COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SOCIALLY UNADJUSTED SUPERIOR AND SUB-NORMAL CHILDREN ,A The s iSj Presented to the Eaculty of the Department of Sociology University of Southern California^ In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Arts by Jeannie McCormick June 1941 UMI Number: EP65621 All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion. Dissertation'Publishing UMI EP65621 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 48106- 1346 £« 11 2 I 73-A T h i s thesis, w r i t t e n by .J.EAH!UE..^HDEESQK..J^O.CDRMIOK... u n d e r the d i r e c t i o n o f F a culty Committee, a n d a p p r o v e d b y a l l i t s m e m b e r s , has been pr esen ted to a n d a ccept ed by the C o u n c i l on G r a d u a t e S t u d y a n d Rese arch i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the r e q u ir e m e n t s f o r the d egree o f MASTER OF ARTS Secretary F a c u lty Com m ittee * ........... j.. C h a irm a m " £ / OL&WU0..,- TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE . I. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . ............. .. Statement of the p r o b l e m Importance of the study .. . . ................. Preview of organization of the thesis Method of procedure II. . ......................... 4 7 ................. . .............. RESUME OF LITERATURE ON THE SUBJECT 14 . . . . . . Social unadjustment and mental hygiene 7 13 Social unadjustments ......................... III. 2 2 Intelligence and its determination .......... Sub-normal children 1' . . . . DEFINITION OF T E R M S ........... Superior children 1 16 19 . . . . 19 Psychology and education ..................... 21 Unpublished materials 28 ....................... IY. THE SOCIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF UNADJUSTMENTS . 35 Y. EDUCATION FOR EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN IN LOS ANGELES 43 General scheme and philosophy ............... 43 Educational set up for accommodating the superior c h i l d ........ 1 ................ ’. . 47 Special educational advantages offered the sub-normal child . . . . . . . . .......... 50 CHAPTER PAGE Educational facilities provided for the socially unadjusted child VI. ................. INDIVIDUAL CASE H I S T O R I E S ..................... 59 ■Introduction.............. VII. 54 59 Young superior b o y ........................... 62 Young superior g i r l ......................... 65 Young sub-normal b o y ........................ 68 Young sub-normal g i r l ...................... 74 Older superior b o y ...................... 77 Older superior g i r l ........................ 81 Older sub-normal b o y .............. 85 Older sub-normal g i r l ...................... 89 COMPLETE DATA FOR THE SIXTY-FOUR CASES ......... Chart I Young boys and girls Cases 1, 2, 3 and 4 Chart II . 94 . . 95 Older boys and girls Cases 5, 6, 7 and 8 Chart III .................. Young superior boys Cases 9, 10, Chart IV ..................... 11 and1 2 ...................... Young superior girls Cases 13, 14 and 1 5 ....................... Chart V 96 97 'Young superiorgirls Cases 16, 17 and 1 8 ....................... 98 CHAPTER PAGE Chart VI Cases Young superior girls 19, 20, 21 and 22 Chart VII Cases 23, 24, 25 and 26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .......... . . Chart XI 35 and 36 103 Older superior boys Cases 37, Chart XII 38, 39 and 4 0 .............. Chart XIII ‘ 105 Older superior girls 44, 45 and 4 6 ..................... . Chart XIV . 106 Older superior girls 47, 48, 49 and 50 Chart XV .. . . ............... 107 Older sub-normal boys 51,, 52, 53 and 5 4 ...................... 108 Chart XVI Older sub-normal boys Cases 55, Chart XVII Cases 104 Older superior boys Cases 41, 42 and 4 3 Cases 102 Young sub-normal girls Cases 34, Cases 101 Young sub-normal girls Cases 30, 31, 32 and 33 Cases 100- Young sub-normal boys 27, 28 and 29 Chart IX Chart X 99 Young sub-normal boys Chart VIII Cases . . . . . . . . . . 56 and 57 109 Older sub-normal girls 58, 59, 60 and 6 1 ...................... 110 CHAPTER PAGE Chart XVIII Older sub-normal girls Cases 62, 63 and 6 4 .................... .. VTTI. Ill .......................... FINDINGS 112 Analysis of causes of unadjustments and bases of t r e a t m e n t s .......... 112 .............. Analysis of data 122 Interpretation of d a t a ..................... IX. B I B L I O G R A P H Y .............. ; . . . . . . . . . 127 A. B o o k s ........... B. Unpublished. M a t e r i a l s ................. 135 C. Periodical Articles 138 D. Publications of Learned Organizations X.. APPENDIX . 124 128 ................... ....................... . 138 140 Registration card for principals office . . 141 Attendance c a r d ................ 141 Admission, discharge, andpromotional card . 142 Psychology or personnel c a r d ............... 143 Health'record c a r d ................ 144 Reguest for individual examination ........ 146 Individual mental examination blank . . . . 147 ....................... 148 Development history CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Statement of the problem. The subject of this thesis is "A Comparative Study of the Social Unadjustments of Selected Superior and Subnormal Children in the Los Angeles City Public Schools.’1 The writer became interested in the problem after a year and a half’s work with socially unadjusted girls, many of whom were of sub-normal intelligence, in a Welfare Center in the Los Angeles city school system. From this type of work she changed to teaching children of superior intelligence. It was appar ent that social unadjustments occurred in this latter group as well as in the former group. Later, she taught children of sub-normal intelligence in a development class in a large high school.. Many of the children in this group were out standing behavior problems of the school. Because of this fact, the writer was inspired to make a more thorough analysis and scientific study of the social unadjustments.of these children. The following are questions that arose for. consider ation: Does the same type of asocial behavior exist among children who fall in these different range groups of intel ligence? Are the social unadjustments of the same degree or intensity in the superior children as in the sub-normal 2 ones? Is theie a correlation in the causes of social unadjustments in the two groups? How far does the interest of the teacher extend in the ease of an unad justed child? Is the' co-operation of the home authorities of vital import and to what extent does it exist? Are the assets of each child utilized in helping the child to make an adjustment? To what extent do the Los Angeles City Public Schools meet and treat these unad.justments? What are the results? Importance of the study* In a school system in a democratic community which hopes to prepare children to live full lives, questions of utmost pertinence are: How far do the schools recognize the problems of the individu al children who are out of adjustment? causes of unadjustments? the situations? What seem to be the What methods are used to cope with To what extent are the schools successful in establishing these children as functioning units in their groups? Answers to these problems are of significance to the citizens of the community, as well as to those people working with the children* Previev; of organization of the thesis. Definitions of the terms used in the statement of the problem are given in order that their.exact meanings, may be clear. Intelligence is defined and discussed. The method used in determining the degree of intelligence is indicated and expounded. Leading educational,psychological, and sociological authorities have been consulted in the definitions submitted. The terms "superior intelligence" and "sub-normal intelligence" are explained as arbitrary classifications indicative of certain grades of intelligence. The relation of problem children to crime and the political and economic consequences of social unadjustment is indicated. * Next there follows a resume of the literature on the subject. Some of the leading authorities in the fields of educational psychology and social pathology are quoted. Their views and contributions are indicated. Scientific studies and investigations carried on by graduate students at the University of Southern California and on file at the library of this institution in thesis form are briefly reviewed. There is a general explanation of the educational set up for accommodating the superior child in the Los Angeles Public Schools as well as the special educational advantages offered the sub-normal child in the same school system. The educational philosophy prompting the enriched curriculum and special facilities is elucidated and some examples of its application are given. The case histories of eight unadjusted children 4 are given in some detail. These include the case of a young superior hoy, a young superior girl, a young sub normal boy, a young sub-normal girl, an older superior boy, an older superior girl, an older sub-normal boy and an older sub-normal girl. Facts, both psychological and physical, as well as those of social environment, are collected, assembled, and interpreted in a summary of these cases. The complete data concerning the sixty-four children studied are analj^sed and correlations shown. In the conclusion those assumptions that seem valid are stated, questions that have not been answered are mentioned, and suggestions for further study are recommended. A selected bibliography follows and concludes with an appendix containing forms in use in the Los Angeles City Public Schools from which data weie gathered and which serve the various school agencies in meeting the child's needs. Method of procedure. method has been adherred to. In the main the case study The data have been gleaned from case studies made by trained social workers employed by the Los Angeles Public School system as Attendance and Welfare officers; These are augmented by reports and recommendations by teachers, principals', school nurses and doctors, psychologists, and other administrative officers or interested persons* The cases studied are necessarily selected. To make a study of all the cases of children that the Los, Angeles schools have found to be-unadjusted would be an 1 enormous task, and in all probability would be of negli gible value in proportion to the effort .spent. Numerous cases of the same type would result in duplication and repetition. It is for this reason that cases of thirty- two superior and thirty-two sub-normal children which seem to indicate the most common evidences of unadjustment were selected with the help of the school psychologist. While the main body of the investigation deals.with case studies, based upon official reports, and personal interviews, the early part of the thesis has been a comp ilation and analysis of printed material. It presents a review of literature in relation to the problem. This literature is sociological, psychological, and educational in nature. The statistical method is used in collecting, assembling, and correlating such factors as chronological age, sex, race, educational age, type of problem, health, and assets. The social-psychological method is used in inter- 6 preting and analysing family situations according to econ omic status, culture patterns, parental relationships to each other, parental relationships to the child, relation ships of other members of the family to the child, and other sociological or psychological factors, such as social life, recreations, movies, radio, and sex instruc tion. The basic social processes are indicated in the analysis, as well as their relation to fundamental human drives and desires. Facts regarding the relation to special school departments and in relation to other social agencies are analysed as are the evidences of results. In all cases the data gathered have been treated confidentially. Facts of the most personal and confidential nature were uncovered in the investigation; precautions have been taken to have them remain so. A thoroughly profession al attitude has been maintained in dealing with intimate details. In all cases fictions names have been used; other identifying data have been changed or omitted. For example, addresses, names of schools, and business concerns have been omitted in order that intimate details procured in confidence, will not be identifiable. principle in any social worker*s code. This is a cardinal Social research would defeat its own purpose were it to violate this principle. CHAPTER II DEFINITION OF TERMS Intelligence and its determination. Intelligence in itself is an innate quality, but it is only through-its manifestations in behavior that it can be judged. Human beings are born with a certain potentiality for develop ing the thinking process. How much of this quality is developed by environmental.factors and social interaction and how much is an inherited potentiality is still a matter for conjecture by scientists. Discoveries and 1 studies of feral children, such as Casper Hauser, have thrown some light on the subject and have disproved some of the hypothesis adhered to by those psychologists who favored the superiority of inheritence over environment as an influencing factor. So far no one has definitely proved the amount and extent of either heredity or environment and more exact students of the social sciences are employing the term "heredity in environment” . "Environment and training must first play upon native talents in order that they may be recognized. I H. Small, "On Some Psychical Relations of Society and Solitude," Pedagogical Seminary, VII, April, 1900. pp. 32-35. Hence, the paradox that achievement is the test of 2 potentiality;.. ." Intelligence has been defined in various ways, the commonest features of these numerous definitions being (1) the ability to learn; (2) the ability to adapt oneself to novel situations; (3) the ability to cary on abstract processes of thought, especially abstract reasoning. If a person has a nervous system which integrates easily and tenaciously, he is likely to be bright or intel ligent. If, on the other hand, his nervous system forms neuron paths with difficulty, if associations are hard to form and are soon lost, he is certain to be dull or stupid....Thus, so far as education is concerned, intel ligence and capacity to learn are practically synonymous terms.3 According to Spearman, "All branches of intellect ual learning have in common one fundamental function (or group of functions), whereas .the remaining or specific elenients seem in every case to be wholly different from 4 all others." It is the former general type of intelli gence which for the individual remains constant over a period of years, and which Binet and others have formulated 2 Peter Sandiford, Education Psychology: An Objective Study (London, New York, Toronto: Longman's, Green, and Company, 1936), p. 142; 3 Ibid., p. 143. 4 C. Spearman, "General Intelligence, Objectively Determined," American Journal of Psychology, XV (1904), p. 201-293. 9 tests to determine. A child may be of normal or even sub normal ability generally, but be possessed of a specific gift or talent along certain lines * such as music, art, or mechanical ability. Special tests have been evolved for the purpose of testing these talents, such as the Seashore tests for musical ability. It is the latter specific abilities that are considered as assets by scientific social workers in'their attempt to rehabilitate and redirect individuals who are, or are in danger of be coming, out of adjustment with society. Thorndike, on the other hand, maintains that in telligence is made up of a large number of specific abilities not bound together by a common factor, but where there are elements of separate character which have a high correlation. However, since intelligence is manifested by learning, the best measure of intelligence is the test which measures this product in the fairest way. In 1916, Terman directed the revision of the BinetSimon Scale of Intelligence for use in American schools. He followed Alfred Binetfs method of utilizing bits of information available to children in all walks of life, and avoiding material commonly taught in the school room, in order to measure innate ability rather than subjectmatter achievement. The tests were directed to determine what children knew or could figure out for themselves 10 rather than what they had been taught or specifically trained in. The two most important criteria of a test are validity and reliability. The answer to the question, "Does it actually test what its purpose is to test?", indicates the validity. A test based wholly upon reading may fall to test the child’s intelligence.and merely in-, dicate reading ability. Customs and language usage play a prominent part in tests given foreign children, usually to the detriment of the child’s score. The test, in order to be valid, must measure innate ability to form neuron paths. "Is the test dependable?" is a question which in dicates the reliability of the test. It must indicate the same ability, when- given the same individual under the same conditions. Rather than repeating the test after an interval of time, educational psychologists recommend giving an equivalent form o f ’the test. This contains not the identical items but ones of equal difficulty and im portance. The coefficient of correlation is found. A test to be considered reliable must have a coefficient of at least .80. The physical conditions under which the test is given must be controlled as far as possible in order that this will not become a variable factor effecting the score. It is well known to those administering tests that 11 excitment, fatigue, illness, noise, temperature, and other physical and mental disturbances will effect the child’s score. Teachers usually avoid Monday in giving tests as many children exhibit signs of fatigue and overstimula'tion during the week e n d ‘which prevents them from doing as well as they ordinarily would. Friday is usually not considered a good day for testing, because usually excitement runs high, especially among emotionally unstable children, on this day, and for this reason they do rather poorly on the tests. afternoons. Mornings are considered better than Interruptions and distracting influences are avoided as much as possible. Physical conditions, in order to be the same, must be controlled* ’’Intelligence quotient" is the term used to desig nate the relationship of the mental age to the chrono logical age. The mental age is determined by interpreting the score received on an intelligence test in terms of a standardized norm. This score is then divided by the chronological age and in order to eliminate the decimal fractions, is multiplied by 100. The result is the intel ligence quotient. The formula followed for this procedureM .A • is C .A • x 100 = I.Q,. Intelligence, being a native trait and a variable, it is not surprising that Terman reports, on his study of one thousand unselected American children, that its 12 5 distribution should closely follow the curve of chance. I •Q,, 65 56 66 - 75 76 - 85 86 - 95 96 - 105 106 • 115 ■- 125 116 ' 126 - 135 136 - 145 Per Cent Falling 0.33 2.3 8.6 20.1 33.9 23.1 9,0 2.3 0.18 Total 100.18 Arbitrary classifications have been found useful by such psychologists as Terman, Sandiford, Thorndike, and others, for practical, working purposes, although no sharp lines of demarcation exist. The following is the one used by Sandiford: Classification I.Q,. Per Cent of all Children. Included Near genius or genius above 140 0.25 Yery superior 120-140 0.75 Superior 110-120 13.00 Normal or average 90-110 66;00 Boarderline, sometimes dull, often feeble-minded 70-80 6.00 Feeble-minded below 70 _________1.00 Total 100.00 From the above it is evident that the present study dealing with the social unadjustments of superior and sub normal children would be concerned with members of what would normally be the upper seven per cent and the lower 5 Lewis M. Terman, Measurement of Intelligence (Boston: Houghton, Mifflin ■Company, 1916), p. 66. 13 twenty per cent of the school population. In the Los Angeles City Public Schools, according to statistics compiled by' the psychology section two per cent of the children have *I. Q,.’s of ISO or above, while two per cent 6 fall below 80. Superior children. The. term “superior’1 has been used to designate those children whose intelligence quot ients are listed in the school records as 120 or above. This has usually b e e n ■determined by group testing done by a teacher who acts as assistant to the counselor in charge. Superior children may be mentally well developed generally and be able to do everything easily and well. There are a few of this type who are a source of joy to their teachers and of wonder to their elders. They usually exhibit intellectual curiosity, creative originality, and initiative. attention. They are capable of sustained voluntary There are others who are particularly gifted in a certain field which places them in the catagory of the child protege. People working with superior children find that their behavior is as varied as other children’s and unadjustments have been observed in their behavior as well. 6 This follows out the normal expectancy. Sub-normal children. The term "sub-normal" has been applied to those children whose intelligence quotient are listed in the school records as 80 or below. Like the records of the superior children, this has usually been determined by a 'group test administered.by a teacher act ing as assistant to the counselor-, and has been recorded in the usual manner. Sub-normal children learn more slowly, in other words, they form neuron paths with more difficulty than normal or superior children. They also attain the limit of their academic accomplishment at a comparatively early age* The following chart illustrates the learning curve of sub-normal children as compared with those of normal 7 and superior. 22 20 18 16 14 IE t8 t10 I 6 ! 4 Ji 2 C h r o h o J o ijic a I 7 age ■> . Sandiford, supra., pp. 147-149. 15 For the average of a group the picture drawn is the correct one, since any deviation, plus or minus, tends to cancel the other. But for the individual, the mental in growth may be /spurts and starts, or interrupted by illness, as we know physical growth to be. However, studies of the relative constancy of the I.Q.'s indicate that growth in intelligence proceeds fairly steadily and in the manner indicated for the different types• Approximately one per cent of the population is feeble-minded. For practical use the following arbitrary 8 classifications are made: Subdivisions of the Feebleminded Moron Imbecile Idiot I.Q,. 50-70 20 or 25*50 below 20 • Per Cent of all children included 0,75 0.19 0.06 Total 1,00 A slow learning group of children who reach their academic achievement early, presents an educational problem that cannot be met satisfactorily under a normal set-up designed for the child of average ability. Normal children become bored and lose interest if they are forced to learn at the slow rate of the sub-normal. The teacher finds it necessary to give a more than equitable 8 Sandiford, loc. cit. . 16 amount of time and attention to these individual children to the detriment of the rest of the group.. However, the sub-normal child needs the same feeling of successful accomplishment that the normal or superior child needs. If he is unable to keep up with the academic accomplishments of the class, he is apt to turn to asocial behavior to achieve recognition. Social Unad .justment. The term "unadjustment" has been chosen to indicate the lack of adjustment in a particular direction or manner that the child exhibits. It has been chosen rather than the word "maladjustment", which is most commonly used in this connection. The term "unadjustment" has been used in an effort toward more precise terminology. "Maladjustment" seems to the writer to be a contradictory term. The literal-meaning of the prefix "mal", in its limited sense, is ill or evil. Adjustment in its ordinary sense means the act of making a correct correspondence, it would be impossible to make an evil or wrong correspondence and still make an adjustment. Hence, mal-adjustment is a contradictory combination. "Unadjustment" is a true word since it indicates no ad justment exists in a particular phase of direction. from disorganization in degree. It differs If the individual is com pletely unable to adjust to his situation, disorganization takes place. This, however, is not the state of the children the 17 school deals with, and whose reaction patterns in many cases are still unformed or in a plastic state. They do make many successful adjustments and it is upon a foundation of these successful adjustments that the social worker and teacher hopes to reconstruct and redirect behavior. person makes certain successful adjustments. Every sane The number and degree of non-adjustments he makes.determines his state of non-adjustment. Certain reactions and certain behavior may be made in and effort to adjust to certain situations, but where there are evidences that they have been unsuccessful an unadjustment rather than a maladjustment has taken place. Unadjustments of an individual may be of physiological, or other nature. These conflicts which affect the individual’s personality in interaction with other personalities in a negative manner, are social unadjustments. Back of all behavior there are certain fundamental drives. W, I. Thomas believes these drives can all be cat egorized as the four wishes. In studying overt action there are two’sides- for consideration, the attitude of the individual, and the value of society. The attitude is conditioned by the individual’s definition.of the situation in regard to the ful fillment or. satisfaction of his wishes. Where an individual defines the situation erroneously, or where he assumes other attitudes then those accepted by the group toward social 18 9 values, a conflict arises. This study is concerned with the negative.reactions and behavior of a group of selected superior and sub-normal children. The term unadjustment is used throughout this thesis to indicate negative or asocial conduct. 9 For a more complete discussion of the problems of attitudes and values and the measurement of social influence see W. I. Thomas, The Unadjusted Girl. (Boston: Little, Brown, and Company, 1953.) pp. 222-257. CHAPTER III RESUME OF LITERATURE ON THE SUBJECT Social unad.justment and mental hygiene. There has been a great deal written in the field of mental hygiene, especially in the last two decades. Much of this has given insight into human behavior and personality reactions. However, since it is a comparatively new field of interest a great deal is still unexplored, new territory. This is partly due to the attitude of the public on the whole to ward abnormal behavior, and partly due to the difficulty of scientific analysis and treatment. Because of this fact, behavior-problem cases have usually been subjec tively judged, or ignored. One of the greatest contribu tions to the control of asocial behavior has come about through the understanding that human behavior is in fluenced much more by the emotions than by the intellect. 10 Sigmund Freud contributed to the study by present ing the three levels of activity of the mind, the "conscious", "foreconscious", and the "unconscious". Freud advanced the theory that the keynote to all behavior lay in the motive for race preservation evidenced by "ego" 10 — Sigmund Freud, A General Introduction to PsychoAnalysis. Translated and with introduction by G. Stanley Hall. [New York: Liveright Publishing Company, 1927.) and "libido" satisfactions and blockings. He stressed the part the unconscious plays in the development of personality Alfred Adler, a student of Hreud, extended the study and proposed the theory of fundamental drives as being responsible for human behavior. He recognized three kinds of motives for asocial_behavior which were the results of barriers to self-realization; first, the drive to compensate for some physical defect; second, the drive.for recognition and superiority; third, the drive that results from feeling rejected or unwanted. When these drives are thwarted or blocked the individual attempts to overcome feelings of inferiority and reaches for adequacy by sub stituting certain, what he believes to be, compensatory behavior. Adler believed that much of this compensatory behavior takes the form of bragging, bullying, lying, defiance of authority, withdrawal, and other asocial conduct IE Carl Jung, in his analysis of mental mechanics that l ead‘to abnormal behavior points out four steps in reaching adjustment. They are; first, recognition of the ” Alfred Adler, Understanding Human nature. Greenberg, 1937,} jj York: (New IS Carl G, Jung, Psychological Types. Harcourt Brace and Company, 19S3.) (New fork: 21 problem; second, release from emotional strain; third, re-education to new ways of coping with the problem, fourth, transformation to a goal of perfection. On the other hand, in the United States, William 13 Healy has found- that children suffering from fear, dread, ' rejection, or insecurity respond with pathological be havior that apparently has no relation to the drive. If the habit is well' established, the cause may be removed, yet the behavior still persists. In such cases punish ment only serves to aggravate the unadjustment. The treatment must be indirect just as the effects were. Sociologists explain anti-social behavior in terras of attitudes, wishes, and sentiments, as well as overt action. Everyone seeks to satisfy a felt need. W. 1^ Thomas 14 reduces the motives for human behavior to the striving for satisfaction of four fundamental wishes; the desire foriscognition, the desire for response, the desire for new experience, and the desire for security, E. S. Bogardus adds the wish to aid as a motive for conduct. No one theory is a complete explanation of social unadjustments; However, all have advanced the understanding 13 William Healy, The Individual Delinquent: Little, Brown, and Company, 1915.) 14 W. I. Thomas, The Unadjusted Girl. Brown, and Company, 1933.) Chapters I, II. (Boston: (Boston: Little, 22 and treatment of problem children. Psychology and education. The Gestalt psycholo gists have presented the view that personality is com posed of many factors that are integrated, but, is, in Itself, a whole. It is based upon the studies of Wolfgang 15 Kohler who found in experimenting with apes that they react toward the "whole" situation. process, they showed ’’insight." In the learning The apes discovered that by using a pole they could secure bananas that were other wise out of their reach. In this way they reacted toward their situation as a whole, not just in part. Gestalt psychologists believe the whole child reacts to the whole situation. This theory supports the belief that the child carries over the attitudes, feelings, and emotions from his home life to school. It is the whole child who comes, to school and who reacts to the conditions that he finds and the problems he meets. The behaviorist school of psychology has studied the reactions of individuals in order to understand human conduct. They begin with the premise that man is an animal born with a certain type of nervous structure and capable 15 Wolfgang Kohler, The Mentality of Apes. Translated by E. Winter. (New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1925.) p. 345. 23 16 of certain basic reactions. J. B. Watson by experi menting with babies, found that the number of basic native reactions are few. These fundamental responses to stimuli were fear, love, and rage. These responses become modified by life’s experiences and complicated behavior • 1 7 patterns result. Pavlow in his experimenting'with dogs, found that the flow of the salivary juices was stimulated at the sight of food. The appearance of food was always accompanied by the ringing of a bell. Later when the bell was rung the dog’s salivary glands were stimulated with out any food appearing. This modification of behavior is referred to as ’’conditioned response.” This principle of conditioning responses seems to explain much of the attitudes, interests, and actions of children. 'The composite of the child’s environmental experience effect his behavior. • If new associations are identified with original stimuli reconditioning may take place. This principle is taken into consideration by those working with problem children in order to help them to form new behavior patterns. Many of the modern teaching methods are based on 16 John B. Watson, Lectures in Print: Behaviorism. (New York: People’s Institute Publishing Company, 1925.) P. 3. 17 I. P. Pavlow, Conditioned Reflexes. University Press, 1927.1 (Oxford: 24 18 the laws of learning as propounded by E. L. Thorndike Columbia University, of The law of effect states that a modifiable bond is strengthened or weakened according to the satisfaction or annoyance attending its exercise. Consequently, the good teacher sees to it that the child experiences satisfaction through success. The law of exercise or frequency states that, things are learned through use and forgotten through disuse. This is the basis for repetition and practice in drill subjects. How ever mere repetition does not always insure learning; other elements, such as, voluntary attention, belongingness in a sequence, and startling presentation, enter in to the process. The law of readiness states that a bond ready to act gives satisfaction if allowed, and annoyance if dis allowed. For this reason teachers, are alert to motivation and time for an activity. Other laws of psychological phenomena that Thorndike has promulaged are the laws of multiple response, which claims that the more responses an organism gives, the more educatable it is; the law.of attitudes, set, or disposition, which maintains that voluntary attention changes to involuntary attention when an interest is developed; the law of partial activity which _ , - E. L. Thorndike, The Psychology of Learning. (New York: Teacher’s College, Columbia University Press, 1913.) Yol. II, Introduction. 