9—Continued
Race
W hite
B locks
Negro
B locks
El
O
a
Ei
** 0
H >
<0 1
• x
O Ei
to S
d
Q
d
u
IN ©
03 >
to «
1 ri*S
r—! Ei
to al
P.
•
.
<n
CO
— qpr
§!
H©
O I
(S3 C5
o
Pi
O
>
Ei
d
o
d
p.
•> (J)
H >
to 1
1 M
o u
(S3 aj
(U
d
o
d
Ei
n (D
03 >
to 1
1 M
H Ei
to oj
Pi
•
H
to
«
O
to
•
CO
co
•p
Ei
3
£
Ei
<D
m
w
I
d
o
d
Ei
©
_________
PERCENTAGE OP UNITS WITH MORE THAN
1 .5 0 PERSONS PER ROOM PER UNIT
E.
T o ta l U n its
113
% w ith More
than 1 .5 0
1 .7 7
P.
52
1 .9 2
10
•
•
42
64
103
9 .5 2
4 .6 9
1 8 .4 5
64
103
7 .8 1
2 .9 1
42
64
103
1 .2 9
* •
PERCENTAGE OP UNITS WITH ROOMERS
T o ta l U n its
% w ith
Roomers
G.
52
113
28 .3 2
3 2 .6 9
10
•
•
42
1 1 .9 0
PERCENTAGE OP UNITS WITH EXTRA FAMILIES
T o ta l u n its
% w ith E xtra
F a m ilie s
H>
113
4 .9 6
•
52
10
•
•
•
•
*
0
0 0
PERCENTAGE OP UNITS WITH FURNITURE
INCLUDED IN RENT
T o ta l U n its
% w ith
109b
•
« »
52
•
• •
10
•
0
36
8 .3 3
fi
58b
•
•
■
97b
3 6 .0 8
These data are fo r th e th ree b lo c k s on March 1 9 , 1941,
when the in v a s io n had reached eastw ard a t l e a s t an a d d itio n a l
b lo ck . No d ata i s o b ta in a b le f o r s p e c i f i c tim e p er io d s in the
p a s t.
A ddresses o f Negro c l i e n t s o f the C hicago R e lie f Admin­
i s t r a t i o n , D i s t r i c t 5 , in th e th ree b lo c k s th a t had been invaded
by September and O ctober, 1939, were com piled from th e add ress
f i l e s o f c a se workers In th e d i s t r i c t .
C ases are n o t handled by workers on a g eo g ra p h ica l b a s is
e x a c t ly . I f a ca se handled by one worker moves t o an address w ith ­
in one m ile o f th e p resen t a d d r e ss, th e case i s not tr a n s fe r r e d ,
but th e same worker ta k e s care o f i t .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
o f much l e s s im portance i n o b ta in in g a hone in the S u b d iv is io n .
In the block th a t had been invaded lo n g e s t (th e block
between South Park Avenue and Vernon Avenue, from 60th S t r e e t to
6 1 st S t r e e t ) , 29 o f 59 ad d resses occu pied by Negroes had had
Negro r e l i e f c l i e n t s l i v i n g th ere a t one tim e or an o th er.
In the
b lo ck betw een South park Avenue and Vernon Avenue, from 6 1 s t
S t r e e t to 62nd S t r e e t , occu pied fcy Negroes fo r s i x m onths, 13 of
20 a d d resses had had Negro r e l i e f c l i e n t s l i v i n g th ere a t one
tim e or a n o th er .
In the block between Vernon Avenue and Eberhart
Avenue, from 60th S t r e e t to 6 1 st S t r e e t , occu pied by Negroes f o r
fo u r m onths, two out o f th r ee
a d d re sses had had Negro r e l i e f c l i ­
e n ts l i v i n g th ere a t one tim e or an oth er.^
Two y e a r s l a t e r , th e
i n th e se th ree b lo ck s was 2 1 ,
number o f a c tiv e Negro r e l i e f c a se s
9 , and 7 , r e s p e c t i v e l y .2
But the a v a ila b le data fo r September and O ctober,
The in d iv id u a l ad d ress f i l e s , the on ly a v a ila b le , o f
th r e e workers whose c a s e s were p rim a rily i n th e area in clu d ed in
the th r e e b lock s f o r which data was w anted, were the sou rce o f
th e d a ta .
