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A SURVEY OF BUSINESS EDUCATION IN THE PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS OF THE STATE OF UTAH

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907
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-
Boyle, Clarence Sidney, 1091survey of business education in the
pul lie high schools of the state of Utah
rev; York, 1941.
p.l.
433 typewritten leaves,
t: .les , f orns . 29crn.
final document (Ed.D.) - New York
university, School of education, 1941.
"Annotated bibliography” : p . 420-426.
Xerox University Microfilms,
T H IS
73 W 4
A nn A rb o r, M ic h ig a n 48106
D IS S E R T A T IO N H A S B E E N M IC R O F IL M E D
E X A C T L Y A S R E C E IV E D .
5 r>&’
Pinal Document!, .
|uL 3 M 4 T
Acceded, Date ^ . .
A Survey of Business Education in the
Public High Schools of the State of Utah
Clarence S. jlloyle
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree of Doctor of
Education in the School of Education of
Dlew York University
1941
P L E A S E NO TE :
S o m e p a g e s m a y have
in d i st i n e t print.
F i l m e d a s re ce ive d.
Uni v e r s i t y M i c r ofi lms, A Xerox Education Company
TABIS OF CONTENTS
Chapter
Pago
Introduction
I
II
III
IV
INTRODUCTION.. ............
1
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM......
4
METHODS OF SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM.......
.......
BACKGROUND OF BUSINESS EDUCATION IN UTAH.......
10
•••••
15
OBJECTIVES IN BUSINESS EDUCATION...............••••••••••••
26
TEACHER PERSONNEL
70
Questionnaire to Superintendenta
7
71
....
Questionnaire to Prinoipala
711
7III
IX
X
XI
PUPIL PERSONNEL AND GUIDANCE..••••....... •••••••••.......
CURRICULUM............
•••••••••••
••••••
92
121
TEACHER PERSONNEL.........................
144
EXTENSION EDUCATION...........
159
ADMINISTRATIVE PROBLEMS..................
172
Questionnaire to Teaohers of Aooounting
XII
XIII
XIV
PUPIL PERSONNEL AND GUIDANCE..........
CURRICULUM..
......
....
METHODS OF TEACHING..
XVI
EXTENSION EVOCATION..
CURRICULUM
........
193
210
TEACHER PERSONNEL
XV
XVII
•••••.......
.....
223
255
.....
270
282
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Conoluded)
Chapter
Pago
Questionnaire to Teachers of ~Shorthand
XVIII
XIX
XX
XXI
PUPIL PERSONNEL AND GUIDANCE...........
CURRICULUM......
307
••••••.....
325
EQUIPMENT.................................
TEACHER PERSONNEL...
XXII METHODS OF TEACHING.
XXIII
••••••....
...........
•••••........
351
.....................
CONCLUSIONS ANDRECOMMENDATIONS.
BIBLIOGRAPHY..
343
383
............
.... ....... ......... ........... ......... .
APPENDIX............. ....... ......... ••••.........
395
420
';-7
LIST OF TABLES
Table
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
Pare
Number and percentage of returns from the questionnaire****
14
Percentage of the total population attending school by
rural, and urban districts and by age periods in 1920* ••
16
The kind of thinking, or the quality of action, or both
which a person reveals in a business situation, con­
stitutes the acid test of any business eduoation*......
27
In regard to question one, do you believe that business
eduoation takes plaoe only -when techniques, thoroughly
learned, are put to w r k successfully in a real business
transaction?...•.•••.••••••••••.••«•••••.*••.••••••••••
28
In regard to question one again, do you believe that busi­
ness eduoation takes plaoe only when we thoroughly
and efficiently train our pupils in business subjects,
regardless of whether or not they ever go into business
or what they do in business if they do go into it as
a vooation?............................................30
The eduoation for any individual member of sooiety should
tend to be oamposed of both vocational eduoation and
of general nanvooational eduoation................
31
The truly distinctive plaoe of business eduoation in the
total plan of American sohool eduoation is that which
has to do with the vocational objective. We do not
ssy it is the exclusive phase; we do say that it is
the distinctive p
h
a
s
e
.
32
Business eduoation has a distinct contribution to make to
the general eduoation of every one in enabling the
individual to make wise use of his income in the provi­
sion of food, clothing, housing, reoreation, and edu­
oation for himself and his family, and of protection
against the risks of fire, death, old age, illness,
accident, unemployment* Is the above a result of gen­
eral eduoation and experience without the special need
or use of business education?..
.... ..•••••••
34
Facilities should be provided to enable every individual
to develop a better understanding, through business
education, of eoancmio principles and their appli­
cation in the every day affairs of life*.....*.......
36
(Continued)
1
LIST OF TABLES (Continued)
Table
2
XI
XII
XIII
XIV
XV
XVI
Page
How long, in your judgment, will it require to provide
suoh facilities in our schools?........................ 37
When they are provided, how long will it take in sohool
years, to make these objectives a part of the student's
life to the extent that he will use them?...
. ....
39
Existing vocational business courses should not be util­
ised as the means of giving consumer eduoation, ex­
cept in a purely incidental way.
...........
41
Vocational business eduoation oourses in high sohool
should be so planned and administered that they enable
the graduates of suoh oourses to meet the employment
riamanriw of the community to be served — both In the
type of position to be trained for and in the quality
of preparation achieved by the high sohool pupil.......
42
It is not enough to prepare for "business” nor for "office
work," for "store work," for "selling," or for "cleri­
cal work." These are fields of service, not speoifio
occupations for which training can be given. They must
be broken down into their component parts so that
teohnioal knowledge, occupational understanding, and
essential skills may be made the basis of suitable in­
struction, study, and praotioe
........
44
Short unit oourses in suoh skill subjects as typewriting
and shorthand should be organized for those who want
these subjeots for personal use. Suoh oourses should
be available only to those who can profit by taking
them, and should be given only at a time not too far
distant from the need of the resultant skills.
....
45
There must be a d e a r recognition of the fact that those
who are accepted for advanoed vocational business
training, after a tryout for one year in a course
open to all students, or by same other selective pro­
cess, must possess certain aptitudes, interests and
abilities, and that those who are not potentially
trainable for and plaoeable in commercial jobs Should
be denied entrance into these oourses for a second
year of training under specifically vooational-training
programs of study....
46
11
LIST OP TABLES (Continued)
Table
XVII
Satisfactory vocational business eduoation must be
based upon a program of guidance which includes
selection, placement and follow-up of all persons
who take this type of training* ............ .
XVIII
The results of instruction in vocational business edu­
oation courses must be measured more efficiently
and convincingly through the use of new testing de­
vices, careful placement of graduates, and follow-up
work to determine the degree of success achieved and
the shortcomings which are revealed in their work on
the job****************••••••••••••••••*.••••••••••••••
XIX
The business eurrioulum should be developed in the light
of the business needs of the community, not neoessarily
of the community alone in which the pupil lives, but
also of the one in which he is likely to be later em­
ployed**** •••••••••••••• ••••••••• ••••••••••••••••«•••••
XX
The business ourrioulum can best be adjusted to meet the
business needs of the community through the enlightened
oooperation of the business workers and the eduoational
workers of the community*******************************
XXI
Should short intensive oourses be given by the public
high sohool to enable those not in full-time high
sohool to improve business skills already possessed
and to learn new ones?*********************************
XXII
Some Effort should be made to adjust the number of per­
sons eleoting vocational business oourses to the em­
ployment requirements of the community — keeping in
mind the geographioal extent of the employment com­
*.......... .
munity*** ••..•••*•••••• •.......
XXIII
Vocational business eduoation must include specific at­
tention to the development of job intelligence*********
XXIV
Vocational business eduoation should be given principally
on the (oheek your ohoioe) Junior High sohool level
» Senior High Sohool level,
* Junior College
level
. Senior College level
********.... •••
LIST OF TABLES (Continued)
Paa
Table
XXV
XXVI
XXVII
XXVIII A
XXVIII B
XXIX
XXX
XXXI
XXXII
The type of vocational business eduoation needed in
this community, in the order of importance, is t
1* Agricultural, inoluding farm bookkeeping, marketing,
budgeting, investments, family and farm purchasing
2, Fersonal-use business education, inoluding budgeting
investment, insurance, understanding of money, taxa­
tion, personal financing
3* Stenographic
4, Clerical "general office -work"
5* Bookkeeping
6* Maohine operation, calculating, posting, duplicating
and. dictation machines
7, Filing
8, Retail selling
9* Small shop operation, filling stations, eto*«****«....
58
Business education should develop a better understand­
ing of the foundations of our economic order****
60
Business eduoation should strive to develop a more
social viewpoint than we generally have at present
of the functions of business in a democracy*••••••*•••
61
Pupils of less than the average ability can best be served
by: the subjects preparing for specific vocational
business positions which require personal skill.••••••
62
Pupils of less than the average ability oan best be served
by the subjects dealing with the general business and
consumer information and skills of a broader basis
than personal skills*************...... ••••»•••••••••
63
Do you believe there should be same administrative plan
to keep teachers of business eduoation in touoh with
practical business?***********.••••••••••••••••••••••*
70
If you think suoh a plan should be in operation in a
sohool syetem, please suggest one that you think
would be praotioal******************************....
71
Please list the problems in business eduoation, as you
see them, from a local and from a national view­
point** •••••••••••••• •••••••••••••....•••••••......
73
Do you believe the Commercial Contests held in Utah are
a positive or a negative factor in the everyday teach­
ing program?**.******.************......
74
IV
LIST OF TABLES (Continued)
Table
XXXIII
XXXIV
XXXV
XXXVI
XXXVII
XXXVIII
XXXIX
XL
XLI
XLI I
Page
Do you believe that instruction in the business depart­
ments of your sohool is more efficient, less effi­
cient, or about the same degree of efficiency as
found in other departments?. ...............
76
In what way, or ways, might the principals or teaohers
oooperate to make business eduoation more effective
in your district?.....................................
77
Please list the accrediting associations to which the
schools in your distriot belong.....•••••••••.........
78
Do you have a oooperative arrangement with the merchants
of your olty for the pupils of your schools to attend
sohool part of the day and work in the retail stores
part of the day? If not, do you feel that suoh an ar­
rangement should be m
a
d
e
?
.
.
.
79
Do you believe that a properly organized oourse, or
courses, in business eduoation should be taught to
all the pupils of your distriot for the purpose of
supplementing their information an general business
conditions, to aid them as oitizens and not as an oc­
cupational aid?........ .••••••••••.
••••••••«••»
80
Do you have a high sohool of oosnmeroe in your distriot?
If you do, does the ourrioula differ materially from
the regular high sohool ourrioula?....................
81
What procedure do you follow in dropping from your employ*
ment a teacher who has not made a satisfactory adjust­
ment to your sohool?.........•••••.
....
82
Do you follow the practice of employing only,
teaohers who are residents of your city,
State, of any particular locality within
S
p
a
t
e
s
?
.
.
.
.
83
or mainly,
of the
the United
............
Do you make use of qualifying examinations in the selection
of teaohers?..............*......*....*...............
84
Do you prefer business teaohers mho have had teachertraining in business subjects, who have had business
experience, who have had teaching experience in busi­
ness subjects?...................*....................
84
v
LIST OF TABLES (Continued)
Table
XLI 11
XLIV
XLV
XLV I
XLVII
XLVIII
XLIX
L
Do you prefer men or women teaohers? Single or married?
Of itfiioh religious faith? Do you refuse to employ
teaohers because of their religious faith? Do you
prefer teaohers who have cm aotive interest in
business aotivities? In extracurricular activities?.,•
85
In which of the following age groups do you prefer to
employ your business teaohers? 20-25, 26-30, 31-35,
36-40, 41-45, 46-50, 51-55, 56-60, 61-65............
87
Upon what basis, for example, mental, moral, eooncmic,
social, eto*, do you believe pupils should be guided
into ocmmerelal oourses as a vocation?.••.•.••••*•...•
92
Please list the reasons, in the order of their importance,
why business pupils leave your sohool before they
graduate,•••••••«•••••••••••••••••••«•••*•••••••••••••
95
How many of your entire graduating olass received scholar­
ships for advanced study last year? How many of the
commercial graduates?****************.•«.*••*•••••••••
94
Do pupils of the oommerolal department aohieve leader­
ship in extracurricular aotivities as frequently,
less frequently, or about as other pupils, in propor­
tion to their number in your sohool?***********..*****
96
About how many of your graduates find employment in retail-stores selling jobs eaoh year? Hon many in nonstore selling jobs?********.•••••••••••••••••••*••••*»
97
About how many of your business graduates go into busi­
ness jobs in their own community eaoh year?******.**,.
98
LI
Do you believe that your program of guidance satisfactorily
meets the challenge it faoes in business eduoation by
malring adequate preparation of the pupil who drops
out of sohool before he graduates?******************** 99
LII
Please enter in the appropriate spaoes the enrollment in
your high sohool for the year 1938-39, inoluding the
number of graduates, the number doing post-high sohool
work, the number attending college, the number pursuing
graduate study, and the number regularly employed*.•*• 100
VI
LIST OF IABLBS (Continued)
Table
LIII
LIV
LV
LVI
LVII
LVIII
LIX
LX
LXI
LXI I
LX1II
Page
Do pupils in the oanmeroial department have I*Q*s* as
high, higher, or lowsr, as do pupils in other de­
partments of your sohool?**.*•••••••••••••••••*.**••••
102
About what per oent of the entering olass leave your
sohool at the end of eaoh of the following years s
First, Seooond, Third, F o u r t h ? * * * . .*..**.*•••
102
Please list the chief weaknesses of the graduates of the
oanmeroial department of your sohool as they plan to
enter business oooupations, in eaoh of the following
fields: personal qualities, general eduoation, business
eduoation* ••••»• •••••••............... .
104
How might these weaknesses (those mentioned in Table LV)
be overcome?******************************************
105
Is there a program of guidance for pupils, before they
reaoh high sohool, that aims to help you distribute
them in the various business eduoation oourses you
offer? ••••• •••••••••••••••••••••••...... *.....•••••••
106
Into what fields of sohool work do you attempt to guide
the lowest intelleotual fifth of your pupils?*********
107
Do you make a direot effort to train your pupils in com­
merce in personality?*********************************
107
If not, do you think a oourse, should be given to aid in
personality i m p r o v e m e n t ? . .
108
Do you know, rather speoifioally, the kind of personality
the employers of your oammaroe graduates would like
them to have?*****.••••••••••••••••••••*••••••••••.••*
108
If you do know (the kind of personality the employers of
your business eduoation pupils would like them to
have) oan you train them toward this type of per­
sonality?* ••*••••••••••••*•..... •••••••••••••••••••**
109
Please list, in the order of their importance, what you
regard as the best means of determining potential
abilities and interests of pupils rtio wish to take
oanmeroial oourses to prepare them for a future voca­
tion****** ••••••••••••*. •••••••...... •••••••••*.....•
110
m
LIST OF TABLES (Continued)
Table
LXIV
LXV
LXV I
LXVII
LXVIII
LXIX
LXX
LXXI
LXXI I
LXXIII
LXXIV
Page
Do you group business eduoation pupils in your sohool
aooording to their ability to learn?.••••••*.•••...•••
Ill
In advising pupils concerning the advisability of their
entering one or the other business fields, or other
lines of work, do you talk to them individually, with
their parents, or in olasses?*************************
112
Please oheok the type of oanmunity, or communities,
served by your sohool* Agrioultural, Residential,
Mixed, Rural, Urban, Native white. Foreign born,
Negro, Other,********«*****«********«**.*»*«*««.*.****
113
For the current year, or for last year if the data are not
conveniently available, give the nianber of pupils
whose parents are found in the following occupational
groups: Professional, Clerioal, Agrioultural, Skilled
Labor, Unskilled labor. Unknown*..#.....*.............
114
....................
114
About how many pupils, after electing the oanmeroial
course last year, ohanged to sane other oourse?**.****
115
About how many pupils, after eleoting same other oourse,
ohanged to the business eduoation ourrioula?**.*.*..**
116
Please oheok in the appropriate spaoes below the method
or methods you use in the supervision of the business
eduoation teaohers in your sohool***.••••••••*.•«*.••»
121
Do you believe that a properly organized oourse or oourses
in business eduoation should be taught to all the
pupils in your sohool for the purpose of supplementing
their information on general business to aid them as
citizens and not as an occupational aid?...*.*•.......
123
During the last ten years whioh business subjects seem to
be losing the greatest number of pupils? Whioh seem
to be gaining?«*******»»»«****»*»*»*»»»«**************
123
Should any oourses for vocational purposes be offered to
pupils in your sohool: Below the tenth grade? If
so, what type of oourse? To what type of pupil ? In
the tenth grade7 If so, what type of oourse? To what
type of pupil? In the eleventh grade? If so, to what
type of pupil? In the twelfth grade? If so, what type
of oourse? To what type of pupil?************«*****»» 124
vin
LIST OF TABLES (Continued)
Table
LXXV
LXXVI
LXXV 11
LXXVIII
LXXIX
LXXX
LXXXI
LXXXII
LXXXIII
LXXXIV
LXXXV
LXXXV I
Page
Should pupils in non-business ourrioula be allowed,
or required to take the following subjeots for per­
sonal use and not as vocational preparation* Type­
writing, Shorthand, Bookkeeping, O
t
h
e
r
126
Should pupils in the oourses suggested above be taught in
the same olasses -with pupils studying the oourse for
vocational purposes? Yes, No****..***.•••*•••••.•••••
127
Does your sohool give oourses in the management of small,
individually owned stores of various types, to prepare
the pupil to enter business for himself? If it does
not, do you believe it should?*.**.*****.*.*.*.*.*.***
129
Do you believe your oourses of study in business eduoa­
tion are well a dapted to the needs of your ocmmunity
looally?********•*••••.••*••••••••••• •••*•••••••••••••
130
If you believe the conditions in Table LXXVIII oould be
improved, please indicate briefly how you think it
might be done*.******..****.*****..*••••*.•••*.•••••••
130
Please list the subjeots you require of all business
majors, with the number of units of eaoh subjeot and
the year in whioh the oourse is given***.***.****.*•••
131
.............
132
Please list the business subjeots required, as above,
for the pupil who wishes to major, or specialize, in
secretarial work***************.*...••••*•.••••.*.*.••
133
Please list the business subjeot required of those who
wish to major in bookkeeping, olerioal work, distribu­
tion, and general business*.****.*.*.*...•••••*.••*.*•
135
Please list the subjeots you permit business majors to
eleot in non-business subjeots, with the number of
units of eaoh and the year in high sohool in whioh
the subjeot is given******.*.*.••••••••«>••*•••••••••••
136
Please oheok the following individuals or groups if they
are considered in the development of the oanmeroial
ourrioulum for your sohool******************.*********
137
Have the teaohers in business, in your sohool, been more
or less aotive in advanced study than have other
teaohers?**
144
IX
LIST OF TABLES (Continued)
Table
LXXXV 11
LXXXVIII
LXXXIX
XC
XCI
Page
Do your business teaohers spend their inoames more
wisely, less wisely, than do other teaohers?**********
146
Do new business teaohers in your distriot furnish
credentials equal to those of other new teaohers?*****
147
Is the teacher load heavier for business teaohers
generally than for other teaohers?******.••••••••••••*
147
About how many years has the average teaoher in your
sohool been teaohing? The average business teaoher?**
148
Do the teaohers of business have personalities -that you
would rate as equal to the personalities of other
teaohers?•••••*.••••••••••
••••••*••••••••■•••••*.
148
XCII
Do
you oonsider the personality of your business teaohers
an important item in their equipment at the time of
e m p l o y m e n t ? * * * * * * * * * * . 149
XCIII
Do
you believe there should be seme definite administrative
plan for keeping teaohers in oontaot with business?
Can you suggest a plan for this purpose?************** 150
XCIV
XCV
XCV I
XCV 11
XCV III
XCIX
Please suggest a desirable subjeot matter training for
business teaohers to have when you employ them********
Do
you believe previous business experience is necessary
or desirable for business teaohers?*•••••*.••*••• •*•••
151
151
How many teaohers, inoluding all, are -there in high sohool?
Men, Women* How many business teaohers? Men, Women*• 152
How many teaohers not educated in business are there in
your sohool teaohing one or more business subjects?***
153
How many business teaohers do you have who have had prac­
tical business experienoe within the last five years?
Within the last three years? How many have had no
praotioal business experienoe?*••*.*.*.•.•••••••*•••••
154
Do you believe the oommeroial oontests held in Utah are
a positive or negative faotor in teaohing of your
sohool?*
•••••••*••«
156
X
LIST OF TABLES (Continued)
Table
C
Cl
CII
CIII
CIV
CV
CVI
CVII
CVIII
CIX
CX
Page
Do you have a cooperative arrangement -with the merchants
of your oity for pupils of your sohool to attend
sohool part of the day and work in the stores part
of the day? Yes, No* If not do you feel that suoh
an arrangement should be made? Yes, No***************
159
If so (you do have a cooperative arrangement with the
merohants of your oity for retail training of high
sohool pupils), how many pupils take this oourse eaoh
year?*******••••••••••••••••••••••*•*••••••••••......
151
How muoh time, in hours per week, is spent in olass? How
muoh time an the job? Is it a one or a two year
oourse?*****••••*••••••••••••••••••••••••*••••*•••••••
161
Under a cooperative arrangement suggested above, what would
you regard as an adequate selection of pupils to enter
suoh a training plan?********************************* 162
Should school credit, in the plan above, be given for
work done in the store?******************.************
163
Should the sohool in suoh a retail training plan assume
the responsibility of arranging the hour and payment
plans of the pupil with the retail store manager?*****
164
Do local merohants look to your sohool as a training field
for -their future employees? If not, do you think
suoh an attitude oould be developed, or should be developed?*****•.••••••••••••••••*••••••••••••••••••••••
164
Do you -think the retail selling field offers more jobs to
your graduates than any other single field of employment? Please rank the fields that offer employment to
your pupils in the order of the greatest number affeoted*********••••••••••*.•••••••••••••••••••••••*•••
165
Do you think "over the counter selling" oan be taught
more, or less suooessfully than oan typewriting,
shorthand, and bookkeeping?*********************.*****
166
Do you have a continuation sohool in your distriot for
business subjeots? For other subjeots? If in other
subjects please list -the fields oovered**********.****
167
(
Do you have evening sohoola for secondary pupils in busi­
ness subjeots? For adults? In other subjeots? If in
other subjeots please list the fields oovered for secondary
pupils and for adults********************************* 168
XI
LIST OF TABLSS (Continued)
Page
T ab le
CXI
CXII
CXIII
Is there a demand in your distriot or oounty for oourses
in business eduoation subjeots for adults; e*g* for
the parents and business men of the oanmunity? If
so* please list the -types of training they need*******
172
Do you offer instruction in the nee and expensive types
of maohines? What a 3*0 your most pressing problems
here?****
....
•••
174
To what extent* in hours per seek* should full time
teaohers be pemitted to teaoh in evening schools?
To work in other lines out of sohool time?***.****.***
174
CXIV
Do you have a head* or chairman for the oonraeroial de­
partment? If so* does he administer the department
budget alone? With the help of his teaohers? With
help from the superintendent* or principal? Does he
have a reduced teaohing load? If so* what does he do
-with the time made available by the reduotian?********* 175
cxv
Does your sohool have a oommeroe supervisor? If so*
■what per oent of his time is devoted to teaohing?
To observation? To demonstrating teaohing? To making
oonbaots with business firms? Other?*****...*••*..••.• 176
CXVI
Who deoides upon the employment of business teaohers?•••••• 177
CX7II
Do any of the oanmeroial teaohers handle two olasses dur­
ing the same period? If so* please list the olasses*•• 177
cxm i
Whioh single periods have reoently been ohanged to double
periods? Whioh double periods to single?*.•••••••••••• 178
CXIX
What do you regard as the chief difficulties in organis­
ing homogeneous* or ability groups in business eduoation?***** •••••• •••••••• •••••••••••••*. .•••••••*••••••• 179
cxx
Do you make use of commercial pupils as offioe assistants
or in olerioal work without remuneration? With
remuneration?*
•.*.*•• • 180
CXXI
In what way or ways might the superintendents 00operate
to make business eduoation oourses more effeotive in
your sohool?**
Xll
181
LIST OF TABLES (Continued)
Table
CXX1I
Page
In large schools do you feel it would be a better plan
to have general oanmeroial work under one person* Hie
bookkeeping under another and the shorthand under a
third?
•*•••».•••••••....... ••.....
181
CXXIII
Do you believe there are too many pupils in high sohool
for the best good of the most able of your pupils?*••• 132
CXXIV
In your duties as administrator* please indicate in whioh
of the following you spend the most time* the second
most* ete** by numbering them 1* 2* and so on* Per­
sonally advising pupils* Adviser of men* As one of a
group of advisers* Chairman of general committee, Mak­
ing studies to provide for better guidance. Personally
recommending students to higher institutions**••••••«• 183
CXXV
Do you believe that the sooial and eoonomio shifts of
reoent years plaoe an additional burden upon business
eduoation in your sohool to help your students to live
more suooessfully in a growing complexity of living
oondition8?***«******** •••••••••••• ••••••••••••••••»*• 184
CXXV I
Which of the oourses offered in your sohool do most to
prepare for proper oonsumer eduoation of your pupils?* 185
CXXVII
Would you add a oourse to care for oonsumer eduoation
mentioned in the above question?****************.**.** 186
CXXVIII
Do you have a high sohool of oommeroe in your district?*** 186
CXXIX
Do you follow up the graduates of the commercial depart­
ment to see whether or not they make good on the job?* 193
CXXX
Do you know whether or not your pupils have used the busi­
ness subjeots taught them in sohool after they got a
job?*.*.....
194
CXXXI
Is individual, personal guidanoe given pupils either be­
fore or after they graduate?*******************•*••••• 195
CXXX 11
Does local business absorb most of the graduates from
your business department?****.************.•••••.•*••• 196
CXXXIII
Do you make speoial provision for the strong pupil in
business eduoation? For the weak pupil?********.*.**. 197
X I 11
LIST OF TABIJ2S (Continued)
Table
cxxxnr
Please list, in order of their importance, what you
think are the best means of determining the potential
abilities and interests of pupils who wish to take
oanmeroial subjeots to prepare them for a vocation*•• •
198
By the end of -which year in sohool do you plan to pre­
pare most of your business eduoation pupils to enter
business?*****••••••••*•••••••••••••*•••••••••••••••••
199
Please list the ohief -weaknesses, as you see them of the
oanmeroial graduates as they plan to enter business,
in each of the following fields; Personal qualities.
General eduoation subjeots. Business eduoation sub­
jects*. •••• •••••••••••••••••••••••'*••••'*.•••**.•••••
201
How do you think these weaknesses (reported in Table
CXXXVI) might be best overocme, in eaoh of the fields?
204
CXXXVIII
Please list the textbooks used in the following courses***
211
cxxxix
Do you have a separate oourse of study for the pupil who
plans to drop out of sohool before he graduates?*•••••
212
Do you believe that mare subjeot matter in English, in
addition to the present requirements, should be added
to the oourse of study for the business pupil?********
212
Do you believe that additional requirements in arithmetic,
or in mathematics, should be made of all business
pupils?*••••••••••••••••*.••••••••••••*•••••••*••••••*
213
If you have a prerequisite for any of the oourses listed
an the ohart in question 1, will you please list the
number of the oourse and the prerequisite for it in
the spaces provided below, for example, of oanmeroial
arithmetio is required before accounting oan be taken,
list it as follows: No* 2, commercial arithmetic******
214
Do you know definitely, through a survey or otherwise,
that the kind of business training you teaoh is the
kind of business training actually used in business?**
215
Do you think it praotioal, in your sohool, to give oourses
in new and expensive business maohines?***************
216
Do you believe that selling oan be taught suooessfully in
your high sohool without actual "over the counter”
selling experience?**********•••*.••••••• ••••••*••••••
216
cxxxv
cxxxv i
cxxxv n
CXL
CXLI
CXLI I
CXLIII
CXLI7
CXLV
XIV
LIST OF TABLES (Continued)
Table
C-XLVI
CXLVII
CXLVIII
CXLIX
CL
CLI
CLII
CLIII
CLI7
CLV
Page
Does your high school offer oourses in the management
and operation of email, individually owned businesses
of various types to help pupils prepare to enter
business for themselves? If not, do you think it
should?***•••••••••••«••••*.••••••••. *.*. •<>••* *.*•••••
217
"What type of errors, or difficulties, do you find ooourring most frequently in bookkeeping? In other
business eduoation oourses?*.•••••••••«*•••••••.••••••
218
Do you feel there should be some administrative plan to
keep teaohers in touoh with practical business?