25 states that the amount of stimulus needed becomes less and less as the response habit is established, which accounts for the fact that a person can read at a distance at which he cannot distinguish the letters; the law of assimilation or analogy explains responses that arises that have been made previously to similar situations, such as extraneous behavior; and, the law of associative shift ing, which accounts for the transfer of response from one stimulus to another, such as takes place in conditioning. In the main methods and techniques of teaching depend upon these laws for their psychological bases. Perhaps the man who has most greatly influenced 19 education in .America is John Dewey. In his work' "My Pedagogic Creed" published more than thirty years ago, he stated his belief that all education proceeds by parti cipation. The Dewey philosophy of education has come to be known commonly as the "learning by doing" theory. Under this assumption schools have endeavored to provide activity for the children as well as purely intellectual pursuits. 20 Robert Hill Lane believes that with the change in America from an agrarian civilization to an urban __ _ John Dewey, Democracy and Education. The Macmillan Company, 1933.) Chapters I-IV. (New York: 20 Robert Hill Lane, The Progressive Elementary School. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1938.) pp. 1-18. 26 civilization a greater burden rests upon the schools. In order for the child to grow physically, intellectually, socially, and spiritually, the school must provide many of the facilities and opportunities formerly provided by the home environment. Much of the handcraft and voca tional art that a pioneer child learned as part of his • everyday experience must now be purposely provided in the curriculum. In this age of commercialization of re creation, Lane believes that the social needs of the child should be taken into consideration by educators. In the last few years educators have striven to meet the needs of the child in curriculum planning. Functional education marks a recent educational trend. 21 G. C. Crawford is one of the leading advocates of this educational philosophy. It is the belief of Crawford and his associates that the curriculum should meet the interests and needs of the child. According to this, the child*s needs are governed by his present situation rather than a preparation for future adult life. The interest of the child is more-easily caught and learning takes place with greater facility provided the Gestalt method of presenting the whole and then proceeding to a study of the minute parts 21 Claude C. Crawford, How To Teach. Los Angeles: Southern California School Book Depository, 1938. pp. 419-434. 27 is adhered to, rather than the atomistic method of studying fundamental details and rules and hoping that they will eventually become integrated in the mind of the learner and that the proper relationships will be established. Much of 'what is now spoken of as progressive educationis carried on through the functional approach. As in the case of all human activity there is a vacillation toward and away from principle. Education in America was at first very formal and traditional and in dividual needs and differences were ignored. no attention was given to mental hygiene. Practically The whole school day even for young children was devoted to intellectual and academic pursuits. Later, more participative activities were indulged in. Many times children were exhilerated toward pointless activity which resulted in young people graduating from high school with little preparation for social, political, or economic life. This has brought about a great deal of criticism of the schools and the educational system on the part of the public. At the present time there is a slight reactionary movement to go back to more thorough preparation. This is resulting in better planned curricula, more pro fessionally trained teachers, and more thorough preparation in school. Scientific experimentation in psychology and education have contributed to this end. And, finally, the 28 problems of social unadjustment are recognized and therapeutic treatment is being offered. Unpublished Materials. There has been considerable research done at the University of Southern California on certain aspects relating to the present study. This has been carried on both in the field of education and of sociology. However, the studies in the latter field are, on the whole, more revealing and contributory to the problem at hand. A few of the most closely related sociological research, theses and dissertations are included in this resume. A complete reference to the studies mentioned is given in Section B of the bibliography. Elizabeth Reptschnig made a study of the correlation of intelligence and social behavior based on intelligence quotients and citizenship records of students in a large junior high school. She found that no positive correlation existed between intelligence and infractions of school regulations. In a study of retardation and certain social factors Susanne Gough investigated fifty ninth grade Negro boys who were retarded from six months to four years. She found that educational unadjustments are related to inherited ability, health, and home conditions. Several investigations have been made concerning methods of study and approaches to problems of social 29 unadjustment• Dorothy C. Ovenburg has illustrated the use of social analysis as a tool in case work. She shows how the application of social concepts in the analysis and approach to a problem gives the social worker a deeper insight into, situations he attempts to control. The fact that home conditions affect a child, not only educationally, but sociologically and psychiatrically also, has been substantiated by some recent studies. Aileen Dorothy McHenry attempted to establish the utility of home rating scales for use in social case work. She found that these scales were valid for use in rating the home conditions for group averages. As a result these rating scales can be used as a basic criteria for rating the home environment of pupils who are showing evidences of social unadjustments. There have been two studies made by Alma Louise Barber and Harold E. Perry, respectively, on the correlation of intelligence' and home conditions with groups of twenty-five superior girls and twenty-five sub-normal girls, and also with groups of twenty-five superior boys and twenty-five sub normal boys. Both studies reveal a positive correlation ■ between high intelligence quotients and homes that score high on a home rating scale. Homer K. Watson, in his study of the causes of de linquency among fifty JMegro boys assigned to special schools 30 finds that juvenile delinquency is an expression of adult delinquencyi In a majority of the cases the boys came from unfit homes, Watson pointed out the responsibility of the school in such cases. The parent-child relationship is one phase of the home condition that greatly affects the socialization of' children. Maria M. Tewater brought out the sociological aspects of parent-child relationship as they appear in behavior problem children as revealed in one-hundred-twenty psychiatric interviews. Prancis Meyer M m k o f f studied social distance between child and parent in his doctor’s dissertation. The reactions of one-thousand-two-hundred children to a specially devised questionnaire were carefully analysed on the one hand, as to processes of parent-child detatchment, parental dominance, and parent-child conflict * which increase social distance, and on the other hand, as to processes of accommodation and participation, which create parent-child nearness. Pauline V. Young, in her doctor’s dissertation written on Assimilation Problems of Russian Molokans in Los Angelest.emphasizes the intense culture conflicts between Russian Molokan parents who fled Russia and settled in Los Angeles as laborers, and their children who were absorbed in Los Angeles City Schools. Another aspect of the home environment as a contri- 31 butory factor to social unadjustment is presented in the , ecological study made by Hettie'Peary French in her study of juvenile delinquency in a selected area of Los Angeles, The "River Bed Area" was shown to contribute a major portion of cases of juvenile delinquency. Educational methods attempting to adjust behavior problem children were reviewed by Caroline Armstrong in her study of procedures in Opportunity B rooms. She came to the conclusion that children respond favorably to a program that provides for the gratification of fundamental human wishes. Elise Hitt Sargent made a similar study of specific methods of treatment in the field of personality adjustment in a Girls’ Welfare Center. There have been three- studies dealing with socially unadjusted girls that bear directly on the subject. The value of the life history as a social document in the study of unadjustments in the home, in contacts between the home and school, and in the school, has been shown by Leonarda Fisher in her thesis The Life Histories of Twenty Maladjusted Girls. Mildred K. Ovenholtzer showed the interaction of social tradition and individual life history in her study of sex behavior among adolescent girls. Rosalie B. Fowler investigated the causes of delinquency of school girls. She found that broken and unsettled homes, lack of parental control, economic difficulties, undesirable companionship, 32 and harmful amusements to be the most frequent causes. Doris Rhoda Worrell came to the conclusion that misused leisure time is an expression of unadjustment, after carefully analysing the habits of delinquent adolescent girls. Failure to find normal satisfaction for social wishes leads to asoeial leisure time activities through association in conflict groups in which these wishes can be realized. Motion pictures play a prominent part in the leisure time activities of children and they have far-reaching effects on personality and conduct. William Fay Butler prepared a questionnaire which was answered by one thousand junior high school pupils. More than one half reported that they received inspiration for their future life's work from the movies* One fifth stated their dreams were effected by horror pictures they had seen. More than one half saw a conflict between the teachings of home, school, and church, and those of the movies. The special evidence of educational unadjustment of truancy has been the subject of several scientific investi gations. Mabel Wallace Houston presented theories for meth ods for better adjustment of school attendance problems in her Social Aspects of Truancy. Inez Dunham Douglass in her study of causes of truancy found the relation of sehool life to home life and neighborhood activity as of primary importance. Alice May Foster isolated nine factors as vital in adequate parental control in the cases of truant girls. Ernest J. 33 Lickley made a sociological and educational study of 1,554 cases of truancy in special schools in Los Angeles. His find ings showed that the special educational set up allowing for more freedom and individual attention in the Welfare Centers resulted in reducing chronic truancy and improvement of personalities. As was stated earlier in this thesis, the above men tioned unpublished studies all have a bearing on certain phases of the present study#. The fact that no positive correlation between intell igence and social behavior was found by Elizabeth Beptschnig in her study helps dispel the idea that behavior problem children are all of low mentality. It indicates the need for a comparative study of the social unadjustments of the two groups, the mentally superior and ‘the mentally sub-normal. However, the positive correlations found in the studies be tween educational retardation, delinquency, and social un adjustment, and, intelligence, health, and home conditions shows that the problem is one of a sociological nature as well as of pedagogical import. The sociological methods of treatment investigated in this study, and which are afforded in the special classes and recommended by the psychologist in the Los Angeles City Schools, are substantiated by the findings and recommendations of these studies; Teachers with a sociological background who 34 are trained in the use of social analysis and the application of social concepts, as well as in educational methods are better equipped to handle these problems. Parent-child relationships, social distance, dominance, conflict, accommodation, and participation are factors that play an important part in the unadjustments of the children in the study. Cultural conflicts, neighborhood and community customs, and effects of motion pictures are noted and con sidered in the present study. Truancy is an important aspect of the unadjustments of these children. This material is all of significance to the present study. If the reader wishes to peruse the investigations more carefully he is directed to the bibliography for complete references to the sources. CHAPTER IV THE SOCIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF UNADJUSTMENTS This chapter is an analysis of a few of the findings in the field of- sociology which have a bearing on the subject; it is an application o'f the principles of sociology which have been contributed to the study of sociology by the great thinkers and teachers in the field. It is the privilege of the contemporary student to study new problems in the light of what has been investigated and interpreted in order to throw new understanding and meaning upon social interaction within his radius. It is in this spirit that the implications of the sociological significance of unadjustments are inter preted . Much antisocial behavior, while manifested in ways that are understood and revealed by psychologists, has its roots in causes that are primarily sociological in nature. Many of the conflicts that result in a child failing to make proper social adjustments are due to the fact that the attitudes and mores of his family are not those of the community; he is torn between the standards that he has grown up with and the new standards that he encounters as he continues'in school, and as his contacts become wider. This is particularly true of the child of foreign born parents who cling to their old world culture patterns. He finds that American ways of doing 36 and thinking do not coincide with those of his parents, and he is unable to retain the respect for them that his love for them dictates; the conflict that arises within himself as he vainly struggles to reconcile the differences often results in conduct that is unacceptable to both groups. Where the parents speak a foreign tongue and are nsrt as adept in the use of the English language as the child, there is a social distance created in the family which breaks down parental control. Anti-social conduct often results. An example of this happened when a Mexican mother came to the school seeking help from the Welfare Center teacher after the daughter had signed the mother’s name to a check and with drawn her savings of many years. ■The mother complained that this was merely the culminating act of a long series of dis obediences. Upon investigation it was revealed that the girl had been in the habit of signing such things as utility agreements for her mother with-.her full consent. The result was that the child had none of the compuntions against forging that a child whose mother had been able to do these things for herself would have. There .are countless cases of truancy and illegal absences that are seldom disclosed when children are permitted to write and sign notes of excuse because of the language handicap of their parents. Because of the fact that national and racial groups tend to settle in certain areas, neighborhoods take on 37 characters which maintain the old culture patterns of the adults, and assimilation takes place more slowly than if the family of necessity accommodated itself to the ways of other Americans. It is not alxvays financial stress that 22 causes segregation; consciousness of kind plays a great . part in this. In Los Angeles, for example, the rents in the Chinese districts far exceeded what landlords could get for similar accommodations in other sections of the city, yet the Chinese preferred living in these crowded, un comfortable quarters among-their own kind, rather than brave the unknown communities with their strange neighbors. Property restrictions against minority groups also tend toward segregation. Many residential districts are not available to Negroes, Mexicans, or Jews. Consequently, these people live in communities where their culture patterns predominate. This slows up the process of assimilation, and resultant conflicts and social unadjustments survive. This type of neighborhood is referred to by Anderson and Lindeman 83 in the following passage. ___ the family residences of the very poor, characterized by poor housing, low rents, congestion, an immigrant area where transitions from old-world . 22 Franklin H. Giddings, "Further Inquiries of Sociology", Papers and Proceedings of the American Sociolog ical Society. 15:60-61. 1920. 23 Anderson and Lindeman, Urban Sociology; An Intro duction to the Study of Urban Communities. (New .York: Alfred A. Knopf, 19287T P* 77. 58 patterns with its tradition-loving and somewhat peasant-like community relations to a garish Ameri canism. The parents are still defending the old culture and retaining the language while the children are attempting to identify themselves with American life in which they participate daily. The neighborhood of the home, not always but usually is chosen for economic reasons.- Where there is a lack of funds for rent, cheaper neighborhoods are-resorted to. These are often in industrial sections where there are inadequate playgrounds, where commercial vice masquerades as amusements, and where there are many undesirable ecological aspects from the standpoint of the homeowner. In a neighbor hood of this kind, boys and girls are not only denied the facilities of normal mentally and physically healthful pursuits, but they are constantly being confronted with activities that would not be tolerated in a more prosperous and discriminating district. Where studies have been made, neighborhoods of this type are found to be high in juvenile 24 delinquency. Economic status has a very great effect upon devel opment of personality and upon patterns of behavior. family income may be inadequate for proper housing. The In order to economize the family may be forced to live under crowded unhygienic conditions with no play space for the 24 Emory S. Bogardus, The City Bov and His Problems. (Los Angeles: House of Ralston, 1926.) pp.148. 39 children* Often many members of the family live, eat, and sleep in one room. This results in no privacy for the adults and in emotional stress for the child. Where roomers are taken in to share the burden of the expense as is often the case, the increased crowding militates aga-inst the child’s personality growth. Occupation and employment present economic problems which tend to .bring about social unadjustments identified with status. For example, the education of most Hegroes fits them for only the more menial tasks with their low scales of compensation. Day labor and household work pays very little; in most cases barely a living wage is earned. This leaves an exceedingly meager surplus to be put toward self-improvement. Higher education is out of the economic range of most of these people. However, when it is attained, the professional colored person is faced with a very limited market for his services. Few colored people are in a position to pay a regular physician’s or attorney’s fees. usually patronize members of other races. Those who are, It is a rare case where a white person employs the professional services of a colored person. There are relatively few white collar jobs needed in their own communities and there is a definite prejudice against indiscriminate employment in the wider urban community. The problem of unemployment is a serious economic one throughout the nation; it is much more acute with 40 this race. The young child member senses this insecurity in the home, while the older one is faced with the realism of the situation. Its effect on the social behavior of the children is observed by all who work with them. The Mexican in California usually enjoys only seasonal employment; In agricultural sections the whole family usually finds employment during the harvest season. However, the combined amount earned is usually much below an adequate amount for maintaining a decent standard of living. In addition to this the fact that children work side by side and in competition with adults brings about additional unadjustments. Many high schools in our city issue work permits to these pupils. nuts, and fruit. They pick tomatoes, This brings about prolonged absences from school with attendant educational and social unadjustments. Economic .stress is the cause of many behavior diffi culties. The lack of convenient facilities for bathing results in habits of personal cleanliness far below acceptable standards. Insufficient and imporper diet causes endocrine disturbances which result in asocial be havior. The unfulfilled wish for modish clothes and other material evidences-of desirable status results in emotional blockings and conflicts with attendant anti-social conduct. Money worries are often the cause of unhappy marital re lations. Divorce or dessertion often ensues presenting a 41 problem in the home which sets up an emotional disehord in the child which he brings to school with him and manifests itself in various unadjustments. The primary fact of social organization is its dyn amic character. Change is brought about through the social processes of communication, conflict, competition, accom modation, and assimilation. The greater the isolation, the larger the social distance becomes; the less communication, the lower the change or accommodation exists. Communication between dischordant units produces conflicts whether they are evidenced by erroneous definitions of the situations by individuals in an effort to satisfy their wishes or drives, or by the disagreement of individual attitudes with their counterparts, the accepted values of s o c i e t y C o m p e t i t i o n brings about the great impersonal social upheavels, such as, economic problems, that affect the individual members of society. Eventually conflicting elements come to terms' whether they be a wayward child and an exacting parent, or whether they be a young delinquent and the legal authority of the state enforcing the mores, and an accommodation is made. Assimilation is the agreement of the individual attitudes and societal values. It is the gradual process of unconscious adjustment. In the study of sociology, unadjustment is a sign of disorganization. Individual unadjustment is a sign of 42 personality disorganization. Since society is made up of interacting personalities, personality disintegration is an evidence of social disorganization. So it is, that while psychology helps us in understanding the behavior of these socially unadjusted children, and educational methods aid in modifying their behavior, the real significance of this behavior belongs to the wide field of sociology. In the analysis of the data of the sixty-four children studied it is found that these sociological factors play an important part in influencing the behavior of these particular children. The social processes are involved in their individual unadjustments, and the basis for successful therapeutic treatment is a matter of correct definition of the situation and conformation of attitudes and overt behavior toward socially accepted values. CHAPTER V EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM FOR EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN IN LOS ANGELES General scheme and philosophy. The Los Angeles City Schools recognize as their problem the training of children in and for a democracy. They strive to promote the develop ment and understanding of self, and of the world of nature and of organized society; Their aim is to promote the physical, mental, social, and spiritual growth of children. Los Angeles City Schools strive to meet the needs and interests of children in order that they may lead normal lives while still immature and in order that they may take their places as functioning citizens in a democracy at maturity. To this end, the Division of Instruction and Curriculum, Educational Guidance and Research carries on an extensive plan of curricu lum making, testing, and guidance. The curriculum includes the fundamental subjects such as language arts, social studies, mathematics, and science. The childrenTs physical growth is provided for by not only the teaching of healthful living and the provision of a healthful school environment and the services of the pro fessional personnel-of the health department but also, by giving opportunity for the establishment of healthful habits. Creative arts are included for the purpose of emotional expression in order that the child may develop a well 44 integrated personality through the joy of making or creating. Vocational arts are also provided, as well as the many extra curricular activities that stimulate the child in the contact with school life. The testing program is an integral part of the guidance program.. It aids the teacher in. diagnosing the needs and abilities of the children, as well as in measuring their achievements. Standarized tests properly given, scored, and interpreted aid the teacher in perceiv ing and meeting the needs of her pupils, as well as afford ing the principal a key to the classification of pupils in planning a school program to meet the needs of the children of the community. The Los Angeles City Public Schools maintain:, a Department of Psychology under whose direction the testing program is carried out. This department is headed by two psychologists who are assisted by eight counselors. The elementary school district is divided into instructional sections each with a supervising counselor acting in an advisory capacity. Each school has a teacher who is familiar with the uses of intelligence tests. She has usually taken university courses in Educational Tests and Measurement and in Educational Psychology. She is selected by the principal and supervising counselor and after qualifying 45 receives her approval from the Educational Research and Guidance Office. She confers with the principal and the supervising counselor and plans the testing program to meet the particular needs of the school. She also scores the tests and records the data which is sent to the supervising counselor. There are'many different intelligence tests in use in the Los Angeles Public Schools. They are chosen be cause of their validity and reliability. The following are on the regular requisition blanks issued to the schools 25 and available for their use: California Test of Mental Maturity, Elementary and Primary Batteries, Detroit Advanced First Grade Detroit Beginning First Grade Detroit Kindergarten, Individual Detroit Primary Haggerty Intelligence, Delta I Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability Kuhlmann^-Anderson Intelligence Grade I (First Semester) Grade I (Second Semester) Grade II Grade III Grade IY Grade Y Grade Yl Grade YII-YIII National Intelligence Test, Scales A & B Otis Intermediate Self-Administering Pintner-Cunningham Primary Terman Group Mental Ability 25 Outline of Procedure for Educational Guidance in Elementary Schools (Revised February, 1939) Los Angeles City School District, Division of Instruction and Curricu lum, Educational Research and Guidance. 46 Besides these tests, and Individual Binet is admin istered by a special counselor upon request of the principal or other authoritative person. Test scores are valuable in meeting both adminis trative and teaching problems. The result is recorded on .a statistical survey sheet which is sent in to the psychology office, and also, on a psychology card which is filed in the principal's office. Here it is available to the child’s teacher and such other educational workers to whom such knowledge will be helpful in meeting the child’s individual needs. These data are not reported to the parents since, in the hands of the trained educator the ■ I.Q. is a useful tool for diagnosis and prognosis, but, in the hands of the layman, it affords a basis for stereo26 typing with the inherent dangers to social adjustment. In most cases where social or educational unadjust27 ment has been observed, usually by the teacher, a request for an individual psychological examination is filed by the principal with the psychology department of the school. In such eases a special counselor comes to the school and administers the Revised Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test 26 See Appendix for example of psychology card. 27 See Appendix for request for individual psychol ogical examination. 47 to the child. This test usually requires about two hours time • Often scores on standardized group tests offer the first scientific evidence that an unadjustment, either educational or social, definitely exists. Educational set u p .for accommodating the superior child. Superior children are found to be endowed to a greater extent than normal children with one or more of the characteristics of intellectual curiosity, creative originality, initiative, sustained voluntary' attention, ability to absorb information more quickly than the average child. Many times they show evidences of that quality of personality known as leadership. Often there is found a combination of many of these factors in one superior child. To place a child of this type in an ordinary teachinglearning situation where the curriculum and the methods of procedure are directed toward meeting the needs of an average child is to ignore the precepts of progressive education. Los Angeles City Public.Schools have tried to meet the problem of the superior child in two ways, by taking care of the child in his regular class or by placing him in an Opportunity class. In many schools there are too few children whose intelligence quotients are sufficiently high to- warrant maintaining a room with a special teacher for them. In others, the professional personnel, including the principal, feels that the concentration of gifted child ren in one class removes the leadership so stimulative to the remainder of the school. In schools where this attitude exists the superior children remain in their own classes and they are given extra amounts of work, more creative opportunities, and allowed to take part in many extra-curricular or school-wide activities. In any case, an attempt is made to keep them interested by working up to their capacities. Opportunity classes were first organized in Los Angeles during the year 1929-1930. ,TThey were established where a sufficiently large number of pupils of superior mental ability were discovered in a vicinity in which a school principal was actively interested in the problem.” The enrollment in an opportunity class is limited to not more than- thirty in order that each child may receive a maximum of teacher time and attention compatable to the cost of public education. The purpose and plan of the Opportunity classes has _ _ Cora Lee Danielson, "Special classes for" Highly Endowed Children: Opportunity A Rooms,” Fourth Yearbook • of the Division of Psychology and Educational Research Los Angeles City Schools, School Publication, No. 211, 1931. p. 69. 49 been aptly described by Miss Danielson, Assistant Super visor in charge of Opportunity rooms, by the following: These very characteristics that make their possessors of most value to the world frequently make instruction in.average or below-average groups of questionable value in their development and con versation. Lack of recognition and disuse often so dulls them that promising pupils revert to medi ocrity. ‘ Concern lest this happen motivates special provision for the education of gifted children. The plan is similar to that recently inaugurated in a New "York school by Teachers College of Columbia, in Los Angeles it has been the practice for several years to organize opportunity classes and to place superior teachers in charge of them. These teachers know that gifted children have the ability to follow directions but that too much direction kills in itiative; that enrichment of curriculum comes through contacts. In opportunity classes, therefore, the instruction is so modified as to meet John Deweyfs criterion of the business of an educator: "To see that the greatest possible number of ideas acquired by children and youth are acquired in such a vital way that they become moving ideas, motive forces in the guidance of conduct. Superior children who live outside the area served by a school with an opportunity class are often taken care of by special transfer to a school which has a class of this type provided the principal of the childfs school is interested and co-operative. Teachers of these classes are chosen for their under standing attitudes in.dealing with children and their 29 Cora Lee Danielson, "Opportunity Classes", Schools and Classes for Exceptional Children: The Child with a Problem, [Tos Angeles, California: Los Angeles School District, School Publication No. 315, 1938.} p. 5. 50 ability to motivate and inspire children to their best attainments. Educators of Los Angeles have long been committed to a program of an enriched curriculum rather than of acceleration for its superior children. Enriching the curriculum ?