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Comparative study of socially unadjusted superior and sub-normal children

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COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SOCIALLY UNADJUSTED
SUPERIOR AND SUB-NORMAL CHILDREN
,A The s iSj
Presented to
the Eaculty of the Department of Sociology
University of Southern California^
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Arts
by
Jeannie McCormick
June 1941
UMI Number: EP65621
All rights reserved
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UMI EP65621
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T h i s thesis, w r i t t e n by
.J.EAH!UE..^HDEESQK..J^O.CDRMIOK...
u n d e r the d i r e c t i o n o f
F a culty Committee,
a n d a p p r o v e d b y a l l i t s m e m b e r s , has been
pr esen ted to a n d a ccept ed by the C o u n c i l on
G r a d u a t e S t u d y a n d Rese arch i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l ­
m e n t o f the r e q u ir e m e n t s f o r the d egree o f
MASTER OF ARTS
Secretary
F a c u lty Com m ittee
*
........... j..
C h a irm a m " £ /
OL&WU0..,-
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
PAGE .
I. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . .
............. ..
Statement of the p r o b l e m
Importance of the study
.. .
.
.................
Preview of organization of the thesis
Method of procedure
II.
.
.........................
4
7
.................
.
..............
RESUME OF LITERATURE ON THE SUBJECT
14
. . . . . .
Social unadjustment and mental hygiene
7
13
Social unadjustments .........................
III.
2
2
Intelligence and its determination ..........
Sub-normal children
1'
. . . .
DEFINITION OF T E R M S ...........
Superior children
1
16
19
. . . .
19
Psychology and education .....................
21
Unpublished materials
28
.......................
IY.
THE SOCIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF UNADJUSTMENTS .
35
Y.
EDUCATION FOR EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN IN LOS ANGELES
43
General scheme and philosophy
...............
43
Educational set up for accommodating the
superior c h i l d ........ 1 ................ ’. .
47
Special educational advantages offered the
sub-normal child . . . . . . . .
..........
50
CHAPTER
PAGE
Educational facilities provided for the
socially unadjusted child
VI.
.................
INDIVIDUAL CASE H I S T O R I E S .....................
59
■Introduction..............
VII.
54
59
Young
superior b o y ...........................
62
Young
superior g i r l .........................
65
Young
sub-normal b o y ........................
68
Young
sub-normal g i r l ......................
74
Older
superior b o y ......................
77
Older
superior g i r l ........................
81
Older
sub-normal b o y ..............
85
Older
sub-normal g i r l ......................
89
COMPLETE DATA FOR THE SIXTY-FOUR CASES .........
Chart I
Young boys and girls
Cases 1, 2, 3 and 4
Chart II
.
94
. .
95
Older boys and girls
Cases 5, 6, 7 and 8
Chart III
..................
Young superior boys
Cases 9, 10,
Chart IV
.....................
11 and1 2 ......................
Young superior girls
Cases 13, 14 and 1 5 .......................
Chart V
96
97
'Young superiorgirls
Cases 16, 17 and 1 8 .......................
98
CHAPTER
PAGE
Chart VI
Cases
Young superior girls
19, 20, 21 and 22
Chart VII
Cases
23, 24, 25 and 26
. . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
..........
. .
Chart XI
35 and 36
103
Older superior boys
Cases 37,
Chart XII
38, 39 and 4 0 ..............
Chart XIII
‘ 105
Older superior girls
44, 45 and 4 6 ..................... .
Chart XIV
. 106
Older superior girls
47, 48, 49 and 50
Chart XV
.. . . ............... 107
Older sub-normal boys
51,, 52, 53 and 5 4 ...................... 108
Chart XVI
Older sub-normal boys
Cases 55,
Chart XVII
Cases
104
Older superior boys
Cases 41, 42 and 4 3
Cases
102
Young sub-normal girls
Cases 34,
Cases
101
Young sub-normal girls
Cases 30, 31, 32 and 33
Cases
100-
Young sub-normal boys
27, 28 and 29
Chart IX
Chart X
99
Young sub-normal boys
Chart VIII
Cases
. . . . . . . . . .
56 and 57
109
Older sub-normal girls
58, 59, 60 and 6 1 ...................... 110
CHAPTER
PAGE
Chart XVIII
Older sub-normal girls
Cases 62, 63 and 6 4 .................... ..
VTTI.
Ill
..........................
FINDINGS
112
Analysis of causes of unadjustments and
bases of t r e a t m e n t s ..........
112
..............
Analysis of data
122
Interpretation of d a t a .....................
IX.
B I B L I O G R A P H Y .............. ; . . . . . . . .
.
127
A.
B o o k s ...........
B.
Unpublished. M a t e r i a l s .................
135
C.
Periodical Articles
138
D.
Publications of Learned Organizations
X.. APPENDIX
.
124
128
...................
.......................
. 138
140
Registration card for principals office .
. 141
Attendance c a r d ................
141
Admission, discharge, andpromotional card .
142
Psychology or personnel c a r d ...............
143
Health'record c a r d ................
144
Reguest for individual examination ........
146
Individual mental examination blank
. . . .
147
.......................
148
Development history
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Statement of the problem.
The subject of this
thesis is "A Comparative Study of the Social Unadjustments
of Selected Superior and Subnormal Children in the Los
Angeles City Public Schools.’1
The writer became interested
in the problem after a year and a half’s work with
socially unadjusted girls, many of whom were of sub-normal
intelligence, in a Welfare Center in the Los Angeles city
school system.
From this type of work she changed to
teaching children of superior intelligence.
It was appar­
ent that social unadjustments occurred in this latter group
as well as in the former group.
Later, she taught children
of sub-normal intelligence in a development class in a large
high school.. Many of the children in this group were out­
standing behavior problems of the school.
Because of this
fact, the writer was inspired to make a more thorough
analysis and scientific study of the social unadjustments.of
these children.
The following are questions that arose for. consider­
ation:
Does the same type of asocial behavior exist among
children who fall in these different range groups of intel­
ligence?
Are the social unadjustments of the same degree
or intensity in the superior children as in the sub-normal
2
ones?
Is theie a correlation in the causes of social
unadjustments in the two groups?
How far does the
interest of the teacher extend in the ease of an unad­
justed child?
Is the' co-operation of the home authorities
of vital import and to what extent does it exist?
Are the
assets of each child utilized in helping the child to make
an adjustment?
To what extent do the Los Angeles City
Public Schools meet and treat these unad.justments?
What
are the results?
Importance of the study*
In a school system in a
democratic community which hopes to prepare children to
live full lives, questions of utmost pertinence are:
How
far do the schools recognize the problems of the individu­
al children who are out of adjustment?
causes of unadjustments?
the situations?
What seem to be the
What methods are used to cope with
To what extent are the schools successful
in establishing these children as functioning units in their
groups?
Answers to these problems are of significance to
the citizens of the community, as well as to those people
working with the children*
Previev; of organization of the thesis.
Definitions
of the terms used in the statement of the problem are
given in order that their.exact meanings, may be clear.
Intelligence is defined and discussed.
The method used
in determining the degree of intelligence is indicated
and expounded.
Leading educational,psychological, and
sociological authorities have been consulted in the
definitions submitted.
The terms "superior intelligence"
and "sub-normal intelligence" are explained as arbitrary
classifications indicative of certain grades of intelligence.
The relation of problem children to crime and the
political and economic consequences of social unadjustment
is indicated.
*
Next there follows a resume of the literature on
the subject.
Some of the leading authorities in the
fields of educational psychology and social pathology are
quoted.
Their views and contributions are indicated.
Scientific studies and investigations carried on by
graduate students at the University of Southern California
and on file at the library of this institution in thesis
form are briefly reviewed.
There is a general explanation of the educational
set up for accommodating the superior child in the Los
Angeles Public Schools as well as the special educational
advantages offered the sub-normal child in the same school
system.
The educational philosophy prompting the enriched
curriculum and special facilities is elucidated and some
examples of its application are given.
The case histories of eight unadjusted children
4
are given in some detail.
These include the case of a
young superior hoy, a young superior girl, a young sub­
normal boy, a young sub-normal girl, an older superior boy,
an older superior girl, an older sub-normal boy and an
older sub-normal girl.
Facts, both psychological and
physical, as well as those of social environment, are
collected, assembled, and interpreted in a summary of
these cases.
The complete data concerning the sixty-four
children studied are analj^sed and correlations shown.
In the conclusion those assumptions that seem
valid are stated, questions that have not been answered
are mentioned, and suggestions for further study are
recommended.
A selected bibliography follows and concludes with
an appendix containing forms in use in the Los Angeles
City Public Schools from which data weie gathered and
which serve the various school agencies in meeting the
child's needs.
Method of procedure.
method has been adherred to.
In the main the case study
The data have been gleaned
from case studies made by trained social workers employed
by the Los Angeles Public School system as Attendance and
Welfare officers;
These are augmented by reports and
recommendations by teachers, principals', school nurses and
doctors, psychologists, and other administrative officers
or interested persons*
The cases studied are necessarily selected.
To
make a study of all the cases of children that the Los,
Angeles schools have found to be-unadjusted would be an 1
enormous task, and in all probability would be of negli­
gible value in proportion to the effort .spent.
Numerous
cases of the same type would result in duplication and
repetition.
It is for this reason that cases of thirty-
two superior and thirty-two sub-normal children which seem
to indicate the most common evidences of unadjustment were
selected with the help of the school psychologist.
While the main body of the investigation deals.with
case studies, based upon official reports, and personal
interviews, the early part of the thesis has been a comp­
ilation and analysis of printed material.
It presents a
review of literature in relation to the problem.
This
literature is sociological, psychological, and educational
in nature.
The statistical method is used in collecting,
assembling, and correlating such factors as chronological
age, sex, race, educational age, type of problem, health,
and assets.
The social-psychological method is used in inter-
6
preting and analysing family situations according to econ­
omic status, culture patterns, parental relationships to
each other, parental relationships to the child, relation­
ships of other members of the family to the child, and
other sociological or psychological factors, such as
social life, recreations, movies, radio, and sex instruc­
tion.
The basic social processes are indicated in the
analysis, as well as their relation to fundamental human
drives and desires.
Facts regarding the relation to
special school departments and in relation to other social
agencies are analysed as are the evidences of results.
In all cases the data gathered have been treated
confidentially.
Facts of the most personal and confidential
nature were uncovered in the investigation; precautions have
been taken to have them remain so.
A thoroughly profession­
al attitude has been maintained in dealing with intimate
details.
In all cases fictions names have been used;
other identifying data have been changed or omitted.
For
example, addresses, names of schools, and business concerns
have been omitted in order that intimate details procured
in confidence, will not be identifiable.
principle in any social worker*s code.
This is a cardinal
Social research
would defeat its own purpose were it to violate this
principle.
CHAPTER II
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Intelligence and its determination.
Intelligence
in itself is an innate quality, but it is only through-its
manifestations in behavior that it can be judged.
Human
beings are born with a certain potentiality for develop­
ing the thinking process.
How much of this quality is
developed by environmental.factors and social interaction
and how much is an inherited potentiality is still a
matter for conjecture by scientists.
Discoveries and
1
studies of feral children, such as Casper Hauser, have
thrown some light on the subject and have disproved some
of the hypothesis adhered to by those psychologists who
favored the superiority of inheritence over environment as
an influencing factor.
So far no one has definitely proved
the amount and extent of either heredity or environment and
more exact students of the social sciences are employing
the term "heredity in environment” .
"Environment and training must first play upon
native talents in order that they may be recognized.
I
H.
Small, "On Some Psychical Relations of Society
and Solitude," Pedagogical Seminary, VII, April, 1900.
pp. 32-35.
Hence, the paradox that achievement is the test of
2
potentiality;.. ."
Intelligence has been defined in
various ways, the commonest features of these numerous
definitions being (1) the ability to learn;
(2) the
ability to adapt oneself to novel situations;
(3) the
ability to cary on abstract processes of thought,
especially abstract reasoning.
If a person has a nervous system which integrates
easily and tenaciously, he is likely to be bright or intel­
ligent.
If, on the other hand, his nervous system forms
neuron paths with difficulty, if associations are hard to
form and are soon lost, he is certain to be dull or
stupid....Thus, so far as education is concerned, intel­
ligence and capacity to learn are practically synonymous
terms.3
According to Spearman, "All branches of intellect­
ual learning have in common one fundamental function (or
group of functions), whereas .the remaining or specific
elenients seem in every case to be wholly different from
4
all others."
It is the former general type of intelli­
gence which for the individual remains constant over a
period of years, and which Binet and others have formulated
2
Peter Sandiford, Education Psychology: An Objective
Study (London, New York, Toronto: Longman's, Green, and
Company, 1936), p. 142;
3
Ibid., p. 143.
4
C.
Spearman, "General Intelligence, Objectively
Determined," American Journal of Psychology, XV (1904),
p. 201-293.
9
tests to determine.
A child may be of normal or even sub­
normal ability generally, but be possessed of a specific
gift or talent along certain lines * such as music, art,
or mechanical ability.
Special tests have been evolved
for the purpose of testing these talents, such as the
Seashore tests for musical ability.
It is the latter
specific abilities that are considered as assets by
scientific social workers in'their attempt to rehabilitate
and redirect individuals who are, or are in danger of be­
coming, out of adjustment with society.
Thorndike, on the other hand, maintains that in­
telligence is made up of a large number of specific
abilities not bound together by a common factor, but where
there are elements of separate character which have a high
correlation.
However, since intelligence is manifested
by learning, the best measure of intelligence is the test
which measures this product in the fairest way.
In 1916, Terman directed the revision of the BinetSimon Scale of Intelligence for use in American schools.
He followed Alfred Binetfs method of utilizing bits of
information available to children in all walks of life,
and avoiding material commonly taught in the school room,
in order to measure innate ability rather than subjectmatter achievement.
The tests were directed to determine
what children knew or could figure out for themselves
10
rather than what they had been taught or specifically
trained in.
The two most important criteria of a test are
validity and reliability.
The answer to the question,
"Does it actually test what its purpose is to test?",
indicates the validity.
A test based wholly upon reading
may fall to test the child’s intelligence.and merely in-,
dicate reading ability.
Customs and language usage play
a prominent part in tests given foreign children, usually
to the detriment of the child’s score.
The test, in order
to be valid, must measure innate ability to form neuron paths.
"Is the test dependable?" is a question which in­
dicates the reliability of the test.
It must indicate the
same ability, when- given the same individual under the
same conditions.
Rather than repeating the test after an
interval of time, educational psychologists recommend
giving an equivalent form o f ’the test.
This contains not
the identical items but ones of equal difficulty and im­
portance.
The coefficient of correlation is found.
A
test to be considered reliable must have a coefficient of
at least .80.
The physical conditions under which the test is
given must be controlled as far as possible in order that
this will not become a variable factor effecting the score.
It is well known to those administering tests that
11
excitment, fatigue, illness, noise, temperature, and
other physical and mental disturbances will effect the
child’s score.
Teachers usually avoid Monday in giving
tests as many children exhibit signs of fatigue and overstimula'tion during the week e n d ‘which prevents them from
doing as well as they ordinarily would.
Friday is usually
not considered a good day for testing, because usually
excitement runs high, especially among emotionally unstable
children, on this day, and for this reason they do rather
poorly on the tests.
afternoons.
Mornings are considered better than
Interruptions and distracting influences are
avoided as much as possible.
Physical conditions, in order
to be the same, must be controlled*
’’Intelligence quotient" is the term used to desig­
nate the relationship of the mental age to the chrono­
logical age.
The mental age is determined by interpreting
the score received on an intelligence test in terms of a
standardized norm.
This score is then divided by the
chronological age and in order to eliminate the decimal
fractions, is multiplied by 100.
The result is the intel­
ligence quotient.
The formula followed for this procedureM .A •
is C .A • x 100 = I.Q,.
Intelligence, being a native trait and a variable,
it is not surprising that Terman reports, on his study of
one thousand unselected American children, that its
12
5
distribution should closely follow the curve of chance.
I •Q,,
65
56
66 - 75
76 - 85
86 - 95
96 - 105
106 • 115
■- 125
116 '
126 - 135
136 - 145
Per Cent Falling
0.33
2.3
8.6
20.1
33.9
23.1
9,0
2.3
0.18
Total 100.18
Arbitrary classifications have been found useful by
such psychologists as Terman, Sandiford, Thorndike, and
others, for practical, working purposes, although no sharp
lines of demarcation exist.
The following is the one used
by Sandiford:
Classification
I.Q,.
Per Cent of all
Children. Included
Near genius or genius
above 140
0.25
Yery superior
120-140
0.75
Superior
110-120
13.00
Normal or average
90-110
66;00
Boarderline, sometimes dull,
often feeble-minded
70-80
6.00
Feeble-minded
below 70 _________1.00
Total 100.00
From the above it is evident that the present study
dealing with the social unadjustments of superior and sub­
normal children would be concerned with members of what
would normally be the upper seven per cent and the lower
5
Lewis M. Terman, Measurement of Intelligence
(Boston: Houghton, Mifflin ■Company, 1916), p. 66.
13
twenty per cent of the school population.
In the Los
Angeles City Public Schools, according to statistics
compiled by' the psychology section two per cent of the
children have *I. Q,.’s of ISO or above, while two per cent
6
fall below 80.
Superior children.
The.
term “superior’1 has been
used to designate those children whose intelligence quot­
ients are listed in the school records as 120 or above.
This has usually b e e n ■determined by group testing done by
a teacher who acts as assistant to the counselor in charge.
Superior children may be mentally well developed
generally and be able to do everything easily and well.
There are a few of this type who are a source of joy to
their teachers and of wonder to their elders.
They usually
exhibit intellectual curiosity, creative originality, and
initiative.
attention.
They are capable of sustained voluntary
There are others who are particularly gifted
in a certain field which places them in the catagory of
the child protege.
People working with superior children
find that their behavior is as varied as other children’s
and unadjustments have been observed in their behavior as
well.
6
This follows out the normal expectancy.
Sub-normal children.
The term "sub-normal" has
been applied to those children whose intelligence quotient
are listed in the school records as 80 or below.
Like the
records of the superior children, this has usually been
determined by a 'group test administered.by a teacher act­
ing as assistant to the counselor-, and has been recorded
in the usual manner.
Sub-normal children learn more slowly, in other
words, they form neuron paths with more difficulty than
normal or superior children.
They also attain the limit
of their academic accomplishment at a comparatively early
age*
The following chart illustrates the learning curve
of sub-normal children as compared with those of normal
7
and superior.
22
20
18
16
14
IE
t8
t10
I 6
! 4
Ji 2
C h r o h o J o ijic a I
7
age
■>
.
Sandiford, supra., pp. 147-149.
15
For the average of a group the picture drawn is
the correct one, since any deviation, plus or minus, tends
to cancel the other. But for the individual, the mental
in
growth may be /spurts and starts, or interrupted by illness,
as we know physical growth to be.
However, studies of the relative constancy of the
I.Q.'s indicate that growth in intelligence proceeds fairly
steadily and in the manner indicated for the different
types•
Approximately one per cent of the population is
feeble-minded.
For practical use the following arbitrary
8
classifications are made:
Subdivisions of the Feebleminded
Moron
Imbecile
Idiot
I.Q,.
50-70
20 or 25*50
below
20
• Per Cent of all
children included
0,75
0.19
0.06
Total 1,00
A slow learning group of children who reach their
academic achievement early, presents an educational
problem that cannot be met satisfactorily under a normal
set-up designed for the child of average ability.
Normal
children become bored and lose interest if they are
forced to learn at the slow rate of the sub-normal.
The
teacher finds it necessary to give a more than equitable
8
Sandiford, loc. cit.
. 16
amount of time and attention to these individual children
to the detriment of the rest of the group..
However, the
sub-normal child needs the same feeling of successful
accomplishment that the normal or superior child needs.
If
he is unable to keep up with the academic accomplishments of
the class, he is apt to turn to asocial behavior to achieve
recognition.
Social Unad .justment.
The term "unadjustment" has been
chosen to indicate the lack of adjustment in a particular
direction or manner that the child exhibits.
It has been
chosen rather than the word "maladjustment", which is most
commonly used in this connection.
The term "unadjustment"
has been used in an effort toward more precise terminology.
"Maladjustment" seems to the writer to be a contradictory
term.
The literal-meaning of the prefix "mal", in its
limited sense, is ill or evil.
Adjustment in its ordinary
sense means the act of making a correct correspondence,
it
would be impossible to make an evil or wrong correspondence
and still make an adjustment.
Hence, mal-adjustment is a
contradictory combination.
"Unadjustment" is a true word since it indicates no ad­
justment exists in a particular phase of direction.
from disorganization in degree.
It differs
If the individual is com­
pletely unable to adjust to his situation, disorganization takes
place.
This, however, is not the state of the children the
17
school deals with, and whose reaction patterns in many cases
are still unformed or in a plastic state.
They do make many
successful adjustments and it is upon a foundation of these
successful adjustments that the social worker and teacher
hopes to reconstruct and redirect behavior.
person makes certain successful adjustments.
Every sane
The number and
degree of non-adjustments he makes.determines his state of
non-adjustment.
Certain reactions and certain behavior may be made in
and effort to adjust to certain situations, but where there are
evidences that they have been unsuccessful an unadjustment
rather than a maladjustment has taken place.
Unadjustments of an individual may be of physiological,
or other nature.
These conflicts which affect the individual’s
personality in interaction with other personalities in a
negative manner, are social unadjustments.
Back of all behavior there are certain fundamental
drives.
W, I. Thomas believes these drives can all be cat­
egorized as the four wishes.
In studying overt action there
are two’sides- for consideration, the attitude of the individual,
and the value of society.
The attitude is conditioned by the
individual’s definition.of the situation in regard to the ful­
fillment or. satisfaction of his wishes.
Where an individual
defines the situation erroneously, or where he assumes other
attitudes then those accepted by the group toward social
18
9
values, a conflict arises.
This study is concerned with the negative.reactions
and behavior of a group of selected superior and sub-normal
children.
The term unadjustment is used throughout this
thesis to indicate negative or asocial conduct.
9
For a more complete discussion of the problems of
attitudes and values and the measurement of social influence
see W. I. Thomas, The Unadjusted Girl. (Boston: Little,
Brown, and Company, 1953.) pp. 222-257.
CHAPTER III
RESUME OF LITERATURE ON THE SUBJECT
Social unad.justment and mental hygiene.
There has
been a great deal written in the field of mental hygiene,
especially in the last two decades.
Much of this has
given insight into human behavior and personality reactions.
However, since it is a comparatively new field of interest
a great deal is still unexplored, new territory.
This is
partly due to the attitude of the public on the whole to­
ward abnormal behavior, and partly due to the difficulty
of scientific analysis and treatment.
Because of this
fact, behavior-problem cases have usually been subjec­
tively judged, or ignored.
One of the greatest contribu­
tions to the control of asocial behavior has come about
through the understanding that human behavior is in­
fluenced much more by the emotions than by the intellect.
10
Sigmund Freud
contributed to the study by present­
ing the three levels of activity of the mind, the
"conscious", "foreconscious", and the "unconscious".
Freud advanced the theory that the keynote to all behavior
lay in the motive for race preservation evidenced by "ego"
10
—
Sigmund Freud, A General Introduction to PsychoAnalysis. Translated and with introduction by G. Stanley
Hall.
[New York: Liveright Publishing Company, 1927.)
and "libido" satisfactions and blockings.
He stressed the
part the unconscious plays in the development of personality
Alfred Adler,
a student of Hreud, extended the
study and proposed the theory of fundamental drives as
being responsible for human behavior.
He recognized three
kinds of motives for asocial_behavior which were the results
of barriers to self-realization; first, the drive to
compensate for some physical defect; second, the drive.for
recognition and superiority;
third, the drive that results
from feeling rejected or unwanted.
When these drives are
thwarted or blocked the individual attempts to overcome
feelings of inferiority and reaches for adequacy by sub­
stituting certain, what he believes to be, compensatory
behavior.
Adler believed that much of this compensatory
behavior takes the form of bragging, bullying, lying,
defiance of authority, withdrawal, and other asocial conduct
IE
Carl Jung,
in his analysis of mental mechanics
that l ead‘to abnormal behavior points out four steps in
reaching adjustment.
They are; first, recognition of the
”
Alfred Adler, Understanding Human nature.
Greenberg, 1937,}
jj
York:
(New
IS
Carl G, Jung, Psychological Types.
Harcourt Brace and Company, 19S3.)
(New fork:
21
problem; second, release from emotional strain; third,
re-education to new ways of coping with the problem,
fourth, transformation to a goal of perfection.
On the other hand, in the United States, William
13
Healy
has found- that children suffering from fear, dread,
' rejection, or insecurity respond with pathological be­
havior that apparently has no relation to the drive.
If
the habit is well' established, the cause may be removed,
yet the behavior still persists.
In such cases punish­
ment only serves to aggravate the unadjustment.
The
treatment must be indirect just as the effects were.
Sociologists explain anti-social behavior in terras
of attitudes, wishes, and sentiments, as well as overt action.
Everyone seeks to satisfy a felt need.
W. 1^ Thomas
14
reduces
the motives for human behavior to the striving for satisfaction
of four fundamental wishes; the desire foriscognition, the
desire for response, the desire for new experience, and the
desire for security,
E. S. Bogardus adds the wish to aid as
a motive for conduct.
No one theory is a complete explanation of social
unadjustments;
However, all have advanced the understanding
13
William Healy, The Individual Delinquent:
Little, Brown, and Company, 1915.)
14
W. I. Thomas, The Unadjusted Girl.
Brown, and Company, 1933.) Chapters I, II.
(Boston:
(Boston: Little,
22
and treatment of problem children.
Psychology and education.
The Gestalt psycholo­
gists have presented the view that personality is com­
posed of many factors that are integrated, but, is, in
Itself, a whole.
It is based upon the studies of Wolfgang
15
Kohler
who found in experimenting with apes that they
react toward the "whole" situation.
process, they showed ’’insight."
In the learning
The apes discovered that
by using a pole they could secure bananas that were other­
wise out of their reach.
In this way they reacted toward
their situation as a whole, not just in part.
Gestalt
psychologists believe the whole child reacts to the whole
situation.
This theory supports the belief that the child
carries over the attitudes, feelings, and emotions from
his home life to school.
It is the whole child who comes,
to school and who reacts to the conditions that he finds
and the problems he meets.
The behaviorist school of psychology has studied
the reactions of individuals in order to understand human
conduct.
They begin with the premise that man is an animal
born with a certain type of nervous structure and capable
15
Wolfgang Kohler, The Mentality of Apes.
Translated
by E. Winter.
(New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company,
1925.) p. 345.
23
16
of certain basic reactions.
J. B. Watson
by experi­
menting with babies, found that the number of basic
native reactions are few.
These fundamental responses to
stimuli were fear, love, and rage.
These responses become
modified by life’s experiences and complicated behavior
• 1 7
patterns result. Pavlow
in his experimenting'with dogs,
found that the flow of the salivary juices was stimulated
at the sight of food.
The appearance of food was always
accompanied by the ringing of a bell.
Later when the bell
was rung the dog’s salivary glands were stimulated with­
out any food appearing.
This modification of behavior is
referred to as ’’conditioned response.”
This principle of
conditioning responses seems to explain much of the
attitudes, interests, and actions of children. 'The
composite of the child’s environmental experience effect
his behavior. • If new associations are identified with
original stimuli reconditioning may take place.
This
principle is taken into consideration by those working
with problem children in order to help them to form new
behavior patterns.
Many of the modern teaching methods are based on
16
John B. Watson, Lectures in Print: Behaviorism.
(New York: People’s Institute Publishing Company, 1925.)
P. 3.
17
I. P. Pavlow, Conditioned Reflexes.
University Press, 1927.1
(Oxford:
24
18
the laws of learning as propounded by E. L. Thorndike
Columbia University,
of
The law of effect states that a
modifiable bond is strengthened or weakened according to
the satisfaction or annoyance attending its exercise.
Consequently, the good teacher sees to it that the child
experiences satisfaction through success.
The law of
exercise or frequency states that, things are learned
through use and forgotten through disuse.
This is the
basis for repetition and practice in drill subjects.
How­
ever mere repetition does not always insure learning;
other elements, such as, voluntary attention, belongingness
in a sequence, and startling presentation, enter in to the
process.
The law of readiness states that a bond ready to
act gives satisfaction if allowed, and annoyance if dis­
allowed.
For this reason teachers, are alert to motivation
and time for an activity.
Other laws of psychological
phenomena that Thorndike has promulaged are the laws of
multiple response, which claims that the more responses an
organism gives, the more educatable it is; the law.of
attitudes, set, or disposition, which maintains that
voluntary attention changes to involuntary attention when
an interest is developed; the law of partial activity which
_
,
-
E. L. Thorndike, The Psychology of Learning.
(New York: Teacher’s College, Columbia University Press,
1913.) Yol. II, Introduction.
25
states that the amount of stimulus needed becomes less and
less as the response habit is established, which accounts
for the fact that a person can read at a distance at
which he cannot distinguish the letters; the law of
assimilation or analogy explains responses that arises
that have been made previously to similar situations, such
as extraneous behavior; and, the law of associative shift­
ing, which accounts for the transfer of response from one
stimulus to another, such as takes place in conditioning.
In the main methods and techniques of teaching depend upon
these laws for their psychological bases.
Perhaps the man who has most greatly influenced
19
education in .America is John Dewey.
In his work' "My
Pedagogic Creed" published more than thirty years ago, he
stated his belief that all education proceeds by parti­
cipation.
The Dewey philosophy of education has come to
be known commonly as the "learning by doing" theory.
Under
this assumption schools have endeavored to provide activity
for the children as well as purely intellectual pursuits.
20
Robert Hill Lane
believes that with the change
in America from an agrarian civilization to an urban
__
_
John Dewey, Democracy and Education.
The Macmillan Company, 1933.)
Chapters I-IV.
(New York:
20
Robert Hill Lane, The Progressive Elementary School.
(Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1938.) pp. 1-18.
26
civilization a greater burden rests upon the schools.
In
order for the child to grow physically, intellectually,
socially, and spiritually, the school must provide many
of the facilities and opportunities formerly provided by
the home environment.
Much of the handcraft and voca­
tional art that a pioneer child learned as part of his •
everyday experience must now be purposely provided in the
curriculum.
In this age of commercialization of re­
creation, Lane believes that the social needs of the child
should be taken into consideration by educators.
In the last few years educators have striven to
meet the needs of the child in curriculum planning.
Functional education marks a recent educational trend.
21
G. C. Crawford
is one of the leading advocates of this
educational philosophy.
It is the belief of Crawford and
his associates that the curriculum should meet the interests
and needs of the child.
According to this, the child*s
needs are governed by his present situation rather than a
preparation for future adult life.