223
Please suggest a plan you think practical (to provide ac­
tual business experienoe for teaohers of business
subjeots) for this purpose*#****************.*.*.*.***
224
At what oollege or university did you receive the major
part of your training? Were you graduated? Year?
Degree held* Major preparation* Major teaohing
field* Minor teaohing field* Have you done graduate
work in addition to your last degree? What was the
last year of suoh work? At vhioh university? What
teaohing certificate do you now hold?*****.*****.**.**
226
Please fill in the form below for the business experienoe
you have had* Kind of work* Months of work* Name
of Company* Year******************.**********.•••••••
231
Please fill in the following fora for the professional
teaohing you have done* City or State where you
Taught* High sohool, elementary, eto* Subjeot taught.
Length of sohool tera* Number of years taught*••••••• 233
Please fill in the form below for your daily teaohing
s o h e d u l e * * * * * * * *
*
236
Please list below magazines, books, eto*, that you read
regularly that have stimulated your thinking***.******
238
Please list below the state, regional, or national oammeroial teaoher organisation to which you belong,
stating offioe held in eaoh*.*****.*.*.*•••*.••*.•••••
240
XV
LIST OF TABLES (Continued)
Page
Table
CLVI
Please list the community organisations to whioh you be­
longs if an officer in the organization, please in­
dicate, *•••••••••.•.••••••••*••••••••••*••••••••••••••
241
Flease list below the titles of artioles or books pub­
lished by you during the past fire years*.**.*.•••*•••
242
How often do you give written tests, by semesters?
(Cirole) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17....
242
Please oheok the method, or methods, you use to aid in
determing the pupil's grade in the course* Class par­
ticipation, General attitude. General impression. Ap­
plication, Series of tests. Tern papers. Oral tests.
Laboratory work. Attendance, Performance standards.
Final tests* Whioh of the above do you rank as first,
second, and third in importance?*****..*.••*••••••.»••
243
Please list the problems in business eduoation as you see
them, from a local and from a national viewpoint******
244
Do you feel that the oommeroial contests held in Utah are
a positive, or a negative faotor in your teaching?**.*
247
Please oheok the kinds of tests used by you during a regu­
lar oourse* Matching, True false. Completion, Essay,
Comprehensive, Best answer. Multiple ohoioe, and Other*
248
Do you teaoh pupils studying business subjeots for voca­
tional preparation and those studying them for personal
use in the same class?***************************.*.**
255
If you teaoh both types of pupils in the same olass, do
you differentiate in the subjeot matter you offer to
the two groups, or in the stress you plaoe on phases of
the subjeot?********•••••••••••••••••••••**•••••••••*••
256
Do you teaoh your olasses in bookkeeping or accounting in
suoh a manner that all the pupils in the class are on
the same assignment at the same time?*.****************
257
CLXV I
Do you follow a definite oourse of study in bookkeeping?*••
258
CLXVII
Do you think that bookkeeping should be taught before the
pupil reaches the tenth grade? Before the eleventh
grade?***.••••••••••••••••*••••••••.*••.•••••••••••••*•
258
CLVII
CLVIII
CLIX
CLX
CLXI
CLX 11
CLXIII
CLXIV
CLXV
XVI
LIST OF TABLES (Continued)
Table
clxviii
CLXIX
CLXX
CLXXI
CLXXI I
CIXXIII
CLXXIV
CLXXV
CLXXVI
CLXXVII
CIXXVIII
Do you oorreot, and hand baok to the pupil, all papers
of a major nature in bookkeeping?*.**********,**.*.***
260
Do you make use of praotioe sets in first-year bookkeep­
ing? In second-year bookkeeping?***************.*****
260
Are objective tests made by the publisher for the text
you use in bookkeeping? Aire achievement tests made
for the text? Do you use these texts?*****,******,***
261
Do you use the radio or visual eduoation as an aid in
teaohing bookkeeping?***.•••••••••••••••••••••••.•.•••
261
Do you feel that the instruction in the business eduoa­
tion department of your sohool is as efficient as is
the instruction in other departments?*.*.•••••••••••••
262
Please list, in the order of your own preferenoe, the ap­
proaches or methods you use to present bookkeeping,
as for example, the balance sheet approach**••••••••*•
263
If you take your o lass on excursions, please oheok the
following uses you make of the information gained*
To find how successfully you are presenting informa­
tion the pupil will need after graduation
To help create placement jobs
To give the pupil actual business oontaota and informa­
tion
To stimulate pupil interest
Other.•••••••••••••••••••••••••*•.*.•.•.•**...*•••• ••••
264
In your business eduoation teaohing, do you give the greatest
stress to skills or to broader soolal needs?*********** 265
In what way or ways, might the superintendent and princi­
pal oooperate to make business education more effeotive
in your school?*.**************************************
266
Do you have a cooperative arrangement with the merchants of
your oity for the pupils of your sohool to attend
sohool part of the day and work in the stores part of
the day? If not, do you feel suoh an arrangement
should be made?***********************************.****
270
If so (if you do have a cooperative retail training oourse)
how many pupils take this oourse eaoh year?*****••••••*
271
XVll
LIST OF TABLES (Continued)
Table
CLXXIX
Hon muoh time, in hours per week, is spent in olass
(in the cooperative oourse?) How muoh on the job?
Is it a one-year or a two-year oourse?*,,*.•••*•••••••
CUXX
Under a oooperative arrangement suggested above, what
would you regard as an adequate selection of the
pupils to enter suoh a training plan?*•*••••••••*. .*••
GLXXXI
Should sohool credit in the plan above be given for
work done in the store?*.*********************.*.*••••
CLXXXII
Should the sohool, in suoh a retail training plan, assume
the responsibility of arranging the hour and payment
plans of the pupil with the retail store manager?*.***
CLXXXIII
Do looal merohants look to your sohool as a training field
for their employees?***.*********************.*.*'••••
CLXXIV
If not (the merohants do not look to your school as a
training field) do you think suoh an attitude should
be developed, or could be developed?*.**********.*****
CLXXXV
Do you think the retail field offers more jobs to your
graduates than any other single field of employment?
Please rank the fields that offer employment to your
pupils in the order of the greatest ntmber affected*••
CLXXXVI
Do you think "over the counter" selling oan be taught
more or less suooessfully than oan shorthand, type­
writing and bookkeeping?*********************.•#••*•••
cLmvn
Do you have a continuation sohool in your distriot for
business subjeots? For other subjeots? If in other
subjeots. please list the fields covered*********•••*•
c L m v m
Do you have evening school for secondary pupils in busi­
ness subjeots? For adults? Evening olasses in other
subjeots for seoandary pupils? For adults? If in
other subjeots please list the fields covered*********
c L m rx
La whioh year should the subjeots listed below be taught?.
CLXL
In this oourse (the oourses listed below) required in the
business ourrioula?*.*••«*•••••••••••*.•••■*.•■•••••*«
CLXLI
Is a prerequisite required for this (the oourses listed
below) oourse?********.•.•••••••*••••••*••*.*.*.•••*••
XVlll
LIST OF TABLES (Continued)
Table
CLXLII
CLXLIII
Page
Do you take the olasses (listed below) an excursions
as a part of the oourse?*.*,...*.*.*.*.*****...•»«...*• 288
Is Hiie oourse (listed below) usually taken for occupa­
tional or general use?***.••••••••••••*••*••.«*■•••*••
289
How many minutes out of the olass do pupils study for
the oourses listed below?***.****.*.*****.*•.*.*.•*•••
290
Is subjeot open to business and nanbuslness pupils? (if
the olass is open to both olasses of pupils what per
oeut of olass are nonbusiness pupils?*.****.*••*.*••••
291
How many minutes (outside olass time) do teaohers spend
in preparation and paper work?***.**.*..••*•••••*•.•«.
292
CLXLVII
Is oourse taught by a teaoher who majored in business?.***
293
CLXLVIII
Are pupils selected in any way before taking course?•••*.•
295
CLXLIX
Are pupils plaoed in jobs because of skill from course?...
296
CC
Do you know whether pupils use this subjeot (listed below)
an the job?*.••••.•.•.••••••••••**••*.*«•«•••••• ••*»••
297
Was a job survey made to help set up the oourse? Should a
job survey be made to revise the course?*.••••*•••«•••
298
Is (the)subjeot integrated (with other business subjeots)?
299
What is enrollment of olass? (What is the number of)
minutes in olass? Credit given? (How many) periods
(per day does olass meet)?****.••••••••«•*••.*.*••••*.
300
By the end of whioh year in high sohool do you attempt
to prepare moBt of your pupils in business eduoation
to be beBt equipped to enter business?*.*.**.*.*.*..*•
307
How many of your pupils* majoring in business subjeots*
go into business directly from high sohool?***..*..***
308
How maty of your pupils* trained in the following skills*
get positions in the skill* or field when they leave
sohool? How many do you graduate eaoh year in these
skills?**............. *...........................
309
CLXLIV
CLXLV
CLXLV I
CCI
CCII
CCIII
CCIV
CCV
CCVI
XIX
LIST OF IABIES (Continued)
Page
Table
CCVII
CCVIII
ccrx
ccx
CCXI
Please list the ohief weaknesses, as you see them, in
the graduates of the occsneroial department of your
sohool in personal qualities* How might these weak­
nesses be overcame?**************************.*.******
310
Please list the ohief weaknesses, as you see them, in the
graduates of the ecmmeroial education department of
your sohool in general education subjects* How might
.....
these wealooesses be overcame?*.*.••••••*.
312
Please list the ohief weaknesses, as you see them, of
the graduates of the business education department
in the field of business education* How might these
weaknesses be overcame?***.*****************.••••••••*
313
Do you follow up your business graduates after they get a
job, to see if they "make good?"***.•*••.*.••••.*..•••
315
Have your pupils generally used the business subjects
taught them in the sohool after they get a position
in business?.•••••••••• ••••»•.••••*•••••• •••*••.....
315
CCXII
Doe8 looal business absorb most of your business graduates* 316
CCXIII
How many of your business majors go into business posi­
tions directly from sohool?**********.*.*******.*..*••• 317
CCXI7
At what wage, per month, do your business majors start
work in bookkeeping, s tenography, typewriting, olerking?****.........*............. *...................
318
CCXV
Please check the items you use as aids in determining the
apparent intelligneoe of the pupil********.•••••••.»••* 318
CCXVI
If you have any active demand for business subjects that
are not taught in your sohool, please list them**•••••• 325
CCXtfll
About what number of business pupils aire trained in your
sohool in eaoh of the following fields, as a major
subjeot? Do more or fbwer pupils major in the fol­
lowing fields than you oan plaoe in positions? Short­
hand, bookkeeping, typing, selling, olerioal, other*.•• 326
CCXVIII
About what number of your business graduates, on the aver­
age, do you think will not oontinue their education further? About what number will not go into business?****
XX
327
LIST OF TABIBS (Continued)
Table
CCXIX
CCXX
CCXKI
CCXXII
CCXXIII
CCXXIV
CCXXV
CCXXVI
CCXXVII
Page
Please enter the minimum speed, in words per minute,
that you require for a passing grade in the follow­
ing subjects..*.*..*.**.*.*......•••*.•..........
328
In which year of the oourse do you require transcribed
letters to be perfeot? Mailable? Do you require
transcribed letters to be aooampahied by oarbon copies?
By addressed envelopes?***.******.***.*.*.*«••.••...*• 330
Do you penult the use of an eraser in transcription?
Do you teaoh the proper method of erasing?*.*•••••.*.•
331
Do you require pupils to learn to address envelopes in
all different styles? To write letters in all differ­
ent styles? In the most frequently used styles?****.*
332
Do you require pupils to take dictation direotly on the
typewriter?*.*.
333
Do you give instruction in the use of the duplicating
machine, requiring pupils to out stenoils, make oopy
for the hectograph, eto.?.*..*......•••....•••.*.....*
333
Do you give instruction from rough draft, typing post
cards and legal papers?**•••*.•••••••.... •••••••..*••
334
Please oheok the following -types of manusoript if you teaoh
your pupils to use them**..••.••..*..*.•••«••.*....*.. 334
Please list the year in your sohool in which you think
the following subjects should be taught***.*.••*•*.•••
335
CCXXVIII
Please indioate the number of each of the following items
of equipment you have in your sohool for the use of the
pupils***.•••»••••••••.*••••.•.•»••••.*.••«.•' *.*.••••• 344
CCXXIX
Please indicate the number of each of the following items
of equipment you have in your sohool for the use of
the p u p i l s * . * * * * * * * * . * . * . * . •••••••• 345
CCXXX
Plea8e indioate the number of each of the following items
of equipment you have in your sohool for -the use of the
pupils*******.*.•••••••••••••••••••••*•••»••••••••»..•• 346
XX.I
LIST OF TABLES (Continued)
Table
CCXXXI
Page
Please indioate the number of eaoh of the following
pieoea of equipment you have in your eohool for
the use of the pupils*********************************
347
Do you feel there should be same administrative plan
to keep teachers of business in touoh with praotioal
business?* •* ••••••••*. •.•.••••••••••••••••••••••••••••
351
Please suggest a plea you think praotioal for this pur­
pose (that of keeping business education teachers in
touoh with praotioal business procedures)**•«•*.•«••••
352
At what ooliege or university did you receive the major
part of your training?*,*.••••••••••••••*•••••*.•.*•••
355
(Please indicate your) Major preparation* Minor prepara­
tion* Major teaching field* Minor teaching field*•••
356
CCXXXVI
ITChat teaohing certificate do you now hold?••••••• *••••*.••
357
CCXXXVII
Have you done graduate work in addition to your last de­
gree? What was the last year of suoh work? At whioh
university?*. *.«•,,.*. ••••••••••••»*.•••••••••.•.• .**•
358
Please fill in the form below for the business experience
you have had* Kind of work* Months of work* Name of
company. Year******..•.•••••••••••••••••*.•••••.*.•••
359
Please fill in the following form for the professional
teaohing you have done* City or state where you
taught* High sohool* elementary* etc* Subject
taught* Length of sohool tera* Number of years
taught* ••••••••••• •••»••••••••••• •••••• •••••••••••••••
360
Please fill in the following form for your daily teaoh­
ing schedule**************************. •••*•••«•••••*•
361
Please fill in the following form for your daily teaoh­
ing schedules Number in olass, period in minutes******
362
Other duties or extracurricular activities* Hours per
week in activity* Number of pupils in aotivity*******
363
Please list below magazines, books, eto*, that you
regularly read that have stimulated your thinking*****
365
CCXXXII
CCXXXIII
CCXXXIV
CCXX3CV
CCXXXVIII
CCXXXIX
CCXL
CCXLI
CCXLII
CCXLIII
m i
LIST OF TABLES (Continued)
Table
CCXLIV
CCXLV
CCXLVI
CCXLVII
CCXLVIII
CCXLIX
CCL
CCLI
CCLII
CCLIII
CCLI7
CCLV
CCLVI
Page
Please list below the state, regional, or national
oonmeroial teachers organization to idiioh you
belong, stating offioe held in each*******************
366
Please list the community organizations to whioh you
belong; if an officer in the organization, please
indioate********••••••••••••••••••.••••*••.••••••.••••
367
Bow often do you give written tests, by semesters?********
368
Please oheok the method or methods you use to aid in de­
termining the pupil's grade in oourse*****************
368
Whioh of the above do you rank as first, second, and
third in importanoe?**********************************
369
Please list the problems in business education, as you see
them, from a looal viewpoint and from a national
viewpoint**•••••••••••••••••••••*•••••••••••••••*•••••
370
Do you feel -the commercial contests held in Utah are a
positive or a negative factor in your teaching?*••••••
373
Please oheok the kinds of tests used by you during a
regular oourse***********************************.****
374
Do you use objeotive tests as an aid in selecting pupils
for business subjects or to determine who shall be
admitted to the study of business?********************
383
Is business English in your sohool taught by a teaoher
who majored in business?******************************
384
Is a part of the olass period devoted to study in any of
the classes you teach?***********************.*•••••••
385
About what proportion of time, in minutes, in the olasses
you teaoh, is devoted to the textbook and the projeot
method of teaching?***.*********.*.*.••••••••*.«•••••*
386
Please list, in the order of your own preference, the
Methods or approaches you use in teaohing your major
subjeots, as for example, the functional method in
shorthand***•••••••••••••••••••••••••••*••••••••••••••
387
XXI11
LIST OF TABLES (Concluded)
Table
Page
CCLVII
If you take your olasses on excursions, please oheok the
following uses you make of the information gained***••• 388
CCLVIII
Doyou approve of extra periods in typing? In shorthand?
Does your sohool provide for them?********************* 389
CCLIX
In what way, or ways, might the superintendent or prinoipal
oooperate to make business eduoation more effective in
your sohool?**********.***.**************************** 390
XXIV
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Need for a Surrey of Business Eduoation in Utah
During the summer of 1937 the investigator was privileged to work
with a group of teaohers of business eduoation during the Summer Session
at New York University.
The olass was made up of men and women who oame
from widely separated seotions of the United States and who were interested
in business eduoation.
In order to facilitate the study of business eduoation the olass
was divided into oammittees to study the following phases of business edu­
cation: curriculum, methods, survey, teaoher and pupil personnel, and the
subjects of bookkeeping, shorthand, typewriting, offioe praotioe, distri­
butive eduoation, consumer eduoation, and business English.
An exhaustive bibliography was prepared for eaoh of these subjeots
in business eduoation and then all were combined into one integrated read­
ing list.
Inasmuch as the status of business eduoation in Utah was un­
known, it seemed to the investigator that answers to a series of questions
prepared from the information developed from this reading list, and from
other aouroes, should result in useful data oonoerning the status of
business eduoation in Utah.
Surveys of general eduoation and of business eduoation have been
oonduoted in several of the oities and States of the United States.
The
surveys of general eduoation have had little in them oonoerning the prob-
1
z
lams of business eduoation*
However, surveys of business eduoation have
been oonduoted in several of the Western States adjaoent to Utah*
The
State of Utah is bordered by Idaho on the north, by Wyoming and Colorado
on the east, by Arizona on the south —
with New Mexioo reaohing into one
of the four oorners formed by the right-angle oonjunotion of Colorado, Utah,
New Mexioo, and Arizona -- and by Nevada on the west*
The status of
business eduoation in eaoh of these States, with the exception of Nevada
and New Mexioo, has been determined since 1929*
In addition, surveys of
business eduoation have been oonduoted in California and Montana*
leaves Utah as the only one
—
in this group of States —
This
in whioh no sur­
vey of business eduoation has been oonduoted*
This investigation proposes to find answers to many questions in
the field of business eduoation that remain unanswered at the present time*
Teaohers and Administrators are hampered in their efforts to improve con­
ditions under whioh business eduoation is administered sinoe the present
status of the field is unknown.
That this situation is general throughout
the United States is evidenoed by the following statement from a report of
the United States Offioe of Educations
Inasmuch as the general oity and state surveys of eduoation
have not normally included oommeroial eduoation, the newer
type of oollege-trained teaohers have been determined to
state the faots regarding the present status and speoial
problems in seoondary eduoation and oommeroial teaoher train­
ing* One of the motivating foroes in these surveys is the
realization that the individual oommeroial teaoher is in a
rather helpless situation exoept when certain maladjustments
in this field are revealed in a oity or state-wide basis. 1
1*
Biennial Survey of Eduoation, United States Offioe of Eduoation,
Washington, D*C., Bulletin Number 20, p* 210*
3
That many maladjustments do exist in business eduoation is common
knowledge to teaohers in this field who are interested in raising the
level of instruction, the status of the teaoher of business subjects, and
the oonditions that surround the pupil in his quest for a preparation that
will permit him to enter business life properly equipped to meet the com­
plex and shifting oonditions existing in business today.
CHAPTER II
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This investigation is intended to summarise the present status of
business eduoation in the publio secondary sohools of Utah, found listed
1
in the Direotory of Utah Publio Sohools.
Limitations
Many phases of business eduoation oould be inoluded in a study of
this kind, but it seemed vise to omit the junior high sohool from the in­
vestigation because of the time and expense involved and beoause business
2
eduoation in this division of the sohool is of an exploratory nature.
The
junior and senior oollege were likewise omitted beoause the time and ex­
pense involved would not permit this extension and beoause the problems
of business eduoation in the oollege are different in many respects from
those in the seoondary sohool. the former oonsisting largely of speciali­
zation in business leadership and providing sufficient material for a
3
separate investigation at some future time*
The rapid inorease in the number of pupils in the business eduoa­
tion departments of the publio high sohool foouses the attention of the
investigator upon this field*
1.
2*
3.
Prosser says in his foreword to Niohols's
Direotory of Utah Publio Schools*
Leverett S* Lyon, Education for Business, pp. 420-421.
Ibid., pp. 3SD-351.
4
5
Oommeroial Eduoation In the High Sohool» "When the total group, inoludlng
both those who are preparing for business oooupatians and those who are
studying oommeroial subjeots for other reasons, is oonsidered, the rapidity
of growth in the number of pupils in oommeroial eduoation of secondary
1
grade is almost startling."
Since the problem must be suffioiently limited to permit of ex-
2
haustive treatment,
this investigation will cover only the publio high
schools of Utah.
Definition of Terms
Administrator.
This term is used to inolude superintendents of
sohools and prinoipals of high sohools, or those designated to aot for them.
Business Teaoher.
The business teaoher has been interpreted as
one whose major teaohing load is in business subjeotB.
Vooational Business Education. This term has been restricted to
identify eduoation designed to prepare the individual to enter upon and
progress in suoh business pursuits as stenography, bookkeeping, and
olerioal and distributive occupations.
Fersonal-Use Business Bduoatlon.
This term includes suoh tool
subjeots as shorthand, bookkeeping, and filing whioh oan be used by any
one in non-oooupational activities.
The personal use of these tools re­
quires less proficiency than does vocational business use; sufficient
mastery for this use probably oan be aoquired in less time.
1.
2.
Frederiok G. Nichols, Commercial Eduoation in the High Sohool, p. V.
Carter Alexander, Eduoational Researoh, p. 2.
6
Sooial Business Eduoation.
Social business eduoation is that
type of business eduoation -whioh attempts to prepare pupils to understand
business as a form of economic organisation, to think critically of it,
and to assume a share in the solution of ourrent eoonomio and sooial
problems*
Secondary Sohool Curriculum.
"The secondary sohool ourrioulum may
be considered as oonsisting of all the experiences the pupil has while
under the influenoe of the sohool, it includes both olassroom and extraclassroom activities.
Experiences oan be really educative, however, only
1
when they promote the needs and welfare of the pupil*”
Business Eduoation Curriculum. A business eduoation ourrioulum
is one in whioh the courses required aim to prepare the pupils for some
particular business oooupation, suoh as in bookkeeping, stenographic,
olerioal, or distributive work.
Analysis of Problem
The problem is studied in four main divisions, each of these parts
being divided into subdivisions as follows:
I.
1*
Administration and Supervision
A*
Superintendents
Objectives and principles of business eduoation
Teaoher personnel
B*
Principals
Objectives and principles of business education
Teaoher personnel
Pupil personnel end guidanoe
Ourrioulum
Extension eduoation
Administration
Cooperative Study of Secondary Sohool Standards, p. 19*
7
II*
Teaohing
A*
Teaohers of Aooounting
Objectives and principles of business eduoation
Teaoher personnel
Pupil personnel and guidance
Ourrioulum
Teaohing methods
Extension eduoation
B*
Teaohers of Stenography
Objectives and prinoiples of business eduoation
Teaoher personnel
Pupil personnel and guidanoe
Ourrioulum
Teaohing methods
Equipment
By means of a questionnaire to administrators and teaohers of busi­
ness eduoation subjeots in all the high sohools of Utah the investigator
attempted to secure answers to the following questions*
1*
What are the objectives of business eduoation?
2*
What is the status of seleoted phases of teaoher personnel in
business eduoation?
3*
What is the status of seleoted phases of pupil personnel and
guidanoe in business eduoation?
4*
What is the status of seleoted phases of the ourrioula in business
eduoation?
5*
What is the status of seleoted phases of teaohing methods in busi­
ness eduoation?
6*
What is the status of extension and cooperative eduoation in
business eduoation?
7.
What is the nature of physioal equipment for the use of business
eduoation pupils in the high sohools of the State?
8
8*
'What is the status of seleoted phases of administration in
business eduoation?
9*
What are the praotioal outoomes in terms of reorganization and
improvement that should result from this investigation?
Ansuers to questions of opinion and faot reveal the basis of the
praotioes in any sohool system*
Eduoation is still in the empirical
stage, but is oontinually approaching the soientifio*
This approaoh oan
be made more intelligently and more soientifioally irhen ire know more about
the aotual praotioes of eduoation in terms of the carefully considered
opinions of teaohers and administrators*
Dewey seems to think this when
he says*
It seems to me that the contributions that might oorne from
olass-room teaohers are a comparatively neglected field* or
to ohange the metaphor, an almost unworkBd mine* It is un­
necessary to point out the large extent to whioh superin­
tendents and prinoipals have been drawn into the work of
studying speoial problems and contributing material relative
to them* It is to be hoped that the movement will not oease
until all aotive olass-room teaohers, of whatever grade, are
drawn in.l
The praotioes of teaohers, as they are expressed in olassrooms
throughout the country, form the basis for the study of eduoation in any
of the many fields*
Dewey again makes an interesting comment when he
says*
The first question whioh oomes before us is what is the
place and role of eduoative processes and results in the
sohool, family, eto., when they are viewed as a souroe?
The answer is (1) that educational praotioes provide the
1*
John Dewey, The Souroes of a Solenoe of Eduoation, pp* 46-47*
9
data, the subject matter, which form the problems of in­
quiry* They are the sole souroe of the ultimate problems
to be investigated* These educational polioies are also
(2) the final tests of value of the conclusions of all
researches*
In order that the praotices and opinions of the administrators and
teachers in the high sohools of Utah might be made available for study,
questions oalling for opinions and for factual information were included
in the questionnaire*
1*
Dewey, op* olt*, p. 33.
CHAPTER III
METHODS OF SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM
It seemed to the investigator that the problem to be solved called
for the use of the questionnaire beoause of the prohibitive oost of the
personal interview and the laok of sufficient observation to answer the
questions*
The difficulties of this method of researoh are fully realised
by the investigator, and steps have been taken to overcome as many of the
1
known shortcomings of the questionnaire as is possible*
In the first plaoe the questionnaire was organized in such a
manner that the questions could be answered by the use of a oheok, by the
2
word "yes" or "no", or by the insertion of figures*
In a few oases, not
exceeding ten per oent of the questions, a word or two was neoessary to
3
complete the answer*
Sufficient spaoe was provided for the answer end,
in addition, for any oomment concerning the question that the respondent
might wish to make to limit or to qualify his answer.
In addition, spaoe
was provided at the end of each questionnaire for extended comments*
While brevity was kspt in mind throughout the preparation of the
questionnaire, it was found neoessary to ask quite a largenumber of ques­
tions in eaoh group*
The superintendents wdre asked forty-two questions;
the principals 115; the teaohers of accounting 116; and the teachers of
stenography 108*
1*
2*
3*
This results in a grand total of 381 questions.
Leonard V* Eoos, The Questionnaire in Eduoation.
Carter V, Good, How to Do Researoh in Education, p. 137*
Frederick L* Whitney, The Elements of Researoh, pp. 234-239*
10
While
11
this is a rather long questionnaire, the investigator believed that the
percentage of returns from the administrators and teaohers in the seoondary
sohools of the State would be high*
Only information that was actually intended for use was asked for
end eaoh question eras so framed that it had, as nearly as was possible,
the same meaning for any one reading it*
Of the 361 questions included in
the questionnaire, 104, or twenty-seven per cent of the total, were ques­
tions calling for an opinion or a judgment*
These 104 questions oansisted
of twenty-six identical questions repeated to eaoh of the four groups to
whioh the questionnaire was addressed (see Chapter II, page 6)*
Eaoh of
these questions was to be answered with "y®8" or "no," a word or two, or
a figure, and spaoe far comment was provided after eaoh question*
The re­
maining 277 questions oalled for factual information in the main, and as
suoh were not repeated to any great extent*
The first form of the questionnaire was submitted to a group of
teaohers at the Packard Commercial Sohool in New York City for their oritioal evaluation*
From the suggestions received from this group of teaohers
the questionnaire was divided into four main parts: one intended for the
superintendents of the sohool districts of Utah, another for the principals
of the high sohools in the State, another for the teaohers of accounting,
and the fourth for the teachers of stenography*
In this form the ques­
tionnaire was submitted to the teaohers of business eduoation in the Newton
High Sohool at Newton, New Jersey*
group of teachers*
The questionnaire was then carefully worked over with
the writer's sponsoring committee*
printer for proof*
form was printed.