I t i s e stim a te d by th e c a se su p e r v iso r o f the d i s t r i c t
t o in c lu d e 90$ o f th e a c tu a l number o f c l i e n t s t h e r e , but no more.
F u r th e r, e ig h t o f the 10 w h ite c a se s in the b lo ck 6 0 -6 1 ,
V em on-E b erhart, are in one b u ild in g , the Park-Vernon H o te l, a
sham bles co n v erted from th e South park View H o sp ita l in t o d w e ll­
in g u n i t s , i t s p h y s ic a l c o n d itio n and th e c h a ra cter o f i t s w hite
te n a n ts have b lig h t e d th e e n tir e b lo c k .
The la r g e number o f r e l i e f c a se s among the Negroes l i v ­
in g In th e S u b d iv is io n two y e a rs a f t e r th e in v a sio n does seem of
s i g n if i c a n c e , however.
«»_
No r e p o r ts were made fo r em ployee-occupied u n it s .
"Sphe a d d resses o f th e d w e llin g u n it s i n th e S u b d iv isio n
which had been invaded ty Negroes by September and O ctober, 1939,
were checked a g a in s t the address f i l e s o f a l l r e l i e f c a se s o f the
C hicago R e l ie f A d m in istra tio n . The names o f a l l c l i e n t s l i s t e d
a t each a d d ress b efo re September and O ctober, 1939, were checked
a g a in s t th e m aster f i l e f o r r a c e . Some o f the card3 in the m aster
f i l e d id n ot in d ic a te r a c e . The number was sm a ll. The r e s u l t s
g iv e n here m inimize th e number o f p o s s ib le Negro c a s e s .
^Table 9 , pp. 38- 39.
with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission
1 9 3 9 , I n d ic a te th a t th e d w e llin g u n it s i n th e block m ost r e c e n tly
occu p ied by Negroes seem t o have been o ccu p ied by com plete fam i­
l i e s w ithout room ers.
C o n d itio n s i n th e b lo c k lo n g e s t o c cu p ied ,
and a d ja c en t t o the main Negro community, seem to more n e a r ly
reproduce th e p a tte r n o f l i f e o f the main community, w ith an in ­
c r e a s in g number o f r e l i e f c a s e s , room ers, e x tr a f a m i l i e s , and a
d e c r e a sin g r a t i o o f m ales to fe m a le s.
The a v a ila b le data f o r Negroes i n th e S u b d iv isio n i n d i­
c a te fu r th e r th a t th e g e n e ra l stan dard o f l i v i n g th e re i s h ig h er
than f o r th e Negro community a s a w h ole.
More than 1 .5 p erson s
per room, the p o in t There overcrow ding becomes s i g n i f i c a n t , was
not reached i n moire th an 2$ o f the d w e llin g s in a b lo c k .
In 1938,
i t was e stim a ted th a t 25$ o f a l l C h icago Negro f a m ilie s were l i v ­
in g i n u n its c o n ta in in g more than 1 .5 p erson s per room .2
D oubling up o f f a m ilie s occu rred i n on ly one b lo c k , and
t h e r e , in l e s s than 5$ o f the u n i t s .
F u r th e r , fu r n itu r e in a l l
th e d w e llin g s was provided by the o ccu p a n ts.
The la r g e p ercen tage o f d w e llin g u n it s w ith room ers,
when c o n sid er ed in c o n n e c tio n w ith th e sm a ll p ercen tage o f c h i l ­
dren i n the p o p u la tio n and th e f a c t th a t th e r e was no overcrowd­
i n g , seems to in d ic a te on ly th a t the two ch ron ic c o n d itio n s o f
Negro h ou sin g ( a v a ila b le u n its b e in g to o la r g e f o r the s i z e o f the
Negro fa m ily , and roomers b e in g n e c e ss a r y to h elp meet th e h ig h
r e n t) p r e v a ile d in th e b lo ck s b ein g added t o th e Negro community.
The W hites Who Remained i n the in vad ed B lock s
Between 1930 and 1934, when the Negro in v a s io n took
^Table 9 , pp. 3 8 -3 9 .