<?hether it be carried on in an ordinary school room or whether it be under the special conditions of an opportunity class, helps to develop the childTs abilities, while accelerating him tends to bring about unadjustments by placing him in a group beyond his chronological and social age. Special educational advantages offered the sub normal child. Sub-normal children who are candidates for special educational help are usually detected through their inabilit}^ to master academic work suited to their age and grade level and through the low score which they receive upon the standardized intelligence tests. There are several schools in Los Angeles both elementary and secondary age level, that are devoted to the education of sub-normal children. Many times children living out of the district are furnished transportation to these schools. In sections where' there are only a few, a special class in an ordinary school is made available to them. Teachers are chosen for this type of work because of their professional training for working with the slow learning child, their particularly adaptive personalities, and their attitudes of patience and understanding toward the problems that the slow learning child presents. The program for Development Centers in the Los Angeles City Schools includes health and nutrition, physical education and sports, manual education and hand crafts j animal husbandry, music, art, and nature study. Only the minimum essentials of the curriculum in lang uage arts, arithmetic, and social studies is emphasized. Areas of interests are developed into units of work which provide motivation for the learning. The children are grouped according to chronological age and social in terests for the special subjects, and according to mental age and educational achievement for academic work* In the year 1938, four thousand three hundred four children of limited mentality have been studied, en couraged, and helped by principals and teachers in the development schools and classes in the Los Angeles city system.30 The objectives of the program for development centers and classes and for the education of all sub- 30 Mary Frances Martin, "Development Schools and Glasses" Schools and Classes for Exceptional children: The Child with a Problem, (Los Angeles, California: Los Angeles School District, School Publication No. 315, 1938. p. 10. ~ 52 normal children are set forth in the Fourth Yearbook of the Division of .Psychology and Educational Research* It was written by Mary Frances Martin, Assistant Supervisor in charge of Development schools and classes and is here51 in quoted in full because of its inclusiveness: (a) To remove all remediable physical defects and to develop to the maximum the physical well-being of the children. (b) To develop desirable and healthful habits of living. (c) To assist the children to make the best possible social adjustment. (d) To give the children those fundamentals of an academic education which they may be called upon to use in life. (e) To develop a fund of useful, workable information which shall be definitely related to the child’s experience. (f) To equip the child, if possible, with some specific skills of a vocational or .pre-vocational type. (g) To prepare each child to become at least partially self-supporting when he leaves school. (h) To provide simple and wholesome activities for leisure time. 31 Ibid., "Special Classes and Centers for Mentally Defective Children," Fourth Yearbook of the Division of Psychology and Research Los Angeles City Schools, [Los Angeles, California: Los Angeles City School District School Publication No. 211, 1931.) p. 118. (i) To attempt to raise the standards'of cleanliness, health, beauty, and harmony in the home, through the childfs influence in the home. When a child enters a development school, he is received in a friendly manner and made to feel welcome and comfortable. He is introduced to a class of child ren not only of his own age, but also of a level' of ability similar to his own. Each child in a development school is given opportunity to acquire as many academic skills as is possible for him as an individual. However, the emphasis is not placed upon acadmic subjects, but rather upon the child himself with his complex urges for expression and needs for development. Eirst of all, the health and nutrition of the child are investigated by the doctor and nurse. Remedial measures are instituted when indicated. Rest, milk, and additional food are given to children who are under weight for their- height and age. The teacher visits the home of the child to assure the parents of an interest in the child and to learn from them and the situation in the home anything that may help better to understand the child and his problems. Before the boy or girl enters the development school, he has been given a careful psychological ex amination by a well trained counselor. The results of this examination are made available to the teacher. A report from the school where the child previously attended concerning his academic achievements, attendance, and behavior is also available. With all the information at hand, the principal and teacher begin observation and training. In short, the elementary development schools and classes provide the maximum opportunity for the phys ical, mental, and social growth of boys and girls of limited mental endowment, in addition to such activities ..., there are classes for girls in cooking sewing, laundering, and personal hygiene. There are also classes in music, art, dancing, pottery, and weaving for both boys and girls. The garden is large and colorful with flowers. Vegetables also are raised for the cafeteria. There is an interesting 54 "activity” in progress in each academic class. At least two children out of every hundred in the elementary schools are so retarded mentally that they are unable to profit by the regular curriculum. How ever, the child who is mentally retarded may have a a very special ability in music, art, or handwork-certainly he has some asset-^and it is the privilege of the skilled teacher to discover and develop to the highest degree the potentialities of each child. For older pupils, it is the policy to transfer them to junior high school at fourteen years of age and to senior high school at sixteen. Several junior and senior high schools make provision for the "slowlearning" pupils by establishing special classes for them in social studies, English, and mathematics* In these classes, a modified course of study is planned to give the essentials of the curriculum, using methods and materials suitable to the limited abili ties of the pupils. Generally speaking, these students are programmed in the regular non-academic or vocational classes indicated by their special interests or abilities. Educational facilities provided for the socially unadjusted child. Los Angeles, like other large cities, has its percentage of children who, unfortunately for themselves and for the group with whom they are in contact, have established such attitudes and behavior patterns that it is not beneficial for them to remain in an uncontrolled environment. These attitudes and behavior patterns are a result of compensatory mechanisms and well established conditioning. antisocial. These attitudes may be passively or actively The child may have withdrawn from reality and be living in his own imaginary world; he may exhibit an utter lack of interest in school v^hich results in an 55.. acute form of truancy. On the other hand, he may react to the school situation by being defiant and impudent to his teachers to a degree that it is to the detriment of the other pupils in his class. Fie may compensate for his own mental, physical, or home environment by bullying or inflicting pain upon others. Fie may have such mental conflicts that have resulted from experiences, that he may exhibit sex delinquency; The habit of such asocial responses as lying, stealing, and cursing may be of such long standing and be so well established that the child is no longer a desirable member of a normal group. Los Angeles has several welfare schools and centers for the accommodation and rehabilitation of these children. Teachers are chosen for this work for their know ledge of psychiatric principles and for their skill in helping children to reconstruct their behavior. Rooms for socially unadjusted children are known as welfare classes and also belong to the Department of Educ ation for Exceptional Children. There are provisions for young children in special classes and for those of junior high school age, as well as for senior high school age. Some of the rooms or centers are in ordinary schools, and some are organized as special school units. Children who live out of the immediate vicinity are transported by bus or have their transportation on street cars and busses paid by the Board of Education. Children are segregated according to sex, there being boy’s welfare centers, and girl’s welfare centers. There is a girl’s high,school where the socially unadjusted girls of normal or higher intelligence attend, and there are centers for those of secondary school age chronologically, who are of sub normal intelligence. There are special classes conducted at Juvenile court, and there is a school designed to meet the needs of transient boys. The curriculum is academically suited to the mental age and capacity of the group. guidance are included. Handcrafts and vocational Physical education, clubs, and student government provide opportunities for emotional and social growth arid control* The amount saved by society by providing special educational opportunities for these children is incalcu lable. The percentage of partial or total adjustment of these children warrants the expenditure necessary for their training. Each individual child is in danger of becoming a detriment to the state. Each is a potential criminal, whose cost of permanent incarceration would probably be far less to society than the cost of the results of his anti-social conduct. There is no way of evaluating on a monetary basis the subjective values of 5,7 reconstructing behavior. However, the following figures based on per capita cost of maintaining a child in the California State institutions for a year as compared with the cost of providing special educational facilities within the Los Angeles School system give the’reader some insight into the economies of the question. Thefollowing figures were prepared by Mary Frances Martin, Assistant Supervisor of Education for Exceptional Children in the Los Angeles City Schools and used with her permission. Institution Per Capita Cost Per Year Pacific Colony §360.00 State Penitentiaries 200.00 Sonoma State Home 271.82 Preston School of Industry 622.42 Whittier State School 698.71 In addition to the above figures, it costs the*County approx imately two-hundred-twenty-five dollars to commit a child to a State Institution. Compare these costs with the §76.80 excess per capita cost expended yearly for each unadjusted child in the Los Angeles City System. YHiile there is a certain percentage of the children that are unfit for public school education, the ratio of social adjustments that are brought about justifies the maintenance of these special educational opportunities. There is no question about the service to society rendered by the section of the school system devoted to the rehabilitation of the youth of Los Angeles. CHAPTER VI INDIVIDUAL CASE HISTORIES Introduction. Statistical analyses do not, as a rule, present a.complete- picture in social studies. * Numer ous personality and sociological factors are not revealed in arithmetical terms. There is no exact measurement of unadjustment as to amount, extent, or consequences. Attempts have been made to objectively calculate asocial conduct by means of behavior rating scales. At best these scales aie in part subjectively compiled and subjectively answered either by the person being analysed or by an observer. The scoring can be done objectively, and thus an index to an unadjustment indicated, but no definite amount can be ob tained. Neither can the extent of unadjustment be definite ly stated. Emotions do not lend themselves to exact mensur ation; human suffering is immeasurable. Human behavior is so dependent upon human interaction that results of asocial conduct on the individual committing it and upon those com ing in contact with him are merely a matter of conjecture. How others are influenced and for what length of time the results are felt, not only belong to the realm of the pres ent and conscious, but, also project into the past and fut ure, and effect mental reactions that take place below the threshold of consciousness. For the same reason that it is impossible to compute in actual dollars and cents the cost of crime to the state and society, it is impossible to actually measure the damage of asocial conduct to primary, secondary, and tertiary groups. Modes, means, and correl ations can be computed and objective data gathered, but these methods fail to give a complete or revealing picture of human personalities in interaction. In selecting the cases given in detail, and in sel ecting the total number of histories given, no arithmetical mode and incidence frequency was found. The cases were chosen from the standpoint of social research, rather than a statistical or mathematical procedure. Types of behavior reactions that are common to the Los Angeles school children have been chosen. Whether they, or a combination of these reactions, are most frequent has not been computed. In reviewing several hundred cases, conduct that falls in the same category has been found to recur, but how frequently, and to what extent has not been calculated. Rather, indiv idual conduct has been studied in its entirety, in its relation to causes, and in its reaction to treatment, in the whole situation. The selection of cases has been based on the assumptions that certain fundamental human experiences are universally understood; that basic emotional responses are homogeneous; that individual reaction to specific stimuli are similar; and, that all people are subject to basic social processes described in terms of sociological concepts. In order to complete the presentation of unadjustments in the Los Angeles City Public Schools, the age range of the cases has been wide. have been included. Children from five to eighteen years Unadjustments and evidences of unadjust ments are of a different nature as personalities grow and develop. The young child will give different evidences of immature adjustment, usually confined to those of a primary group nature. The older child will find it necessary to suit his conduct to situations dealing with secondary and tertiary groups as well, in accordance with his wider contacts, besides social development, intellectual, physical, and emotional growth will cause a variation in responses and in unadjustments. A more narrow range of age limits would necessarily narrow the types of unadjust ments. For this reason, cases of problem children from the kindergarten through the elementary and secondary school ages were studied. The investigation has had no preconceived view or premises to prove or disprove. The purpose of the study has been to find out what are the facts about and factors of unadjustment. Consequently, the cases have not been chosen with a view to proving or disproving any particular working hypothesis, but merely, for their revelationary value. All the cases presented have not shown improvement, 61 or complete adjustment, neither have they all shown failure. To have chosen all cases where a successful ad justment had been or was being.made would lead to the belief that adjustment was the rule; to have chosen all cases where very little or no apparent adjustment was effected, would lead to the belief that the Los Angeles schools were in no way meeting or successfully coping with the problems involved. A glance at the situation would reveal this assumption to be untrue. been selected in this way. The cases have not They merely show how certain individual children react to the stimuli of their individual environments, and how they react to the specific therapeutic treatment afforded them. In order to get a complete picture of the extent to which these children have adjusted, or failed to adjust in school, it would be necessary to follow the cases thru the complete history of their education. ' Since this normaly covers a twelve year period, no study would present pres ent unadjustments. years duration. Practically all would be of several They would be sequences that would amount to life histories. The investigation would present the unadjustments that occurred in children's behavior, in the Los Angeles school system a decade ago, rather than a cross-section of the situation .now existing. The cases presented are taken from the records of 62 the psychology department compiled by trained counselors and professional psychologists, as well as from social case histories made out by visiting teachers and welfare workers. Young superior boy. Johnny Freeman, although only six years old and in grade J31, proved to be a great problem in school. Me fought almost daily on the playground. has an I. Q,. of 132. Me He liked to annoy other children, teasing tne older boys and girls with whom he came in contact, and hurting the younger ones. depended upon and told many falsehoods. He could not be His teacher appealed to the principal for help in diagnosing and handling his problem. Me exhibited a nervous and highly strung nature. In talking with JohnnyTs mother, Mrs. Hortense Freeman, the principal was convinced that the mother followed up the commands that she made. However, J o h n n y ^ conduct at home was much the same as at school, and the mother reported much rivalry between Johnny and his younger brother, Donald. Upon finding that punishment did not phase Johnny, the principal called upon- the psychology office for aid. According to the reports of the school doctor there were no unfavorable health factors. Mrs. Freeman, in giv ing J o h n n y ^ development history stated that her health was good during gestation. Johnny learned to walk at the age of eleven months, and to talk at thirteen months. His eat 63 ing habits -were good although he craved starches. He ate fruits and vegetables but not because he liked them. When Johnny was five-and-a-half years old he contracted a rather severe case of whooping cough. night. He is very restless at He sleeps in a bed of his own in a room, with his brothers. There are four boys in the family. Johnny is the oldest, then Donald who is five, James who is two-and-ahalf, and the baby, Richard, seven months. Mr. Freeman was born in Canada but came to California while still a child. grade in Los Angeles. Irish parents. He attended school up to the eleventh Mrs. Freeman was born in Mexico of She came to the United States with her parents when she was six years old and completed the tenth grade in a Los Angeles high school. While Johnny was recuperating from the whooping cough, Mrs. Freeman secured a position working in a market from September to Thanksgiving. During this period she hired a maid to keep house and look after the children. The Freeman’s live in a five-room, single house which they rent. It is *in rather a good suburban neigh borhood, and the children have plenty of play space in the yard. In recommending treatment the psychologist talked over various points of child management with the mother. 64 It was pointed out that Johnny1s conduct might he a re action from feeling pushed aside in the affections of his parents by the exactions of his younger brothers. It also was pointed out that he was old enough mentally to have some hobby in which his parents might show an interes.t and in this way restore his sense of security. Mrs* Freeman seemed interested in the advice of the psychologist. She admitted times when her patience was exhausted by JohnnyTs and Donald*s constant bickering and quarreling. She also spoke of the difficulty of raising a family of four children on Mr. Freeman’s earnings. She asked for a list of books to read to the children which the psychologist gave her with special recommendations. . Mrs. Freeman was given a second appointment for conference and check up on progress. This she failed to keep, and the psychologist has had no further word from her. In her recommendation to the school, the psycholo gist advised providing him with sufficient activity to keep his attention fully engaged. It was pointed out that Johnny was probably above his. group in mental capacity and ability, and if his interest could be enlisted, he probably would become socially adjusted through the satisfaction he would receive from his successes. The school reported that Johnny’s conduct has shown some improvement although he continues to be a problem. •65 Young superior girl. Millieent is a sad example of the unhappiness a sensitive child can experience because of the foolish selfishness of adults in using her as a source of amusement to themselves. Millieent was brought to the Psychology Clinic Ytfhen she was seven years old at her mother's request.Although only seven years old chronologically, she had a mental age of twelve years and five months. Her intelli gence quotient, on the basis of a Revised Stanford-Binet Intelligence test was one-hundred-seventy-seven. In school Millieent is extremely reticent, never answering unless expressly called upon, and then very shyly; She never volunteers to do anything that will make her in the least conspicuous; Her teacher reports that she is absent minded and does a great deal of day dreaming in class. She seems to be withdrawing from social contacts. On the playground she stays by herself, and shows no inclination to enter into games or play with the other children. Millieent was born under normal conditions. At six months she could say three words; at one year she could talk well. She had measels, scarlet fever, and frequent colds with coughs. She also had a mild case of pneumonia. She is very tall and underweight for her height. At seven 66 she is as tall as most ten year old children. Given a Mantaux test for tuberculosis, she had a negative reaction. She sleeps well, in a room by herself. Mr. Hipsh, MillieentTs father, is thirty-four years old and has steady employment as an airplane mechanic. He is a high school graduatej. and has an inventive bent. Mrs. Hipsh had a teacherTs training course after high school, and taught in Colorado for six years prior to her marriage and their move to California. years old. She is thirty-two She is quite musical, sings difficult numbers and accompanies herself on the piano. Millieent is their only child. Mrs. Hipsh has a sister who was studying psychology in Germany. When she was advised of MillieentTs preeo- ciousness in reading, the aunt wrote warning against ad vancing her in school beyond her years. At seven years old Millieent is in grade B3. There are two of Mrs. HipshT adult brothers living in the home. They took a great pride in Millieent, and enjoyed showing her off. When their friends visited the house, they would have Millieent read to them and other wise perform for company. For sometime Millieent seemed to enjoy doing this, but gradually she showed less and less inclination to entertain adults. Finally, she would no longer submit, and became very stubborn in her refusal. 67 Mrs. Hipsh reported to the psychologist that Millieent seems to avoid contacts with people. She even refuses to go to the neighborhood grocery on errands for her mother. Mrs. Hipsh- also said she was planning a birthday party for Millieent, inviting some of her school friends, but Millieent did not want her mother to give a party for her. In an interview with the psychologist, in which she seemed partially to win the little girl's confidence, Millieent confessed that she was afraid to talk to people and for this reason did not want to go to the store for her mother. She said she often crossed to the other side of the street in order that she would not have to say 'hello' to an acquaintance. She also said that she did not want her mother to invite the other children to her party for fear they would not come. She said she felt herself to be a very ugly girl. . She expressed happiness in books, and said that she liked older friends best. In a talk with Mrs. Hipsh the psychologist explained that Millieent is laboring under an inferiority complex probably brought on by the excess amount of attention paid her by adults. The difficulty that an immature personality must have experienced in developing under such conditions, was indicated. She advised giving the party for Millieent possibly as a surprise. She also suggested to Mrs. Hipsh. that some effort be made to interest Millieent in helping someone else, taking care of a pet, or some other activity that might transfer her interest from herself, and so, overcome her self-consciousness. Placement in an opportunity class was recommended. It was evident that Millieent could do work of a high fourth grade level. The curriculum in an opportunity class would exact effort on her part to succeed, besides through its creative program provide opportunity for self-expression Two opportunity classes were recommended for the parents to choose from. There was no opportunity class in the immediate vicinity of the hipsh home. The family intended moving near one, but decided against moving because of the fatherTs work. Mrs. Hipsh reported that she gave the party and all the children seemed to enjoy themselves. came, and Everyone invited Millieent has been walking home from school with some of the children since that time. Millieent told the psychologist about the party, and said it was fun. The school' reports a slight improvement in Millieent's socialization. Young sub-normal boy. Arman Bronson is eight years old, has a mental age of three years six months, and an' 69 intelligence quotient of forty-three. He is in the Transition B1 grade, ArmanTs teacher reported him as being a great prob lem in class. ligibly, His speech is infantile and he talks unintel He can do no regular work in class. He expends his time scribbling and making immature drawings. unable to learn to read. co-ordination. He is He has very poor muscular He masturbates in the school room. He bursts out crying at the slightest provocation, and if he is crossed in any way he goes into a prolonged fit of crying. in the class. He is very disturbing to the other children He does not play well with them. he spits at the other children. Many times He continually does things to attract attention; such as breaking crayolas. He is very destructive with his playthings. Arman’s mother and father have been separated since he was two years old. His father deserted his mother and the family, and has not been heard from in several years. Arman has a sister who is ten years old. live with a maternal aunt. The two children Mrs. Bronson works and takes the children home with her only on week ends. Arman is a large boy for his age. He is kept clean, and shows a responsive, affectionate disposition. In giving his development history, his mother said that he was a "depression’’ baby. She was greatly worried during the months before he was born, and frequently did not have enough to eat while she was carrying him. until one month before he was born. tied. She worked up Arman was born tongue- This was not discovered until he was nine months old, at which time Mrs. Bronson took him to the charity hospital and had an operation performed. Arman entered kindergarten at the age of five years eight months. He was such'a disturbing element and was so obviously undeveloped mentally that the teacher and principal referred him to the administrator in charge of the develop ment schools section. Since he was below compulsory school age both mentally and physically, Arman was excluded from school until he had attained the age of eight years chronologically. In the meantime, institutional care was suggested. Mrs. Bronson was very much disturbed by this, and obtained a letter from her" private doctor stating that upon examination he found no physical reason why Arman should not attend school. Mrs. Bronson sent a typewritten letter to the administrator in which her attitude was clearly revealed. She asked the following questions. must you drop Arman from school? "First, why Second,-aren’t public schools to help children better themselves? If children did no.t need supervision, there would be no purpose in having schools. Third, why hasnTt someone come to me personally to talk this matter over with me? have my address.” I believe you The preceding quotation is an excerpt from Mrs. Bronson’s letter. Upon receipt of this letter the administrator’s secretary notified Mrs. Bronson that she could make an arrangement for an appointment to talk the matter over and clear up any misunderstandings that might exist. Mrs. Bronson came in for her appointment and ifche administrator told her she was very glad that she came, and that she hoped that they together could work out a- satisfactory plan for the child. for the child’s sake The administrator also explained that it would be much better if he were allowed to develop in his home environment until such time as he was mature enough to enter into the social inter action that comes with school life. It was pointed out that serious personality conflicts often occur where a child is confronted with social situations beyond his ability to cope with them. The administrator recommended to. Mrs. Bronson that she rent a house and hire a housekeeper, possibly the aunt with whom the children had been staying, and in this way have the children at home with her. In this way, Mrs. Bronson, the mother, would.be associated, and identified, in the child’s mind, with the home. Mrs. Bronson admitted that she thought Arman would do much better if she herself were able to be with, him more, 72 but said that this arrangement would be out of the question, for financial reasons. It was pointed out to her that the new plan could be carried out as economically as paying for the children’s care as she was now doing. Mrs. Bronson said that her doctor had told her that Arman was in need of a tonsillectomy and a circumcision. However,-his fee was sixty dollars, and this was impossible for her to pay at-this time. The administrator gave Mrs. Bronson a note to a medical social worker at the Children’s Hospital asking that she take an interest in Arman’s case and extend whatever help possible. She asked this as a special favor since the circumstances were very hard in this case. When Arman was eight years old he again entered school. His intelligence quotient plainly indicated the reason he was unable to adjust educationally to his class. He was recommended for a primary development class. Mrs. Bronson told the social worker from the State Relief Administration, from which she was getting aid, that the schools were making unreasonable demands in having her child sent to a development school. This was reported to the school administration, and ’ Mrs. Bronson was asked to come to the Psychology office. -Mrs. Bronson and the aunt visited the Psychology office with nfire in their eyes” ready to go into towering rages. When the psychologist stated that this was a matter that should be talked over and settled by intelligent people, and that she knew herself to be such, but certainly visitors were not acting as such, the aunt dropped her voice to a conversational tone, but Mrs. Bronson was still very bellicose. Under the present arrangement, Arman, being unable to take care of himself, was being taken to and from school by his sister. The school which they attended did not have a development class, but there was one in a nearby school which was within walking distance. A crossing guard was on duty on the busy street to help' the children across, and it was not at all the difficult situation that Mrs. Bronson had represented it to be, to the social worker. The psychologist pointed out to Mrs. Bronson that the child would have definite advantages in a development class where the work was especially suited to his level and planned to aid in developing him mentally and socially. She also explained .that his present Intelligence Quotient was based on a very generous rating and that the next test might not show him so high. Arman was enrolled in the development class. tonsils have not yet been removed. His His attendance is poor. He has frequent colds and is kept out of school on slight provocation. He continues to be a behavior problem in class when he is present. ditions have been made.