Little ohange was suggested by thi6
The final form was submitted to the
-After careful checking it was approved and the final
12
From the 1938-1939 Directory of IJtah Public Sohools the names and
addresses of the superintendents of the forty sohool districts in the State
and of the prinoipals of the seventy-four high sohools in the State were
secured and a oopy of the questionnaire designed for their respective
groups was mailed to them on October 1, 1938*
In some of the high sohools the teaoher of shorthand, typewriting,
or bookkeeping was listed under the title of commeroe or business.
In
eighteen of the high sohools there were no teaohers of business subjeots
listed in the Direotory.
Eight teaohers were identified as teaohers of
bookkeeping, and a oopy of the questionnaire prepared for the bookkeeping
teaohers was maikd to eaoh.
Twenty were identified as teaohers of stenogaaphy
and a oopy of the questionnaire prepared for stenographic teaohers was mailed
to eaoh.
Eighty-one teaohers were identified as teaohing either commerce
or business.
Sinoe it oould not be determined from the Direotory whether
these were teaohers of bookkeeping or stenography, oopies of the question­
naires prepared for eaoh group of teaohers were mailed to them.
Likewise,
oopies of both questionnaires prepared for teaohers were nailed to the
eighteen high sohools in whioh a teaoher of business was not listed in the
Direotory.
These were addressed to the high sohool, in oare of the teaoher
of business subjeots.
This initial mailing of 241 questionnaires were mailed in one-andone-half cent envelopes, with no return postage included.
Appendix, page
dressed.
427)
A letter (see
was enolosed asking for the cooperation of those ad­
From this first mailing list twenty-five questionnaires were
returned.
On January 2, 1939, a second oopy of the questionnaire, together
IS
with a copy of the original letter and a self-addressed stamped envelope,
was mailed to those teachers and administrators who had not responded to
the first letter. This mailing was sent first class. A total of sixtynine returns came f r o m this seoond mailing.
On January 20, 1939, a postcard ( see Appendix, page 429) was
mailed to those who had not returned the questionnaire, asking for further
cooperation and stating that their delay in replying was impeding the pro\
gress of the investigation. Twenty-nine replies were reoeived from this
this request.
A final effort was made on February 12, 1939, when a second copy
of the postcard was mailed to those who had not replied to any of the
former requests. Twelve questionnaires were returned in response to this
request.
The Directory of U t a h Public Schools lists seventy-four public
senior high schools in the State. In eighteen of these high schools the
Directory lists no teaoher of business education subjects. From this group
of eighteen schools nine reported some kind of business education taught,
six made no reply, and three stated that there was no business education
taught in the high school. If .however, these three schools, in which no
business education is taught, are included in the returns, the following
percentages of returns were received from the four groups addressed.
A return was received from either the superintendent, the principal,
the teacher of accounting, or the teacher of stenography of seventy of
the seventy-four high schools. Therefore, ninety-four and six-tenths per
cent of the high schools of U t a h are represented in the investigation in
at least one of the four categories considered.
14
The Direotory also lists forty sohool distriots in the State; and
a return -was received from either the superintendent, the principal, the
teaoher of accounting, or the teaoher of stenography of thirty-eight of the
forty distriots, representing a return, in at least one of the four cate­
gories considered, of ninety-five per oent from the sohool distriots.
The following presents the data oonoerning the number and percent­
age of returns in tabular form*
TABLE I
Number and Percentage of Returns from the Questionnaire
Superintendents
Prinoipals
Teaohers of aooounting and stenography
Number of high sohools in Utah
Number of sohool districts in Utah
Number
Mailed
Number
Returned
Per oent
Returned
40
74
133
74
40
25
44
66
70
38
62*6
59.5
49.6
94.6
95.0
The returns from the questionnaires were tabulated and the re­
sults interpreted in the light of current theory and praotioes in general
and in business education.
<
CHAPTER IV
BACKGROUND OF BUSINESS EDUCATION IN THE STATE OF UTAH
In 1926 the United States Offioe of Eduoation oonduoted a survey of
eduoation in Utah from the kindergarten to the collegiate level.
This
survey is the most oomplete and the most reoent study of eduoation in the
1
State and furnishes a good background for the present investigation.
Three-fourths of the pupils in the high sohools of Utah oome from
homes in ifcich agriculture is the ohief oooupatlon (see Tables LVI, £vil,
x
and LVIII, pages 113 and 114 )» and yet the State has been successful
in enrolling a higher percentage of the population of seoondary sohool age
2
than any other State."
This fact may have a double bearing of the problem
of employment of the graduates of the business eduoation departments of
the high sohools of the State: In the first place beoause of the greater
proportion of the population in high sohool; and in the seoond plaoe be­
oause of the agricultural nature of the employment available to the high
sohool graduate.
Probably this influx of pupils into the seoondary sohools
is responsible for the fact that "The inferior eduoational status grade by
grade of Utah high sohool pupils is due undoubtedly in part to the lower­
ing of the degree of selection from the population at large.
Children
from every occupational and sooial group of the state are represented in
high sohools in significant percentages.
3
tremely wide."
2.
3.
Survey of Eduoation in Utah. 1926.
Ibid., p. 169.
Ibid., p. 211.
15
The spread of ability is ex-
16
The average expenditure per unit of "educational need" for the
years from 1920 to 1932 shone Utah in thirty-seoond place in a ranking of
1
the States from the highest to the lowest*
In other words, thirty-one of
the States spend more per educational unit than does Utah*
In 1920 Utah
ranked twenty-sixth in expenditures per thousand units of educational need
and in 1932 this rank had deoreased nine points to thirty-fifth plaoe*
The following table shows the eduoational situation in Utah, as.
far as enrollment in seoondary sohools is concerned, in comparison with
other Western States*
These data were taken from the United States Offioe
of Bduoation, Survey of Education in Utah in 1926.
Since more recent data
are not available for Utah, comparable data for other States are presented
2
as of the same date.
TABLE! II
Percentage of the Total Population Attending Sohool by Rural
and Urban Distriots and by Age Periods in 1920
State
Utah
Mountain States
Pacific States
United States
Age 14 and 15
Urban
Rural
93.9
88.5
89.9
80.7
93.6
85.8
88.3
79.4
Age 16 and 17
Rural
Urban
70.9
59.3
55.9
39.2
71.9
55.8
54.8
46.1
Age 18 to 20
Urban Rural
25.1
22.8
23.1
14.0
24.1
18.4
20.5
15.6
If a pupil starts sohool at the age of six and progresses normally,
he enters high sohool at the age of fifteen and finishes high sohool at
1*
2*
The Efforts of the States to Support Eduoation, Researoh Bulletin of
the National Eduoation Association, 1936, pp. 137-138.
Survey of Eduoation in Utah, 1926, Bulletin No. 18, p. 211.
17
the age of eighteen.
In eaoh of the age groups presented in Table II the
peroentage attending sohool in Utah ishigher than that
for the surround­
ing States or for the United States asa whole.
1
It has been pointed out by Hopkins that pupils are eliminated from
sohool by situations they are unable to cope with mentally and not by the
necessity or the desire to earn money through employment.
in all probability exists in Utah.
Ifit does exist in
This situation
the State it should
be revealed in the number of pupils who leave sohool before they graduate,
a factor about whioh this investigation will seek information.
Background of Business Bduoation in the Unitdd States
Business eduoation in the publio schools of the United States is
not more than fifty years old, if we oan judge by the faot that, "Until
the late nineties of the past oentury the bulk of eduoation for business
whioh was available in the United States was offered by private institu2
tions generally known as 'business colleges,'"
From this beginning the
development of business eduoation in the publio secondary sohools of the
country has been very rapid and individual, following no lead exoept that
3
of the private business sohool. This is well put by Lyon when he says,
"Business eduoation in America is unique in its vigor and in its laok of
guidanoe•"
The publio seoondary sohool is perhaps the most vital single divi­
sion of eduoation in the country from the point of view of business edu-
1.
2.
3.
L. T. Hopkins, The Intelligence of Continuation Sohool Children in
Massaohusetts, p. 284.
Harry 0. Kitson, Commercial Bduoation in Seoondary Sohools, p. 3.
Leverett S. Lyon, Oommeroial Bduoation in the Seoondary Sohools, p. IX.
18
o&tion.
In his introduction to Nichols's Commercial Eduoation in the High
Sohool, Prosser makes the following statements
Of all the pupils preparing for business oooupations in all
sohools of every kind and grade, more than two-thirds are in
the publio secondary sohools*.*. "When the total group, in­
cluding both those who are preparing for business oooupations
and those who are studying oommeroial subjeots for other
reasons, is considered, the rapidity of growth in the number
of pupils in oommeroial eduoation of secondary grade is al­
most startling.1
2
As early as 1904 Herriok
presented the viewpoints of businessmen
and of eduoators on the plans, aims, and ideals of business eduoation,
gathered from a study of European business eduoation praotioes.
He
reoommends three divisions of business education* one evening session, to
oare for those who cannot attend sohool during the day, another in the
seoondary sohools, and a third in the oollegea and universities.
Beoause they believed that the results of poor teaohing methods were
of greatest harm to the pupil in seoondary sohool business education, due
to the faot that more pupils on this level than there are at any other.
3
Kahn and Klien made cm investigation into the methods of teaohing book­
keeping, shorthand, typ®'»riting, offioe praotioe, and arithmetic in the
business eduoation departments of the seoondary sohool.
Courses of study
were outlined by these authors for specialization at this period of the
pupil's business eduoation.
In 1919 Halters set forth his aim in business eduoation with the
1.
2.
3.
Frederiok G. Niohols, Ccmmeroial Bduoation in the High Sohool,, p. v.
C.A. Herriok, Meaning and Praotioe of Commareial Bduoation, Chapter 10.
Joseph Kahn and Joseph J. Klien, Principles and Methods in Commercial
Eduoation, Chapters 2, 4, 5, 6, 14.
19
statement that "Several excellent volumes have been published dealing with
the history of oommeroial education, or with its methodologioal aspeots.
But so far there has been praotioally nothing produced, aside from a fee
government bulletins, which has dealt with the administrative problems of
1
oommeroial education*"
Tne book deals with the administration of business
eduoation and outlines courses neoessary for the pupil's best training.
Among these courses is one in cooperative eduoation in which pupil is given
training in the offioe, the shop, or the store while he is stillin sohool.
2
In 1922 Marvin suggested that surveys of the oommeroial activity
of the oommunity be mads to help the business eduoation department of the
high sohool to determine what oourses were needed in the field of busi­
ness.
Care should also be taken that too narrow a program does not result
from the list of vooational oourses that is quite likely to oame from suoh
a survey.
3
An earnest appeal was made by Lomax in 1928 for the applioation
of the principles of eduoation to oammeroial teaohing.
Sooiology, psy­
chology, and philosophy have muoh to offer to oommeroial eduoation, and
Lomax sought to make olear to the oommeroial teaoher how this oould be
accomplished.
If this plan is followed oommeroial eduoation will develop
along fundamental educational paths
and will be in a position to adapt
itself better to the ohanging needs of a demooratio society as that sooiety develops educationally and oommeroially.
4
Aooording to Kitson, seoondary sohools adopted oommeroial eduoa-
1.
2.
3.
4.
R.G. Tfelters, High Sohool and Oommeroial Eduoation, p. v.
Cloyd H. Marvin, Commaroial Bduoation in Seoondary Sohools, Chapter 5.
Paul S. Lomax, Commeroial Teaohing Problems, Chapter 2.
Harry D. Kitson, Oommeroial Bduoation in Seoondary Sohools, Chapter 1.
20
tion from the business oollege, to produoe oommeroial workers and to pro­
duce them quiokly.
The seoondary sohools at this point -were attempting
to acquaint young people with the elementary processes of business life;
instill an understanding of an insight into business along with the occu­
pational skills; to make business oourses a part of life and not a remote
segment; and to make business eduoatloh scientific.
Prosser stated, in his introduction to Niohols’s Commeroial Bdu­
oation in the High Sohool, that "Of all pupils preparing for business ooou­
pations in all the sohools of every kind and grade, more than two-thirds
are in the publio seoondary sohools."
Niohols comments that
Commeroial education in our publio high sohools (and else­
where) had made progress during the past soore of years;
but no one really believes that it is all that it needs to
be to meet fully the insistent demands of a rapidly chang­
ing eoonomio order....Teaohers of oommeroial subjeots must
think in terms of the field as a whole and not solely in
terms of the particular subjeots with whioh they are oonoeraed; and students in oommeroial teaoher-training insti­
tutions must not be allowed to beoome subject speoialists
who are without understanding of the larger aspeots of the
field for vhioh they are preparing. 1
Professor Niohols pleads for individual treatment of the looal problems
that confront eaoh high sohool.
He recognizes the faot that the under­
lying prinoiples are identioal with all of our high sohools but hopes the
oommeroial teaoher will see his looal problem in the light of the looal
community.
Beginning in 1929 a series of eight investigations was made into
the business eduoation praotioes of five of the western States that sur­
round Utah.
Two of the eight studies were made at Greeley State Teaohers
1. Niohols, 0£. oitl, pp. V and IX.
21
College, at Greeley, Colorado, now Colorado College of Education, and the
remaining six were oonduoted at the University of Southern California at
Los Angela8*
The first of these studies was made in 1929 at the Colorado Col1
lege of Eduoation by Colvin, a questionnaire study directed to the
teaohers of business subjects in the high sohools of Colorado.
He found
that seventy-five per oent of the high sohools offered business subjects
to the pupils; that virtually all of the instruction was oonfined to the
skill subjeots of shorthand, typewriting, and bookkeeping; that the pro­
gram offered was not extensive enough to meet the demands of business nor
the best interests of the pupils; that there was no oommeroial ourrioulum
in the State since all the subjeots in this field were elective; that
there was no attempt to adapt the ourrioulum to the needs of the pupils as
the program was virtually the same in the small and in the large high
sohools; that some of the most remunerative and desirable fields in busi­
ness were neglected in the offering to the pupils; that there was no uni­
formity in grade placements in the high sohools; that there was consider­
able variation in the time devoted to eaoh of the oommeroial subjeots, both
in the number of semesters and the length of the olass period; that the
teaching load was heavier for oammeroial teaohers than for other teaohers
in the same sohools; that the median salary was $2,500*00 for holders of
the master'8 degree and $1,650*00 for those who had the bachelor's degree;
that of all the business teaohers in the State, five per oent held the
master's degree, forty-four the bachelor's degree, and the remaining
1*
A. 0. Colvin, Cammeroial Eduoation in the Seoondary Sohools of Colorado.
United States Bureau of Eduoation, 1930, Bulletin No. 23, p. 252.
22
fifty-one per oeirfc -were evidently teaching -with no degree at all, pre­
sumably on soma speoial certificate*
In the same year, 1929, the seoond of the nine studies was made
1
from Greeley State Teaohers College by Young.
This was a questionnaire
study of business education in ihe secondary sohools of Montana.
Her
findings were that thirty-seven per oent of the high school pupils of Mon­
tana were enrolled in oammeroial subjeots; that seventy-nine per oent of
the high sohools offered bookkeeping, shorthand, and typewriting, usually
in the last two years of the high sohool course; that seventy per oent
of the typewriting xnaohines in use were Underwoods; that there was no con­
sensus of opinion concerning the textbooks used; that seventy-four per
oent of the teaohers were women and the remaining twenty-six per oent were
men; that the median salary for men was $1,420*00 per year and for women
$1,37 5*00; that after three years teaohing experience the median salary
for men was $1,700.00 per year and for women $1,500*00 per year; that
seventy-four per oent of the teaohers of business held college degrees
and the remaining twenty-six per oent were teaohing without a degree;
that eighty per oent of the teaohers had business experience averaging one
and one-half years; that eighty-four per oent of the women teaohers and
ninety-two per oent of the men teaohers had teaohing experienoe before aooepting positions in Montana.
In 1932 the status of business eduoation in California was in2
vestigated by Lane in a master's Btudy at the University of Southern
1*
2.
Rhoda Young, A Survey of Carameroial Eduoation in the Seoondary Sohools
of Montana. United States Bureau of Eduoation, 1930, Bulletin
No. 23, p* 254.
John” * Lane, Present Status of Business Teaohers in California*
23
California at Los Angeles.
He found that business eduoation subjeots were
taught in all secondary sohools of the State; that seventeen per oent of
the teaohers of business eduoation in the State had master's degrees and
that more than one-half of the remainder had the equivalent of one year of
graduate work.
An investigation into the business eduoation praotioes of the
1
small high sohools of California was made in 1934 by White in a study at
the University of Southern California at Los Angeles.
Prom this study it
was found that very little guidance was given pupils; that a wide range of
business subjeots was offered; that more than one half of these sohools
offered from two to four oourses in business in addition to shorthand,
typewriting, and bookkeeping; that sooia 1-business oourses were frequently
one semester in length; that nearly seventy-two per oent of the entire
high sohool body was enrolled in business classes; that there were two
girls for eaoh boy in business oourses; that the equipment was meager in
all of the high sohools; that about six per oent of the teaohers had no
degree; that eighly-one per oent of the teaohers had less than six years'
teaohing experience and one half had less than two years' experienoe; that
there was a definite laok of interest in business eduoation magazines; and
that about thirty per oent of the teaohers had direot charge of from fair
to six extracurricular aotivities.
2
In 1934 Rockwell made an investigation of the status of business
eduoation in Arizona.
1.
2.
She found that forty-six per oent of the high sohool
Charlotte C. "White. A Survey of Business Bduoation in the Small High
Sohools of California.
Irene S. Rookwell, Present Status of Business Bduoation in the Publio
Secondary Sohools of Arizona.
24
pupils of the State were enrolled in business oourses; that three fifths
of the sohools studied offered the usual oourses in bookkeeping, short­
hand, and typewriting; that fifteen per oent of the teaohers held the
master's degree, sixty-seven per oent held the bachelor's degree, and
eighteen per oent were teaohing without a degree; and that three fourths
of the teaohers had praotioal business experienoe*
1
The next year, 1935, Barringer made a survey of Idaho, studying
particularly the status of the teacher of business eduoation.
He found
that eight per oent of tho business teaohers had a master's degree and
eighty-four per oent a bachelor's degree.
crease in the last few years.
The latter showed a rapid in­
He reoommends a better baokground in mathe­
matics and soienoe for business teaohers, a recommendation mhioh seems
2
sound in view of the suggestion made by Lomax that business eduoation make
use of philosophy, psychology, and sooiology to furnish a better baokground
for business teaohing.
In 1936 a seoond investigation into business eduoation in the high
3
sohools of Arizona was oonduoted, this time by Porter.
His study was of
the small high sohools of the State, in whioh he found very restrioted
curricula, consisting largely of typewriting, shorthand, and bookkeeping;
that the teaohers of business subjeots were frequently trained in other
subjeots and were teaohing business with little or no training in this field.
4
In 1936 Bradshaw oonduoted the seoond investigation into the high
1. A. C. Barringer, The Status of Teaohers of Business Subjects in the
State of Idaho.
2. Lomax, 0£. pit., Chapter 2.
3. Merwin D. Porter, The Business Bduoation Curriculum in the Small Higfa
Sohools of Arizona.
4. Henry Bradshaw, The Status of Business Bduoation in the State of Montana.
25
sohools of Montana*
The first survey was made by Young in 1929*
Bradshaw
found that sligjitly more than one-half of the public seoondary sohools of­
fered business subjeots and that these subjeots were shorthand* typewrit­
ing* and bookkeeping; that the larger high sohools were beginning to add
suoh oourses as retail selling to the business ourrioulum; that the equip­
ment for business eduoation was meager; that some business teaohers were
teaohing two olasses at the same period; that there was a tendency to
eliminate double periods in skill subjeots; and that ten per oent of the
business teaohers did not have a oollege degree.
Sixty-nine teaohers re­
plied to the questionnaire from 140 high sohools in the State*
This study will determine whether or not Utah has developed in
this field as has the rest of the oountry* particularly the surrounding
States*
CHAPTER V
OBJECTIVES A N D PRBTCIPIES OF BUSINESS EDUCATION
The material presented in this ohapter consists of replies made
by twenty-five superintendents, fourty-four prinoipals, thirty-two teaohers
of aooounting, and thirty-four teaohers of stenography, as reported in
Table I, page 14.
These data represent the opinions of the administrators
and teaohers in the secondary sohools of Utah relative to the objectives
and principles of business education*
Identioal questions were pre­
sented to all groups and the replies to these questions are summarised
in the following tables.
Although the number of replies indicated above was received, not
all persons answered all questions*
centages are figured changes.
Therefore, the base on which per­
As an illustration, twenty-five replies
were returned by the superintendents, but only twenty-three answered the
first question.
Twenty-two, or ninety-six per cent, replied in the af­
firmative, and one, or four per oent, replied negatively.
26
27
TABLE III
The Kind of Thinking, or the Quality of Action, or Boiii, Which a
Person Repeals in a Business Situation, Constitutes
the Aoid Test of any Business Education’1'
Administrators
Princi­
Superin­
tendents
pals
Num­ Per
Num­ Per
ber
oent ber
cent
Replies
Teaohers
Aooount^
Stenog­
raphy
ing
Num­ Per
Num­ Per
ber
oent ber
oent
Total
dum­ !Per
ber
oent
"Yes" answers
"No" answers
22
1
96
4
38
4
90
10
28
3
90
10
29
4
88
12
117
12
Total
23
100
42
100
31
100
33
100
129
Comments added
3
2
91**
9
100
7
2
A total of ninety-one per oent of the administrators and teaohers
■who replied to this statement are in agreement with the statement oonoerning its application to business eduoation.
Six of the one hundred thirty-
five questioned did not answer the first question.
Comments were added
by seven who answered "yes" to the question.
Comments were generally that this statement is sound but that the
aim is not always realized.
The opinions were quite evenly distributed in
the four groups questioned and indicate that no group appears to believe
differently from the others in any significant degree.
The number of
comments added indioates more than just a passive agreement with the state­
ment and adds value to the replies because the individual filling in the
questionnaire limits or qualifies, his judgment as he sees fit.
It will be
* This and the following tables are entitled by the questions oontained
in the questionnaire (see Appendix, p. 480 ).
** The per cents in this and the following tables are computed to the
nearest whole number.
23
1
remembered in this connection that Koos
lists this as a desirable feature
in any questionnaire.
TABLE IV
In Regard to Question One, Do You Believe that Business Eduoation
Takes Place Only When Techniques, Thoroughly Learned, Are
Put to Work Successfully in a Real Business
Transaction?
Administrators
Superin­
Princi­
tendents
pals
Num- Per
Num­ Per
oent ber
ber
oent
Replies
Teaohers
Steno­
Account­
ing
graphy
Num­ ter
Num­ Per
ber
oent ber
oent
Total
Num­ Per
ber
oent
"Yes" answers
"No" answers
12
12
50
50
22
22
50
50
8
22
27
73
11
22
33
67
53
78
40
60
Total
24
100
44
100
SO
100
33
100
131
100
Comments added
1
6
4
3
14
Sixty per oent of the administrators and teaohers evidently be­
lieve that it is not neodssary actually to put into use, either in a vo­
cational situation or in a personal-use transaction, the information
learned in business eduoation in order to complete the prooess of business
education.
This attitude indicates a "sohool oentered" rather than a "life
oentered" viewpoint and tends to develop an aoademio presentation of busi­
ness eduoation subjeot matter.
If the training in business is put to use,
particularly during the training period, the pupil is far better prepared
to meet vocational experiences than he would be without his application.
1.
Leonard V. Koos, The Questjonnaire in Bduoation.
29
Seventy-three per oent of the teaohers of accounting and sixtyseven per cent of the teachers of stenography reported that it is not
necessary t o apply techniques and skills before business eduoation takes
place.
The administrators were evenly divided on this question*
1
Niohols
values*
regards business eduoation as full of present-day usable
He says:
Thus it should be apparent that this thing called 'general
education' no longer can be considered apart f r o m oommeroial
education.••• General eduoation is essential, b ut it must
be integrated with commercial training in such a way as to
render unjust the criticism that it is purely aoademio and
possessed of deferred values only.
It must be understood that this statement means that business edu­
cation is possessed of so many real life values that general eduoation
will of n eoessity partake of these values if associated olosely with it
and that the pupil will be able to associate these values with both general
and business eduoation while still in school*
Comments added by administrators and teaohers indioate that they
regard the use of business eduoation as one of the many faotors that will
determine its value; but that suoh use is n o t the only, nor even the main ,
factor*
1*
Frederick G. Niohols, Oommeroial Eduoation in the High Sohool, p. 231.
30
TABLE V
In Regard to Question One Again, Do You Believe that Business
Eduoation Takes Place Only When We Thoroughly and Efficiently
Train Our Pupils in Business Subjeots, Regardless of Whether
Or Not they Ever Go into Business, or What They Do in Busi­
ness If They Do Go into it as a Vooation?
Administrator s
Superin­
Prinoitendents
pa Is
Num­ Per
Num­ Per
oent
oent ber
ber
Replies
MYes” answers
,fNoM answers
12
11
52
48
30
10
75
25
Total
23
100
40
100
Comments added
2
8
Teaohers
Account­
Stenog­
ing
raphy
ifam- Per
Num­ Per
ber
oent ber
oent
22
9
31
Total
Num­
ber
Per
oent
71
29
21
11
66
34
85
41
67
33
100
32
100
126
100
2
2
14
Slightly more than two-thirds of the replies to this question were
in the affirmative.
From the replies to this and to the preceding question
it seems that neither business experience nor training alone suffioes for
business eduoation, but that both are neoessary.
The training is of para­
mount importance, however, in the opinion of both administrators and
teachers*
swers.
Comments were generally in substantiation of affirmative an­
Niohols defines oommeroial education as "a type of training which,
while playing its part in the achievement of the general aims of eduoation
on any given level, has for its primary objeotive the preparation of people
to enter upon a business career, or having entered upon suoh a career, to
render more eff ioient service therein and to advance from their present
1
levelB of employment to higher levels•"
This is in agreement with the
1.
0£» cit., p. 51.
31
opinions expressed by the administrators and teaohers in the high sohools
of Utah.
TABLE VI
The Education for Any Individual Member of Society Should
Tend to Be Composed of Both Vocational Eduoation
and of General Nonvocational Eduoation.
Administrators
SuperinPrinoitendents
pals
Num­ Per
Num­ Per
ber
oent
oent ber
Replies
Teaohers
AcoountStenoing ___ - graphy .
Num­ Per
Num­ Per
ber
oent ber
oent
Total
Num­
ber
Per
oent
"Yes" answers
"No" answers
25
0
100
39
3
93
7
31
0
100
31
2
94
6
126
5
96
4
Total
25
100
42
100
31
100
33
100
131
100
5
Comments added
1
1
7
Almost unanimous agreement m s expressed with the idea that any
individual member of sooiety should reoeive both vocational and nonvooational education.
All the comments expressed complete agreement,
exoept one from a teacher of stenography who said, "Vocational eduoation
should be given only to those who will enter business."
This comment in­
dicates that this teacher interpreted vocational eduoation to include
business exclusively.
Vocational eduoation may or may not inolude busi­
ness training, although business training is one of the important forms
of vocational eduoation.
Niohols defines vocational eduoation as "any
type of training that has for its primary objective the preparation of
1
people to engage in any gainful oooupation that is of value to society."
1.