2
N ation al H ea lth S u rv ey , 1 9 3 8 , quoted in The Chicago
H ousing A u th o rity ( Manager and B u ild e r o f Low-Rent Communities)
(C hicago: 1939) , p. 1 1 . (Mimeographed).
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
p la c e , th e w estern h a l f o f the S u b d iv is io n ad jacen t t o the main
Negro community l o s t 704 v&iite r e s id e n t s above th o se who were r e ­
p la c e d by o th e r w h ites moving in.-*-
T his l o s s was f a i r l y ev en ly
d iv id e d between th e n a tiv e w h ites who d ecrea sed 3 .0 5 $ and the
fo r e ig n -b o r n w h ite s who d ecrea sed
2 . 78$.2
Most o f t h i s l o s s was probably o f th e more a b le w h ites
in the community who were ta k in g p art i n the r e d is t r ib u t io n o f
th e m id d le -c la s s p o p u la tio n o f the c i t y a t th e p e r ip h e r y .3
By 1 9 3 9 , when th e i n f l u x o f Negroes in t o th e community
was underway, th e w h ites who rem ained in th e invaded b lo c k s
formed a r e s id u a l group.
An in c r e a s in g ly la r g e part o f the r e s id ­
u a l group, a s th e degree o f In v a sio n in c r e a s e d , were th e white
r e s id e n t s occupying s tr u c tu r e s th ey owned in th e invaded b lo c k s .
The degree o f t h i s i s in d ic a te d by Table 10.^
None o f th e w h ite owners occupying a str u c tu r e in the
th r e e Invaded b lo c k s had been occu pying i t l e s s than th r ee y e a r s .
Ten had been occupying t h e ir property more than f i v e y e a r s , seven
more than ten y e a r s , and fou r more than tw enty y e a r s .
Whether t h is r e s id u a l group o f owners was t i e d to th e
invaded b lo ck s by f i n a n c i a l i n t e r e s t , by se n tim en t, or by h a b it
^
i s n o t in d ic a te d .
Nor i s i t in d ic a te d in th e a v a ila b le data on th e rem ain­
in g w h ite t e n a n t s ,5 some o f whom have been occupying the same
d w e llin g u n its i n the invaded b lo c k s f o r more than 20 y e a r s .
t
Census Data o f C h icago, 1930 and Census Data o f C hicago.
1 9 5 4 , t r a c t 623.
3P. 11.
4Source: Chicago Land Use Survey enum eration, 1939.
5Table 9 , p. 3 8 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
TABLE 10
RELATION OF WHITE OWNER-OCCUPIED STRUCTURES TO ALL
WHITE-OCCUPIED STRUCTURES IN THE INVADED BLOCKS
Blocks
Negro, a l l
W hite, a l l
W hite, owner
$ White-Owner
Occupied
6 0-51,
S . Park-Vernon
Occupancy
oS
a
t\ u©
w>
to 1
IM
H
RS
to C
*
•
co
8
16
5
15
9
6
6 6 .6 7
31.25
+>
u
rH <D
s so
ufS
<0
>
2
19
2
1 0 .5 3
More than 65$ o f them were in th e invaded b lo c k s b efo re the in ­
f l u x o f Negroes i n th e sp rin g o f 1959 (8 4.5$ in one b lo c k ), and
in two b lo ck s app roxim ately 60$ o f them fo r more than two y e a r s.
The th ir d block from 6 0 th S t r e e t to 6 1 st S t r e e t , between Vernon
Avenue and Eberhart Avenue, has a la r g e turnover because o f the
t r a n s ie n t te n a n ts o f the la r g e Park-Vernon H o tel th e r e .
A r e s id u a l group o f fo r e ig n -b o r n households i s in d ic a te d
by th e data'1- (Table 11) on the country o f b ir th o f the head of
each w h ite household in th e th ree b lo c k s .
The percentage of
n a tiv e w hite heads d e c re a ses as th e degree o f in v a sio n in c r e a s e s .
C o rresp on d in gly, the percen tage o f fo r e ig n -b o r n w hite heads in ­
c r e a s e s , but not in a p p re c ia b le numbers, nor f o r any p a r tic u la r
n a t io n a lit y (Table 1 2 ) .2
The r e l i e f d ata in d ic a te th a t the economic s ta tu s o f the
w h ite s who remained was n o t as low as th at o f some o f th e Negroes
^"Source: C hicago Land Use Survey enum eration, 1939.