- No change in his living con He and his sister are still living with their aunt. Young sub-normal girl. Guillermina Ysidro is a young Mexican girl who has become unadjusted. She is eleven years ten months old with a mental age of seven years two months, and an intelligence quotient on the basis'of a Revised Stanford-Binet of sixty-six. She is four years retarded in her mental growth. In school she has shown herself to be a poor sport on the playground, refusing to co-operate or abide by the rules of games. of others. She continually disregards the fellings In class Guillermina was rude, defiant, impud ent, and disobedient to her teacher. She wrote obscene words on the toilet door and signed the teacher's name. After repeated requests for Guillerminafs mother to come to the school were ignored, the principal called in the services of the GirlTs Welfare and Attendance Officer. The welfare officer first contacted Guillermina1s teacher and thoroughly familiarized herself with the school situa tion. Besides the anti-socail behavior that Guillermina had exhibited there was a lack of interest and a slovinliness shown in her school work. The teacher co-operated with the welfare officer in giving her information concern ing GuillerminaTs achievement in the language arts, social 75 studies, arithmetic reasoning, as well as in her social behavior and attitudes. All of these fell below the normal A5 level although Guillermina was enrolled as an A5 pupil. Upon visiting the home, the welfare officer found Mr. and Mrs. Tsidro to be English speaking Mexicans who had lived in California for more than fifteen years. Mr. and Mrs. Ysidro, Guillermina, and two younger children, Alejandro, aged nine, and Alberta, aged five, lived in a three room house. It was a wretched house in a miserable location behind a store. it consisted of an old frame building, very much in need of repair. There was no play space for the children, and no opportunity for privacy for any members of the family. The children occasionally went to the city playground, which was within walking distance, but they were not members of any organized group. The total family income was fifty-six dollars a month which Mr.. Ysidro received from the State Relief Administration, twenty dollars of vi/hich went for rent each month. Investigation with the Social Service Exchange revealed that besides the State Relief Administration, the family was known to other public agencies, namely, the Los Angeles General Hospital, and the JMursing Division of the City Health Department. Relations between GuillerminaTs parents were appar ently harmonious. Mrs. Ysidro expressed surprise that the welfare officer called, and stated she had had to school to see the principal. no summons to come Upon hearing of Guillermina conduct she was much concerned and said she would give her "a good spanking” . The welfare officer recommended that Guillermina be placed in a Girl's Welfare Center. It was felt that she would profit by the closer supervision of the welfare center She would receive more personal attention from the teacher, and the curriculum would be more suited to her level of accomplishment. The transfer was made. In a conference held with the Welfare teacher, Mrs. Ysidro, Guillermina, and the welfare officer, Guillermina expressed an interest and desire to go to the new school. The welfare officer has made several home calls and has been able to offer' guidance and suggestions to Mrs. Ysidro. The welfare officer seems genuinely interested in Guillermina, and has spent a great deal of time with her. Guillermina has apparently adjusted very well in the center. She has been.respectful in her manner toward the teacher and has been more considerate of rights and feelings of the other girls. She has reacted well to the situation * where there are no boys. There has been no repetition of lying, forging, or obscene writing. In spite of her retard ed mentality, Guillermina has shown qualities of leadership. 77 She has won a place of respect among the girls, and has been elected as a member of a committee. While her academic achievement is still very low, she has done some sewing and water color painting of a high standard. Older superior boy. Bert McNeary was in the last year of high school when he was brought to the Psychology clinic by his mother. He had been truant from school on numerous occasions and was showing no interest in his school work. He was surly and non-co-operative in his manner, and showed a lack of intellectual interest. He stayed out late at night, and would give no account of his activities at home. He was in trouble with the Senior Board of Control at school because of infractions of rules and defiant behavior. Bert is sixteen years and eleven months old, with a mental age of nineteen years and nine months, and an intelligence quotient of one-hundred-thirty-one. Bert had a normal birth and was talking and walking at the age of one year. When he was six years old he had arsenic poisoning- from the local milk dairy. He v;as quite ill, had convulsions, and was out of school for three months. When Bert was seven, his parents had his tonsil's and adnoids removed. At fourteen he had quite a severe attack of influenza. During the past year he slept well, but previously had been restless during the night and was 78 a very light sleeper. ing nature. milk. He had frequent dreams of a disturb He eats well, likes fruit and vegetables, and He has a varicose vein in the scrotum. He seems near sighted and has a habit of holding reading mallei' very close to his eyes. Although refraction was not indicated by . the doctor upon report of an eye examination. Mr. MoNeary is a graduate of the University of Southern California. He is a man of fifty years who has held executive positions. Until about two years ago he was manager of a Los Angeles Association with a very good salary. Business conditions were very bad and his position was eliminated, and Mr. McNeary was out of a job. He now operates a gasoline station which he owns, but which is not profitable. Mrs. McNeary is forty-four years old. She attended the University of Southern California two years and went two years to Berkeley. In order to help the family in come she has been working in a real estate office in Beverly Hills for two months, doing rental work. The home conditions are much above average. The McNearys own-their own home which is spacious and taste fully furnished. At the time they acquired it they had a good deal of wealth, but they have lost it, and their income is much reduced. The heavy responsibilities, business and financial troubles, made it necessary for Mr. 79 McNeary to be placed in a sanitarium for a while until he was sufficiently recovered to be brought home to recuperate. The maternal grandmother also lives in the home. Bert*s paternal grandmother lost her mind at the age of sixty. Senile dementia was the diagnosis. paternal grandfather also became queer. His They are both now deceased. Bert has a paper route which he considers tiresome • and boresome, but continues with it because he needs the money. He buys his own clothes and provides himself with spending money from this source. He has withdrawn from many of his former social contacts because of the decline in the family economic status* There is a great deal of disagreement and misunder standing between Bert and his father. Bert has never con fided in his father; there is considerable social distance between them. Bert wishes to quit school and work in the service station. Mr. McNeary objects to his staying out of school to help him, and says he will work Bert twelve hours a day if he does. To this Bert replies that legally his father cannot do this. This is only one of the dis agreements, but probably the most frequent, that widen the gulf of understanding and comradship between Bert and his father. Mrs. McNeary became very worried about BertTs change 80 of attitude and took him to a private psychiatrist. Bert resented whole heartedly. unco-operative. This He was uncommunicative and It resulted in Mrs. McNeary, too, being shut out from her son’s confidence. They decided to let the whole matter drop. However, when Bert got into trouble with the Senior Board of Control at the high school, after much persuasion, he reluctantly consented to visit the psychology clinic. The psychologist found that his extreme reserve and surliness were recently acquired traits. had a very likable personality. Underneath he He had been very popular with boys and girls his own age and had been president of several clubs. He did not seem to know what line of work he ¥/ould like to go into. He complained to the psychol ogist that his father never tried to see his side of things and that his mother had tricked him into going to see that ”nut doctor” . He also said his mother babied him and tried to run his affairs in general. He expressed a desire to finish high school "sometime” , but he had no plans for further education. He wanted to help out at home, finan cially. The psychologist explained the attitude of a mother toward an. only son who had acquired attitudes unfavorable to his future welfare. She also told Bert of his super ior mental ability as indicated by the tests. The 81' possibilities of this were pointed out to him as well as trying to make him realize the social responsibility that went along with these talents. The psychologist advised him to find out what his occupational aim might be and to avail himself of the opportunities to this end in school. In her recommendations to the school,.the psychol ogist stated that since the boy was obviously laboring under a very unhappy home situation brought about by the necessity of readjustment in altering standards of living to suit a lower economic status, she advised securing a working certificate for him for the time being, and allow ing him to enroll at night school. She felt he needed to make decisions for himself, and this would afford him opportunities to do so. This plan was carried out for one semester. Bert worked for his father and secured a half-day position in another service station. He returned to school in February and graduated in June. On his return there were no unexcused absences, nor were there any conflicts with the student governing group nor complaints in the principal’s office. Older superior girl. Buelah Cranston has had a difficult adjustment to make and in which she is failing. After finding her in repeated lies and stealing, the school attendance officer called in the help of the psychology 82 department. She is failing in her studies. Buelah is fifteen years eight months old, with a mental age of eighteen years two months, and an intellig ence quotient of one-hundred-twenty-three. Her general health is good. She had a normal birth and was breast fed during the first year of her life. Menses began at fourteen years nine months. She has good eating habits, likes fruit, vegetables, and milk* She sleeps well; eight-thirty is her regular hour for going to bed. Buelah did not always keep regular hours or have good health habits., generally. When she was two years old her mother and father were divorced. They lived in Chicago at the time and Buelah was shifted back and forth between her mother and maternal'grandmother. Most of her life was spent in cheap rooming houses, even after her mother remarried. Her play time was spent on the streets with little supervision. -'Buelah liked her stepfather and was prejudiced against her father by her mother’s account. When Buelah was eleven her mother took sick. Buelah suf fered a great deal of mental anguish and worry for two weeks prior to' her mother’s death. The *grandmother and stepfather then decided to send Buelah to California to her father. Mr. Cranston had been in Los Angeles for twelve years. 83 He had remarried and had two young children when .his second wife also died. His mother kept house for him and looked after the children. He was fifty-two years old. He had received a high school education in New York and was at the present time district manager for a paint and wall paper concern. His wife’s illness and other mis fortunes had prevented him from accumulating wealth and they were managing to live in a small house inadequate for the needs of the family. In addition to the father* grandmother, Buelah, and two younger brothers, her father’s sister and her young daughter live in the house. The aunt works for a bakery. Buelah sleeps on a cot in the kitchen. She has no place to entertain her friends and little companionship with boys or girls her own age. The grandmother is a very strict disciplinarian. She is quite opinionated and very much prejudiced against Buelah’s mother. From-a regime of very lax discipline and a great deal of freedom and an individualistic life, Buelah has been transplanted to one that is rigidly super vised ?fith practically no opportunity for privacy. Buelah is in grade A10 at school. rather below average work. She is doing She occasionally cuts classes and has been truant several times and has been known to the school Welfare and Attendance Division for some time. .84 One day Buelah was caught stealing money from the lockers. Her case was referred to the psychology depart ment by the Welfare and Attendance officer of the school. Mr. Cranston was very much disturbed and brought Buelah to the office himself. In talking with the psychologist Buelah said that' she was very fond of her stepfather. He was very good to her and not as strict as her grandmother. She also said that she liked her father much better than she had expect ed to before she came to him. In speaking about taking the money, she said her conscience hurt her, but she could not resist taking it when she had the opportunity. She stated that she had no spending money of her own. The psychologist recommended to Mr. Cranston that Buelah be given a small weekly allowance and that she be encouraged in companionship with girls her own age. The possibility of her joining a character building club, such as the Campfire Girls, was suggested* The psychologist advised Mr. Cranston to take over more of her supervision himself, ra/ther than leave so much to the grandmother, and to make a pal of Buelah as much as he could. Mr. Cranston indicated that finances made it almost impossible to give Buelah an allowance, and that his work and difference in their interests made it difficult for him to spend much time with Buelah. 85 In her recommendation to the school the psycholo gist advised giving Buelah some work at the school for which she would be paid, and for the teachers to be asked to show a personal interest in Buelah1s accomplishments in her classes. Buelah was given work in the cafeteria for which she received pay. However, the stealing from the lockers continued, and whenever Buelah handled any of the cafeteria funds there was a shortage. taken off the job. Finally, she was One week end the school was broken in and the supply cabinet in the office was rifled. It was found that Buelah and another girl had done the burglarizing. Buelah was filed upon by the school authorities and sent to Juvenile Hall for observation. Older sub-normal boy. Although Thomas Johnson is fifteen years old he looks very much older. He is tall, ' large for his age, and has a small mustache, and a growth of beard that gives him a very mature appearance. The last time Thomas was tested in school he was fourteen years eight months old, chronologically, ten years eight months old, mentally, and his intelligence quotient was seventy-three. He was referred to the psychology office by his teacher and principal in elementary school and later by his principal in Junior High School. Thomas is a Negro boy. He is not at all interested in.school. He has heen known to the attendance department for several years because of his innumerable absences. He is more interested in his social activities outside of school than in any of his class work. of the fundamentals of reading, He lacks a knowledge fie reads only under individual supervision; in fact, he requires individual attention in order to accomplish anything academic in nature. His attitude with the other children is very adult and sophisticated* He uses vulgar language. escapades with girls in a braggadocio manner. He tells of He is popu lar with the boys in a superior sort of way, but has little real democratic companionship with them. His unadjustment is of a nature that greatly effects the personalities and attitudes of others as well as himself. Thomas was allowed to go to Junior High School on a certificate. Even this acceleration did not place him at his own social age level. Upon the request of the Junior High School principal Thomas was given an appointment with the psychologist. She found him to be a large, robust, fine looking lad, who responded to friendly advances. He had a good /flow of language, but a slight stutter was detected at times. He seemed to eminate an aura of self-confidence and' was willing to talk about himself and his accomplishments. He said he 87 knew how to fly an airplane, that his brother had a pilot’s license, and had taught him to fly. He also said he could drive a car since he was six years old, and had once driven a truck to Arizona. When it was pointed out that at the time he was too young to have a driver's license, he said his brother was the real truck driver, but he was asleep in the back o f ’'the truck while Thomas drove. Thomas showed an interest in a test which the psy chologist gave him. He showed an average power of concen tration, but a poor recall memory. His self-confidence left him when"he was confronted with reading matter; he became flustered. According to Thomas’ account, he has very good health. He had a slight case of chicken-pox when he was seven years old. He goes to bed at eight o ’clock and sleeps alone. a telebinocular test he was found to be far sighted. On Health examination showed no other unfavorable factors. Thomas’ father is a cement contractor. His mother keeps house and a very good relationship seems to exist between the parents themselves, and between the parents and the children. They own a rather comfortable home which has both front and back yards. There are five children now living; Lessie, twentythree, who is a high school graduate and who is in house service; Caroline, twenty, who quit high school in the third year, and who also works as a maid; Minnie Lee, who is ten, and in grade A5; and, George, the older brother, now twenty-six, and a tree surgeon. Thomas stated he enjoyed listening to the radio. "Calling All Cars" is his favorite program. He has been on several camping and fishing trips with adult men, doing the chores around the camp for them. He showed a great enthusiasm for this type of activity. While his health history was being taken, he was asked about his usual diet. chicken Thomas said he usually had or ham, and pie, or cake and ice cream every day. He said he liked milk, but didn't drink much because "it wasn't right handy". When he- was asked what he would like to do, he answered that he would like to be a truck driver. "All my family are truck drivers," he added. The principal of the Junior High School reported that although he was in the lowest reading group, Thomas was not profiting by the class, and he was so much more mature socially that he was presenting quite a problem. The psychologist arranged with the principal to have Thomas visit a development school for boys of high school age where practical trade training was given. Mr. Johnson went with Thomas to investigate the opportunities. They both came back to the office and were enthusiastic 89 and delighted with the prospect of Thomas’ taking a course in sheet metal work. The principal of the Development High School indicat ed a willingness to accept Thomas on trial, and a transfer was made. So far there has been no report of his using bad language or being illegally absent. Thomas is quite popular with the boys, and is in demand on the playground during physical education. Older sub-normal girl. Myrtle Gleason is sixteen years four months old, has a mental age of eleven years four months, and an intelligence quotient of sixty-nine. She is in A10 in high school. Myrtle has been- in trouble several times with the student governing body at high school for breaking rules and for receiving demerits for disorderly conduct. she is discourteous to her teachers. In class She likes to show off by making soto-voiced remarks while the teacher is explain ing something to the class. She gives little attention to work and although she is in the low reading group she is unable to work independently when preparing a lesson. She will not enter into the spirit of games on the playground, and plays only when absolutely required to do so. She much prefers to spend her time in the rest room combing her hair and primping before the mirror. Myrtle, along with two boys and another girl have 90 become wards of the Juvenile Court. fied Myrtle’s father noti the police when she failed to return home one morning. He believed that she planned to go to a dance and stay with a girl friend, Mary Gray, at her home that night. mother was taken ill during the night. Myrtle’s Before going to work, Mr. Gleason went over the Grays’ to have Myrtle stay at home with her mother. When he arrived at the house where Myrtle was supposed to have stayed, he found no one at home, and after inquiring at the neighbor’s found Myrtle’s friend and her mother to have very unsavory reputations. According to the neighbors the mother and girl lived alone, but entertained a great deal. On several occasions neighbors had called the police because of boisterous drinking parties. .Many times Mrs. Gray did not come home for days, and Mary was apparently under no supervision. Two days later, Mr. Gleason was notified that Myrtle was in Juvenile Hall. The four young people had been picked up by the police in Bakersfield. One of the boys was driv ing a car which belonged to his uncle, but which he had had no permission to take. After a two weeks stay at the Juvenile Hall for observation, Myrtle was released on probation to her parents. The principal, and attendance and welfare officer of the school felt that, in view of Myrtle’s evident educational unadjustment, as well as her social misbehavior, she should be placed elsewhere in school. Myrtle is a tall girl, very much underweight, and showing.poor chest development. Her posture is not good. Her- early development history showed she was walking at fourteen months, and talked well at a year and a half. She had chicken-pox when she was five years old, measles at seven, and a mild case of pneumonia at eight. She had frequent colds and coughs, although a Mantaux test showed a negative reaction. The medical examination given at Juvenile Hall revealed a plus Wasserman, probably a con genital condition, and a damaged hymen. thirteen and a half. Menses began at She experiences a great deal of pain and discomfiture during menstration, often being absent from school for three days and remaining in bed. Mr. Gleason is a middle aged man with little educ ation. At present he is working on a Works Project Adminis tration job. The family has resided in Los Angeles for twelve years, coming here from Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Mr. Gleason is a carpenter by trade, but had a severe, fall and injury twelve years ago. Since that time he has had difficulty with his knee, and is often ill in bed for three or four weeks. The family live in a small frame house which they rent for twenty-two dollars a month. It is -in a cheap neighborhood among people of mixed races. 92 Mrs. Gleason is in poor health. There are six children; Mary, aged four; John and Robert, twins, aged six; Morton, eleven; and Guinevere, nineteen, who is at home with an infant, and is seeking a divorce from her husband who has deserted her. The family is known to the City Health Department, the General Hospital, the State Relief Administration, and to the Catholic Welfare. Myrtle is a rather good looking girl. She wears her hair in many curls, in a rather, startling manner. uses a great deal of cosmetics. She Her fingernails are brightly painted, and she wears very high heels. She has a very engaging smile, and responds to friendly advances. Myrtle told the welfare officer that she v^ould like to be a movie actress or a stenographer. She is fond of dancing, movies, and likes to read nTrue Story” and "True Romances" magazines. She told the welfare worker that she did not want to get married, that there was no fun around home, and that she got tired of always looking after "the kids." Myrtle was transferred to a Girl’s Welfare High School where she is permitted to take typing and a course in homemaking. Here the girls are under much closer super vision than in a regular high school. They receive more individual help and attention, and they are being taught 93" practical things of a vocational nature. at the school. There are no hoys Myrtle is taking corrective physical education to improve her posture. Myrtle has become much more quiet, her home room teacher reports. She still needs supervision, but is not discourteous in her attitude. She .does fairly well in typing and quite well in cooking classes. Art work and sewing reveal a deficiency in muscular co-ordination. probation officer feels that Myrtle’s attitudes are undergoing a change for the better. The DATA FOR YOUNG UNADJUSTED CHILDREN No. 1 . 2. Name Freeman, Johnny (Young Superior Boy) • Hipsoh, Millicent (Young Superior Girl) Grade C.A. B1 72 B3 3. Bronson, Arman Cr.Bl (Young Sub-normal Boy) 4. Ysidro, Guillermina (Young Sub-normal Girl) A5 M.A. 95 64 • 148 I.Q. 132 177 Race or Nationality White Irish descent. White German descent. 96 42 43 White 130 86 66 Mexican Unadjustments Social teased other children; Faught daily on play ground ; Hurt younger children; Lied; undependable. Referred by Eduoational Disturbing element in Teacher class. Principal Refuses to recite Extemsly shy. Does not play with other in class. children. Will not anewer in clase. Avoids contact .with people. Spends time scrib Infantile spsech. Talks unintellibly. bling. Prolonged fits of orying .Unabls to learn to read. Dsstruotive. Spits on other ohildren. Poor muscular Doss not play with them. co-ordination. Poor attendance. Slaeturbates. Poor eportj oblivious to rights of others. Rude, defiant, disobed ient. Obsoene writing. Forging. Disobedient. Dbscene writing, eigning teacher's Lack of interest. 31ovenly work. Mother Teacher Principal Mother Aunt Agenciee Interested School authorities. School authorities. School authorities. Charity hospital. S.R.A. S.R.A. Principal SchoolL.A. Gen. Hosp. attsndance Nursing Division and Welfare of L.A. City Officsr. Health Dept. Economic Home Environment Status Phvsioal Cultural 5 room house eingle F.— 11th grade in !£. worked in a market 2 mos* a L.A. High Soh. family while Johnny Plsnty of play space. M.— 10 th grade in recupsrated a L.A. High Sch. Good middleclase from Wh. oough. Relations— neighborhood. Employed a maid. apparently F. employed inade harmonious. quate salary. ■ Rent home. Other Influencing Faotors Missed mother's attention. Necessity for ad justment to maid. Relagated to back ground in parents* at tention because of demands of younger children. F. steady employ F.— High School Plsnty of room for graduate. ment as airplane privaoy. Inventive bent. meohanio. Comfortably M.— Normal train- Circumstances, furnishsd. above average. Plenty of play spaoe. • ing. Taught 6 yrs. in Good middls-class urban neighborhood. Colorado. Musical, voice, Above average. piano. Relations — apparently harmonious. Uncles had Millicent read and perform for company. Often centsr of adult interest. Bslow average. Slesps in room with sister. works. Lives with matern Shortags of funds. al aunt. State Relief. Children with M. only on week ends. M. seems a common type of person, Ignorant spsech. Unhappy martial status at time of birth. M's. asocial attitude. Apparently needs medical oare. 3 room frams house. English epsaking Total monthly Poor neighborhood Old and in need of income $56. parents* from character repairs* Lived in Californi? $20 goes for rent. building stand 15 yrs; no play space. point. No room for privacy. Mexican peon back Parents not ground. assimilated in American situation. Parents Health Factors School doctor reported no unfavorable factors. M ’s. hsalth — good during gestation. Walked at 11 mos. Talked at 13 mos. Eating habits— good, but oraves starches. Wh. oough— 5 yrs. Slseps alone— restless. Mother Father B.— Mexioo B.— Canada. Came to California Came to Calif, at 6 yrs. of while still a age; child. B.— Colorado. Normal birth. Began talking at 6 mos. 34 yrs. old. Measles, so. fever, In California frequent colds with a 6 yrs. cough, mild- pneumonia. Tall, underweight. Mantoux, negative. Sleeps well, room by herself. B.— Colorado. 32 yrs. old. In California 6 yrs. 94 Other Relations Younger bros.: Donald— 5 yrs. James-- 2 yrs. Richard-7 mos. Maternal aunt, studied psych ology in Germany. 2 adult matsrnal uncles living in home. Evidences of Attitudss M. irritable, admitted laok of patience. Johnny showed laok of feel ing of securi ty. Ketioent, ehy, never volunteers. Day dreams. Withdraws from social contact. Refused to perform for guests. Refused to go to the store. Did not want a party. Feels hereeif to De ugly. Assets Superior intelligence. Good health. Home environment — above average. Supsrior intelligence. Parents are anxious to do their best for . the child. Treatment Psychologist advissd M. on child manage ment. Rsoommendsd reading material. Advised reading out loud. Suggested introducing a hobby. School to provide sufficient activity to fully engage his attention. Attempt to transfer interest in sslf to a pet or hobby. M. gave eurpriee party for children her own age. Recommended placement in Opportunity Class. Large for age. M. worried and underfed during gestation. Worksd until one month before he was bom. B. tongue tied, oper ation at 9 months. Enlarged tonsils. Circumoision needed. Deserted M. whsre- Uneducatsd. aboute unknown. Has had a hard life. Sister— 10 yrs. Maternal aunt. Affectionats and responsive. Affectionate dispoeition. Excluded from eohool Disregard for authority. until 8 yrs. old. Belligerent tone of M's. Suggested institution alizing. letter upon notification of exolusion from school. Recommendation: Tonsilectomy. Ciroumcision. Primary Dev. Class. Living with M. Underweight. Tonsilectomy. Poor posture. B.— Mexioo. Siblings: Alejandro— 9 yrs. Alberta — 5 yrs. Parents ignorant of notes from echool. Social distance between parsnts and child. B.— Mexico. Artistio. Good muscular control. Placement in Girle — Welfare Center. Personal attention. More supervision. Adjusted curriculum. Co-on. of Home Positive: fn intent. Interest. Negative: In actuality. Positive: Bought pigsone for her. In intent. Negative: Circumstanoes etill maks her oonspiououe among an adult family. Not placed in Opp. Class. Rssults Positive: Slight improvement. M. failed to keep ssoond appointment. Negative: None. Continued inetability though of lesser intensity and frequency. Positive: Improvement. Increase in social ization. Walks home, with children. Remains in ordinary claes room. None. Negative: Still shows evidences of withdrawal. Negative: M's. persecution complex lsnds little support to treatment; Negative: No improvement, socially or educationally. Continued absences from echool. Positive: When finally secured. ?ositive: Welfare officer Changed attituds. is taking a Respectful. special Considerate. interest. Achievement in sewing and painting. Negative: Academic Work. Tonsile not removed. No circumcision made. No ohangs in living conditions. Reported by Dev. Class teacher. DATA FOB OLDER UNADJUSTED CHILDREN Casa 5. Raoe or McNeary, Bert (Older Superior Boy) A12 Cranston, Buelah (Older Superior Girl) A10 7. Johnson, Thomas (Older Sub-normal Boy) BIO 176 128 73 8. Glsason, Myrtle (Oldar Sub-normal Girl) A10 196 136 69 6. , 203 188 228 218 132 123 Agancias ijnadjustmente Lack of intarest in school work.. Truancy. In trouble with Ssnior Board of Control for in fraction of rules. Parents Mother Father Health Faotors £4 yre. old 50 yre. old. Birth, normal Arsanic poisioning from nervous temperment. Pleasing appearance• J.S .C .— Graduate milk— 6 yrs., lJ.S.C,— 2 yrs. in Bue. Adm. convulsions, out of Berkeley--2 yrs. school 3 moe* f. & A.— 7 yrs. Influenza— ^14 yrs. Slsape well, previously very light sleepar. Frequent disturbing dreams. ■Varicose vein in sorotun Seems near sighted. Divoroad. 3ivoroed. Birth, normal Remarried, widower Remained in Breast fsd— 1 yr. Chicago. 52 yrs. old; Menses began— 14 yre. Ramarriedi Sleeps well, retires at In L.A. 12 yrs. Deceased. 8:30 p.m. No unfavorable faotors. , Mothar Boye VicePrincipal School. authorities. Privats psychiatrist. School psychologist• Truancy. Lies. Failing in studies Stola money from lockers and cafeteria funds. Burglarized. Resents disciplinary authority. Father Girls VicePrincipal School Welfare and Attendance DivieionJ County Probation Department. Negro American Adult and sophisticated attituda. Vulgar languaga. Braggadocious manner. Telle improbable tales. Does not socialize. No interest in echool. Unexcused absences Requirae.individual supervision. Promoted to Junior High on certif. Birth, normal. Principal of Sohool Wslfare Junior High and Attandance. Chickanpox— 7 yre. Slight stutter. Division. Sohool Psychology Department. White Amarican, Breaks rulss, liae. Disorderly conduct. No participation in sports. Remained away from home at night. Involved in stolsn car episode. In trouble with Sr. Fathar Bd. of control. Rude to teaohers. Raading difficulties. Cannot work independ ently. Whita American White American Surly and non-oo-operativa. Staye out late at night. Uncommunicative re garding activities. Dsfiant. Withdrawn from former sooial oontacts. fliddle-agsd. Intelligent, appearing. diddle-agsd. School authorities. Ualkea— 14 moe. L2 yrs. ago had Talked— 18 mos. Co.-Prob. Dept. severe fall, Ward of Juv. Court Maqles— 7 yra. injury to knee. Pneumonia— 8 yrs. City Health Dept. General Hospital. Meneee— 13$- yrs., pein during menstration. S.R.A. Catholic Welfare. Damaged hymen* Wasserman— plus. Tall, underweight, poof posture. Mantoux— negative. Boueewife. Middle-agad. Middle-aged. Poor health. Other Relatione Maternal grandmother, living in home. Maternal grandm. in Chicago. Stapfather in Chicago.' 2 younger step brothers in Los Angelee. Paternal grandm. Paternal aunt and her daughter. Siblings: Laseie— 23 yrs. : House service. Caroline— 20 yrs. House service. MinnieLee— 10 yrs. A5 grade. George— 26 yrs. H.S.— 2 yrs. tree eurgeon. Siblings: Guinevere— 19 yrs. marrisd, des'd, at home with infant. Morton— 11 yrs. in school. John and Robert— 6 yrs. in sch. M ary~4 yrs. Home Envirorlment Physical Cultural Economio Status Other Influencing Factors- class residential diatriot. Spacious, comfort ably and taste fully furnished. Books, piano, radio. Much above avsrage. braokets. Formerly, business executiva. Depression, F ’s. Parents--Univor3i ty exec, position eduoatlon. eliminated. Much above average. F.— owns and Home reflaots edu operates gas station, not cated taste. profitable.. Fam. income much curtailed. M. works in rental office. in Chicago. Small house inade quate for family needs. Clean but poorly furnished. Sleeps on cot in kitchan, no place to entertain. unsupervised paint and wall against F. paper Co. play on ths Grandm. striot streets. Inadequate income. disciplinarian, M. lax and Illness of sacond prejudiced indulgent. wife took savings. against M. F.