0£. Oite | pe 43»
32
Vooational eduoation oannot successfully be separated from general edu­
oation because it oontainB much that will contribute to the ends set up
for this type of eduoation*
It does have specific job preparation, how­
ever, as its primary objective; in addition it contributes to one's general
eduoation*
A complete eduoation must include vooational education*
As
suoh eduoation enables the individual better to adjust himself to life,
it becomes "general education*"
TABLE VII
The Truly Distinctive Plate of Business Bduoation in the Total Plan
of American School Bduoation Is That Which Has to Do with the
Vooational Objective* We Do Not Say It Is the Exclusive
Phase; We Do Say that It Is the Distinctive Phase*
Administrators
Superin­
Princi­
pals
tendents
Num­ Per
Num­ Per
oent
ber
oent ber
Replies
Teachers
Total
Account­
Steno­
graphy
ing
Num- Per
Num­ Per
Num­ Per
oent
oent ber
ber
oent ber
"Yes" answers
"No" answers
22
J5
88
12
39
Jj
89
11
25
__6
81
19
27
J7
80
20
113
21
84
16
Total
25
100
44
100
31
100
34
100
134
100
Comments added
2
4
1
7
This appears to be an important statement, beoause it oonce m s a
phase of training upon whioh business eduoation must stand —
the vooa­
tional phase of the subject*
Eighty-four per oent of those addressed answered this statement
in the affirmative*
Only one teaoher of accounting failed to include it
in the questionnaire he returned*- Seven comments were added, all of whioh
were strong in their emphasis thajfc the vooational objective is the dis-
33
tinotive, though not the exclusive, phase of business education*
An attitude favorable toward the revision of the ourrioula in
business eduoation in the high sohools of Utah is expressed in the replies
to this statement because the great majority believe that business eduoa­
tion must have a strong vooational objective*
says*
In this connection Tonne
"Unless the sohools give thorough consideration to the occupa­
tional objective, they will fail in one of their prime missions —
that
of providing students with the means of earning a livelihood....Certain
phases of the camneroial program the oourses should be nade more voea-
1
tional in their scope."
An understanding of the vooational business
eduoation program oan best be aohieved when the present status of business
eduoation is fully known*
In order that this may be accomplished it will
be neoessary to determine, in each of the looal communities of the State,
the branohes or fields of service in whioh positions are available.
Further than this, it will be neoessary to inquire specifically into eaoh
occupation in order to find the speoific needs towards which training can
be directed*
1*
Herbert A. Tonne, Business fduoation, Basic Principles and Trends,
pp. 22-23*
34
TABLE VIII
Business education has a distinct contribution to make to the
general eduoation of every one in enabling the individual to
make wise use of his inocme in the provision of food, cloth­
ing, housing, reoreation, and eduoation for himself and his
family, and of protection against the risks of fire, death,
old age, illness, aooident, unemployment. Is the above a re­
sult of general eduoation and experience without the special
need or use of business eduoation?
Admin istrators
Super in­
Princi­
pals
tendents
Num­ Per
Num­ Per
ber
cent ber
oent
Replies
Total
Teaohers
Account­
Steno_ _graphy _._
ing
Num­• Per
Num­ Per Num­ Per
oent ber
oent
ber
oent ber
"Yes" answers
"No" answers
13
__8
62
58
16
25
39
61
6
24
20
80
8
25
24
76
43
J32
34
66
Total
21
100
41
100
30
100
33
100
125
100
Comments added
4
10
4
5
23
The superintendents appear to be the only group of the four ques­
tioned that believes that general education and experience are sufficient
preparation for the important personal-use phase of the eduoation of the
pupil; that there is no speoial need for business eduoation for this pur­
pose.
Of the four groups reporting, the superintendents are farthest away
from the pupil as he is trained in business eduoation and as attempts a w
made to place him in a position.
This may partly explain the apparent lack
of enthusiasm for business eduoation often displayed by administrators.
If any group believeB that general eduoation and experience are
sufficient preparation for pupils in this respect, it is but natural that
it should regard business eduoation as unnecessary for this purpose and as
vooational in nature.
It appears essential that superintendents of the
35
sohool districts of Utah be eduoated in this vital matter before business
eduoation can best make it6 contribution to general eduoation in the high
sohools of the State.
1
In this situation Lomax
states that business eduoation
represents on the one hand, a kind of business eduoation that
has to do with alleoonomio enterprise and therefore oonoems
all students; and, on the other hand, a kind of speoialized
vooational eduoation that concerns a major group of high
sohool and college students who plan to pursue oommeroial
employments.•..Oommeroial eduoation and so oalled academic
eduoation are rightly complementary, not antagonistic, and
each constitutes the strength of the other in the total
well-rounded eduoation of oommeroial pupils.
The remainder of the groups questioned report that they regard busi­
ness eduoation as essential in providing pupils with intelligent personaluse business information and skills.
The comments added indioate that There general eduoation does not
provide this information business eduoation certainly would help.
Others
believe that business eduoation should be a part of all eduoation, while
still others express themselves as of the opinion that general eduoation
should contain more of the training neoessary to accomplish this end, but
that it should remain under general eduoation. In regard to this last
2
viewpoint, Lyon points out the inadequacy of general eduoation to do
thi^ when he says, "Sooial-business subjeots, directed and taught as they
are, sometimes by striotly commercially minded individuals and sometimes
by persons of purely classioal training, cannot be relied upon to present
any definite body of knowledge or consistent point of view."
1.
2.
Paul S. Lomax, Oommeroial Teaohing Problems, p. 27.
Legerett S. Lyon, Eduoation for Business, p. 382.
To him, train-
36
lug and sooial-mindedness of the teacher seem of great importance in the
presentation of knowledge and attitudes neoessary to aid the pupil in
later life in his efforts to earn and intelligently to spend his inoome.
If the teacher of general eduoation is prepared to perform this service,
well and good.
this.
The fact is that he is not, in all oases, trained to do
Sinoe the majority of the sohool officials of Utah report that they
are in aooord with this viewpoint, it is a natural starting point for a
united effort of all oonoerned to include business training for personal
use in the field of business eduoation rather than in other branches of
education.
TABLE IX
Facilities should be provided to enable every individual
to develop a better understanding, through business edu­
oation, of economic principles and their application in
the every day affairs of life.
Administrat ors
SuperinIbrinci­
tements
pals
Num­ Per
Num­ Per
oent ber
oent
ber
Replie s
Teaohers
AccountS>tenoing
graphy
Num­ Per
Num­ Per
ber oent
oent
ber
Total
Num­ Per
ber
oent
"Yes” answers
"No” answers
24
JL
96
__4
30
_J5
86
14
32
100
33
__
100
-
119
6
95
__ 5
Total
25
100
35
100
32
100
33
100
125
100
Comments added
3
3
2
2
10
The high percentage of agreement with this statement indicates
that both administrators and teaohers feel keenly that something should be
done to make it possible for every pupi} in high sohool to receive train­
ing in eoonomio principles and in -the application of these principles to
37
the problems of life*
It is to be noted, further, that in answering this
statement, the emphasis is upon eoGnomic eduoation through business edu­
cation*
Thecomments add an interesting touoh to this problem*
the ten-mho answered "no" added in a ooptoent that
end but
Six: of
this was a desirable
thatbusiness eduoation should not assume this task*
Of those
who answered Myes,n only two objected to business eduoation taking the lead
in this field*
None of these reports opposing the idea that business
eduoation take this task over came from teachers of business education*
TABLE X
How long, in your judgment, will it require to provide
such facilities in our sohools?
Administrators
SuperPrinoiintendpals
ents
Range
Range
In years
Mean, in years
Median, in years
Number of answers
received
Number of comments
added
Teaohers
Account­ Steno­
ing
graphy
Total
Range
Range
Range
1-20
6*3
2-20
1-20
1-iO
1-10
10
5
5
3
13
IS
9
13
2
10
6
7
The superintendents reported that in their judgment it would re­
quire from two to twenty years to provide faoilities to teaoh all pupils
the fundamentals of eoonomio principles and the application of these
principles to the everyday affairs of life*
the superintendents was ten.
The median years reported by
Two years was the shortest period reported
(by two superintendents), and twenty years the longest period (also re-
38
ported by two superintendents).
Thirteen comments were added to this ques­
tion, ranging from finanoial stringency an a limiting factor, to the need
for sohool offioials and the public to become converted to this idea.
reported ”immediately" and some ’’several years.”
Same
In no case was it sug­
gested that it should not be done.
The principals believed that it would require from one to twenty
years to provide these facilities; the median number of years was five.
One principal reported one year and another twenty years.
Fifteen oamments
were made on this question, one that the taxpayer must be converted to this
need and another that the boards of eduoation must be made oonsoious of
the problem.
It seems to the investigator that a very important point is made
by the principals * that the taxpayers and boards of eduoation must be edu­
cated to the neoessity of providing this information for the high sohool
pupil.
Perhaps evening meetings or classes might be nade available for
community round-table discussion.
Out of these meetings should develop
a oonviotion either for or against this step.
Only one principal mentioned
the finanoial difficulty involved, and two others said they wer-a doing
some of it at the present time.
Other comments were largely to the effect
that these desirable ends might be accomplished same time in the indefinite
future.
The accounting teaohers reported from one to ten years as the time
neoessary to accomplish this end, with five years as the median.
Nine
comments were made to this question; four that it oould be done in the
immediate future, four that it would require many years, and one said,
"I don't know.” Only one mentioned finanoial needs as a limiting factor.
39
The teaohera of stenography reported the same time limit as did
the teaohers of accounting —
from one to ten years*
three years, tie lowest median reported*
The median here was
Thirteen comments ware made,
largely to the effeot that it could be accomplished now, or ae soon as
the American public oould be converted to the idea*
One teacher commented
that it oould be accomplished as soon as the administrators were made to
realize the importanoe of it*
The range for the entire group was from one to twenty years, and
the mean for the entire group was six and three-tenths years*
TABLE XI
When they are provided, how long will it take in sohool
years, to make these objectives a part of the student's
life to the extent that he will use them?
Administrators
Superin­ Princi­
pals
tendents
Range in years
Median years
Mean for all reports
Number of oomments
Number of replies
1-12
4
1-12
3
Teaohers
Steno­
Account­
graphy
ing
1-10
3
Mean for
all reports
1-6
2
3
7
22
14
35
9
24
4
25
The replies to this question follow -fee same general tendency
noted in the answers to the preceding question; that is, the length of
time estimated decreasing from the superintendents to the teaohers of
business subjeots.
This cppears to be a natural tendency, for teaohers
see only the problem as stated in the question.
Administrators are faced
with the neoessity of shaping the policies of the sohool and of furnishing
40
finanoial support for any new departure in the educational program.
In
addition, they see the immediate problems involved in the question at
hand.
Very naturally they are more conservative in their time estimates
than are the teaohers, who are inalined to see but the one problem before
them.
The range in years reported is from one to twelve for the adminis­
trator group to one to six years for the teaohers of stenography.
The
mean for all of the reports was three years, a remarkably short period of
time in whioh to initiate and put into suooessful operation any new idea
or plan in education.
Comments on this question were fairly numerous, indioating that a
”y®s” or a "no” answer is not sufficient to explain fully the beliefs of
those answering the questionnaire.
The superintendents, in their seven
oomments, indicate that in their opinions the length of time neoessary to
accomplish these ends would depend upon the type of teaohing and upon the
age of the pupil when this training was begun.
Sinoe the median reported
for this group was four years, the majority seem to believe that this train­
ing should not be begun before the pupil reaches high sohool, in order
that the training oould be aooamplished not earlier than the end of the
fourth year in high sohool.
If this were the situation the age of the
pupil at the time this training was begun oould be determined, and more
efficient and direct teaohing results would follow than would be the case
if the age of the pupil was left as a variable in the situation.
The principals' oomments number fourteen.
Eight of this number
believe that this end in business eduoation oould be accomplished within
from one to three years, provided the most effioient teaohing methods were
41
applied, particularly in the small high sohools where good teaohers are
not so oommon as in the larger high schools*
The remaining six principals
qualified their answers with statements oonoeming the necessity of ade­
quate equipment and teaohing personnel*
The teachers* comments were largely to the effeot that this end in
business eduoation oould be accomplished during the high sohool period,
with the exception of one, which stated that it would require constant ef­
fort during the entire sohool life of the pupil*
TABLE XII
Existing vocational business oourses should not be
utilized as the means of giving consumer education,
except in a purely incidental way.
Administrators
Superin­
Princi­
tendents
pals
Num­ Per
Num- Per
ber
oent ber
cent
Replies
Teaohers
Account­
Steno­
graphy
ing
Num­ Per
Num­ Per
oent
ber
oent ber
Total
Num­ Per
ber
oent
"Yes" answers
”No" answers
14
11
56
44
20
20
50
_J50
15
14
52
48
14
JL5
48
52
63
60
51
49
Total
25
100
40
100
29
100
29
100
123
100
Comments added
2
8
2
4
16
The replies to this statement were almost evenly divided between
positive and the negative.
Four principals stated that consumer eduoation
might well became a part of present nonbusiness eduoation oourses, although
they failed to mention irihioh oourses they had in mind.
But one teacher
reported the need for consumer eduoation in existing business eduoation
oourses*
42
It is apparent that none of the four groups oontaoted believes
predominately that there is a necessity for making use of existing busi­
ness oourse8 for the purpose of giving oonsumer eduoation; nor that speoial
oourses should be organized.
No definite policy is indioated, unless the very slight majority
in favor of speoial oourses oould be interpreted as indicating a need for
such oourses.
TABLE XIII
Vooational business eduoation oourses in high sohool should be
so planned and administered that they enable the graduates of
suoh oourses to meet the employment demands of the community
to be served ~ both in the type of position to be trained for
and in the quality of preparation aohieved by the high sohool
pupil.
Total
Teaohers
Administrators
Steno­
AoooUntSuperin­
Princi­
graphy.
tendents
pals
_____
Num­ Per
Num­ Per
Num­ Per
Num- Per
Num­ Per
ber
oent
oent ber
oent ber
oent ber
oent ber
Replies
"Yes’* answers
"No” answers
Total
Comments added
18
JL
72
28
31
12
72
28
24
_8
75
25
30
__3
91
__9
103
30
77
23
25
100
43
100
32
100
33
100
133
100
7
19
9
3
38
Seventy-seven per oent of the administrators and teaohers in the
high sohools of Utah believe that the vooational business eduoation oourses
should prepare pupils to assume positions in the community, evidently
without the necessity of further eduoation for this purpose.
The vooa­
tional business eduoation oourses should meet the employment demands of
the oommunity, both in the types of positions trained for and in the quality
43
of preparation.
Just less than three fourths of the administrators reported that
the high sohool should furnish adequate training for employment in the oom­
meroial field*
Four of the nineteen principals oommented that the high
sohool was not the institution to give vooational training.
They suggested
that business oolleges or institutions of higher eduoation assume this
responsibility.
The remaining oomments dealt with the difficulty of de­
termining the community to whioh the graduate would go and therefore the
impossibility of satisfying the employment needs of -the community*
Ap­
parently the administrators regard the difficulty of determining the future
community of the pupil as of more importance than the question of whether
or not the high sohool should give definite vooational preparation to its
pupils.
The teaohers of stenography and of accounting reported positively
on this question by a percentage of ninety-one and seventy-five, respec­
tively.
The belief that the high sohool should furnish vooational train­
ing to its pupils evidently is held to a greater extent by these groups
than by the administrators.
Only two teaohers, as compared with four ad­
ministrators, oommented that the high school should not assume the vooa­
tional objectives*
Two of the aooounting teaohers thought that if the
business college oould give this vooational training successfully, then
the high sohool oould and should do as well*
Only one teaoher raised the
point that it was difficult to determine the future community of the pupil*
Two important points are made here s first, that the vooational
needs of the oommunity should be known and training should be developed to
prepare for these needs, and seoond, that the high school should assume
43
of preparation*
Just less than three fourths of the administrators reported that
the high sohool should furnish adequate training for employment in the oom­
meroial field*
Four of the nineteen prinoipals oommented that the high
sohool was not the institution to give vooational training*
They suggested
that business oolleges or institutions of higher eduoation assume this
responsibility.
The remaining oomments dealt with the difficulty of de­
termining the community to whioh the graduate would go and therefore the
impossibility of satisfying the employment needs of the community.
Ap­
parently the administrators regard the difficulty of determining the future
oommunity of the pupil as of more importance than the question of whether
or not the high sohool should give definite vooational preparation to its
pupils.
The teaohers of stenography and of accounting reported positively
on this question by a percentage of ninety-one and seventy-five, respec­
tively.
The belief that the high sohool should furnish vooational train­
ing to its pupils evidently is held to a greater extent by these groups
than by the administrators*
Only two teaohers, as oompared with four ad­
ministrators, oommented that the high sohool should not assume the vooa­
tional objectives*
Two of the aooounting teaohers thought that if the
business college oould give this vooational training successfully, then
the high sohool oould and should do as well*
Only one teaoher raised the
point that it was diffioult to determine the future oommunity of the pupil*
Two important points are made here: first, that the vooational
needs of the community should be known and training should be developed to
prepare for these needs, and seoond, that the high sohool should assume
44
the responsibility of training pupils in vocational skills and information
to fit them far employment upon graduation*
TABLE XIV
It is not enough to prepare for "business” nor for "office work,"
for "store work," for "selling," or for "olerioal work*" These
are fields of service, not spec ifio occupations for whioh train­
ing oan be given* They must be broken down into their component
parts so that technical knowledge, occupational understanding,
and essential skills may be made the basis of suitable instruc­
tion, study, and praotioe.
Administrators
Superin­
Prinoi­
tendents
pals
Num­ Per
Num­■ Per
ber
oent ber
oent
Replies
"Yes" answers
"No" answers
19
J5
79
21
JL
Total
24
100
35
Comments added
3
29
9
Teaohers
Steno­
Aocountgraphy
. ing
Num- Per
Num­ Per
ber
oent ber
oent
Total
Num­
ber
Per
oent
83
17
21
_9
70
30
25
_6
81
19
94
26
78
22
100
30
100
31
100
120
100
4
4
20
The analysis of these fields of service into occupations for which
training oan be given is neoessary, in the opinion of the majority —
seventy-eight per oent -- of the administrators and teaohers to whom this
questionnaire was directed*
Comments added were largely statements that the local high sohool
is not organised at the present time for this more intensive type of busi­
ness training, or that it stresses the vooational objective too strongly*
The positive oomments were to the effect-that this is a desirable feature
of business eduoation, especially in the larger high sohools, since a de­
mand for this type of training exists among employers in larger communities*
45
Perhaps the most important point is that the school personnel as
a whole reoognizes the necessity for this type of analysis.
TABLE XV
Short unit courses in such skill subjects as typewriting
and shorthand should be organized for ihose who want these
subjeots for personal use* Suoh courses should be avail­
able only to those who can profit by taking them, and
should be given only at a time not too far distant from
the need of the resultant skills*
Administrators
Princi­
Superin­
tendents
pals
Num­ Per
Num­ Per
ber
oent ber
oent
Replies
Teaohers
Steno­
Aooounting
graphy
.
Num­ Per
Num­ Per
ber
oent ber
oent
Total
Num­ Per
ber oent
"Yes" answers
"No" answers
21
_4
84
16
33
22
77
23
27
_4
87
13
29
__3
91
__9
110
21
84
16
Total
25
100
43
100
31
100
32
100
131
100
Comments added
1
5
9
5
20
Eighty-four per oent of the superintendents and seventy-seven per
cent of the principals reported "yes" to this statement, in comparison with
eighty-seven per oent of the accounting teachers and ninety-one per oent
of the teachers of stenography.
For the entire group, eighty-four per oent
are in agreement that the organization of short unit skill oourses for per­
sonal use should be made possible and that the time these oourses should
be given should not be too far distant from the time the pupil will find
use for them*
Three accounting teaohers and three principals *ho reported "no"
to this question believe that the business college should assume respon­
sibility for these personal-use subjects as well as for vocational training
46
for occupational use*
All the teaohers of stenography, with the exception
of two, were in agreement that these short unit skill oourses should be
established*
One of those disagreeing believed that it would be satisfac­
tory for shorthand but not for typewriting, the other that it would be suc­
cessful for typewriting but not for shorthand.
TABLE XVI
There must be a clear recognition of the faot that those who
are aooepted for advanced vocational business training, after
a tryout for one year in a oourse open to all students, or by
some other selective process, must possess oertain aptitudes,
interests and abilities, and that those who are not poten­
tially trainable for and plaoeable in commercial jobs should
be denied entrance into these oourses for a seoond year of
training under specifically vocational-training programs of
study.
Administrators
SuperinPrinoitendents
pals
Num­ Per
Num­ Per
ber
oent ber
oent
Replies
Teaohers
AccountStenoing
graphy
Num­ Per
Num­ Per
oent
ber
oent ber
Total
Num­
ber
Per
oent
"Yes'1 answers
"No" answers
20
__5
80
20
37
_7
84
16
27
J5
84
16
30
J5
90
10
114
20
85
15
Total
25
100
44
100
32
100
33
100
134
100
Comments added
3
One person —
8
a teacher of stenography —
statement among those answered.
highest percentage —
4
4
19
failed to include this
This represents the greatest number and the
ninety-nine and three tenths —
of the questions thus far considered*
of returns to any
The returns show a progressive in­
crease in affirmative answers from the superintendents to the teaohers of
stenography.
The average percentage of affirmative answers, eighty-five.
47
is indicative that the great majority of officials and teachers in Utah
believe that a selection of potential vocational business eduoation pupils
should be made before vocational training is begun.
It also indioates a
disposition to regard the first year of shorthand and typewriting as prevocational tryouts.
Of the superintendents mho answered "no" only one added a oomment.
Fe believed the doubtful pupils should be given modified vocational busi­
ness eduoation.
This is not a negative report to this question but a
limitation of it.
Two principals who answered Mno" believed that present tests were
too faulty, evidently regarding the selection as from tests rather than
upon demonstrated performance.
Another principal who answered "no" com­
mented that this was not a democratic procedure.
All eight teaohers who added oomments replied in the affirmative,
their comments dealing with methods to make the tryout more effective.
The significance of the reports to this statement should not be
overlooked, because the adoption of suoh a procedure would have at least
two major effeots on business eduoation in Utah.
The first of these ef­
fects would be to limit the number of pupils tfio elect business eduoation
as a major vocational study, with the result that higher standards of ac­
complishment would be possible in smaller seleoted classes.
The second
effect would be that the pupils would be far better prepared to carry on
in a business vocation beoause of the selection made before training was
begun.
48
TABLE XVII
Satisfactory vocational business eduoation must be
based upon a program of guidance which includes se­
lection, placement and follow-up of all persons who
take this type of training.
Administrators
SuperinPrinoitendents
pals
Num­ Per
Num­ Per
oent ber
oent
ber
Replies
Teaohers
AccountStenoing
graphy
Num­ Per
Num­ Per
oent ber
oent
ber
Total
Num­ Per
ber
oent
"Yes” answers
"No" answers
23
2
92
8
44
100
30
1
97
3
32
100
129
3
98
2
Total
25
100
44
100
31
100
32
100
132
100
Comments added
3
2
4
3
12
Ninety-eight per oent of the teaohers and administrators in the
high schools of Utah believe that a program of guidance, which includes
placement and follow-up of all pupils after they get a position, is de­
sirable.
Only one of the three mho answered "no" to this question added
a comment, which
was to the effect that guidanoe,placement, and follow?up
should not be attempted in high school,
but should be deferred until the
pupil reaches the junior or the senior college level.
If this guidance service is not given the high sohool pupil but is
deferred until he reaohes the college level, many will not reoeive this
important service, since the great majority of the graduating olass does
not go on to college.
Likewise, since only sixteen per oent of the tenth-
grade pupils remain in high sohool to graduate, and the remaining number
will not reoeive
this vital help, often affecting the entire life of the
pupil (see Table LII, page 100).
49
Comments by the teaohers indicate the difficulty of initiating a
guidance program in the high sohool with the present force of teachers.
This problem must be met if this desirable program is to be put into
operation in the high schools of the State.
TABLE XVIII
The results of instruction in vocational business edu­
oation oourses must be measured more efficiently and
convincingly through the use of new testing devices,
careful placement of graduates, and follow-up work to
determine the degree of success achieved and the short­
comings whioh are revealed in their work on the job.
Teaohers
Administrators
Supe riiiPrinoi AccountStenotendents
pals
.
A»6______ graphy
Num­ Per
Num­ Per
Num­ Per
Num­ Per
oent
ber
oent ber
oent ber
oent ber
Replies
"Yes" answers
"No" answers
24
Total
24
Comments added
4
98
__2
29
_2
94
__6
32
.
43
_1
100
44
100
31
100
32
100
2
6
100
——
1
100
Total
Num­ Per
ber oent
128
__3
98
__2
131
100
13
The superintendents and the teaohers of stenography reported
unanimously that better means of measurement of vocational teaching ef­
ficiency is necessary in the high schools of Utah.
Ninety-eight per oent
of the principals and ninety-four per oent of the teaohers of accounting
are in agreement with this statement.
This represents a very thorough
agreement upon the necessity of adopting a more oamplete testing program
in vocational business eduoation teaching.
Two of the thirteen comments raise the question of the high sohool
vocational objeotive in business eduoation, stating, "It is not the duty
50
of the high sohool to train vocationally; this should be done by the busi­
ness oollege*"
The remaining eleven comments report favorably upon -fcis
statement but again raise the point of the financial difficulty to be over­
come in order to reach this desirable objective*
TABLE XIX
The business curriculum should be developed in the light of
the business needs of the ocmmunity , not necessarily of the
community alone in which the pupil lives, but also of the
one in whioh he is likBly to be later enployed*
Admin istrat ors
Superin­
Princi­
tendents
pals
Num- Per
Num­ Per
ber
oent ber
oent
Replies
"Yes” answers
"No" answers
25
Total
25
Comments added
4
100
100
Teaohers
AooountSteno­
graphy
ing
Num­ Per
Num­ Per
ber
oent
oent ber
_
Total
.
40
__4
90
10
_Z
94
__6
33
__1
97
__3
127
__7
95
__5
44
100
31
100
34
100
134
100
4
29
Num­ Per
ber
oent
3
1
12
Complete agreement was expressed by the superintendents with the
idea that the business eduoation curriculum should be developed in rela­
tion to the needs of the emjloying oommunity*
The remainder of the groups
are very muoh in aooord with the ideal expressed, with ninety per oent of
the principals, ninety-four per oent of the teachers of accounting and
ninety-seven per oent of the teachers of stenography reporting agfeement
with it*
Of the seven who answered "no” to the question, three commented
that we oannot foretell the future oommunity, that it depends upon the
pupil, since he can always expand, once he gets started*
The comments of
51
those in favor of this plan state -that it is an ideal situation —
however, that can be realized —
one,
and that we must develop faoilities to
foretell what the employment possibilities are in all communities*
That some such plan is feasible both locally and nationally is
indicated in a statement made by Dr* George N* Schuster, President of
Hunter College, in his inaugural address*
He stated:
"We see that it ie
not wholly fantastic to surmise that under joint auspices there oould be
prepared a relatively scientific report or foreoast of employment in the
city, and beyond that a survey of the probable vocational future of the
1
nation as a whole*"
TABLE XX
The business ourrioulum can best be adjusted to meet
the business needs of the oommunity through the en­
lightened ooopemtion of the business workers and the
educational workers of the community*
Admini strator s
Prinoiteindents
pals
Num­ Per
Num­ Per
ber
oent ber
oent
Superin-
Replies
Teaohers
AccountStanoNum­ Per
oent
ber
...srsplsr....
Num­ Per
oent
ber
Total
Num­ Per
ber
oent
"Yes" answers
"No" answers
25
100
43
1
98
2
29
2
94
6
32
100
129
3
98
2
Total
25
100
44
100
31
100
32
100
132
100
Comments added
2
1
3
This is the third oonseoutive statement answered in the affirmative
by ninety-eight per oent of those questioned*
1*
The superintendents and the
George N. Sohuster, Inaugural Address as President of Hunter College,
Hew York Herald Tribune, October 11, 1940, p. 23*
52
teaohers of staiography reported unanimously in favor of the suggestion.
Three comments added to the affirmative answers indicated thorough agree­
ment on the part of the administrators and teaohers in the high schools of
Utah that the business eduoation ourrioula oan best be adapted to the needs
of the pupils and of the oommunity through the cooperation of the business­
men and the educators of the communities conoerned.
This agreement seems
significant in that it adds weight to a recommendation that business edu­
oation ourrioula in the State be revised in the ligjht of this procedure.
TABLE XXI
Should short intensive oourses be given by the public
high sohool to enable those not in full-time high sohool
to improve business skills already possessed and to
learn new ones?
Admini str ato rs
Super in­
Princi­
tend ents
pals
.