2I b id .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
TABLE 11
COMPOSITION BY NATIVITY OP WHITE POPULATION IN THE
INVADED BLOCKS, BY PERCENTAGES
6 1 -6 2 ,
S. Park-Vernon
T o ta l R eports
N a tiv ity
% N ative-B orn
% F oreign -B orn
60 -6 1 ,
S. Park-Vernon
B locks
42
64
5 9 .5 2
i- 4 0 .4 8
-p
3
43
H©
§ d
§
fH
©
>
103
7 5 .0 0
2 5 .0 0
9 1 .2 6
8 .8 4
TABLE 12
B lock s
•
tn .. . _
Country o f B ir th
Great B r ita in
and Canada ................................
I r i s h Free S ta te
and No. Ir e la n d .......................
S ca n d in avia ................................
Germany .........................................
Poland ..............................................
R u ssia ..............................................
O ther ..............................................
T o ta ls ................................
who moved i n .
a
§
*©
03 >
CO *
H1 ¥
to Oi
Cl
*
. . . . . . . ..CO..
-p
•Vernon-Eberhart
d
o
d
d
* ©
I--1 Jj>
CO 1
1 At
o fi
co as
u
«S
•> w
H ©
CO fit
t H
8 d
8
u
©
>
2
2
i
1
••
1
2
6
5
17
•
1
4
2
5
2
16
•
2
3
•
2
1
9
•
On th e o th e r hand, t h e i r economic s ta tu s seemed to
be s t a b i l i z e d on a low l e v e l , p o s s ib ly very n ear r e l i e f . 1
^•Of 39 s t r e e t a d d r e sse s b e in g o ccu p ied by Negroes in
September and O ctober, 1 9 3 9 , i n the b lo c k from 60th S t r e e t to
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
F u r th e r , overcrow ding was p r e se n t in d w e llin g u n it s in
a l l th r ee o f th e b lo c k s , and a l l th ree b lock s bad roomers in ad­
d i t i o n t o th e numbers o f c h ild r e n .
And in two b lo c k s , fu r n itu r e
was in c lu d e d i n th e r e n t .1
I t would seem u n lik e ly th a t th e y co u ld g e t comparable
d w e llin g u n it s a t a comparable r e n ta l e ls e w h e r e .
The e f f e c t on the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f the invaded b lo c k s fo r
new w h ite r e s id e n c e a f t e r th e Negro in f lu x i s in d ic a te d i n the
slo w in g down o f th e number o f w h ite s who have moved in in th e s i x
months p re ce d in g th e enum eration o f 19S9, w ith th e e x c e p tio n o f
th e b lo ck c o n ta in in g th e park-V em on H o te l w ith i t s tr a n s ie n t
p o p u la tio n .
Not o n ly has I t slow ed down th e number o f new w h ite r e s i ­
d e n ts , but even th e low r e n ts are unable t o a t t r a c t enough w hite
r e s id e n t s t o f i l l the a v a ila b le v a c a n c ie s .2
Rent D i f f e r e n t i a l s in th e Invaded B lock s As a
R e f le c t io n o f Race and S ta tu s D i f f e r e n t i a l s
Rent d i f f e r e n t i a l s i n th e invaded b lo c k s o f the S u b d iv i­
s io n appear b o th between Negroes and w h ite s in th e same b lo c k s
and betw een th e se p a r a te Negro and w h ite p o p u la tio n s in th e
6 1 s t S t r e e t , betw een South Park Avenue and Vernon Avenue, 12 have
had w h ite r e l i e f c l i e n t s l i v i n g th e re a t one tim e or an oth er; in
th e b lock from 6 1 st S t r e e t to 62nd S t r e e t , betw een South Park
Avenue and Vernon A venue, o f 20 a d d re sses b e in g occu p ied by Ne­
g r o e s , 13 had had w h ite r e l i e f c l i e n t s a t one tim e or an oth er;
and in th e b lo c k from 60 th S t r e e t t o 6 1 s t S t r e e t , between Vernon
Avenue and E berhart Avenue, o f th r e e a d d r e s s e s , two had had w h ite
r e l i e f c l i e n t s l i v i n g th e re a t one tim e or a n o th er .