The interest of the
child is more-easily caught and learning takes place with
greater facility provided the Gestalt method of presenting
the whole and then proceeding to a study of the minute parts
21
Claude C. Crawford, How To Teach. Los Angeles:
Southern California School Book Depository, 1938.
pp. 419-434.
27
is adhered to, rather than the atomistic method of studying
fundamental details and rules and hoping that they will
eventually become integrated in the mind of the learner and
that the proper relationships will be established.
Much of
'what is now spoken of as progressive educationis carried on
through the functional approach.
As in the case of all human activity there is a
vacillation toward and away from principle.
Education in
America was at first very formal and traditional and in­
dividual needs and differences were ignored.
no attention was given to mental hygiene.
Practically
The whole school
day even for young children was devoted to intellectual and
academic pursuits.
Later, more participative activities were indulged
in.
Many times children were exhilerated toward pointless
activity which resulted in young people graduating from
high school with little preparation for social, political,
or economic life.
This has brought about a great deal of
criticism of the schools and the educational system on the
part of the public.
At the present time there is a slight
reactionary movement to go back to more thorough preparation.
This is resulting in better planned curricula, more pro­
fessionally trained teachers, and more thorough preparation
in school.
Scientific experimentation in psychology and
education have contributed to this end.
And, finally, the
28
problems of social unadjustment are recognized and
therapeutic treatment is being offered.
Unpublished Materials.
There has been considerable
research done at the University of Southern California on
certain aspects relating to the present study.
This has
been carried on both in the field of education and of
sociology.
However, the studies in the latter field are,
on the whole, more revealing and contributory to the problem
at hand.
A few of the most closely related sociological
research, theses and dissertations are included in this
resume.
A complete reference to the studies mentioned is
given in Section B of the bibliography.
Elizabeth Reptschnig made a study of the correlation
of intelligence and social behavior based on intelligence
quotients and citizenship records of students in a large
junior high school.
She found that no positive correlation
existed between intelligence and infractions of school
regulations.
In a study of retardation and certain social factors
Susanne Gough investigated fifty ninth grade Negro boys who
were retarded from six months to four years.
She found that
educational unadjustments are related to inherited ability,
health, and home conditions.
Several investigations have been made concerning
methods of study and approaches to problems of social
29
unadjustment•
Dorothy C. Ovenburg has illustrated the use
of social analysis as a tool in case work.
She shows how
the application of social concepts in the analysis and
approach to a problem gives the social worker a deeper
insight into, situations he attempts to control.
The fact that home conditions affect a child, not
only educationally, but sociologically and psychiatrically
also, has been substantiated by some recent studies.
Aileen Dorothy McHenry attempted to establish the utility
of home rating scales for use in social case work.
She
found that these scales were valid for use in rating the
home conditions for group averages.
As a result these rating
scales can be used as a basic criteria for rating the home
environment of pupils who are showing evidences of social
unadjustments.
There have been two studies made by Alma Louise Barber
and Harold E. Perry, respectively, on the correlation of
intelligence' and home conditions with groups of twenty-five
superior girls and twenty-five sub-normal girls, and also
with groups of twenty-five superior boys and twenty-five sub­
normal boys.
Both studies reveal a positive correlation ■
between high intelligence quotients and homes that score high
on a home rating scale.
Homer K. Watson, in his study of the causes of de­
linquency among fifty JMegro boys assigned to special schools
30
finds that juvenile delinquency is an expression of adult
delinquencyi
In a majority of the cases the boys came from
unfit homes,
Watson pointed out the responsibility of the
school in such cases.
The parent-child relationship is one phase of the
home condition that greatly affects the socialization of'
children.
Maria M. Tewater brought out the sociological
aspects of parent-child relationship as they appear in
behavior problem children as revealed in one-hundred-twenty
psychiatric interviews.
Prancis Meyer M m k o f f studied social distance between
child and parent in his doctor’s dissertation.
The reactions
of one-thousand-two-hundred children to a specially devised
questionnaire were carefully analysed on the one hand, as to
processes of parent-child detatchment, parental dominance,
and parent-child conflict * which increase social distance,
and on the other hand, as to processes of accommodation and
participation, which create parent-child nearness.
Pauline V. Young, in her doctor’s dissertation
written on Assimilation Problems of Russian Molokans in
Los Angelest.emphasizes the intense culture conflicts
between Russian Molokan parents who fled Russia and settled
in Los Angeles as laborers, and their children who were
absorbed in Los Angeles City Schools.
Another aspect of the home environment as a contri-
31
butory factor to social unadjustment is presented in the ,
ecological study made by Hettie'Peary French in her study of
juvenile delinquency in a selected area of Los Angeles,
The
"River Bed Area" was shown to contribute a major portion of
cases of juvenile delinquency.
Educational methods attempting to adjust behavior
problem children were reviewed by Caroline Armstrong in her
study of procedures in Opportunity B rooms.
She came to the
conclusion that children respond favorably to a program that
provides for the gratification of fundamental human wishes.
Elise Hitt Sargent made a similar study of specific methods
of treatment in the field of personality adjustment in a
Girls’ Welfare Center.
There have been three- studies dealing with socially
unadjusted girls that bear directly on the subject.
The
value of the life history as a social document in the study
of unadjustments in the home, in contacts between the home
and school, and in the school, has been shown by Leonarda
Fisher in her thesis The Life Histories of Twenty Maladjusted
Girls.
Mildred K. Ovenholtzer showed the interaction of
social tradition and individual life history in her study of
sex behavior among adolescent girls.
Rosalie B. Fowler
investigated the causes of delinquency of school girls.
She
found that broken and unsettled homes, lack of parental
control, economic difficulties, undesirable companionship,
32
and harmful amusements to be the most frequent causes.
Doris Rhoda Worrell came to the conclusion that
misused leisure time is an expression of unadjustment, after
carefully analysing the habits of delinquent adolescent girls.
Failure to find normal satisfaction for social wishes leads to asoeial leisure time activities through association in
conflict groups in which these wishes can be realized.
Motion pictures play a prominent part in the leisure
time activities of children and they have far-reaching effects
on personality and conduct.
William Fay Butler prepared a
questionnaire which was answered by one thousand junior high
school pupils.
More than one half reported that they received
inspiration for their future life's work from the movies*
One fifth stated their dreams were effected by horror pictures
they had seen.
More than one half saw a conflict between the
teachings of home, school, and church, and those of the movies.
The special evidence of educational unadjustment of
truancy has been the subject of several scientific investi­
gations.
Mabel Wallace Houston presented theories for meth­
ods for better adjustment of school attendance problems in her
Social Aspects of Truancy.
Inez Dunham Douglass in her study
of causes of truancy found the relation of sehool life to
home life and neighborhood activity as of primary importance.
Alice May Foster isolated nine factors as vital in adequate
parental control in the cases of truant girls.
Ernest J.
33
Lickley made a sociological and educational study of 1,554
cases of truancy in special schools in Los Angeles.
His find­
ings showed that the special educational set up allowing for
more freedom and individual attention in the Welfare Centers
resulted in reducing chronic truancy and improvement of
personalities.
As was stated earlier in this thesis, the above men­
tioned unpublished studies all have a bearing on certain
phases of the present study#.
The fact that no positive correlation between intell­
igence and social behavior was found by Elizabeth Beptschnig
in her study helps dispel the idea that behavior problem
children are all of low mentality.
It indicates the need for
a comparative study of the social unadjustments of the two
groups, the mentally superior and ‘the mentally sub-normal.
However, the positive correlations found in the studies be­
tween educational retardation, delinquency, and social un­
adjustment, and, intelligence, health, and home conditions
shows that the problem is one of a sociological nature as
well as of pedagogical import.
The sociological methods of treatment investigated in
this study, and which are afforded in the special classes
and recommended by the psychologist in the Los Angeles City
Schools, are substantiated by the findings and recommendations
of these studies;
Teachers with a sociological background who
34
are trained in the use of social analysis and the application
of social concepts, as well as in educational methods are
better equipped to handle these problems.
Parent-child relationships, social distance, dominance,
conflict, accommodation, and participation are factors that
play an important part in the unadjustments of the children
in the study.
Cultural conflicts, neighborhood and community
customs, and effects of motion pictures are noted and con­
sidered in the present study.
Truancy is an important
aspect of the unadjustments of these children.
This material is all of significance to the present
study.
If the reader wishes to peruse the investigations
more carefully he is directed to the bibliography for complete
references to the sources.
CHAPTER IV
THE SOCIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF UNADJUSTMENTS
This chapter is an analysis of a few of the findings
in the field of- sociology which have a bearing on the subject;
it is an application o'f the principles of sociology which
have been contributed to the study of sociology by the great
thinkers and teachers in the field.
It is the privilege of
the contemporary student to study new problems in the light
of what has been investigated and interpreted in order to
throw new understanding and meaning upon social interaction
within his radius.
It is in this spirit that the implications
of the sociological significance of unadjustments are inter­
preted .
Much antisocial behavior, while manifested in ways that
are understood and revealed by psychologists, has its roots
in causes that are primarily sociological in nature.
Many of
the conflicts that result in a child failing to make proper
social adjustments are due to the fact that the attitudes and
mores of his family are not those of the community; he is torn
between the standards that he has grown up with and the new
standards that he encounters as he continues'in school, and
as his contacts become wider.
This is particularly true of
the child of foreign born parents who cling to their old
world culture patterns.
He finds that American ways of doing
36
and thinking do not coincide with those of his parents, and
he is unable to retain the respect for them that his love
for them dictates; the conflict that arises within himself
as he vainly struggles to reconcile the differences often
results in conduct that is unacceptable to both groups.
Where the parents speak a foreign tongue and are nsrt
as adept in the use of the English language as the child,
there is a social distance created in the family which breaks
down parental control.
Anti-social conduct often results.
An example of this happened when a Mexican mother came to
the school seeking help from the Welfare Center teacher after
the daughter had signed the mother’s name to a check and with­
drawn her savings of many years. ■The mother complained that
this was merely the culminating act of a long series of dis­
obediences.
Upon investigation it was revealed that the girl
had been in the habit of signing such things as utility
agreements for her mother with-.her full consent.
The result
was that the child had none of the compuntions against
forging that a child whose mother had been able to do these
things for herself would have.
There .are countless cases of
truancy and illegal absences that are seldom disclosed when
children are permitted to write and sign notes of excuse
because of the language handicap of their parents.
Because of the fact that national and racial groups
tend to settle in certain areas, neighborhoods take on
37
characters which maintain the old culture patterns of the
adults, and assimilation takes place more slowly than if
the family of necessity accommodated itself to the ways of
other Americans.
It is not alxvays financial stress that
22
causes segregation; consciousness of kind
plays a great
.
part in this.
In Los Angeles, for example, the rents in
the Chinese districts far exceeded what landlords could get
for similar accommodations in other sections of the city,
yet the Chinese preferred living in these crowded, un­
comfortable quarters among-their own kind, rather than brave
the unknown communities with their strange neighbors.
Property restrictions against minority groups also
tend toward segregation.
Many residential districts are not
available to Negroes, Mexicans, or Jews.
Consequently,
these people live in communities where their culture patterns
predominate.
This slows up the process of assimilation, and
resultant conflicts and social unadjustments survive.
This
type of neighborhood is referred to by Anderson and Lindeman
83
in the following passage.
___ the family residences of the very poor,
characterized by poor housing, low rents, congestion,
an immigrant area where transitions from old-world
.
22
Franklin H. Giddings, "Further Inquiries of
Sociology", Papers and Proceedings of the American Sociolog­
ical Society. 15:60-61. 1920.
23
Anderson and Lindeman, Urban Sociology; An Intro­
duction to the Study of Urban Communities. (New .York:
Alfred A. Knopf, 19287T P* 77.
58
patterns with its tradition-loving and somewhat
peasant-like community relations to a garish Ameri­
canism.
The parents are still defending the old
culture and retaining the language while the children
are attempting to identify themselves with American
life in which they participate daily.
The neighborhood of the home, not always but usually
is chosen for economic reasons.- Where there is a lack of
funds for rent, cheaper neighborhoods are-resorted to.
These are often in industrial sections where there are
inadequate playgrounds, where commercial vice masquerades as
amusements, and where there are many undesirable ecological
aspects from the standpoint of the homeowner.
In a neighbor­
hood of this kind, boys and girls are not only denied the
facilities of normal mentally and physically healthful
pursuits, but they are constantly being confronted with
activities that would not be tolerated in a more prosperous
and discriminating district.
Where studies have been made,
neighborhoods of this type are found to be high in juvenile
24
delinquency.
Economic status has a very great effect upon devel­
opment of personality and upon patterns of behavior.
family income may be inadequate for proper housing.
The
In
order to economize the family may be forced to live under
crowded unhygienic conditions with no play space for the
24
Emory S. Bogardus, The City Bov and His Problems.
(Los Angeles: House of Ralston,
1926.) pp.148.
39
children*
Often many members of the family live, eat, and
sleep in one room.
This results in no privacy for the adults
and in emotional stress for the child.
Where roomers are
taken in to share the burden of the expense as is often the
case, the increased crowding militates aga-inst the child’s
personality growth.
Occupation and employment present economic problems
which tend to .bring about social unadjustments identified
with status.
For example, the education of most Hegroes fits
them for only the more menial tasks with their low scales of
compensation.
Day labor and household work pays very little;
in most cases barely a living wage is earned.
This leaves an
exceedingly meager surplus to be put toward self-improvement.
Higher education is out of the economic range of most of
these people.
However, when it is attained, the professional
colored person is faced with a very limited market for his
services.
Few colored people are in a position to pay a
regular physician’s or attorney’s fees.
usually patronize members of other races.
Those who are,
It is a rare case
where a white person employs the professional services of a
colored person.
There are relatively few white collar jobs
needed in their own communities and there is a definite
prejudice against indiscriminate employment in the wider
urban community.
The problem of unemployment is a serious
economic one throughout the nation; it is much more acute with
40
this race.
The young child member senses this insecurity
in the home, while the older one is faced with the realism
of the situation.
Its effect on the social behavior of the
children is observed by all who work with them.
The Mexican in California usually enjoys only
seasonal employment;
In agricultural sections the whole
family usually finds employment during the harvest season.
However, the combined amount earned is usually much below
an adequate amount for maintaining a decent standard of
living.
In addition to this the fact that children work
side by side and in competition with adults brings about
additional unadjustments.
Many high schools in our city
issue work permits to these pupils.
nuts, and fruit.
They pick tomatoes,
This brings about prolonged absences from
school with attendant educational and social unadjustments.
Economic .stress is the cause of many behavior diffi­
culties.
The lack of convenient facilities for bathing
results in habits of personal cleanliness far below
acceptable standards.
Insufficient and imporper diet
causes endocrine disturbances which result in asocial be­
havior.
The unfulfilled wish for modish clothes and other
material evidences-of desirable status results in emotional
blockings and conflicts with attendant anti-social conduct.
Money worries are often the cause of unhappy marital re­
lations.
Divorce or dessertion often ensues presenting a
41
problem in the home which sets up an emotional disehord in
the child which he brings to school with him and manifests
itself in various unadjustments.
The primary fact of social organization is its dyn­
amic character.
Change is brought about through the social
processes of communication, conflict, competition, accom­
modation, and assimilation.
The greater the isolation, the
larger the social distance becomes; the less communication,
the lower the change or accommodation exists.
Communication
between dischordant units produces conflicts whether they
are evidenced by erroneous definitions of the situations by
individuals in an effort to satisfy their wishes or drives,
or by the disagreement of individual attitudes with their
counterparts, the accepted values of s o c i e t y C o m p e t i t i o n
brings about the great impersonal social upheavels, such
as, economic problems, that affect the individual members
of society.
Eventually conflicting elements come to terms'
whether they be a wayward child and an exacting parent, or
whether they be a young delinquent and the legal authority
of the state enforcing the mores, and an accommodation is
made.
Assimilation is the agreement of the individual
attitudes and societal values.
It is the gradual process of
unconscious adjustment.
In the study of sociology, unadjustment is a sign
of disorganization.
Individual unadjustment is a sign of
42
personality disorganization.
Since society is made up of
interacting personalities, personality disintegration is an
evidence of social disorganization.
So it is, that while
psychology helps us in understanding the behavior of these
socially unadjusted children, and educational methods aid
in modifying their behavior, the real significance of this
behavior belongs to the wide field of sociology.
In the analysis of the data of the sixty-four
children studied it is found that these sociological factors
play an important part in influencing the behavior of these
particular children.
The social processes are involved in
their individual unadjustments, and the basis for successful
therapeutic treatment is a matter of correct definition of
the situation and conformation of attitudes and overt
behavior toward socially accepted values.
CHAPTER V
EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM FOR EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN IN LOS ANGELES
General scheme and philosophy.
The Los Angeles City
Schools recognize as their problem the training of children
in and for a democracy.
They strive to promote the develop­
ment and understanding of self, and of the world of nature and
of organized society;
Their aim is to promote the physical,
mental, social, and spiritual growth of children.
Los Angeles
City Schools strive to meet the needs and interests of
children in order that they may lead normal lives while still
immature and in order that they may take their places as
functioning citizens in a democracy at maturity.
To this end,
the Division of Instruction and Curriculum, Educational
Guidance and Research carries on an extensive plan of curricu­
lum making, testing, and guidance.
The curriculum includes the fundamental subjects such
as language arts, social studies, mathematics, and science.
The childrenTs physical growth is provided for by not only
the teaching of healthful living and the provision of a
healthful school environment and the services of the pro­
fessional personnel-of the health department but also, by
giving opportunity for the establishment of healthful habits.
Creative arts are included for the purpose of emotional
expression in order that the child may develop a well
44
integrated personality through the joy of making or creating.
Vocational arts are also provided, as well as the many extra­
curricular activities that stimulate the child in the contact
with school life.
The testing program is an integral part of the
guidance program..
It aids the teacher in. diagnosing the
needs and abilities of the children, as well as in
measuring their achievements.
Standarized tests properly
given, scored, and interpreted aid the teacher in perceiv­
ing and meeting the needs of her pupils, as well as afford­
ing the principal a key to the classification of pupils in
planning a school program to meet the needs of the children
of the community.
The Los Angeles City Public Schools maintain:, a
Department of Psychology under whose direction the testing
program is carried out.
This department is headed by two
psychologists who are assisted by eight counselors.
The
elementary school district is divided into instructional
sections each with a supervising counselor acting in an
advisory capacity.
Each school has a teacher who is familiar with the
uses of intelligence tests.
She has usually taken
university courses in Educational Tests and Measurement
and in Educational Psychology.
She is selected by the
principal and supervising counselor and after qualifying
45
receives her approval from the Educational Research and
Guidance Office.
She confers with the principal and the
supervising counselor and plans the testing program to
meet the particular needs of the school.
She also scores
the tests and records the data which is sent to the
supervising counselor.
There are'many different intelligence tests in use
in the Los Angeles Public Schools.
They are chosen be­
cause of their validity and reliability.
The following
are on the regular requisition blanks issued to the schools
25
and available for their use:
California Test of Mental Maturity, Elementary and
Primary Batteries,
Detroit Advanced First Grade
Detroit Beginning First Grade
Detroit Kindergarten, Individual
Detroit Primary
Haggerty Intelligence, Delta I
Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability
Kuhlmann^-Anderson Intelligence
Grade I (First Semester)
Grade I (Second Semester)
Grade II
Grade III
Grade IY
Grade Y
Grade Yl
Grade YII-YIII
National Intelligence Test, Scales A & B
Otis Intermediate Self-Administering
Pintner-Cunningham Primary
Terman Group Mental Ability
25
Outline of Procedure for Educational Guidance in
Elementary Schools (Revised February, 1939) Los Angeles
City School District, Division of Instruction and Curricu­
lum, Educational Research and Guidance.
46
Besides these tests, and Individual Binet is admin­
istered by a special counselor upon request of the principal
or other authoritative person.
Test scores are valuable in meeting both adminis­
trative and teaching problems.
The result is recorded on
.a statistical survey sheet which is sent in to the
psychology office, and also, on a psychology card which is
filed in the principal's office.
Here it is available to
the child’s teacher and such other educational workers to
whom such knowledge will be helpful in meeting the child’s
individual needs.
These data are not reported to the
parents since, in the hands of the trained educator the
■
I.Q. is a useful tool for diagnosis and prognosis, but, in
the hands of the layman, it affords a basis for stereo26
typing with the inherent dangers to social adjustment.
In most cases where social or educational unadjust27
ment has been observed, usually by the teacher, a request
for an individual psychological examination is filed by the
principal with the psychology department of the school.
In such eases a special counselor comes to the school and
administers the Revised Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test
26
See Appendix for example of psychology card.
27
See Appendix for request for individual psychol­
ogical examination.
47
to the child.
This test usually requires about two hours
time •
Often scores on standardized group tests offer the
first scientific evidence that an unadjustment, either
educational or social, definitely exists.
Educational set u p .for accommodating the superior
child.
Superior children are found to be endowed to a
greater extent than normal children with one or more of
the characteristics of intellectual curiosity, creative
originality, initiative, sustained voluntary' attention,
ability to absorb information more quickly than the average
child.
Many times they show evidences of that quality of
personality known as leadership.
Often there is found a
combination of many of these factors in one superior child.
To place a child of this type in an ordinary teachinglearning situation where the curriculum and the methods of
procedure are directed toward meeting the needs of an
average child is to ignore the precepts of progressive
education.
Los Angeles City Public.Schools have tried to
meet the problem of the superior child in two ways, by
taking care of the child in his regular class or by placing
him in an Opportunity class.
In many schools there are too few children whose
intelligence quotients are sufficiently high to- warrant
maintaining a room with a special teacher for them.
In
others, the professional personnel, including the
principal, feels that the concentration of gifted child­
ren in one class removes the leadership so stimulative to
the remainder of the school.
In schools where this
attitude exists the superior children remain in their own
classes and they are given extra amounts of work, more
creative opportunities, and allowed to take part in many
extra-curricular or school-wide activities.
In any case,
an attempt is made to keep them interested by working up
to their capacities.
Opportunity classes were first organized in Los
Angeles during the year 1929-1930.
,TThey were established
where a sufficiently large number of pupils of superior
mental ability were discovered in a vicinity in which a
school principal was actively interested in the problem.”
The enrollment in an opportunity class is limited
to not more than- thirty in order that each child may
receive a maximum of teacher time and attention compatable
to the cost of public education.
The purpose and plan of the Opportunity classes has
_ _
Cora Lee Danielson, "Special classes for" Highly
Endowed Children:
Opportunity A Rooms,” Fourth Yearbook •
of the Division of Psychology and Educational Research Los
Angeles City Schools, School Publication, No. 211, 1931.
p. 69.
49
been aptly described by Miss Danielson, Assistant Super­
visor in charge of Opportunity rooms, by the following:
These very characteristics that make their
possessors of most value to the world frequently
make instruction in.average or below-average groups
of questionable value in their development and con­
versation. Lack of recognition and disuse often so
dulls them that promising pupils revert to medi­
ocrity. ‘ Concern lest this happen motivates special
provision for the education of gifted children.
The plan is similar to that recently inaugurated
in a New "York school by Teachers College of Columbia,
in Los Angeles it has been the practice for several
years to organize opportunity classes and to place
superior teachers in charge of them. These teachers
know that gifted children have the ability to follow
directions but that too much direction kills in­
itiative; that enrichment of curriculum comes through
contacts.
In opportunity classes, therefore, the
instruction is so modified as to meet John Deweyfs
criterion of the business of an educator:
"To see
that the greatest possible number of ideas acquired
by children and youth are acquired in such a vital
way that they become moving ideas, motive forces in
the guidance of conduct.
Superior children who live outside the area served
by a school with an opportunity class are often taken care
of by special transfer to a school which has a class of
this type provided the principal of the childfs school is
interested and co-operative.
Teachers of these classes are chosen for their under­
standing attitudes in.dealing with children and their
29
Cora Lee Danielson, "Opportunity Classes", Schools
and Classes for Exceptional Children: The Child with a
Problem, [Tos Angeles, California: Los Angeles School
District, School Publication No. 315, 1938.} p. 5.
50
ability to motivate and inspire children to their best
attainments.
Educators of Los Angeles have long been committed
to a program of an enriched curriculum rather than of
acceleration for its superior children.
Enriching the
curriculum ?<?hether it be carried on in an ordinary school
room or whether it be under the special conditions of an
opportunity class, helps to develop the childTs abilities,
while accelerating him tends to bring about unadjustments
by placing him in a group beyond his chronological and
social age.
Special educational advantages offered the sub­
normal child.
Sub-normal children who are candidates for
special educational help are usually detected through their
inabilit}^ to master academic work suited to their age and
grade level and through the low score which they receive
upon the standardized intelligence tests.
There are several schools in Los Angeles both
elementary and secondary age level, that are devoted to
the education of sub-normal children.
Many times children
living out of the district are furnished transportation to
these schools.
In sections where' there are only a few, a
special class in an ordinary school is made available to
them.
Teachers are chosen for this type of work because
of their professional training for working with the slow
learning child, their particularly adaptive personalities,
and their attitudes of patience and understanding toward
the problems that the slow learning child presents.
The program for Development Centers in the Los
Angeles City Schools includes health and nutrition,
physical education and sports, manual education and hand­
crafts j animal husbandry, music, art, and nature study.
Only the minimum essentials of the curriculum in lang­
uage arts, arithmetic, and social studies is emphasized.
Areas of interests are developed into units of work which
provide motivation for the learning.
The children are
grouped according to chronological age and social in­
terests for the special subjects, and according to mental
age and educational achievement for academic work*
In the year 1938, four thousand three hundred four
children of limited mentality have been studied, en­
couraged, and helped by principals and teachers in
the development schools and classes in the Los Angeles
city system.30
The objectives of the program for development
centers and classes and for the education of all sub-
30
Mary Frances Martin, "Development Schools and
Glasses" Schools and Classes for Exceptional children:
The Child with a Problem, (Los Angeles, California: Los
Angeles School District, School Publication No. 315, 1938.
p. 10.
~
52
normal children are set forth in the Fourth Yearbook of
the Division of .Psychology and Educational Research*
It
was written by Mary Frances Martin, Assistant Supervisor
in charge of Development schools and classes and is here51
in quoted in full because of its inclusiveness:
(a) To remove all remediable physical defects and to
develop to the maximum the physical well-being of the
children.
(b) To develop desirable and healthful habits of
living.
(c) To assist the children to make the best possible
social adjustment.
(d) To give the children those fundamentals of an
academic education which they may be called upon to
use in life.
(e) To develop a fund of useful, workable information
which shall be definitely related to the child’s
experience.
(f) To equip the child, if possible, with some specific
skills of a vocational or .pre-vocational type.
(g) To prepare each child to become at least partially
self-supporting when he leaves school.
(h) To provide simple and wholesome activities for
leisure time.
31
Ibid., "Special Classes and Centers for Mentally
Defective Children," Fourth Yearbook of the Division of
Psychology and Research Los Angeles City Schools, [Los
Angeles, California: Los Angeles City School District
School Publication No. 211, 1931.) p. 118.
(i)
To attempt to raise the standards'of cleanliness,
health, beauty, and harmony in the home, through the
childfs influence in the home.
When a child enters a development school, he is
received in a friendly manner and made to feel welcome
and comfortable. He is introduced to a class of child
ren not
only of his own age, but also of a level' of
ability similar to his own.
Each
child in a development school is given
opportunity to acquire as many academic skills as is
possible for him as an individual. However, the
emphasis is not placed upon acadmic subjects, but
rather upon the child himself with his complex urges
for expression and needs for development.
Eirst of all, the health and nutrition of the child
are investigated by the doctor and nurse. Remedial
measures are instituted when indicated. Rest, milk,
and additional food are given to children who are
under weight for their- height and age.
The teacher visits the home of the child to assure
the parents of an interest in the child and to learn
from them and the situation in the home anything that
may help better to understand the child and his
problems.
Before the boy or girl enters the development
school, he has been given a careful psychological ex­
amination by a well trained counselor.
The results of
this examination are made available to the teacher.
A report from the school where the child previously
attended concerning his academic achievements,
attendance, and behavior is also available. With all
the information at hand, the principal and teacher
begin observation and training.
In short, the elementary development schools and
classes provide the maximum opportunity for the phys­
ical, mental, and social growth of boys and girls of
limited mental endowment,
in addition to such
activities ..., there are classes for girls in cooking
sewing, laundering, and personal hygiene.
There are
also classes in music, art, dancing, pottery, and
weaving for both boys and girls.
The garden is large
and colorful with flowers. Vegetables also are
raised for the cafeteria.
There is an interesting
54
"activity” in progress in each academic class.
At least two children out of every hundred in the
elementary schools are so retarded mentally that they
are unable to profit by the regular curriculum. How­
ever, the child who is mentally retarded may have a
a very special ability in music, art, or handwork-certainly he has some asset-^and it is the privilege
of the skilled teacher to discover and develop to the
highest degree the potentialities of each child.
For older pupils, it is the policy to transfer them
to junior high school at fourteen years of age and to
senior high school at sixteen. Several junior and
senior high schools make provision for the "slowlearning" pupils by establishing special classes for
them in social studies, English, and mathematics*
In
these classes, a modified course of study is planned
to give the essentials of the curriculum, using
methods and materials suitable to the limited abili­
ties of the pupils. Generally speaking, these
students are programmed in the regular non-academic
or vocational classes indicated by their special
interests or abilities.
Educational facilities provided for the socially
unadjusted child.
Los Angeles, like other large cities,
has its percentage of children who, unfortunately for
themselves and for the group with whom they are in contact,
have established such attitudes and behavior patterns that
it is not beneficial for them to remain in an uncontrolled
environment.
These attitudes and behavior patterns are a
result of compensatory mechanisms and well established
conditioning.
antisocial.
These attitudes may be passively or actively
The child may have withdrawn from reality and
be living in his own imaginary world; he may exhibit an
utter lack of interest in school v^hich results in an
55..
acute form of truancy.
On the other hand, he may react
to the school situation by being defiant and impudent to
his teachers to a degree that it is to the detriment of
the other pupils in his class.
Fie may compensate for his
own mental, physical, or home environment by bullying or
inflicting pain upon others.
Fie may have such mental
conflicts that have resulted from experiences, that he
may exhibit sex delinquency;
The habit of such asocial
responses as lying, stealing, and cursing may be of such
long standing and be so well established that the child
is no longer a desirable member of a normal group.
Los
Angeles has several welfare schools and centers for the
accommodation and rehabilitation of these children.
Teachers are chosen for this work for their know­
ledge of psychiatric principles and for their skill in
helping children to reconstruct their behavior.
Rooms for socially unadjusted children are known as
welfare classes and also belong to the Department of Educ­
ation for Exceptional Children.