Num- Per
Num­ Per
ber
oent ber
oent
Replies
Teaohers
Account­
Steno... graphy
ing
Num­ Per
Num­ Per
ber
oent
oent ber
Total
Num­
ber
Per
oent
"Yes” answers
"No" answers
25
100
37
_4
90
_10
24
J5
80
20
23
_9
72
28
109
19
85
15
Total
25
100
41
100
30
100
32
100
128
100
Comments added
5
10
4
7
26
The superintendents were the only group to report one hundred per
oent agreement that these short oourses for pupilB not regularly in high
sohool be added to the business eduoation ourrioula.
This seems significant to the investigator since the superintendents
realize, better than any other group, the financial inoreases that will ac­
company suoh a program because of tKe increased teaoher personnel, equip-
53
ment, supplies, teaching space, and other factors that such training will
incur.
Of the nineteen who answered "no” to the question, nine believed
that some sohool other than the public high sohool should offer this train­
ing.
The majority named the business oollege and the remainder the evening
sohools and colleges.
The ocmments indioate that the ohief difficulty is
finanoia 1.
With opinion so strongly in favor of this type of eduoational
servioe, steps should be taken to determine the probable costs, as well as
the type of training that will best fit the needs of the pupil seeking
this training.
With this information, steps can be taken to make this ex­
pressed need an actual offering to the public of ihe State.
1
In this connection Norton
suggests that introductory survey
oourses be provided for the pupil who leaves sohool before graduation and
that vocational sohools be set up to provide training for all pupils who
oannot attend sohool after graduation.
These should be full-time day
sohools or part-time evening schools.
1.
Thomas L. Norton, Eduoation for Work.
quiry, pp. 141-143.
Report of the Regent*s In­
54
TABLE XXII
Some effort should be made to adjust the number of persons
electing vocational business oourses to the employment re­
quirements of the oommunity — keeping in mind the geographi­
cal extent of the employment oommunity.
Administrators
Superin­
Princi­
tendents
pals
Num­ Per
Num­ Per
oent
ber
oent ber
Replies
Teaohers
Steno­
Aooountgraphy
_ ing
Num­ Per
Num- Per
oent
ber
oent ber
Total
Num­
ber
Per
oent
"Yes” answers
nNo” answers
_2
92
__8
35
__9
80
20
26
_6
81
19
28
_5
85
15
112
22
84
16
Total
25
100
44
100
32
100
33
100
134
100
Comments added
23
3
9
4
3
19
Eighty-four per oent of the administrators and teaohers believe
that some effort should be made to adjust the number of pupils electing
vocational business eduoation to the employment demands of the larger com­
munity to whioh these graduates may go seeking employment.
All members of
the group questioned except one teacher of stenography replied to this
statement.
The comments of the sixteen per oent of the teaohers who reported
negatively seem to suggest a tendenoy toward the laissez-faire attitude of
permitting the situation to work itself out some time in the future.
Two
teaohers reported that it would tend to deorease the nuidber of pupils nfro
would attend college, assuming that the plan would deorease the number at­
tending high sohool and consequently the number who might attend college
after high sohool had been finished.
The adninistrators reveal a more demooratio attitude in their ocan-
55
meats, stating that the needs of the child should be plaoed ahead of the
needs of the community.
itself do just that*
If suoh a program -were inaugurated it would of
The needs of the pupil would be squarely met by as­
certaining the needs of the oommunity first and then training pupils in
subjeots that would prepare them for positions available within the oom­
munity.
Other administrators state that the oommunity grows surprisingly
fast and hence, the problem of defining it arises in their minds.
If the
statement is referred to, it will suggest that this wider geographioal
oommunity is indicated and the need for defining its limits diminishes in
importance with the adoption of this idea of the community.
TABLE XXIII
Vocational business eduoation must
include specific attention to the
development of job intelligence.
Replies
Administrators
SuperinPrinoitendents
pals
Num­ Per
Num­ Per
ber
oent ber
oent
Total
Teachers
AccountStenioing
graphy . .
Num­ Per
Num­ Per
Num­ Per
oent ber
oent
oent ber
ber
"Yes" answers
"No” answers
23
JL
96
4
44
100
31
1
97
3
33
100
131
2
99
1
Total
24
100
44
100
32
100
33
100
133
100
Comments added
1
1
Job intelligence, or occupational intelligence, is defined by
1
Nichols when he says that "employers demand something more -then skill and
oharaoter; they want their employees to be intelligent about the limitations
1.
Frederick G. Nichols, Commercial Education in the Hlgjh Sohool, p. 161.
56
of their initial positions, about their occupational relationships, about
promotional possibilities, and about their own. part in seouring desired
advancement."
Following this definition he lists fifteen suggestions
from employers, defining the items they wish employees to be intelligent
about•
Ninety-nine per oent of those questioned on this subjeot agree that
the development of job intelligence should be inoluded in vocational train­
ing in business eduoation as something the pupil can be trained to prac­
tise.
One teaoher of accounting and one superintendent reported "no” to
this question.
Neither of them added a comment.
ment was received, and that from a prinoipal.
In faot, only one oom­
He stated that we should
"oall it common sense.”
The faot that almost all of those questioned on this subject
agree that job intelligence should be inoluded in the business educational
program makes a compelling recommendation that this be accomplished.
TABLE XXIV
Vocational business eduoation should be given principally
on the (oheok your choice) Junior High sohool level
,
Senior High Sohool level
, Junior College level___ ,
Senior College level
.
Administrators
SuperinPrinoitendents
pals
Num- Per
Num- Per
ber oent ber oent
5
36
43
16
100
high sohool
high sohool
oollege
oollege
1
14
18
5
38
3
22
26
10
61
1
23
23
6
53
2
43.5
43.5
11
100
Total
Num- Per
ber oent
2.5
5
72 36.7
92 47
27 13.8
196* 100
* Several administrators and teaohbrs checked two or three levels of educa­
tion upon which vocational business should be given. This aooounts
for the 196 reports from the 135 administrators and teachers.
Junior
Senior
Junior
Senior
Total
3
37
47
13
100
Teaohers
Account­
Steno­
graphy
ing
Num- Per
Num- Per
ber oent ber oent
13
25
6
44
29
57
14
100
57
Forty-seven per oent of the sohool administrators and teaohers
of Utah report that vocational business eduoation should be given prin­
cipally on the junior oollege level, with the senior high sohool placed
second, the senior oollege third, and the junior high sohool last*
It is
significant that eaoh of the four groups questioned, with the exception of
the accounting teaohers, who were evenly divided, placed the junior ool­
lege level first.
It seems somewhat surprising that so many administrators and
teaohers would plaoe suoh emphasis upon the junior oollege then it is seen
from Table LII, page 100, that but sixteen per oent of the tenth-grade
pupils in business eduoation graduate from high sohool and but one per oent
attends oollege.
Evidently the beliefs of both administrators and teaohers
are at varianoe with the expressed praotioes in the high sohools of the
State.
58
TABLE XXV
The type of vooational business eduoation needed in
this oommunity, in the order of importance, is*
1. Agricultural, inoluding farm bookkeeping, marketing,
budgeting, investments, family and farm purchasing
2? Personal-use business eduoation, inoluding budgeting,
investment, insurance, understanding of money, taxa­
tion, personal finanoing
3. Stenographic
4. Clerical "general office -work"
5. Bookkeeping
6. Machine operation, oaloulating, posting, duplicating
and dictation maohine s
7. Filing
3. Retail selling
9, Small shop operation, filling stations, eto.
Items
5th
1st
2nd
3d
4th
First plaoe
Seoond plaoe
Third plaoe
Fourth plaoe
Fifth plaoe
Sixth plaoe
Seventh plaoe
Eighth plaoe
Ninth plaoe
41
21
1
3
2
2
1
1
1
28
33
4
2
6
1
1
11
12
21
13
4
7
1
1
9
8
12
11
17
4
1
4
5
10
13
15
15
5
2
1
Item checked, no
rank given
40
30
7
7
10
Rank order
6th
7th
8th
9tl
1
3
27
8
8
8
8
3
4
7
1
1
4
8
8
17
21
3
10
24
17
1
3
10
20
5
14
4
7
2
6
5
9
*This item, while not dealing with vooational business eduoation ex­
clusively, was inoluded for the p u r p o s e of securing the opinions
of administrators and teachers concerning this phase of the
business pupil's eduoation.
This table should be read as follows:
Forty-one administrators
and teaohers ranked item number one in first plaoe, twenty-eight rankBd
item number two in first plaoe, and so on aoross the table.
Twenty-one
pl&oed item one in seoond plaoe, thirty-three placed item two in second
plaoe, eto.
59
In order to determine the relative importance with whioh adminis­
trators and teaohers regard the nine items in this table, eaoh rank was
given a weight.
First plaoe was weighted nine, seoond eight, and so on
down to ninth plaoe with a weight of one.
one.
The oheok was also weighted with
From this arrangement the following results were obtained:
Item num­
ber one was placed in first plaoe with 626 points; item number two was
seoond with 621 points; item number four was third with 416 points; item
number three was fourth with 386 points; item number nine was fifth with
383 points; item number eight was sixth with 341 points; item number five
was seventh with 301 points;item number six was eighth with 144 points;
and item number seven was plaoed in the last position with a total of 122
points•
Agricultural business eduoation was plaoed first; personal-use
business eduoation, whioh is nonvooational in nature, was plaoed seoond
by a few points.
Clerical and general offioe work was third, and stenographic
training fourth.
If the opinions of administrators and teaohers in re­
gard to the type of business eduoation needed in the high sohools of Utah
are indioative of the real needs, it appears that additional stress should
be plaoed upon the agricultural business eduoation, upon personal-use
business eduoation, and upon olerioal and general offioe work.
stenography will require little ohange in emphasis.
Perhaps
Stress should be
plaoed upon small-shop training and upon retail-selling instruction, sinoe
these two fields were ranked fifth and sixth, respectively.
Indioat ions
are that bookkeeping as it is given at the present time should be more
olosely linked with the agricultural life of the pupil.
Maohine operation
and filing appear to be less important than the other fields mentioned.
60
This ranking of the items in the business eduoation program is
indicative again of the need of a rather complete revision of the exist­
ing business eduoation curriculum.
If this revision is undertaken with
the aotive interest of the educational a nd business workers in the various
communities, a program of training mare in keeping with the needs of the
pupil should result.
TABLE X2VI
Business eduoation should develop a better under­
standing of the foundations of our eoonomio order*
Adminis tra tors
Superin­
Princi­
tendents
pals
Num­ Per
Num­ Per
ber
oent ber
oent
Replies
Teacher b
Account*
Steno­
graphy
ing
Num- P e r
N u m ­ Per
ber
oent ber
oent
Total
Num­
ber
Per
cent
nY e s M answers
"No” answers
24
100
44
100
29
1
97
3
31
100
128
1
99
1
Total
24
100
44
100
30
100
31
100
129
100
Comments added
3
3
Only one negative report was made in reply to this statement —
f r o m a teacher of accounting, without comment —
although six did not reply*
The three ocmments added by the principals were corroborative in nature,
although one o f these stated that his a i m oould be b e t t e r accomplished
through other courses.
Opinion seems to be very w e l l solidified behind the statement that
business eduoation should assume the responsibility of developing in the
pupil a better understanding of our eoonomio order*
Attention is fooused
u p o n sooial business eduoation in-the high sohools of the State as the
possible agency for achieving this objeotivd.
61
TABLE XXVII
Business eduoation should strive to develop a more
sooial viewpoint than we generally have at present
of the funotions o f business in a democracy*
Administrators
Superin­
Princi­
pals
tendents
Num­ Per
N u m ­ Per
ber
oent ber
oent
Replies
Teaohers
Account­
Steno­
graphy
ing
Nu m ­ Per
N u m ­ Per
ber
oent ber
oent
Total
N um­
ber
Per
oent
"Yes" answers
"No" answers
95
__ 5
41
__ 1
98
__ 2
29
_1
97
__ 3
30
100
_1
122
___ 3
98
___ 2
Total
23
100
42
100
30
100
30
100
125
100
Comments added
22
1
This statement,
1
2
like the one in Table XXVI (page 60) indicates
that it is necessary f o r business eduoation to assume the lead in the de­
velopment of a more social vi e w p oint of business in a democracy*
Replies
indicate that the vast majority o f sohool men in Utah regard the business
eduoation department as the logioal branch of eduoation to assume this
task.
The three negative replies state that general eduoation can a c c o m ­
plish this end better than can business eduoation.
A long-range viewpoint m u s t be taken when this question is c o n ­
sidered, sinoe this attitude w i l l become a part of the publio conscious­
ness n o more rapidly than the publio is educated to believe that this
sooial function is necessary*
62
TABLE XXVIII A
Pupils of less than the average ability ca n b est be served
by: the subjeots preparing for speoifio vooational business
positions which require personal skill*
Administrators
Super inPrinoitendents
pals
Num- Per
Num- Per
ber
oent ber
oent
Teaohers
Steno­
Aooounting
graphy
Num- Pe r
Num- Per
ber
oent b e r
oent
Total
Number
Per
oent
MYes" answers
”No" answers
14
_8
64
36
18
23
44
56
14
JL2
54
46
9
19
32
68
55
62
47
53
Total
22
100
41
100
26
100
28
100
117
100
Forty-seven per oent of the administrators and teaohers reported
■that pupils of less than average ability should b e in speoifio vocations
whi o h require personal skills.
The superintendents were most emphatic
that t h i s type of training be given the slower pupil*
The teaohers of ac­
count i n g were next high with fifty-four per oent o f them replying in the
affirmative.
The principals reported affirmatively b y forty-four p e r oent,
and the teaohers of stenography were least emphatio w i t h b u t thirty-two
p e r o e n t of them in agreement with this statement.
63
TABLE XXVIII B
Pupils of less them the average ability can best be served by
the subjeots dealing with the general business and ocnsumer in­
formation and skills of a broader basis than personal skills.
Administrator s
SuperinPrinoitendents
pals
Num- Per
N u m - Per
ber
oent b e r
oent
Teaohers
AccountStenoing
graphy
Num- Per
Num- Per
ber
oent ber
oent
Total
Num- Per
ber oent
"Yes" answer8
"No" answers
14
J5
82
18
30
8
80
20
20
J5
87
13
18
78
22
82
19
81
19
Total
17
100
38
100
23
100
23
100
101
100
In Table XXVIII-A, sixty-four p e r oent of the superintendents r e ­
plied that pupils of less than the average ability should be trained for
speoifio vocations that required personal skills.
In Table XXVIII-B
eighty-two per oent o f the same superintendents replied that these pupils
should b e trained i n general business and consumer information and in skills
of a broader basis than personal skills.
In like manner forty-four per
oent of the principals i n Table XXVIII-A reported affirmatively regarding
the first statement and in Table XXVIII-B eighty per oent of them reported
that they were in agreement with the seoond statement.
Fifty-four per oent
of the aooounting teaohers reported "yes" to the first statement in Table
XXVIII-A and eighty-seven per oent reported "yes" to thd seoond statement
in Table XXVIII-B.
The teaohers of stenography appear to be more logical
in their replies sinoe thirty-two per oent reported that pupils of less
than average ability should be taught subjeots that prepare for speoifio
vooations requiring personal skills while seventy-eight p er oent reported
in Table XXVIII-B that these pupils should be taught general business and
64
consumer information, with skills of a broader basis than personal skills*
Perhaps the teaohers o f stenography are m o r e direotly concerned
with the problem of attempting to develop personal skills in the group of
pupils o f less than the average ability than are a n y of the other groups*
Summary of the Chapter
For the most part the summary is organized to follow the same order
of presentation that was used in the ohapter*
In some instsnoes, however,
this organization does not result in a correlated summary of a particular
topic*
Tfilhere this is the case the elements w h i c h relate to the same topic
are brought together and the tables from whioh t he data are derived are
indioated*
The Test of the Effectiveness of Business Eduoation
1.
Ninety-one per oent of those questioned report that the kind
of thinking, or the quality of action, or both, w h i o h a person reveals in
a business situation constitutes the acid test of any business eduoation.
(Table III, page 27 »)
2*
A very interesting reaction is expressed in the replies made
to the question,
"Do you believe that business eduoation takes place only
w h e n techniques,
thoroughly learned, are successfully put to work in a
real business transaction?"
Only forty p e r cent o f the entire personnel
responding to this question reported that techniques must b e put to work
in a real business transaction before business eduoation takes plaoe*
(Table IV, page 28.)
3*
Sixty-seven per oent gf those reporting stated that business
65
education takes pl a o e w h e n w e thoroughly train our pupils in business
subjeots, regardless of w h e t h e r or not they go into business, or what they
do in business if they do go into it as a vocation.
(Table V, p a g e 3 0 .)
V o oational Business Eduoation
4.
The ed u o a t i o n of e v e r y individual member of society should be
composed of both vooational and nonvooational general education, aoco r d ­
ing to the report of n i n e t y - s i x per oent of the administrators and teaohers
in the high sohools of Utah.
5.
(Table VI, page 31.)
Eighty-four per oent of the respondents reported that they b e ­
lieved the truly distinctive plaoe of business eduoation in the total plan
of Amerioan eduoation is t h a t whioh has t o do with the vooational objec­
tive.
(Table VII, page 32.)
6.
Seventy-seven per oent of those quastioned report that vooa­
tional business education courses
in the high sohool should be so planned
and administered that t h e y will enable the graduates of suoh oourses to
meet the employment demands o f the community to be served, both in the
type of position to be t r a i n e d for and in the quality of preparation
achieved by the high sohool pupils.
7.
(Table XIII, page 34.)
Seventy-eight p e r oent of those reporting stated that i t was
not enough to prepare for "business," for "selling," for "offioe work,"
for "store work," nor far "clerical work."
These are fields of service
and must be broken down into their oomponent parts so that speoifio j ob
training can be given in e a c h field.
8.
(Table XIV, page 4^.)
The m o s t satisfactory type of measurement of vocational b u s i ­
ness eduoation must b e b a s e d upon the use of new and improved te s t i n g de­
vices, careful placement of graduates, and follow-up work to determine the
66
degree o f suooess and the shortcomings
revealed "by graduates in their wo r k
on the job, according to the report of ninety-eight per cent of those re­
plying to the questionnaire.
9.
(Table XVIII, page 49.)
Ninety-nine per cent of those replying to the questionnaire
reported that the business eduoation department in the hi^h sohools of
the State should attempt to train business education pupils in occupational
intelligence.
(Table XXIII, page 55.)
Non-Vocational Busine ss Eduoation
10.
General eduoation alone is not sufficient to train the pupil
to make wise use of his income in the provision of food, olothing, housing,
recreation and eduoation for himself and his family and to enable him to
supply protection against the riskB of fire, death, old age, illness, and
unemployment, in the opinion of sixty-six per oent of those reporting.
(Table VIII, page 34.)
11.
Business eduoation should take the lead in providing facili­
ties to enable every individual to develop a better understanding of
economic principles and of the application of these principles to the
everyday affairs of life, according t o ninety-five per cent of the respondents
to the questionnaire.
The length of time necessary to provide facilities
to aooomplish this end ranged from one to twenty years, with a mean time
of six and three-tenth years.
If and vhen these facilities are provided
it will require from one to twelve years to make thisB objectives a part
of the life of the pupil.
three years.
12.
The m ean time reported for this purpose was
(Tables IX, X, and XI, p ages36 , 37 , and39 •)
Eighty-four per oent of the teaohers and administrators re­
ported that short unit oourses in skill subjeots, suoh as shorthand and
67
typewriting, should b e organized for personal-use study a n d should be
given at a time not too far distant from the need o f the resultant skills*
(Table XV, page 45*)
13*
Ninety-nine per oent of the administrators and teaohers re­
ported that business e duoation should attempt to develop a better under­
standing o f our economic order*
The same percentage reported that business
education should also attempt to develop a more sooial viewpoint of the
funotions o f business i n a demooracy than we generally have a t the present
time.
(Tables XXVI and XXVII, pages 60 and 61.)
Pupil Personnel and Guidanoe
14*
Eighty-five per oent of those questioned reported that pupils
should be permitted to study vooational business eduoation oourses only
after they had demonstrated in a tryout course for one year,
or b y some
other selective process, that they were in possession of the necessary
qualities to succeed in these vocational courses*
15*
(Table XVI, page 46.)
Eighty-four per o e n t of those replying agreed that some plan
should be developed to adjust the number of pupils ■who e l e o t vooational
business training to the employment needs of the community, keeping in
mind the geographical extent of the employment community.
The two ad­
ministrative groups w e r e the highest and the lowest in the percentage of
agreement with this
statement.
The superintendents reported ninety-two
per oent and the principals eighty per oent in aooord w i t h the plan.
(Table XXII, page 54.)
16*
Pupils of less than average ability should b e given prepara­
tion for business throu^i the development of personal skills, according to
68
the report of forty-seven per o e n t of those who answered this question*
Eighty-one per oent of these same administrators and teaohers also r e ­
ported that these same pupils should b e given training in broad praotiees
and in general skills*
17*
(Tables X X V I I I - A and XXVIII-B, pages 62 and 63*)
Ninety-eight per oent of those reporting stated that satis­
factory vooational business e d u o ation must be based upon a program of guid­
ance which includes placement and follow-up of pupils after they are em­
ployed*
(Table XVII, page 48.)
Curriculum A d justment i n Business Eduoation
18*
Ninety-five per oent of the administrators and teaohers stated
that the business eduoation curr iculum should be developed in the light of
the needs of the business oommunity —
n ot necessarily the oommunity in
■whioh the pupil lives, but the one in which he is likely to be ]ater em­
ployed.
(Table XIX, page 50*)
19*
The business e d u oation ourrioulum can best be adjusted to
the needs of the oommunity t h r o u g h the enlightened oooperation of the
business and educational workers concerned, according to the opinions e x ­
pressed in ninety-eight per oent of t he returns to this question*
(Table
XX, page 51.)
20*
Eighty-five per o e n t of the respondents to this statement
reported that short, intensive courses should be given i n the publio high
sohool to enable those not in full-time high sohool to inorease the skills
they already possess and to learnnew ones as well*
Of the fifteen per oent
who did not agree with -this statement, the majority suggested that the
private business oollege should assume this responsibility.
page 52*)
(Table XXI,
69
21.
Forty-seven per cent of the teaohers and administrators in the
high sohools of the State reported that vooational business eduoation
should b e given principally on the junior oollegelevel*
Thirty-six and
seven-tenths per oent would plaoe it on the senior high sohool level,
thirteen and eight-tenths per oent would plaoe it on the senior college
level, a n d two and five-tenths per oent would plaoe it on the junior high
sohool level*
22*
(Table XXIV, page 56.)
The type of vooational business eduoation most needed in Utah
at the present time was reported to be agricultural business education*
The seoond most needed type was reported to b e perBonal-use business e d u ­
cation*
Clerical training was plaoed third in relative importance and
stenography fourth.
23*
(Table XXV, page 58.)
Forty-nine per oent of those responding stated that exist­
ing vooational oourses should not b e utilized for the purpose of giving
consumer eduoation, except in a purely inoidental way.
page 41*)
(Table XII,
CHAPTER VI
TEACHER PERSONNEL
This chapter presents information regarding the business eduoation
teacher, secured from the superintendents of the forty school districts in
the State of Utah*
The statements from whi c h these data were reoeived are
recorded in the seoand section of the questionnaire sent to them.
five of the forty superintendents returned the questionnaire.
Twenty-
The sixteen
questions in this seotion are presented in the following tables in the
order in which they were answered b y the superintendents.
TABLE XXIX
Do you believe there should be some administrative plan to
keep teachers of business eduoation in touoh with practical
business?
Number of replies
Number of "yes" answers
Number of "no" answers
24
Total
24
Comments added
1
All the superintendents who answered this question agree that it
is a desirable objeotive.
Two did not include this question among those
answered and one added a comment that this phase is at present negleoted
in the rural areas of the State.
In this respect it iB probable that the
70
71
rural areas of Utah do not differ materially from the rest of the State,
or from the rest o f the country, although business experience is a p re­
requisite to employment in business teaohing in some sections, notably in
New York City publio schools.
The data oontained in Tables XXX, XXXI,
and XXXIV are quite unreliable because few returns were made to the state­
ments in each oase.
Higher returns oould no doubt have been secured if
statements had b e e n supplied for the respondents to oheok.
This was avoided
in order not to suggest answers, and the few returns constitute a challenge
to business eduoation.
TABUS XXX
If you think suoh a plan should be in operation in a
school system, please suggest one that you think would
be practical.
Number of replies
Summer work in business
Revise curriculum with help of business
The plan would n e e d study
Teaoher membership in looal Chamber of Cammeroe
Have someone interested on State Board of Eduoation
Largest town here is 5,000; difficult to operate a
successful plan of this kind
1
Total
9
3
2
1
1
1
Only nine of the twenty-five superintendents of the State ventured
an opinion on this statement.
This is an indication of administrative
recognition of the difficulties in organizing a workable plan of this kind.
One of them stated:
"The plan would need study"; another "Have teaohers
became menfcers of the looal Chamber of Cammeroe"; and a third, "Have some
one on the State Board of Education who is interested in business eduoation."
72
Three a greed that summer work in business b y teachers of business was a
desirable plan.
Two suggested that business itself should help in the
revision of the course of study from time to time.
The ninth stated that
the largest town in his district had a population of only 5,000 people,
and that the difficulty of finding summer business connections for teachers
was too great to make the plan possible.
Of these plans two seem to offer possibilities; the first, that of
asking businessmen to help in the periodic revision of the business cur­
riculum; and second, the plan of asking business teachers to spend some of
their summer vaoations in aotual business positions.
be a very good one.
The first seems to
The businessman would of necessity have to learn a
good deal about the schools before he oould offer helpful suggestions,
whioh seems to be a n underlying reason for the plan.
about business eduoation by the businessman.
Too little is known
Inforue.tion would be the first
result, and from this would flow beneficial results, to both the sohool and
business.
The seoond suggestion —
w o r k in business —
that during summer vaoations teachers
is also helpful.
It appears that two points might
be covered here; first, it should acquaint the teacher with the methods
used in business.
These he oould use to present more effectively the needed
type of business education with the present subject matter.
Seoond, in the
light of the new knowledge of business processes and occupations which would
be revealed to him through his oontaots with the business world, the teacher
would be far better prepared to advise the administration in the adaptation
of the business ourrioulum better to fit the needs of the pupil.
It must be remembered that such a plan would, of neoessity, deprive
73
the business eduoation teacher of his vacation, 'which is needed to ensure
satisfactory work*
It must also be remembered that summer is a slaok time
for most business lines, which would make it difficult to plaoe teaohers
during this period of the year*
TABLE XXXI
Please list the problems in business eduoation, as you
see them, from a looal and from a national viewpoint.
Problems
Number of replies
From a National Viewpoint
To give specifio vooational and general training at
the same time
Not sufficient provision made for the problems in­
volved in questions seven, twenty-four, and
twenty-five, of the last section of the
questionnaire just answered
1
1
From a Looal Viewpoint
Find jobs, select pupils, and revise curriculum
Better cooperation with business in plaoement and
"work training”
Making businessmen conscious of their sooial ob­
ligations
To give speoifio vooational and general training
at the same time
Not sufficient provision made for the problems in­
volved in questions seven, twenty-four, and
twenty-five, of the last seotion of the
questionnaire just answered
1
1
Total
7
1
1
1
This question brought the fewest returns of any of the questions
thus flar considered; only five of the twenty-five superintendents res­
ponded, with two of the five viewing the problem as both a local and a
national issue.
74
The local problems are both immediate and long range
plication.
in their a p ­
The first problem under the national heading and the first
and fourth problems under the looal heading refer to problems that oan be
solved in a relatively short period of time.
The remainder o f the prob­
lems are of a long range nature, referring to the preceding section of the
questionnaire ( e a n o e m i n g the social and eoonomio development of business­
men 1s attitude).
This pauoity of the returns presents a distinot challenge to busi­
ness education in Utah and should result in a very definite and determined
effort to acqua i n t the superintendents more fully with the problems con­
fronting the high schools of Utah in the business eduoation department.
TABLE XXXII
Do y o u believe the Commercial Contests held in Utah are
a positive or a negative fhotor in the everyday teach­
ing program?