I t may be s i g n i f i c a n t th a t many o f th e undated card s in
th e ad d ress f i l e s o f th e C hicago R e lie f A d m in istra tio n in c lu d e d
t h i s w h ite group. From th e d a ted c a r d s, i t would seem th a t th e s e
were a l l i n th e p e r io d b efore 1934. (F o o tn o te , p . 4 0 .)
The d ata f o r March, 1941, i n d ic a t e , how ever, th a t i n
s p it e o f th e low r e n t s , th e number o f a c t i v e w h ite c a s e s a t any
one tim e i s n ot la r g e .
"^Table 9 , pp. 3 8 -3 9 .
^p. 1 9 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
46
S u b d iv is io n and the p o p u la tio n s i n t h e i r main com m unities.
Probably both a cause o f the se g r e g a tio n o f the r a ces
in th e invaded b lo c k s and a r e f l e c t i o n o f th e p r e v a ilin g r a c i a l
s e g r e g a tio n in Chicago are the r e n t a ls p aid fo r w h ite-o ccu p ied
and f o r N egro-occu pied d w e llin g u n its in th e same block
(T able 13).^TABLE 13
BENTS PAID FOR WHITE-OCCUPIED AND NEGRO-OCCUPIED
DWELLING UNITS IN THE INVADED BLOCKS
Race
1
Source:
• «•
• • •
• • ♦
• * •
* • •
• • •
• «•
• • •
• • •
• ♦•
100
• •
• •
•
• « •
*
• • •
1
(D
0
-
6
O i
6
1
6
•s
,
59
,
36
-
1
6
• • •
.91
w
0
*?s
O |
co a
§
<D
>
Tenant-O ccupied
110
10
50
6
h!
White
B locks
a
o
a
&
>
Vernon-Eberhart
t
S . Park-Vernon
,
2
6
S . Par k -V ernon
,
1
6
0
6
T o ta l U n its
Rent per U nit
% $ 9 .9 9 and L ess
% 1 0 -1 4 ,9 9 . . .
% 1 5 -1 9 .9 9 . . .
% 2 0 -2 4 .9 9 . . .
% 2 5 -2 9 .9 9 . . .
% 3 0 -3 9 .9 9 . . .
% 4 0 -4 9 .9 9 . . .
% 5 0 -7 4 .9 9 . . .
% 75 or more . .
T o ta l Rent
Average Rent
P er U n it . .
S. Park-Vernon
Negro
^Blocks
•
• *•
• • •
5 .5 5
2 5 .0 0
4 1 .6 7
2 7 .78
5 .0 8
5 .0 8
49 .1 5
4 0 .6 8
• • •
7 .0 0
8 .0 0
1 0 .0 0
1 4 .0 0
35.0 0
2 6 .0 0
111 82
3 0 .0 0
5 7 .2 7
44 .*00
56.00
8 o !6 o
1 0 .0 0
1 0 .0 0
e • •
• • •
• • •
• t •
• • •
• • «
• • •
• • *
• • •
$5640
$2571
$ 363
$1217
$2160
$3037
$ 49.64
$50.42
$ 3 6 .3 0
$ 3 3 .8 1
$ 3 6 .6 1
$ 3 0 .3 7
Chicago Land Use Survey enum eration, 1939.
Reproduced with permission o f the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
TABLE 13—C ontinued
Race
White
B lock s
Negro
B locks
"'U
ID p
It 0
H 5>
to a
o u
i— 1
H >
OU
CO 0
<D
-©
Oi >
-u
H©
5
3
CO X>
CO cJ
Owner-Occupied
T o ta l U n its
Rent per U nit
% $ 2 9 .9 9 and l e s s
^, 30—39 .9 9 • • .
^ 40—4 9 .9 9 . . .
% 5 0 -7 4 .9 9
% 75 or more . .
T o ta l Rent
.
.
.
Average Rent
Per U n it . .