There are provisions for
young children in special classes and for those of junior
high school age, as well as for senior high school age.
Some of the rooms or centers are in ordinary schools, and
some are organized as special school units.
Children who
live out of the immediate vicinity are transported by bus
or have their transportation on street cars and busses
paid by the Board of Education.
Children are segregated
according to sex, there being boy’s welfare centers, and
girl’s welfare centers.
There is a girl’s high,school
where the socially unadjusted girls of normal or higher
intelligence attend, and there are centers for those of
secondary school age chronologically, who are of sub­
normal intelligence.
There are special classes conducted
at Juvenile court, and there is a school designed to meet
the needs of transient boys.
The curriculum is academically suited to the mental
age and capacity of the group.
guidance are included.
Handcrafts and vocational
Physical education, clubs, and
student government provide opportunities for emotional
and social growth arid control*
The amount saved by society by providing special
educational opportunities for these children is incalcu­
lable.
The percentage of partial or total adjustment
of these children warrants the expenditure necessary for
their training.
Each individual child is in danger of
becoming a detriment to the state.
Each is a potential
criminal, whose cost of permanent incarceration would
probably be far less to society than the cost of the
results of his anti-social conduct.
There is no way of
evaluating on a monetary basis the subjective values of
5,7
reconstructing behavior.
However, the following figures
based on per capita cost of maintaining a child in the
California State institutions for a year as compared with
the cost of providing special educational facilities within
the Los Angeles School system give the’reader some insight
into
the economies of
the question.
Thefollowing figures
were
prepared by Mary
Frances Martin, Assistant Supervisor
of Education for Exceptional Children in the Los Angeles
City Schools and used with her permission.
Institution
Per Capita Cost
Per Year
Pacific Colony
§360.00
State Penitentiaries
200.00
Sonoma State Home
271.82
Preston School of Industry 622.42
Whittier State School
698.71
In addition to the above figures, it costs the*County approx­
imately two-hundred-twenty-five dollars to commit a child to
a State Institution.
Compare these costs with the §76.80 excess per capita
cost expended yearly for each unadjusted child in the Los
Angeles City System.
YHiile there is a certain percentage of
the children that are unfit for public school education, the
ratio of social adjustments that are brought about justifies
the maintenance of these special educational opportunities.
There is no question about the service to society
rendered by the section of the school system devoted to the
rehabilitation of the youth of Los Angeles.
CHAPTER VI
INDIVIDUAL CASE HISTORIES
Introduction.
Statistical analyses do not, as a
rule, present a.complete- picture in social studies.
*
Numer­
ous personality and sociological factors are not revealed
in arithmetical terms.
There is no exact measurement of
unadjustment as to amount, extent, or consequences.
Attempts
have been made to objectively calculate asocial conduct by
means of behavior rating scales.
At best these scales aie
in part subjectively compiled and subjectively answered
either by the person being analysed or by an observer.
The
scoring can be done objectively, and thus an index to an
unadjustment indicated, but no definite amount can be ob­
tained.
Neither can the extent of unadjustment be definite­
ly stated.
Emotions do not lend themselves to exact mensur­
ation; human suffering is immeasurable.
Human behavior is
so dependent upon human interaction that results of asocial
conduct on the individual committing it and upon those com­
ing in contact with him are merely a matter of conjecture.
How others are influenced and for what length of time the
results are felt, not only belong to the realm of the pres­
ent and conscious, but, also project into the past and fut­
ure, and effect mental reactions that take place below the
threshold of consciousness.
For the same reason that it is
impossible to compute in actual dollars and cents the cost
of crime to the state and society, it is impossible to
actually measure the damage of asocial conduct to primary,
secondary, and tertiary groups.
Modes, means, and correl­
ations can be computed and objective data gathered, but
these methods fail to give a complete or revealing picture
of human personalities in interaction.
In selecting the cases given in detail, and in sel­
ecting the total number of histories given, no arithmetical
mode and incidence frequency was found.
The cases were
chosen from the standpoint of social research, rather than
a statistical or mathematical procedure.
Types of behavior
reactions that are common to the Los Angeles school children
have been chosen.
Whether they, or a combination of these
reactions, are most frequent has not been computed.
In
reviewing several hundred cases, conduct that falls in the
same category has been found to recur, but how frequently,
and to what extent has not been calculated.
Rather, indiv­
idual conduct has been studied in its entirety, in its
relation to causes, and in its reaction to treatment, in
the whole situation.
The selection of cases has been based
on the assumptions that certain fundamental human experiences
are universally understood; that basic emotional responses
are homogeneous; that individual reaction to specific stimuli
are similar; and, that all people are subject to basic
social processes described in terms of sociological concepts.
In order to complete the presentation of unadjustments
in the Los Angeles City Public Schools, the age range of the
cases has been wide.
have been included.
Children from five to eighteen years
Unadjustments and evidences of unadjust­
ments are of a different nature as personalities grow and
develop.
The young child will give different evidences of
immature adjustment, usually confined to those of a primary
group nature.
The older child will find
it necessary to
suit his conduct to situations dealing with secondary and
tertiary groups as well, in accordance with his wider
contacts,
besides social development, intellectual,
physical, and emotional growth will cause a variation in
responses and in unadjustments.
A more narrow range of
age limits would necessarily narrow the types of unadjust­
ments.
For this reason, cases of problem children from
the kindergarten through the elementary and secondary
school ages were studied.
The investigation has had no preconceived view or
premises to prove or disprove.
The purpose of the study
has been to find out what are the facts about and factors
of unadjustment.
Consequently, the cases have not been
chosen with a view to proving or disproving any particular
working hypothesis, but merely, for their revelationary
value.
All the cases presented have not shown improvement,
61
or complete adjustment, neither have they all shown
failure.
To have chosen all cases where a successful ad­
justment had been or was being.made would lead to the
belief that adjustment was the rule; to have chosen all
cases where very little or no apparent adjustment was
effected, would lead to the belief that the Los Angeles
schools were in no way meeting or successfully coping with
the problems involved.
A glance at the situation would
reveal this assumption to be untrue.
been selected in this way.
The cases have not
They merely show how certain
individual children react to the stimuli of their individual
environments, and how they react to the specific therapeutic
treatment afforded them.
In order to get a complete picture of the extent to
which these children have adjusted, or failed to adjust in
school, it would be necessary to follow the cases thru the
complete history of their education. ' Since this normaly
covers a twelve year period, no study would present pres­
ent unadjustments.
years duration.
Practically all would be of several
They would be sequences that would amount
to life histories.
The investigation would present the
unadjustments that occurred in children's behavior, in
the Los Angeles school system a decade ago, rather than a
cross-section of the situation .now existing.
The cases presented are taken from the records of
62
the psychology department compiled by trained counselors
and professional psychologists, as well as from social case
histories made out by visiting teachers and welfare workers.
Young superior boy.
Johnny Freeman, although only
six years old and in grade J31, proved to be a great problem
in school.
Me fought almost daily on the playground.
has an I. Q,. of 132.
Me
He liked to annoy other children,
teasing tne older boys and girls with whom he came in
contact, and hurting the younger ones.
depended upon and told many falsehoods.
He could not be
His teacher
appealed to the principal for help in diagnosing and
handling his problem.
Me exhibited a nervous and highly strung nature.
In talking with JohnnyTs mother, Mrs. Hortense Freeman, the
principal was convinced that the mother followed up the
commands that she made.
However, J o h n n y ^ conduct at home
was much the same as at school, and the mother reported
much rivalry between Johnny and his younger brother, Donald.
Upon finding that punishment did not phase Johnny, the
principal called upon- the psychology office for aid.
According to the reports of the school doctor there
were no unfavorable health factors.
Mrs. Freeman, in giv­
ing J o h n n y ^ development history stated that her health was
good during gestation.
Johnny learned to walk at the age
of eleven months, and to talk at thirteen months.
His eat­
63
ing habits -were good although he craved starches.
He ate
fruits and vegetables but not because he liked them.
When
Johnny was five-and-a-half years old he contracted a rather
severe case of whooping cough.
night.
He is very restless at
He sleeps in a bed of his own in a room, with his
brothers.
There are four boys in the family.
Johnny is the
oldest, then Donald who is five, James who is two-and-ahalf, and the baby, Richard, seven months.
Mr. Freeman was born in Canada but came to California
while still a child.
grade in Los Angeles.
Irish parents.
He attended school up to the eleventh
Mrs. Freeman was born in Mexico of
She came to the United States with her
parents when she was six years old and completed the tenth
grade in a Los Angeles high school.
While Johnny was recuperating from the whooping
cough, Mrs. Freeman secured a position working in a market
from September to Thanksgiving.
During this period she
hired a maid to keep house and look after the children.
The Freeman’s live in a five-room, single house
which they rent.
It is *in rather a good suburban neigh­
borhood, and the children have plenty of play space in
the yard.
In recommending treatment the psychologist talked
over various points of child management with the mother.
64
It was pointed out that Johnny1s conduct might he a re­
action from feeling pushed aside in the affections of his
parents by the exactions of his younger brothers.
It also
was pointed out that he was old enough mentally to have
some hobby in which his parents might show an interes.t and
in this way restore his sense of security.
Mrs* Freeman seemed interested in the advice of the
psychologist.
She admitted times when her patience was
exhausted by JohnnyTs and Donald*s constant bickering and
quarreling.
She also spoke of the difficulty of raising
a family of four children on Mr. Freeman’s earnings.
She
asked for a list of books to read to the children which
the psychologist gave her with special recommendations.
. Mrs. Freeman was given a second appointment for
conference and check up on progress.
This she failed to
keep, and the psychologist has had no further word from her.
In her recommendation to the school, the psycholo­
gist advised providing him with sufficient activity to keep
his attention fully engaged.
It was pointed out that
Johnny was probably above his. group in mental capacity and
ability, and if his interest could be enlisted, he probably
would become socially adjusted through the satisfaction he
would receive from his successes.
The school reported that Johnny’s conduct has shown
some improvement although he continues to be a problem.
•65
Young superior girl.
Millieent is a sad example
of the unhappiness a sensitive child can experience because
of the foolish selfishness of adults in using her as a
source of amusement to themselves.
Millieent was brought to the Psychology Clinic
Ytfhen she was seven years old at her mother's request.Although only seven years old chronologically, she had a
mental age of twelve years and five months.
Her intelli­
gence quotient, on the basis of a Revised Stanford-Binet
Intelligence test was one-hundred-seventy-seven.
In school Millieent is extremely reticent, never
answering unless expressly called upon, and then very
shyly;
She never volunteers to do anything that will make
her in the least conspicuous;
Her teacher reports that
she is absent minded and does a great deal of day dreaming
in class.
She seems to be withdrawing from social
contacts.
On the playground she stays by herself, and shows
no inclination to enter into games or play with the other
children.
Millieent was born under normal conditions.
At
six months she could say three words; at one year she could
talk well.
She had measels, scarlet fever, and frequent
colds with coughs.
She also had a mild case of pneumonia.
She is very tall and underweight for her height.
At seven
66
she is as tall as most ten year old children.
Given a
Mantaux test for tuberculosis, she had a negative reaction.
She sleeps well, in a room by herself.
Mr.
Hipsh, MillieentTs father, is thirty-four years
old and has steady employment as an airplane mechanic.
He
is a high school graduatej. and has an inventive bent.
Mrs. Hipsh had a teacherTs training course after high
school, and taught in Colorado for six years prior to her
marriage and their move to California.
years old.
She is thirty-two
She is quite musical, sings difficult numbers
and accompanies herself on the piano.
Millieent is their
only child.
Mrs. Hipsh has a sister who was studying psychology
in Germany.
When she was advised of MillieentTs preeo-
ciousness in reading, the aunt wrote warning against ad­
vancing her in school beyond her years.
At seven years old
Millieent is in grade B3.
There are two of Mrs. HipshT adult brothers living
in the home.
They took a great pride in Millieent, and
enjoyed showing her off.
When their friends visited the
house, they would have Millieent read to them and other­
wise perform for company.
For sometime Millieent seemed
to enjoy doing this, but gradually she showed less and
less inclination to entertain adults.
Finally, she would
no longer submit, and became very stubborn in her refusal.
67
Mrs. Hipsh reported to the psychologist that
Millieent seems to avoid contacts with people.
She even
refuses to go to the neighborhood grocery on errands for
her mother.
Mrs. Hipsh- also said she was planning a
birthday party for Millieent, inviting some of her school
friends, but Millieent did not want her mother to give a
party for her.
In an interview with the psychologist, in which she
seemed partially to win the little girl's confidence,
Millieent confessed that she was afraid to talk to people
and for this reason did not want to go to the store for her
mother.
She said she often crossed to the other side of
the street in order that she would not have to say 'hello'
to an acquaintance.
She also said that she did not want
her mother to invite the other children to her party for
fear they would not come.
She said she felt herself to be
a very ugly girl. . She expressed happiness in books, and
said that she liked older friends best.
In a talk with Mrs. Hipsh the psychologist explained
that Millieent is laboring under an inferiority complex
probably brought on by the excess amount of attention paid
her by adults.
The difficulty that an immature personality
must have experienced in developing under such conditions,
was indicated.
She advised giving the party for Millieent
possibly as a surprise.
She also suggested to Mrs. Hipsh.
that some effort be made to interest Millieent in helping
someone else, taking care of a pet, or some other activity
that might transfer her interest from herself, and so,
overcome her self-consciousness.
Placement in an opportunity class was recommended.
It was evident that Millieent could do work of a high
fourth grade level.
The curriculum in an opportunity class
would exact effort on her part to succeed, besides through
its creative program provide opportunity for self-expression
Two opportunity classes were recommended for the parents to
choose from.
There was no opportunity class in the immediate
vicinity of the hipsh home.
The family intended moving
near one, but decided against moving because of the fatherTs
work.
Mrs. Hipsh reported that she gave the party and all
the children seemed to enjoy themselves.
came, and
Everyone invited
Millieent has been walking home from school with
some of the children since that time.
Millieent told the psychologist about the party, and
said it was fun.
The school' reports a slight improvement in
Millieent's socialization.
Young sub-normal boy.
Arman Bronson is eight years
old, has a mental age of three years six months, and an'
69
intelligence quotient of forty-three.
He is in the
Transition B1 grade,
ArmanTs teacher reported him as being a great prob­
lem in class.
ligibly,
His speech is infantile and he talks unintel­
He can do no regular work in class.
He expends
his time scribbling and making immature drawings.
unable to learn to read.
co-ordination.
He is
He has very poor muscular
He masturbates in the school room.
He bursts out crying at the slightest provocation,
and if he is crossed in any way he goes into a prolonged
fit of crying.
in the class.
He is very disturbing to the other children
He does not play well with them.
he spits at the other children.
Many times
He continually does things
to attract attention; such as breaking crayolas.
He is
very destructive with his playthings.
Arman’s mother and father have been separated since
he was two years old.
His father deserted his mother and
the family, and has not been heard from in several years.
Arman has a sister who is ten years old.
live with a maternal aunt.
The two children
Mrs. Bronson works and takes
the children home with her only on week ends.
Arman is a large boy for his age.
He is kept clean,
and shows a responsive, affectionate disposition.
In
giving his development history, his mother said that he was
a "depression’’ baby.
She was greatly worried during the
months before he was born, and frequently did not have
enough to eat while she was carrying him.
until one month before he was born.
tied.
She worked up
Arman was born tongue-
This was not discovered until he was nine months old,
at which time Mrs. Bronson took him to the charity hospital
and had an operation performed.
Arman entered kindergarten at the age of five years
eight months.
He was such'a disturbing element and was so
obviously undeveloped mentally that the teacher and principal
referred him to the administrator in charge of the develop­
ment schools section.
Since he was below compulsory school
age both mentally and physically, Arman was excluded from
school until he had attained the age of eight years
chronologically.
In the meantime, institutional care was
suggested.
Mrs. Bronson was very much disturbed by this, and
obtained a letter from her" private doctor stating that upon
examination he found no physical reason why Arman should
not attend school.
Mrs. Bronson sent a typewritten letter
to the administrator in which her attitude was clearly
revealed.
She asked the following questions.
must you drop Arman from school?
"First, why
Second,-aren’t public
schools to help children better themselves?
If children
did no.t need supervision, there would be no purpose in
having schools.
Third, why hasnTt someone come to me
personally to talk this matter over with me?
have my address.”
I believe you
The preceding quotation is an excerpt
from Mrs. Bronson’s letter.
Upon receipt of this letter the administrator’s
secretary notified Mrs. Bronson that she could make an
arrangement for an appointment to talk the matter over and
clear up any misunderstandings that might exist.
Mrs.
Bronson came in for her appointment and ifche administrator
told her she was very glad that she came, and that she
hoped that they together could work out a- satisfactory
plan for the child.
for the child’s sake
The administrator also explained that
it would be much better if he were
allowed to develop in his home environment until such time
as he was mature enough to enter into the social inter­
action that comes with school life.
It was pointed out that
serious personality conflicts often occur where a child is
confronted with social situations beyond his ability to
cope with them.
The administrator recommended to. Mrs.
Bronson that she rent a house and hire a housekeeper,
possibly the aunt with whom the children had been staying,
and in this way have the children at home with her.
In
this way, Mrs. Bronson, the mother, would.be associated,
and identified, in the child’s mind, with the home.
Mrs. Bronson admitted that she thought Arman would
do much better if she herself were able to be with, him more,
72
but said that this arrangement would be out of the question,
for financial reasons.
It was pointed out to her that the
new plan could be carried out as economically as paying for
the children’s care as she was now doing.
Mrs. Bronson said that her doctor had told her that
Arman was in need of a tonsillectomy and a circumcision.
However,-his fee was sixty dollars, and this was impossible
for her to pay at-this time.
The administrator gave Mrs.
Bronson a note to a medical social worker at the Children’s
Hospital asking that she take an interest in Arman’s case
and extend whatever help possible.
She asked this as a
special favor since the circumstances were very hard in
this case.
When Arman was eight years old he again entered
school.
His intelligence quotient plainly indicated the
reason he was unable to adjust educationally to his class.
He was recommended for a primary development class.
Mrs. Bronson told the social worker from the State
Relief Administration, from which she was getting aid, that
the schools were making unreasonable demands in having her
child sent to a development school.
This was reported to
the school administration, and ’
Mrs. Bronson was asked to
come to the Psychology office.
-Mrs. Bronson and the aunt visited the Psychology
office with nfire in their eyes” ready to go into towering
rages.
When the psychologist stated that this was a
matter that should be talked over and settled by intelligent
people, and that she knew herself to be such, but certainly
visitors were not acting as such, the aunt dropped her
voice to a conversational tone, but Mrs. Bronson was still
very bellicose.
Under the present arrangement, Arman,
being unable to take care of himself, was being taken to
and from school by his sister.
The school which they
attended did not have a development class, but there was
one in a nearby school which was within walking distance.
A crossing guard was on duty on the busy street to help' the
children across, and it was not at all the difficult
situation that Mrs. Bronson had represented it to be, to
the social worker.
The psychologist pointed out to Mrs. Bronson that
the child would have definite advantages in a development
class where the work was especially suited to his level
and planned to aid in
developing him mentally and socially.
She also explained .that his present Intelligence Quotient
was based on a very generous rating and that the next test
might not show him so high.
Arman was enrolled in the development class.
tonsils have not yet been removed.
His
His attendance is poor.
He has frequent colds and is kept out of school on slight
provocation.
He continues to be a behavior problem in
class when he is present.
ditions have been made.-
No change in his living con­
He and his sister are still living
with their aunt.
Young sub-normal girl.
Guillermina Ysidro is a
young Mexican girl who has become unadjusted.
She is eleven
years ten months old with a mental age of seven years two
months, and an intelligence quotient on the basis'of a
Revised Stanford-Binet of sixty-six.
She is four years
retarded in her mental growth.
In school she has shown herself to be a poor sport
on the playground, refusing to co-operate or abide by the
rules of games.
of others.
She continually disregards the fellings
In class Guillermina was rude, defiant, impud­
ent, and disobedient to her teacher.
She wrote obscene
words on the toilet door and signed the teacher's name.
After repeated requests for Guillerminafs mother to
come to the school were ignored, the principal called in
the services of the GirlTs Welfare and Attendance Officer.
The welfare officer first contacted Guillermina1s teacher
and thoroughly familiarized herself with the school situa­
tion.
Besides the anti-socail behavior that Guillermina
had exhibited there was a lack of interest and a slovinliness shown in her school work.
The teacher co-operated
with the welfare officer in giving her information concern­
ing GuillerminaTs achievement in the language arts, social
75
studies, arithmetic reasoning, as well as in her social
behavior and attitudes.
All of these fell below the normal
A5 level although Guillermina was enrolled as an A5 pupil.
Upon visiting the home, the welfare officer found
Mr. and Mrs. Tsidro to be English speaking Mexicans who had
lived in California for more than fifteen years.
Mr. and
Mrs. Ysidro, Guillermina, and two younger children,
Alejandro, aged nine, and Alberta, aged five, lived in a
three room house.
It was a wretched house in a miserable
location behind a store.
it consisted of an old frame
building, very much in need of repair.
There was no play
space for the children, and no opportunity for privacy for
any members of the family.
The children occasionally went
to the city playground, which was within walking distance,
but they were not members of any organized group.
The
total family income was fifty-six dollars a month which
Mr.. Ysidro received from the State Relief Administration,
twenty dollars of vi/hich went for rent each month.
Investigation with the Social Service Exchange
revealed that besides the State Relief Administration, the
family was known to other public agencies, namely, the Los
Angeles General Hospital, and the JMursing Division of the
City Health Department.
Relations between GuillerminaTs parents were appar­
ently harmonious.
Mrs. Ysidro expressed surprise that the welfare
officer called, and stated she had had
to school to see the principal.
no summons to come
Upon hearing of Guillermina
conduct she was much concerned and said she would give her
"a good spanking” .
The welfare officer recommended that Guillermina be
placed in a Girl's Welfare Center.
It was felt that she
would profit by the closer supervision of the welfare center
She would receive more personal attention from the teacher,
and the curriculum would be more suited to her level of
accomplishment.
The transfer was made.
In a conference held with the Welfare teacher, Mrs.
Ysidro, Guillermina, and the welfare officer, Guillermina
expressed an interest and desire to go to the new school.
The welfare officer has made several home calls and
has been able to offer' guidance and suggestions to Mrs.
Ysidro.
The welfare officer seems genuinely interested in
Guillermina, and has spent a great deal of time with her.
Guillermina has apparently adjusted very well in the
center.
She has been.respectful in her manner toward the
teacher and has been more considerate of rights and feelings
of the other girls.
She has reacted well to the situation *
where there are no boys.
There has been no repetition of
lying, forging, or obscene writing.
In spite of her retard­
ed mentality, Guillermina has shown qualities of leadership.
77
She has won a place of respect among the girls, and has
been elected as a member of a committee.
While her academic
achievement is still very
low, she has done some sewing and
water color painting of a
high standard.
Older superior boy.
Bert McNeary was in the last
year of high school when he was brought to the Psychology
clinic by his mother.
He had been truant
from school on numerous occasions
and was showing no interest in
his school work. He was
surly and non-co-operative in his manner, and showed a lack
of intellectual interest.
He stayed out late at night, and
would give no account of his activities at home.
He was in
trouble with the Senior Board of Control at school because
of infractions of rules and defiant behavior.
Bert is sixteen years and eleven months old, with
a mental age of nineteen years and nine months, and an
intelligence quotient of one-hundred-thirty-one.
Bert had a normal birth and was talking and walking
at the age of one year.
When he was six years old he had
arsenic poisoning- from the local milk dairy.
He v;as quite
ill, had convulsions, and was out of school for three
months.
When Bert was seven, his parents had his tonsil's
and adnoids removed.
At fourteen he had quite a severe
attack of influenza.
During the past year he slept well,
but previously had been restless during the night and was
78
a very light sleeper.
ing nature.
milk.
He had frequent dreams of a disturb­
He eats well, likes fruit and vegetables, and
He has a varicose vein in the scrotum.
He seems
near sighted and has a habit of holding reading mallei' very
close to his eyes.
Although refraction was not indicated by .
the doctor upon report of an eye examination.
Mr. MoNeary is a graduate of the University of
Southern California.
He is a man of fifty years who has
held executive positions.
Until about two years ago he
was manager of a Los Angeles Association with a very good
salary.
Business conditions were very bad and his position
was eliminated, and Mr. McNeary was out of a job.
He now
operates a gasoline station which he owns, but which is not
profitable.
Mrs. McNeary is forty-four years old.
She attended
the University of Southern California two years and went
two years to Berkeley.
In order to help the family in­
come she has been working in a real estate office in Beverly
Hills for two months, doing rental work.
The home conditions are much above
average.
The
McNearys own-their own home which is spacious and taste­
fully furnished.
At the time they acquired it they had a
good deal of wealth, but they have lost it, and their
income is much reduced.
The heavy responsibilities,
business and financial troubles, made it necessary for Mr.
79
McNeary to be placed in a sanitarium for a while until he
was sufficiently recovered to be brought home to recuperate.
The maternal grandmother also lives in the home.
Bert*s paternal grandmother lost her mind at the
age of sixty.
Senile dementia was the diagnosis.
paternal grandfather also became queer.
His
They are both now
deceased.
Bert has a paper route which he considers tiresome •
and boresome, but continues with it because he needs the
money.
He buys his own clothes and provides himself with
spending money from this source.
He has withdrawn from
many of his former social contacts because of the decline
in the family economic status*
There is a great deal of disagreement and misunder­
standing between Bert and his father.
Bert has never con­
fided in his father; there is considerable social distance
between them.
Bert wishes to quit school and work in the
service station.
Mr. McNeary objects to his staying out
of school to help him, and says he will work Bert twelve
hours a day if he does.
To this Bert replies that legally
his father cannot do this.
This is only one of the dis­
agreements, but probably the most frequent, that widen the
gulf of understanding and comradship between Bert and his
father.
Mrs. McNeary became very worried about BertTs change
80
of attitude and took him to a private psychiatrist.
Bert resented whole heartedly.
unco-operative.
This
He was uncommunicative and
It resulted in Mrs. McNeary, too, being
shut out from her son’s confidence.
They decided to let
the whole matter drop.
However, when Bert got into trouble with the Senior
Board of Control at the high school, after much persuasion,
he reluctantly consented to visit the psychology clinic.
The psychologist found that his extreme reserve and
surliness were recently acquired traits.
had a very likable personality.
Underneath he
He had been very popular
with boys and girls his own age and had been president of
several clubs.
He did not seem to know what line of work
he ¥/ould like to go into.
He complained to the psychol­
ogist that his father never tried to see his side of things
and that his mother had tricked him into going to see that
”nut doctor” .
He also said his mother babied him and tried
to run his affairs in general.
He expressed a desire to
finish high school "sometime” , but he had no plans for
further education.
He wanted to help out at home, finan­
cially.
The psychologist explained the attitude of a mother
toward an. only son who had acquired attitudes unfavorable
to his future welfare.
She also told Bert of his super­
ior mental ability as indicated by the tests.
The
81'
possibilities of this were pointed out to him as well as
trying to make him realize the social responsibility that
went
along with these talents.
The psychologist advised
him to find out what his occupational aim might be and to
avail himself of the opportunities to this end in school.
In her recommendations to the school,.the psychol­
ogist stated that since the boy was obviously laboring
under a very unhappy home situation brought about by the
necessity of readjustment in altering standards of living
to suit a lower economic status, she advised securing a
working certificate for him for the time being, and allow­
ing him to enroll at night school.
She felt he needed to
make decisions for himself, and this would afford him
opportunities to do so.
This plan was carried out for one semester.
Bert
worked for his father and secured a half-day position in
another service station.
He returned to school in
February and graduated in June.
On his return there were
no unexcused absences, nor were there any conflicts with
the student governing group nor complaints in the
principal’s office.
Older superior girl.
Buelah Cranston has had a
difficult adjustment to make and in which she is failing.
After finding her in repeated lies and stealing, the school
attendance officer called in the help of the psychology
82
department.
She is failing in her studies.
Buelah is fifteen years eight months old, with a
mental age of eighteen years two months, and an intellig­
ence quotient of one-hundred-twenty-three.
Her general health is good.
She had a normal
birth and was breast fed during the first year of her
life.
Menses began at fourteen years nine months.
She
has good eating habits, likes fruit, vegetables, and
milk*
She sleeps well; eight-thirty is her regular hour
for going to bed.
Buelah did not always keep regular hours or have
good health habits., generally.
When she was two years old
her mother and father were divorced.
They lived in
Chicago at the time and Buelah was shifted back and forth
between her mother and maternal'grandmother.
Most of her
life was spent in cheap rooming houses, even after her
mother remarried.
Her play time was spent on the streets
with little supervision. -'Buelah liked her stepfather and
was prejudiced against her father by her mother’s account.
When Buelah was eleven her mother took sick.
Buelah suf­
fered a great deal of mental anguish and worry for two
weeks prior to' her mother’s death.
The *grandmother and
stepfather then decided to send Buelah to California to
her father.
Mr. Cranston had been in Los Angeles for twelve years.
83
He had remarried and had two young children when .his
second wife also died.
His mother kept house for him and
looked after the children.
He was fifty-two years old.
He had received a high school education in New York and
was at the present time district manager for a paint and
wall paper concern.
His wife’s illness and other mis­
fortunes had prevented him from accumulating wealth and
they were managing to live in a small house inadequate for
the needs of the family.
In addition to the father* grandmother, Buelah,
and two younger brothers, her father’s sister and her young
daughter live in the house.
The aunt works for a bakery.
Buelah sleeps on a cot in the kitchen.
She has no place
to entertain her friends and little companionship with
boys or girls her own age.
The grandmother is a very strict disciplinarian.
She is quite opinionated and very much prejudiced against
Buelah’s mother.
From-a regime of very lax discipline
and a great deal of freedom and an individualistic life,
Buelah has been transplanted to one that is rigidly super­
vised ?fith practically no opportunity for privacy.
Buelah is in grade A10 at school.
rather below average work.
She is doing
She occasionally cuts classes
and has been truant several times and has been known to
the school Welfare and Attendance Division for some time.
.84
One day Buelah was caught stealing money from the
lockers.
Her case was referred to the psychology depart­
ment by the Welfare and Attendance officer of the school.
Mr. Cranston was very much disturbed and brought Buelah to
the office himself.
In talking with the psychologist Buelah said that'
she was very fond of her stepfather.
He was very good to
her and not as strict as her grandmother.
She also said
that she liked her father much better than she had expect­
ed to before she came to him.
In speaking about taking
the money, she said her conscience hurt her, but she could
not resist taking it when she had the opportunity.
She
stated that she had no spending money of her own.
The psychologist recommended to Mr. Cranston that
Buelah be given a small weekly allowance and that she be
encouraged in companionship with girls her own age.