Effect on
teaohing
Administrators
Princi­
Superin­
pals
tendents
N u m ­ Per
N u m ­ Per
cent ber
ber
oent
Teacher s
Steno­
Account­
ing
graphy
N u m ­ Per
N u m ­ Per
ber
oent ber
oent
Total
Num­
ber
Per
oent
Positive
Negative
10
8
56
44
18
_7
72
28
15
_7
68
32
14
10
60
40
57
32
64
36
Total
18
100
25
100
22
100
24
100
89
100
Question not
answered
7
19
10
10
46
The Commercial Contest referred to in Table XXXII is sponsored
by Brigham Young University and brings pupils of typewriting,
and bookkeeping to the University in March of eaoh year.
shorthand,
Substantial
prizes in scholarships, -typewriters, and medals are awarded, and consider­
able rivalry is evident among the high schools of the State.
The Univer­
sity believes that the oontest arouses interest in commercial subjeots and
that the secondary school teaoher, in preparing his pupils for the oontest,
beoomes more efficient.
On the other hand, it is felt by same teaohers and
administrators that the training of a few pupils for the oontest results
in poorer training for those who are not skillful enough to participate.
If the teaoher uses this contest as a possible opportunity for every pupil
and avoids the natural tendenoy to seleot a few and train them intensively,
the contest can be made a very helpful device to stimulate the pupil to
greater effort, sinoe the goal is immediate and praotioal.
Eighty-nine of the one hundred thirty-five questioned on this
matter replied, with sixty-four per oent of those replying reporting a
favorable attitude toward the commercial oontest.
The superintendents,
farther removed from active participation in the contest, showed the lowest
percentage, fifty-six, in favor of it.
The teachers of stenography, more
directly o o n c e m e d than any of the four groups, were next low, with sixty
per oent in favor of the oontest.
The teaohers of accounting reported
sixty-eight per oent in favor of it, a nd the principals were
highest with
seventy-two per oent in its favor.
Comments from the superintendents range from ’’They have a stimu­
lating effeot," to "Too much ooaohing of individuals."
The comments
of
the principals indicate a generally favorable attitude, only one stating
that "too much stress is placed on contests."
The aooounting teachers com­
mented favorably in all oases, one adding that the contests have "little
effeot on ny teaohing."
The teaohers of stenography added favorable oom-
u
76
merits exoept in one oase, in which a teaoher said;
”411 of the oommeroial
departments in the high sohool in whioh I taught last year participated in
the Provo oommeroial oontest.
The teaoher whose plaoe I filled...had been
very successful at the Provo oontest the year before.
1 soon discovered,
however, that the majority of the class had suffered while three members
of a tears had been trained for contest work....I am inclined to believe
that the disadvantages of the oommeroial oontest... to the class
as a
group, outweigh the advantages.”
The reasons for disapproval of the oontest seem to center around
the fact that too few pupils are drawn into active participation.
Perhaps
the National Clerical Ability Tests, sponsored b y the National Counoil for
Business Eduoation, might be adopted.
This would result in a wider use of
tests and should draw more pupils into active participation.
TABLE XXXIII
Do you believe that instruction in the business depart­
ments of your sohool is more efficient, less efficient,
or about the same degree of effioienoy as found in other
departments?
More ef­
ficient
Number of replies
5
Less ef­
ficient
0
Comments added
About the same
effioienoy
11
Total
16
1
A single comment was added that business teaohers were more e f ­
ficient than other teaohers because, "Objectives are more clearly defined
and better lead in the development of goals."
This statement may be partly
due to the fact that business subjects themselves lead to clearly defined
77
objectives.
It seems significant that none of the superintendents reported that
business teachers are less efficient than other teaohers, while five re­
ported that they were more effioient.
The fact that the business teaohers
of Utah have achieved a very good standing in reBpeot to degrees, a point
to be considered later (in Table CL, page 226), may be, at least in part,
a cause of this feeling on the part of the superintendents.
TABLE XXXIV
In what way, or ways, might the principals or teaohers
cooperate to make business eduoation more effeotive in
your district?
Means of further oooperation
Number of replies
A closer oooperation with courses in oivios,
sooiology, eoonomics, and English
Be more dynamic, interesting
Cooperate with looal business
Change the attitude on the part of teaohers toward
the eoonamio and sooial life of the pupils
Guidance
Regional meetings
Closer contact with business
1
1
1
JL
Total
7
1
1
1
Two of the seven suggest a more direot contact with business, whioh
is in agreement with the replies to question one of this seotion, where all
the superintendents who replied, twenty-three in all, thought there should
be some plan to keep teaohers in touch w i t h business.
Suggestions were
made in Table XXX, page 71, that teaohers should get summer experience in
business; this, too, is in agreement with the suggestions made in reply to
this question.
78
The suggestion that teaohers of business should have a oloser con­
tact with oivios, economics, sociology, and English is timely, although
the splendid degree-holding record that will be presented later is evidence
that this has probably been quite fully complied with through the require­
ments of the college, wh i o h are that certain groups of subjeot matter be
included among those presented for graduation.
Guidance and regional meet
ings are two other suggestions made.
TABLE XXXV
Please list the accrediting associations to whioh the
sohools in your distriot belong.
Accrediting agency
Number of reports
North Western Association of Secondary Sohools
State Association of Universities and Colleges
12
JL
Total
13
One superintendent reported the State Association of Universities
and Colleges, twelve the North Western Association of Secondary Sohools,
three reported none, and nine made no report at all.
The North Western
Association of Secondary Schools seems to be the logioal accrediting asso­
ciation with whioh the secondary sohools of the State should become a f ­
filiated, sinoe it oovers the Northwestern section of the United States,
including the Pacific and Mountain States.
Less than one-half of the sohool districts, however, reported an
affiliation with an accrediting association, a condition that can well be
remedied to the advantage of the sohools oonoerned.
This will, quite
79
naturally, be one of the recommendations that will be made to the a d ­
ministrators of the State as a result of this investigation, because of
the advantages that may be gained through the oooperation of seoondary
sohools in the exohange of information concerning methods of teaohing,
finance, and other vital problems common to all seoondary schools*
TABLE XXXVI
Do you have a cooperative arrangement with the merohants of
your oity for the pupils of your sohools to attend sohool
part of the day and work in the retail stores part of the
day?
If not, do you feel that such a n arrangement should
be made?
We do have such
a course
Replies
We should have such
a course
Yes
No
Yes
No
4
19
14
2
Comments added
In this question cooperative training refers directly to training
in retail stores and does not include other forms of oooperation between
the seoondary sohool and business, industry or agriculture*
To the first part of this question there were twenty-three responses,
nineteen of them in the negative.
This was to be expected since most of the
sohool districts of the State are in rural areas*
From the 1936-1938 Utah
Sohool Report, page 106, it is determined that the total high sohool popu­
lation of the four sohool districts that reported a cooperative arrangement
with -the merohants in their districts is thirty-six per oent of the high
sohool population of the State.
It seems that while few districts do have
this plan in operation, those in~ the larger oenters have adopted it b e ­
80
cause there is opportunity in these oities to make the necessary cooperative
arrangements with the merohants for the training period, and because there
are better opportunities for the placement of pupils graduating from this
type of course.
Of the nineteen distriots that reported there was no cooperative
plan in their distriots, fourteen answered "yes" to the seoond part of the
question "Do you feel that there is a need for a cooperative oourse in
your distriot?"
This indicates that the superintendents are of the opinion
that this oourse should be added to the ourriculum in the business educa­
tion department.
1
Kitson
recommends that the oourse in retail selling be an eleotive
in the business eduoation department and that it be a two-year oourse,
offered in the third and fourth years of high sohool.
It is essential that
store praotioe be provided for the pupils in this oourse and that it oooupy
approximately one half the pupils' time.
In some sohools the pupils work
in stores on Saturdays and holidays and sometimes after sohool hours.
TABLE XXXVII
Do you believe that a properly organized oourse, or oourses,
in business eduoation should be taught to all the pupils of
your distriot for the purpose of supplementing their informa­
tion on general business conditions, to aid them as oitizens
and not as an occupational aid?
Number of replies
1.
Yes
No
19
4
Harry D. Kitson, Commercial Eduoation in Seoondary Sohools, p. 217.
81
There were twenty-three replies to this question, with nineteen
reporting that suoh a oourse should be offered, and four that it should
not be given.
None of those replying in the negative added a comment to
indicate the rea s o n for their attitude.
TABLE XXXVIII
Do you have a high sohool of oommeroe in your district?
If you do, does the curricula differ materially from the
regular high sohool curricula?
Number of replies
Yes
No
2
21
Twenty-one distriots have no high sohool of commerce while two re-
1
ported that they did have suoh a sohool.
These two distriots
have sohool
populations of 588 and 2,495 respectively, probably large enough,
latter case, to support such a high sohool.
in the
It seems improbable that the
smaller distriots should have high sohools of oommeroe, although centrali­
zation of the seoondary school distriots might be carried further in Utah
than it is at the present.
If this centralization resulted in business
eduoation classes of sufficient size, perhaps a vooational high school
with oommeroe specializations in many oommeroial occupations might be or­
ganized with profit to the distriot and to the pupils.
The larger dis­
triot, vhioh is a part of Salt Lake City, oould well support suoh a
special high school*
1*
Two distriots failed to report on this question*
Utah Sohool Report, 1938-1938, p. 106.
82
TABLE XXXIX
KVhat procedure do you follow in dropping from your e m ­
ployment a teaoher who has not made a satisfaotory ad­
justment to your sohool?
Replies
Number of replies
Give ample notioe to teaohers
Dismiss, b y sanotion of Board of Eduoation
Contraot not renewed
Do the thing that seems to fit the oase
Notioe early in the year, usually after oonferenoe
with the superintendent
Tell th e m frankly the reason they are not being
re-employed
Advise teaohers at least thirty days in advanoe of
ohange
Help adjust to other districts or to other work
Early personal interview, then early notioe, if
necessary
One year notioe
Six months notioe
Do not renew contract
Follow reoommendation of principal or superintendent
I d o n ’t know.
I am a beginning superintendent.
Notify teaoher several months in advanoe
_1
Total
19
4
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Nineteen of the twenty-five superintendents answered this ques­
tion; six did not reply to it.
The methods of informing the teaoher vary.
One vein of agreement is apparent, however, sinoe most distriots give the
teaoher advance notioe of their intention.
83
TABLE XL
Do you follow the practice of employing only, or mainly,
teaohers who are residents of your oity, of the State, of
any particular looality within the United States?
Replies
Number
Employ teaohers
who live in the State
Employ teaohers who live in the oity
Employ teaohers
who live in the United States
Specify no looality
12
3
3
3
Number of replies reoeived
21
Comments added
1
Twelve oheoksd the State, two the oity, one the oity and State,
three the United States, and three wrote "no” in the questionnaire.
did not answer this question.
Only one oomment was added ~
naire that had the State oheokBd —
Four
to a question­
to the effeot that no speoial policy
was followed; that they try to get the best qualified teaohers regardless
of where they are from.
This shows that fifteen of the twenty-one super­
intendents replying favor looal teaohers; that is, looal to the State.
This percentage seemB reasonable, sinoe six of the twenty-one superinten­
dents do not hold to this plan, but employ teaohers from whatever looality
they oan obtain them.
This practice tends to keep the teaching personnel
free from too many locally trained teaohers.
84
TABLE XLI
Do you make use of qualifying examinations
in the seleotion of teaohers?
Number
Replies
23
Qualifying examinations not used
There are, apparently, n o qualifying examinations given prospec­
tive teaohers in Utah.
The praotioe of the Plaoement Bureau at Brigham
Young University,whioh seems typical for the State, is to assemble the
oollegiate record o f the applicant, together with the praotioe teaching
schedule and other information the institution has been able to secure.
These data furnish the basis for the personal interview, apparently the
ohief means of seleotion at the present time.
TABLE XLII
Do you prefer business teaohers who have had teaohertraining in business subjects, who have had business
experienoe, who have had teaohing experience in busi­
ness subjeots?
Prefer teaohers
with s
Teaoher training
Praotioal business
Teaohing experienoe
All three
First two
Last two
Teaoher-training in business
subjects
Practical
business
experienoe
Teaohing ex­
perienoe in busi'
ness subjeots
3
1
7
2
7
2
4
4
7
4
Three superintendents prefer to employ business eduoation teachers
who have been trained in business subjeots; one prefers teaohers who have
85
had praotioal business experienoe; four prefer teaohers -with business
teaohing experience; seven prefer teaohers with all of these qualities;
four with the first two mentioned; and four others prefer teaohers with
the last t wo phases of experienoe.
TABLE XLIII
Do you prefer men or women teachers?
Single or married?
Of which religious faith?
Do you refuse to employ teaohers
because of their religious faith? Do you prefer teachers
who have an active interest in business activities?
In
extraeurricular activities?
Teaoher preference
Number
Marital Status
7
2
4
Married men teaohers
Single men teaohers
Single teaoher, regardless of sex
No preference, marital or sex
Js l
Total
22
Religious status
Latter Day Saint
No religious preference
Question not answered
4
7
14
Total
25
Employ teachers regardless of religion
Question not answered
17
J3
Total
25
Outside Interests
Prefer teachers with interest in business
Prefer teaohers with interests in extra­
curricular activities
Prefer teaohers with both interests
Question not answered
11
13
8
9
The replies to the question concerning the marital status and sex
86
of teaoherB show that no superintendent prefers either married or single
women teachers as suoh, and only two stated a preference for single men
teachers.
Four expressed a preference for single teaohers, regardless of
sex, while seven preferred married men teaohers.
The greatest number re­
ported n o preference, either marital or in regard to sex, with nine super­
intendents in this last oategory.
Three failed to answer this question.
The question on preferences regarding the religious fhith of
prospective teaohers shows interesting returnss four expressed a preference
for Latter Day Saint teachers, while seven stated they had n o preference.
Fourteen superintendents did n o t answer this question.
This is a rather
high percentage and suggests that perhaps these fourteen did have a prefer­
ence but hesitated to express it.
No superintendent reported that he re­
fused to hire a teacher because of religious faith, while seventeen
definitely stated t h a t teaohers were employed regardless of the faith they
expressed.
Only eight failed to answer this question.
The religious fhith of teaohers in the State of Utah may be more
important in the looal affairs of the small towns and oities of the State
than is common throughout the country, due to the fact that in these smaller
oenters the sohool teaoher is a n asset to the community, through his r e ­
ligious activities in such organizations as the Sunday Sohool and the
Mutual Improvement association, and in the ohuroh's social and athletic
activities.
The Latter Day Saint teacher fits well into this program and
gives much and valuable a i d in these fields.
Therefore, many communities
aiploy teaohers who can and will give this added service.
Eleven of the twenty-five superintendents reported that they p re­
fer teaohers who have an interest in business; thirteen prefer them to have
87
an interest in extracurricular activities; and eight prefer them with an
interest in "both business and extracurricular activities.
Nine superin­
tendents did not reply, while several ohectaBd more than one aotivity.
TABLE XLIV
In whioh of the following age groups do you prefer to
employ your business teaohers? 20-25, 26-30, 31-35,
36-40, 41-45, 46-50, 51-55, 56-60, 61-65.
20-50
Number of replies
Age Groips
20-25
26-30
1
12
3
Comments added
31-35
Before 45
4
1
3
Twenty-one of the twenty-five superintendents replied to this
question.
Slightly more than one half of the superintendents reported that
they prefer business teaohers from twenty-six to thirty-six years of age.
If the teacher made normal progress through school, he will have graduated
from college at the age of twenty-two.
Thus he will normally have had
four years in w h i o h t o gain teaohing or business experienoe, before the
minimum of this a g e group is reaohed.
If he continued on for his master's
degree, and many business teaohers in Utah have done this (see Chapter XIV,
page 226 ), he will still have had from two to four years in •viiich to gain
experienoe before he reaohed this age group.
One comment added that "We employ them young and they grow old in
the service f another that we "Never worry about age so much, nor who the
teaoher is."
Another oomment was that "Salary sohedule foroes employment
of inexperienced teaohers."
This superintendent reported the twenty-five-
year group as the a g e he prefers.
This same fbotor may be operative in
88
other distriots reporting this same age group, since finances are of para­
mount importance in all of the sohool distriots o f Utah.
Summary of the Chapter
Qualifications Desired for Business Eduoation Teaohers
1.
Twenty-four of the twenty-five superintendents who replied to
the questionnaire answered the question concerning the advisability of
having business education teaohers keep in touch with practical business.
A l l of those who replied were in agreement that this should be done.
When
asked how this e n d might be accomplished only seven of them made definite
suggestions, which tends to make the returns unreliable.
Three suggested
summer work in business firms for this purpose} two agreed that the re­
vis i o n of the business eduoation ourriculum, with the a id of the business­
men, would be helpfulj one suggested that the business eduoation teaoher
Join the looal Chamber of Commerce} and another suggested that some one on
the StateBoard of Education should be interested in business eduoation.
(Tables XXIX and XXX, pages 70 and 71.)
Cognizance of Problems in Business Eduoation
2.
Seven looal and national problems in business eduoation were
listed by five superintendents, too few to make the returns thoroughly
reliable.
Two superintendents stated that specific vooational and general
training should be given at the same time and that businessmen should be
made conscious of their social and eoonomic responsibilities.
lems were listed as both looal and national in their scope.
These prob­
The remaining
three superintendents stated that the looal problems were, from their
89
viewpoint: to find jobs for pupils, to seleot pupils and revise the cur­
riculum; to cooperate better with business in plaoement and in "work
training"; and to make the businessmen oansoious of their social obligations<>
(Table XXXI, page 73.)
3*
Sixty-four p er oent of the administrators and teaohers reported
that the Oommeroial Contest, sponsored annually b y the Brigham Young Uni­
versity, was a positive factor in the business eduoation departments of
their high sohools. I Table XXX11, page 74)
4.
Nineteen of the twenty-three superintendents who answered the
question concerning the existence of cooperative retai1-training courses
in their distriots stated that there was no suoh oourse offered.
Four­
teen of these reported that suoh a oourse should be developed and added
to the business eduoation ourrioulum in their districts.
Two others stated
that suoh a oourse should not be added to the business eduoation offering.
(Table XXXVI, page 79.)
5.
Nineteen of twenty-three superintendents reported that they
believed a properly organized oourse in business eduoation should be taught
to all the pupils in high sohool, in order to supplement their information
on general business oonditions and to a i d them as citizens, but not as a n
occupational aid.
6.
(Table XXXVII, page 80.)
But two of twenty-three superintendents reported the existence
of a high sohool of oommeroe in their distriots.
(Table XXXVIII, page 81.)
Quality of Teaohing Servioe
7.
Sixteen superintendents reported on the effectiveness of the
instruction given in the business eduoation departments of the high sohools
of the State.
Five reported th'e instruction more effective and eleven that
90
it was about as effeotive as in oiher departments.
8.
(Table XXXIII, page 76.)
Only seven superintendents reported on ways and means by vhich
the principals or teaohers migjit cooperate to make business eduoation more
effeotive in the distriots under their supervision; too f ew again, to make
the returns w holly reliable.
Two suggested that they should cooperate
more olosely w i t h looal business; one that business eduoation should be
more olosely coordinated with oivios, sociology, eoonamios, and English;
another that the teachers and principals should be more dynamic and interest­
ing; another that teaohers should change their attitude toward the sooial
and eoonomic life o f the pupils; another that guidance should be developed;
and still another that regional meetings of business eduoation teachers
should b e held.
(Table XXXIV, page 77.)
High Sohool Standards
9.
Thirteen of the twenty-five superintendents reported membership
in an aoorediting association.
Twelve of these belong to the North Western
Association of Seoondary Sohools and one to the State Association of Uni­
versities and Colleges.
(Table XXXV, page 78.)
Employment Procedures
10.
Nineteen superintendents reported the procedure they follow
in dropping f r o m employment a teaoher who has not made satisfactory adjust­
ment to the sohool.
Twelve of the nineteen administrators who reported on
this question give the teaoher advanoe notioe of their intention not to
re-employ them.
The remaining number dismiss -the teaoher but mate no e x ­
planation of t h e procedure followed.
11.
(Table XXXIX, page 82.)
Twenty-one superintendents reported on their praotioe of em-
91
ploying teaohers from looal or from other areas*
Twelve reported that they
followed the praotioe of employing teaohers who were residents of the Statej
three preferred them to be residents of the oity in whioh they were to
teaoh;
and the remaining six reported no preferenoe other than that
reside
within the United States*
12*
they
(Table XL, page 83*)
Twenty-three of the twenty-five superintendents reported on
the question concerning the use of qualifying examinations in seleoting
teaohers, with none of them making use of this device.
(Table XLI, page
84.)
13*
No oonsensus of opinion was reaohed b y the sup erintendents
regarding teaohers who have had either teaoher training in business subjeots,
practical business experienoe, or teaohing experienoe in business eduoa­
tion.
Thirteen of the twenty-four who reported would prefer them to have
had all three of these phases of training and experienoe.
(Table XLII,
page 84.)
14.
or for
Little preferenoe was expressed for teaohers of either
married or single teaohers.
sex
Seven superintendents reported a
preferenoe for married men teaohers; two for single men teaohers; four for
single teaohers, regardless of sex; and nine definitely stated that they
had no preferenoe in either matter.
According to the reports, religious
faith seems to have little direct bearing upon the employment of teaohers.
A rather definite preference was expressed for teaohers of business
eduoation with an interest in business and in extracurricular aotivities.
A definite preferenoe was expressed for teaohers who were between twentysix and thirty years of age at the time of employment.
XLIV, pages 85 a nd 87.)
(Tables XLIII and
CHAPTER VII
GUIDANCE A N D PUPIL PERSONNEL
This chapter is concerned with the replies of the principals to
the seoond seotian of the questionnaire addressed to the seventy-four
principals in the high sohools of Utah.
Forty-four of -these principals
returned the questionnaire and the replies to the twenty-five questions
in this section are considered in the order in whioh they appeared on the
questi annaire.
TABLE XLV
Upon what basis, for example, mental, moral, eoonomic,
sooial, eto«, do you believe pupils should be guided
into commercial courses as a vocation?
Number of replies
Bases of seleotion
Mental qualities
Eoonomio ocnsiderations
Moral basis
Personal fitness and interest
A bility and interest
Oommeroial courses not offered
Question not answered
21
16
2
1
1
2
_l
Total
44
The mental and eoonamio bases were reported by thirty-seven of
the forty-three principals who replied as the pupils should be counseled
to enter into business oourses.
92
93
TABLE XLVI
Please list the reasons, in the order of their importance,
•why business pupils leave your sohool before they graduate.
Replies
Number of replies
Economic reasons
Few pupils do leave before graduation
Mental unfitness
Lack of enthusiasm
Marriage, discouragement with sohool, etc.
No business department in high sohool
Statement not answered
10
8
3
3
12
3
5
Total
44
Thirty-nine of the forty-four principals replied to this question,
with "economic neoessity" leading the reasons given for leaving high sohool
1
before graduation.
This is not in agreement with the report of Hopkins
who found that pupils leave sohool, not beoause of economic need, b u t b e ­
cause they are intellectually unable to oope with the work of further
eduoation.
The
given by twelve
fifth item of Table XLVI, "discouragement with school," was
principals as the reason business pupils leave sohool.
It
is possible that mental inadequacy is a contributing factor to discourage­
ment with sohool, whioh would tend toward the findings of Hopkins.
The
2
findings of the
United States Office of Eduoation may throw sane light
the problem under disoussion.
on
This report states that Utah has suoh a great
proportion of her population of high sohool age in high sohool that the
1.
2.
L. T. Hopkins, The Intelligence of Continuation Sohool Children in
Massachusetts, p. 123, as quoted by Koos and Keflauver, Guidance
in Seoondary S o h ools, p. 284.
Survey of Education in Utah, United States Offioe of Eduoation, 1926,
Bulletin No. 18, p. 211.
94
retardation grade by grade is very marked.
It is possible that this grade
retardation is so great that the difficulty of remaining in sohool b e ­
cause of intellectual inadequacy is less than it -would be under normal oir-
1
oumstances.
The report of Douglass,
however, may offer information indi­
cating that either the intellectual difficulties of Utah high sohool drop­
outs are greater than reported, or the grade retardation is more serious
than one would suppose.
Douglass reports that only thirty-five per cent of
all children have an intelligence quotient as high as 105, and that less
than twenty per oent have I.Q.'s as high as 110.
The program of secondary
eduoation, and of the junior college, must be reformulated for the total
population of youth of these ages.
The program of seoondary eduoation in
the United States seems to be geared to the pupil with the higher l.Q.
Hence Utah, with a higher percentage of pupils of high sohool age in high
sohool, must have more pupils of low I.Q.’s than have other States.
TABL3 XLVII
How many of your entire graduating class reoeived scholar­
ships for advanced study last year? How many of the oom­
meroial graduates?
Scholarships reoeived
Number
Nonbusiness graduates
Business graduates
120
__ 32
Total
Number of replies
1.
152
31
Harl R. Douglass, Seoondary Eduoation for Youth in Modern America, p.
29.
95
This table is to be read: thirty-one high school principals re­
ported 152 scholarships received last year.
business eduoation graduates.
Of these, 32 were won by
From Table LII, page 100 , it is determined
that approximately six pupils graduate from other departments of high to
one from the business eduoation department.
On this basis the business
pupils should receive, roughly, one scholarship in five offered, assuming
the competition for these scholarships is on a n equal basis between busi­
ness and nonbusiness pupils.
pupils should get thirty.
Of the 152 scholarships granted, the business
Actually they received thirty-two.
Of 5,012 pupils constituting the total fourth-year enrollment,
1,396 are in the business eduoation department.
(Table LII, page 100,)
This constitutes 27.8 per cent of the total, yet only 16 per cent of the
pupils in the business eduoation department graduate from high sohool.
Therefore, only in a little more than one-half the number of business
pupils that should graduate do so, yet they receive more than their share
of scholarships when the number of graduates only are considered.
reports seem somewhat oorrtradiotory.
These
They may indicate that the ability
of the business eduoation pupil to graduate is less than that of the non­
business pupil, while the ability of those who remain t o graduate and to
earn scholarships is greater than that of the nonbusiness pupil.
A pos­
sibility, but by no means a demonstrated faot, is that the weaker pupils in
business eduoation fail to graduate, leaving a smaller, though more able,
group finally to graduate.
This smaller group seems to be more able than
the nonbusiness graduate if judgment is based upon the number of scholar­
ships earned by each group.
Another possible explanation of the low per­
centage of graduates is that employment opportunities draw business eduoation
96
pupils from high school before they graduate*
TABLE XLVIII
Do pupils of the commercial department achieve leader­
ship in extracurricular activities as frequently, Io b s
frequently, or ab o u t as other pupils, in proportion to
their number, in your school?
Business eduoation pupils assume leadership;
As often as
other pupils
Replies
Less often than
other pupils
36
2
More often
than other
pupils
1
The reports of the thirty-nine principals seem to indicate that
business eduoation pupils achieve leadership in extracurricular activities
in approximately the same degree as do pupils in nonbusiness classes*
The extracurricular activities are an important adjunct to the
1
classroom eduoation of the pupil.
Douglass
reports, "Within reoent years
blind worship of the printed page as the source of authority and the means
of promoting learning has given way to a more rational and practical atti­
tude, namelys anything -which stimulates in a student an aotivity likely
to direct future action, feeling or thinking in desired ways, constitutes
effeotive materials and means of instruction*"
Many sohools organize and
direot these activities of the pupil, and as a result capitalize upon an
aotivity that is of intense interest to the pupil of high sohool age*
1«
Douglass, op. o i t ., p* 109.
97
TABLE XLIX
About how many of your graduates find employment in ratail-store selling jobs eaoh year? How many in non­
store selling jobs?
Retail store
selling jobs
Average, reported in numbers
Average, reported in percentages
Non-store
selling jobs
161
4.5
82
5.0
Number of replies
Total
243
26
Twenty-six principals reported on this question —
twenty-two re­
ported in numbers and four in percentage of the graduating class*
Of the
466 graduates in business education, reported on page 100 , 243 find e m ­
ployment in the field of selling*
the graduating class.
This number is fifty-two per cent of
Two thirds of these positions are in retail stores*
There seem t o be enough pupils graduating from h i g h school and finding em­
ployment in both retai 1-store selling and non-store selling to call for an
offering of courses in selling in the business eduoation departments of
the high sohools of Utah.
Eighty-seven per oent o f the superintendents
(Table XXXVI, page 79), reported that they were of the opinion that a co­
operative agreement with the merchants of the city oonoerned should be made
for the purpose of permitting pupils in high school to work part-time in
the store and to attend classes part-time.