— H.S. grad. N.Y. Aunt works for Lacke companion bakery and shares Conscientious ship of peers. expanses of home. No spend, money. and troublad• oolored people. Own ‘home. 31aan. Front and back yard, Relations — apparently plenty of spaoe. harmonious. F. Calif. El. Sch. education. M. Southern El. Sch. aducation. rent $22 per mo. Poorly furnished. Jntidy. 12 yrs. Chaap naighborhood, mixed races. Income inadequate. dapression. F. nervous break down, placed in sanitarium, home to recup erate. Paternal grandm. died at 60, sanile dementia. Pat. grandf. quaer before death. hunting trips. Association with older ohildren and adults. Evidenoes of Attltudea Wishas to-quit echool. No vocational goal. Considers his paper route tiresome. Sooial dlstanoe between F. and son. Stands on legal rights with F. Fslt trickad by M.. into going to "nut" doctor. Aesete Buys own clothes. Providas own spending money. Wants to go to work. Likabla personality. Popular with peers. Desiras to finish school sometime. Wants to help out financially at home. expected to. Friendly relations Conscience hurts her for with F . . staaling. Superior intelligence. Fond of etspf. Resents grandm’s. authority in oharige from individ ualistic life to rigidly supervised one. Brags of ascapadas with girle. Superior attitude with other boys. Becomee flustered when confronted with reading. companions. primping; startling hair styls; excess Girl friend lacks supervision, makeup; axtreme styles. friend’s M. Ambition: movie actress unsavory or etanographer. reputation in Does not want to gat neighborhood. married and stay at Depressing home homa and ’’look after atmosphera. kide". Intarested in dancing, moviee and True Storv. advances. Interaeted in airplanes and autos. Ambition to beoome a truck drivar. Good muecular oo-od. Athletic proweee. Rseponsive. Sngaging smile. F. interested. Treatment Dr’s, report — no rafraction nseded. Psychologist explained M ’s. attitude to son. Informed of superior . mantal ability with attending social responsibility. Encouraged to make decisions for himself. Ssoured working csrtif. Enrolled in night school Racommendad aliowanes. Character bldg. club for oompanlonehip. More supervision by F. rather than grandm. Taaohers show a personal interest. Work in cafeteria with remuneration. Juv. Hall for Obs. bev. Sch. for H. S. Boys. Training in a trade Sheet metal work. 2 wke. obe. at Juv.Hall. Paroled to ‘parents. Placement in Girls Welfare Center. Typing, closer super vision, indiv. help. Corrective gym. Co-oo. of Home Positive: Amitlous for eon. Negative: M. overzealous. F. not understanding. Atmosphers of anxiety and dsfeat. Positiva: Attitude of F. Negative: Finances do not parmlt an allowance. F. has no time to supervise or pal with Buelah. Grandm. critical. Positive: F. intarasted and enthusiastic about opportunity in naw sohool. Supervises school attendance. Thomas interested in and enjoying new echool. Positive: Attituda of parente. Negative: Parents control inadaquats. Depressing atmosphera in horns • ' Results Positiva: Good reports from employer. Returned to sohool. Graduated. Truanoy disappeared. No further conflicts with student governing group. conferences with counselor on raturn to echool. None after grad. Negative: Stealing from lockers continued. Shortage of oafeteria funds. Broke into school end rifled office and supplyroom* Detailed to Prob. Officer. Positive: No illegal absences. Evidences of better attitude. Socializing with boy companions. Continued good reports from sohool. Positiva: Good work in typing and cooking. Evidences of improved attituds Prob. Officer checks progress. Raports of oontinuad improvement from sohool. DATA FOR YOUNG SUPERIOR BOYS Case No. 9. 10. Nana Deeds, Roderiok Grada B6 C.A. 134 M.A. 168 I.ft. 136 •Race or Nationality Whits American Unadjustments Social Stsals; pilfered ertiolss from lunohes. Untruthful. Unpopular. Leeks poiee. Nightly enuresis. Thoroughly disliked. Poor sport.. Spoiled; incorrigible. Non-co-operative. Temper tantrums. Education teferred by Uneble to concentrate. father . Unstable temperment. Erretie behavior in classroom. Unwholesome attitude towards eohool work. Accomplishment below oapecity level. Disturbing in class. Disobedient. Wants to be center of attraction. Does not work well with others. Mother. Moscowitch, Melville B3 96 .120 124 • Amerioan Russian Jewish descent. 11. Wainright, Harry B4 128 176 137 White English descent. Does not follow Principal Unpopular. directions. Bossy — arguementetive. Disobedient. Self-oonsoious. Works below oapecity. Asocial. Shows signs of withdrawal. Disobedlent. 12. Wise, Truman B4 124 lbe 125 White English descent. Sooiel reactions immature. Temper tantrums. Disobedient. Behavior problem. Disobedisnt. Indifferent, lezy. Principal. Agsnoiee Intereetsd None. Nons. Health Factors M ’e. health during gestation — good. Birth, normal Fell on forehead, unconscious— 3 yrs. Raohitic chest. Sleeps alone. Rastless, nervous. Does not stand still, sways and wiggles. Bitee nails. Nightly enuresis. Birth, normal. T. & A.— 7 yrs. Frequent coughs end colde. Frequent earaches. Poor oo-ordination. Poor posture, fset in bad condition. Mouth breather. . Dawdles over food. Parents Fether B.— Texas. 42 yrs'. Mother B.— Arkansas. 38 yre. Other Relations Siblings: Jban~14 yrs. A9 Jr. High. Roy--13 yre. . A8 Jr. High. Virginia Lee— 4 yrs. R.— Russia. 37 yre. Came to Chicago ae a child. B.— Russia. No Siblings. 32 yrs; Came to Chi cage -- 6 yre. Typist befora marriage. B.— New York. 38 yrs. Nervous and sxciteble * None. Birth, normal Frsquent colds. Mouth braether. Nervous. Occasionally stutters. B.— Missouri. 40 yrs. (42 yrs. on Army record^) Work mekee him absent for long periods. Nons. Birth, normel No unfavorable factors noted. B .— Pennsylvania. B.— Penn. 48 yre. 50 yrs. Impatient. Nervous end impatient. None. Siblings: Dan— 21 yrs. radio genius. Virginia— 20 yre. Nun— St. Jos. Sisterhood. Home Environment Physical Cultural F. High School Comfortable home. Good middle-class grad. Texes M. Cashier before neighborhood. marriage. Plenty of play space. Piano and trumpet in home. •Economio Stetus F. postel clerk. Regular salary. Own home. Comfortable, F. education, S', paper hanger. Gi'. 8, Chicago. Average. pleaeant surroundings. M. high School end Large yerd for play. Business Collage Chicago. Typijbt before marriage. Parents— relations apparently harmonious. RueJJew. background Rentad home or Sopllieticatad Above average. a^jnosphere. loginge. Own home. Above average. F. U.S.C. grad, Steady salary as engineer. Frequent changes State Highway M. |H.S. New York. of location. Engineer. Business College Stenographer with Stats Haalti Department before marriage. \ Comfortable, wellF. H.S. Detroit. kept. M. Catholic Girls Dan has room fitted So 1001. up es lab. and it Cetholie ameteur radio eta. et aosphere. Above average. Painter and decorator. Own home. Other Influancing Factors None. Evidences of Attitudes Self-conscious. Continually pulle at clothing while talking. Treatment Transferred to new school. Enuresie program: Bed tima -- 8:30. Letiees — 9:30. Opportunity clees. Enriched curriculum. Opportunity .to perform on harmonica for class mates.' Co-on. of Horns Positive: Faithful in carrying out enuresie program. Arranged for transfer end transportation to Opportunity class. Superior intelligence. Intereetsd parents. Normal home life. 2 hrs. additional rest per day. Ignoring eating habits. Given a card with stars on which to record days he has been a good sport. Withdrawn from school for one term. Positive: M. faithfully carried out rest program. Meels, no longer a battle of wills. Repeated visits to psychologist. Regular reports on progress. Cried beceuse of last move. Likse to practice on accordion sometimes; refuses to et others. Affeotionats towerds M. distant toward F. Pleaeant appearing child. Superior intelligence. Pieye accordion. Rest period. Specialist’s consultation regard ing mouth breathing. Recommended placement in Opp. Class. Does not put effort into his' work. "Mine is no good" is a frequent statement with him. Superior intelligence. Good health. Fairly good home situation. Given erector set. Encouraged in mechanical Parents making effort at interests at home and petienca and under et sohool. standing. Ie eware of being Parents overdisliked. solicitoue about Unheppy ebout it. his eating habits. Made the center of interest at every meel. Allowed his own way. F. Impatient. Punishes him ssvarly with bslt. M. sympathizes with Harry. Often counter mands F ’s. orders. M. over-Solicitous becaues of death of first child at 3 mos. Dan considers Truman a nusiance. Truman center of diecord. Assets Regular attendance at school. Likes to play harmonica, which he does very well. Plays trumpet. Results Positive: Ees adjusted nicely to new school ■situation. Enuresie only ocassional. Follow-un Reports from Opp. Class teacher and mother. Negative: Still extremely nervous.. • Positive: Satisfactory school and social adjustment in B4 upon return to echool. Continued reports from homa end sch. Moved again. Positive: Positive: More socialized--not No further M's. intentions. reports. so bossy. Claims to have learned Negative: to mind his own i.aoks F'e. interest and business. supervision. Unstable situation beoauee Negative: of frequent moves. Not placed in Opp. Class. Improvement only slight. M. and F. at variance in their treatment of . Harry. Negative: Still immature and asooiel. Continues to be problem in sohool. Reports from school'. YOUNG SUPERIOR BOYS Casa No. 14. Name Hillman, Howard Grade A5 C.A. 126 Golden, Louis B4 110 Celloway, Billy A4 124 M.A. 164 158 I.Q. 145 149 128 Unedjustmente Sooial Educational Selfish - discourteous. Behavior problem in class. Poor citizen. Uncontrollable tempsr. American Jewish descent No sense of time. Non-conformis t. Insomnia and night phobias. Mother Hebitually tardy. Irregular attendance. Dislikes oral work. Untidy and disorderly. Refuses to do arith. Report card — N in responsibility and oitizenship. School. authorities. School psychologist. B.— Naw York. No unfavorable factors B.— New York. • 42 yrs. old. in early life. 41 yrs. old. U.S.C. end Harvard High School T. & A. removed. greduate. Nervous— pulls at naile. Law. Poor posture; Does not slesp well. Post encephalitis type . of behavior. Sex exhibitionist. Is chased end perse cuted by other boys Infantils social adoption. Unable to control urine. Bites other children. Mother and Teases others. teacher. Loiters on way home. No interest in arithmetio. School authorities. School psychologist. Unable to oontrol urine. Nightly enuresis. Acute indigestion — 2 yre. old. Sleeping sickness — 4 yrs. old. Pneumonia — 7 yrs.old. American Irish descent Referred by Mother Agencies Interestad School authorities. Parents Father Mother B.— Conn. B.--Iowa. 50 yrs. old. 36^-yTB. old. Yals University Privats school grad. — law. in New York. In L.A. 15 'yrs. Social work in New York settlement house. In L.A. 13 yre. Race or Nationality White English descent Health Factors Vi’s, health during gestation good. Birth, normal. Frequent colds and coughs. T. & A. at 7 yrs. Reeppsered. B.--New York. 49 years, old. 2 yrs. High School. Drinks. Interested in horse reces. B.— New York. 43 yrs. old. High School education. Works in school cafeteria. Other Relations Siblings: Mary Ann-twin. Floyd Trsnt — 16 yrs. orphaned child or reletivs. Home Enviro nment Cultural Physical Above averags. Large house. Books, radio, Fashionable neigh piano. borhood. Tastefully Maid. furnished. Planty of play Sophisticated space. atmosphere in Above averags. home. Recreation room equipped with ber. Above averags. Siblings: Sam— 13 yrs. Room of his own. Jr. High— doing Plenty of play space. Equipment for recreation. 2 room apartment— sleeping porch. No privacy. Near city play ground . Tastefully furnished. P. sleeps in afternoons. Works at night. No normal home life. Economic Other Influencing Evidences of Factors Status Attitudes Assets Practioing attorney. M. espressss Carries tales. Superior intslligence. Own home. hostility toward Has chip on shoulder. Superior home Above average. sohool Always getting his feelings advantages. administration. hurt and flying into Feels her child rages. is discriminated against. Maid has no authority even when M. is not home , Treatment Allowed to remain out of school to build up resistance. •Had T. & A. performed. Placement in Opp. Class. Follow-un Results Continued Positive: rsports from Made good record in Opp. class on return • Opp. class teacher. to school, Negative: M. nervous and emotionally faking a great interest in his school work. unstabla. Encourages Howard in fealings of persecution and esooial behevior. Spoils him. Positive: Intent interest. Practicing attorney. Own home. Above average. F.— impatisnt, looses his temper and explodes at him. M. helps him dreee and drives him to school when he dellys in the morning. individualist. Makes no attempt to impress others. Is neithar eggressive nor retiring. Superior intelligence. Sense of humor* Ability to be entertaining. Capable of intense interests. Honest. Dr. recommended longer periods of rest. U.C.L.A. recreation' sohool during summer. Studies in morning. Swims and other recreation in afternoon. Private doctor gives luminal to induce sleep. Opportunity class. Positivs: M*s. intentions. Combined salery— average inoome but F. spends a great deal on liquor and gambling. No normal home Minde but usually waite a life because second time to be told. of F ’s. Offers to undress before irreguler little girls. working hours. Parente often quarrel because of F'e drinking. Superior intelligence. Likes to read. M ’s. interest is stabilizing factor in life. Endocrine treetment. One hr. rest period after sohool. M. rsad De Schweintz "Growing up" to him and gavs him sex instruction .in home. Cod-Liver-Oil. Reoord cerds kept. 3 problems of arith. a day— stars for completing. Stars for dry bed. Positive: M's. attitude. Negative: F ’s. short temper and laok of patienoe. M's. ovsr-indulgence. Assumes child's responsib ility. M. does not follow-up commands• Negative: F'e. poor example Lack of interest. Positive: Tardiness eliminated. Enjoys taking part in olass ectivitiee. Reports from . Opp. class teacher and repseted eppointmsnts with the school psychologist. Positive: Improvement. Learned to play acceptebly. Improvement in arith. More mature reactions. Released. No longsr necessery to keep up regular contact with psychology office. YOUNG SUPERIOR GIRLS Caee No. Name Reislng, Adelle Grads Kgn. C.A. 65 M.A. SO I.ft. 123 Race or Nationality Jewish descent. Unadjustments Social Cries a great deal. Bad dreams. Sleaplesness. Afraid of nolsee. Tamper tantrums. Disobedient. Extremely jealoue of grandm*e. attentions to baby sieter. Educational Disobedient to teacher. Disturbing element in class. Referred bv Mother Ageno ie s Interested None. Health Peotore Nervous. Does not sleep well. High strung. Parente Father Mother 54 yre. 32 yrs. Dr. in with Housewife. grandfather. Highly emotional indulges child. Economic Home Environment Other Statue Phyiai Cultural Relations Nicely furnished. Parents receive Pat. grandfather. New houss. financial help Obstetrician. Good urban neighbor Equipment for from both recrsatlon and Maternal hood . self-impro vement. families. grandfather. Above average. Above averags. Dr. State Health Board. Mat. grandfather lives in home. Other Influencing Factors Teacher reports F. is emotional and nervous also. Child very muoh resembles him. Evidences of Assets Attitudes Nice appearing child. Showers affeotionate Good mind. caresses on child. Lietene and. reacts Home is emotional hot-house. intelligently. Taken to psychiatrist in St. Louis at age of 4 yre. Child clung to M. in psychiatrist's office not because ene wes afraid but because sbe did not wish to leave her. Professional appearances on stege and in the movies havs made a big impression oh her. Treats other children as subordinates. Siblings: Collette— .3 mos. James, Vera A6 88 136 155 Porter, Dorothy B6 135 176 138 White ' Scandanavian descent. White Jntldy. Destructive and wasteful. Boeey. Disliked by other children. Needs individual supervision. Bossy and superior acting. Poor work babits. Retiring. No initiative. Threatens.to run away. Eights with brother. No interest in sohool Teeoher work. Works below capacity. Mother Principal None. No unfavorable faotors B,— South Dakota. at birth. 38 yrs. Severe case of pneumonia 2 yrs. Berkeley. — 7 months. Defective vision in right eye. Receiving private medical attention. B.— Indiana. 38 yre. M.S.— U.S.C. Small stucco. Good eub-urban neighborhood. Plenty of space. None. No unfavorable factors. Not a very good looking child. Protruding teeth. B.— Missouri. Siblings: 32 yre. Dean— 10 yrs. 2 yre. U. of Dora— 2£ yrs. Missouri. Little organized control over borne or children. Brow-beaten by relatives. M. dreaded eieter-in-law*e Sparsely Pressure on Small home. Buying borne from criticism for spending Lack of space. furniehed. paternal grandm. family by extra money on car fere Clean— tidy. partnership with relatives re No bedroom for to send Dorothy to Opp. Dorothy. Parents devoted to brother. sults in dis Real estate end cord and feeling Cless. Undesirable neigh insurance broker. of insecurity. borhood . Brother and Impermanent people. Irregular 1nco ms. Involved with sistsr-in-law property holdings. very economical. Taxes teke all Object to taking their earnings. money for business except for bare neoeeeitles. 35 yrs. Grad.— U.8.C. Business Administrator. Piano, accordion, radio. House keeper employed. • Two care. Buying home, Yeteran loan. State Food and Drug inspector. Regular salary. Supplemented by M ’s. salary, County Welfare Sooial Worker. Treatment Co-on. of Horns Positive: Psyohologlet talked Aeked advice and apparently quietly to child carried it out to best of about being a grown her ebility. .up girl now. Gave her a card with Negative: stars for daye when M. emotionelly unstable. she ected like a Trye to push child beyond . grown up girl. Advised parente to give her oapeeity or years. Child tries to overcome few commands but to sense of failure by being carry them out. naughty. Phenobarbital to sleep. 3 appointments not kept. Results Positive: Marked improvement in first grade, ee child's intelli gence makes better adjustments. Seems less nervous. Acts kindly toward beby sieter. Follow-un None. Gifted in music and dramatics. Singing ebility. ■Superior intelligence. Qualities of leadership. Opp. Class. Advised discontinuing public appearances for a time to be given opportunity to develop more normally. Positive: Public appearances dis continued. Standards of tidiness and economy rigidly adhsrred to. None. Positive: Adjusting hereelf better ,to playmates. Better work habits. Superior intelligence. Very fine mind. Lively, talkative. Wsll mannersd. Advised Opp. Class. F. bought boxing gloves hoping Dorothy and Dean would take out some of tbeir animosity in sport. Positive: Intelligent. Co-opsrative in intent. Positive: Better social ad justment. Negative: Pinanoial troubles eeem to have family in grip of dlepare. Negative: Continues to work below capacity. Still quarrels at home. M. thinks situation not much improved. 99 YOUNG SUPERIOR GIRLS' Case • No. 19. Name • Josephine Grade Opp. B4 C.A. 122 118 105 M.A. 156 I.Q. 132 154 Nationality American English descent. White American Irish and Scandanavian descent. 130 American English and French descent. Unadjustmsnts Social Educational Bitee and scratches. Disturbing bshavior Extremely disobedient. in class. Chews clothing. Disobedient. Falls out of chair. JMo affection for other children but lavishing toward adulta. Undependable. Doss not fit in. with group. Unsocial and unpopular. Selfish. Effected speech and mannerism. Attendance problem. Does not complets tasks.. Shows off in claes. Works under capacity. No regard for rulee. Egotistical. Selfish. Immature reactions. foor citizen. Spsech handicap. Thumb sucker. Immature reactions. Runs away. Speech handicap. Retained in B1 three semesters. Unhappy in school. Referred by Principal. Mother. Agenciee None. Mother None Half-brother. Principal. Teacher. Father and Mother. Nons None. Parents Fathsr B .— Pennsylvania. 39 yrs. High Sch. Eduoa. California 12 yrs. Paintsr and Cther Mother Relatione B.— Pennsylvania sibiinae: 56 yrs. George— 7 yrs. High School education. Calif. 12 yrs. Houeewife. Birth— premature. Incubator 2£ months. Out of school 1 yr. Frequent colds— coughe. Occasional temperature and stomach upset. Mantoux— negative. B.— New xork. High School education.. Musician. B.— Wi econsin. High School 2 yrs. Teacher of piano. Birth, normal. No unfavorable faotore noted. Vigorous and energetic. B.— Kaneae. Postal clerk. 34 yrs. Killed in auto Proof reader. accident when Grace was 5 yrs. Health Factors Birth— difficult. Delicate childhood. Frequent colds. Extremely nervous. Slespleeeness. Negative Mantoux. Birth, normal. Walked— 1 yr. Talked— 2^ yre. Siseps well. Doee not care for vegetables or fruit. Likss milk, bread, jam. T. & A.--5 yre. Mouth malformed. Sucke thumb. Fatigues easily. Large for age. 57 yrs. . M.A.— Berkeley— Education. B.— France. 37 yre. old. Am. Citizen. Ed. by private governess and boarding eoh. Poor formal Ed. Fine mind. Economic Home Environment Status Thvalcal Cultural F. painter and Clean and tidy. Small one family decorator. Comfortably dwelling. Regularly furni shed. Good repair. employed. Lower middlePlenty of space. clase atmosphere. Average income. Studio apartment. lalf-eibling: Robert— 15 yrs. no play spaoe. High School BIO. Pat. grandmother, lives in home. Siblings: Sibling: James— 11 yrs. Jr. High B7. Musical instru ments. No facilities for recreation for a child. Above average. Small home. Grandmother keeps Jood repair. house. Plsnty of space. Jood middle-clase urban neighborhood F. downtown musioal studio. Band leadsr... ' Average income. Adequate income. £1500 insurance. Buying home. Steady salary. Pat. grandmother •shares living expenses. M. interested in F. Instructor in Single family a Jr. College. Natural history. dwelling. Books, art objects, Regular salary. Spacious. Genteel surround- Above average. [Jood repair. Own home. inge. Flower garden, sand box,.elide, ewlng, etc. Other Influenoing Evidences of Factors Attitudes No abnormal ones Child brother relationships indicated. — good. No evidences of jealousy. Theatrical work. Treats other ohildren with Movsd frequently. air of condesoention. Little contact Does things to call with children attention to hereelf. Late hours. Co-on. of Horns Assets Reads easily. Imitates with facility. Affectionate toward adults. Treatment Removed from Kgn. because she needed medical care— 1 yr. Returned to echool. Extra rest. School day shortened. Parents given instruc tions in child • managsment by psychologist. Pleasant responsive. Plays accordion well.. Theatrical work for In intent. bidden except when Carry out advice fairly appearing with' F's. wsll. band. Psychologist recommend Negative: ed earlier bed time Atmosphere of home and more normal professional. Late child's life. hours. Mueio of primary interest with parent's. Lack of well Always demanding special balanced home help and attention from life. teacher. M's. work keeps hsr occupied away from horns. Professional dancing leseons and appearances with Meglin Kiddise. Superior intelligence. Adagio and tap dancer. Good health. Pleasant and responsive personality. Parents relation Playe with younger children ship apparently in epite of her superior harmonious. intelligence. Dislike of school Dislikes school. probably due to esnse of failure— . retained in Bl. Superior intelligence. Normal home lifs. Interested parente. Friendly, responsive, well mannered. Advised against pro- feeslonal appearances because of bad psychological sffect on child of superior intelligence being put through routine. Suggested joining Jr. girl's club. Placement in ,0pp. Class recommended. Parents interested—and willing to help Medical and psychological appointments kept. Positive: M. willing to do the best for child. Placed in Opp. Class. Negative: Abnormal horns situation— no father. M. over-ambitioue for child. Spesch oorrection clase. Positive; Perents intelligently Orthodontic treatment. co-operative. Extra rest. Hill Young School of Speech. Reeulte Follow-up Gained physically^ Returned to school.' Conduct improved. . Progress in adjustment enoouraging. flight improvement in socialization and behavior. Better attendance. Negative: Continues to have mature attitude. Bstter social ad justment. More regard for rights of others. Improved citizenship. Negative: Social adjustment not complete. Occasional rslapeee. No recurrence of running away since entering Speech Correction Class. reports from school. 100 YOUNG SUB-NORMAL BOYS Case No. ____ Name________ Grade 237“ Gilman, Leroy _ Kgn. C.A. 61 M.A. i.Q. 77 White English descent. Dev. 55 A6 Rece or Nationality White Scandinavian descent. 61 71 White English descent. White Snglish descent. Unadjustments Agencies Parents Social First reactione of fear rather than curiosity. Abnormal fear of animals, fireworks, Santa Claue, lerge buildinge, theaters. Cannot play with others. Educational Nervous and un stable in clase. Must be cared for elsewhere when pete still films, or movies are shown. Does hot understand about rules ortaking turns. Referred bv Teacher Principal Mother Mat. aunt. Unstable and erratic behavior toward other children. Non-reader. Extreme truancy. Does not seem to understand directions. Teacher School feirtb, normal. Principal . authorities. No unfavorable factors Prob. Officer. Attendance office. in early life. Prob. Dept. Pale, underweight. Poor posture. Left-bahded. School authorities. Baby talk. Too immature to go to echool alone. Irresponsible. Cannot work with the Principal group. Mo ther. Requires individual attention. Behavior problem. Child Guidance Clinic. fersaks rules, swears, and smokes. Insolent to elders. Stays out lets with a gang of older boys. Abnormal interest in older girls.. Involved in series of burglaries with older boys. heading difficulty. El. Sohool Needs individual . Principal. hslp and constant teachsr supervision. Insubordinate in claes. Prob. Dept. Other Health Factors Father Mother Birth, Caesarian. B.— Minnesota. B.--Minnesota 32 yrs. old. Walking— 15 mos. 30 yrs. old. 8 yrs. High School. 2 yrs. High Sleeps well, bed in parents' room, 7 P.M. School. to 6 A.M. Wh. cough— 3 yre. Frequent colds. Nervous. Constipated. Divorced, where abouts unknown. Drulss at the mouth. Functional disorder. Extremsly nervous. Glandular disturbance. 55 yrs. old 111 health. Normal birth. Chickenpox, mumps, scarlet fever, measles, wh. cough. Heart and eyesight normal. Bites nails. divorced, where abouts unknown. B.— Indiana. 34 yrs. old. Remarrisd, deserted. El. School education. Younger maternal aunt livss in the home. Plays with M's. half-brother— 3 yre. and half-eister— 6 yrs. Rome Environment ■Physio*! Cultural Radio, books and Comfortable, magazines. inexpensive Parents relation rented home. ship apparently Averags neighbor harmonious. hood . Play space. Economic Status F. truck driver. Regular salary, $150 psr month. $32 rent. Buying car and electric refrig. Other Influencing Evidences of Factors Attitudes Leroy and F. get He is not- afraid of the along well. dark. F. tries to show Does not listen to radio him he will program because of fears. not be hurt. Leroy is not convinced and becomes hysterical. Uncle, legal or blood relation ship unknown. Lives in home. Stepf. deserted, whsrsabouts unknown. Uncle provides. Apartment in rather No provision for recreation for poor district. a child. No play space. Placed in boarding No opportunity for home, but privacy. expelled becaues Sleeps on day bed of unbearable in living room. conduct. None. Quarters in a cheap Spareley furnished hotel apartment. unattractive. No provision for No play space. recreation for Bathroom shared by either adults or 3 families. children. Catholic faith. Much below avsrage. Dspreeeed atmosphere in F. out of work. home. Family supported- by M. discouraged. 3 edult children Undesirable of F. by former neighborhood marriage. influences. Income approximately $45 per month Small frame house. Comfortable furnishings. Plenty of space. Attractive. Fairly well kept. Radio, games. M. president of woman's club and entertains at home in the evening. M. working as stenographer and bookkeeper in plumbing office. Regular eelary, $110 psr month. $27.50 rent. Buying car. B.— California. Grandm. lives a High School few blocks education. distant. Business Collegs. Active in local Women's-Club; Prob. Dept, reports M. of low character. Improper super vision. Grandm. indulgent. Gave him a bicycle. M. away from home, insufficient .supervision. M. very resentful toward F., epeake disnaraainglv. Assets Well formed body. Nice looking child. Parents' interest and willingness to hslp. Normal home life'. Teacher much interested. Shows little respect for M. or uncle. Incorrigible. Was so obnoxious tbat boarding home refused to have bim. Rather good natured. Seems responsive. Likes hand work, interested in mechanical things. Extremely immature in reactione. Affectionate. Folio W-UT) Teacher'e interest continues. Parents bring him regularly for treatment. Co-on. of Home Treatment Psychologist attempted Positive: Parents interested and to ascertain basis willing to do everything for fears. within their power to Explained the mental help. attitude to M. and recommended extreme Kept appointments with calmness. psychologist and carried Because of good phys. out instructions. development did not refer him to Neurological Clinic. Placement in Dev.Claes. Results Positive: Improvement noticed from time of second conference. Brought home a dog. Enjoyed a movie. Placed in Dev. Class. Prob. Dept, chscke regularly. Made to make up time for irregular abe. Policewoman filed on M. for immorality, released on prob* Negative: M. uninterested and un communicative . Wishes to havs him again placed in boarding home. Prob. Dept. Positive: - ■ School Welfare Yery slight improve and Attendance ment in school work. Officer. Truancy decreased. Endoerine treatment at echool clinic. Placed in Dev. Clsss. Positive: Parents seem well meaning, Negative: No improvement shown as yet. Negative: Still afraid of tall buildinge. Negative: Still a behavior problem. Truancy continues. Dev. Claes teacher reports on progress. egative; Parente depressed by illness, and poverty. Seem to have lost courage. Despondent atmosphere in home. Smart line of cbatter. Bluffs a great deal. Leisure time spent with undesirable companions. Disloyal to M. and grandm. Nice looking child. Good personality. Sense of humor. Self-confident air. Registered in High Sch. Boys Welfare Center. Careful counseling and givsn a great deal of supervieion. Advised to change bis -companions. Paper route'obtained. Placed in Dev. Claes. Prob. Officer Positive: Positive: mekes peri M's. interest and intention. Slight improvement in odical check social attitudes. up. ' Negative: High School M. sdmits he is beyond her Negative: Registrar and Continues to be care control. Counselor keep less in school work No normal home life, a close check and a behavior because, of M's. business on bim. problem. and club work activities. YOUNG SUB-NORMAL BOYS 101 Case No. 27. 28. 29. Name Burling, Jamee Murray, Norman Frohman, Paul Grade B4 Kgn. Pri. Dev. Pri. Dev. C .A. 120 78 133 M.A. 78 54 • 67 I.ft. 65 69 50 Race or Nationalitv White German dsscent. White Irish dascant. American Jewish descent. Unadjustment s Referred bv Educational Social Extremely nervous and Principal Lies. disturbing in class. Mother. Steals from school. Steals other childrens Reading difficulty. echool supplies. )isobedient to Extreme lack of selfteaches*. oontrol. Cannot care for himself Ha zard in the class room. Tantrums, holds breath. Cnfantile speech. Threw saw injuring other child. Agencies Interested None. Principal Teaoher. Principal Smotionally unstable Crying spells. Mother. Othsr children think hs in class room. Middle grade embicile. is crazy. Pioture vocab.— 2^ yrs Shunned by others. Language Comp.— 3 yrs. Violent unmanageable Lethargic almost rages.. oomatose. Wenders off from homa. Parente Mother Fathar Health Factors 3^-Illinois. . Birth— Brsach presenta B •— Penn ey1van ia 43 yrs. 48 yrs. tion. Finishing Grad. Purdue Not expected to live. Enginaerlng. sohool Almost complste deaf eduoation Aocident— ness up to 6 yrs. Non-desoendsd testaolee. permanently dieabled--43 yrs. times. Living in New York; Unbalanced vision due Norman— ohild to misplaced pupil second Hyper-active. marriage. Scarlet fever, measles. Arm injury, caught .in wringer. Clinic. Other Home Environment Relatione Cultural Phvsical Siblings: Single family houss. Above average. Louiee--15 yrs. Expensive neighbor Attractively A-ll grada. hood i furnished. Richard-“5£ yrs. Many luxuries• reoovering from Strep, infection. ffelL kspt. Duplex. Good neighborhood. Half-siblinge: Stewart— 14 yrs. Noel— 12 yrs. Sons of etepf. living in home. Stepfather. None. comfortably furnished. Provision for recreation and improvement. Economic Other Influencing Evidences of Status Factors Attitudes Financial security. M. grieves about No intersst in radio. Compensation previous child's Does not etay quiet. Insurance death. Deliberately tails Maid. Expects mora fasehoods. Own home and car. from the child M. has independent then he hae income. ability to aohieve. Technitian at studioe. Salary— above average. furniehad. Insufficisnt to Clean and tidy. taka cars of Parents relation additional ship apparently medical expenses. harmonious. Badly burnsd with boil Educated at Andovei High School Connecticut. ing water on head. Academy. Brain operation— 3 yrs. Poor eyesight. Wasserman^negative. Psychiatric examination --cerebral irritation. i remarried when Norman wae 3 yrs. old. for a term. M. very much upeet at schools refueel to aooept him second year. M. insistent that ohild'sretardation is to his having missed so much of his first year in Kgn. Thinks he needs firm discipline. fci. thinks he was indulged at private school and crying spelle are his method of gaining his I | Aseete Retentive memory. Me chan 1.cally minded. Interested in mueic. Good disposition. M fe. interest. Affectionats disposition. Parents interest. Treatment Endocrine treatment. Petuitaryand Thyroid shots. Explained child's mental age to M. James given e complete school outfit and made to put it in its place each night. No more exchanging between eiblings. Held over an extra term . in Kgn. Primary Dav. Additional rest periods in afternoon. Recommsnded that he stay out of school till he becomes more mature. Co-on. of Home Posi t1 ve: Provids good medical oare, and opportunities for mental growth. Negative: M. emotionally unstable. Grieves over death of other child, Results Follow-uu Positive: Continued Great physical im Endocrine provement in 6 mos. treatment. Listens to Lone Ranger program. Stealing discontinued. Negative: Liss. but they have ’taken form of imaginative romancing. Positive: Faithful follow out of reet program. M. drives Norman to Dev. echool and oalle for him. Positive: Lese nervous. Slight improvement in citizenship and socialization. Negative: M. insistent that he go to school in spite of his. immaturity. Negativa: Continued emotional instability. Recommended stimulating Positive: activities to be Provided with rabbits and avoided. pigeons and taught to Out door life. care for them. Gardening and pets. Rest program faithfully Rest periods in after carried out. noon. Juvenile Hall Clinic for observation.. Final recommendation withdrawal from school. Positive: Crying ceased, More etabla emotionally Happier disposition. Negative: Becoming less mentally capable. Improvements temporary. Physical evidences of brain deterioration. Dev. teachers reports. Nona. YOUNG SUB-NORMAL GIRLS ' Caee No. so: Name____ Grede Dsv. C.A. M.A. i. d. Reoe or Nationality American Negro descent. 