The
possibility of her joining a character building club, such
as the Campfire Girls, was suggested*
The psychologist
advised Mr. Cranston to take over more of her supervision
himself, ra/ther than leave so much to the grandmother,
and to make a pal of Buelah as much as he could.
Mr. Cranston indicated that finances made it
almost impossible to give Buelah an allowance, and that
his work and difference in their interests made it difficult
for him to spend much time with Buelah.
85
In her recommendation to the school the psycholo­
gist advised giving Buelah some work at the school for
which she would be paid, and for the teachers to be asked
to show a personal interest in Buelah1s accomplishments in
her classes.
Buelah was given work in the cafeteria for
which she received pay.
However, the stealing from the
lockers continued, and whenever Buelah handled any of the
cafeteria funds there was a shortage.
taken off the job.
Finally, she was
One week end the school was broken in
and the supply cabinet in the office was rifled.
It was
found that Buelah and another girl had done the burglarizing.
Buelah was filed upon by the school authorities and
sent to Juvenile Hall for observation.
Older sub-normal boy.
Although Thomas Johnson is
fifteen years old he looks very much older.
He is tall, '
large for his age, and has a small mustache, and a growth
of beard that gives him a very mature appearance.
The last time Thomas was tested in school he was
fourteen years eight months old, chronologically, ten years
eight months old, mentally, and his intelligence quotient
was seventy-three.
He was referred to the psychology office by his
teacher and principal in elementary school and later by
his principal in Junior High School.
Thomas is a Negro boy.
He is not at all interested
in.school.
He has heen known to the attendance department
for several years because of his innumerable absences.
He
is more interested in his social activities outside of
school than in any of his class work.
of the fundamentals of reading,
He lacks a knowledge
fie reads only under
individual supervision; in fact, he requires individual
attention in order to accomplish anything academic in
nature.
His attitude with the other children is very adult
and sophisticated*
He uses vulgar language.
escapades with girls in a braggadocio manner.
He tells of
He is popu­
lar with the boys in a superior sort of way, but has little
real democratic companionship with them.
His unadjustment
is of a nature that greatly effects the personalities and
attitudes of others as well as himself.
Thomas was allowed to go to Junior High School on
a certificate.
Even this acceleration did not place him
at his own social age level.
Upon the request of the Junior High School principal
Thomas was given an appointment with the psychologist.
She
found him to be a large, robust, fine looking lad, who
responded to friendly advances.
He had a good /flow of
language, but a slight stutter was detected at times.
He
seemed to eminate an aura of self-confidence and' was willing
to talk about himself and his accomplishments.
He said he
87
knew how to fly an
airplane, that his brother had a pilot’s
license, and had taught him to fly.
He also said he could
drive a car since he was six years old, and had once driven
a truck to Arizona.
When it was pointed out that at the
time he was too young to have a driver's license, he said
his brother was the real truck driver, but he was asleep
in the back o f ’'the truck while Thomas drove.
Thomas showed an interest in a test which the psy­
chologist gave him.
He showed an average power of concen­
tration, but a poor recall memory.
His self-confidence left
him when"he was confronted with reading matter; he became
flustered.
According to Thomas’ account, he has very good health.
He had a slight case of chicken-pox when he was seven years
old.
He goes to bed at eight o ’clock and sleeps alone.
a telebinocular test he was found to be far sighted.
On
Health
examination showed no other unfavorable factors.
Thomas’ father is a cement contractor.
His mother
keeps house and a very good relationship seems to exist
between the parents themselves, and between the parents and
the children.
They own a rather comfortable home which has
both front and back yards.
There are five children now living; Lessie, twentythree, who is a high school graduate and who is in house
service; Caroline, twenty, who quit high school in the
third year, and who also works as a maid; Minnie Lee, who
is ten, and in grade A5; and, George, the older brother,
now twenty-six, and a tree surgeon.
Thomas stated he enjoyed listening to the radio.
"Calling All Cars" is his favorite program.
He has been
on several camping and fishing trips with adult men, doing
the chores around the camp for them.
He showed a great
enthusiasm for this type of activity.
While his health history was being taken, he was
asked about his usual diet.
chicken
Thomas said he usually had
or ham, and pie, or cake and ice cream every day.
He said he liked milk, but didn't drink much because "it
wasn't right handy".
When he- was asked what he would like to do, he
answered that he would like to be a truck driver.
"All
my family are truck drivers," he added.
The principal of the Junior High School reported
that although he was in the lowest reading group, Thomas
was not profiting by the class, and he was so much more
mature socially that he was presenting quite a problem.
The psychologist arranged with the principal to
have Thomas visit a development school for boys of high
school age where practical trade training was given.
Mr.
Johnson went with Thomas to investigate the opportunities.
They both came back to the office and were enthusiastic
89
and delighted with the prospect of Thomas’ taking a course
in sheet metal work.
The principal of the Development High School indicat­
ed a willingness to accept Thomas on trial, and a transfer
was made.
So far there has been no report of his using bad
language or being illegally absent.
Thomas is quite popular
with the boys, and is in demand on the playground during
physical education.
Older sub-normal girl.
Myrtle Gleason is sixteen
years four months old, has a mental age of eleven years
four months, and an intelligence quotient of sixty-nine.
She is in A10 in high school.
Myrtle has been- in trouble several times with the
student governing body at high school for breaking rules
and for receiving demerits for disorderly conduct.
she is discourteous to her teachers.
In class
She likes to show off
by making soto-voiced remarks while the teacher is explain­
ing something to the class.
She gives little attention to
work and although she is in the low reading group she is
unable to work independently when preparing a lesson.
She
will not enter into the spirit of games on the playground,
and plays only when absolutely required to do so.
She much
prefers to spend her time in the rest room combing her hair
and primping before the mirror.
Myrtle, along
with two boys and another girl have
90
become wards of the Juvenile Court.
fied
Myrtle’s father noti­
the police when she failed to return home one morning.
He believed that she planned to go to a dance and stay with
a girl friend, Mary Gray, at her home that night.
mother was taken ill during the night.
Myrtle’s
Before going to
work, Mr. Gleason went over the Grays’ to have Myrtle stay
at home with her mother.
When he arrived at the house where
Myrtle was supposed to have stayed, he found no one at home,
and after inquiring at the neighbor’s found Myrtle’s friend
and her mother to have very unsavory reputations.
According
to the neighbors the mother and girl lived alone, but
entertained a great deal.
On several occasions neighbors
had called the police because of boisterous drinking parties.
.Many times Mrs. Gray did not come home for days, and Mary
was apparently under no supervision.
Two days later, Mr. Gleason was notified that Myrtle
was in Juvenile Hall.
The four young people had been picked
up by the police in Bakersfield.
One of the boys was driv­
ing a car which belonged to his uncle, but which he had had
no permission to take.
After a two weeks stay at the Juvenile Hall for
observation, Myrtle was released on probation to her parents.
The principal, and attendance and welfare officer of
the school felt that, in view of Myrtle’s evident educational
unadjustment, as well as her social misbehavior, she should
be placed elsewhere in school.
Myrtle is a tall girl, very much underweight, and
showing.poor chest development.
Her posture is not good.
Her- early development history showed she was walking at
fourteen months, and talked well at a year and a half.
She
had chicken-pox when she was five years old, measles at
seven, and a mild case of pneumonia at eight.
She had
frequent colds and coughs, although a Mantaux test showed
a negative reaction.
The medical examination given at
Juvenile Hall revealed a plus Wasserman, probably a con­
genital condition, and a damaged hymen.
thirteen and a half.
Menses began at
She experiences a great deal of pain
and discomfiture during menstration, often being absent
from school for three days and remaining in bed.
Mr. Gleason is a middle aged man with little educ­
ation.
At present he is working on a Works Project Adminis­
tration job.
The family has resided in Los Angeles for
twelve years, coming here from Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.
Mr. Gleason is a carpenter by trade, but had a severe, fall
and injury twelve years ago.
Since that time he has had
difficulty with his knee, and is often ill in bed for three
or four weeks.
The family live in a small frame house which they
rent for twenty-two dollars a month.
It is -in a cheap
neighborhood among people of mixed races.
92
Mrs. Gleason is in poor health.
There are six
children; Mary, aged four; John and Robert, twins, aged
six; Morton, eleven; and Guinevere, nineteen, who is at
home with an infant, and is seeking a divorce from her
husband who has deserted her.
The family is known to the City Health Department,
the General Hospital, the State Relief Administration, and
to the Catholic Welfare.
Myrtle is a rather good looking girl.
She wears
her hair in many curls, in a rather, startling manner.
uses a great deal of cosmetics.
She
Her fingernails are
brightly painted, and she wears very high heels.
She has a
very engaging smile, and responds to friendly advances.
Myrtle told the welfare officer that she v^ould like
to be a movie actress or a stenographer.
She is fond of
dancing, movies, and likes to read nTrue Story” and "True
Romances" magazines.
She told the welfare worker that she
did not want to get married, that there was no fun around
home, and that she got tired of always looking after "the
kids."
Myrtle was transferred to a Girl’s Welfare High
School where she is permitted to take typing and a course
in homemaking.
Here the girls are under much closer super­
vision than in a regular high school.
They receive more
individual help and attention, and they are being taught
93"
practical things of a vocational nature.
at the school.
There are no hoys
Myrtle is taking corrective physical
education to improve her posture.
Myrtle has become much more quiet, her home room
teacher reports.
She still needs supervision, but is not
discourteous in her attitude.
She .does fairly well in
typing and quite well in cooking classes.
Art work and
sewing reveal a deficiency in muscular co-ordination.
probation officer feels that Myrtle’s attitudes are
undergoing a change for the better.
The
DATA FOR YOUNG UNADJUSTED CHILDREN
No.
1
.
2.
Name
Freeman, Johnny
(Young Superior
Boy) •
Hipsoh, Millicent
(Young Superior
Girl)
Grade C.A.
B1
72
B3
3.
Bronson, Arman
Cr.Bl
(Young Sub-normal
Boy)
4.
Ysidro,
Guillermina
(Young Sub-normal
Girl)
A5
M.A.
95
64 • 148
I.Q.
132
177
Race or
Nationality
White
Irish descent.
White
German descent.
96
42
43
White
130
86
66
Mexican
Unadjustments
Social
teased other children;
Faught daily on play­
ground ;
Hurt younger children;
Lied; undependable.
Referred by
Eduoational
Disturbing element in Teacher
class.
Principal
Refuses to recite
Extemsly shy.
Does not play with other in class.
children.
Will not anewer in
clase.
Avoids contact .with
people.
Spends time scrib­
Infantile spsech.
Talks unintellibly.
bling.
Prolonged fits of orying .Unabls to learn to
read.
Dsstruotive.
Spits on other ohildren. Poor muscular
Doss not play with them. co-ordination.
Poor attendance.
Slaeturbates.
Poor eportj oblivious
to rights of others.
Rude, defiant, disobed­
ient.
Obsoene writing.
Forging.
Disobedient.
Dbscene writing,
eigning teacher's
Lack of interest.
31ovenly work.
Mother
Teacher
Principal
Mother
Aunt
Agenciee
Interested
School
authorities.
School
authorities.
School
authorities.
Charity hospital.
S.R.A.
S.R.A.
Principal
SchoolL.A. Gen. Hosp.
attsndance Nursing Division
and Welfare
of L.A. City
Officsr.
Health Dept.
Economic
Home Environment
Status
Phvsioal
Cultural
5 room house eingle F.— 11th grade in !£. worked in a
market 2 mos*
a L.A. High Soh.
family
while Johnny
Plsnty of play space. M.— 10 th grade in
recupsrated
a L.A. High Sch.
Good middleclase
from Wh. oough.
Relations—
neighborhood.
Employed a maid.
apparently
F.
employed inade­
harmonious.
quate salary. ■
Rent home.
Other Influencing
Faotors
Missed mother's
attention.
Necessity for ad­
justment to
maid.
Relagated to back­
ground in
parents* at­
tention because
of demands of
younger children.
F. steady employ­
F.— High School
Plsnty of room for
graduate.
ment as airplane
privaoy.
Inventive bent.
meohanio.
Comfortably
M.— Normal train- Circumstances,
furnishsd.
above average.
Plenty of play spaoe. • ing.
Taught 6 yrs. in
Good middls-class
urban neighborhood. Colorado.
Musical, voice,
Above average.
piano.
Relations —
apparently
harmonious.
Uncles had
Millicent read
and perform for
company.
Often centsr of
adult interest.
Bslow average.
Slesps in room with
sister.
works.
Lives with matern­
Shortags of funds.
al aunt.
State Relief.
Children with M.
only on week
ends.
M. seems a common
type of person,
Ignorant spsech.
Unhappy martial
status at time
of birth.
M's. asocial
attitude.
Apparently needs
medical oare.
3 room frams house. English epsaking
Total monthly
Poor neighborhood
Old and in need of
income $56.
parents*
from character
repairs*
Lived in Californi? $20 goes for rent.
building stand­
15 yrs;
no play space.
point.
No room for privacy. Mexican peon back­
Parents not
ground.
assimilated in
American
situation.
Parents
Health Factors
School doctor reported
no unfavorable
factors.
M ’s. hsalth — good
during gestation.
Walked at 11 mos.
Talked at 13 mos.
Eating habits— good,
but oraves starches.
Wh. oough— 5 yrs.
Slseps alone— restless.
Mother
Father
B.— Mexioo
B.— Canada.
Came to California Came to Calif,
at 6 yrs. of
while still a
age;
child.
B.— Colorado.
Normal birth.
Began talking at 6 mos. 34 yrs. old.
Measles, so. fever,
In California
frequent colds with a
6 yrs.
cough, mild- pneumonia.
Tall, underweight.
Mantoux, negative.
Sleeps well, room by
herself.
B.— Colorado.
32 yrs. old.
In California
6 yrs.
94
Other
Relations
Younger bros.:
Donald— 5 yrs.
James-- 2 yrs.
Richard-7 mos.
Maternal aunt,
studied psych­
ology in
Germany.
2 adult matsrnal
uncles living
in home.
Evidences of
Attitudss
M. irritable, admitted laok
of patience.
Johnny showed laok of feel­
ing of securi ty.
Ketioent, ehy, never
volunteers.
Day dreams.
Withdraws from social
contact.
Refused to perform for
guests.
Refused to go to the store.
Did not want a party.
Feels hereeif to De ugly.
Assets
Superior intelligence.
Good health.
Home environment —
above average.
Supsrior intelligence.
Parents are anxious to
do their best for .
the child.
Treatment
Psychologist advissd
M. on child manage­
ment.
Rsoommendsd reading
material.
Advised reading out
loud.
Suggested introducing
a hobby.
School to provide
sufficient activity
to fully engage his
attention.
Attempt to transfer
interest in sslf to a
pet or hobby.
M. gave eurpriee party
for children her own
age.
Recommended placement
in Opportunity Class.
Large for age.
M. worried and underfed
during gestation.
Worksd until one month
before he was bom.
B. tongue tied, oper­
ation at 9 months.
Enlarged tonsils.
Circumoision needed.
Deserted M. whsre- Uneducatsd.
aboute unknown. Has had a hard
life.
Sister— 10 yrs.
Maternal aunt.
Affectionats and responsive. Affectionate dispoeition. Excluded from eohool
Disregard for authority.
until 8 yrs. old.
Belligerent tone of M's.
Suggested institution­
alizing.
letter upon notification
of exolusion from school.
Recommendation:
Tonsilectomy.
Ciroumcision.
Primary Dev. Class.
Living with M.
Underweight.
Tonsilectomy.
Poor posture.
B.— Mexioo.
Siblings:
Alejandro— 9 yrs.
Alberta — 5 yrs.
Parents ignorant of notes
from echool.
Social distance between
parsnts and child.
B.— Mexico.
Artistio.
Good muscular control.
Placement in Girle
—
Welfare Center.
Personal attention.
More supervision.
Adjusted curriculum.
Co-on. of Home
Positive:
fn intent.
Interest.
Negative:
In actuality.
Positive:
Bought pigsone for her.
In intent.
Negative:
Circumstanoes etill maks
her oonspiououe among an
adult family.
Not placed in Opp. Class.
Rssults
Positive:
Slight improvement.
M. failed to
keep ssoond
appointment.
Negative:
None.
Continued inetability
though of lesser
intensity and
frequency.
Positive:
Improvement.
Increase in social­
ization.
Walks home, with
children.
Remains in
ordinary
claes room.
None.
Negative:
Still shows evidences
of withdrawal.
Negative:
M's. persecution complex
lsnds little support to
treatment;
Negative:
No improvement,
socially or
educationally.
Continued absences
from echool.
Positive:
When finally secured.
?ositive:
Welfare officer
Changed attituds.
is taking a
Respectful.
special
Considerate.
interest.
Achievement in
sewing and painting.
Negative:
Academic Work.
Tonsile not
removed.
No circumcision
made.
No ohangs in
living
conditions.
Reported by Dev.
Class teacher.
DATA FOB OLDER UNADJUSTED CHILDREN
Casa
5.
Raoe or
McNeary, Bert
(Older Superior
Boy)
A12
Cranston, Buelah
(Older Superior
Girl)
A10
7.
Johnson, Thomas
(Older Sub-normal
Boy)
BIO
176
128
73
8.
Glsason, Myrtle
(Oldar Sub-normal
Girl)
A10
196
136
69
6. ,
203
188
228
218
132
123
Agancias
ijnadjustmente
Lack of intarest in
school work..
Truancy.
In trouble with
Ssnior Board of
Control for in­
fraction of rules.
Parents
Mother
Father
Health Faotors
£4 yre. old
50 yre. old.
Birth, normal
Arsanic poisioning from nervous temperment. Pleasing
appearance•
J.S .C .— Graduate
milk— 6 yrs.,
lJ.S.C,— 2 yrs.
in Bue. Adm.
convulsions, out of
Berkeley--2 yrs.
school 3 moe*
f. & A.— 7 yrs.
Influenza— ^14 yrs.
Slsape well, previously
very light sleepar.
Frequent disturbing
dreams.
■Varicose vein in sorotun
Seems near sighted.
Divoroad.
3ivoroed.
Birth, normal
Remarried, widower Remained in
Breast fsd— 1 yr.
Chicago.
52 yrs. old;
Menses began— 14 yre.
Ramarriedi
Sleeps well, retires at In L.A. 12 yrs.
Deceased.
8:30 p.m.
No unfavorable faotors.
,
Mothar
Boye VicePrincipal
School.
authorities.
Privats
psychiatrist.
School
psychologist•
Truancy.
Lies.
Failing in studies
Stola money from
lockers and cafeteria
funds.
Burglarized.
Resents disciplinary
authority.
Father
Girls VicePrincipal
School Welfare
and Attendance
DivieionJ
County Probation
Department.
Negro
American
Adult and sophisticated
attituda.
Vulgar languaga.
Braggadocious manner.
Telle improbable tales.
Does not socialize.
No interest in
echool.
Unexcused absences
Requirae.individual
supervision.
Promoted to Junior
High on certif.
Birth, normal.
Principal of Sohool Wslfare
Junior High
and Attandance. Chickanpox— 7 yre.
Slight stutter.
Division.
Sohool Psychology
Department.
White
Amarican,
Breaks rulss, liae.
Disorderly conduct.
No participation in
sports.
Remained away from
home at night.
Involved in stolsn
car episode.
In trouble with Sr.
Fathar
Bd. of control.
Rude to teaohers.
Raading difficulties.
Cannot work independ­
ently.
Whita
American
White
American
Surly and non-oo-operativa.
Staye out late at
night.
Uncommunicative re­
garding activities.
Dsfiant.
Withdrawn from former
sooial oontacts.
fliddle-agsd.
Intelligent,
appearing.
diddle-agsd.
School authorities. Ualkea— 14 moe.
L2 yrs. ago had
Talked— 18 mos.
Co.-Prob. Dept.
severe fall,
Ward of Juv. Court Maqles— 7 yra.
injury to knee.
Pneumonia—
8
yrs.
City Health Dept.
General Hospital. Meneee— 13$- yrs., pein
during menstration.
S.R.A.
Catholic Welfare. Damaged hymen*
Wasserman— plus.
Tall, underweight, poof
posture.
Mantoux— negative.
Boueewife.
Middle-agad.
Middle-aged.
Poor health.
Other
Relatione
Maternal
grandmother,
living in home.
Maternal grandm.
in Chicago.
Stapfather in
Chicago.'
2 younger step­
brothers in
Los Angelee.
Paternal grandm.
Paternal aunt and
her daughter.
Siblings:
Laseie— 23 yrs.
: House service.
Caroline— 20 yrs.
House service.
MinnieLee— 10 yrs.
A5 grade.
George— 26 yrs.
H.S.— 2 yrs.
tree eurgeon.
Siblings:
Guinevere— 19 yrs.
marrisd, des'd,
at home with
infant.
Morton— 11 yrs.
in school.
John and Robert—
6 yrs. in sch.
M ary~4 yrs.
Home Envirorlment
Physical
Cultural
Economio
Status
Other Influencing
Factors-
class residential
diatriot.
Spacious, comfort­
ably and taste­
fully furnished.
Books, piano, radio.
Much above avsrage.
braokets.
Formerly, business
executiva.
Depression, F ’s.
Parents--Univor3i ty exec, position
eduoatlon.
eliminated.
Much above average. F.— owns and
Home reflaots edu­
operates gas
station, not
cated taste.
profitable..
Fam. income much
curtailed.
M. works in rental
office.
in Chicago.
Small house inade­
quate for family
needs.
Clean but poorly
furnished.
Sleeps on cot in
kitchan, no place
to entertain.
unsupervised
paint and wall­
against F.
paper Co.
play on ths
Grandm. striot
streets.
Inadequate income.
disciplinarian,
M. lax and
Illness of sacond
prejudiced
indulgent.
wife took savings.
against M.
F.— H.S. grad. N.Y. Aunt works for
Lacke companion­
bakery and shares
Conscientious
ship of peers.
expanses of home. No spend, money.
and troublad•
oolored people. Own ‘home.
31aan.
Front and back yard, Relations —
apparently
plenty of spaoe.
harmonious.
F. Calif. El. Sch.
education.
M. Southern El.
Sch. aducation.
rent $22 per mo.
Poorly furnished.
Jntidy.
12 yrs.
Chaap naighborhood, mixed
races.
Income inadequate.
dapression.
F. nervous break­
down, placed in
sanitarium,
home to recup­
erate.
Paternal grandm.
died at 60,
sanile dementia.
Pat. grandf. quaer
before death.
hunting trips.
Association with
older ohildren
and adults.
Evidenoes of
Attltudea
Wishas to-quit echool.
No vocational goal.
Considers his paper route
tiresome.
Sooial dlstanoe between F.
and son.
Stands on legal rights
with F.
Fslt trickad by M.. into
going to "nut" doctor.
Aesete
Buys own clothes.
Providas own spending
money.
Wants to go to work.
Likabla personality.
Popular with peers.
Desiras to finish school
sometime.
Wants to help out
financially at home.
expected to.
Friendly relations
Conscience hurts her for
with F . .
staaling.
Superior intelligence.
Fond of etspf.
Resents grandm’s. authority
in oharige from individ­
ualistic life to rigidly
supervised one.
Brags of ascapadas with
girle.
Superior attitude with
other boys.
Becomee flustered when
confronted with reading.
companions.
primping; startling
hair styls; excess
Girl friend lacks
supervision,
makeup; axtreme styles.
friend’s M.
Ambition: movie actress
unsavory
or etanographer.
reputation in
Does not want to gat
neighborhood.
married and stay at
Depressing home
homa and ’’look after
atmosphera.
kide".
Intarested in dancing,
moviee and True Storv.
advances.
Interaeted in airplanes
and autos.
Ambition to beoome a
truck drivar.
Good muecular oo-od.
Athletic proweee.
Rseponsive.
Sngaging smile.
F. interested.
Treatment
Dr’s, report — no
rafraction nseded.
Psychologist explained
M ’s. attitude to son.
Informed of superior .
mantal ability with
attending social
responsibility.
Encouraged to make
decisions for himself.
Ssoured working csrtif.
Enrolled in night school
Racommendad aliowanes.
Character bldg. club
for oompanlonehip.
More supervision by
F. rather than grandm.
Taaohers show a
personal interest.
Work in cafeteria
with remuneration.
Juv. Hall for Obs.
bev. Sch. for H. S.
Boys.
Training in a trade
Sheet metal work.
2 wke. obe. at Juv.Hall.
Paroled to ‘parents.
Placement in Girls
Welfare Center.
Typing, closer super­
vision, indiv. help.
Corrective gym.
Co-oo. of Home
Positive:
Amitlous for eon.
Negative:
M. overzealous.
F. not understanding.
Atmosphers of anxiety and
dsfeat.
Positiva:
Attitude of F.
Negative:
Finances do not parmlt
an allowance.
F. has no time to
supervise or pal with
Buelah.
Grandm. critical.
Positive:
F. intarasted and
enthusiastic about
opportunity in naw
sohool.
Supervises school
attendance.
Thomas interested in and
enjoying new echool.
Positive:
Attituda of parente.
Negative:
Parents control inadaquats.
Depressing atmosphera
in horns • '
Results
Positiva:
Good reports from
employer.
Returned to sohool.
Graduated.
Truanoy disappeared.
No further conflicts
with student
governing group.
conferences with
counselor on
raturn to
echool.
None after grad.
Negative:
Stealing from lockers
continued.
Shortage of oafeteria
funds.
Broke into school end
rifled office and
supplyroom*
Detailed to
Prob. Officer.
Positive:
No illegal absences.
Evidences of better
attitude.
Socializing with boy
companions.
Continued good
reports from
sohool.
Positiva:
Good work in typing
and cooking.
Evidences of improved
attituds
Prob. Officer
checks
progress.
Raports of oontinuad
improvement
from sohool.
DATA FOR YOUNG SUPERIOR BOYS
Case
No.
9.
10.
Nana
Deeds, Roderiok
Grada
B6
C.A.
134
M.A.
168
I.ft.
136
•Race or
Nationality
Whits
American
Unadjustments
Social
Stsals; pilfered
ertiolss from lunohes.
Untruthful.
Unpopular.
Leeks poiee.
Nightly enuresis.
Thoroughly disliked.
Poor sport..
Spoiled; incorrigible.
Non-co-operative.
Temper tantrums.
Education
teferred by
Uneble to concentrate. father .
Unstable temperment.
Erretie behavior in
classroom.
Unwholesome attitude
towards eohool
work.
Accomplishment below
oapecity level.
Disturbing in class.
Disobedient.
Wants to be center
of attraction.
Does not work well
with others.
Mother.
Moscowitch,
Melville
B3
96
.120
124
• Amerioan
Russian Jewish
descent.
11.
Wainright, Harry
B4
128
176
137
White
English descent.
Does not follow
Principal
Unpopular.
directions.
Bossy — arguementetive.
Disobedient.
Self-oonsoious.
Works below oapecity.
Asocial.
Shows signs of
withdrawal.
Disobedlent.
12.
Wise, Truman
B4
124
lbe
125
White
English descent.
Sooiel reactions
immature.
Temper tantrums.
Disobedient.
Behavior problem.
Disobedisnt.
Indifferent, lezy.
Principal.
Agsnoiee
Intereetsd
None.
Nons.
Health Factors
M ’e. health during
gestation — good.
Birth, normal
Fell on forehead,
unconscious— 3 yrs.
Raohitic chest.
Sleeps alone.
Rastless, nervous.
Does not stand still,
sways and wiggles.
Bitee nails. Nightly enuresis.
Birth, normal.
T. & A.— 7 yrs.
Frequent coughs end
colde.
Frequent earaches.
Poor oo-ordination.
Poor posture, fset in
bad condition.
Mouth breather. .
Dawdles over food.
Parents
Fether
B.— Texas.
42 yrs'.
Mother
B.— Arkansas.
38 yre.
Other
Relations
Siblings:
Jban~14 yrs.
A9 Jr. High.
Roy--13 yre.
. A8 Jr. High.
Virginia Lee—
4 yrs.
R.— Russia.
37 yre.
Came to Chicago
ae a child.
B.— Russia.
No Siblings.
32 yrs;
Came to Chi cage
-- 6 yre.
Typist befora
marriage.
B.— New York.
38 yrs.
Nervous and
sxciteble *
None.
Birth, normal
Frsquent colds.
Mouth braether.
Nervous.
Occasionally stutters.
B.— Missouri.
40 yrs.
(42 yrs. on Army
record^)
Work mekee him
absent for long
periods.
Nons.
Birth, normel
No unfavorable factors
noted.
B .— Pennsylvania. B.— Penn.
48 yre.
50 yrs.
Impatient.
Nervous end
impatient.
None.
Siblings:
Dan— 21 yrs.
radio genius.
Virginia— 20 yre.
Nun— St. Jos.
Sisterhood.
Home Environment
Physical
Cultural
F. High School
Comfortable home.
Good middle-class
grad. Texes
M. Cashier before
neighborhood.
marriage.
Plenty of play
space.
Piano and trumpet
in home.
•Economio
Stetus
F. postel clerk.
Regular salary.
Own home.
Comfortable,
F. education,
S', paper hanger.
Gi'. 8, Chicago. Average.
pleaeant
surroundings.
M. high School end
Large yerd for play.
Business Collage
Chicago.
Typijbt before
marriage.
Parents— relations
apparently
harmonious.
RueJJew. background
Rentad home or
Sopllieticatad
Above average.
a^jnosphere.
loginge.
Own home.
Above average.
F. U.S.C. grad,
Steady salary as
engineer.
Frequent changes
State Highway
M. |H.S. New York.
of location.
Engineer.
Business College
Stenographer
with Stats Haalti
Department before
marriage.
\
Comfortable, wellF. H.S. Detroit.
kept.
M. Catholic Girls
Dan has room fitted
So 1001.
up es lab. and
it Cetholie
ameteur radio eta.
et aosphere.
Above average.
Painter and
decorator.
Own home.
Other Influancing
Factors
None.
Evidences of
Attitudes
Self-conscious.
Continually pulle at
clothing while talking.
Treatment
Transferred to new
school.
Enuresie program:
Bed tima -- 8:30.
Letiees — 9:30.
Opportunity clees.
Enriched curriculum.
Opportunity .to perform
on harmonica for
class mates.'
Co-on. of Horns
Positive:
Faithful in carrying out
enuresie program.
Arranged for transfer
end transportation to
Opportunity class.
Superior intelligence.
Intereetsd parents.
Normal home life.
2 hrs. additional rest
per day.
Ignoring eating habits.
Given a card with stars
on which to record
days he has been a
good sport.
Withdrawn from school
for one term.
Positive:
M. faithfully carried
out rest program.
Meels, no longer a battle
of wills.
Repeated visits to
psychologist.