If this number of pupils with
no specific training in this field oan obtain employment in selling posi­
tions as reported by the principals, such a training schedule as suggested
by the superintendents should add definitely to the employment possibilities
for the h i g h school graduates in business eduoation, and should thereby in­
crease the value of business education in the publio high sohools of Utah.
98
TA3LB L
About how many of your business graduates go into
business jobs in their own community each year?
Reports of Positions
Number of replies
Number finding positions
Number reporting no positions available
Number reporting few positions available
No business department in the high sohool
52
6
3
2
Number of reports
28
Twenty-eight principals reported on this question.
The number of
pupils who find employment in the immediate community w as reported to be
fifty-two.
This is eleven per cent of the graduates from the business
eduoation department, reported on page 100.
Six reported none of the
pupils found positions in their community and three reported that few
pupils were able to find employment near home.
The fact that in some of the high sohools many of the business
eduoation pupils find employment in their community is an enoouraging re­
port, while the fact that in some communities none of the graduates find
such employment is discouraging.
It may be that a revision of the business
eduoation ourrioulum would solve the problem, or at least improve the
situation.
99
TABLE LI
Do you believe that your program of guidance satisfactorily
meets the challenge it faces in business eduoation by making
adequate preparation of the pupil w ho drops out of school b e ­
fore he graduates?
Number of replies
Sohool does not meet challenge
Number replying "We oould do more"
No business department in high sohool
Question not answered
33
1
1
9
Total
44
Thirty-five of the forty-four principals responded to this ques­
tion, with thirty-three of them stating that the program of guidanoe in
their school does not give adequate guidanoe to the pupil who drops out
1
before he graduates.
Douglass
states, in discussing this important sub-
jeot, that "A new type of teaoher, more broadly trained and more broadly
interested in every-day human affairs is demanded.
One of the greatest
contributions open t o those wishing to render eduoational service to-day
is the organization of a number of experimental and demonstration sohools
which will establish a method of effectively taking care of this class of
young people previously leaving sohool before the age of 16."
The organization of the sohool system to help this large class of
pupils is an urgent need in the high sohools of Utah.
Steps should there­
fore be taken to this end, and with the least possible delay.
Several
means are at the disposal of sohool authorities to aid them in this vital
matter of guidanoe, among which migfrt be mentioned the reoords in olass-
1.
Douglass, o p . pit., p. 80.
100
1
work,
previous failures, and diagnostio tests*
In addition, a thorough
course in introduction to business or some similar prevooational oourses
could be given, and the conclusions of the teacher of the pupil would be
another point tooonsider.
TABLE LII
Please enter in the appropriate spaces the enrollment in
your high sohool for the year 1938-39, including the n um­
ber of graduates, the number doing post-high school work,
the number attending college, the number pursuing graduate
study, and the number regularly employed*
Year in high
sohool
Aoademio
Num­ Per
ber
cent
Business
General_____ Eduoation_______ Total
Num­ Per
N u m ­ Per
N u m ­ Per
ber
oent
ber
oent
ber
oent
First
Seoond
Third
Fourth
Graduate s
Post-high sohool
Attending oollege
Graduate study
714
690
546
471
433
15
20
57
3,705
3,385
3,145
3,145
2,583
152
69
28
100
79
68
63
2
3
8
100
93
93
76
4
2
1
130
2,956
1,811
1,396
466
110
26
2
100
61
47
16
4
1
-
4,614
7,031
5,502
5,012
3,482
277
115
87
100
78
71
50
4
2
2
* Since the tenth grade in the business eduoation department shows
suoh an increase over the ninth grade, this grade has been
taken as the base year.
Nine of the forty-four principals returned enrollment figures.
The
table cannot, therefore, be regarded as giving complete enrollment data for
the h i g h sohools of the State.
The data may, however, indicate enrollment
trends in eaoh of the three departments.
For all three departments, seventy-eight p e r oent of the seoond year
1.
William E. Haines, Twelfth Year-book, Eastern Commercial Teaohers
Association, pp. 197-199.
101
pupils reaoh the third year, seventy-one per oent reaoh the fourth year,
1
and fifty per oent graduate from high Bohool.
Pennell
found in Michigan
that eighiy-six per oent of the tenth-grade pupils reaoh the eleventh and
seventy-two per oent reaoh the twelfth grade.
The per oent graduating from the business eduoation department is
far be l o w that of the other departments reported.
Less than one-third as
many, in proportion to enrollment, graduate from the business eduoation d e ­
partment as f r o m the other departments combined.
The reasons for this heavy mortality in the business eduoation de­
partment should be determined and a remedial program adopted i f it is found
desirable to attempt to eliminate the condition.
department leave sohool t o go to work,
If the pupils from this
it indicates that vocational train­
ing of some sort is given before the end of the high sohool period is
reached, in faot before the third and fourth years, since the percentage
of tenth-grade pupils returning to sohool eaoh of these years is smaller
for the business education department than it is for either of the other
departments.
The percentage attending ooliege and pursuing graduate study is
also smaller for the business eduoation department than for either of the
other departments.
It wij.1 be recalled that the principals reported in
Table XLVII, page 94, that the graduates of the business eduoation depart­
ment reoeived more scholarships for advanced study than did the graduates
from other departments, in proportion to the number enrolled.
1.
Pennell, South Western Publishing Company, Monograph N o . 39, p. 8.
102
TABLE LIII
Do pupils in the commercial department have I.Q.s' as
high, higher, or lower, as do pupils in other depart­
ments of your sohool?
As high
Higher
Lower
25
6
1
Number reporting
Thirty-two principals reported on this question.
Twenty-five r e ­
ported that the I.Q. was as high in the business eduoation department as
in other departments of the high sohool, six reported the I.Q. was higher
in the business department, and one that it was lower.
cipals added comments as follows:
Three other prin­
"Intelligence tests not given"j
testing done"; and "Not determined."
"No
Several of the principals added that
they believed the business ed u oation pupils were of higher intelligence,
shown by the grades earned in their w o r k and by demonstrated ability d u r ­
ing the high sohool period.
TABLE LIV
About That per oent of the entering olass leave your
sohool at the end of each of the following years:
First, Seoond, Third, Fourth?
Per oent
First
Seoond
Third
Fourth
10
10
10
29
Several of the principals interpreted this question to include the
graduating olass; sane included only those who left sohool during the
fourth year but before graduating.'
This accounts for such a large pro­
103
portion f o r the fourth year*
Sinoe just ten per oent leave sohool during
eaoh of the first three years, it indicates that seventy per oent of the
entering class continue o n t o the fourth year.
One principal stated that
they normally graduate about seventy per cent o f the olass entering the
first year.
The Biennial Survey of Eduoation shows that for the nation as a
whole
fifteen per oent leave sohool at the end of the first year, seven­
teen per oent of the entering olass leave duri n g or at the end o f the
seoond year, eight per oent at the end of or during the third year of high
1
sohool,
graduate.
a n d eight per oent during the fourth year,
Fifty-two per oent of the entering olass
or before they
remained in high sohool
until graduation.
1.
U n i t e d States Office of Eduoation, Biennial Survey of Eduoation in
the United States, Chapter I of Volume II, 1934-1936, p. 38.
104
TABLB LV
Please list the ohief weaknesses of the graduates of the
commercial department of your sohool as they plan t o en­
ter business occupations , in eaoh of the following fields:
personal qualities, general education, business eduoation.
Weaknesses of graduates
Number of reports
Personal qualities
Laok of confidence and initiative
Inability to meet people
Laok of ambition and personality
Laok o f sooial culture
Personal weaknesses second to general eduoation
Immaturity and irresponsibility
Total
7
2
1
1
1
1
13
General Education
Poor spelling, reading, a n d grammar
Laok of adequate English training
Not enough subjeots taken
Spelling
Immaturity and irresponsibility
General eduoation weaknesses first in importance
Total
3
3
1
1
1
1
10
Business Education
Commercial curriculum too narrow
Spelling
Machine operation needed
Not prepared
Business education vjeaknesses third in importance
Immaturity and irresponsibility
Total
6
2
1
1
1
1
12
Thirteen of the forty-four principals listed personal weaknesses
they found in the graduates of the business eduoation department.
These
shortcomings are largely personality faults that are more or less common to
all youth.
Ten principals listed general eduoation weaknesses, largely
poor preparation in the fundamentals of reading, writing, spelling, and
105
arithmetic#
Twelve listed weaknesses in business education, the majority
of which were due to the limited oommeroial ourrioulum.
TAB IE LVI
H o w might these weaknesses (those mentioned in Table
LV) be overcome?
Means of overcoming weaknesses
Number of reports
Personal qualities
Offer course in personal guidance
Encourage more extracurricular activity
Provide more teaohers and lighter teacher load
Provide more opportunity for expression
Provide longer training period
Provide opportunity for more experience
Train in application o f sooial culture
Develop confidence
Offer courses in personality training
Devote more time and effort to correlation
Total
3
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
13
General Eduoation
Develop improved teaching methods
Make ourriculum changes
Correlate w o r k of pupil
Revamp entire English instruction
Offer more elementary training
Give more intensive work
Provide more teachers and lighter teaohing load
Total
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
10
Business Eduoation
A d o p t ourriculum ohanges
Improve teaohing methods
Offer two years o f shorthand
Correlate w o r k of pupil
Provide more teaohers and reduce teacher load
Offer more business subjeots
Provide adequate instruction
Provide less orowded ourrioulum
Get more money for the department
Include nathematios in business eduoation
Give more training
Offer postgraduate commercial ourrioulum
Total
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
14
106
Means of overcoming personal weaknesses were listed b y thirteen
principals.
These means oenter around the need for more training in per­
sonal qualities and for more opportunity for expression on the part of the
pupil.
The general eduoation weaknesses might be overcome, according to
the report o f ten principals, b y adopting better teaohifag methods and im­
proving the ourriculum in general eduoation.
Fourteen principals offered
suggestions to eliminate the shortcomings found in business eduoation,
while but twelve listed weaknesses in this department.
These suggestions
include ourriculum ohanges and improved teaohing procedures.
TABLE LVII
Is there a program of guidanoe for pupils, before they
reaoh high sohool, that aims to help you distribute them
in the vari o u s business eduoation courses you offer?
Guidanoe
Number of replies
No guidance program
A guidance program available
37
_3
Total
40
Forty of the forty-four principals replied to this question.
One
of the three yho reported a guidanoe program in operation stated that it
was not well developed and was, therefore, not meeting the needs of the
high sohool pupil.
Since such a heavy majority of the principals reported there was
no pre-high school guidanoe program, and more than three fourths o f these
same principals reported (Table LI, page 99) that the high sohool gui<te.noe
program was not m e e t i n g the needs of the pupil, an exoellent opportunity
exists for the preparation of a n adequate program of guidanoe, b o t h for
107
the high sohool period and for the pre-high sohool level.
TABLE LVIII
Into what field of sohool w o r k d o you attempt to guide
the lowest intellectual fifth of your pupils?
Number of replies
Fields of w ork
18
4
2
1
Trades and manual training
Vocational pursuits
General eduoation
Aoademio eduoation
Into no special field
_7_
Total
32
It is interesting that no principals reported that they attempt to
guide the lower intellectual fifth of the pupils into business eduoation,
although some vocational pursuits were mentioned, with no specific field
indicated.
Seven of the thirty-two principals make no effort to induce
pupils of lower mental ability to enter any given field.
TABLE
LIX
Do you make a direct effort to train your pupils in
oommeroe in personality?
Personality training
Number of replies
Make n o effort to train in personality
Some effort to train in personality
25
14
Total
39
Twenty-five of the thirty-nine prinoipals reporting make no direot
effort to train their pupils in jjersonality; the remaining fourteen reported
108
that same effort was made to train in personality.
It seems possible to provide opportunities in which the weaknesses
of the personal habits of the pupils can be determined.
A n effort can then
be made to oorreot these weaknesses, sinoe personality includes the habits
of speech, manner, poise, eto., all of which can be diagnosed objectively
and for which remedial treaiment can be developed.
TABLE LX
If not, do you think a oourse should be given to a id in
personality improvement?
Course in personality should be offered
Number of replies
___________________________________________________________ Number
Per cent
"Yes”
"No”
32
91
_ 3 ________ __ 9
Total
35
100
Rather definite opinion is expressed that a oourse in personality
improvement be added t o the offering of the high sohools of the State.
One of the three principals who reported "no" to this question stated
that such a oourse should be given but not until the pupil reached college.
TABLE LXI
Do you know, rather speoifioally, the kind of personality the
employers of your oommeroe graduates would like them to have?
Kind of personality desired is knows.
Number of replies
"No"
'•Yes"
21
17
Total
38
109
The m a j o r i t y of prinoipals reported that they did n ot know specifi­
cally the kind of personality the employers of their pupils w ant e d them
to have.
TABLE LXII
If you d o know (the kind of personality the employers of
your business eduoation pupils would like them to have)
oan you tr a i n t h e m toward this type of personality?
Number of replies
"Yes" answers to this question
"No" answers t o this question
21
J5
Total
24
Twenty-four of the forty-four prinoipals reported o n this question,
with twenty-one of the opinion that if the kind of personality desired were
known, they could train pupils accordingly, w i t h the result that better
servioe would b e given the employers.
1
Douglass
reports one of the seven objectives in education is an
2
"effective and healthy personality and individuality."
Nichols
recog­
nizes the v a l u e of personality in the pupil seeking employment when he
says:
"The m o s t potent aspeots of commercial occupations, however, have not
been studied a s yet.
Unquestionably, to deal effectively w i t h people is the
most essential ability for suooess in praotioally all commercial oooupations;
for it is the characteristic all-important activity."
3
Lyons
reports on the qualities employers of h i g h school pupils
1.
2.
3.
Douglass, o p . p i t ., p. 14.
Frederick G. Nichols, Commercial Eduoation in the High Sohool, pp. 185-J.86.
Leverett S. Lyons, Eduoation for Business, p. 63.
110
value in the applicant, as follows:
Every commercial student wants a position as soon as he
finishes his course.
He is in training for business.
HVhen his oourse is finished and he starts out to look for
a position, what is it that is going to enable him to get
one? U p o n what qualities will business men judge h i m or
her?
Two v e r y important qualities are personal appearance
and personality.
The careful employer watches the a p p l i ­
c a n t ’s movements.
He gets the tone of voice. He notes the
ohoioe o f words.
He notices the affeoted or the unaffected
manner a n d he observes the applicant’s self-confidence.
TABLE LXIII
Please list, in the order of their importance, what y ou re­
gard as the best means of determining potential abilities and
interests of pupils who wish to take commercial courses to
prepare them for a future vocation.
Abilities
Number o f replies
First ohoioe
Personal traits
Success in commercial subjects
Aptitude and high I.Q. soores
14
4
3
Second oho ice
Native a bi l i t y
Personal qualities
7
1
Personal traits were listed first by fourteen prinoipals, with
only one reporting this faotor second.
Success in commercial subjects, pue-
sumably in the junior high school, was listed first by four prinoipals,
and aptitude and a high I.Q. soore b y three.
seoond by seven prinoipals.
Native ability was listed
The oonsensus of opinion as reported is clearly
in favor of satisfactory personal traits.
Thefcsatisfactory personal traits
1
can be taught a n d learned is stoutly claimed b y Be m r e u t e r ,
1.
Arthur Bernreuter, Personalit -f Tests.
who has per-
Ill
fected a series of tests for the purpose of diagnosing the personality
of the pupil.
After the personality of the pupil has been determined,
Bernreuter suggests oertain definite steps to form ne-w habits of action
and of thought to supplant the undesirable traits already possessed.
TABLE LXIV
Do you group business eduoation pupils in your sohool
aooording to their ability to learn?
Ability grouping
Number of replies
Number of "no" replies
Number of "yes" replies
33
5
Total number of replies
38
Most of the high sohools of Utah do not group business eduoation
pupils aooording to their ability to learn.
The five prinoipals that re-
ported ability grouping in their high sohools are from schools with e n ­
rollments ranging from 300 to 7 50 (see Utah Sohool Report, 1936-38, p. 151).
1
Nichols
reports that ability grouping is essential if business eduoation
is to achieve its aim to train business pupils thoroughly.
He sayss
Unless, and until, vocational training oan be restricted to
the right kind of pupils, having in mind job requirements,
promotional opportunities, and personal aptitudes, interests
and abilities, there is little prospect that suoh training
ever will approximate the achievement of its most important
aims. Thus where there is no possihlily of grouping pupils
on the basis o f their aptitudes, interests and abilities —
to say nothing of grouping them on the basis of native intel­
ligence — ourriou lum-make rs must be alert to sense the limi­
tations which this condition of instruction imposes on their
programs.
1.
Niohols, op. p i t ., p. 129.
112
TABLE LXV
In advising pupils concerning the advisability of their
entering one or ihe other business fields, or other lines
of work, do you talk to them individually, w i t h their
parents, or in olasses?
Number of replies
Methods of conference used
Individual, with parents and in classes
Individual only
With parents only
In olasses only
Individual and with parents only
Individual and in olasses only
With parents and in classes only
9
9
0
2
6
9
0
Total number of replies
35
Comments added
5
Thirty-five of the forty-four prinoipals answered this question.
Wine use all three methods; that is, they talk to the pupils individually,
with the parents, and in classes.
Wine other principals talk with the
pupil and do not include the parents, nor do they discuss this matter in
classes,
Wone of the prinoipals confers with the parents
only.
Two
principals discuss the matter only in olasses; six only with the pupil and
the parents; and nine only with the pupil individually and in classes only.
Five comments were added by the prinoipals.
Two stated that they
have n o guidanoe organization; one that the parents are usually non in­
terested; one that the high sohool advised on no special fields; and one
that they should do more with the parents than they a r e doing a t the
present time.
113
TABLE LXVI
Please oheok the type of community, or communities, served
By your sohool. Agricultural, Residential, Mixed, Rural,
Urban, Native white, Foreign born, Negro, Other*
Number of replies
Type of community
30
22
21
7
4
4
3
2
2
1
0
Agricultural
Rural
Native white
Residential
Industrial
Mixed
Urban
Suburban
Foreign
Indian
Negro
The first three types of communities
the agricultural, rural, and native white —
listed b y the principals —
indicate that in these rural
agricultural communities agricultural needs, both vocational and general,
should take precedence over the commonly stressed vocational oourses of
bookkeeping, shorthand, and typewriting*
In order to meet the individual community needs in a satisfactory
manner, as far as business eduoation is concerned,
it appears that an in­
dividual study of the business requirements of each oommunity is needed,
to b e followed b y the adoption of the type of training calculated to fill
these disocRrered needs.
114
TABLE LXVII
For the current year, or for last year if the data are
not conveniently available, give the number of pupils
whose parents are found in the following ocoupational
groups: Professional, Clerioal, Agricultural, Skilled
Labor, Unskilled labor, Unknown*
Number of reports
Occupational group
Agricultural
Unskilled
Skilled labor
Clerioal
Professional
1,365
219
131
56
49
To facilitate comparison the following occupational grouping is
1
presented from the United States Office of Eduoation
2
made b y Bedford*
and from a study
TABLE LXVIII
Oooupational group
Agricultural
Unskilled labor
Skilled labor
Clerioal
Professional
Trade
Domestic servioe
Public servioe
Transportat ion
Manufaotur ing
Mining
Total
1*
2.
Profession of parents of high sohool pupils
United States average
1930 census
California
Utah
Per cent
Per oent
Per oent
21.9
43.1
8.2
6.7
12.5
10.1
1.8
7.9
28.9
2.0
2.1
5.7
17.1
1.6
2.2
9.4
18.2
.6
100.0
100.0
75.0
12.0
7.2
3.1
2.7
100.0
United States Office of Education, Survey of Education in U t a h , p. 211.
James H. Bedford, Youth and the World's Work, pp. 16-17.
115
The agricultural and unskilled labor group in Utah is larger than
that of either California or the average
haps, in part* to the
for the United States, due, per­
fact that neither the California nor the United
States average figures include the skilled and the unskilled group.
the clerioal group Utah ranks second to the United States average.
In
The
comparative grouping ends -with the professional group, in whioh the Utah
figure
is lower than either the
California or the United States average.
TABLE LX.IX
About how many pupils, a f t e r electing the com­
mercial course last year, o hanged t o some other
course^
Readjustments
Number of reports
Pupils changing from business to other curricula,
reported in numbers
Pupils changing from business to other curricula,
reported in peroentages
Number of reports
Twenty-nine prinoipals reported on this question.
111
6%
29
The number and
the per oent of pupils changing from business to other currioula is small
in relation to the total number of p u p i l s enrolled in the high sohools of
Utah, since 111 is the total number reported by all the prinoipals who
answered this question and six per oent is the average reported.
116
TABLE LXX
A b o u t how many pupils, after electing some other
course, changed to the business eduoation cur­
ricula?
Readjustments
Number of reports
Number of pupils changing from other curricula
to business eduoation
Per oent of pupils ohanging from some other
ourrioula t o business eduoation
Number of reports
48
Z%
20
Twenty prinoipals reported on this question.
It seems that a p ­
proximately two a n d one-half pupils change from business education to
other ourrioula to one who changes from other ourrioula to business e d u ­
oation.
Summary of the Chapter
Guidance in Business Education
1.
The prinoipals of the high schools of Utah reported
that they
believed pupils should be guided into business eduoation chiefly upon a
mental basis.
Pupils of the business eduoation department who leave sohool
before
they graduate d o so because ofeconomic and intellectual
ties.
(Tables XLV and XLVI, pages 92and 93.)
2.
difficul­
The present program of guidanoe for pupils who drop out of
high sohool before t h e y graduate was reported as unsatisfactory by thirtythree of the thirty-five prinoipals who reported on this question.
Thirty-
seven of forty prinoipals reported that there was no guidanoe program (for
117
pupils b e l o w the high sohool level) that could a id in their guiding students
at the time of entrance into high school.
(Tables LI and LVII, pages 99
and 106.)
3.
The pupils of lower intelligence are not shunted into the
business eduoation department, according to the reports of twenty-five
of the thirty-two prinoipals mho reported, although four of these prinoi­
pals reported "vocational pur suits" without defining the field.
(Table
LVIII, page 107.)
4.
Thirty-five of the forty-four prinoipals reported that an at­
tempt is nade to advise pupils concerning their entrance into various
occupational fields.
The means used are individual conferences with the
pupil, discussion during classes, and conferences with the parent and the
pupil.
(Table LXV, page 112.)
Pupil Population
A.
Mental Ability of Business Eduoation Pupils
5.
The graduates of the business eduoation department reoeive
a little more than one fifth of the scholarships for advanced study.
On
the basis of enrollment, this is about the proportion they should re­
ceive.
B.
(Table XLVII, page 94.)
Leadership Qualities
6.
The pupils of the business eduoation department participate
in extraourrioular activities about as frequently as do pupils from other
departments.
C.
(Table XLVIII, page 95.)
Employment of Business Eduoation Graduates
7.
Of the 466 graduates in business eduoation, 243, or fifty-
118
two per oent, find employment in ihe field of selling.
selling positions are in retail stores.
8.
The prinoipals reported
Two thirds of the
(Table XLIX, page 97.)
that eleven per oent of the pupils who
graduate from the business eduoation department find employment
own oommunity.
In other communities it w a s reported that none of the
graduates found local employment.
D.
in their
(Table L, page 98.)
Mortality of Business Eduoation Pupils
9.
The percentage of pupils who r emain to graduate is drastically
lower in the business e duoation department than in other departments.
The pupils in this department were reported to have I.Q.'s sli$itly higher
than the average.
Indications a r e that approximately seventy per oent of
the first-year high sohool pupils return to sohool for the fourth year of
stucty.
E.
(Tables LII, LIII, and LIY, pages 100, 102, and 102.)
Personal Weaknesses of Business Eduoation Pupils
10.
Personal shortcomings of the high sohool graduates in the
business eduoation department were reported to be laok of confidence, in­
ability to meet people, a n d laok of initiative.
The general eduoation
weaknesses were reported to be in the fundamentals of reading, writing,
spelling, and arithmetic.
The business eduoation weaknesses were reported
to be due to the limited offerings in this department.
11.
(Table LY, page 104.)
Means supposedly to overcome these weaknesses were reported
to be* the adoption of a program of guidanoe to a id the pupil in the pe r ­
sonal field; a reduotion in teaoher load and more direot cooperation of
high sohool and parent organisations in the general eduoation field; and
a study of the entire ourrioulum in the business eduoation department.
(Table LVI, page 105.)
119
12*
Personality training is not offered pupils in the high sohools
of Utah, although ninety-one per oent of the prinoipals reported that a
oourse on the improvement of personality should be offered pupils.
Per­
sonality traits were ranked first in importanoe as a determining factor in
discovering potential ability and interest in oammeroial work.
(Tables
LIX to LXIII, inclusive, pages 107 to 110.)
13.
But five of the thirty-eight prinoipals replying stated that
pupils were grouped in olasses aooording to their ability to leam.
(Table LXIV, page 111.)
F.
Type of Community
14.
The prinoipals reported that the agricultural community led
in the type of oommunity from whioh high sohool pupils oome.
oommunity was placed seoond and the native white third.
or industrial communities were reported.
G.
The rural
Very few foreign
(Table LXVI, page 113.)
Parental Occupation
15.
Very closely allied to the type of oommunity served is the
oooupation of parents of pupils attending high sohool.
Utah rankB very
high in the agricultural grouping, with seventy-five per oent of the parents
of the pupils in this oooupational field.
This is muoh higher than in
California where just more than forty-three per oent of the parents are
engaged in this pursuit.
In the United States as a whole, but 23.9 per
oent of the population is engaged in agriculture.
(Tables LXVII and
LXVIII, page 114.)
H.
Curriculum Enrollment
16.
Approximately two and one-third pupils change from business
120
to other ourrioula to one pupil who changes from other curricula, to that
o f business*
(Tables LXIX and LXX# pages 115 and 116*)
CHAPTER VIII
CURRICULUM
Problems of curriculum construction in business education from the
viewpoint of the principals of the high schools in Utah will be considered
in this chapter*
The replies of the forty-four principals to the eighteen
questions in the third seotion of the questionnaire addressed to them are
presented in the order in wh i o h the questions appeared*
TABLE LXXI
Please check in the appropriate spaces below the method or
methods you use in the supervision of the business education
teachers in your school*
Type of supervision
Visit olasses:
Regularly
Frequently
Visit classes:
After notifying teacher
Unannounoed
At request of teacher
1
1
1
11
33
13
Never
1
Mean length of classroom visit, in minutes
Mean number of olassroon visits per year
Individual conference with teacher following visit
Written report of visit sent teaoher
Arrange with all teachers for group oonferenoe
Other methods reported in supervision
28
18
26
1
4
0
Total
36
Thirty-six of the forty-four principals who returned the question­
naire answered this question, w i t h the great majority replying to all of
the questions*
121
122
The m o s t popular method of supervision, as far as olass visits
are oonoerned, seems to be the unannounced visit.
The next popular
method is to vi s i t the olass at the request of the teacher, followed in
popularity b y the classroom visit after the teaoher has been given advance
notioe b y the principal.
The mean length of the visit is twenty-eight minutes.
reported was from a few minutes to the entire olass period.
The range
Principals
reported that t h e y mate these supervisory inspections on the average of
eighteen times e a c h year.
terms of six weeks.
This is about three visits for each o f the six
It appears that this is frequent enough t o permit the
principal to keep in active touch with the teaching methods in use in the
various olasses
in his h i g h school.
After the classroom visit has been made it is the practice of the
principals, according to their reports, to hold individual conferences
with the teacher oonoerned.
Twenty-six of the thirty-six principals r e ­
ported this means of follow-up as a part of supervision.
One principal
sends a written report t o the teaoher, summing up the results of his in­
spection.
Four other principals arrange for group conferences with a l l
the teachers, at which time matters that o o n o e m all of them are discussed.
Other methods than those
listed in the questionnaire werenot mentioned*
An interesting phase of supervision is the number of requests
made of principals to visit classes.
Since there are no supervisors in
business education outside Salt Lake Ci-ty, it beoomes the duty of the
principal to carry on this w o r k for all departments•
Supervision seems to be an active personal matter.
The number of
conferences indicates a n active interest on the part of the principal.