31. English descent. White Irieh descent. American Negro descent. Unadjustmen ts Social and teachar. Sex tsaching Eduoational Immature Non-reader. Poor co-ordination. Referred hv Grandmother. Mother "Me sit down" "Her likes candy" Short span of attention. Ratained in B1 three semesters. Adverse to all discipline. No mental rstention. Playe with toys of lower level. Never finishes work Teacher. other childrsn. undertaken. Disobedient— runs away. Disobedient. Truancy. Temper tantrums threw sciseors at other child. Tsmper tantrums. Stsaling— ?3 from teacher, #1 from uncle. Does not share sports. Bullying. ioross. Plays with younger children whom she dominates. Shop lifting. Academically Teacher. retarded. Mother Does not fit into classroom situation. Carsleee sohool work. Agencies Interested Polios Dept. Gen. Hosp. City Health Dept. Catholic Wslfare reluctant to take care. Dept, of Charities. School Walfare and Attendance Officer. Proh. Dept* Juvenile Hall. School Psychia trist and Psychologist. City Hselth Dept. Health Factors Birth, normal • Plus Wasserman. Poor vision. Eyes crossed. Medical cars in New Orlsane. Sleepe well. Parents Father Mother Carpenter and M. immoral Cemant worker. character. In Celif.— 1 yr. Rapsatedly arrestad for prostitution. Separated from F. Birth, instrument. F. deserted M. Convulsions from hirth when child was up to 5 yrs. S yre. ol. Wall oared for et homa. Whereabouts Indigestion. unknown. Inderweight. 3. yrs. retarded in physical growth. Unattrective. Stupid facial expressior M. — suffering from T.B. In need of dental work. Divorced. Malnutrition. Works for Whole sale Grocery. M. slseps late in the mornings. Drinks. P.— dead. Overweight but plue M.— Southern A. etatae he was Waseerman.. Negro. No sndoorins dis a hard worker Illiterate. turbance discovered. and good .'to her. Moral woman. Likes sweets. Fond of the Auto eroticism revealed. children; Symen not intact. Sluggi sh. JSvidsnces of Home Environment Economic Other Other Influencing Attitudes Physical Cultural Status Upstairs Apt. Extremsly poor Tells other children Lives with Mat. Grandm. can get no Male roomer. surroundings for meaning of obscene words. aid for support Gdm.-poor health. Poor colored Grandm. thought neighborhood. proper character of child because Gdf.— drinks a roomer fondled No play space. or physical F. cannot prove great deal. the child too development. County residence. much. Told Gdf* Grandm.— religeous. Listed in New Jackson— 15 yrs. she ment to sand Orleans telephone committed to him away. directory. Preeton. Gdf. unsympathetic Roomer shares Albert— 19 yre. said girl enliving sxpenees. . .oouraged it. Court for burglary. Threatened to laave Mat. Grandmother. Small rsnted house in back of lot in cheap district. Poorly furnished. Below average. Impoveriehsd atmosphere. None. M. often out in aftsrnoon. Child roame the streets unsuper vised. Small rsnted house in state of disrapair. Jndssirahle neighborhood. Mat. uncle— Small rsnted house. Neat and cleen. Better class Negro Poorly furnished. shoeshine. district. Mat. Aunt— Insufficient spaca housework. for family of four Siblings: adults and three Myrtle— 19 yrs. childrsn. housework.. George— 15 yrs. High School. Harry— 13 yrs. Jr. High Sohool. Ronald— 9 vrs..El. Dependent on Mat. None noted. Gdm. who recaives State Old Age. Pension. Does not understand rules of games. Will not take turns. Frequently says: M. receives money iSals hoarder in "I don't cere" from F. for home. "I don't have to" support of child. tovies— 5 times per week. Harrist practical ly Caree for hereelf. Irons her own clothes. Prepares her own breakfast and M. works ae laundress. Small income. Mat. Uncle, Aunt, and oldest daughter share living expenses. Goes to Church and Uncomunioative. Dsfensive attitude. Sunday School. Brief end abrupt. Fond of movies. Confessed she did not like to take things hut could not help it. Assets Good disposition. Chesrful. Treatment Central Ave. Pri. Dev. Special lunch at school. Salvarsan treetment. Co-on. of Home Positive: Grainfrm. asked hslp from school authorities. Negative: Grandf. is very bad influenca. F. is no hslp. Affectionate toward Grandm. and M. when not crossed. Rsfraction. Dental work. Positive: Grandm. does what ene can. Negative Extreme poverty. M. ill and discouraged. Abnormal home life. Cheerful. Does rather good drewing and paintingJ Doss practically all the housawork. Washes, irons, does with dishes. Dev. Sohool. M. beats child at times. Referrad oese to Child Welfare Dept. M. filed upon for improper supervieion. Likes to read. M. whipped child rspeatedly. Psychologist told her how childish stsaling wes, and that other children learned not to steal at 5 yre. Sex instruction. Welfara Center. Juvenile Hall for observation. Girls Welfare Center. Improvement in attitude toward school work. Negative: M. does not keep appointments. Comes to school drunk and . hslligerent. Positive: M. interested faithfully keeps appointments svan when they conflict with her work* Follow-up Results Positive: Dept. No evidences of continuous stealing. Dev. Sohool reports. Polioe Woman Negative: of district. Continues to do a discipline problem. SFeecative: Continues to he both an eduoational and social problem. Needs constant supervision. Nagative: Continues to be a disturbing elsment in classroom. Tempsr tantrums continues. Negative: No apperciahle improve ment in socialization Whippings did no good. Continues to pilfsr small articles. sohool. 103 YOUNG SUB-NORMAL GIRLS Stealing. Sex teaching. Obecene writing and pictures. Arvela, Yiolet Health Factors 'No unfavorable factors noted. Large for age. Stole girl's coat from echool Educationally retarded. Writes in books. ' Pb"or"V t titud e. Qwarreleome. Sex conscious. Temper tantrums. Noisy and rude in claes. Defiant and impudent to teacbsr. Leaves school with out permission. " Sullen. ' Unresponsive. Does not fit in with group. Retarded in school work* Insolsnt. I. R. Prob. Dept. Catholic Welfare. . A. General Hospital. B.— Italy. Married in Italy. Came to America a immigrant. Drinks wine* Tow oar busineee. Plays poker. Unmarried Mat. B.— Italy. Came to uncle living America three borne. yeare later Siblings: Nick— 14 yrs. Twin bros.— 10 yrs Caroline— 5 yrs. Marie— 3 yrs. Lived for 7 yrs. Fat. grandm. Pat. grandm. now lives with family. Home Environment __BPh2 sical!=e;M=!________ Cultural Two story frame bouse. Good repair. Italian section city. "Siblings Large for age. Poor class Mexican. Pretends not to undsrstand English. B.--Japan. Truck gardener. Works long hours and Sundays. "SiblingsT Small rented house age--15 yrs. n agricultural High School. section. Muatsuda— 10 yrs. No modern con veniences. Tomasa— 6 yrs. Bare. Infant. Culture patterns of the Orient. Japanese spoken in home. Economic Statue Own home. Own two other housee which they,rent. Fairly good bueinees. >n Relief. Food supplies and monthly check. Social life o^ Does not hesitate to lie parents almost and is not at all abashed entirely with when discovered. Italians. Apparently thoroughly F. is changeable epoiled by doting Grandm. in his attituds who kept child for 3 moe. ■toward children, after birth and who could indulges them not bear to give her up. at times. M. .shields them and covsrs up for them. Chums with two older girls who are on probation. Evidently in structed and influenced by them. Runs the streets at night. ______Assets Home life of parents apparsntly harmonious. Parents interest. Certain amount of intelligence but misapplied. Teacher attempted in every way to gain girls confidence. Attempted to have her change companions, commend for Institu tional care. Destroyed notes from school asking M. to come. M. knew nothing of difficulty at school. Continually aske tsacher, "Am I going to flunk?" Seems to find eexual mean ing in everything. Does not wish to belong to Not much could be Other be learned. girls club. children in the The family ie not school are much Did not accompany clase on receiving aid aid brighter. trip to museum. although thsre is Does not like to play games no evidenoe of ■ take ber turn. abundance neither does there appsar to be want. F. uncommunicative l this respect. Treatment Dsv. Clase. Home oalle by teachsr. More close supervision. Made to rsturn coat and give up 1 months allowance to girl. Sex instruction. Artistic. Completed eome nice stitchery. Flower arrangemente and water color painting. £)ev. Class. Adjusted ech<5ol :work to level of‘her' . oapacity and needs. Special emphasis on Americanization. Co-op. of Home Resuite "Positive: No recurrence of stealing. Writing in books has stopped and no recent evidence, of sex teaching. M. disinterestsd. Pretends not to under stand English. Continued to be almost insufferably lous and insolent. Extremely distrustful. Improvement in attitude. Better socialization. Worked up to capacity. ‘ fiareful records kept by sch. authorities awaiting committment to Sonoma. ev. teacber’i contlnusd interest. 104 OLDER SUPERIOR BOYS Caee No. Nams urade Race or Nationality American Jewish descent. C.A. White Italian descent. French. Spanish. Negro. (Creole) 145 White English descent. Unadjustmsnts Social Educational Lying. 'fruant. Emotionally unstable. Consistently failed Bursts into tsare. one subject each Given to worrying. term. Worried about school work. Lying, stealing. Sex delinquency. Obscene language. Parente Agencies iiigh School Counselor. Truancy. Poor reader. Wrote an obscene annonymous note to teacher. Speaks Italian to other Italian children in class. ‘ i'eacher. Principal. Lazy. Cheats, lies. No sense of fair play. Extremely egotistical. Sex problem. Bluffs. Failurs in math. Shows off in class. Principal. Social distance. Introverted. Sate alone. Non-oonformist. Wishes to drop High School Span!sh. Advisor. Always wanting special changes in program. Science— college level. Abstract science. In troubls with Student Government. None. B.— instrumental delivery. Talked— 9 mos. Walksd— 1 yr. Measles— 14 yrs. Sleeps well— general health— good. school welfare and Birth, normal. Attendance Poor eyesight. Officer. Prob. Dept. None. Nons. Birth, normal. Good. Birth, normal. Underweight. Poor circulation. B.— Illinois. 49 yrs. High School grad. 2 yrs. college Other B.— Canada. None. 47 yrs.. High School. Emotionally unstable. Extremely nervous. Active in P.T.A. Home Environment Lower duplsx. Plenty of space. Good neighborhood. Comfortable and attractive surroundings. Radio, piano, books. Parents relation ship apparently harmonious. B. — Italy. B. — Italy. 44 yrs. 43 yrs. Met husband in Imigrated to America at 17 yrs, Italy during Served in A.E.F. overseas. Lived in Chicago 10 yrs. 3iblines: E’rame house— well tfaria— married kept. Caroline— married. Italian district. Angelina— High School. B .— Louisiana. 49 yrs. Plays piano. B.— Louisiana. 45 yrs. Plays -piano. 3iblin«s: John— 19 yrs. High School. George— 15 yrs. High School. Yvonns— 11 yrs. El. School, slarie— 9 yrs. El. School. Comfortably House in semi-rural furnished. neighborhood. Plenty of play space. Untidy. Radio, piano, guitar, claimet. Pets, two dogs, chickene, goat, cat. B.— New York, State. 62 yrs. B.— New York, Stats. 57 yrs. Older but .attractive. None. Untidy appearance. Comfortable single ••frame- dwelling. Italian epoksn in home. untidy, old fashioned. Evidences of Other Influencing Economic Attitudes Faotors _| Status Doggedly made up failures M. ambitious. Accountant City and incomplete marke Engineering Dept. F. wishes failure during Summer School for kept from M. Steady ealary. three years. because of Above average. Aehamsd of failures. scenes. M. feels disgraced in the P.T.A. Italian grocery. Own home. Above average. Formerly bootlegged. Spoiled— only M. clings to old world patterns. Influenced by older boys of neighborhood. Has flippant manner. • Admiree and hero worships famous criminals. Dominates and leade gang of younger boys who indulge in shop lifting. Willing to promise anything F. bartender. Early sex to make a good impression, Regular eaiary. experience. #125 per month. Ability to "pass"• but cannot be depended upon. Supplemented by for white. M's wagee for day by day house service. Own home. Pensioned postal clsrk. Below average. No friends. No interest in making any. Helps M. do diehes. Parents very much older. Wished to drop Spanish because he said he had no use for it, and was not able to speak it after six weeks. Spurns advances of friendship. Eate his lunch alone. Aseets Superior intelligence. Determination. Wishes to become a doctor. Handsome. Superior intelligence. Catholic faith. Treatment Arranged for job as chauffeur to two elderly ladiss. Drives them after school. Psychologist explained to M. how different Sam is to her and by her ambition for him ehe ie adding to hie emotional stress. Enlisted interest of man, member of Catholic ohurch. Outdoor sports. Refractions Co-op. of Home Poeitive: Parents interested and willing to help work out a solution. Negative: M's. attitude increases nervous strain in boy. Negative: F. ungovernable temper. Beats Roberto. £. cries and admits there ie nothing shs can do. Bslieves Roberto Inspite of evidence which proves he ie lying. Reeulte For a time exhibited more self-confidence due to earning his own spending money and being successful in hie job. Follow-up careful guidance by counselor. Negative: Failing in ecience. Relapee. Ditching classes. Improvement in reading. Confines himeelf to uee of English in the class room. makes regular check-up. Negative r Still untrustworthy. Handsome. Gifted dancer. Ability to entertain. Superior intelligence. Plays clarinet. Engaging personality. Cpportunity Clase. Willing and anxious to Careful guidance. help Pierre become a Encouraged to join boy's fine leader. character building club. Negative: Conferences with Both parents lax in parents on child discipline. management. Fail to carry out orders. Overrindulgent. Negative Little change of attitude. Still egotistical and an exhibitionist. Superior intelligence. Scientific mind. Guidance through counselor. Tsachere aeked to take a special interest in helping him make a social adjustment. Poeitive: Parents ready to make any sacrifices in order to send him to Cal. Tech. Now greets Spanish teacher in Spanish. improvement in math. Negative: Still very much of a Negative: recluee. Social distance because of parents great age. Parents fail to create a • suitable social situation for George. continued interest. 105 OLDER SUPERIOR BOYS I Case 1 No. Name Serge Grads C.A. M.A. I.ft. A10 198 261 132 Race or Nationality American Russian descent. American English and Scottish descent. American Jewish descent. Unadjustments Parents Agencies Social Unreliable— took auto without driver’s lieense and againet father’s ordere and drove all over city. Threatened to commit suicide. Girl-crazy. Educational Interferes with other children while working— tears up their papers. Grades— English A Journalism A Math. F; Science F. Breake rules. Slovenly habite and appearance. Poor co-operation. Seems not to enjoy eports although he participates. Never completes a. Mother. taek. Trys to do three things at once. Wastes time. Written work* extremely careless. Works much below capacity. Writing hardly legible. Motion Picture Relief. Extremely effeminate. Prefers company of girle. Does not enjoy sports. Exhibits homo sexual tendencies. Unpopular with high School classmates, Counselor. especially disliked Principal. by boye. Disturbing element in olassroom. Mathematical unadjustment. County Hospital. City Health Dept. State Relief. Referred bv high School Counselor. None. Birth,.normal. Adequate medical attention. Jo unfavorable factors noted. Famous actorformer matinee idol. Carried 4 times. Divorced from M. when Serge was 3 yrs. old. Suicided when Serge was 11 yrs 'old. 3.— Texas. Impaired.vision. Grad. Texas A & M Chickenpox. its feces 1 to 3 yrs. Army Cap.— discharged. broken of habit by reward of trolley )rinke heavily* )ivorced. rids. Now friendly with Stung by scorpion— Freeman. Convulsions— 4 yrs. Formerly estranged Sheumatic fever. Ruptured appendix— 10 yns from M. and ohildren. Injured hand from fire Sses him regularly, crackers— Tetanus A. reports both in sho ts. good behavior. Asthma. 3irth, normal. Dhickenpox. flsasles. T. & A.— 13 yrs. defective eyesight. Endocrine disturbance. I 3.— Chicago. Jivorced— where abouts unknown. Other B.— Europe. Stepfather. Titled woman European when ehe nobleman living married Seis3*e in retirement F. on a ranch. Remarried when Half-Sibling: Serge waef Frederic— 6 yrs. 9 yrs. old. Yery beautiful. Home Environment Physical Cultural Spacious. Cosmopolitan Country estate in atmosphere. movie colony. Aristocratic tone. Tastefully and luxuriously furnished. , Servants. Economic Other Influencing • Much above average M. aristocratic Family belongs to ideas— will not leisure class. go to the etore because only "peasants do' marketing." Serge given no spending money of his own. Evidences of Talks of suicide. Wants to become actor or journalist, disapproves. Wants him to become a lawyer. Wishes to earn his own money. Assets Randeome. Fond of stepbrother. Superior intelligence. Treatment Special guidance from teachers and counselor. Special concessions as to program changes. Counselor talked over the danger of forcing a child againet his inclination with mo ther. Co-ot>. of Home Jeeative: Stepf. 'does not trusx m m . M. lives in according to standards of her own youth. Father insisted upon hie dropping Journali sm when he accidently met him off echool grounds on school paper business. B»— New York. High School grad. 2 yrs. Art. School Divorced. Siblings: Estelle— 12 yrs. A7 grade. Pat. grandfather founded- a University in Texas. Pat. Uncle— famous surgeon— Munich and Edinburgh. Pat. grandm. painter. Spent a good deal of Impermanent home F. does bite in Necessity for time in hospital. situation. pictures. adjustments to Boarding home— 2 yrs Many different Out of work. many different Mat., grandparents— situations which Receive aid from home situations 4 months. required separate Motion Picture with'their Mormon minister’s adjustments. Relief Ass'n. different home— 1 yr. No normal home life Previously made cultural Barbee Ranch School with paternal several millions patterns. influence. in Motion — 1 yr. Picture. Gave 110,000 to charity fund which now supports them Prefers sister’s company to that of boys his own age. Interested in reading funny books. Adores father. M. states she married F. with idea of producing a superior child. Indifferent to physical Rest program. Asthma and cold shots. pain. Intrigued by family tree. Corrective Ph. Ed. Further conferences Family related to with psychologists Lowells, Alcotts, planned. Chamberlin. Positive: M. cheerful. Faithful in keeping appointments. B.— Chicago. Poorly educated. Divorced. Sibling: Older brother working in Chicago. Small frame house. Plenty of space. Small garden. M. feels misunderstood by neighbors. Carries Chip on her shoulder. Easily hurt and always going to Administrators to complain of teacher’s treatment of Alex. Opportunity Class. Co-operative. Remedial arithmetic. Willing to work. Opp. to be in dramatic Wishes to please. activities. Nice singing voice. Provided instrument Gifted in dramatics. Imitates and impersonates for orchestral work. Refraction. well. Endocrine shots* Conferense with M. regarding boy’s guidance. Positive: In intent. Sparsely furnished clean. Movie magazines. Radio. Average monthly income— #70. M. does some catering. #20 rent per mo. M. receivee aid from State Relief Adm. &. wanted a girl. Dressed him as a girl when an infant. Long hair and curls until '7 years. Moviee— 4 times a week, ftorked ae extra in Motion Picture Negative: No normal home life. Many Changes. Insecurity atmosphere. Negative: No normal home life. M ’s. affection is almost consuming. No .opportunity of compan; ionship. with men. Hi’s, attitude indicates persecution complex. Results Poeitive: Temporary adjustment while taking Journalism. Follow-up ful counsel ling. Negative.: Failing in work. Poor citizenship record, Spends a great deal of time with a socially unadjusted girl. Teacher complains he gets nothing finished. Goes into tantrums about .rest period. ferences with psychologist. Improvement in Math. Better socialization. ferences with psychologiet. Negative: Continues to be •effeminate. 106 OLDER SUPERIOR GIRLS Case No. Name Grade C.A. M.A. 356 I.Q.. Race or Nationality American American Indian English Jewish descent. Unadjuetments Social Educational No friends. Failing in echool Shunned by other girls. work Distains the few friendly advancse made. Most unhappy. American English descent. No friends. Very unhappy. Does not confide her troubles in anyone. Canadian Day dreams. French and Englieh Loitsrs at tasks. descent. Abesnt minded. Resentful of sisters. Arith. aohieyemnt Grade 6.7. Does poorly in oral work. Failed in French and Geography. Rsferred by Mother High School Counselor. Mother. Aunt. Agencies Interested U.S.C. Sociologiet. Police Dept. Co. Charities. None. None. Health Factors Health record during early yrs. not good. Began menetrating at 14— repeated twics during year^ Undsr-nouri shed. Low blood pressure. Anemia. Diffioulty in develop ment. Parents• Father Mother Full blooded Attendsd Smith Sioux Indian. and Wellesley Wealth and dis Colleges. tinction. Peculiar. Lecturer, doctor, Dr’s, report— and authority sexual on Indian race. pervert. Owns and opsrates Ill health. summer health Probably camp. common law Illigetimate child. wife 6f Bruckner. Other Stepf. German of low mentality— blaeksmith. Drinks, beats M. and children. 3 yrs. Indiana Stats Penn for larceny. 6 moe. on penal farm for attempted murder. Half'-Siblings: Alice— 4^ yrs. Mary— 3 yre. Birth, normal— was Grad. Stanford. Phi Beta Kappa, Successful lawyer wanted. Stanford. Normal early develop in San Francieoo. Teaoher before ment. Flys down to ses marriage. Colds, bronchial cough. them at La r ^ for age. intervals. Childrens diseases. Nervous tic. Hands perspire when she talks. Pat. Grandf. Large country home. lives next door in friendly terms but dominering and demanding. Sistsr-in-law living in home. Siblings: Paul— 34 yrs. Grad. Stanford. Married manages estate. Sibyl— 19 yrs. Berkeley. Birth, normal. 3roken ribe— 8 yrs. General Health— good. Bites nails. Cramps at menstural periods. Oocasional colds. Lives with Pat. Aunt. Principal of Elem. School. B.— Canada. Calif— 3 yrs. Moved to ranch in Canada during depression. Returned to Canada to keep house on ranch for father. Siblings: Mary— 34 yrs. Cosmotologist. Ruth— 30 yrs. Business College. Economio Home Environment Two rooms. Entire neighborhood poor. Above average. Rented. Lower duplex. Ae dirty as possible for human habitage. Furniture' broken and inadequate. . Other Influencing Extreme poverty. M. stated F. was Inadsquate income j dead. Not eo— poorly spent. married to high Large amount goss type white for liquor. 'woman. M. always loved nature outdoor lifs. After college lived alone in log cabin Grandf. built. Stepf. suspected of murder of fnan whose body was found hurned Evidences of Assets Attitudes Soms ability to under M. extremely suspicious. stand her own Will not answer questions problem. about Donna*e birth, her Interested in going to marriage, etc. college and in taking Ssems to be hiding some up Social Work. thing. Obssssed with fear. Child bursts into tears when oouneelor attempted to. discuss her problems with her. M. president D.A.R, Above average. Mat. Gdf. wealthy Entertains and goes a great landowner. No evidence of deal. Interested in lack of funds operas, reading but a danger of disoussing the estate current events. breaking up and National Social heing lost.' Register. F. hae.to con stantly pour money in the. estate hecauee of poor prices for fruit and high taxes. M. states she does Wants her long braids cut so as to look like the not livs with F. other girle. becaues through Extremely sensitive about the restraint big feet and about might loose him preepiration of hands. altogether. Flora confides in the maid Constantly talks who ie a young Jr. of "Poor little College Grad. Maid Florence" and brought the girle’ her problem unkind treatment to Flora before the child. to M ’s. attention. Likes to have hsr different from other children. Opp. for selfimprovement and development of personality. Recreation facilities. Disapproved of by older sisters and Aunt. Considered lazy. 1 . -- 1 Aunt hae steady salary. Above average. Adequate for providing for and educating Estelle. Homesick and lonely for parents. States she misses them a great deal and wishse they had. taken her back with them. Resents her.sisters’ commands. ---- - . Co-on. of Home Treatment tfegative: Attempted to rehabil Mothsr extremely unstable. itate whols family. Decams demanding. Securred job for F. Stepf. ie a discreputable Moved to a new home, character. given furniture, clothes and utensils. Remained out of echool one semester to build up health. Told how others had met and conquered similar problsms. Results teentered school. Doing well in classes. Negative: F. continued to.drink until he lost his job. House filthy again. Intelligent. Proud. Has an insight into her own problem. Very likeable child. Interested in writing. Hair cut. Girl Scout Camp for summer. Enrolled in journalism. Given sncouragment to write. Discontinued quaint clothes. Positive: Send maid and car to take girls to riding clase. Gave parties for her. Won award for essay. Fond of Aunt. Seems to appreciate what she is doing for her. Told how proud and happy her parents would be to have her succeed in school. Aunt took over supervision completely. Positive: Made 5 R ’s in school. Given regular recreation periods, rest, and stricl Adjustment seeme complete*' •' supervision. Encouraged in school work. Intelligent guidancs. Record of time spent on study. Negative: M. Very domineering. Brother and sister-in-law ignore her. Seems much happier .sines her appearance has changed. Teachers report better socialization in classes. Follow-un Counselor withdrew from the case because of lack of home co-operation. County Welfare . worker continued. Arranged Univ. scholarship for Donna for study of Social Work. interviews with Counselor. OLDER SUPERIOR GIRLS UnadJustments Social Educational Trouble maker. es not work up to Conasntretes her friend capecity. ship on a chosen few. Disturbing fector. Snobbish. insolet. Undependable— lies. Unco-opsrative. Sex problsm. ■Vico, Marjory Sawyer, Loma •D'Arvil, Diana th fear. Withdraws from social contacts. Timid and sensitive. Afraid of dark, doctors tsachsrs, etc. Shy around hoys. American English Scottish dsscsnt. Health Sectors Whooping cough. Fether B.— Maryland. 47 yrs. old. Crad. Johns. Hopkins. Physician and B.--Minnesota. High School Educ. Calif. 4 yrs. Assets Good mind. Nics looking. Good health. Fine home environmsnt. Musical, piano and violin. Treatment Conferences with Counselor on person ality development. Recommended books on charm and character and.personality building. Good mind. Ability to concentrate and carry taaks through to a con clusion. Interested in the study of birds. Wants to be an Ornithologist. Girls Summer Camp. Told of her superior mind and that people do not remember mis takes a child makes. They are expected. Extra rest periods during day. Discontinued exci.ting programs' and shows. Told advisor the reason shs does not get better grades is becauss she talks too much. This is not true but evidsntly shs would like it to be so. Social distancs between daughter, and mother and grandmother. Conflicts of wills. 11th Grede reading ability. Soft spoken Appropriate clothes Plays piano. Progrem changed to include personal grooming. Light'treatment et clinic for Acne. Believes herself to be different than othsr girls. -peaks of running awey. Attempted to drown herself. Enjoys and has a gift for writing postry. Advanced in school for her ags. Destined to become a very beautiful woman. Grad. Radcliff. Large inheritance. Much above average. Above average. Spacious home. Lavishly furnished. - successful Dr. Gardens. Outdoor livingroom. Evsry convenience M. has indspendent and facility for income which she making home life inherited. enjoyable. Attends dancing school and riding classes. M. belonga to Women's Clubs. Society minded. Out of school 2 mos. for trip to Hawaii with Mother. Belongs to several High School Clubs and condesends towards or ignorss most classmates and teachers. Considered extremsly dieby teachers. B.— St. Paul, Minnesota. High School and Business College. Calif. 4 yrs. Own six room house. P.T.A. prssidsnt rsporte drinking Good rspeir. parties in the Plenty of spacs. home. Belongs to Camp Fire Girls, Long hair. Takes lunch to school. Becomes very sxcited in movies or in listening to radio programs. Prespires end chews handkerchlsf, etc. Extremsly sensitive about Acne. Wants to have ahort hair like other girls. Wishes to sat in School Cafstsria. Psychologist traced origin of fears to Grade V, where she was held back after whooping cough. Introvsrtsd. Maintains social distance. Unresponsive. Lack of confidence in her own ability. Grades C. Not working up to capacity. Beading ability— 11-3. Arithmetic— 7-2. Birth, normal. Height end wsight normal. Children’s T. & A.— 11 yrs. Acne. B.— Illinoi 43 yrs. Housewife. Not popular with girls Over-eexed. Drinks and smokes. Does poorly in Math, and Science, lows no interest in either. Birth, normal• Deceesed, 11 yrs. Perfect baby. Aunt a famous No children's diseases. artist. Perfect ettendance Paintings in the record in Louvrs in Paris snd High School. Nevsr absent and never, terdy in the morning. Graduated from Mat. grandm., Butler lives in home • College. Matriarch typs. Membsr of topnotch National Social Sorority. Keeps Father's paints, books, desk Just as he left them. Jr. High Sch. Robert— 10 yrs. School. Six" room stucco house. Good residential action* Comfortably furnished. Piano. Games end bicycles for boys. Loma has her own room. Good normal environment. Largs old feshioned Rerified esthetic atmosphere. home. Many pictures. Well furnished. Evidsncee of Spacious and sentimentalism. convenient. Antiques. F. retired on disability insurance for 5 year. Occaaional work es extre in Motion Pictures. M. stsnographer in County Clsrk's • Offics. Citrus marketing. Averege. Stsady salery. Sufficient. Insurance policy and annuity. Won a national award for poem, written when she was 14 yrs. Was attacksd in the perk on her way home from library. Taken to Juvenile Hall Clinic for • observation. Co-op. Negativ M. took offense at fact that a defect was found in girl's personality. Considers her daughter socially superior to' school. many M. busy working• Question of proper atmosphers from recrsation stendpoint. Positive: F. is interested and willing to do anything for Loma's good. Continued Negative-: No improvement noticed. carsful guidance Insufferable ego tistical insolence. Positi Social adJustmsnt taking piece. Old fears gone. Volunteers in class occasionally. Continues to be extremely retiring. Still works under capacity. Advisor and Counselor reports. Negative: M. seems interested only in ths boys while F. centers his affection o. Loma. Special guidance. Conferences with girl and mother. ; Negative: No appreciable social Took superior attitude adjustment. toward counselor. Evidently is an idealist. Unreal atmosphere in home. M. does not admit she goes out in ths evening. Continued rsports fros Counselor. Preparing to i to State University. 108 DATA FOE OLDEE SUE-NORMAL BOYS 1— Ca e No. j Name Grade G..A. M.A. unadjustment s I,ft. Nationality White English dsscent. Sooial Breaks rules. Insolent to eldere. Late hours with gang. Abnormal intsrsst in girls. Ran away from horns. Swears, emokes, drinks. Mature interests. Untidy and unclean in appearancs. Education Reading difficulty. Needs individual help. Constant supervision. Behavior problem in class. Insubordination. Truancy. Referred bv Father Agencies City Health Dept. Home Environment Physical Cultural Small frame house. Untidy. Semi-rural neighbor Evidences of poor taste in hood. Shares room with furni sMngs. younger brother Well equipped, electric refrig., radio, other electric appliances. Economic Poor co-ordination. Glandular disturbancs. Over-weight, grew rapidly. Indigestion and constipation. Diseased tonsils. Dental habits, poor. Bad posture. Disabled Intelligent. unemployable. Works— day to Seems intelligent. day house work. birth, normal. Mumps— 5 yrs. Sallow complexion. Poor posture. Tires in the afternoon. Frequent colds. Evidences of malnutrition. Porter in hotel. Deoeased. Deformity of chest. Eye defsct— refraction not advised by Eye Clinic doctor. No'T.B. in family. Fatigues easily. Evidenoes of malnutrition. Acne. Birth, -normal. Chiokenpox— 5. yrs. Measles— 7 yrs. T. & A.