Regular reports on
progress.
Cried beceuse of last
move.
Likse to practice on
accordion sometimes;
refuses to et others.
Affeotionats towerds M.
distant toward F.
Pleaeant appearing
child.
Superior intelligence.
Pieye accordion.
Rest period.
Specialist’s
consultation regard­
ing mouth breathing.
Recommended placement
in Opp. Class.
Does not put effort into
his' work.
"Mine is no good" is a
frequent statement with
him.
Superior intelligence.
Good health.
Fairly good home
situation.
Given erector set.
Encouraged in mechanical Parents making effort at
interests at home and
petienca and under­
et sohool.
standing.
Ie eware of being
Parents overdisliked.
solicitoue about
Unheppy ebout it.
his eating
habits.
Made the center of
interest at
every meel.
Allowed his own
way.
F. Impatient.
Punishes him
ssvarly with
bslt.
M. sympathizes
with Harry.
Often counter­
mands F ’s.
orders.
M. over-Solicitous
becaues of death
of first child
at 3 mos.
Dan considers
Truman a
nusiance.
Truman center of
diecord.
Assets
Regular attendance at
school.
Likes to play harmonica,
which he does very
well.
Plays trumpet.
Results
Positive:
Ees adjusted nicely
to new school
■situation.
Enuresie only
ocassional.
Follow-un
Reports from
Opp. Class
teacher and
mother.
Negative:
Still extremely
nervous.. •
Positive:
Satisfactory school
and social
adjustment in B4
upon return to
echool.
Continued
reports from
homa end sch.
Moved again.
Positive:
Positive:
More socialized--not
No further
M's. intentions.
reports.
so bossy.
Claims to have learned
Negative:
to mind his own
i.aoks F'e. interest and
business.
supervision.
Unstable situation beoauee
Negative:
of frequent moves.
Not placed in Opp. Class. Improvement only
slight.
M. and F. at variance in
their treatment of
. Harry.
Negative:
Still immature and
asooiel.
Continues to be
problem in sohool.
Reports from
school'.
YOUNG SUPERIOR BOYS
Casa
No.
14.
Name
Hillman, Howard
Grade
A5
C.A.
126
Golden, Louis
B4
110
Celloway, Billy
A4
124
M.A.
164
158
I.Q.
145
149
128
Unedjustmente
Sooial
Educational
Selfish - discourteous. Behavior problem in
class.
Poor citizen.
Uncontrollable tempsr.
American
Jewish descent
No sense of time.
Non-conformis t.
Insomnia and night
phobias.
Mother
Hebitually tardy.
Irregular attendance.
Dislikes oral work.
Untidy and disorderly.
Refuses to do arith.
Report card — N in
responsibility and
oitizenship.
School.
authorities.
School
psychologist.
B.— Naw York.
No unfavorable factors B.— New York. •
42 yrs. old.
in early life.
41 yrs. old.
U.S.C. end Harvard High School
T. & A. removed.
greduate.
Nervous— pulls at naile. Law.
Poor posture;
Does not slesp well.
Post encephalitis type
. of behavior.
Sex exhibitionist.
Is chased end perse­
cuted by other boys
Infantils social
adoption.
Unable to control
urine.
Bites other children. Mother and
Teases others.
teacher.
Loiters on way home.
No interest in
arithmetio.
School
authorities.
School
psychologist.
Unable to oontrol
urine.
Nightly enuresis.
Acute indigestion —
2 yre. old.
Sleeping sickness —
4 yrs. old.
Pneumonia — 7 yrs.old.
American
Irish descent
Referred by
Mother
Agencies
Interestad
School
authorities.
Parents
Father
Mother
B.— Conn.
B.--Iowa.
50 yrs. old.
36^-yTB. old.
Yals University
Privats school
grad. — law.
in New York.
In L.A. 15 'yrs.
Social work in
New York
settlement
house.
In L.A. 13 yre.
Race or
Nationality
White
English descent
Health Factors
Vi’s, health during
gestation good.
Birth, normal.
Frequent colds and
coughs.
T. & A. at 7 yrs.
Reeppsered.
B.--New York.
49 years, old.
2 yrs. High School.
Drinks.
Interested in
horse reces.
B.— New York.
43 yrs. old.
High School
education.
Works in school
cafeteria.
Other
Relations
Siblings:
Mary Ann-twin.
Floyd Trsnt —
16 yrs.
orphaned child
or reletivs.
Home Enviro nment
Cultural
Physical
Above averags.
Large house.
Books, radio,
Fashionable neigh­
piano.
borhood.
Tastefully
Maid.
furnished.
Planty of play
Sophisticated
space.
atmosphere in
Above averags.
home.
Recreation room
equipped with ber.
Above averags.
Siblings:
Sam— 13 yrs.
Room of his own.
Jr. High— doing Plenty of play
space.
Equipment for
recreation.
2 room apartment—
sleeping porch.
No privacy.
Near city play­
ground .
Tastefully
furnished.
P. sleeps in
afternoons.
Works at night.
No normal home
life.
Economic
Other Influencing
Evidences of
Factors
Status
Attitudes
Assets
Practioing attorney. M. espressss
Carries tales.
Superior intslligence.
Own home.
hostility toward Has chip on shoulder.
Superior home
Above average.
sohool
Always getting his feelings
advantages.
administration.
hurt and flying into
Feels her child
rages.
is discriminated
against.
Maid has no
authority even
when M. is not
home ,
Treatment
Allowed to remain out
of school to build
up resistance.
•Had T. & A. performed.
Placement in Opp. Class.
Follow-un
Results
Continued
Positive:
rsports from
Made good record in
Opp. class on return • Opp. class
teacher.
to school,
Negative:
M. nervous and emotionally faking a great interest
in his school work.
unstabla.
Encourages Howard in
fealings of persecution
and esooial behevior.
Spoils him.
Positive:
Intent interest.
Practicing
attorney.
Own home.
Above average.
F.— impatisnt,
looses his
temper and
explodes at
him.
M. helps him
dreee and
drives him to
school when he
dellys in the
morning.
individualist.
Makes no attempt to
impress others.
Is neithar eggressive nor
retiring.
Superior intelligence.
Sense of humor*
Ability to be
entertaining.
Capable of intense
interests.
Honest.
Dr. recommended
longer periods of
rest.
U.C.L.A. recreation'
sohool during summer.
Studies in morning.
Swims and other
recreation in
afternoon.
Private doctor gives
luminal to induce
sleep.
Opportunity class.
Positivs:
M*s. intentions.
Combined salery—
average inoome
but F. spends a
great deal on
liquor and
gambling.
No normal home
Minde but usually waite a
life because
second time to be told.
of F ’s.
Offers to undress before
irreguler
little girls.
working hours.
Parente often
quarrel because
of F'e drinking.
Superior intelligence.
Likes to read.
M ’s. interest is
stabilizing factor in
life.
Endocrine treetment.
One hr. rest period
after sohool.
M. rsad De Schweintz
"Growing up" to him
and gavs him sex
instruction .in home.
Cod-Liver-Oil.
Reoord cerds kept.
3 problems of arith.
a day— stars for
completing.
Stars for dry bed.
Positive:
M's. attitude.
Negative:
F ’s. short temper and laok
of patienoe.
M's. ovsr-indulgence.
Assumes child's responsib­
ility.
M. does not follow-up
commands•
Negative:
F'e. poor example
Lack of interest.
Positive:
Tardiness eliminated.
Enjoys taking part in
olass ectivitiee.
Reports from
. Opp. class
teacher and
repseted
eppointmsnts
with the
school
psychologist.
Positive:
Improvement.
Learned to play
acceptebly.
Improvement in arith.
More mature reactions.
Released.
No longsr
necessery to
keep up
regular
contact with
psychology
office.
YOUNG SUPERIOR GIRLS
Caee
No.
Name
Reislng, Adelle
Grads
Kgn.
C.A.
65
M.A.
SO
I.ft.
123
Race or
Nationality
Jewish descent.
Unadjustments
Social
Cries a great deal.
Bad dreams.
Sleaplesness.
Afraid of nolsee.
Tamper tantrums.
Disobedient.
Extremely jealoue of
grandm*e. attentions
to baby sieter.
Educational
Disobedient to
teacher.
Disturbing element
in class.
Referred bv
Mother
Ageno ie s
Interested
None.
Health Peotore
Nervous.
Does not sleep well.
High strung.
Parente
Father
Mother
54 yre.
32 yrs.
Dr. in with
Housewife.
grandfather.
Highly
emotional
indulges child.
Economic
Home Environment
Other
Statue
Phyiai
Cultural
Relations
Nicely furnished. Parents receive
Pat. grandfather. New houss.
financial help
Obstetrician.
Good urban neighbor­ Equipment for
from both
recrsatlon and
Maternal
hood .
self-impro vement. families.
grandfather.
Above average.
Above averags.
Dr. State Health
Board.
Mat. grandfather
lives in home.
Other Influencing
Factors
Teacher reports
F. is emotional
and nervous
also.
Child very muoh
resembles him.
Evidences of
Assets
Attitudes
Nice appearing child.
Showers affeotionate
Good mind.
caresses on child.
Lietene
and. reacts
Home is emotional hot-house.
intelligently.
Taken to psychiatrist in
St. Louis at age of 4 yre.
Child clung to M. in
psychiatrist's office not
because ene wes afraid but
because sbe did not wish
to leave her.
Professional
appearances on
stege and in
the movies
havs made a
big impression
oh her.
Treats other children as
subordinates.
Siblings:
Collette— .3 mos.
James, Vera
A6
88
136
155
Porter, Dorothy
B6
135
176
138
White '
Scandanavian
descent.
White
Jntldy.
Destructive and
wasteful.
Boeey.
Disliked by other
children.
Needs individual
supervision.
Bossy and superior
acting.
Poor work babits.
Retiring.
No initiative.
Threatens.to run away.
Eights with brother.
No interest in sohool Teeoher
work.
Works below capacity.
Mother
Principal
None.
No unfavorable faotors
B,— South Dakota.
at birth.
38 yrs.
Severe case of pneumonia 2 yrs. Berkeley.
— 7 months.
Defective vision in
right eye.
Receiving private
medical attention.
B.— Indiana.
38 yre.
M.S.— U.S.C.
Small stucco.
Good eub-urban
neighborhood.
Plenty of space.
None.
No unfavorable factors.
Not a very good looking
child.
Protruding teeth.
B.— Missouri.
Siblings:
32 yre.
Dean— 10 yrs.
2 yre. U. of
Dora— 2£ yrs.
Missouri.
Little organized
control over
borne or
children.
Brow-beaten by
relatives.
M. dreaded eieter-in-law*e
Sparsely
Pressure on
Small home.
Buying borne from
criticism for spending
Lack of space.
furniehed.
paternal grandm.
family by
extra money on car fere
Clean— tidy.
partnership with
relatives re­
No bedroom for
to send Dorothy to Opp.
Dorothy.
Parents devoted to
brother.
sults in dis­
Real estate end
cord and feeling Cless.
Undesirable neigh­
insurance broker.
of insecurity.
borhood .
Brother
and
Impermanent people.
Irregular 1nco ms.
Involved with
sistsr-in-law
property holdings.
very economical.
Taxes teke all
Object to taking
their earnings.
money for
business except
for bare
neoeeeitles.
35 yrs.
Grad.— U.8.C.
Business
Administrator.
Piano, accordion,
radio.
House keeper
employed. •
Two care.
Buying home,
Yeteran loan.
State Food and
Drug inspector.
Regular salary.
Supplemented by
M ’s. salary,
County Welfare
Sooial Worker.
Treatment
Co-on. of Horns
Positive:
Psyohologlet talked
Aeked advice and apparently
quietly to child
carried
it out to best of
about being a grown
her ebility.
.up girl now.
Gave her a card with
Negative:
stars for daye when
M. emotionelly unstable.
she ected like a
Trye to push child beyond .
grown up girl.
Advised parente to give
her oapeeity or years.
Child tries to overcome
few commands but to
sense of failure by being
carry them out.
naughty.
Phenobarbital to sleep.
3 appointments not kept.
Results
Positive:
Marked improvement in
first grade, ee
child's intelli­
gence makes better
adjustments.
Seems less nervous.
Acts kindly toward
beby sieter.
Follow-un
None.
Gifted in music and
dramatics.
Singing ebility.
■Superior intelligence.
Qualities of leadership.
Opp. Class.
Advised discontinuing
public appearances
for a time to be
given opportunity to
develop more
normally.
Positive:
Public appearances dis­
continued.
Standards of tidiness and
economy rigidly adhsrred
to.
None.
Positive:
Adjusting hereelf
better ,to playmates.
Better work habits.
Superior intelligence.
Very fine mind.
Lively, talkative.
Wsll mannersd.
Advised Opp. Class.
F. bought boxing gloves
hoping Dorothy and
Dean would take out
some of tbeir
animosity in sport.
Positive:
Intelligent.
Co-opsrative in intent.
Positive:
Better social
ad justment.
Negative:
Pinanoial troubles eeem to
have family in grip of
dlepare.
Negative:
Continues to work
below capacity.
Still quarrels at
home.
M. thinks
situation not
much improved.
99
YOUNG SUPERIOR GIRLS'
Case
• No.
19.
Name •
Josephine
Grade
Opp.
B4
C.A.
122
118
105
M.A.
156
I.Q.
132
154
Nationality
American
English descent.
White
American
Irish and
Scandanavian
descent.
130
American
English and
French descent.
Unadjustmsnts
Social
Educational
Bitee and scratches.
Disturbing bshavior
Extremely disobedient.
in class.
Chews clothing.
Disobedient.
Falls out of chair.
JMo affection for other
children but lavishing
toward adulta.
Undependable.
Doss not fit in. with
group.
Unsocial and unpopular.
Selfish.
Effected speech and
mannerism.
Attendance problem.
Does not complets
tasks..
Shows off in claes.
Works under capacity.
No regard for rulee.
Egotistical.
Selfish.
Immature reactions.
foor citizen.
Spsech handicap.
Thumb sucker.
Immature reactions.
Runs away.
Speech handicap.
Retained in B1 three
semesters.
Unhappy in school.
Referred by
Principal.
Mother.
Agenciee
None.
Mother
None
Half-brother.
Principal.
Teacher.
Father and
Mother.
Nons
None.
Parents
Fathsr
B .— Pennsylvania.
39 yrs.
High Sch. Eduoa.
California 12 yrs.
Paintsr and
Cther
Mother
Relatione
B.— Pennsylvania sibiinae:
56 yrs.
George— 7 yrs.
High School
education.
Calif. 12 yrs.
Houeewife.
Birth— premature.
Incubator 2£ months.
Out of school 1 yr.
Frequent colds— coughe.
Occasional temperature
and stomach upset.
Mantoux— negative.
B.— New xork.
High School
education..
Musician.
B.— Wi econsin.
High School
2 yrs.
Teacher of
piano.
Birth, normal.
No unfavorable faotore
noted.
Vigorous and energetic.
B.— Kaneae.
Postal clerk.
34 yrs.
Killed in auto
Proof reader.
accident when
Grace was 5 yrs.
Health Factors
Birth— difficult.
Delicate childhood.
Frequent colds.
Extremely nervous.
Slespleeeness.
Negative Mantoux.
Birth, normal.
Walked— 1 yr.
Talked— 2^ yre.
Siseps well.
Doee not care for
vegetables or fruit.
Likss milk, bread, jam.
T. & A.--5 yre.
Mouth malformed.
Sucke thumb.
Fatigues easily.
Large for age.
57 yrs.
.
M.A.— Berkeley—
Education.
B.— France.
37 yre. old.
Am. Citizen.
Ed. by private
governess and
boarding eoh.
Poor formal Ed.
Fine mind.
Economic
Home Environment
Status
Thvalcal
Cultural
F. painter and
Clean and tidy.
Small one family
decorator.
Comfortably
dwelling.
Regularly
furni shed.
Good repair.
employed.
Lower middlePlenty of space.
clase atmosphere. Average income.
Studio apartment.
lalf-eibling:
Robert— 15 yrs.
no play spaoe.
High School BIO.
Pat. grandmother,
lives in home.
Siblings:
Sibling:
James— 11 yrs.
Jr. High B7.
Musical instru­
ments.
No facilities for
recreation for
a child.
Above average.
Small home.
Grandmother keeps
Jood repair.
house.
Plsnty of space.
Jood middle-clase
urban neighborhood
F. downtown
musioal studio.
Band leadsr... '
Average income.
Adequate income.
£1500 insurance.
Buying home.
Steady salary.
Pat. grandmother
•shares living
expenses.
M. interested in
F. Instructor in
Single family
a Jr. College.
Natural history.
dwelling.
Books, art objects, Regular salary.
Spacious.
Genteel surround- Above average.
[Jood repair.
Own home.
inge.
Flower garden, sand
box,.elide, ewlng,
etc.
Other Influenoing
Evidences of
Factors
Attitudes
No abnormal ones Child brother relationships
indicated.
— good.
No evidences of jealousy.
Theatrical work. Treats other ohildren with
Movsd frequently.
air of condesoention.
Little contact
Does things to call
with children
attention to hereelf.
Late hours.
Co-on. of Horns
Assets
Reads easily.
Imitates with facility.
Affectionate toward
adults.
Treatment
Removed from Kgn.
because she needed
medical care— 1 yr.
Returned to echool.
Extra rest.
School day shortened.
Parents given instruc­
tions in child
• managsment by
psychologist.
Pleasant responsive.
Plays accordion well..
Theatrical work for­
In intent.
bidden except when
Carry out advice fairly
appearing with' F's.
wsll.
band.
Psychologist recommend­
Negative:
ed earlier bed time
Atmosphere of home
and more normal
professional. Late
child's life.
hours.
Mueio of primary interest
with parent's.
Lack of well
Always demanding special
balanced home
help and attention from
life.
teacher.
M's. work keeps
hsr occupied
away from horns.
Professional
dancing leseons
and appearances
with Meglin
Kiddise.
Superior intelligence.
Adagio and tap dancer.
Good health.
Pleasant and responsive
personality.
Parents relation­ Playe with younger children
ship apparently
in epite of her superior
harmonious.
intelligence.
Dislike of school Dislikes school.
probably due to
esnse of
failure— .
retained in Bl.
Superior intelligence.
Normal home lifs.
Interested parente.
Friendly, responsive,
well mannered.
Advised against pro- feeslonal appearances
because of bad
psychological sffect
on child of superior
intelligence being
put through routine.
Suggested joining Jr.
girl's club.
Placement in ,0pp. Class
recommended.
Parents interested—and
willing to help
Medical and psychological
appointments kept.
Positive:
M. willing to do the best
for child.
Placed in Opp. Class.
Negative:
Abnormal horns situation—
no father.
M. over-ambitioue for
child.
Spesch oorrection clase. Positive;
Perents intelligently
Orthodontic treatment.
co-operative.
Extra rest.
Hill Young School of
Speech.
Reeulte
Follow-up
Gained physically^
Returned to school.'
Conduct improved. .
Progress in adjustment
enoouraging.
flight improvement in
socialization and
behavior.
Better attendance.
Negative:
Continues to have
mature attitude.
Bstter social ad­
justment.
More regard for rights
of others.
Improved citizenship.
Negative:
Social adjustment not
complete.
Occasional rslapeee.
No recurrence of
running away since
entering Speech
Correction Class.
reports from
school.
100
YOUNG SUB-NORMAL BOYS
Case
No. ____ Name________ Grade
237“ Gilman, Leroy
_ Kgn.
C.A.
61
M.A.
i.Q.
77
White
English descent.
Dev.
55
A6
Rece or
Nationality
White
Scandinavian
descent.
61
71
White
English descent.
White
Snglish descent.
Unadjustments
Agencies
Parents
Social
First reactione of
fear rather than
curiosity.
Abnormal fear of
animals, fireworks,
Santa Claue, lerge
buildinge, theaters.
Cannot play with
others.
Educational
Nervous and un­
stable in clase.
Must be cared for
elsewhere when pete
still films, or
movies are shown.
Does hot understand
about rules ortaking turns.
Referred bv
Teacher
Principal
Mother
Mat. aunt.
Unstable and erratic
behavior toward
other children.
Non-reader.
Extreme truancy.
Does not seem to
understand
directions.
Teacher
School
feirtb, normal.
Principal .
authorities.
No unfavorable factors
Prob. Officer. Attendance office.
in early life.
Prob. Dept.
Pale, underweight.
Poor posture.
Left-bahded.
School
authorities.
Baby talk.
Too immature to go to
echool alone.
Irresponsible.
Cannot work with the Principal
group.
Mo ther.
Requires individual
attention.
Behavior problem.
Child Guidance
Clinic.
fersaks rules, swears,
and smokes.
Insolent to elders.
Stays out lets with a
gang of older boys.
Abnormal interest in
older girls..
Involved in series of
burglaries with
older boys.
heading difficulty.
El. Sohool
Needs individual
. Principal.
hslp and constant
teachsr supervision.
Insubordinate in
claes.
Prob. Dept.
Other
Health Factors
Father
Mother
Birth, Caesarian.
B.— Minnesota.
B.--Minnesota
32 yrs. old.
Walking— 15 mos.
30 yrs. old.
8 yrs. High School. 2 yrs. High
Sleeps well, bed in
parents' room, 7 P.M.
School.
to 6 A.M.
Wh. cough— 3 yre.
Frequent colds.
Nervous.
Constipated.
Divorced, where­
abouts unknown.
Drulss at the mouth.
Functional disorder.
Extremsly nervous.
Glandular disturbance.
55 yrs. old
111 health.
Normal birth.
Chickenpox, mumps,
scarlet fever,
measles, wh. cough.
Heart and eyesight
normal.
Bites nails.
divorced, where­
abouts unknown.
B.— Indiana.
34 yrs. old.
Remarrisd,
deserted.
El. School
education.
Younger maternal
aunt livss in
the home.
Plays with M's.
half-brother—
3 yre. and
half-eister—
6 yrs.
Rome Environment
■Physio*!
Cultural
Radio, books and
Comfortable,
magazines.
inexpensive
Parents relation­
rented home.
ship apparently
Averags neighbor­
harmonious.
hood .
Play space.
Economic
Status
F. truck driver.
Regular salary,
$150 psr month.
$32 rent.
Buying car and
electric refrig.
Other Influencing
Evidences of
Factors
Attitudes
Leroy and F. get He is not- afraid of the
along well.
dark.
F. tries to show Does not listen to radio
him he will
program because of fears.
not be hurt.
Leroy is not
convinced and
becomes
hysterical.
Uncle, legal or
blood relation­
ship unknown.
Lives in home.
Stepf. deserted,
whsrsabouts
unknown.
Uncle provides.
Apartment in rather No provision for
recreation for
poor district.
a child.
No play space.
Placed
in
boarding
No opportunity for
home, but
privacy.
expelled becaues
Sleeps on day bed
of unbearable
in living room.
conduct.
None.
Quarters in a cheap Spareley furnished
hotel apartment. unattractive.
No provision for
No play space.
recreation for
Bathroom shared by
either adults or
3 families.
children.
Catholic faith.
Much below avsrage. Dspreeeed
atmosphere in
F. out of work.
home.
Family supported- by
M. discouraged.
3 edult children
Undesirable
of F. by former
neighborhood
marriage.
influences.
Income approximately
$45 per month
Small frame house. Comfortable
furnishings.
Plenty of space.
Attractive.
Fairly well kept.
Radio, games.
M. president of
woman's club and
entertains at
home in the
evening.
M. working as
stenographer and
bookkeeper in
plumbing office.
Regular eelary,
$110 psr month.
$27.50 rent.
Buying car.
B.— California. Grandm. lives a
High School
few blocks
education.
distant.
Business
Collegs.
Active in local
Women's-Club;
Prob. Dept,
reports M. of
low character.
Improper super­
vision.
Grandm. indulgent.
Gave him a
bicycle.
M. away from home,
insufficient
.supervision.
M. very resentful
toward F.,
epeake
disnaraainglv.
Assets
Well formed body.
Nice looking child.
Parents' interest and
willingness to hslp.
Normal home life'.
Teacher much interested.
Shows little respect for M.
or uncle.
Incorrigible.
Was so obnoxious tbat
boarding home refused to
have bim.
Rather good natured.
Seems responsive.
Likes hand work,
interested in mechanical
things.
Extremely immature in
reactione.
Affectionate.
Folio W-UT)
Teacher'e
interest
continues.
Parents bring
him regularly
for treatment.
Co-on. of Home
Treatment
Psychologist attempted Positive:
Parents interested and
to ascertain basis
willing
to do everything
for fears.
within their power to
Explained the mental
help.
attitude to M. and
recommended extreme Kept appointments with
calmness.
psychologist and carried
Because of good phys.
out instructions.
development did not
refer him to
Neurological Clinic.
Placement in Dev.Claes.
Results
Positive:
Improvement noticed
from time of second
conference.
Brought home a dog.
Enjoyed a movie.
Placed in Dev. Class.
Prob. Dept, chscke
regularly.
Made to make up time
for irregular abe.
Policewoman filed on
M. for immorality,
released on prob*
Negative:
M. uninterested and un­
communicative .
Wishes to havs him again
placed in boarding home.
Prob. Dept.
Positive: - ■
School Welfare
Yery slight improve­
and Attendance
ment in school work.
Officer.
Truancy decreased.
Endoerine treatment
at echool clinic.
Placed in Dev. Clsss.
Positive:
Parents seem well meaning,
Negative:
No improvement shown
as yet.
Negative:
Still afraid of tall
buildinge.
Negative:
Still a behavior
problem.
Truancy continues.
Dev. Claes
teacher reports
on progress.
egative;
Parente depressed by
illness, and poverty.
Seem to have lost courage.
Despondent atmosphere in
home.
Smart line of cbatter.
Bluffs a great deal.
Leisure time spent with
undesirable companions.
Disloyal to M. and grandm.
Nice looking child.
Good personality.
Sense of humor.
Self-confident air.
Registered in High Sch.
Boys Welfare Center.
Careful counseling and
givsn a great deal
of supervieion.
Advised to change bis
-companions.
Paper route'obtained.
Placed in Dev. Claes.
Prob. Officer
Positive:
Positive:
mekes peri­
M's. interest and intention. Slight improvement in
odical check­
social attitudes.
up. '
Negative:
High School
M. sdmits he is beyond her Negative:
Registrar and
Continues to be care­
control.
Counselor keep
less in school work
No normal home life,
a close check
and a behavior
because, of M's. business
on bim.
problem.
and club work activities.
YOUNG SUB-NORMAL BOYS
101
Case
No.
27.
28.
29.
Name
Burling, Jamee
Murray, Norman
Frohman, Paul
Grade
B4
Kgn.
Pri.
Dev.
Pri.
Dev.
C .A.
120
78
133
M.A.
78
54 •
67
I.ft.
65
69
50
Race or
Nationalitv
White
German dsscent.
White
Irish dascant.
American
Jewish descent.
Unadjustment s
Referred bv
Educational
Social
Extremely nervous and Principal
Lies.
disturbing in class. Mother.
Steals from school.
Steals other childrens Reading difficulty.
echool supplies.
)isobedient to
Extreme lack of selfteaches*.
oontrol.
Cannot care for himself Ha zard in the class
room.
Tantrums, holds breath.
Cnfantile speech.
Threw saw injuring
other child.
Agencies
Interested
None.
Principal
Teaoher.
Principal
Smotionally unstable
Crying spells.
Mother.
Othsr children think hs in class room.
Middle grade embicile.
is crazy.
Pioture vocab.— 2^ yrs
Shunned by others.
Language Comp.— 3 yrs.
Violent unmanageable
Lethargic almost
rages..
oomatose.
Wenders off from homa.
Parente
Mother
Fathar
Health Factors
3^-Illinois. .
Birth— Brsach presenta­ B •— Penn ey1van ia
43 yrs.
48 yrs.
tion.
Finishing
Grad. Purdue
Not expected to live.
Enginaerlng.
sohool
Almost complste deaf­
eduoation
Aocident—
ness up to 6 yrs.
Non-desoendsd testaolee. permanently
dieabled--43 yrs.
times.
Living in New York;
Unbalanced vision due
Norman— ohild
to misplaced pupil
second
Hyper-active.
marriage.
Scarlet fever, measles.
Arm injury, caught .in
wringer.
Clinic.
Other
Home Environment
Relatione
Cultural
Phvsical
Siblings:
Single family houss. Above average.
Louiee--15 yrs.
Expensive neighbor­ Attractively
A-ll grada.
hood i
furnished.
Richard-“5£ yrs.
Many luxuries•
reoovering from
Strep,
infection.
ffelL kspt.
Duplex.
Good neighborhood.
Half-siblinge:
Stewart— 14 yrs.
Noel— 12 yrs.
Sons of etepf.
living in home.
Stepfather.
None.
comfortably
furnished.
Provision for
recreation and
improvement.
Economic
Other Influencing
Evidences of
Status
Factors
Attitudes
Financial security. M. grieves about
No intersst in radio.
Compensation
previous child's Does not etay quiet.
Insurance
death.
Deliberately tails
Maid.
Expects mora
fasehoods.
Own home and car.
from the child
M. has independent
then he hae
income.
ability to
aohieve.
Technitian at
studioe. Salary— above
average.
furniehad.
Insufficisnt to
Clean and tidy.
taka cars of
Parents relation­
additional
ship apparently
medical expenses.
harmonious.
Badly burnsd with boil­ Educated at Andovei High School
Connecticut.
ing water on head.
Academy.
Brain operation— 3 yrs.
Poor eyesight.
Wasserman^negative.
Psychiatric examination
--cerebral irritation.
i
remarried when
Norman wae
3 yrs. old.
for a term.
M. very much
upeet at schools
refueel to
aooept him
second year.
M. insistent that ohild'sretardation is to his
having missed so much of
his first year in Kgn.
Thinks he needs firm
discipline.
fci. thinks he was indulged
at private school and
crying spelle are his
method of gaining his
I
|
Aseete
Retentive memory.
Me chan 1.cally minded.
Interested in mueic.
Good disposition.
M fe. interest.
Affectionats
disposition.
Parents interest.
Treatment
Endocrine treatment.
Petuitaryand Thyroid
shots.
Explained child's mental
age to M.
James given e complete
school outfit and made
to put it in its place
each night.
No more exchanging
between eiblings.
Held over an extra term
. in Kgn.
Primary Dav.
Additional rest periods
in afternoon.
Recommsnded that he stay
out of school till he
becomes more mature.
Co-on. of Home
Posi t1 ve:
Provids good medical oare,
and opportunities for
mental growth.
Negative:
M. emotionally unstable.
Grieves over death of
other child,
Results
Follow-uu
Positive:
Continued
Great physical im­
Endocrine
provement in 6 mos.
treatment.
Listens to Lone
Ranger program.