•
2
3
•
•+
•
•
•
•
•
•
1 0 0 .0 0
•••
$201
*• •
•
5 0 .0 0
5 0 .0 0
•
•
•
•
•
$95
$67 .0 0 . $ 4 7 .5 0
•
•••
•
•
6
•
•
•
•••
•
•
•
•
•
♦
*
•
•
•
•
•
1 6 .6 7
3 3 .3 3
5 0 .0 0
•
•
•
•
•
$281
$ 4 6 .8 3
•
4 0 .0 0
6 0 .0 0
•••
•
$190
•
•
•
•
•
•
V
6 6 .6 7
3 3 .3 3
•••
•
•
•
•
$117
$ 3 8 .0 0 $ 3 9 .0 0
The d i f f e r e n t i a l s e x i s t i n g in th e th r ee invad ed b lo c k s
i n September and O ctober, 1939, in d ic a te the e x te n t o f t h i s phe­
nomenon (T a b le 1 4 ).
F u r th e r , the d iffe r e n c e in r e n t a ls becomes more apparent
in view o f th e f a c t th a t none o f the r e n t a ls f o r N egro-occu pied
d w e llin g u n it s in c lu d e s f u r n it u r e , w h ile i n two o f the b lo c k s the
w h ite -o c c u p ie d d w e llin g u n its in clu d e i t t o some e x t e n t .
The d if fe r e n c e (w h ich , i n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, e x i s t s in
Negro-owned s t r u c t u r e s , to o ) seems t o vary d i r e c t ly w ith the
le n g th o f occupancy and the degree o f occupancy o f th e b lo c k .
■i
B u t, i n a d d itio n t o t h i s d i f f e r e n t i a l w ith in the b lo c k s ,
i
a d i f f e r e n t i a l b oth between the average ren t p aid by the Negro
p o p u la tio n in the invaded b lo ck s and th e average r e n t p a id by the
!
Negro p o p u la tio n in the Negro community, and between th e average
i
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
48
TABLE 14
DIFFERENTIALS BETWEEN AVERAGE RENT PER UNIT, NEGROOCCUPIED' AND WHITE-OCCUPIED DWELLING UNITS,
IN THE INVADED BLOCKS
Tenant
B locks
CO
Amount NegroOccupied H igher
% NegroOccupied H igher
..
a
8
>
_
61-62,
60-61,
3CO ?Ej
S . Park-Vernon
•
H©
S. Park-Vernon
PM
S
S.
O
CO G$
61-62,
Cj
Park-Vernon
+3
ort
•%Q>
H>
co I
lM
Owner
B locks
|i
J
1
Occuisancy
+>
§
tH ©
CO , 0
« M
O
I
co qj
a
&
©
_!>
$15.83
$13.81
$5.93
$20.17
$9.50
» •
46.82
37.72
19.53
43.07
25.00
• • •
•
ren t p a id by th e w h ite p o p u la tio n in th e invaded b lo c k s and the
average ren t p aid by the w h ite p o p u la tio n in th e ad jacen t w hite
community, e x i s t s t o some e x te n t.
The r e n t paid by Negroes in
th e invaded b lo c k s i s h i g h e r , a n d th a t p a id by th e w h ite s in th e
invaded b lo c k s i s lo w e r .2
T h is d i f f e r e n t i a l seems to be a r e f l e c t i o n o f s ta tu s
c o n fer re d by the S u b d iv isio n on the Negro and w h ite r e s id e n ts
th e r e .
For the N egroes, l i v i n g in th e S u b d iv is io n s t i l l rep re­
se n te d a d em onstration o f a b i l i t y to move beyond th e Negro com­
m unity and i n t o a w h ite community.
For th e w h ites rem aining
t h e r e , and th e few moving i n , l i v i n g in th e S u b d iv isio n r ep re ­
se n te d t o o th e r s , a t l e a s t , an i n a b i l i t y to move w ith the g en era l
exodus o f a b le r w h ite s , or an i n a b i l i t y to a ffo r d l i v i n g anywhere
e ls e .
■Vig. 8 , p. 3 2 .
^Fig. 7 , p. 20.
with permission o f the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER V
CONCLUSIONS
The movement o f Negroes in t o the W ashington park S u b d iv i­
s io n i n 1939 seemed t o be approaching the i n f lu x s t a g e , j u s t
beyond th e in v a s io n and r e a c tio n s t a g e s , o f the p r o c e ss of in v a ­
s io n .
Negroes were occupying p a r ts o f th ree b lock s o f the
tw en ty -th ree in th e S u b d iv is io n , but the in v a s io n was b ein g
fo u g h t i n the c o u r ts , and some o f th e o ld w h ite r e s id e n t s were
s t i l l th e r e .