— 10 yrs. Underweight. Poor posture. Raped 9 yr. old girl. Language handioap. Abnormal interest in ' Diffioulty with girle. arithmstic. Insolent to adults. Behavior problem. Slinky demeanor. Insolent. Undependable. Show-off in class Requires individual supervision. Tsacher Probationary Welfare and Department. Attendance Officer. County Probation ary Dept. Rented home, in Mexican neighbor hood . Sparsley furnished. Exterior neglected. Insufficient speoe. No conveniences'. Fairly clean. Barren. Bed in the livingroom. Radio. English speaking. In U.S.A. for 17 years. Mother employed on V/.P.A. Project. $54 per month. $20 rent per month. Supplemented by a portion of older boy's earnings. White English descent. Does not sooializs. Boys all sesm to pick on him. Annoys and teases others. Slovenly appearance.. Wasteful. Non-reader. Truancy. Hazard in craft' classes. Destructive and wasteful. Requires constant supervision. Teacher. S.R.A. In need of repair. Undesirable neighborhood. Crowded living conditions. No opportunity for privacy. Below average. Untidy. Dirty. Evidences of un intelligent buying and of extreme care lessness with possessioris. On relisf. Sells newspapers, Subsistance level. on the streets Brother, buying a till late at oar on a contract night.' basis which he Smokes. does not under Hangs around beer stand. parlors and cocktail lounges. .White Irish descent. Disloyal- to family. Sot responsible. Unstable. Over-forge tful. Reading difficulty. Behavior problem. Noiey in clase. Irresponsible. Poor citizenship record. fsacher. Stspmother. Divorce court. Formerly, low-class Stepm. is provid F. regularly boarding house in ing normal home employed•in ' crowded urban atmosphere. asphalt plant. district. Sparsley furnished, Salary $125 per Spent much time play well kept, clean month. ing in the streets. and tidy. Livsd for 1 yr. in *adio and games. a trailer. Pet dogs. “ Jow, comfortable home, large yard, rural neighborhood. ■ Parente Other Influencing Mother does house Smokes, supposedly work by the day. to keep down Salary eupplsmented weight. by State Aid. Older sister, Rent home $25 per worldly month. attitude, cheap Buying equipment on standards. installment plan. Funny papers, movies, pulp magazines. Abnormal interest Irresponsible attitude of M. Leok of F's. influence. Physical maturity, over-sexed. Lacks the in hibitions and shyness of normal adolescent. Experienced the emotional stress of living with quarreling parents who were finally divorced. Necessity for ad justment to eupervision of stepmother. Other 1 Evidences of Asssts Handsome looking boy. Ambition to go into the navy. Polite, well mannered, d's. interest. Treatment Endocrine treatment. Refraotion. Sooial dancing lessons. 3oy Scout membership. Work permit during Xmas vacation in market. Development class, suitable curriculum, close supervision. Shows abnormal interest in girls. Showers attentions on a different girl in each class. Gets too familiar with girls. Lazy, pretends language handioap when required to do sohool work. Emotionally unstable and unreliable. Handsome. Juvenile Hall. Released on probation. Placed in Welfere class and later in Development. Recommendation of school administretion. Sonome, sterilization. Always in difficulty with othsr boys. Careless with his belongings. Untidy, dirty, and unkempt. No sense of moral values, cheats, lies, and steals. Interested in arithmetic Placed in Welfare center end later in and making money. Development class. Wants to own a store Removed from craft some day. classes because of Polite. hazard to himself and others. Recommendation of school administration, Sonoma, sterilization. Uncle— deceased, Vet. Eosp. T.B. Siblings: Luoillc— 19 yrs. Telephone Op. Johnnie--12 yrs. 11. Sohool. 3howe abnormal interest in girls. Adult recreation interests, sophisticated attitude. Imagination colored by horror pictures and funny booka. Talks of drinking parties. W»P.A. Sewing Projeot. California 5 yrs. B.— Mexioo, 23 yrs. El Paso, 'i'exas. Siblings: Renaldo— 20 yrs. Working. Carmen--17 yrs. High School. Jesus— 12 yrs. El. School. Apparently ill. Over-weight. Unemployable by inclination. Lazy. B.— Arkansas. Calif. 12 yrs. First cousin, deceeeed. Stepmother. 22 yrs. old. First cousin. Siblings: George— 21 yrs. Works. Balf-Silbines: Mary — 3 yrs. Harry— 2 yrs. Sister-in-law, 20 yrs. old. B.— Oklahoma Ualif. 0 yrs. Divorced and remarried. b .— uklahoma. Ualif. 8 yrs. Divorced. Chamber maid in hotel. Affable, always pleying jokes and pranks. Resignsd Student Servics post because he could c.c.c. not bring himself to report his friends for Stspmother— 32 yrs. infractions. Half-siblings: Speeks disparagingly of Jerry— 3 yrs. parents. Alice— l£ yrs. Siblings: John— 22 yrs. Army. Harold— 17 yrs. Placed in Welfare Sunny disposition. center and leter in Nice looking. Development class. Wishes to be good sport. School doctor's Popular.' recommendation Ambitious to .do well in removal of T. & A. echool. Work in school Aotiva, not lazy. cafeteria. Responsible and honest. Co-on. of Home Positive: M. very oo-opsrative. Lttitude, excellent. F. co-opsrative. Rs suit s Increased self-respect. Becoming mors satisfied with normal life. Shows interest in work and pride in accompli shment. Follow-un teacher continuing to make home calls. Negative: M. awey from home, has little time for Negative: supervision. Emotionally unstable. F. indiffsrent at times, beats him at others. Brought child tons from Wash. Negative: checks Showed an improvement M. unresponsive. progress, in citizenship and Sesms uninterested. rssponsibility for a • i'eaohers and Feils to keep school period of about six appointments with school authorities, weeks. • authorities. taking an especial Negative: interest. Continues to be a dis turbing element in oless and annoys girls. Unreliable, unstable. Positive: aohool Very slight improve F. makes a gesture of ment in socialization. authorities co-op. with school. taking an especial Negative: interest. Stepm. immature, busy wilh Continues to be a misfit. younger children, un Continues in eaocial interested. bshavior. F. fails to carry out any No improvement in plan of regular school work. supervision. Positive: F. very strict in enforc Marked improvsment in school work, ing rules he considers attitudes and for the child's good. intarests. Stepm. carsfully supervis ing and affectionately Nsgative: caring for the child. Continues to be slight disciplinary problem in class. teacher continues to make home cells for the purpose of co-ordinating school and home resources. Rand olph, Rodney I ^Kationj^itjr ^unintelligible spirit of play. JPtyrsyja^ ■[principal Mother Women'e Collage Spacious. Well kept. Fashionable neighborhood. Inatrumental delivery. Foreign langHospital for 1 year, si. sure Rodney is bright ' but Just misunderstood by teachers. >f large' caps creatln ■ Highly succassful, Upset that Rodney is placed Follow—UP IContinued raports from Q,ulet natured, psychologiet ragarding management of handi- ISiblings: Collags education. personality devalopment possible. aatablished by Bacon, Joseph M. seems to have takan a personal dislike to taacher. Over-amb'itioue for child. Considering his handicaps and incapabilities. No young children to play Raports from Upper [Picking up Educationally retarded. Poor spaech habits, BIO, Jordan delinquency. — protruding teath. Largs for age— 117 It Parents expressed" thing for family house 1: neighborhood m up of chiefly Provided with bicycla to responsibilities. with parents. Speach Corraction Clase. [parants interested and Arranged spacial permit I willing to help. Negroae pre-j financially unable to-do No further evidanc'es of sex dalinquency. Speach improved. Naw mannerisms substituting old. Nagativa: Isduc ational Bav. High School. Undapendable. Irratic. Poor citizenship. heading difficulty. • Behavior problem. Principal. High School Small._frame single INeat, clean, house. Providad by Forestry [opportunity for No citations from spending money progress shown. F. away from home a good deal. M. unable to control him. [improvement in Nagative: Unable to do work requiring abstract thinking. Movies 4 timas per wk. reports from OLDER SUB-NORMAL GIRLS Case • No. Name Grade C.A. M.A. I.Cj. Nationality American Irish descent. Mexican descent. Mexican and Indian desoent. Unglish descent. . 1 Unadjustmen bs Social Does not take part in games. Extremely ehy. Feels awkward. Truancy. Dirty and untidy personal appearance. Educational Poor attendance. Refuses to recite. Timid in class. Works much below grade level. Poor attendance. No interest in school work. Forged teacher’s name to a pass. Truancy. Insolent. Does not- play games. Dirty. Cuts clase. Unexcused absences. Bad attitude toward school• Shop lifting. ' Leadsr of gang of • asocial girls. Sobbed liquor store. Wrecked nurse’s room at' school. • Cuts class. Unexcused, absences. Bad attitude toward school. Referred bv high Sohool Counselor. High Sohool Counselor. Attendance and Welfare Officer. Prihoipal. Ageno iee Interested N. Y. A. S. R. A. Outside Medical Relief. County Hsalth Department. Health Factors Birth, normal. Underweight. Frequent colds. Negative Mantous. tfeeth nsed care. Evidences of malnutrition. Po sitive— Man toux. Gen. Hospital. Pediculosis. B.I.R. Scabiss. Juvenile Hall. Good otherwise. Prob. Dept. Catholic Welfare. S.R.A. Attendance, Prob. Dept. No unfavorable faotors and Welfare Juvenile Rail. noted. Officer. Goodwill Principal. Industries. White Mem. Clinio. ---------------1 i Parents Father B.— Missouri. 38 yre. old. El. Sch. Educ. Cabinet maker. B,— Mexioo. In U.S.A. 15 yrs* B.— Mexioo. Unemployed. Deceased. Mother B,— Missouri. 34 yrs. old. El. Sch. Educ. Frail, under nourished. B.— Mexico. Does not' epeak English. Other Siblings Doranoe— 9 yrs. B4 grade.' Sharon--11 yrs. B6 grade. Two others — decsased. Home Environment Home made trailer. No privacy. • Inconvenient. Inadequate housing. Siblings Small frame house. Roney— 15 yrs. Mex. neighborhood. B9 grade. State of disrepair. Miquel— 13 yrs. A7 grade. Carmelita— 12 yre. B7 grade. Impoverished environment. Clean. Bare home. Bed, one chair, dresser in livingroom. Table and stove in kitchen* No running water. Devout Catholics. B.— Mexico. Understands English but speaks Spanish'in home. Fairly good. Spanish spoken Siblings : Rented house — five in home. Tony— 28 yrs. rooms. Henry— 25 yrs. Rather crowded.8hoe repairs. Fabia— 24 yrs. L.A.City College. Manuel— 20 yrs. ' Shoe repairs. Arthur— 17 yrs. Josephine— married.• Abraham~ll yrs. B.— Indiana. Divorced.. Remarried deserted by Stepfather. Poor health. Stepf s. where abouts unknown. Single apt. Poorly furnished. Poor seotion of city. Unattractive. Undesirable Inconvenient. surroundings. Unwholesoms atmosphere. Economio Other Influencing Evidences of Asks teacher before class "Please do not call upon Inadequate income. M. worked harvest ing nute. F. cabinet maker but does odd jobs. Laok of funds. Frequent moves in search of work. Inadequate income. B.I.R. Rented houss. Evidences of malnutrition. Msx. home atmosphere. Parents not adjusted to American way of life. M. is afraid Maria will soon be too old to get married. #61. State Aid .per month. Augmented by children’s earning. Spends time with asocial companions. Private Sohool— Our Lady of . Soledad. Older brothers willing to furnish information and do all they can to help. $29.37— total family income per month. M. helped her maks a drees two spending of stolen material. money. Undisturbed by evidences Private School of Verna’s stealing . 1 yr.— St. MaryB. episodes. Pleasing smile. Not pretty but comely. Q,uiet voice. Clean' and neat. Sews well. Artistic. Treatment Placed in Dsv. Class. Given functional ourrioulum. Cooking, sewing and craft. N.Y.A. employment .at school as teacher’s helper. Works in cafeteria for her lunch. Girls Welfare Csnter. Dental care at echool clinic. Corrective gym. Results Co-on. of Home Positive: In eo far as possible. Physical improvement. Better attendance. Enjoys her nsw classes. Negative: Abnormal home situation. Negative: 'tow achievement inaoademic work. , Still extremely ehy. Negative; M. thinks she should be marrisd. Bettsr school attendance. Enjoys her classes.. Improved health. Negative: Continues -to need oareful supervision. Friendly. Rather good looking. Agreeable. Clevsr in a cunning way. Demoted in English. class. Placed in Girls Welfare. Given record card for cleanliness. Girls Welfare. Center. Adjusted ourrioulum. Chance to work in sohool cafeteria to earn spending money. Juvenile Hall for observation. Positive: Fairly good. Older brother’sinfluences are good* Improvement in attitude toward echool. Negative: F. Is disinterested. M. overworked and dominated by F. Negative: Still requires oare ful supervision. Negative: M. undependable and ,rather disinterested. Positive. Temporary improvement in attitude and attendance. No recurrence of stealing. Negative: Adjustment incomplete. 1 - i Follow-un Counselor. Reports. .reports.. OLDER SUB-NORMAL GIRLS Jackson, Carnathia Fueano, Jo Romanoff,. Vera Race or Nationality American Negro descent. American Italian descent. American Russian descent. Unadjustments Social " Bad temper.' Fights. Boy crazy. Loiters on way home from school. Educational Struck teacher. Poor record in academic work and citizenship. "Disagreeable and Educationally unfortunate retarded. disposition. Illegal absenoes. Morose, sullen. Seems unable to adjust to new personalities. "Unhealthy attitude. No control of temper— psychopathic ragee. Fights. I Discouraged and indifferent in class. Unable to do academic work satisfactorily. Fought on campus. Bit and scratched other girl. Referred by Principal' Girl’s Counselor. Health Factore iNormal development. [Good physique. No' unfavorable factors noted. "Endocrine disturbance. Much overweight. General health— good. "Birth, normal. Good care as an infant by parents who were very fond of her. Good co-ordination. Splendid physical development. Siblings; Ethel— 17 yTs John— 1 3 .yrs. i— 12 yrs. Lsrry— 9 yre. Jerry— 7 yre * --Pennsylvania 15 yre. in Oalif. Hardworking, honest. B.— Italy. Came to California 23 yrs. ago. Retired. .Killed in automobile accident when. Vera was 6 mos old. B .— Italy. Came to Calif. 23 yre. ago. Si'blin'gsT Tony— 24 yrs. Married. Alberto— 22 yre. Working* Tina— 19 yrs. •Married. Home Environment1 Physical ___________ Cultural Small frame house in Home was- kept by oldest semi-rural daughter until neighborhood. ehe married. Returned home after two years with- infant son. Deserted by husband.Filthy dirty. Two story frame house. Good repair. Painted white, .rden and lawn. Old section of city Family life very congenial. . Loyalty of Above average. Own several pieces of property. Italian grocery. Older eieter very beautiful. Contrast ie very great. Indulged by i',, being his' baby girl. Aunt— works as maid and janltress at • the City Mueeum. Small regular salary. Aid from State for Yerh. The Uncle’e .un Yera has a hietory of. stability has having several.fighte in her keyed up to elementary school. extremely high disrespectfully and emotional' pitch. She is often the subject of! Uncle*e drunken arguements. Her aunt occasion ally drinks also and .told Yera she would have to leave. Sugra'd insecurity. Comfortably furnished. Italian'epoken in home. Devout Catholics. Lives with Mat. Dilapidated uplex in Clean but barren. Window boxes andstate of extreme Aunt and tin cans filled husband, who disrepair. with plants on drinks a great School playground cross the street. front porch. deal. Spells when he is mentally has awakened to find him standing over her threatening her with, a weapon. Placed in Paton twice. Lack of M ’s. i rough . guidance and Brags about what ehe proper parental would do. supervision, Feele no disgrace in her ny acquaintances unhealthy conduct. among delinquent girls. Thinks herself ugly. Seldom smiles. Slow to make friends. Accuses teachers of "no.t knowing much.” Is hungry for admiration and friendship. Embarrassed around boys. Assete_______ Good worker. Likes to cook. Fond of brothers. Likes children. Can be pleaeant at times. Treatment_______ Girl’s Welfare Center. Individual attention and supervision. Definite ability to do copy typing, accurate and at high speed. Girl’s Welfare Center. Helped in school office Typing. Glandular treatment. Co-0£^fHome Poeitive: Improvement in attitude and demeanor. Negative; Job of supervision and guidance too much for F. Abnormal home life. Interested in sports. Arranged for her to Good sense of timing and play tennis one fine co-ordination. period a day. Y/ith special emphasis-on sportsmanship and manners. Enterred City Playground Tennis Tournament. Arranged for her to live in home .minding Welfare tescher gained confidence of parents who were very co-operative. Negative: Decame pregnant. Excluded from school. Married at F ’e. insistence to High School boy. "Working in F ’ 'grocery store. Meets customer* Perfect attendance pleasantly. record for 1 year. Corresponds Graduated on a with former certificate. Teacher. Spent one semester Poet Grad. Works in F ’s'. grocery. Poeitive: Learned the game quickly, on a trophy in the tournament of which she was very proud though embarrassed when she displayed it. Prob. Offioer. Welfare Teacher. CHAPTER VIII FINDINGS Analysis of the causes of una d ju stments and bases of treatments, unadjustments come about in the normal course of the social processes of communication, conflict, compe tition, accommodation, and assimilation. In this dynamic series the individual may experience blockings because of his failure to define the situation correctly, or because of divergent attitudes which result in overt acts that are anti-social. Because of the complex nature of society, and of the personality integration of the individual, these processes are not isolated. Unadjustment seldom takes place because of one single factor. The interaction of the units of society and the inter-relationship of the social processes make it necessary to indicate factors which appear to be of major importance in the directing of behavior toward fulfillment of the wishes for security, response, recognition, and new-experience, in gaining ultimate assimilation or complete socialization. The trained case worker realizes that the cause of the unadjustment is seldom a simple, single force. The person attempting to rehabilitate the unadjusted child first determined what he believed to be the major cause in order 113 to attack the situation. The therapeutic treatment has all been based on the definition of the cause and has been successful to the extent that the diagnosis is correct. To the extent that a nei attitued was substituted conduct was modifiable. A brief statement of the causes of the unadiustments and bases for the treatments in the cases studied follows. Evidence in Case One revealed the fact that the child suffered from a sense of insecurity due to the care and attention required by the■younger children in the family. When he felt that his parents were interested in his accomplishments much of his anti-social conduct'disappeared. Case Two required re-educating the adults in the . family in order that the child might thro?; off feelings of inferiority caused by excessive adult interest and attention. Case Three had the doubly difficult feature of extremely limited mental ability coupled with the domination of a mother whose attitude was definitely warped toward society. It is not strange that little that was constructive was accomplished under these circumstances. Culture conflicts and social distance characterize the difficulty in Case Four where Mexican peon parents had been unable to accommodate themselves to the new and complex situation in which they found themselves. Improvement came 114 through a sense of success through accomplishment. The far reaching social process of competition upset the equilibrium of the whole family in the instance of Case Five. .The boy was only one of a family that had a difficult time adjusting to a new’ economic status. Emotional instability and worry on the part of his parents made it harder for him to make his own adjustment. This was finally done by building up a sense of .self-reliance through his own accomplishment. Case Six had a difficult adjustment to make in accommodating herself to a strict regime after carelessly supervised life in Chicago. The facts that she suffered from a sense of insecurity and lack of response, 'and lacked companionship of her own age added to her problem. Race conflict was responsible for much of the braggadocio of Case Seven. Race prejudice had caused him to react in a bullying manner. His conduct was found to be his method of compensating for his own educational and social short-comings. Undesirable companions substituted attitudes in the mind of Case Eight until her conduct was opposed to the values of society. Improvement in this case also was brought about through achievement. Much of the anti-social conduct of Case Nine disap peared when he received recognition and gained status in 115 the eyes of his peers through musical accomplishment. Over-solicitous parents did much to stifle and warp the personality growth of Case Ten. In so far as'this was relieved the child reacted normally. How hard it is for a child to react to divided authority is demonstrated by Case Eleven. In addition the frequent adjustments and sense of impermanence contributed to his difficulty. There was little the school could do in this case since the co-operation of the home ?^as imperative. Case Twelve’s temper tantrums were a direct play for status. He lacked recognition in his home. The motherTs erroneous defining of the situation seems to have affected the boy’s conduct in Case Thirteen. The attitude of the mother was superimposed upon the child. Case Fourteen is an example of .the nervous tension that may result from conflict in the child’s mind over divergence in parental attitudes and treatment. Little could be accomplished in Case Fifteen with the physical defect and negative home environment. Case Sixteen had the handicaps of a mother fixation and no training in the control of-emotions to overcome in his relation to secondary groups. Personality disorganization was brought about in Case Seventeen by the abnormal situations inherent in professional entertaining. This also was true in 116 Case Twenty-one. In Case Eighteen economic stress and worry was reflected in the childfs behavior. In Case.Nineteen the physical' endowment of the child was so much below normal that medical treatment was of primary importance and prerequisit to any other plan. Case Twenty had difficulty in adjusting to the social and educational life of school when the home atmosphere w a s ’ filled with attitudes of musical competition rather than of understanding, affection, and guidance. The desire for new experience coupled with a sense of failure in school was responsible for the running away of Gase Twenty-two. The sense of security was needed to be built up carefully, and patiently in the child in Case Twenty-three by the ps37’ehological methods in order to overcome early established jhobias. The desire for adventure coupled with the psychological effect of a broken home were responsible for the truancy and sex delinquency of Case Twenty-four. Physical, defects coupled with parental illness and economic- stress prevented normal personality growth in Case Twenty-five. Twenty-six and Twenty-seven both suffered from endocrine disturbances. The emotional life of an individual 117 is dependent upon the glandular functioning to such an extent that some authorities believe all anti-social conduct can "be traced to the failure of the glands to function in harmony. In both these cases the problem was attacked by endocrine treatment. In the former, social.distance ?*as enhanced by the physical defect of deafness which has disasterous affects upon personality growth. Case Twenty-nine was impossible to cope with in the schools because of the serious physical handicap of cerebral irritation. Unfortunate home background, the mother’s anti-social attitude and sexually immoral conduct, coupled with the child’s early experiences of sex brought about an emotional .response of stealing and other behavior problems that taxed the resoursefuln'ess of the school facilities in rehabilitat ing Case Thirty. Broken homes added to the difficulties of the children in Thirty-one and Thirty-two to adjust to the social order. The former child also suffered from social distance brought about by the great divergence in age of the grandmother and herself, while the latter child’s atti tudes were colored by the drunkenness of her mother. Destructive attitudes brought on by auto-eroticism and exhibited in stealing were dealt with in Case Thirtythree by glandular treatment and.a careful program planned 118 to build up confidence and respect for herself and in this way substituting new attitudes. Social distance, culture lag, and divergence of attitudes were basic to the unadjustments in the next three cases where- Italian, Mexican, and Japanese parents hadfailed -to become'assimilated into American•society. Case Thirty-sevenrs difficulties were brought on by a sense of failure and a desire for recognition. Here again success through achievement proved a reconstructive plan. The “values of society and the attitudes of a bootlegger parent brought about conflicts and emotional blockings in Case, Thirty-eight that called for rehabilita tion of the parent first. Thirty-nine was the victim of the great race problem of the Negro in America. "Passing” and other dishonest conduct was a result of his attempt to define and meet his situation. .Social distance was exhibited in Case Forty where attitudes of the child and his elderly parents could not meet on the same social plane. In Case Forty-one the conflict of American ideals and aristocratic home atmosphere was augmented by the dis agreement of ambitions between the boy and his mother. The suicide of the boyTs father added to his emotional stress. There is little the school can hope to accomplish other than 119 to afford him one stable and secure influence in his life. Lack of security is felt by the boy in Case Fortytwo. and he finds it increasingly difficult to adjust to new home situations which he is required to do. Case Forty-three is an instance of endocrine dis turbance coupled with a mother fixation which is resulting in homo-sexual tendencies. Adjustment is possible only in so far as the influences of the school can counteract the emotional stress brought on by the mother’s affectionate suffication. In Case Forty-four the child exhibits an emotional disturbance brought on bjr the mother’s failure to adjust to life, by being an illegitimate child, and experiencing the breaking up of his home, which the school authorities have little chance to redirect until a more suitable home situation can be established. The girl in Case Forty-five is the victim of the mother’s attempt to project her personality on a child who is otherwise without recognition in the family. Her lack of status if further augmented by social distance between children of her own age brought on by differences in dress. This was the first point of attack by the school counselor. Case Forty-six discloses the difficulty of an adoles cent girl in adjusting to the complex life in a large city high school after spending her childhood on a Canadian farm. 120 Forty-seven brings out the conflicts arising from a superiority complex planted by the mother whose attitudes do not conform to the standards of the community. Symptoms of withdrawal in Case Forty-eight are probably due to a sense of shame at the drinking parties and other socially unacceptable standards of the home. Lack of response from the mother is probably the underlying cause of the anti-social conduct in Case Fortynine . The mother in Case Fifty is not defining and meeting the situation correctly. lack of control. emotional strain. This is causing social distance and Unfortunate sex experience added to .the In the preceding four cases, treatment for the social and educational unadjustments had to extend to the home. In Case Fifty-one the desire for new experience coupled with and endocrine distrubance caused the boy to become a non-conformist. Glandular treatment 'and opportunity for self-expression were provided by the school with very good results. In Case Fifty-two a broken home and culture conflict exhibited their effect in sex delinquency in the child. The problem was one of building new attitudes. Home standards much lower than those of the community coupled with a mental deficiency presented an insurmountable 121 obstacle to the school authorities in Case Fifty-three. The emotional stress of a divorce in the family is probably the cause of the anti-social conduct of the child in Case Fifty-four. In Case Fifty-five the allowances made for physical handicaps thwarted the normal personality development of the child. This called for special guidance of the parents as well as careful control of the situation in the school. Financial problems and race conflicts necessitated -a change of standards that brought about conflicting attitudes in Case Fifty-six. The boy in Case Fifty-seven attempted to compensate for his failures and eyesight handicap by anti-social be havior. His desire for new experience was met to his physical and social detriment by the motion pictures. Financial inadequacy set the girl in Case Fiftyeight aside from her fellows and caused her to withdraw from social contact. Therapeutic treatment was based on attem.pt to establish a sense of securitj^ in her. Case Fifty-nine and Sixty both exhibited the un adjustments children experience when their parents are unable to accommodate themselves to the standards of the communi ty. Case Sixty-one is another instance of the reaction to the attempt to adjust to two moral codes, the one of the 122 home and the one of the group. Lack of supervision along with the emotional stress called up by encounters with race prejudice presented a problem of character building to the school authorities in Case Sixty-two* The Italian girl in Case Sixty-three improved in her conduct and physical appearance with endocrine treatment administered at the school clinic. Emotional instability in the home and culture con flicts were the basis for the unadjustments of the girl in Case Sixty-four. A boarding home and a chance to excell aided in her rehabilitation. As was formerly stated, unadjustments may be brought on by many inter-related causes. The person attempting to redirect aid rehabilitate an individual first determines what may be of major Influence in order to prescribe treat ment and -provide aid. the cases studied. This was the method of procedure in JMo determination of the ratio of the causes was attempted. Analysis of data. Of the sixty-four cases studied and treated in the Los Angeles City Public Schools, fiftyone showed improvement in adjustment.. 