Stealing discontinued.
Negative:
Liss. but they have
’taken form of
imaginative
romancing.
Positive:
Faithful follow out of reet
program.
M. drives Norman to Dev.
echool and oalle for him.
Positive:
Lese nervous.
Slight improvement in
citizenship and
socialization.
Negative:
M. insistent that he go to
school in spite of his.
immaturity.
Negativa:
Continued emotional
instability.
Recommended stimulating Positive:
activities to be
Provided with rabbits and
avoided.
pigeons and taught to
Out door life.
care for them.
Gardening and pets.
Rest program faithfully
Rest periods in after­
carried out.
noon.
Juvenile Hall Clinic
for observation..
Final recommendation
withdrawal from school.
Positive:
Crying ceased,
More etabla
emotionally
Happier disposition.
Negative:
Becoming less mentally
capable.
Improvements temporary.
Physical evidences of
brain deterioration.
Dev. teachers
reports.
Nona.
YOUNG SUB-NORMAL GIRLS
' Caee
No.
so:
Name____
Grede
Dsv.
C.A.
M.A.
i. d.
Reoe or
Nationality
American
Negro descent.
31.
English descent.
White
Irieh descent.
American
Negro descent.
Unadjustmen ts
Social
and teachar.
Sex tsaching
Eduoational
Immature
Non-reader.
Poor co-ordination.
Referred hv
Grandmother.
Mother
"Me sit down"
"Her likes candy"
Short span of
attention.
Ratained in B1 three
semesters.
Adverse to all
discipline.
No mental rstention.
Playe with toys of
lower level.
Never finishes work
Teacher.
other childrsn.
undertaken.
Disobedient— runs away. Disobedient.
Truancy.
Temper tantrums threw
sciseors at other
child.
Tsmper tantrums.
Stsaling— ?3 from
teacher, #1 from
uncle.
Does not share sports.
Bullying.
ioross.
Plays with younger
children whom she
dominates.
Shop lifting.
Academically
Teacher.
retarded.
Mother
Does not fit into
classroom
situation.
Carsleee sohool work.
Agencies
Interested
Polios Dept.
Gen. Hosp.
City Health Dept.
Catholic Wslfare
reluctant to
take care.
Dept, of
Charities.
School Walfare
and Attendance
Officer.
Proh. Dept*
Juvenile Hall.
School Psychia­
trist and
Psychologist.
City Hselth Dept.
Health Factors
Birth, normal •
Plus Wasserman.
Poor vision.
Eyes crossed.
Medical cars in
New Orlsane.
Sleepe well.
Parents
Father
Mother
Carpenter and
M. immoral
Cemant worker.
character.
In Celif.— 1 yr.
Rapsatedly
arrestad for
prostitution.
Separated from
F.
Birth, instrument.
F. deserted M.
Convulsions from hirth
when child was
up to 5 yrs.
S yre. ol.
Wall oared for et homa. Whereabouts
Indigestion.
unknown.
Inderweight.
3. yrs. retarded in
physical growth.
Unattrective.
Stupid facial expressior
M. — suffering
from T.B.
In need of dental work. Divorced.
Malnutrition.
Works for Whole­
sale Grocery.
M. slseps late
in the
mornings.
Drinks.
P.— dead.
Overweight but plue
M.— Southern
A. etatae he was
Waseerman..
Negro.
No sndoorins dis­
a hard worker
Illiterate.
turbance discovered.
and good .'to her. Moral woman.
Likes sweets.
Fond of the
Auto eroticism revealed. children;
Symen not intact.
Sluggi sh.
JSvidsnces of
Home Environment
Economic
Other
Other Influencing
Attitudes
Physical
Cultural
Status
Upstairs Apt.
Extremsly poor
Tells other children
Lives with Mat.
Grandm. can get no Male roomer.
surroundings for
meaning of obscene words.
aid for support
Gdm.-poor health. Poor colored
Grandm. thought
neighborhood.
proper character
of child because
Gdf.— drinks a
roomer fondled
No play space.
or physical
F. cannot prove
great deal.
the child too
development.
County residence.
much. Told Gdf*
Grandm.— religeous. Listed in New
Jackson— 15 yrs.
she ment to sand
Orleans telephone
committed to
him away.
directory.
Preeton.
Gdf. unsympathetic
Roomer shares
Albert— 19 yre.
said girl enliving sxpenees. . .oouraged it.
Court for
burglary.
Threatened to laave
Mat. Grandmother. Small rsnted house
in back of lot in
cheap district.
Poorly furnished.
Below average.
Impoveriehsd
atmosphere.
None.
M. often out in
aftsrnoon.
Child roame the
streets unsuper­
vised.
Small rsnted house
in state of
disrapair.
Jndssirahle
neighborhood.
Mat. uncle—
Small rsnted house. Neat and cleen.
Better class Negro
Poorly furnished.
shoeshine.
district.
Mat. Aunt—
Insufficient spaca
housework.
for family of four
Siblings:
adults and three
Myrtle— 19 yrs.
childrsn.
housework..
George— 15 yrs.
High School.
Harry— 13 yrs.
Jr. High Sohool.
Ronald— 9 vrs..El.
Dependent on Mat.
None noted.
Gdm. who recaives
State Old Age.
Pension.
Does not understand rules
of games.
Will not take turns.
Frequently says:
M. receives money
iSals hoarder in
"I don't cere"
from F. for
home.
"I don't have to"
support of child. tovies— 5 times
per week.
Harrist practical­
ly Caree for
hereelf.
Irons her own
clothes.
Prepares her own
breakfast and
M. works ae
laundress.
Small income.
Mat. Uncle, Aunt,
and oldest
daughter share
living expenses.
Goes to Church and Uncomunioative.
Dsfensive attitude.
Sunday School.
Brief end abrupt.
Fond of movies.
Confessed she did not like
to take things hut could
not help it.
Assets
Good disposition.
Chesrful.
Treatment
Central Ave. Pri. Dev.
Special lunch at school.
Salvarsan treetment.
Co-on. of Home
Positive:
Grainfrm. asked hslp from
school authorities.
Negative:
Grandf. is very bad
influenca.
F. is no hslp.
Affectionate toward
Grandm. and M. when
not crossed.
Rsfraction.
Dental work.
Positive:
Grandm. does what ene can.
Negative
Extreme poverty.
M. ill and discouraged.
Abnormal home life.
Cheerful.
Does rather good drewing
and paintingJ
Doss practically all the
housawork.
Washes, irons, does with
dishes.
Dev. Sohool.
M. beats child at times.
Referrad oese to Child
Welfare Dept.
M. filed upon for
improper supervieion.
Likes to read.
M. whipped child
rspeatedly.
Psychologist told her
how childish stsaling
wes, and that other
children learned not
to steal at 5 yre.
Sex instruction.
Welfara Center.
Juvenile Hall for
observation.
Girls Welfare Center.
Improvement in attitude
toward school work.
Negative:
M. does not keep
appointments.
Comes to school drunk and
. hslligerent.
Positive:
M. interested faithfully
keeps appointments svan
when they conflict with
her work*
Follow-up
Results
Positive:
Dept.
No evidences of
continuous stealing. Dev. Sohool
reports.
Polioe Woman
Negative:
of district.
Continues to do a
discipline problem.
SFeecative:
Continues to he both
an eduoational and
social problem.
Needs constant
supervision.
Nagative:
Continues to be a
disturbing elsment
in classroom.
Tempsr tantrums
continues.
Negative:
No apperciahle improve­
ment in socialization
Whippings did no good.
Continues to pilfsr
small articles.
sohool.
103
YOUNG SUB-NORMAL GIRLS
Stealing.
Sex teaching.
Obecene writing and
pictures.
Arvela, Yiolet
Health Factors
'No unfavorable factors
noted.
Large for age.
Stole girl's coat
from echool
Educationally
retarded.
Writes in books.
' Pb"or"V t titud e.
Qwarreleome.
Sex conscious.
Temper tantrums.
Noisy and rude in
claes.
Defiant and impudent
to teacbsr.
Leaves school with­
out permission.
" Sullen.
'
Unresponsive.
Does not fit in with
group.
Retarded in school
work*
Insolsnt.
I. R.
Prob. Dept.
Catholic Welfare.
. A. General
Hospital.
B.— Italy.
Married in Italy.
Came to America a
immigrant.
Drinks wine*
Tow oar busineee.
Plays poker.
Unmarried Mat.
B.— Italy.
Came to
uncle living
America three
borne.
yeare later
Siblings:
Nick— 14 yrs.
Twin bros.— 10 yrs
Caroline— 5 yrs.
Marie— 3 yrs.
Lived for 7 yrs.
Fat. grandm.
Pat. grandm. now
lives with
family.
Home Environment
__BPh2 sical!=e;M=!________ Cultural
Two story frame
bouse.
Good repair.
Italian section
city.
"Siblings
Large for age.
Poor class Mexican.
Pretends not
to undsrstand
English.
B.--Japan.
Truck gardener.
Works long hours
and Sundays.
"SiblingsT
Small rented house
age--15 yrs.
n agricultural
High School.
section.
Muatsuda— 10 yrs. No modern con­
veniences.
Tomasa— 6 yrs.
Bare.
Infant.
Culture patterns
of the Orient.
Japanese spoken
in home.
Economic
Statue
Own home.
Own two other
housee which
they,rent.
Fairly good
bueinees.
>n Relief.
Food supplies and
monthly check.
Social life o^
Does not hesitate to lie
parents almost
and is not at all abashed
entirely with
when discovered.
Italians.
Apparently thoroughly
F. is changeable
epoiled by doting Grandm.
in his attituds
who kept child for 3 moe.
■toward children,
after birth and who could
indulges them
not bear to give her up.
at times.
M. .shields them
and covsrs up
for them.
Chums with two
older girls
who are on
probation.
Evidently in­
structed and
influenced by
them.
Runs the streets
at night.
______Assets
Home life of parents
apparsntly harmonious.
Parents interest.
Certain amount of
intelligence but
misapplied.
Teacher attempted in
every way to gain
girls confidence.
Attempted to have her
change companions,
commend for Institu­
tional care.
Destroyed notes from school
asking M. to come.
M. knew nothing of
difficulty at school.
Continually aske tsacher,
"Am I going to flunk?"
Seems to find eexual mean­
ing in everything.
Does not wish to belong to
Not much could be
Other
be learned.
girls club.
children in the
The family ie not
school are much Did not accompany clase on
receiving aid aid
brighter.
trip to museum.
although thsre is
Does not like to play games
no evidenoe of
■ take ber turn.
abundance neither
does there appsar
to be want.
F. uncommunicative
l this respect.
Treatment
Dsv. Clase.
Home oalle by teachsr.
More close supervision.
Made to rsturn coat and
give up 1 months
allowance to girl.
Sex instruction.
Artistic.
Completed eome nice
stitchery.
Flower arrangemente
and water color
painting.
£)ev. Class.
Adjusted ech<5ol :work
to level of‘her' .
oapacity and needs.
Special emphasis on
Americanization.
Co-op. of Home
Resuite
"Positive:
No recurrence of
stealing.
Writing in books has
stopped and no
recent evidence, of
sex teaching.
M. disinterestsd.
Pretends not to under­
stand English.
Continued to be
almost insufferably
lous and insolent.
Extremely distrustful.
Improvement in
attitude.
Better socialization.
Worked up to capacity.
‘ fiareful records
kept by sch.
authorities
awaiting
committment
to Sonoma.
ev. teacber’i
contlnusd
interest.
104
OLDER SUPERIOR BOYS
Caee
No.
Nams
urade
Race or
Nationality
American
Jewish descent.
C.A.
White
Italian descent.
French. Spanish.
Negro. (Creole)
145
White
English descent.
Unadjustmsnts
Social
Educational
Lying.
'fruant.
Emotionally unstable.
Consistently failed
Bursts into tsare.
one subject each
Given to worrying.
term.
Worried about school
work.
Lying, stealing.
Sex delinquency.
Obscene language.
Parente
Agencies
iiigh School
Counselor.
Truancy.
Poor reader.
Wrote an obscene
annonymous note to
teacher.
Speaks Italian to
other Italian
children in class.
‘
i'eacher.
Principal.
Lazy.
Cheats, lies.
No sense of fair play.
Extremely egotistical.
Sex problem.
Bluffs.
Failurs in math.
Shows off in class.
Principal.
Social distance.
Introverted.
Sate alone.
Non-oonformist.
Wishes to drop
High School
Span!sh.
Advisor.
Always wanting
special changes in
program.
Science— college
level.
Abstract science.
In troubls with
Student Government.
None.
B.— instrumental
delivery.
Talked— 9 mos.
Walksd— 1 yr.
Measles— 14 yrs.
Sleeps well— general
health— good.
school welfare and Birth, normal.
Attendance
Poor eyesight.
Officer.
Prob. Dept.
None.
Nons.
Birth, normal.
Good.
Birth, normal.
Underweight.
Poor circulation.
B.— Illinois.
49 yrs.
High School grad.
2 yrs. college
Other
B.— Canada.
None.
47 yrs..
High School.
Emotionally
unstable.
Extremely
nervous.
Active in P.T.A.
Home Environment
Lower duplsx.
Plenty of space.
Good neighborhood.
Comfortable and
attractive
surroundings.
Radio, piano,
books.
Parents relation­
ship apparently
harmonious.
B. — Italy.
B. — Italy.
44 yrs.
43 yrs.
Met husband in
Imigrated to
America at 17 yrs, Italy during
Served in A.E.F.
overseas.
Lived in Chicago
10 yrs.
3iblines:
E’rame house— well
tfaria— married
kept.
Caroline— married. Italian district.
Angelina—
High School.
B .— Louisiana.
49 yrs.
Plays piano.
B.— Louisiana.
45 yrs.
Plays -piano.
3iblin«s:
John— 19 yrs.
High School.
George— 15 yrs.
High School.
Yvonns— 11 yrs.
El. School,
slarie— 9 yrs.
El. School.
Comfortably
House in semi-rural
furnished.
neighborhood.
Plenty of play space. Untidy.
Radio, piano,
guitar, claimet.
Pets, two dogs,
chickene, goat,
cat.
B.— New York,
State.
62 yrs.
B.— New York,
Stats.
57 yrs.
Older but
.attractive.
None.
Untidy appearance.
Comfortable single
••frame- dwelling.
Italian epoksn
in home.
untidy, old
fashioned.
Evidences of
Other Influencing
Economic
Attitudes
Faotors
_|
Status
Doggedly made up failures
M. ambitious.
Accountant City
and incomplete marke
Engineering Dept. F. wishes failure
during Summer School for
kept from M.
Steady ealary.
three years.
because of
Above average.
Aehamsd of failures.
scenes.
M. feels
disgraced in
the P.T.A.
Italian grocery.
Own home.
Above average.
Formerly
bootlegged.
Spoiled— only
M. clings to old
world patterns.
Influenced by
older boys of
neighborhood.
Has flippant manner. •
Admiree and hero worships
famous criminals.
Dominates and leade gang
of younger boys who
indulge in shop lifting.
Willing to promise anything
F. bartender.
Early sex
to make a good impression,
Regular eaiary.
experience.
#125 per month.
Ability to "pass"• but cannot be depended
upon.
Supplemented by
for white.
M's wagee for
day by day house
service.
Own home.
Pensioned postal
clsrk.
Below average.
No friends.
No interest in
making any.
Helps M. do
diehes.
Parents very much
older.
Wished to drop Spanish
because he said he had
no use for it, and was
not able to speak it
after six weeks.
Spurns advances of
friendship.
Eate his lunch alone.
Aseets
Superior intelligence.
Determination.
Wishes to become a
doctor.
Handsome.
Superior intelligence.
Catholic faith.
Treatment
Arranged for job as
chauffeur to two
elderly ladiss.
Drives them after
school.
Psychologist explained
to M. how different
Sam is to her and by
her ambition for him
ehe ie adding to hie
emotional stress.
Enlisted interest of
man, member of
Catholic ohurch.
Outdoor sports.
Refractions
Co-op. of Home
Poeitive:
Parents interested and
willing to help work out
a solution.
Negative:
M's. attitude increases
nervous strain in boy.
Negative:
F. ungovernable temper.
Beats Roberto.
£. cries and admits there
ie nothing shs can do.
Bslieves Roberto Inspite
of evidence which proves
he ie lying.
Reeulte
For a time exhibited
more self-confidence
due to earning his
own spending money
and being successful
in hie job.
Follow-up
careful
guidance by
counselor.
Negative:
Failing in ecience.
Relapee.
Ditching classes.
Improvement in
reading.
Confines himeelf to
uee of English in
the class room.
makes regular
check-up.
Negative r
Still untrustworthy.
Handsome.
Gifted dancer.
Ability to entertain.
Superior intelligence.
Plays clarinet.
Engaging personality.
Cpportunity Clase.
Willing and anxious to
Careful guidance.
help Pierre become a
Encouraged to join boy's
fine leader.
character building
club.
Negative:
Conferences with
Both parents lax in
parents on child
discipline.
management.
Fail to carry out orders.
Overrindulgent.
Negative
Little change of
attitude.
Still egotistical and
an exhibitionist.
Superior intelligence.
Scientific mind.
Guidance through
counselor.
Tsachere aeked to take
a special interest
in helping him make
a social adjustment.
Poeitive:
Parents ready to make any
sacrifices in order to
send him to Cal. Tech.
Now greets Spanish
teacher in Spanish.
improvement in math.
Negative:
Still very much of a
Negative:
recluee.
Social distance because of
parents great age.
Parents fail to create a •
suitable social
situation for George.
continued
interest.
105
OLDER SUPERIOR BOYS
I Case
1 No.
Name
Serge
Grads
C.A.
M.A.
I.ft.
A10
198
261
132
Race or
Nationality
American
Russian descent.
American
English and
Scottish descent.
American
Jewish descent.
Unadjustments
Parents
Agencies
Social
Unreliable— took auto
without driver’s
lieense and againet
father’s ordere and
drove all over city.
Threatened to commit
suicide.
Girl-crazy.
Educational
Interferes with
other children
while working—
tears up their
papers.
Grades— English A
Journalism A
Math. F;
Science F.
Breake rules.
Slovenly habite and
appearance.
Poor co-operation.
Seems not to enjoy
eports although he
participates.
Never completes a.
Mother.
taek.
Trys to do three
things at once.
Wastes time.
Written work*
extremely careless.
Works much below
capacity.
Writing hardly
legible.
Motion Picture
Relief.
Extremely effeminate.
Prefers company of
girle.
Does not enjoy sports.
Exhibits homo sexual
tendencies.
Unpopular with
high School
classmates,
Counselor.
especially disliked Principal.
by boye.
Disturbing element
in olassroom.
Mathematical
unadjustment.
County Hospital.
City Health
Dept.
State Relief.
Referred bv
high School
Counselor.
None.
Birth,.normal.
Adequate medical
attention.
Jo unfavorable factors
noted.
Famous actorformer matinee
idol.
Carried 4 times.
Divorced from M.
when Serge was
3 yrs. old.
Suicided when
Serge was 11 yrs
'old.
3.— Texas.
Impaired.vision.
Grad. Texas A & M
Chickenpox.
its feces 1 to 3 yrs.
Army Cap.—
discharged.
broken of habit by
reward of trolley
)rinke heavily*
)ivorced.
rids.
Now friendly with
Stung by scorpion—
Freeman.
Convulsions— 4 yrs.
Formerly estranged
Sheumatic fever.
Ruptured appendix— 10 yns from M. and
ohildren.
Injured hand from fire
Sses him regularly,
crackers— Tetanus
A. reports both in
sho ts.
good behavior.
Asthma.
3irth, normal.
Dhickenpox.
flsasles.
T. & A.— 13 yrs.
defective eyesight.
Endocrine disturbance.
I
3.— Chicago.
Jivorced— where­
abouts unknown.
Other
B.— Europe.
Stepfather.
Titled woman
European
when ehe
nobleman living
married Seis3*e in retirement
F.
on a ranch.
Remarried when Half-Sibling:
Serge waef
Frederic— 6 yrs.
9 yrs. old.
Yery beautiful.
Home Environment
Physical
Cultural
Spacious.
Cosmopolitan
Country estate in
atmosphere.
movie colony.
Aristocratic tone.
Tastefully and
luxuriously
furnished. ,
Servants.
Economic
Other Influencing •
Much above average M. aristocratic
Family belongs to
ideas— will not
leisure class.
go to the etore
because only
"peasants do'
marketing."
Serge given no
spending money
of his own.
Evidences of
Talks of suicide.
Wants to become actor or
journalist,
disapproves.
Wants him to become a
lawyer.
Wishes to earn his own
money.
Assets
Randeome.
Fond of stepbrother.
Superior intelligence.
Treatment
Special guidance from
teachers and
counselor.
Special concessions as
to program changes.
Counselor talked over
the danger of forcing
a child againet his
inclination with
mo ther.
Co-ot>. of Home
Jeeative:
Stepf. 'does not trusx m m .
M. lives in according to
standards of her own
youth.
Father insisted upon hie
dropping Journali sm when
he accidently met him off
echool grounds on school
paper business.
B»— New York.
High School
grad.
2 yrs. Art.
School
Divorced.
Siblings:
Estelle— 12 yrs.
A7 grade.
Pat. grandfather
founded- a
University in
Texas.
Pat. Uncle—
famous surgeon—
Munich and
Edinburgh.
Pat. grandm.
painter.
Spent a good deal of Impermanent home
F. does bite in
Necessity for
time in hospital.
situation.
pictures.
adjustments to
Boarding home— 2 yrs Many different
Out of work.
many different
Mat., grandparents—
situations which Receive aid from
home situations
4 months.
required separate
Motion Picture
with'their
Mormon minister’s
adjustments.
Relief Ass'n.
different
home— 1 yr.
No normal home life Previously made
cultural
Barbee Ranch School
with paternal
several millions
patterns.
influence.
in Motion
— 1 yr.
Picture. Gave
110,000 to
charity fund
which now
supports them
Prefers sister’s company to
that of boys his own age.
Interested in reading funny
books.
Adores father.
M. states she married F.
with idea of producing a
superior child.
Indifferent to physical Rest program.
Asthma and cold shots.
pain.
Intrigued by family tree. Corrective Ph. Ed.
Further conferences
Family related to
with psychologists
Lowells, Alcotts,
planned.
Chamberlin.
Positive:
M. cheerful.
Faithful in keeping
appointments.
B.— Chicago.
Poorly
educated.
Divorced.
Sibling:
Older brother
working in
Chicago.
Small frame house.
Plenty of space.
Small garden.
M. feels misunderstood by
neighbors.
Carries Chip on her
shoulder.
Easily hurt and always
going to Administrators
to complain of teacher’s
treatment of Alex.
Opportunity Class.
Co-operative.
Remedial arithmetic.
Willing to work.
Opp. to be in dramatic
Wishes to please.
activities.
Nice singing voice.
Provided instrument
Gifted in dramatics.
Imitates and impersonates for orchestral work.
Refraction.
well.
Endocrine shots*
Conferense with M.
regarding boy’s
guidance.
Positive:
In intent.
Sparsely furnished
clean.
Movie magazines.
Radio.
Average monthly
income— #70.
M. does some
catering.
#20 rent per mo.
M. receivee aid
from State
Relief Adm.
&. wanted a girl.
Dressed him as a
girl when an
infant.
Long hair and
curls until
'7 years.
Moviee— 4 times
a week,
ftorked ae extra
in Motion
Picture
Negative:
No normal home life.
Many Changes.
Insecurity atmosphere.
Negative:
No normal home life.
M ’s. affection is almost
consuming.
No .opportunity of compan; ionship. with men.
Hi’s, attitude indicates
persecution complex.
Results
Poeitive:
Temporary adjustment
while taking
Journalism.
Follow-up
ful counsel­
ling.
Negative.:
Failing in work.
Poor citizenship record,
Spends a great deal of
time with a socially
unadjusted girl.
Teacher complains he
gets nothing
finished.
Goes into tantrums
about .rest period.
ferences with
psychologist.
Improvement in Math.
Better socialization.
ferences with
psychologiet.
Negative:
Continues to be
•effeminate.
106
OLDER SUPERIOR GIRLS
Case
No.
Name
Grade
C.A.
M.A.
356
I.Q..
Race or
Nationality
American
American Indian
English Jewish
descent.
Unadjuetments
Social
Educational
No friends.
Failing in echool
Shunned by other girls.
work
Distains the few
friendly advancse
made.
Most unhappy.
American
English descent.
No friends.
Very unhappy.
Does not confide her
troubles in anyone.
Canadian
Day dreams.
French and Englieh Loitsrs at tasks.
descent.
Abesnt minded.
Resentful of sisters.
Arith. aohieyemnt
Grade 6.7.
Does poorly in
oral work.
Failed in French
and Geography.
Rsferred by
Mother
High School
Counselor.
Mother.
Aunt.
Agencies
Interested
U.S.C.
Sociologiet.
Police Dept.
Co. Charities.
None.
None.
Health Factors
Health record during
early yrs. not good.
Began menetrating at
14— repeated twics
during year^
Undsr-nouri shed.
Low blood pressure.
Anemia.
Diffioulty in develop­
ment.
Parents•
Father
Mother
Full blooded
Attendsd Smith
Sioux Indian.
and Wellesley
Wealth and dis­
Colleges.
tinction.
Peculiar.
Lecturer, doctor,
Dr’s, report—
and authority
sexual
on Indian race.
pervert.
Owns and opsrates
Ill health.
summer health
Probably
camp.
common law
Illigetimate child.
wife 6f
Bruckner.
Other
Stepf. German of
low mentality—
blaeksmith.
Drinks, beats M.
and children.
3 yrs. Indiana
Stats Penn for
larceny.
6 moe. on penal
farm for
attempted
murder.
Half'-Siblings:
Alice— 4^ yrs.
Mary— 3 yre.
Birth, normal— was
Grad. Stanford.
Phi Beta Kappa,
Successful lawyer
wanted.
Stanford.
Normal early develop­
in San Francieoo. Teaoher before
ment.
Flys down to ses
marriage.
Colds, bronchial cough.
them at
La r ^ for age.
intervals.
Childrens diseases.
Nervous tic.
Hands perspire when she
talks.
Pat. Grandf.
Large country home.
lives next door
in friendly
terms but
dominering and
demanding.
Sistsr-in-law
living in home.
Siblings:
Paul— 34 yrs.
Grad. Stanford.
Married manages
estate.
Sibyl— 19 yrs.
Berkeley.
Birth, normal.
3roken ribe— 8 yrs.
General Health— good.
Bites nails.
Cramps at menstural
periods.
Oocasional colds.
Lives with Pat.
Aunt.
Principal of
Elem. School.
B.— Canada.
Calif— 3 yrs.
Moved to ranch in
Canada during
depression.
Returned to
Canada to
keep house
on ranch for
father.
Siblings:
Mary— 34 yrs.
Cosmotologist.
Ruth— 30 yrs.
Business
College.
Economio
Home Environment
Two rooms.
Entire neighborhood
poor.
Above average.
Rented.
Lower duplex.
Ae dirty as
possible for
human habitage.
Furniture' broken
and inadequate.
.
Other Influencing
Extreme poverty.
M. stated F. was
Inadsquate income j
dead. Not eo—
poorly spent.
married to high
Large amount goss
type white
for liquor.
'woman.
M. always loved
nature outdoor
lifs.
After college
lived alone in
log cabin
Grandf. built.
Stepf. suspected
of murder of fnan
whose body was
found hurned
Evidences of
Assets
Attitudes
Soms ability to under­
M. extremely suspicious.
stand her own
Will not answer questions
problem.
about Donna*e birth, her
Interested in going to
marriage, etc.
college and in taking
Ssems to be hiding some­
up Social Work.
thing.
Obssssed with fear.
Child bursts into tears
when oouneelor attempted
to. discuss her problems
with her.
M. president D.A.R, Above average.
Mat. Gdf. wealthy
Entertains and
goes a great
landowner.
No evidence of
deal.
Interested in
lack of funds
operas, reading
but a danger of
disoussing
the estate
current events.
breaking up and
National Social
heing lost.'
Register.
F. hae.to con­
stantly pour
money in the.
estate hecauee
of poor prices
for fruit and
high taxes.
M. states she does Wants her long braids cut
so as to look like the
not livs with F.
other girle.
becaues through
Extremely sensitive about
the restraint
big feet and about
might loose him
preepiration of hands.
altogether.
Flora confides in the maid
Constantly talks
who ie a young Jr.
of "Poor little
College Grad. Maid
Florence" and
brought the girle’
her problem
unkind treatment to Flora
before the child.
to M ’s. attention.
Likes to have hsr
different from
other children.
Opp. for selfimprovement and
development of
personality.
Recreation
facilities.
Disapproved of by
older sisters
and Aunt.
Considered lazy.
1
. -- 1
Aunt hae steady
salary.
Above average.
Adequate for
providing for
and educating
Estelle.
Homesick and lonely for
parents.
States she misses them a
great deal and wishse
they had. taken her back
with them.
Resents her.sisters’
commands.
---- - .
Co-on. of Home
Treatment
tfegative:
Attempted to rehabil­
Mothsr extremely unstable.
itate whols family.
Decams
demanding.
Securred job for F.
Stepf. ie a discreputable
Moved to a new home,
character.
given furniture,
clothes and utensils.
Remained out of echool
one semester to build
up health.
Told how others had met
and conquered similar
problsms.
Results
teentered school.
Doing well in classes.
Negative:
F. continued to.drink
until he lost his
job.
House filthy again.
Intelligent.
Proud.
Has an insight into her
own problem.
Very likeable child.
Interested in writing.
Hair cut.
Girl Scout Camp for
summer.
Enrolled in journalism.
Given sncouragment to
write.
Discontinued quaint
clothes.
Positive:
Send maid and car to take
girls to riding clase.
Gave parties for her.
Won award for essay.
Fond of Aunt.
Seems to appreciate
what she is doing for
her.
Told how proud and
happy her parents
would be to have her
succeed in school.
Aunt took over
supervision
completely.
Positive:
Made 5 R ’s in school.
Given regular recreation
periods, rest, and stricl Adjustment seeme
complete*' •'
supervision.
Encouraged in school work.
Intelligent guidancs.
Record of time spent on
study.
Negative:
M. Very domineering.
Brother and sister-in-law
ignore her.
Seems much happier
.sines her appearance
has changed.
Teachers report better
socialization in
classes.
Follow-un
Counselor
withdrew from
the case
because of
lack of home
co-operation.
County Welfare
. worker
continued.
Arranged Univ.
scholarship
for Donna for
study of
Social Work.
interviews
with
Counselor.
OLDER SUPERIOR GIRLS
UnadJustments
Social
Educational
Trouble maker.
es not work up to
Conasntretes her friend­ capecity.
ship on a chosen few. Disturbing fector.