By 1941, the in f lu x of Negroes was w e ll under way.
As in v a s io n , i t seemed to be a type p e c u lia r t o movement
in t o r e s t r i c t e d a r e a s .2
Abandonment o f the area by w h ite s ta k e s
p la c e i n s p it e o f the absence o f pressu re from Negroes com peting
f o r a p la ce t o l i v e .
The absence o f a very la rg e p erso n a l sta k e
in the area in th e form o f ownership, a f t e r th e d e p r e s s io n , prob­
a b ly h asten ed the p r o c ess in th e Washington Park S u b d iv isio n .®
Contact w ith the con tigu ou s Negro community seemed t o
be the immediate cause f o r abandonment by the w h ite r e s id e n t s .
I t had been preceded by m ixture in i n s t i t u t i o n s in th e S u b d iv i­
s io n , e s p e c i a l ly In the p u b lic sch o o l in the a r e a .
In the type
o f c i t y l ik e C hicago, where complete r e s i d e n t i a l se g r e g a tio n o f
■^Ernest W. B u rgess, " R e sid e n tia l S e g r e g a tio n in American
C i t i e s ," r ep rin te d from The Annals o f the American Academy of
P o l i t i c a l and S o c ia l S c ie n c e , P h ila d e lp h ia , November, 1928, p . 8 .
o
The f a i lu r e o f a sim ila r covenant e a s t of In d ian a Ave­
nue and south o f 5 1 st S t r e e t about 1923 was rep orted in the C hi­
cago D efen d er, February 1 8 , 1928.
®In Hyde park, where home ownership i s h ig h , no in v a s io n
s im ila r to t h i s has tak en p la c e .
49
with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission
Negroes i s i n s i s t e d upon, th e t r a d it io n o f no c o n ta c t w ith Negroes
a s eq u a ls i s f a r from dead .
The m ixture in i n s t i t u t i o n s , and e s ­
p e c i a l l y r e sid e n c e on o p p o site s id e s o f th e s t r e e t or the same
b lo c k , gave a t l e a s t th e appearance o f e q u a lit y .
But f o r in v a s io n to o ccu r, Negroes must be ad m itted in to
th e r e s t r i c t e d a r e a .
Rather than g iv e up th e income th a t m ight
be o b ta in ed from r e n tin g the vacant b u ild in g s t o N egroes, the
owners break down th e p h y s ic a l i s o l a t i o n from N egroes, th a t th e
w h ite r e s id e n t s have v o lu n t a r ily c r e a te d , and s e t up a new p o in t
o f c o n ta c t.
I f p r o te c tio n from in v a s io n , the purpose f o r which r e ­
s t r i c t i v e agreem ents are e n ter ed in t o in th e f i r s t p la c e , i s to
be r e a l iz e d , th e s e t t in g up o f a new p o in t o f c o n ta c t by r e n tin g
v a c a n c ie s t o Negroes seems t o be n e ith e r an i n t e l l i g e n t nor a
p r a c t ic a l procedure.
In f a c t , j u s t the o p p o site p roced u re, an
in c r e a s in g o f p h y sic a l i s o l a t i o n by c r e a tin g an even w ider p h y si­
c a l gap between the a r ea s o f Negro and w h ite r e s id e n c e , would
seem to be in d ic a te d .
Once in v a s io n began, the p ro cess o f s u c c e s s io n co n tin u ed ,
w ith th e sym bolic v a lu e o f the area c h a n g in g .1
The incom ing
Negro group had t h e ir s t a t u s enhanced by t h e i r p resen ce in th e
w h ite a r e a , w h ile the r e s id u a l w h ite group had t h e ir s t a t u s
low ered by t h e i r f a i lu r e to move o u t.
T h is d i f f e r e n t i a l in s t a ­
t u s was e x p r essed in th e d i f f e r e n t i a l between r en t3 f o r the
groups i n the S u b d iv is io n and r e n ts f o r th o se l i v i n g In th e main
com m unities.
•^Harold A. Qibbard, "The S ta tu s F a c to r in R e s id e n tia l
S e g r e g a tio n ," American Journal o f S o c io lo g y , May 1941 ( S a lle y
P roof3 ) .
i
with permission o f the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Records o f O f f i c i a l A g e n d a 3
C hicago Land Css Su rvey, enumerated d a ta , 1939.