79.68 per cent of the total. This constituted Sixteen cases, or 25 per cent made adjustments that appeared complete. Thirty-five cases, 123 or 54.6 per cent, showed a partial or incomplete, adjust ment. Thirteen cases, or 20.3 per cent of .those studied, showed no apparent improvement in adjustment. For thy-three cases, or 67,2 per cent of the total number of children studied, came from normal homes, while twenty-one cases, or 32.8 per cent, came from broken homes caused by death, separation, or divorce. Fifteen children, or 94 per cent of those who apparently made a complete ad justment, came from normal homes. Only one child, or 6 per cent of those who made an adjustment, came from a home which lacked the harmonious relationships of both parents. Five of the thirteen, or 38.4 per cent of the children who failed to make an adjustment, came from normal homes while eight, or 61.6 per cent of these children, came from broken homes. In forty-seven or 73.5 per cent of the total number of cases of unadjusted children, there were negative ele ments in the co-operation of the home. In only seventeen, or 26.5 per cent of the cases the home, could be considered wholly co-operative in intent and actuality. In fifty-two, or 81.2 per cent of the total number of cases there is a follow up. These cases were brought to the attention of the Division of Psychology and Research Guidance by teachers, principals, 'mothers, fathers, other relatives, Welfare and 124 Attendance Officers, and other persons. The following general types of unadjustments appeared; abnormal personality developments, such as with drawal, or bullying; lieing; stealing; sex delinquency; disregard of authority; disobedience; and truancy. The assets of the child were discovered and utilized in the treatment recommended and administered. Interpretation of data. In interpreting this data the following conclusions may safely be drawn. Social and educational unadjustments among children in the Los Angeles City Public Schools are related to personality and emotional responses rather than to innate intelligence. Unadjustments occur in both the superior and sub-normal groups. Because of the intangibility of many of these unadjust ments there is no scale for determining the degree of un adjustment. undiscovered. Many delinquent tendencies, and acts may go The innate intelligence of the child may aid him to appear to conform to a greater extent than the child who is not so cunning. Unadjustments which cause the child to withdraw may have as devastating personality results as unadjustments which cause the child to satisfy his ego by making a play for attention.. The latter is more easily perceived'yet the degree of unadjustment may be just as great in the former. This study, therefore, only indicates 125 the unadjustments that exist and not the degree of the unadjustments. ■ The causes of unadjustments can in most cases by clearly perceived in health factors, parental relationships, other relative: influences, economic factors, cultural back grounds, companions, interests, recreation, neighborhoods, and other influencing factors* The study does not attempt to establish the relative relationship of these causes since this belongs to the realm of psychiatry and social pathology. The fact that 94 per cent of those making a complete adjustment came from normal homes shows a positive element. The interest of the teacher is attested to by the fact that in many instances the case has been originally called to the attention of counselor of psychologist by the child’s teacher. Much of the treatment in each case has been administered by the beacher. In many cases the follow-up is carried on by the teacher. The adherents of Gestalt psychology will find that this study substantiates the fact that the child in school is an integral part of the whole child. He brings his outside experience-background with him. The negative element;, of the home co-operation is a potent factor in retarding adjustment. Many of the unadjustments of- the children are direct results of unadjustments of the home 126 life. This may he caused from attitudes and values, economic status, social distance, etc. The extent to which the Los Angeles Public City Schools'meet and treat the problem of children who are unadjusted has been indicated by the discription of the educational facilities offered the mentally exceptional child, and the socially unadjusted child. It also is indicated by the treatment recommended and administered. The results can be-said to be definitely positive. Any child who is socially and educationally unadjusted is a potential ward of the state and is in danger of sooner or later becoming an inmate of a criminal or mental institution. The fact that the study shows 79.68 per cent showing improvement in adjustment and 25 per cent becoming adjusted justifies the additional expense and attention given these children in the Los Angeles Public City Schools. BIBLIOGRAPHY 128 A. BOOKS Adler, Alfred, et al., Guiding the Child. Mew fork: Greenberg Publishing Company, Inc., 1930. _______ , The Practice and Theory of Individual Psychology. Mew York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1929~ 352 pp. (Translated by P. Badin). 352 pp. _______ , Understanding Human Mature. New York: Publishing Company, Inc., 1927. 286 pp. Greenberg .Anderson, Mels and Lindeman, Eduard, Urban Society. Introduction to the Study of Urban Communities. Alfred A. Knopf, 1928. 414 pp. An Mew York: Anderson, Harold H . , Children in the Family. Mew York, London: D. Appleton Century Company, 1937. 253 pp. Andrus, Ruth and Peabody, Max 1., Parent-Child Relationships. New York: The John Day Company, 1928. 226 pp. Baker, Harry J ., Characteristic Differences in Bright and Dull Pupils. Bloomington, 111. Public Schools Publishing Company, 1927. 118 pp. and Tirginia Traphagen, The Diagnosis and Treatment of Behavior-Problem Children. Mew York: The Macmillan Company, 1935. 393 pp. Benedict, Agnes 1 . i Children at the Cross Roads. The Common?jealth Fund, 1930. 238 pp. Bentley, John E., Problem Children. Company, 1936. 437 pp. New York: Blanchard, Phyllis, The Adolescent Girl. Mead, and Company, 1936. New York: Wm. Morton New York: Dodd, Blanton, S., and Ivl. G. Blanton, Child Guidance. The Century Company, 1927. 301 pp. New York: Blumer, Herbert, Movies and Conduct. New York: Macmillan Company, 1933. 257 pp. The _______ , Movies, Delinquency, and Crime. Macmillan Company, 1933. 233 pp. Mew York: Bogardus, Emory S . , The City Boy and His Problems. Angeles: House of Ralston, 1926. 148 pp. The Los 129 Boorman, Ryland W., Developing Personality in Boys. York: The Macmillan Company, 1929. 257 pp. , Personality in Its Teens. Company, 1951. New York: New The Macmillan Brewer, J. M . , et a l ., Cases in Educational and Vocational Guidance. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1929. 243 pp. Brooks, J. D., Psychology of Adolescence. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1929. 158 pp. Burnham, Wm. H . , The Normal M i n d . New York: Century Company, 1924. 702 pp. _______ , The Wholesome Personality. Century Company, 1932. 713 pp. Appleton, New York: Burt, Cyril, The Young Delinquent. New York: Century Company, 1925. 619 pp. Appleton, D. Appleton, Cahill, Beatrice II., PupilGuidance.Boston: Press, 1929. 97 pp. The Colonial Cantril, Hadley, and G. W. Allport,ThePsychology Radio. New. York: Harper and Brothers, 1935. of the 276 pp. Charters, W. W . , Motion Pictures and Youth; A Summary. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1953. 66 pp. Crawford, Claude C., How To Teach. Los Angeles: Southern California School Book Depository, 1938. 511 pp. Cressey, Paul G . , and F. M. Thrasher, Boys, Movies, and City Streets. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1939. Culbert, Jane F . , The Visiting Teacher at work. The Commonwealth Fund, 1929. 235. pp. De Schweintz, Karl, Growing U p . Company, 1930. Ill pp. New York: Dewey, John, Democracy and Education. Macmillan Company, 1933. 243 pp. New York: The Macmillan New York: The Dysinger, W.'S. and M. Ruckmik, The Emotional Responses of Children to Motion Picture Situations. Ney* York: The Macmillan Company, 1933. 122 pp. 130 Elliott, Grace L . , Understanding the Adolescent Girl. York: Henry Holt, and Company, 1929. 134- pp. New Faegre, Marion L., and John Anderson, Child Care and Training. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1937. 327 pp. Fishhaek, Holt, and Kirpatrick, Conduct Problems for Junior High School Grades. Boston: D. C. Heath~and”Company,. 1930. 60 pp. Freud, Sigmund, A General Introduction to Psychoanalysis. New York: Liveright Publishing Company, 1927. 406 pp. (Translated and with an introduction by G. Stanley Hall). _______ , The History of the Psychoanalytic Movement. Scranton, Pa., Nervous and Mental Disease Publishing Co., 1916. 58 pp. (Translated by A. A. Brill). Forman, Henry James, Our Movie-Made Children. Macmillan Company, 1933. 288 pp. Gallagher, lleanor G . , The Adopted Child. and Hitchcock, 1936. 291 pp. New York: The New York: Reynal Groves, E. R. and P. Blanchard, Introduction to MentalHygiene. Nevtf York: Henry Holt and Company, 1930. 467 pp. _______ , Personality and Social Adjustment. mans, Green, and Company, 1923. 126 pp. New York: Long Gruenberg, S. M. and B. C. Gruenberg, Parents, Children, and Money. New York: Viking Press, 1933. 212 pp. Hartwell, S. W . , Fifty-five Bad Boys. Knopf, 1931. 359 pp. New lork: Alfred A. Healy, William, and Augusta Bronner, New Light on Delinquency and Its Treatment. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1936. 226 pp. The Individual Delinquent. and Company, 1915. 830 pp. Boston: Little Brown _______ , et a l . , Reconstructing Behavior in Youth. New York: Judge Baker Foundation Publication, No. 5, Alfred A. Knopf, 1929. 325 pp. Heath, Esther, The Approach to Parents. Commonwealth Fund, 1933. 163 pp. New York: The 131 Holaday, P. W . , (jetting Ideas From the Movies. ' New York; The MacMillan Company, 1933. ‘122 pp. Hollingsworth, Leta S., Gifted Children: Their nature and Nurture. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1926. 347pp. _______ , Special Talents and Defects. Macmillan Company, 1923. 216 pp. New York: The Inskeep,. Annie D . , Child Adjustment in Relation to Growth and Development. New York: D. Appleton, Century Company, 1930. 427 pp. Irwin, Elizabeth, and Louis A. Marks,'Fitting the School to The Child. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1924. 339 pp. Isaacs, Susan Sutherland, Social Development of Young Children. London: G. Ruthledge and Sons, Limited, 1933. 480 pp .• Jung, Carl G . , Psychological Types. New York: Brace and Company, 1923. 654 pp. Harcourt, ______ Psychology of the Unconscious. New York: Mead, and Company, 1916. 566 pp. Jones, A. J . , Principles of Guidance.New York: Book Company, 1930. 385 pp. Dodd, McGraw Hill Kohler, Wolfgang, The Mentality of Apes. Translated by E. Winter. New.York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1925. 342 pp. Dane, Robert Hill, The Progressive Elementary School. Houghton, Mifflin Company, 1938. 213 pp. Boston: Lee, Porter R. and Marion E. Kenworthy, Mental Hygiene and Social Work. New York: The Commonwealth Fund, 1929. 270 pp. Lisa, W . , The Harcourt, Individual and the Gommunity. Brace and Company, 1933. New York: McCall, William A., How To Experiment in Education. The Macmillan Company, 1923. 281 pp. New York: 'McClenahan, Bessie A., Social Case Work Theory and Practice. Los Angeles: University of Southern California, Revised Edition, 1936. 197 xvi pp. 132 Mateer, F., Just Normal Children. New York: Century Company, 1929. 471 pp. D. Appleton, Mearns, Hughes, Creative Youth. Garden City: Page and Company, 1926. 234 pp. Doubleday, Morgan, John J. B., Keeping a Sound Mind. Macmillan Company, 1924."” 300 pp. Bew York: The ______, The Psychology of the Unad justed School Child. New York: The Macmillan Company, Revised Edition 1936. 300 pp. Newcomb, T. M . , Consistency of Certain Behavior Patterns in Problem Boys. New York: TeacherTs College, Columbia University, 1929. 123 pp. Nimkoff, Mayer Francis, The Child. Company, 1934. 303 pp. Chicago: Lippineott Osburn, W. J., Enriching the Curriculum for Gifted Children. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1931. 408 pp. Pavlow, I. P., Conditioned Reflexes. Press, 1927. 430 pp. Oxford: University Paynter, Richard Henry, and P. Blanchard, Educational Achieve ments of Problem Children. New York: The Commonwealth Fund, Division of Publications, 1929. 72 pp. Peters, Charles Clinton, Motion Pictures and Standards of Morality. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1933. 285 pp. Pressey, S. L . , Psychology and the New Education. Harper and Brothers, 1933. 594 pp. Pew York: Ragsdale, Clarence E . , Modern Psychologies and Education. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1932. 407 pp. Richards, E. L . , Behavior Aspects of Child Conduct. Pew York The Macmillan Company, Second Edition, 1934. 299 pp. Richmond, W. W . , The Adolescent Boy. Rinehart, 1933. 233 pp. _______ , The Adolescent Girl. Company, 1925. 212 pp. New York: New York: Farrar and The Macmillan 135 Rivlin, Harry M. , Educating for Adjustment. New York: D. Appleton, Century Company, 1956. 419 pp. Rogers, Carl R . , Clinical Treatment of the Problem Child. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1959. 393 pp. Sadler, W. S., Piloting Modern Youth. Wagnalls, 1931. Sales, Mary B., Parents. iMew York* Division of Publications, 1936. New York: Funk and The Commonwealth Fund, ____ , .The Problem Child at Home. New York: The Commonwealth Fund, Division of Publications, 1928. 275 pp. ' The Problem Child at School. New York: The Commonwealth Fund, Division of Publications, 1925. Sandiford, Peter, Education Psychology; An Objective Stud?/. London, New York, Toronto: Longmans Green and Company, 1936. 487 pp. Schiedemann, Norma Valentine, Psychology of Exceptional Children, Vol. I I . Boston: New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1931. 520 pp. Schwab, S. I. and B. S. Beeder, The Adolescent, His Conflicts and Escapes. New York: D. Appleton, Century Company, 1929. 365 pp. Smithies, Elsie M . , Case Studies of Normal Adolescent Girls. New York: D. Appleton, Century Company, 1933. 284 pp. Strang, Ruth, The Role of the•Teacher in Personnel Work. New York: Teachers1 College, Columbia University, 1932.* 417 pp. Stoddard, George D . , Child Psychology. Macmillan Company, 1934. 419 pp. New York: The Symonds, P. M.*, Diagnosing Personality and Conduct. New York: D. Appleton Cen’tury Company, 1931. 602 pp. _______ , The Psychology of Parent-Child Relationships. York: D, Appleton Century Company, 1939. 228 pp. _______ , Mental Hygiene of the School Child. The Macmillan Company, 1934. 321 pp. New York! New 134 Terman, Lewis M. , Mental and .Physical Traits of 1000 Gifted Children. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 1925. _______ , The Hygiene of the School Child. (Revised and Enlarged Edition). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1929.. 505 pp. _______ , The Measurement of Intelligence. Mifflin Company, 1916. 362 pp. Boston: Houghton Thom, Douglas A . , Everyday Problems of the Everyday Child. New York: D. Appleton Century Company, 1927. 350 pp. Thomas, W. I. and Dorothy Swain Thomas, The Child in America. 'New York: ■ Alfred A. Knopf, 1928. 583 pp. _______ , The Unadjusted Girl. • Boston: Company, 1923. 261 pp. Little, Brown, and Thorndike, E. L . , The Psychology of Learning. New York: Teachers’ College, Columbia university Press, 1913. Vol. I and II. Tiegs, E. W, and Claude C. Crawford, Statistics for Teachers. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1930. 212 pp. Wallin, J. E. Wallace, Personality Adjustment and Mental Hygiene. New York: McGraw-Hill Company, 1923. 511 pp. Watson, Maud E., Children and Their Parents. New York: F. S. Crofts, and Company, 1932. 362 pp. Watson, John B., Lectures in Print: Behaviorism. New York: People’s Institute Publishing Company, 1925. 251 pp. Wickman, E.-'Koster, ChildrenTs Behavior and Teacher ’s Attitudes. New York: The Commonwealth Fund, Division of Publications, 1928. 247 pp. 155 B. UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS Armstrong, Caroline, "Procedures in Opportunity B Rooms Socializing Maladjusted pupils." Unpublished MasterTs Thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1932. 83 p. Barker, Alma Louise, "Correlation Bet?jeen Intelligence and Home Conditions." Unpublished Master’s Thes.is, The University .of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1923. 63 p. Butler, William. Fay, "Effects of Motion Pictures upon Junior High School Children." Unpublished Master’s Thesis, The university of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1932. 85 p. Douglass, Inez Dunham, "A Study of the Causes of Truancy Among G-irls." Unpublished Master’s Thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1921. 48 p. Foster, Alice May, "Relation of Inadequate Parental Control to Truancy Among G-irls.". Unpublished Master’s Thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1922. 73 p. Fisher, Leonards, "The Life Histories of Twenty Maladjusted G-irls." Unpublished Master’s Thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1927. 74 p. Fowler, Rosalie Bunker, "A Case Study of the Causes of Delinquency Among School Girls." Unpublished Master’s Thesis., The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1922. 60 p. French, Hettie Peary, "Juvenile Delinquency in a Selected Area of Los Angeles." Unpublished Master’s Thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1933. 49 p. Gough, Susanne, "A Study of the Inter-relations Between Retardation and Certain Social Factors in Junior High School Pupils." Unpublished Master’s Thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1929. 106 p. 136 Huston, Mabel Wallace, "Social Aspects of Truancy." Unpublished Master’s Thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1929. 149 p. Lichley, Ernest Jameson, "Social and Educational Study of 1,554 Cases of Truancy in Special Schools of Los Angeles." Unpublished Master’s Thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1918. 101 p. McHenry, Aileen.Dorothy, "The Relative Utility of Certain Home Rating Scales for Use in Social Case .Work.” Un published .Master’s Thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1932. 124 p. Nimkoff, Meyer Francis, "Social Distance Between Child and Parent." Unpublished Doctor’s dissertation, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1928. 402 p. Ovenburg, Dorothy C., "Social Analysis as a Tool in Case Work.” Unpublished Master’s Thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1932. 84 p. Overholtzer, K. Mildred,' "Sex Behavior Among Adolescent Girls." Unpublished Master’s Thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1928. 135 p. Perry, Harold Elbert, "The 'Correlation Between Intelligence and Home Conditions of Twenty-five Superior and Twentyfive Sub-normal Boys." Unpublished Master’s Thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1924. 64 p. Repetshnig, Elizabeth, "Mental and Social Age: Correlation of Intelligence and Social Behavior." Unpublished Master’s Thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1931. 101 p. Sargent, llise Hitt, "Study of Girls Welfare Centers in Los Angeles." Unpublished Master’s Thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1932. 157 p. Tewater, Maria M . , "Some Sociological' Aspects of ParentChild Relationships as They Appear in Behavior Problems of Children." Unpublished Master’s Thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1928. 119 p. 137 Watson, Homer K . , "Causes of Delinquency Among Fifty Negro Boys Assigned to Special Schools." Unpublished Master1s Thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1923. 68 p. Worrell, Doris Rhoda, MLeisure Time Habits of Adolescent Delinquent Uirls.” Unpublished MasterTs Thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1931. 247 p. Young, Pauline V., rTAssimilation Problems of Russian Molokans in Los Angeles.” Unpublished Doctorfs Dissertation, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1930. 276 p. 138 C. PERIODICAL ARTICLES Crichton-Miller, Hugh, "The Home Background of the Pupil," Mental Hygiene 16, January, 1932. Giddings, Franklin H. , "Further .Inquiries of Sociology," Papers, Proceedings, Publications of American Sociological Socity, 15, 1920. Owens, Albert A . , "The Behavior Problem Boy," Journal of Educational Research, October, 1929. Small, Maurice H., "On Some Psychical Relations of Society and Solitude,” Pedagogical Seminary, VII, April, 1900. 13-69. Spearman, C . , "General Intelligence, Objectively Determined,” American Journal of Psychology, XV, 1904.- 201-293 pp. Voelker, P. E . , "The Function of ideals and Attitudes in Social Education," Teachersf College Journal, Columbia Dniversity, Dew York, 1921. Zubin, Joseph, "Some Effects of Incentives," Department of Elementary School Principals Fifteenth Yearbook, N. E. A. New York, Teachers’ College Columbia University, 1932. 60 pp. D. PUBLICATIONS OF LEARNED ORGANIZATIONS Danielson, Cora Lee, "Opportunity Classes", Schools and Classes for Exceptional Children: The Children With a Problem, (Los Angeles, California: Los Angeles School District, School Publication Do. 315, 1938) p. 5. , "Special Classes for Highly Endowed Children: Opportunity A Rooms" Fourth Yearbook of the Division of Psychology and Educational Research Los Angeles City . Schools, School Publication, Ho. .211, 1931. P. 69. Martin, Mary Frances, "Special Classes and Centers for Mentally Defective Children,” Fourth Yearbook of the Division of Psychology and Research Los Angeles City Schools, Tlos Angeles, California: Los Angeles 'City School District School Publication Ho. 211, 1931). p . 118. Martin, Mary Frances, "Development Schools and Classes" Schools and Classes for Exceptional children: The Child wi th a Problem" [Los Angeles, California: Los Angeles School District, School Publication No. 315, 1938). p. 10. Outline of Procedure for Educational Guidance in Elementary Schools"(Revised February, 1939) Los Angeles City School District, Division of instruction and Curriculum, Educational Research and Guidance. APPENDIX 141 Registration card for principal’s office Name Address Phone Address Phone Parent B irth Birthplace C LASS A N D R O O M N O . Xgn. A dj. 1 1 B1 1 | B2 1 Dev. | B3 1 Opp. |B 4 1 1A l l 1A 2 1 1 A3 1 1A 4 D A TE OF E, ETR , ETRS 1 | B5 A5 1 | B6 A6 1 | B7 A7 1 | B8 A8 1 I 1 | 1 | 1 | F rom Moved to D ate L e ft C ards S ent R E G IS T R A T IO N C A R D F O R P R IN C IP A L ’S O F F IC E F o rm 34-E-2— 220M— 1-39 Attendance card Grade Room SurnameFirst Parent Address Phone Race Birthdate Otherchildreninfamily________________________ 1st week 2ndweek 3rdweek 4th week 1st month 2nd 1 ■i 3rd 4th 5th, ■1i 6th 7.th 8th " 9th 10th FORM 3 4 - E - 3 - - 1 5 0 M --2 -3 9 142 Admission, discharge, and promotional card 1. L a s t N a m e 2. F ir s t N a m e a n d I n i t i a l Los A n g e le s C it y School D is t r ic t — A D M IS S IO N , D I S C H A R G E A N D P R O M O T IO N C A R D 3. P la c e o f B ir t h 6. C e rtifie d D a te o f B ir th S ig n a tu r e o f P a r e n t o r G u a rd ia n T o be k e p t f o r e v e ry p u p il, fille d ou t, stam ped by p r in c ip a l, a n d sen t w ith th e p u p il w h e n he is tr a n s fe r r e d to a n o th e r L o b A n g eles C ity fjrh n n l Great, c a re should be ta k e n to hav e a ll in fo r m a tio n C o m p lete a n d C o rre c t. W r it e a l l dates as fo llo w s : 9-15-39. 6. R E S ID E N C E B e fo re D is c h a rg e 7. T e lep h o n e 9. S ig n a tu re o f P r in c ip a l 8. D a te o f D isch arg e • W h e n a p u p il is p e rm a n e n tly discharged to w o r k , r e m a in a t hom e, o r because o f d ea th , p e rm a n e n t illness, o r c o m m itm e n t to a n in s titu tio n , th is c a rd is to be r e tu rn e d to th e p r in c ip a l’s office a n d a f u l l s ta te m e n t o f th e cause o f th e p u p il’s d ischarge is to be m ade in th e b la n k space r e m a in in g above. (O V E R ) F o r m 3 4 - E - l — 5 0 M — 3-40 A SCHOOL B D a te o f A d m issio n C Age D G rade E Room F D a ys P re s e n t G Days Absent H E , E t r , E trs 4 143 Psychology or personnel card F 19417 N ationality Boy G irl ( ( ) N eg ) Whi ) Chi ) Jap ) O ther ) Mex G r. P I. T e a c h e r’s N a m e an d Room N o . D a te m o .yr. liv in g school w hen a p u p il ia T his c ard sliuuld be sent by U . 3. in seliuul m ul l lu the prom oted o r tra n s fe rre d . Ch. Age M e n t. Age In d e x Ch. G. P . XA R E A 1 > IN G Comp. Vocab. A R IT H M E T IC Reas. Fund. M isc. M isc . G. G. F. F. P . P. ; ! G. G. F. F. P. *?. ! ; j G. F. P. G. f. P. G. F. P. G. F. P. G. F. P. G. F. P. : | ! j i | j i ; | ! j ; j E L E M E N T A R Y S C H O O L P E R S O N N E L C A R D (F o rm erly Classification Record C ard ) T est In d ex D ate D ate of B irth ................................................... V erification.. R e m a rk s........................................................................... F i l l in D a ta B e lo w on P r o m o tio n to Secondary School Special A p titu d e s........................................................................................................................................................ Check Special 1. P h y s ic a l: v isio n D efects : 2. O th ers : p o o r stu d y h a b its h e a rin g h eart e p ilepsy m a ln u tritio n other. speech.................................................................................... O ccupations of P a r e n ts .............................................................................................................................................................. H om e C ond itio n s........................................................................................................................................................................ O u tstan d in g B ehavior T r a its (good o r bad) Com m ents an d R ecom m endations to J u n io r H ig h School. LOS A N G E L E S C IT Y S C H O O L D IS T R IC T D iv is io n of I n s t r u c t io n and C u r r ic u l u m , E d u c a t io n a l G. F. P. r i: P. G. F. P. G. F. P. G. F. P. G. F. P. G. G. F. F. P. P . i ] R a t’g R e .A r . G. G. F. F . P. P. R esearch and G u id a n c e F o rm 33-816— 50M— 12-37 L ast N am e RESIDENCE yYEAR H ealth R e c or d F ir s t N a m e 1 SEX "J"Y E A R ^ R E S U L T YEAR BIRTH SCHOOL YR. RACE MO. DAY R m HEARING VISION WGT. HGT. R L M — M a n to u x LIDS R L NOSE & THROAT DIS CHARGE TON ADEN SILS OIDS HEART TEETH DE CAY ORTHO* CLEANING GUMS OR DONTl* GANIC FUNCT LUNGS CHEST IONAL O r th o ped ic POS TURE I NER VOUS SPEECH SYSTEM SKIN HAIR CFINE M SC. record N am e of E x a m in e r O— O ver T-— T o x o id P H Y S IC A L E X A M IN A T IO N EARS EYES N U TR ITIO N *ATE o r E 1# I NATION V — V a c c in a tio n Health S y m b o ls — / 2 N N eed A t t e n t io n , g ra d e u r g e n c y 1, 2, 3, o r 4 1— S lig h t A — R e c e iv e d a t t e n t io n S - S lig h t d e fe c t 2— M o d e r a te *1— S e v e re F — F u r t h e r e x a m in a tio n n ee d e d 4— U r g e n t FEET card T H IS C A R D M U S T BE T R A N S F E R R E D W IT H O T H E R R E C O R D C A R D S . E V E R Y C H IL D M U S T H A V E A H E A L T H CAR D OR A N E X C U S E C ARD. C L E R K W IL L F IL L IN N A M E . R E S ID E N C E A N D B IR T H D A T A O F C H ILD . F orm 34-EH-8— 1802-' -3-38 H is t o r y N otes— H o m e Check the diseases you have h ad : Yes | No th e C o r r e c t iv e S e c t io n | | | | | | | | | | | Condition I G eneral Year Yes Headaches Constipation H ave any of fa m ily had Tuberculosis Do you have a fa m ily Doctor D a ily breakfast E a rly bedtime Operations R epo rts fr o m Enrolled Discharged P ersonal Check the follow ing: D iphtheria Im m unization Vaccination R emarks No th e I I I I C o r r e c t iv e I I I I 1 I S e c t io n 1 | 1 I card ija th e r M other Brothers Sisters fo r record Mumps Pleurisy Pneumonia Rheumatism St. Vitus Smallpox Scarlet F ever Tonsillitis Tuberculosis Typhoid Whooping Cough | | ] | | | | | | | | D ir e c t io n s Health Asthm a Appendicitis Bronchitis Chickenpox Diphtheria E p il’sy or Convul. H e a rt Trouble H e rn ia (R u p tu re ) In f ’tile Paralysis Influenza Measles C all LOS ANGELES CITY SCHOOL DISTRICT D iv is io n op I n s t r u c t i o n and C u r r ic u lu m E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h a n d G u id a n c e S e c tio n 862 Chamber of Commerce Building REQUEST FOR INDIVIDUAL EXAMINATION Educational Research and Guidance Section >m :.................................................. ................................................. -School.............................................................................. Date ne. .Address........................................... Telephone...................... e of B irth....................................................... Age.............................................. ............................................Grade................. Race.................. DBLEM: State fu lly on the hack of this sheet. Do you consider the child a candidate for Special Class instruction? If so, please check the type of class considered. Development...............Opp. or Adj............... Special School. Physically Handicapped. IOOL HISTORY: Obtained from records or from other sources of information. Indicate items obtained from other sources by some such notation as “mother,” “child,” etc. Schools Attended Date Age Attendance Regular or Irre g u la r Grade Progress DATA j I Date mo. yr. N am e of Intelligence Test Ch. Age M ent. Age I. Q. Ch. G. P. In t. G. P. Reading Vocab. Comp. A rith m etic Reas. Fund. Misc. | srred by........................................................................... Signed................................................................ Principal (Over) F o rm 33-820— 8 M — 1-40 Problem: (Please state any significant facts concerning the child’s intelligence, education, or behavior.) Health H is to ry : (State significant facts, such as poor vision, hearing, posture, or any other physical handicap Fam ily Data: Father’s name........................................................................................................................... ( given) ( surname ) Mother’s name............................................................................................................................ ( given ) ( maiden ) Stepfather or Stepmother or Guardian ............................................................................................................................ (given) ( surname ) Names of other children in family: Name Age Grade or Occupation i 33.801— 5M— 8-39 LOS ANGELES CITY SCHOOL DISTRICT DIVISION OF INSTRUCTION AND CURRICULUM EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH AND GUIDANCE SECTION INDIVIDUAL MENTAL EXAMINATION RECORD BLANK Revised September, 1937 Sex 5 date Race 3ss Date C. A. Examiner M. A. Referred by I.Q. Re-examinations hone >1 nmendations Grade FAMILY DATA FATHER Name Birthplace Education Occupation Income status Further information Address Age Race MOTHER Name, maiden Name, married, etc. Address Birthplace Education Occupation Income status Further information Age Race Marital Status— Parents Step or Foster Parents SIBLINGS Name HOME CONDITIONS Age Grade or Occupation PERSONALITY TRAITS OBSERVED DURING EXAMINATION GENERAL APPEARANCE SPEECH A. Speech defect B. Language difficulty Effect upon test: Serious Mild None PHYSICAL ENERGY Average Sluggish or weak Vigorous and energetic Hyperactive Nervous Fatigues quickly ADAPTATION TO EXAMINER’S PERSONALITY Timid Responsive Reserved Poised MARKS 5. ADAPTATION TO TEST SITUATION Average Enthusiastic Indifferent Negative Reluctant—needs persuasion Self-confident Over-confident Self-distrustful Discourages easily Persistent 6. GENERAL MENTAL REACTION Slow Quick Thoughtful Dreamy—vague Confused Flighty—impulsive Accurate in expression Inaccurate Well organized Poorly organized 7. ATTENTION Well sustained Short in span Normal to outside stimuli Easily distracted Completely absorbed ARTHUR SCALE PERFORMANCE TESTS Knox Cube 1234 12343 12342 1432 1423 1324 13124 13243 TIME SCORE M. A. I. Q. AGE POINT 14324 142341 132413 143124 Seguin________________ Casuist Manikin & Feature Profile Mare & Foal Picture Completion I Porteus Maze 5 8 9 6 7 10 11 12 14 Kohs Block I V II VI III VIII • IV VII Adult I Adult II IX XI X XII XIV XIII XV XVI XVII Five Figure Ship Picture Completion II EDUCATIONAL Total L O S A N G E L E S C I T Y S C H O O L D I S T R I C T DIVISION OF INSTRUCTION AND CURRICULUM E d u c a t io n a l R esearch and G u id a n c e Se c t i o n DEVELOPMENT HISTORY B i r t h D a t e 4 a m e Age P h o n e D a t e i c h o o l n f o r m a n t s S o c i a lW o r k e r M o t h e r ' s h e a l t h d u r i n g g e s t a t i o n F i r s t2 y r s .a f t e rb i r t h v l i s c a r r i a g e s o rs t i l lb i r t h s D i f f i c u l t l i r t h :N o r m a l W e i g h t d e a l t h a tb i r t h T a l k i n g \ g e o fw a l k i n g I n s t r u m e n t a l N u t r i t i o n ( 1 s ty r .B r e a s t ,b o t t l e ( 2 n d y r . 1 s td e n t i t i o n 2 n d d e n t i t i o n A g e w h e n t o i l e th a b i t s l e a r n e d 3 p a s m s M e t h o d o ft e a c h i n g t o i l e tc o n t r o l B e g a n a ta g e o f Y i b e r t a ld e v e l o p m e n t Illnesses M e a s l e s M u m p s W h o o p i n g c o u g h D i p h t h e r i a S c a r l e tf e v e r I n f l u e n z a C h o r e a C o l d -c o u g h s R h e u m a t i s m S t o m a c h t r o u b l e O p e r a t i o n s A c c i d e n t s E n u r e s i s O t h e r I n f o r m a t i o n D i f f i c u l t y F r e q u e n c y V l e n s e s b e g a n Age Diet Severity B r e a k f a s t L u n c h D i n n e r E a t s b e t w e e n m e a l s L i k e s f r u i t -v e g e t a b l e s A m o u n to fc a n d y HEALTH AND PHYSICAL EXAMINATION E y e s i g h t ; P r a c t i c a l l y n o r m a l .S l i g h te r r o r .D i s e a s e d c o n d i t i o n .M u s c l e i m b a l a n c e .L i d s n e e d t r e a t m e n t .N e e d s m o r e c o m p l e t e e x a m i n a t i o n .W e a r s g l a s s e s :c o r r e c t -i n c o r r e c t . H e a r i n g ; G o o d .V a r i a b l e .D e f i c i e n t :r i g h t-l e f t .E a r a c h e . S u p p u r a t i n g e a r s .S h o u l d c o n s u l ts p e c i a l i s t . T e e t h : G o o d .F i l l e d .D e c a y e d .F i r s ts e t -s e c o n d s e t .N e e d s d e n t i s t ’ s a t t e n t i o n -c l e a n i n g . O r t h o d o n t i a .D e n t i n e :p o o r -g o o d . S p e e c h : V o c a la p p a r a t u s _ _ _ _ p p a r e n t l y n o r m a l .D i s e a s e d c o n d i t i o n .T o n s i l s e n l a r g e d -d i s e a s e d .P r e s u m a b l y N o s e a n d T h r o a t : A a d e n o i d s .N o s e -T h r o a tn e e d s a t t e n t i o n .S h o u l d c o n s u l ts p e c i a l i s t . L u n g s : A p p a r e n t l y n o r m a l .D i m i n i s h e d e x p a n s i o n ,B r e a t h i n g -r o u g h -b r o n c h i a l .R a l e s . C h e s td e v e l o p m e n t H e a r t : A p p a r e n t l y n o r m a l .M u r m e r s -f u n c t i o n a l-o r g a n i c .S o u n d s .P u l s e i r r e g u l a r . C o r r e c t i v e w o r k . S p i n e : P o s t u r e :g o o d ,f a i r ,p o o r ,r e l a x e d .L o r d o s i s .K y p h o s i s . S c o l i o s i s -f u n c t i o n a l-s t r u c t u r a l .C o r r e c t i v e e x e r c i s e s . F e e t : N o r m a l .W e a k a r c h e s .T e n d e n c y t o a b d u c t i o n .C o r r e c t i v e e x e r c i s e s . E n d o c r i n e c o n d i t i o n : N e r v o u s s y s t e m : A p p a r e n t l y n o r m a l .D I S T U R B A N C E O F M O T I O N :g a i t-p a r a l y s i s -s p a s m t r e m o r s -a t a x i a .D i s t u r b a n c e o fr e f l e x e s p u p i l l a r y -p a t e l l a r . N u t r i t i o n : G o o d ,f a i r ,p o o r .A n e m i c .G r o w t h :H e i g h t u n d e r w e i g h t D i g e s t i v e s y s t e m : G o o d ,p o o r .A p p e t i t e D i e t a r y h a b i t s W e i g h t P e r c e n t B o w e lc o n d i t i o n G e n i t o u r i n a r y s y s t e m : S k m : E r u p t i o n s .C l a m m y .H a r s h a n d d r y .S c a r s .C y a n o s e d .H a i r b i t t e n c l u b b e d c y a n o s e d . L a b o r a t o r y E x a m i n a t i o n s : U r i n e N a i l s - B l o o d R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s : C l i n i c T r e a t m e n t s R e c e i v e d : C o r r e c t i v e C e n t e r N u r s e D e p a r t m e n to fH e a l t h L o s A n g e l e s C i t y S c h o o l s M .D.