Snobbish.
insolet.
Undependable— lies.
Unco-opsrative.
Sex problsm.
■Vico, Marjory
Sawyer, Loma
•D'Arvil, Diana
th fear.
Withdraws from social
contacts.
Timid and sensitive.
Afraid of dark, doctors
tsachsrs, etc.
Shy around hoys.
American
English Scottish
dsscsnt.
Health Sectors
Whooping cough.
Fether
B.— Maryland.
47 yrs. old.
Crad. Johns.
Hopkins.
Physician and
B.--Minnesota.
High School Educ.
Calif. 4 yrs.
Assets
Good mind.
Nics looking.
Good health.
Fine home environmsnt.
Musical, piano and
violin.
Treatment
Conferences with
Counselor on person­
ality development.
Recommended books on
charm and character
and.personality
building.
Good mind.
Ability to concentrate
and carry taaks
through to a con­
clusion.
Interested in the study
of birds.
Wants to be an
Ornithologist.
Girls Summer Camp.
Told of her superior
mind and that people
do not remember mis­
takes a child makes.
They are expected.
Extra rest periods
during day.
Discontinued exci.ting
programs' and shows.
Told advisor the reason
shs does not get better
grades is becauss she
talks too much.
This is not true but
evidsntly shs would like
it to be so.
Social distancs between
daughter, and mother and
grandmother.
Conflicts of wills.
11th Grede reading
ability.
Soft spoken
Appropriate clothes
Plays piano.
Progrem changed to
include personal
grooming.
Light'treatment et
clinic for Acne.
Believes herself to be
different than othsr
girls.
-peaks of running awey.
Attempted to drown herself.
Enjoys and has a gift
for writing postry.
Advanced in school for
her ags.
Destined to become a
very beautiful woman.
Grad. Radcliff.
Large
inheritance.
Much above average. Above average.
Spacious home.
Lavishly furnished. - successful Dr.
Gardens.
Outdoor livingroom. Evsry convenience
M. has indspendent
and facility for
income which she
making home life
inherited.
enjoyable.
Attends dancing
school and
riding classes.
M. belonga to
Women's Clubs.
Society minded.
Out of school
2 mos. for trip
to Hawaii with
Mother.
Belongs to several High
School Clubs and condesends towards or ignorss
most classmates and
teachers.
Considered extremsly dieby teachers.
B.— St. Paul,
Minnesota.
High School and
Business
College.
Calif. 4 yrs.
Own six room house. P.T.A. prssidsnt
rsporte drinking
Good rspeir.
parties in the
Plenty of spacs.
home.
Belongs to Camp
Fire Girls,
Long hair.
Takes lunch to
school.
Becomes very sxcited in movies
or in listening
to radio
programs.
Prespires end chews
handkerchlsf,
etc.
Extremsly
sensitive
about Acne.
Wants to have ahort hair
like other girls.
Wishes to sat in School
Cafstsria.
Psychologist traced origin
of fears to Grade V,
where she was held back
after whooping cough.
Introvsrtsd.
Maintains social
distance.
Unresponsive.
Lack of confidence in
her own ability.
Grades C.
Not working up to
capacity.
Beading ability— 11-3.
Arithmetic— 7-2.
Birth, normal.
Height end wsight
normal.
Children’s
T. & A.— 11 yrs.
Acne.
B.— Illinoi
43 yrs.
Housewife.
Not popular with girls
Over-eexed.
Drinks and smokes.
Does poorly in
Math, and Science,
lows no interest
in either.
Birth, normal•
Deceesed, 11 yrs.
Perfect baby.
Aunt a famous
No children's diseases.
artist.
Perfect ettendance
Paintings in the
record in
Louvrs in Paris
snd High School.
Nevsr absent and never,
terdy in the morning.
Graduated from
Mat. grandm.,
Butler
lives in home
• College.
Matriarch typs.
Membsr of topnotch National
Social
Sorority.
Keeps Father's
paints, books,
desk Just as
he left them.
Jr. High Sch.
Robert— 10 yrs.
School.
Six" room stucco
house.
Good residential
action*
Comfortably
furnished.
Piano.
Games end bicycles
for boys.
Loma has her own
room.
Good normal
environment.
Largs old feshioned Rerified esthetic
atmosphere.
home.
Many pictures.
Well furnished.
Evidsncee of
Spacious and
sentimentalism.
convenient.
Antiques.
F. retired on
disability
insurance for
5 year.
Occaaional work es
extre in Motion
Pictures.
M. stsnographer in
County Clsrk's •
Offics.
Citrus marketing.
Averege.
Stsady salery.
Sufficient.
Insurance policy
and annuity.
Won a national
award for poem,
written when
she was 14 yrs.
Was attacksd in
the perk on her
way home from
library.
Taken to Juvenile
Hall Clinic for
• observation.
Co-op.
Negativ
M. took offense at fact
that a defect was found
in girl's personality.
Considers her daughter
socially superior to'
school.
many
M. busy working•
Question of proper
atmosphers from
recrsation stendpoint.
Positive:
F. is interested and
willing to do anything
for Loma's good.
Continued
Negative-:
No improvement noticed.
carsful
guidance
Insufferable ego­
tistical insolence.
Positi
Social adJustmsnt
taking piece.
Old fears gone.
Volunteers in class
occasionally.
Continues to be
extremely retiring.
Still works under
capacity.
Advisor and
Counselor
reports.
Negative:
M. seems interested only
in ths boys while F.
centers his affection o.
Loma.
Special guidance.
Conferences with girl
and mother.
;
Negative:
No appreciable social
Took superior attitude
adjustment.
toward counselor.
Evidently is an idealist.
Unreal atmosphere in home.
M. does not admit she goes
out in ths evening.
Continued
rsports fros
Counselor.
Preparing to i
to State
University.
108
DATA FOE OLDEE SUE-NORMAL BOYS
1— Ca e
No.
j
Name
Grade
G..A.
M.A.
unadjustment s
I,ft.
Nationality
White
English dsscent.
Sooial
Breaks rules.
Insolent to eldere.
Late hours with gang.
Abnormal intsrsst in
girls.
Ran away from horns.
Swears, emokes, drinks.
Mature interests.
Untidy and unclean in
appearancs.
Education
Reading difficulty.
Needs individual
help.
Constant supervision.
Behavior problem in
class.
Insubordination.
Truancy.
Referred bv
Father
Agencies
City Health Dept.
Home Environment
Physical
Cultural
Small frame house.
Untidy.
Semi-rural neighbor­ Evidences of poor
taste in
hood.
Shares room with
furni sMngs.
younger brother
Well equipped,
electric refrig.,
radio, other
electric
appliances.
Economic
Poor co-ordination.
Glandular disturbancs.
Over-weight, grew
rapidly.
Indigestion and
constipation.
Diseased tonsils.
Dental habits, poor.
Bad posture.
Disabled
Intelligent.
unemployable.
Works— day to
Seems intelligent.
day house­
work.
birth, normal.
Mumps— 5 yrs.
Sallow complexion.
Poor posture.
Tires in the afternoon.
Frequent colds.
Evidences of
malnutrition.
Porter in hotel.
Deoeased.
Deformity of chest.
Eye defsct— refraction
not advised by Eye
Clinic doctor.
No'T.B. in family.
Fatigues easily.
Evidenoes of
malnutrition.
Acne.
Birth, -normal.
Chiokenpox— 5. yrs.
Measles— 7 yrs.
T. & A.— 10 yrs.
Underweight.
Poor posture.
Raped 9 yr. old girl.
Language handioap.
Abnormal interest in ' Diffioulty with
girle.
arithmstic.
Insolent to adults.
Behavior problem.
Slinky demeanor.
Insolent.
Undependable.
Show-off in class
Requires individual
supervision.
Tsacher
Probationary
Welfare and
Department.
Attendance
Officer.
County
Probation­
ary Dept.
Rented home, in
Mexican neighbor­
hood .
Sparsley furnished.
Exterior neglected.
Insufficient speoe.
No conveniences'.
Fairly clean.
Barren.
Bed in the livingroom.
Radio.
English speaking.
In U.S.A. for
17 years.
Mother employed on
V/.P.A. Project.
$54 per month.
$20 rent per month.
Supplemented by a
portion of older
boy's earnings.
White
English descent.
Does not sooializs.
Boys all sesm to pick
on him.
Annoys and teases
others.
Slovenly appearance..
Wasteful.
Non-reader.
Truancy.
Hazard in craft'
classes.
Destructive and
wasteful.
Requires constant
supervision.
Teacher.
S.R.A.
In need of repair.
Undesirable
neighborhood.
Crowded living
conditions.
No opportunity for
privacy.
Below average.
Untidy.
Dirty.
Evidences of un­
intelligent
buying and of
extreme care­
lessness with
possessioris.
On relisf.
Sells newspapers,
Subsistance level.
on the streets
Brother, buying a
till late at
oar on a contract
night.'
basis which he
Smokes.
does not under­
Hangs around beer
stand.
parlors and
cocktail
lounges.
.White
Irish descent.
Disloyal- to family.
Sot responsible.
Unstable.
Over-forge tful.
Reading difficulty.
Behavior problem.
Noiey in clase.
Irresponsible.
Poor citizenship
record.
fsacher.
Stspmother.
Divorce court.
Formerly, low-class Stepm. is provid­ F. regularly
boarding house in
ing normal home
employed•in
' crowded urban
atmosphere.
asphalt plant.
district.
Sparsley furnished, Salary $125 per
Spent much time play­ well kept, clean
month.
ing in the streets. and tidy.
Livsd for 1 yr. in
*adio and games.
a trailer.
Pet dogs.
“
Jow, comfortable
home, large yard,
rural neighborhood.
■
Parente
Other Influencing
Mother does house
Smokes, supposedly
work by the day.
to keep down
Salary eupplsmented
weight.
by State Aid.
Older sister,
Rent home $25 per
worldly
month.
attitude, cheap
Buying equipment on
standards.
installment plan. Funny papers,
movies, pulp
magazines.
Abnormal interest
Irresponsible
attitude of M.
Leok of F's.
influence.
Physical maturity,
over-sexed.
Lacks the in­
hibitions and
shyness of
normal
adolescent.
Experienced the
emotional stress
of living with
quarreling
parents who
were finally
divorced.
Necessity for ad­
justment to
eupervision of
stepmother.
Other
1
Evidences of
Asssts
Handsome looking boy.
Ambition to go into the
navy.
Polite, well mannered,
d's. interest.
Treatment
Endocrine treatment.
Refraotion.
Sooial dancing lessons.
3oy Scout membership.
Work permit during
Xmas vacation in
market.
Development class,
suitable curriculum,
close supervision.
Shows abnormal interest in
girls.
Showers attentions on a
different girl in each
class.
Gets too familiar with
girls.
Lazy, pretends language
handioap when required to
do sohool work.
Emotionally unstable and
unreliable.
Handsome.
Juvenile Hall.
Released on probation.
Placed in Welfere
class and later in
Development.
Recommendation of
school administretion.
Sonome, sterilization.
Always in difficulty with
othsr boys.
Careless with his
belongings.
Untidy, dirty, and unkempt.
No sense of moral values,
cheats, lies, and steals.
Interested in arithmetic Placed in Welfare
center end later in
and making money.
Development class.
Wants to own a store
Removed from craft
some day.
classes because of
Polite.
hazard to himself and
others.
Recommendation of
school administration,
Sonoma, sterilization.
Uncle— deceased,
Vet. Eosp. T.B.
Siblings:
Luoillc— 19 yrs.
Telephone Op.
Johnnie--12 yrs.
11. Sohool.
3howe abnormal interest in
girls.
Adult recreation interests,
sophisticated attitude.
Imagination colored by
horror pictures and funny
booka.
Talks of drinking parties.
W»P.A. Sewing
Projeot.
California
5 yrs.
B.— Mexioo,
23 yrs. El
Paso, 'i'exas.
Siblings:
Renaldo— 20 yrs.
Working.
Carmen--17 yrs.
High School.
Jesus— 12 yrs.
El. School.
Apparently ill.
Over-weight.
Unemployable by
inclination.
Lazy.
B.— Arkansas.
Calif. 12 yrs.
First cousin,
deceeeed.
Stepmother.
22 yrs. old.
First cousin.
Siblings:
George— 21 yrs.
Works.
Balf-Silbines:
Mary — 3 yrs.
Harry— 2 yrs.
Sister-in-law,
20 yrs. old.
B.— Oklahoma
Ualif. 0 yrs.
Divorced and
remarried.
b .— uklahoma.
Ualif. 8 yrs.
Divorced.
Chamber maid
in hotel.
Affable, always pleying
jokes and pranks.
Resignsd Student Servics
post because he could
c.c.c.
not bring himself to
report his friends for
Stspmother— 32 yrs.
infractions.
Half-siblings:
Speeks disparagingly of
Jerry— 3 yrs.
parents.
Alice— l£ yrs.
Siblings:
John— 22 yrs.
Army.
Harold— 17 yrs.
Placed in Welfare
Sunny disposition.
center and leter in
Nice looking.
Development class.
Wishes to be good sport.
School doctor's
Popular.'
recommendation
Ambitious to .do well in
removal of T. & A.
echool.
Work in school
Aotiva, not lazy.
cafeteria.
Responsible and honest.
Co-on. of Home
Positive:
M. very oo-opsrative.
Lttitude, excellent.
F. co-opsrative.
Rs suit s
Increased self-respect.
Becoming mors satisfied
with normal life.
Shows interest in work
and pride in
accompli shment.
Follow-un
teacher
continuing to
make home
calls.
Negative:
M. awey from home, has
little time for
Negative:
supervision.
Emotionally unstable.
F. indiffsrent at times,
beats him at others.
Brought child tons from Wash.
Negative:
checks
Showed an improvement
M. unresponsive.
progress,
in citizenship and
Sesms uninterested.
rssponsibility for a • i'eaohers and
Feils to keep
school
period of about six
appointments with school
authorities,
weeks. •
authorities.
taking an
especial
Negative:
interest.
Continues to be a dis­
turbing element in
oless and annoys
girls.
Unreliable, unstable.
Positive:
aohool
Very slight improve­
F. makes a gesture of
ment in socialization. authorities
co-op. with school.
taking an
especial
Negative:
interest.
Stepm. immature, busy wilh Continues to be a
misfit.
younger children, un­
Continues in eaocial
interested.
bshavior.
F. fails to carry out any
No improvement in
plan of regular
school work.
supervision.
Positive:
F. very strict in enforc­ Marked improvsment in
school work,
ing rules he considers
attitudes and
for the child's good.
intarests.
Stepm. carsfully supervis­
ing and affectionately
Nsgative:
caring for the child.
Continues to be slight
disciplinary problem
in class.
teacher
continues to
make home
cells for the
purpose of
co-ordinating
school and
home
resources.
Rand olph, Rodney I
^Kationj^itjr
^unintelligible
spirit of play.
JPtyrsyja^
■[principal
Mother
Women'e Collage
Spacious.
Well kept.
Fashionable
neighborhood.
Inatrumental delivery.
Foreign langHospital for 1 year,
si. sure Rodney is bright
' but Just misunderstood
by teachers.
>f large'
caps creatln ■
Highly succassful,
Upset that Rodney is placed
Follow—UP
IContinued
raports from
Q,ulet natured,
psychologiet ragarding
management of handi-
ISiblings:
Collags education.
personality
devalopment
possible.
aatablished by
Bacon, Joseph
M. seems to have takan a
personal dislike to
taacher.
Over-amb'itioue for child.
Considering his handicaps
and incapabilities.
No young children to play
Raports from
Upper
[Picking up
Educationally
retarded.
Poor spaech habits,
BIO, Jordan
delinquency.
— protruding teath.
Largs for age— 117 It
Parents expressed"
thing for
family house 1:
neighborhood m
up of chiefly
Provided with bicycla to
responsibilities.
with parents.
Speach Corraction Clase. [parants interested and
Arranged spacial permit I willing to help.
Negroae pre-j
financially unable to-do
No further evidanc'es
of sex dalinquency.
Speach improved.
Naw mannerisms
substituting old.
Nagativa:
Isduc ational
Bav. High School.
Undapendable.
Irratic.
Poor citizenship.
heading difficulty. •
Behavior problem.
Principal.
High School
Small._frame single
INeat, clean,
house.
Providad by Forestry [opportunity for
No citations from
spending money
progress shown.
F. away from home a good
deal.
M. unable to control him.
[improvement in
Nagative:
Unable to do work
requiring abstract
thinking.
Movies 4 timas per wk.
reports from
OLDER SUB-NORMAL GIRLS
Case
• No.
Name
Grade
C.A.
M.A.
I.Cj.
Nationality
American
Irish descent.
Mexican descent.
Mexican and
Indian desoent.
Unglish descent.
.
1
Unadjustmen bs
Social
Does not take part in
games.
Extremely ehy.
Feels awkward.
Truancy.
Dirty and untidy
personal appearance.
Educational
Poor attendance.
Refuses to recite.
Timid in class.
Works much below
grade level.
Poor attendance.
No interest in school
work.
Forged teacher’s name
to a pass.
Truancy.
Insolent.
Does not- play games.
Dirty.
Cuts clase.
Unexcused absences.
Bad attitude toward
school•
Shop lifting. '
Leadsr of gang of •
asocial girls.
Sobbed liquor store.
Wrecked nurse’s room
at' school. •
Cuts class.
Unexcused, absences.
Bad attitude toward
school.
Referred bv
high Sohool
Counselor.
High Sohool
Counselor.
Attendance
and Welfare
Officer.
Prihoipal.
Ageno iee
Interested
N. Y. A.
S. R. A.
Outside Medical
Relief.
County Hsalth
Department.
Health Factors
Birth, normal.
Underweight.
Frequent colds.
Negative Mantous.
tfeeth nsed care.
Evidences of
malnutrition.
Po sitive— Man toux.
Gen. Hospital.
Pediculosis.
B.I.R.
Scabiss.
Juvenile Hall.
Good otherwise.
Prob. Dept.
Catholic Welfare.
S.R.A.
Attendance,
Prob. Dept.
No unfavorable faotors
and Welfare Juvenile Rail.
noted.
Officer.
Goodwill
Principal.
Industries.
White Mem. Clinio.
---------------1
i
Parents
Father
B.— Missouri.
38 yre. old.
El. Sch. Educ.
Cabinet maker.
B,— Mexioo.
In U.S.A. 15 yrs*
B.— Mexioo.
Unemployed.
Deceased.
Mother
B,— Missouri.
34 yrs. old.
El. Sch. Educ.
Frail, under­
nourished.
B.— Mexico.
Does not' epeak
English.
Other
Siblings
Doranoe— 9 yrs.
B4 grade.'
Sharon--11 yrs.
B6 grade.
Two others —
decsased.
Home Environment
Home made trailer.
No privacy. •
Inconvenient.
Inadequate housing.
Siblings
Small frame house.
Roney— 15 yrs.
Mex. neighborhood.
B9 grade.
State of disrepair.
Miquel— 13 yrs.
A7 grade.
Carmelita— 12 yre.
B7 grade.
Impoverished
environment.
Clean.
Bare home.
Bed, one chair,
dresser in
livingroom.
Table and stove
in kitchen*
No running water.
Devout Catholics.
B.— Mexico.
Understands
English but
speaks
Spanish'in
home.
Fairly good.
Spanish spoken
Siblings :
Rented house — five
in home.
Tony— 28 yrs.
rooms.
Henry— 25 yrs.
Rather crowded.8hoe repairs.
Fabia— 24 yrs.
L.A.City College.
Manuel— 20 yrs.
' Shoe repairs.
Arthur— 17 yrs.
Josephine—
married.•
Abraham~ll yrs.
B.— Indiana.
Divorced..
Remarried
deserted by
Stepfather.
Poor health.
Stepf s. where­
abouts
unknown.
Single apt.
Poorly furnished.
Poor seotion of city. Unattractive.
Undesirable
Inconvenient.
surroundings.
Unwholesoms
atmosphere.
Economio
Other Influencing
Evidences of
Asks teacher before class
"Please do not call upon
Inadequate income.
M. worked harvest­
ing nute.
F. cabinet maker
but does odd
jobs.
Laok of funds.
Frequent moves
in search of
work.
Inadequate income.
B.I.R.
Rented houss.
Evidences of
malnutrition.
Msx. home
atmosphere.
Parents not
adjusted to
American way of
life.
M. is afraid Maria will
soon be too old to get
married.
#61. State Aid .per
month.
Augmented by
children’s
earning.
Spends time with
asocial
companions.
Private Sohool—
Our Lady of .
Soledad.
Older brothers willing to
furnish information and
do all they can to help.
$29.37— total
family income
per month.
M. helped her maks a drees
two spending
of stolen material.
money.
Undisturbed by evidences
Private School
of Verna’s stealing
. 1 yr.— St. MaryB.
episodes.
Pleasing smile.
Not pretty but comely.
Q,uiet voice.
Clean' and neat.
Sews well.
Artistic.
Treatment
Placed in Dsv. Class.
Given functional
ourrioulum.
Cooking, sewing and
craft.
N.Y.A. employment .at
school as teacher’s
helper.
Works in cafeteria
for her lunch.
Girls Welfare Csnter.
Dental care at echool
clinic.
Corrective gym.
Results
Co-on. of Home
Positive:
In eo far as possible.
Physical improvement.
Better attendance.
Enjoys her nsw
classes.
Negative:
Abnormal home situation.
Negative:
'tow achievement inaoademic work. ,
Still extremely ehy.
Negative;
M. thinks she should be
marrisd.
Bettsr school
attendance.
Enjoys her classes..
Improved health.
Negative:
Continues -to need
oareful supervision.
Friendly.
Rather good looking.
Agreeable.
Clevsr in a cunning way.
Demoted in English.
class.
Placed in Girls
Welfare.
Given record card for
cleanliness.
Girls Welfare. Center.
Adjusted ourrioulum.
Chance to work in
sohool cafeteria to
earn spending money.
Juvenile Hall for
observation.
Positive:
Fairly good.
Older brother’sinfluences are good*
Improvement in
attitude toward
echool.
Negative:
F. Is disinterested.
M. overworked and
dominated by F.
Negative:
Still requires oare­
ful supervision.
Negative:
M. undependable and
,rather disinterested.
Positive.
Temporary improvement
in attitude and
attendance.
No recurrence of
stealing.
Negative:
Adjustment incomplete.
1
-
i
Follow-un
Counselor.
Reports.
.reports..
OLDER SUB-NORMAL GIRLS
Jackson,
Carnathia
Fueano, Jo
Romanoff,. Vera
Race or
Nationality
American
Negro descent.
American
Italian descent.
American
Russian descent.
Unadjustments
Social
" Bad temper.'
Fights.
Boy crazy.
Loiters on way home
from school.
Educational
Struck teacher.
Poor record in
academic work and
citizenship.
"Disagreeable and
Educationally
unfortunate
retarded.
disposition.
Illegal absenoes.
Morose, sullen.
Seems unable to adjust
to new personalities.
"Unhealthy attitude.
No control of temper—
psychopathic ragee.
Fights.
I
Discouraged and
indifferent in
class.
Unable to do academic
work satisfactorily.
Fought on campus.
Bit and scratched
other girl.
Referred by
Principal'
Girl’s
Counselor.
Health Factore
iNormal development.
[Good physique.
No' unfavorable factors
noted.
"Endocrine disturbance.
Much overweight.
General health— good.
"Birth, normal.
Good care as an infant
by parents who were
very fond of her.
Good co-ordination.
Splendid physical
development.
Siblings;
Ethel— 17 yTs
John— 1 3 .yrs.
i— 12 yrs.
Lsrry— 9 yre.
Jerry— 7 yre *
--Pennsylvania
15 yre. in Oalif.
Hardworking,
honest.
B.— Italy.
Came to California
23 yrs. ago.
Retired.
.Killed in
automobile
accident when.
Vera was 6 mos
old.
B .— Italy.
Came to Calif.
23 yre. ago.
Si'blin'gsT
Tony— 24 yrs.
Married.
Alberto— 22 yre.
Working*
Tina— 19 yrs.
•Married.
Home Environment1
Physical ___________ Cultural
Small frame house in Home was- kept
by oldest
semi-rural
daughter until
neighborhood.
ehe married.
Returned home
after two years
with- infant son.
Deserted by
husband.Filthy dirty.
Two story frame
house.
Good repair.
Painted white,
.rden and lawn.
Old section of city
Family life very
congenial. .
Loyalty of
Above average.
Own several pieces
of property.
Italian grocery.
Older eieter very
beautiful.
Contrast ie very
great.
Indulged by i',,
being his'
baby girl.
Aunt— works as
maid and
janltress at •
the City Mueeum.
Small regular
salary.
Aid from State for
Yerh.
The Uncle’e .un­
Yera has a hietory of.
stability has
having several.fighte in
her keyed up to
elementary school.
extremely high
disrespectfully and
emotional'
pitch.
She is often the
subject of!
Uncle*e drunken
arguements.
Her aunt occasion­
ally drinks also
and .told Yera
she would have
to leave.
Sugra'd insecurity.
Comfortably
furnished.
Italian'epoken in
home.
Devout Catholics.
Lives with Mat.
Dilapidated uplex in Clean but barren.
Window boxes andstate of extreme
Aunt and
tin cans filled
husband, who
disrepair.
with plants on
drinks a great School playground
cross the street.
front porch.
deal.
Spells when he is
mentally
has awakened
to find him
standing over
her threatening
her with, a
weapon.
Placed in Paton
twice.
Lack of M ’s.
i rough .
guidance and
Brags about what ehe
proper parental
would do.
supervision,
Feele no disgrace in her
ny acquaintances
unhealthy conduct.
among delinquent
girls.
Thinks herself ugly.
Seldom smiles.
Slow to make friends.
Accuses teachers of "no.t
knowing much.”
Is hungry for admiration
and friendship.
Embarrassed around boys.
Assete_______
Good worker.
Likes to cook.
Fond of brothers.
Likes children.
Can be pleaeant at
times.
Treatment_______
Girl’s Welfare Center.
Individual attention
and supervision.
Definite ability to do
copy typing, accurate
and at high speed.
Girl’s Welfare Center.
Helped in school office
Typing.
Glandular treatment.
Co-0£^fHome
Poeitive:
Improvement in
attitude and
demeanor.
Negative;
Job of supervision and
guidance too much for F.
Abnormal home life.
Interested in sports.
Arranged for her to
Good sense of timing and
play tennis one
fine co-ordination.
period a day. Y/ith
special emphasis-on
sportsmanship and
manners.
Enterred City Playground
Tennis Tournament.
Arranged for her to
live in home .minding
Welfare tescher gained
confidence of parents
who were very
co-operative.
Negative:
Decame pregnant.
Excluded from school.
Married at F ’e.
insistence to
High School boy.
"Working in F ’
'grocery store.
Meets customer*
Perfect attendance
pleasantly.
record for 1 year.
Corresponds
Graduated on a
with former
certificate.
Teacher.
Spent one semester
Poet Grad.
Works in F ’s'. grocery.
Poeitive:
Learned the game
quickly,
on a trophy in the
tournament of which
she was very proud
though embarrassed
when she displayed
it.
Prob. Offioer.
Welfare
Teacher.
CHAPTER VIII
FINDINGS
Analysis of the causes of una d ju stments and bases of
treatments,
unadjustments come about in the normal course
of the social processes of communication, conflict, compe­
tition, accommodation, and assimilation.
In this dynamic
series the individual may experience blockings because of his
failure to define the situation correctly, or because of
divergent attitudes which result in overt acts that are
anti-social.
Because of the complex nature of society, and of the
personality integration of the individual, these processes
are not isolated.
Unadjustment seldom takes place because
of one single factor.
The interaction of the units of
society and the inter-relationship of the social processes
make it necessary to indicate factors which appear to be of
major importance in the directing of behavior toward
fulfillment of the wishes for security, response,
recognition, and new-experience, in gaining ultimate
assimilation or complete socialization.
The trained case worker realizes that the cause of
the unadjustment is seldom a simple, single force.
The
person attempting to rehabilitate the unadjusted child first
determined what he believed to be the major cause in order
113
to attack the situation.
The therapeutic treatment has all
been based on the definition of the cause and has been
successful to the extent that the diagnosis is correct.
To the extent that a nei attitued was substituted conduct
was modifiable.
A brief statement of the causes of the unadiustments
and bases for the treatments in the cases studied follows.
Evidence in Case One revealed the fact that the child
suffered from a sense of insecurity due to the care and
attention required by the■younger children in the family.
When he felt that his parents were interested in his
accomplishments much of his anti-social conduct'disappeared.
Case Two required re-educating the adults in the .
family in order that the child might thro?; off feelings of
inferiority caused by excessive adult interest and
attention.
Case Three had the doubly difficult feature of
extremely limited mental ability coupled with the domination
of a mother whose attitude was definitely warped toward
society.
It is not strange that little that was constructive
was accomplished under these circumstances.
Culture conflicts and social distance characterize
the difficulty in Case Four where Mexican peon parents had
been unable to accommodate themselves to the new and complex
situation in which they found themselves.
Improvement came
114
through a sense of success through accomplishment.
The far reaching social process of competition upset
the equilibrium of the whole family in the instance of
Case Five.
.The boy was only one of a family that had a
difficult time adjusting to a new’ economic status.
Emotional
instability and worry on the part of his parents made it
harder for him to make his own adjustment.
This was finally
done by building up a sense of .self-reliance through his
own accomplishment.
Case Six had a difficult adjustment to make in
accommodating herself to a strict regime after carelessly
supervised life in Chicago.
The facts that she suffered
from a sense of insecurity and lack of response, 'and lacked
companionship of her own age added to her problem.
Race conflict was responsible for much of the
braggadocio of Case Seven.
Race prejudice had caused him
to react in a bullying manner.
His conduct was found to
be his method of compensating for his own educational and
social short-comings.
Undesirable companions substituted attitudes in the
mind of Case Eight until her conduct was opposed to the
values of society.
Improvement in this case also was
brought about through achievement.
Much of the anti-social conduct of Case Nine disap­
peared when he received recognition and gained status in
115
the eyes of his peers through musical accomplishment.
Over-solicitous parents did much to stifle and warp
the personality growth of Case Ten.
In so far as'this was
relieved the child reacted normally.
How hard it is for a child to react to divided
authority is demonstrated by Case Eleven.
In addition the
frequent adjustments and sense of impermanence contributed
to his difficulty.
There was little the school could do in
this case since the co-operation of the home ?^as imperative.
Case Twelve’s temper tantrums were a direct play for
status.
He lacked recognition in his home.
The motherTs erroneous defining of the situation
seems to have affected the boy’s conduct in Case Thirteen.
The attitude of the mother was superimposed upon the child.