C hicago R e l ie f A d m in istr a tio n , r e c o r d s, to March, 1941.
C ity C ou n cil o f C hicago, p roceed in gs o f the Subcommittee to In­
v e s t ig a t e Housing Among the C olored P e o p le : JtxLy"2V;
1939; August 3 , 1939; October 9 , 1939; said "A Short
Statem ent o f the H ousing Problem in the Negro Community,"
prepared f o r the Subcommittee by Horace R. C ayton.
Cook C ounty, reco rd s o f d e e d s, book 25525, and p la t s o f th e S|o f th e SE|- o f S e c tio n 1 5 , Township 3 8 , Range 1 4 .
Supreme Court o f the u n ite d S t a t e s , B r ie f o f P e t i t i o n e r s , October
term , A.D. 1940, No. 2 9 , C arl A. H ansberry, Nannie L.
H ansberry, e t a l . . P e t i t i o n e r s , v s . Anna M. L ee, Edward
Govanus, E sth er Govanus, e t a l . , R espondents.
Books and Documents
A b bott, E d ith , a s s i s t e d by B r e c k in r id g e , Sophonisba B, and Other
A s s o c ia t e s . The Tenements o f Chicago 1 9 0 8 -1 9 3 5 .
C hicago: U n iv e r s ity o f C hicago P r e s s , 1936.
B u rg e ss, E rn est W. and Newcomb, C h arles S . ( e d s . ) . Census Data
o f th e C ity o f C h icago. 19 2 0 . C hicago: U n iv e r s ity o f
Chicago P r e s s , 1931.
B u rg ess, E rn est W. and Newcomb, C harles S . ( e d s . ) . Census Data
o f the C ity o f C h icago. 1950. Chicago: U n iv e r s ity o f
Chicago P r e s s , 1933.
Newcomb, C h arles S . and Lang, R ichard 0 . ( e d s . ) . Census Data o f
th e C ity o f C h icago, 1954. Chicago: U n iv e r s ity o f C hicago p r e s s , 1934.
Chicago Commission on Race R e la tio n s . The Negro in C h icago.
C hicago: U n iv e r s ity o f Chicago p r e s s , 1922.
The Chicago Housing A u th o rity (Manager and B u ild er o f Low-Rent
Communities). C hicago: The Chicago Sou sin g 'A u th o rity ,
TS3T.---------
C ity o f C h icago, Department o f P u b lic Works, Bureau o f Maps and
p l a t s , "Map o f Chicago Showing Growth o f the C ity by
A nnexations and A c c r e tio n s." M unicipal Code o f C h icago.
R ev ised . C hicago: C ity C ou n cil o f C h icago, 1939.
51
with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
H oyt, Homer. One .Hundred Year s. o f Land V alues In Chicago,.
Chicago: U n iv e r sity o f Chicago P r e s s , 1933.
O lc o tt,
Geo. C. &
Co. in c . O lc o tt* s LandV alues
Blue Book o f
C hicago. 19S9. C hicago: Geo. C.
O lco tt & Co. i n c . ,
1929.
O lc o tt ,
Geo. C. &
Co. i n c . O lc o tt* s LandV alues
Blue Book o f
C hicago, 1954. Chicago: Geo. C.
O lc o tt & Co. I n c . ,
1934.
O lc o tt ,
Geo. C. &
Co. in c . O lc o tt* s Land.V alues
Blue Book o f
C h icago, 1959. Chicago: Geo. C.
O lc o tt & Co. I n c . ,
1939.
A r t ic le s
B u rg ess, E rnest W. " R e sid e n tia l S e g r eg a tio n in American C it ie s ,"
R eprinted from The Annals o f the American Academy o f
P o l i t i c a l and S o c ia l S c ie n c e , November, 1928.
C ayton, Horace R. "Negro Housing in C hicago," S o c ia l A c tio n ,
A p ril 15, 1940.
Gibbard, Harold A. "The S ta tu s F a cto r in R e s id e n tia l S eg reg a tio n ,"
American jo u r n a l o f S o c io lo g y , May, 1941.
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E conom ist, August 8 , 1908.
P u ls e , November, 1939.
iIReproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
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