Case Fourteen is an example of .the nervous tension
that may result from conflict in the child’s mind over
divergence in parental attitudes and treatment.
Little could be accomplished in Case Fifteen with
the physical defect and negative home environment.
Case Sixteen had the handicaps of a mother fixation
and no training in the control of-emotions to overcome in
his relation to secondary groups.
Personality disorganization was brought about in
Case Seventeen by the abnormal situations inherent in
professional entertaining.
This also was true in
116
Case Twenty-one.
In Case Eighteen economic stress and worry was
reflected in the childfs behavior.
In Case.Nineteen the physical' endowment of the child
was so much below normal that medical treatment was of
primary importance and prerequisit to any other plan.
Case Twenty had difficulty in adjusting to the social
and educational life of school when the home atmosphere w a s ’
filled with attitudes of musical competition rather than of
understanding, affection, and guidance.
The desire for new experience coupled with a sense
of failure in school was responsible for the running away
of Gase Twenty-two.
The sense of security was needed to be built up
carefully, and patiently in the child in Case Twenty-three
by the ps37’ehological methods in order to overcome early
established jhobias.
The desire for adventure coupled with the psychological
effect of a broken home were responsible for the truancy and
sex delinquency of Case Twenty-four.
Physical, defects coupled with parental illness and
economic- stress prevented normal personality growth in Case
Twenty-five.
Twenty-six and Twenty-seven both suffered from
endocrine disturbances.
The emotional life of an individual
117
is dependent upon the glandular functioning to such an
extent that some authorities believe all anti-social conduct
can "be traced to the failure of the glands to function in
harmony.
In both these cases the problem was attacked by
endocrine treatment.
In the former, social.distance ?*as
enhanced by the physical defect of deafness which has
disasterous affects upon personality growth.
Case Twenty-nine was impossible to cope with in the
schools because of the serious physical handicap of
cerebral irritation.
Unfortunate home background, the mother’s anti-social
attitude and sexually immoral conduct, coupled with the
child’s early experiences of sex brought about an emotional
.response of stealing and other behavior problems that taxed
the resoursefuln'ess of the school facilities in rehabilitat­
ing Case Thirty.
Broken homes added to the difficulties of the
children in Thirty-one and Thirty-two to adjust to the
social order.
The former child also suffered from social
distance brought about by the great divergence in age of
the grandmother and herself, while the latter child’s atti­
tudes were colored by the drunkenness of her mother.
Destructive attitudes brought on by auto-eroticism
and exhibited in stealing were dealt with in Case Thirtythree by glandular treatment and.a careful program planned
118
to build up confidence and respect for herself and in
this way substituting new attitudes.
Social distance, culture lag, and divergence of
attitudes were basic to the unadjustments in the next three
cases where- Italian, Mexican, and Japanese parents hadfailed -to become'assimilated into American•society.
Case Thirty-sevenrs difficulties were brought on by
a sense of failure and a desire for recognition.
Here again
success through achievement proved a reconstructive plan.
The “values of society and the attitudes of a
bootlegger parent brought about conflicts and emotional
blockings in Case, Thirty-eight that called for rehabilita­
tion of the parent first.
Thirty-nine was the victim of the great race problem
of the Negro in America.
"Passing” and other dishonest
conduct was a result of his attempt to define and meet his
situation.
.Social distance was exhibited in Case Forty where
attitudes of the child and his elderly parents could not
meet on the same social plane.
In Case Forty-one the conflict of American ideals
and aristocratic home atmosphere was augmented by the dis­
agreement of ambitions between the boy and his mother.
The
suicide of the boyTs father added to his emotional stress.
There is little the school can hope to accomplish other than
119
to afford him one stable and secure influence in his life.
Lack of security is felt by the boy in Case Fortytwo. and he finds it increasingly difficult to adjust to
new home situations which he is required to do.
Case Forty-three is an instance of endocrine dis­
turbance coupled with a mother fixation which is resulting
in homo-sexual tendencies.
Adjustment is possible only in
so far as the influences of the school can counteract the
emotional stress brought on by the mother’s affectionate
suffication.
In Case Forty-four the child exhibits an emotional
disturbance brought on bjr the mother’s failure to adjust to
life, by being an illegitimate child, and experiencing the
breaking up of his home, which the school authorities have
little chance to redirect until a more suitable home
situation can be established.
The girl in Case Forty-five is the victim of the
mother’s attempt to project her personality on a child who
is otherwise without recognition in the family.
Her lack
of status if further augmented by social distance between
children of her own age brought on by differences in dress.
This was the first point of attack by the school counselor.
Case Forty-six discloses the difficulty of an adoles­
cent girl in adjusting to the complex life in a large city
high school after spending her childhood on a Canadian farm.
120
Forty-seven brings out the conflicts arising from a
superiority complex planted by the mother whose attitudes
do not conform to the standards of the community.
Symptoms of withdrawal in Case Forty-eight are
probably due to a sense of shame at the drinking parties
and other socially unacceptable standards of the home.
Lack of response from the mother is probably the
underlying cause of the anti-social conduct in Case Fortynine .
The mother in Case Fifty is not defining and meeting
the situation correctly.
lack of control.
emotional strain.
This is causing social distance and
Unfortunate sex experience added to .the
In the preceding four cases, treatment for
the social and educational unadjustments had to extend to
the home.
In Case Fifty-one the desire for new experience
coupled with and endocrine distrubance caused the boy to
become a non-conformist.
Glandular treatment 'and
opportunity for self-expression were provided by the school
with very good results.
In Case Fifty-two a broken home and culture conflict
exhibited their effect in sex delinquency in the child.
The
problem was one of building new attitudes.
Home standards much lower than those of the community
coupled with a mental deficiency presented an insurmountable
121
obstacle to the school authorities in Case Fifty-three.
The emotional stress of a divorce in the family is
probably the cause of the anti-social conduct of the child
in Case Fifty-four.
In Case Fifty-five the allowances made for physical
handicaps thwarted the normal personality development of the
child.
This called for special guidance of the parents as
well as careful control of the situation in the school.
Financial problems and race conflicts necessitated -a
change of standards that brought about conflicting attitudes
in Case Fifty-six.
The boy in Case Fifty-seven attempted to compensate
for his failures and eyesight handicap by anti-social be­
havior.
His desire for new experience was met to his
physical and social detriment by the motion pictures.
Financial inadequacy set the girl in Case Fiftyeight aside from her fellows and caused her to withdraw from
social contact.
Therapeutic treatment was based on attem.pt
to establish a sense of securitj^ in her.
Case Fifty-nine and Sixty both exhibited the un­
adjustments children experience when their parents are
unable to accommodate themselves to the standards of the
communi ty.
Case Sixty-one is another instance of the reaction to
the attempt to adjust to two moral codes, the one of the
122
home and the one of the group.
Lack of supervision along with the emotional stress
called up by encounters with race prejudice presented a
problem of character building to the school authorities in
Case Sixty-two*
The Italian girl in Case Sixty-three improved in her
conduct and physical appearance with endocrine treatment
administered at the school clinic.
Emotional instability in the home and culture con­
flicts were the basis for the unadjustments of the girl in
Case Sixty-four.
A boarding home and a chance to excell
aided in her rehabilitation.
As was formerly stated, unadjustments may be brought
on by many inter-related causes.
The person attempting to
redirect aid rehabilitate an individual first determines
what may be of major Influence in order to prescribe treat­
ment and -provide aid.
the cases studied.
This was the method of procedure in
JMo determination of the ratio of the
causes was attempted.
Analysis of data.
Of the sixty-four cases studied
and treated in the Los Angeles City Public Schools, fiftyone showed improvement in adjustment..
79.68 per cent of the total.
This constituted
Sixteen cases, or 25 per cent
made adjustments that appeared complete.
Thirty-five cases,
123
or 54.6 per cent, showed a partial or incomplete, adjust­
ment.
Thirteen cases, or 20.3 per cent of .those studied,
showed no apparent improvement in adjustment.
For thy-three cases, or 67,2 per cent of the total
number of children studied, came from normal homes, while
twenty-one cases, or 32.8 per cent, came from broken homes
caused by death, separation, or divorce.
Fifteen children,
or 94 per cent of those who apparently made a complete ad­
justment, came from normal homes.
Only one child, or
6 per cent of those who made an adjustment, came from a
home which lacked the harmonious relationships of both
parents.
Five of the thirteen, or 38.4 per cent of the
children who failed to make an adjustment, came from normal
homes while eight, or 61.6 per cent of these children, came
from broken homes.
In forty-seven or 73.5 per cent of the total number
of cases of unadjusted children, there were negative ele­
ments in the co-operation of the home.
In only seventeen,
or 26.5 per cent of the cases the home, could be considered
wholly co-operative in intent and actuality.
In fifty-two, or 81.2 per cent of the total number of
cases there is a follow up.
These cases were brought to the attention of the
Division of Psychology and Research Guidance by teachers,
principals, 'mothers, fathers, other relatives, Welfare and
124
Attendance Officers, and other persons.
The following general types of unadjustments
appeared; abnormal personality developments, such as with­
drawal, or bullying; lieing; stealing; sex delinquency;
disregard of authority; disobedience; and truancy.
The assets of the child were discovered and utilized
in the treatment recommended and administered.
Interpretation of data.
In interpreting this data
the following conclusions may safely be drawn.
Social and
educational unadjustments among children in the Los Angeles
City Public Schools are related to personality and emotional
responses rather than to innate intelligence.
Unadjustments
occur in both the superior and sub-normal groups.
Because of the intangibility of many of these unadjust­
ments there is no scale for determining the degree of un­
adjustment.
undiscovered.
Many delinquent tendencies, and acts may go
The innate intelligence of the child may aid
him to appear to conform to a greater extent than the child
who is not so cunning.
Unadjustments which cause the child
to withdraw may have as devastating personality results as
unadjustments which cause the child to satisfy his ego by
making a play for attention..
The latter is more easily
perceived'yet the degree of unadjustment may be just as
great in the former.
This study, therefore, only indicates
125
the unadjustments that exist and not the degree of the
unadjustments. ■
The causes of unadjustments can in most cases by
clearly perceived in health factors, parental relationships,
other relative:
influences, economic factors, cultural back­
grounds, companions, interests, recreation, neighborhoods,
and other influencing factors*
The study does not attempt
to establish the relative relationship of these causes
since this belongs to the realm of psychiatry and social
pathology.
The fact that 94 per cent of those making a
complete adjustment came from normal homes shows a
positive element.
The interest of the teacher is attested to by the
fact that in many instances the case has been originally
called to the attention of counselor of psychologist by
the child’s teacher.
Much of the treatment in each case
has been administered by the beacher.
In many cases the
follow-up is carried on by the teacher.
The adherents of Gestalt psychology will find that
this study substantiates the fact that the child in school
is an integral part of the whole child.
He brings his
outside experience-background with him.
The negative
element;, of the home co-operation is a potent factor in
retarding adjustment.
Many of the unadjustments of- the
children are direct results of unadjustments of the home
126
life.
This may he caused from attitudes and values,
economic status, social distance, etc.
The extent to which the Los Angeles Public City
Schools'meet and treat the problem of children who are
unadjusted has been indicated by the discription of the
educational facilities offered the mentally exceptional
child, and the socially unadjusted child.
It also is
indicated by the treatment recommended and administered.
The results can be-said to be definitely positive.
Any child who is socially and educationally unadjusted is a
potential ward of the state and is in danger of sooner or
later becoming an inmate of a criminal or mental institution.
The fact that the study shows 79.68 per cent showing
improvement in adjustment and 25 per cent becoming adjusted
justifies the additional expense and attention given these
children in the Los Angeles Public City Schools.
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128
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212 pp.
Wallin, J. E. Wallace, Personality Adjustment and Mental
Hygiene. New York: McGraw-Hill Company, 1923. 511 pp.
Watson, Maud E., Children and Their Parents. New York:
F. S. Crofts, and Company, 1932. 362 pp.
Watson, John B., Lectures in Print: Behaviorism. New York:
People’s Institute Publishing Company, 1925. 251 pp.
Wickman, E.-'Koster, ChildrenTs Behavior and Teacher ’s
Attitudes. New York:
The Commonwealth Fund, Division
of Publications, 1928. 247 pp.
155
B.
UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS
Armstrong, Caroline, "Procedures in Opportunity B Rooms
Socializing Maladjusted pupils." Unpublished MasterTs
Thesis, The University of Southern California, Los
Angeles, 1932. 83 p.
Barker, Alma Louise, "Correlation Bet?jeen Intelligence and
Home Conditions."
Unpublished Master’s Thes.is, The
University .of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1923.
63 p.
Butler, William. Fay, "Effects of Motion Pictures upon
Junior High School Children." Unpublished Master’s
Thesis, The university of Southern California, Los
Angeles, 1932. 85 p.
Douglass, Inez Dunham, "A Study of the Causes of Truancy
Among G-irls." Unpublished Master’s Thesis, The
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1921.
48 p.
Foster, Alice May, "Relation of Inadequate Parental Control
to Truancy Among G-irls.". Unpublished Master’s Thesis,
The University of Southern California, Los Angeles,
1922.
73 p.
Fisher, Leonards, "The Life Histories of Twenty Maladjusted
G-irls." Unpublished Master’s Thesis, The University of
Southern California, Los Angeles, 1927.
74 p.
Fowler, Rosalie Bunker, "A Case Study of the Causes of
Delinquency Among School Girls." Unpublished Master’s
Thesis., The University of Southern California, Los
Angeles, 1922.
60 p.
French, Hettie Peary, "Juvenile Delinquency in a Selected
Area of Los Angeles." Unpublished Master’s Thesis, The
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1933.
49 p.
Gough, Susanne, "A Study of the Inter-relations Between
Retardation and Certain Social Factors in Junior High
School Pupils." Unpublished Master’s Thesis, The
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1929.
106 p.
136
Huston, Mabel Wallace, "Social Aspects of Truancy."
Unpublished Master’s Thesis, The University of
Southern California, Los Angeles, 1929. 149 p.
Lichley, Ernest Jameson, "Social and Educational Study of
1,554 Cases of Truancy in Special Schools of Los
Angeles." Unpublished Master’s Thesis, The University
of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1918. 101 p.
McHenry, Aileen.Dorothy, "The Relative Utility of Certain
Home Rating Scales for Use in Social Case .Work.” Un­
published .Master’s Thesis, The University of Southern
California, Los Angeles, 1932. 124 p.
Nimkoff, Meyer Francis, "Social Distance Between Child and
Parent." Unpublished Doctor’s dissertation, The
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1928.
402 p.
Ovenburg, Dorothy C., "Social Analysis as a Tool in Case
Work.” Unpublished Master’s Thesis, The University
of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1932. 84 p.
Overholtzer, K. Mildred,' "Sex Behavior Among Adolescent
Girls." Unpublished Master’s Thesis, The University
of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1928. 135 p.
Perry, Harold Elbert, "The 'Correlation Between Intelligence
and Home Conditions of Twenty-five Superior and Twentyfive Sub-normal Boys." Unpublished Master’s Thesis,
The University of Southern California, Los Angeles,
1924. 64 p.
Repetshnig, Elizabeth, "Mental and Social Age: Correlation
of Intelligence and Social Behavior." Unpublished
Master’s Thesis, The University of Southern California,
Los Angeles, 1931. 101 p.
Sargent, llise Hitt, "Study of Girls Welfare Centers in Los
Angeles." Unpublished Master’s Thesis, The University
of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1932. 157 p.
Tewater, Maria M . , "Some Sociological' Aspects of ParentChild Relationships as They Appear in Behavior Problems
of Children." Unpublished Master’s Thesis, The
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1928.
119 p.
137
Watson, Homer K . , "Causes of Delinquency Among Fifty Negro
Boys Assigned to Special Schools." Unpublished
Master1s Thesis, The University of Southern California,
Los Angeles, 1923.
68 p.
Worrell, Doris Rhoda, MLeisure Time Habits of Adolescent
Delinquent Uirls.” Unpublished MasterTs Thesis, The
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1931.
247 p.
Young, Pauline V., rTAssimilation Problems of Russian
Molokans in Los Angeles.” Unpublished Doctorfs
Dissertation, The University of Southern California,
Los Angeles, 1930.
276 p.
138
C.
PERIODICAL ARTICLES
Crichton-Miller, Hugh, "The Home Background of the Pupil,"
Mental Hygiene 16, January, 1932.
Giddings, Franklin H. , "Further .Inquiries of Sociology,"
Papers, Proceedings, Publications of American Sociological
Socity, 15, 1920.
Owens, Albert A . , "The Behavior Problem Boy," Journal of
Educational Research, October, 1929.
Small, Maurice H., "On Some Psychical Relations of Society
and Solitude,” Pedagogical Seminary, VII, April, 1900.
13-69.
Spearman, C . , "General Intelligence, Objectively Determined,”
American Journal of Psychology, XV, 1904.- 201-293 pp.
Voelker, P. E . , "The Function of ideals and Attitudes in
Social Education," Teachersf College Journal, Columbia
Dniversity, Dew York, 1921.
Zubin, Joseph, "Some Effects of Incentives," Department of
Elementary School Principals Fifteenth Yearbook, N. E. A.
New York, Teachers’ College Columbia University, 1932.
60 pp.
D.
PUBLICATIONS OF LEARNED ORGANIZATIONS
Danielson, Cora Lee, "Opportunity Classes", Schools and
Classes for Exceptional Children: The Children With a
Problem, (Los Angeles, California: Los Angeles School
District, School Publication Do. 315, 1938) p. 5.
, "Special Classes for Highly Endowed Children:
Opportunity A Rooms" Fourth Yearbook of the Division of
Psychology and Educational Research Los Angeles City .
Schools, School Publication, Ho. .211, 1931. P. 69.
Martin, Mary Frances, "Special Classes and Centers for
Mentally Defective Children,” Fourth Yearbook of the
Division of Psychology and Research Los Angeles City
Schools, Tlos Angeles, California: Los Angeles 'City
School District School Publication Ho. 211, 1931).
p . 118.
Martin, Mary Frances, "Development Schools and Classes"
Schools and Classes for Exceptional children: The
Child wi th a Problem" [Los Angeles, California:
Los Angeles School District, School Publication No. 315,
1938).
p. 10.
Outline of Procedure for Educational Guidance in Elementary
Schools"(Revised February, 1939) Los Angeles City School
District, Division of instruction and Curriculum,
Educational Research and Guidance.
APPENDIX
141
Registration card for principal’s office
Name
Address
Phone
Address
Phone
Parent
B irth
Birthplace
C LASS A N D R O O M N O .
Xgn.
A dj.
1
1 B1
1
| B2
1
Dev.
| B3
1
Opp.
|B 4
1
1A l
l
1A 2
1
1 A3
1
1A 4
D A TE OF E, ETR , ETRS
1
| B5
A5
1
| B6
A6
1
| B7
A7
1
| B8
A8
1
I
1
|
1
|
1
|
F rom
Moved to
D ate L e ft
C ards S ent
R E G IS T R A T IO N C A R D F O R P R IN C IP A L ’S O F F IC E
F o rm 34-E-2— 220M— 1-39
Attendance card
Grade
Room
SurnameFirst
Parent
Address
Phone
Race
Birthdate
Otherchildreninfamily________________________
1st week
2ndweek
3rdweek
4th week
1st month
2nd
1
■i
3rd
4th
5th,
■1i
6th
7.th
8th "
9th
10th
FORM
3 4 - E - 3 - - 1 5 0 M --2 -3 9
142
Admission, discharge, and promotional card
1. L a s t N a m e
2. F ir s t N a m e a n d I n i t i a l
Los
A n g e le s
C it y
School
D is t r ic t —
A D M IS S IO N , D I S C H A R G E A N D
P R O M O T IO N C A R D
3. P la c e o f B ir t h
6.
C e rtifie d D a te
o f B ir th
S ig n a tu r e o f P a r e n t o r G u a rd ia n
T o be k e p t f o r e v e ry p u p il, fille d ou t,
stam ped by p r in c ip a l, a n d sen t w ith
th e p u p il w h e n he is tr a n s fe r r e d to
a n o th e r L o b A n g eles C ity fjrh n n l
Great,
c a re should be ta k e n to hav e a ll in fo r ­
m a tio n C o m p lete a n d C o rre c t.
W r it e a l l dates as fo llo w s : 9-15-39.
6. R E S ID E N C E B e fo re D is c h a rg e
7. T e lep h o n e
9. S ig n a tu re o f P r in c ip a l
8. D a te o f D isch arg e
•
W h e n a p u p il is p e rm a n e n tly discharged to w o r k , r e m a in a t hom e, o r because o f d ea th , p e rm a n e n t illness, o r
c o m m itm e n t to a n in s titu tio n , th is c a rd is to be r e tu rn e d to th e p r in c ip a l’s office a n d a f u l l s ta te m e n t o f th e
cause o f th e p u p il’s d ischarge is to be m ade in th e b la n k space r e m a in in g above.
(O V E R )
F o r m 3 4 - E - l — 5 0 M — 3-40
A
SCHOOL
B
D a te o f A d m issio n
C
Age
D
G rade
E
Room
F
D a ys
P re s e n t
G
Days
Absent
H
E , E t r , E trs
4
143
Psychology or personnel card
F
19417
N ationality
Boy
G irl
(
( ) N eg
) Whi
) Chi
) Jap
) O ther
) Mex
G r.
P I.
T e a c h e r’s N a m e
an d Room N o .
D a te
m o .yr.
liv in g school w hen a p u p il ia
T his c ard sliuuld be sent by U . 3. in seliuul m ul l lu the
prom oted o r tra n s fe rre d .
Ch.
Age
M e n t.
Age
In d e x
Ch.
G. P .
XA
R E A 1 > IN G
Comp.
Vocab.
A R IT H M E T IC
Reas.
Fund.
M isc. M isc .
G. G.
F. F.
P . P.
;
!
G. G.
F. F.
P. *?.
!
;
j
G.
F.
P.
G.
f.
P.
G.
F.
P.
G.
F.
P.
G.
F.
P.
G.
F.
P.
:
|
!
j
i
|
j
i
;
|
!
j
;
j
E L E M E N T A R Y S C H O O L P E R S O N N E L C A R D (F o rm erly Classification Record C ard )
T est
In d ex
D ate
D ate of B irth ................................................... V erification..
R e m a rk s...........................................................................
F i l l in D a ta B e lo w on P r o m o tio n to Secondary School
Special A p titu d e s........................................................................................................................................................
Check Special
1. P h y s ic a l: v isio n
D efects :
2. O th ers : p o o r stu d y h a b its
h e a rin g
h eart
e p ilepsy
m a ln u tritio n
other.
speech....................................................................................
O ccupations of P a r e n ts ..............................................................................................................................................................
H om e C ond itio n s........................................................................................................................................................................
O u tstan d in g B ehavior T r a its (good o r bad)
Com m ents an d R ecom m endations to J u n io r H ig h School.
LOS A N G E L E S C IT Y S C H O O L D IS T R IC T
D iv is io n
of
I n s t r u c t io n
and
C u r r ic u l u m , E
d u c a t io n a l
G.
F.
P.
r
i:
P.
G.
F.
P.
G.
F.
P.
G.
F.
P.
G.
F.
P.
G. G.
F. F.
P. P .
i
]
R a t’g
R e .A r .
G. G.
F. F .
P. P.
R esearch
and
G u id a n c e
F o rm 33-816— 50M— 12-37
L ast N am e
RESIDENCE
yYEAR
H ealth R e c or d
F ir s t N a m e
1 SEX
"J"Y E A R
^ R E S U L T YEAR
BIRTH
SCHOOL
YR.
RACE
MO.
DAY
R m
HEARING
VISION
WGT.
HGT.
R
L
M — M a n to u x
LIDS
R
L
NOSE & THROAT
DIS­
CHARGE
TON­
ADEN­
SILS
OIDS
HEART
TEETH
DE­
CAY
ORTHO*
CLEANING
GUMS
OR­
DONTl* GANIC
FUNCT­ LUNGS CHEST
IONAL
O r th o ped ic
POS­
TURE
I
NER­
VOUS SPEECH
SYSTEM
SKIN
HAIR
CFINE
M SC.
record
N am e of
E x a m in e r
O— O ver
T-— T o x o id
P H Y S IC A L E X A M IN A T IO N
EARS
EYES
N U TR ITIO N
*ATE o r
E 1# I NATION
V — V a c c in a tio n
Health
S y m b o ls — / 2 N N eed A t t e n t io n , g ra d e u r g e n c y 1, 2, 3, o r 4
1— S lig h t
A — R e c e iv e d a t t e n t io n
S - S lig h t d e fe c t
2— M o d e r a te
*1— S e v e re
F — F u r t h e r e x a m in a tio n n ee d e d
4— U r g e n t
FEET
card
T H IS C A R D M U S T BE T R A N S F E R R E D W IT H O T H E R R E C O R D C A R D S .
E V E R Y C H IL D M U S T H A V E A H E A L T H CAR D OR A N E X C U S E C ARD.
C L E R K W IL L F IL L IN N A M E . R E S ID E N C E A N D B IR T H D A T A O F C H ILD .
F orm 34-EH-8— 1802-' -3-38
H is t o r y
N otes— H o m e
Check the diseases you have h ad :
Yes | No
th e
C o r r e c t iv e S e c t io n
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
Condition
I
G eneral
Year
Yes
Headaches
Constipation
H ave any of fa m ily had Tuberculosis
Do you have a fa m ily Doctor
D a ily breakfast
E a rly bedtime
Operations
R epo rts
fr o m
Enrolled
Discharged
P ersonal
Check the follow ing:
D iphtheria Im m unization
Vaccination
R emarks
No
th e
I
I
I
I
C o r r e c t iv e
I
I
I
I
1
I
S e c t io n
1
|
1
I
card
ija th e r
M other
Brothers
Sisters
fo r
record
Mumps
Pleurisy
Pneumonia
Rheumatism
St. Vitus
Smallpox
Scarlet F ever
Tonsillitis
Tuberculosis
Typhoid
Whooping Cough
|
|
]
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
D ir e c t io n s
Health
Asthm a
Appendicitis
Bronchitis
Chickenpox
Diphtheria
E p il’sy or Convul.
H e a rt Trouble
H e rn ia (R u p tu re )
In f ’tile Paralysis
Influenza
Measles
C all
LOS ANGELES CITY SCHOOL DISTRICT
D iv is io n
op I n s t r u c t i o n
and
C u r r ic u lu m
E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h a n d G u id a n c e S e c tio n
862 Chamber of Commerce Building
REQUEST FOR INDIVIDUAL EXAMINATION
Educational Research and Guidance Section
>m :.................................................. .................................................
-School.............................................................................. Date
ne.
.Address........................................... Telephone......................
e of B irth....................................................... Age..............................................
............................................Grade................. Race..................
DBLEM: State fu lly on the hack of this sheet.
Do you consider the child a candidate for Special Class instruction?
If so, please check the type of class considered.
Development...............Opp. or Adj............... Special School.
Physically Handicapped.
IOOL HISTORY: Obtained from records or from other sources of information.
Indicate items obtained from other sources by some such notation as “mother,” “child,” etc.
Schools
Attended
Date
Age
Attendance
Regular or Irre g u la r
Grade
Progress
DATA
j
I
Date
mo. yr.
N am e of
Intelligence Test
Ch.
Age
M ent.
Age
I. Q.
Ch.
G. P.
In t.
G. P.
Reading
Vocab.
Comp.
A rith m etic
Reas.
Fund.
Misc.
|
srred by...........................................................................
Signed................................................................ Principal
(Over)
F o rm
33-820— 8 M — 1-40
Problem:
(Please state any significant facts concerning the child’s intelligence, education, or behavior.)
Health H is to ry : (State significant facts, such as poor vision, hearing, posture, or any other physical handicap
Fam ily Data:
Father’s name...........................................................................................................................
( given)
( surname )
Mother’s name............................................................................................................................
( given )
( maiden )
Stepfather or
Stepmother or
Guardian
............................................................................................................................
(given)
( surname )
Names of other children in family:
Name
Age
Grade or Occupation
i 33.801— 5M— 8-39
LOS ANGELES CITY SCHOOL DISTRICT
DIVISION OF INSTRUCTION AND CURRICULUM
EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH AND GUIDANCE SECTION
INDIVIDUAL MENTAL EXAMINATION RECORD BLANK
Revised September, 1937
Sex
5
date
Race
3ss
Date
C. A.
Examiner
M. A.
Referred by
I.Q.
Re-examinations
hone
>1
nmendations
Grade
FAMILY DATA
FATHER
Name
Birthplace
Education
Occupation
Income status
Further information
Address
Age
Race
MOTHER
Name, maiden
Name, married, etc.
Address
Birthplace
Education
Occupation
Income status
Further information
Age
Race
Marital Status— Parents
Step or Foster Parents
SIBLINGS
Name
HOME CONDITIONS
Age
Grade or Occupation
PERSONALITY TRAITS OBSERVED DURING EXAMINATION
GENERAL APPEARANCE
SPEECH
A. Speech defect
B. Language difficulty
Effect upon test:
Serious
Mild
None
PHYSICAL ENERGY
Average
Sluggish or weak
Vigorous and energetic
Hyperactive
Nervous
Fatigues quickly
ADAPTATION TO EXAMINER’S
PERSONALITY
Timid
Responsive
Reserved
Poised
MARKS
5. ADAPTATION TO TEST SITUATION
Average
Enthusiastic
Indifferent
Negative
Reluctant—needs persuasion
Self-confident
Over-confident
Self-distrustful
Discourages easily
Persistent
6. GENERAL MENTAL REACTION
Slow
Quick
Thoughtful
Dreamy—vague
Confused
Flighty—impulsive
Accurate in expression
Inaccurate
Well organized
Poorly organized
7. ATTENTION
Well sustained
Short in span
Normal to outside stimuli
Easily distracted
Completely absorbed
ARTHUR SCALE
PERFORMANCE TESTS
Knox Cube
1234
12343
12342
1432
1423
1324
13124
13243
TIME
SCORE
M. A.
I. Q.
AGE
POINT
14324
142341
132413
143124
Seguin________________
Casuist
Manikin & Feature Profile
Mare & Foal
Picture Completion I
Porteus Maze
5
8
9
6
7
10
11
12
14
Kohs Block
I
V
II
VI
III
VIII •
IV
VII
Adult I
Adult II
IX
XI
X
XII
XIV
XIII
XV
XVI
XVII
Five Figure
Ship
Picture Completion II
EDUCATIONAL
Total
L
O
S
A
N
G
E
L
E
S
C
I
T
Y
S
C
H
O
O
L
D
I
S
T
R
I
C
T
DIVISION OF INSTRUCTION AND CURRICULUM
E d u c a t io n a l
R esearch
and
G
u id a n c e
Se c t i o n
DEVELOPMENT HISTORY
B
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D
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