123
The requests from the teaoher for class visits indioates an interest, on
the part of the teaoher,
in better teaohing methods*
TABLE LXXII
Do you believe that a properly organized course or courses,
in business education should be taught to all the pupils
in your sohool for the purpose of supplementing their in­
formation on general business to aid them as oitizens and
not as an occupational aid?
Replies
Number of replies
33
’’Yes" answers
"No" answers
_6
Total
39
Thirty-nine of the forty-four principals replied to this question,
with thirty-three answering in the affirmative.
This report indioates a
rather definite demand for this type of business eduoation in the c u r ­
riculum of the high sohools o f the State,
TABLE LXXIII
During the last ten years whioh business subjects seem to
be losing the greatest number of pupils? Whioh seem t o be
gaining?
Classes losing
greatest number
Bookkeeping
Shorthand
Typewriting
Junior business
Clerical
Mathematics
Commercial geography
Total times reported
Number of
times reported
12
6
5
1
1
1
1
27
Classes gaining
greatest number
Number of
times reported
Typewriting
Shorthand
Bookkeeping
Junior business
17
4
3
1
25
124
Bookkeeping -was reported to be losing in the number of pupils
applying for the course in twelve high schools and increasing in three
others.
Shorthand was reported as on the increase in four high schools
and on the decline in six bther high sohools.
Typewriting w a s decreasing in
five high schools and increasing in seventeen others.
increasing in one high school and decreasing in one.
Junior business was
Clerical courses,
mathematics, and commercial geography were all reported as decreasing in
three high schools.
The greater number of high schools reporting an in­
crease in the number of pupils asking for typewriting might possibly be
explained b y the greater demand for this subject for personal use.
This
v i e w is strengthened b y the report of the teaohers of shorthand (Chapter
XVIII, page 49
) who maintain that more pupils are graduated in typewrit­
ing than can b e placed in vocational positions.
TABLE LXXTV
Should any courses for vocational purposes be offered to pupils
in your schools
Below the tenth grade?
If so, what type of course?
To what
type of pupil?
In the tenth grade?
If so, what type of
course? To what type of pupil?
In the eleventh grade?
If
so, to what type of course?
To what typo of pupil?
In the
twelfth grade?
If so, what type of course?
To what type of
pupil?
Should vocational courses be offered in high
sohool?
Before
tenth
grade
In tenth
grade
Number of "yes” answers
Number of "no" answers
13
_23
_Z
18
0
_0
Total
36
20
18
16
Replies
18
-
In eleventh
grade
In twelfth
grade
(Continued)
16
124
Bookkeeping m s
reported t o be losing in the number of pupils
applying for the course in twelve high sohools and increasing in three
others.
Shorthand was reported as on the increase in four high schools
and on the decline in six other high schools.
Typewriting was decreasing in
five high sohools and increasing in seventeen others.
increasing in one high school and decreasing in one.
Junior business was
Clerical courses,
mathematics, and commercial geography were all reported as decreasing in
three high schools.
The greater number of high sohools reporting an in­
crease in the number of pupils asking for typewriting might possibly be
explained b y the greater demand for this subject for personal use.
This
view is strengthened b y the report of the teaohers of shorthand (Chapter
XVIII, page 49
) who maintain that more pupils are graduated in typewrit­
ing than oan be placed in vocational positions.
TABLE IXXIV
Should any courses for vocational purposes be offered to pupils
in your schools
Below the tenth grade?
If so, what type of course? To what
type of pupil?
In the tenth grade?
If so, what type of
course?
To 7/hat type of pupil?
In the eleventh grade? If
so, to That type of oourse?
To what typo of pupil?
In the
twelfth grade?
If so, what type of course?
To what type of
pupil?
Replies
Should vocational courses be offered in high
sohool7
Before
In eleventh In twelfth
tenth
In te nth
grade
grade
grade
grade
Number of "yes" answers
Number of "no" answers
13
23
18
18
16
2
0
0
Total
36
20
18
16
(Continued)
125
TABLE LXXIV (Continued)
Tlhat type of oourse should be offered?
In twelfth
In tenth
In eleventh
Before
grade
grade
tenth
grade
grade
Replies
Typewriting
Shorthand
Bookkeeping
General business
Any commercial course
Office praotice
Mathematics
Trades
Vocational
Nonvooa tional
Any course
Business law
Total
3
0
0
3
1
0
2
1
0
0
1
0
7
0
0
3
0
0
0
1
0
1
2
0
7
7
4
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
7
6
0
0
2
0
0
1
0
0
_1
11
14
20
21
To what type of pupil should these courses
be given?
Total
Above average
Average
Below average
Those with business
interests
All pupils
Qualified pupils
1
1
1
2
0
1
3
0
0
2
0
0
8
1
2
1
4
0
3
5
0
0
4
3
1
5
0
5
18
3
37
The majority of principals report that they do not believe voca­
tional courses in business education should be offered below the tenth
grade, but that such courses should be offered in the tenth, eleventh,
and twelfth grades, with emphasis upon the eleventh and twelfth grades.
Typewriting was the only specific vocational business education course re­
ported that should be offered pupils before the tenth grade, although one
principal reported ’’any oommeroial course" and another "any oourse."
126
Whether this course in typewriting was intended for vocational or for
personal use was not indicated.
Shorthand and bookkeeping should not be
offered before the eleventh grade.
This would permit pupils to complete
two years of training in this field by the time they were graduated from
high school.
It seems significant that the only personal-use subject, with
the exception of typewriting, that was mentioned was general business, and
that retail selling and olerioal courses were not mentioned b y any of the
principals.
The great majority of these same principals reported in
Chapter VI, page 79 , that a course in retail selling was needed in the
high sohools of the State.
It seems significant also that in but two of thirty-seven reports
was it suggested that the pupil of less than average ability be guided
into vocational business education courses, although "all pupils" were
reported b y eighteen principals.
This seems to indioate that the princi­
pals in Utah high sohools do not believe that pupils of low mental ability
should be encouraged to study business eduoation.
TABLE LXXV
Should pupils in non-business ourrioula be allowed, or
required to take the following subjects for personal
use and not as vocational preparation?
Typewriting, Shorthand, Bookkeeping, Other
Allowed
Subject
Typewriting
Shorthand
Bookkeeping
37
27
35
Required
3
0
0
Noribusiness eduoation pupils should not be required to elect type­
writing, shorthand, or bookkeeping, according to principals reporting on
127
typewriting, twenty-seven on shorthand, and thirty-five on bookkeeping.
Only three principals indicate that any business subject should be re­
quired of nohbusiness pupils, and all three recommended typewriting.
TABLE LXXVI
Should pupils in the oourses suggested above be taught in
the same olasses with pupils studying the oourse for v o ­
cational purposes? Yes, No.
Number of replies
Number reporting "yes"
Number reporting ’’no"
24
12
Total
36
Twenty-four of thirty-six principals w h o answered this question
replied in the affirmative, with the remaining third stating that pupils
who take commercial oourses for personal use should not b e plaoed in
classes with pupils stucfying these subjects for vocational training pur­
poses.
Comments added by the principals indicate that they believe the
nonvoeational pupil will retard the progress of the vocational pupil if
they are in the same class.
In the small high school, however, the prin­
cipals stated that these two groups of pupils were plaoed in the same
class, not beoause the administration believed it a good policy, but b eoause olasses were small and the teaching personnel would be inadequate
to care for the two olasses if the pupils were plaoed in separate groups.
This difficulty of the small high sohool has b e e n overoome to some
extent in Utah by the consolidation of several small distriots into one
128
larger consolidated high school.
Here pupils are taught under conditions
that compare very ftv or ably with the best educational practice found in
the larger centers of population in the State*
Dr. Charles H. Skidmore,
State Superintendent o f Public Instruction, states in his biennial reports
Utah has been fortunate in bringing about the consolida­
tion of numerous small districts, which existed years ago,
into larger units of organization for taxation and a d ­
ministrative purposes.
States in praotioally all parts of
the oountry have been endeavoring to effeot consolidation
of school districts, but few if any have attained the su c ­
cess that has been realized in our own state.*
That the process of consolidation is still in progress is indicated b y a
further quotation from the superintendent, vriien he says:
"A oommittee has
now made a study for the consideration o f the legislature as to the possi­
bilities of saving revenue and improving the sohool service through the
oonsolidatioh of the existing forty districts into f e w e r and larger units
of organization.”
It is hoped that this effort will continue until con­
solidation is an established fact in Utah, for it will benefit both the
large and the small districts, especially the latter.
1.
Charles H. Skidmore, Reportxpf Super in tendent of Public Instruction,
for the Biennial period End of June 30, 1936, p. 12.
129
TABLE LXXVII
Does your school give oourses in the management of small,
individually owned stores of various types, to prepare
If it does not,
the pupil to enter business for himself?
do you believe it should?
Course in management of
small retail stores
Bumber of replies
Is such a course given?
"Yes"
"Bo"
2
_38
Total
40
Should suoh a course be given?
"Yes"
"Bo"
11
16
Total
27
Only two high sohools in the State offer a oourse in the management
and operation of small, individually owned stores.
Eleven principals re­
ported that a course of this kind should be offered in their high sohools,
while sixteen other principals reported that it should not be given.
The
principals who reported that this course should not be given were in small
communities, and this w a s the main reason w h y such a course was not looked
upon with fhvor.
The small community might be a desirable plaoe in which to offer
this type of oourse.
Employment opportunities are few, and the small
stores are also few.
It would seem that the efficiently managed small stores
would have a better ohanoe of survival against competition and that a course
of this kind in high sohool might serve a real oommunity need.
130
TABLE LXXVIII
Do y o u believe your courses of study in business education
are well adapted to the needs o f yam* community locally?
Number of replies
Courses well adapted to needs of community
Courses not w e l l adapted to members’ needs
16
_13
Total
29
Of the sixteen principals who reported favorably on this question
several added: ’'Only moderately well.”
bookkeeping,
The need for oourses other than
shorthand, a n d typewriting was not mentioned.
TABLE LXXIX
If you believe the conditions in Table LXXVIII could be
improved, please indicate briefly how you think it might
be done.
Suggestions for improvement
Revise curriculum with the a i d of the business­
men of the community
Add a business eduoation department to the
high school ourriaulum
Too many commercial pupils for the positions
available in our community at present
Add salesmanship, management, and law
Add marketing, salesmanship, consumer eduoation,
and celling oourses
Too f e w pupils and low financial resources
Total
Number of replies
9
5
3
2
2
22
The n e e d for a revision of the business eduoation curriculum was
expressed b y nine principals, three reported too many pupils and inadequate
financial resouroes to e x p a n d the curriculum, five reported the need of a
131
commercial department, a n d four expressed the need for oourses in manage­
ment,
salesmanship, law, consumer eduoation, and retail selling.
The suggestion that the businessmen of the community concerned aid
in the revision of the curriculum is a positive one and should be care­
fully considered in the revision of the present oourse of study in busi­
ness education.
TAB IE LXXX
Please list the subjects you require of all business
majors, with the number of units of each subject and
the year in wh i o h the course is given.
Subjects
Reports
Typewriting, first year
Typewriting, second year
Typewriting, third year
Shorthand, first year
Shorthand, second year
Bookkeeping, first year
Bookkeeping, second year
Eoonomics
Business English
Office practice
Commercial arithmetic
Business mathematics
16
11
2
13
10
13
6
4
2
7
4
1
This table should be read as follows:
Credit
? *
1
1
a
1
1
1
1
h & 1
fT * 1
f
—
L~ 1
a c
1
Years offered
9, 10, 11, 12
10, 11, 12
11, 12
10, 11, 12
12
10, 11, 12
12
12
12
11, 12
9,10, 11, 12
9,10, 11, 12
Sixteen principals reported
that typewriting is required of business education majors, that both onehalf and one u n i t of oredit are given for it, and that it is offered in
each year of high school by one or more of the sixteen reporting.
Shorthand, typewriting, and bookkeeping, the "three horsemen” of
the business eduoation curriculum, lead in the number of sohools that r e ­
quire them of business eduoation majors for graduation.
Both one-half
unit and one full unit of oredit-are offered for -these subjects, particularly
132
in the first year*
In the second year only type-writing is offered for
one-half unit; shorthand and bookkeeping both oarry a full unit of credit*
Typewriting is offered in each of the four years of high school, prcbably
to accommodate the personal-use pupil and the pupil taking the subject for
vocational training#
Shorthand and bookkeeping are both restricted to tie
last three years of high sohool*
ever,
The second year of these subjects, how­
is restricted to the fourth year in high sohool*
Eoonomios and busi­
ness English are required by four and two high schools, respectively, and
are offered only in the fourth year*
Offioe praotice is required in seven
high schools, serving perhaps as a "polishing off" oourse for the steno­
graphic major#
It is given in the last two years of high sohool. Commer­
cial arithmetic and business mathematics are required in four and in one
high sohool, respectively, and are offered in all four years of the high
sohool oourse.
Commercial arithmetic carries one-half or one unit of
credit.
The total unit requirements to be met by pupils who major in busi­
ness eduoation range from one unit to seven units of oredit in business
subjects.
The number of high sohools reporting and the number of units
required for a major in business eduoation follows:
TABLE LXXXI
Number of units of oredit required
of business majcrs
Number of high sohools reporting
Number of units of business sub­
jects required
1
1
2
1
1
2|
3
4
2
4g-
2
2
5
1
5g
1
6
2
6£
7
133
This table should be read as follows:
One high sohool requires
but one unit of business subjects; one high sohool requires two and onehalf units; eto.
Fifteen principals reported o n this question.
There seems to be
no grouping of required subjects and the range is wide.
The requirement
of seven units reported by two high sohools seems high.
A criticism of
these required units is that t h e y are too restrictive, consisting of b o o k ­
keeping, shorthand, and typewriting, to a large extent.
If the required
subjects are to be widened, it seems that this should be accomplished by
adding some of the newer courses -- such as consumer eduoation, retailing,
and clerical practice —
to those required at present, and by adjusting
the curriculum to the needs of the community -- which, as previously re­
ported (pagell4 ), is in most oases agricultural.
TABLE LXXXII
Please list the business subjects required, as above, for
the pupil who wishes to major, or specialize, in secre­
tarial work.
Subjects required
Number of
reports
Typewriting, first year
fypewriting, second year
Typewriting, third year
Shorthand, first year
Shorthand, second year
Offioe practice
Bookkeeping, first year
Bookkeeping, second year
Commercial arithmetic
Business mathematics
Business English
9
9
2
9
8
6
6
3
1
1
1
Number of principals
reporting
9_
Units of
credit
i&1
a IX 1
s& 1
l&
I
t
a &
8&
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Years offered
9,
10, U ,
10,
11,
9,
11,
9, 10, 11,
9, 10, 11,
11,
10,
11,
9,
11,
10
9,
9. 10, 11,
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
134
Only nine of the forty-four prinoipals reported on this question.
Apparently no more than this number offer a major in secretarial -work.
Typewriting, shorthand, and bookkeeping are the major subjeots required of
the secretarial major.
Office praotioe, however, was reported by six high
sohools, and business mathematios, oommeroial arithmetic, and business
English were reported as in the required group by one high sohool eaoh.
The units of oredit offered for most of these required subjeots wane
one-half or one unit eaoh, exoept for oommeroial arithmetio, for whioh onehalf unit was given by all sohools.
For business mathematics and business
English one unit is offered in eaoh subject.
Eaoh of these subjeots is offered the pupil in eaoh year of high
sohool, with the exception of the third year of typewriting, the second
year of bookkeeping, and office praotioe.
in the last two years of high sohool.
These subjeots are offered only
It seems strange that the second
year of shorthand should be offered during the first two years of high
sohool, in view of the faot that the second year of bookkeeping is restricted
to the last two years of the high sohool period.
The oredit allowed for the major subjeots of shorthand and b o o k ­
keeping shows too w i d e a variation among the high sohool3.
Effort should
be made to adjust the oredit for all oommeroial oourses to the end that a
uniform offering of oredit for similar oourses is made in all of the high
sohools throughout the State.
135
TABLE LXXXIII
Please list the business subjeots required of those who
wish to major in bookkeeping, olerioal work, distribu­
tion, and general business.
Subjeots required
Number of
reports
Units of
credit
Years given in
sohool
Bookkeeping major
Typewriting, first year
Typewriting, second year
Bookkeeping, first year
Bookkeeping, second year
Shorthand, first year
Shorthand, second year
Offioe praotioe
Commercial arithmetic
Total
2
2
4
2
2
1
2
1
16
i
8
1
S
-I & l
f & l
I & l
l
1
2
l
10, 11, 12
10, 11
u , 12
11, 12
n , 12
li, 12
10, 11, 12
12
Clerioal major
Typewriting, first year
Typewriting, second year
Typewriting, third year
Shorthand, first year
Shorthand, seoond year
Bookkeeping, first year
Bookkeeping, seoond year
Offioe praotioe
Commercial arithmetic
Total
4
3
1
4
2
3
1
3
1
22
i & l
§ & l
i.
5
3
1
4
1
5
2
2
4
27
i & l
5 & l
1
1
1
1
1
1
_1
7
l
l
3 & l
l
j=r & l
l
1
3
1
2
10,
10,
10,
10,
11,
11,
11,
11,
11,
12
12
12
12
12
11, 12
11, 12
11, 12
9, 10
General Business major
Typewriting, first year
Typewriting, seoond year
Typewriting, third year
Bookkeeping, first year
Bookkeeping, seoond year
Shorthand, first year
Shorthand, seoond year
Offioe praotioe
Commercial arithmetic
Total
10,
10,
10,
10,
8
3 & l
l
l
8 * l
l
f & l
11,
11,
11,
11,
11,
10,11,
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
11,
11, 12
9, 10, 11, 12
Distributive occupations major
^typewriting, first year
typewriting, seoond year
Offioe praotioe
Shorthand, first year
Shorthand, seoond year
Bookkeeping, first year
m _i
A
2
l
l
l
10, 11
10, 11
11., 12
11 n .ij>
li. 12
136
The subject requirements for a major in the bookkeeping, olerioal
■work, general business, and distributive oooupations show a striking simi­
larity.
It seems strange to the investigator that oourse requirements
should be set up for distributive oooupations, sinoe so few oourses of this
type have been reported b y either the administrators or the teaohers in any
of the questions thus far considered.
The core subjeots of typewriting,
shorthand, bookkeeping, and offioe praotioe appear in all oases.
Perhaps
a decided improvement oould be made by the inolusion of other subjeots in
these ourrioula.
For instance, retail selling should by all means be added
to the ourriculum in distribution, and as a oore subjeot.
Likewise, a
olerioal major should be expanded t o inolude olerioal practice and offioe
maohines.
General business should inolude general business oourses.
All
these ourrioula should inolude consumer eduoation as a oore subjeot and
some oourses providing general business information.
TABLE LXXXIY
Please list the subjeots you permit business majors to
eleot in non-business subjects, with the number of units
of eaoh and the year in high sohool in which the subjeot
is given.
Elective subjeots
Number of
reports
English
Mathematics
Physical eduoation
Musio
Industrial arts
Sooial hygiene
United States history
American problems
Soienoe
Cooking and sewing
3
1
1
1
1
1
Comments added
6
Number of replies
9
1
1
1
Units of
oredit
3 A 4
2
1
1
2
3
1
1
1
1
Year given in
high sohool
9,
9,
9,
9,
9,
10,
10,
10,
10,
10,
10,
11,
11,
11
11,
11
11
11,
11,
11,
10, 11,
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
137
Only nine replies were received to this question, with but three
principals supplying information regarding oredit and the year given in
high sohool.
The remaining six commented as follows:
elect "any others in the ourrioulum";
Business pupils may
"We require eight and one-half units
of non-business and four and one-half units of business; the other three
are elective” ; ’’General credit requirements” ; "Very little variation in
our requirements for business and nonbusiness pupils"; "Entire oourse is
non-elective"; "We require of business students six units in nonbusiness";
and "Any other subject in the ourrioulum."
The greatest unit requirement
in nonbusiness subjeots was six, the fewest three units.
The very light
returns to this question indicate both a laok of definite policy in re­
gard to the nonbusiness requirements of business eduoation pupils.
The
inadequate returns also tend to invalidate any conclusions.
TABLE LXXXV
Please oheok the following individuals or groiqps if they
are oonsidered in the development of the oommeroial ourriculum for your sohool.
Groups consulted in the d e velopment of the ourrioulum
Whioh of the numbered
groups at the left are
consulted in the develop
ment of the ourrioulum?
Number of
times re­
ported
Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
-
Superintendents
Principal
Supervisor
Department heads in sohool
Department heads in city
Teachers
Teaohers and department
heads
- TeaoherB, superintendents,
principals
8
1, 3
6, 8
8
4. 8
6
4
3
2
2
2
1, 2, 4
1
3. 4, 9
1
1,
2,
3,
4,
3,
2
(Continued)
138
TAB IB LXXXV (Continued)
Groups oonsulted in the de­
velopment of the ourrioulum
Which of the numbered
groups at the left are
oonsulted in the develop­
ment of the ourrioulum?
Number of
times re­
ported
Number
9
10
11
- Eight and business men
- Eight and housewives
- Other groups
7.
3.
1
2.
3.
4,
2.
2,
2.
2
4,
7
8
4, 7, 8
3, 9, 1
8
7, 9, 1
3
7
4, 6
5, 7, 8
Total
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
JL
34
Thirty-four of the forty-four prinoipals who returned the question­
naire reported on this question.
The table is read as follows*
The first
line indicates that, in the development of the ourrioulum in business e du­
oation, superintendents, prinoipals, and teachers are consulted in six high
schools*
Study of the table indioates that the superintendents are not
oonsulted in the development of the business eduoation ourrioulum in five
high sohools; the prinoipals are not included in one high sohool; the
teaohers are not included in two high sohools; the supervisor in twelve
high sohools —
presumably beoause they have little supervision in this
field; the heads of departments in twelve high sohools; the businessmen
are not inoluded in seventeen high sohools; and the housewives are not inoluded in any of the high sohools reporting on this question.
The inclusion o f so many different personalities in this important
139
aotivity is to b e commended.
Perhaps improvement oould be made if these
different groups were made regular an d active members in the revision of
future ourrioula in the high sohools of the State•
Summary of the Chapter
Supervision of Business Eduoation
1*
The supervision of business eduoation in the high sohools of
Utah is largely in the hands of prinoipals.
Most of the prinoipals reported
they prefer to visit the classroom unannounoed, with the visit preceded b y
an invitation from the teaoher seoond in popularity, and after notifica­
tion by the prinoipal of his intended visit third.
The mean length of
these classroom visits is twenty-eight minutes; an average of eighteen suoh
visits are made eaoh year.
The greatest number of prinoipals report that
after the visit they hold informal, individual oonferenoes with the teaoher.
A few reported group meetings with the teaohers and one prinoipal reported
the use of written reports of his visit.
(Table LXXI, page 121.)
Business Eduoation Ourrioula
A.
Business Eduoation for All Pupils
2.
Thiriy-nine of the forty -four prinoipals answered the question
concerning the addition of properly organized oourses in business eduoation
for all pupils in the high sohool.
Thirty-three of the thirty-nine were in
agreement that the business eduoation department oonduot these oourses for
oonsumer information and not for vooational training.
(Table LXXII, page
123.)
B. Election of Business Eduoation Courses by Nonbusiness Pupils
3. T/Shen questioned whether or not pupils should be allowed or re­
quired to take bookkeeping, shorthand, and typewriting for personal use
140
and not as part of a vocational training program, all but three prinoipals
reported that they should be allowed, but not required, to take -these
oourses.
Three prinoipals reported that they should be required to take
typewriting.
C.
(Table LXXV, page 126.)
Separate Business Eduoation Classes for Nonbusiness Pupils
4.
Twenty-four of thirty-six prinoipals reported that pupils study­
ing business eduoation oourses for vocational training and those studying
the subjeots for nonbusiness personal use should be taught in the same
class.
D.
(Table LXXVI, page 127.)
Grade Placement of Business Education Subjeots
5.
Twenty-three of thirty-six prinoipals reported that vocational
oourses should not be offered pupils before the tenth grade.
This v o c a ­
tional training should be oonfined to the senior high sohool in the opinion
of all but two of the prinoipals reporting on this phase of the question.
Typewriting was the only vooational business eduoation oourse recommended
to pupils before the eleventh grade, although one prinoipal suggested
’’any oommeroial oourse” and three others "any courses."
(Table LXXIV,
page 124.)
E.
Retail Selling
6.
Thirty-eight of forty prinoipals reported that a oourse de­
signed to train pupils to operate a small, individually owned store was not
given in their high sohool.
Eleven of twenty-seven prinoipals stated
that in their opinion such a oourse should be offered.
Those who replied
that such a oourse should not b e given in their sohool stated that the com­
munity was too small to w a r rant this type of training. (Table LXXVII, page 129.)
141
F.
Adaptation of Business Eduoation Curricula to Pupils' Needs
7.
Sixteen of twenty-nine principle reported that they believed
their present oourse of study was well adapted to the needs of business
education pupils in their school; the remainder believed that the commer­
cial curriculum was too narrow and that additional oourses should be added#
When asked how the difficulties of the restricted commercial oourse might
be overcome, nine prinoipals suggested a revision of the business edu c a ­
tion ourrioulum with the aid of the businessmen of the community; five
would simply add commercial oourses to their present course of study; and
four suggested that oourses in salesmanship, marketing, and consumer e d u ­
oation be added t o the present offering.
The remaining four reported that
there were too many pupils graduating from the business eduoation d epart­
ment of their sohools to be plaoed at the present time; that financial
resources were already low without adding more courses to the high sohool
program.
G,
(Table LXXIX, page 130.)
Required Subjects in the Business Eduoation Curricula
8.
The number of business eduoation subjeots required of allpupils
majoring in business eduoation, with the units of oredit offered and the
year in which the oourse should be given were reported by the prinoipals
as follows;
Three years of typewriting, offered in eaoh of the four years
of high school, with one-half or one unit of credit given for the course;
two years of shorthand given in the last three years of high school, with
one-half or one unit of credit for the oourse; two years of bookkeeping,
also in the last three years of high sohool, with one-half or one unit of
credit given for the oourse; office praotioe offered in the last two years
'
142
and carrying one-half unit of credit; economics and business English o f ­
fered in the last year of high school, each -with one-half or one unit of
oredit; oommeroial arithmetic offered in eaoh year of high sohool, with
one-half or one unit of oredit offered; and business mathematics offered
in all four years, with one unit of credit for the course*
The first three
subjeots mentioned, bookkeeping, shorthand and typewriting, are required
more frequently than are any of the other courses*
The total nunber of
units required in the high schools of the State, for business eduoation ma­
jors,
ranges from one to seven units.
in these requireuBnts*
9*
No well-defined median is apparent
(Table LXXX, page 131.)
Practically the same requirements are set forth for the pupil
who wishes t o major in any other oommeroial subjeot, although f ew sohools
reported any need for these other subjects, confining their offering largely
to majors
in shorthand, bookkeeping, and typewriting.
(Tables LXXXII and
LXXXIII, pages 133 and 135.)
H.
Eleotive Nonbusiness Subjeots
10.
as follows:
Pupils who major in business may elect noribusiness subjeots
English, three o r four units; mathsmatios, two units; physi­
cal education, one unit; music, one unit; industrial arts, two units; social
hygiene, three units; United States history, one unit; American problems,
one unit; soienoe, one unit; and oooking and sewing,
one unit*
(Table
LXXXI7, page 136.)
Enrollment in Business Eduoation
11,
During "the past ten years bookkeeping w as reported to be losing
pupils and typewriting was gaining in enrollment faster than were any other
courses*
(Table LXXIII, page 123.)
143
Pupil Personnel
12.
The type of pupil -who should be permitted to talce vocational
business education oourses was generally reported to be those of average
and above average ability, and those with interests in business#
Only
two prinoipals reported that pupils of less them average ability should
takB commercial courses, and t h e y should take them in the first two years
of high sohool.
(Table LXXIV, page 124.)
Method of Construction of the Business Eduoation Curriculum
13.
The development of the curriculum in the high schools of Utah
is a cooperative matter in all the high sohools reporting, with the excep­
tion of two.
In these sohools the principal and the superintendent t o ­
gether make up the ourrioulum in business eduoation.
In all other high
schools reporting this task is accomplished through the oambined efforts
of the prinoipal, the superintendent, the supervisor, the teachers of
business education, the department heads, and the businessmen.
are oonsulted in varying degrees.
These groups
In some distriots the entire list is
engaged in this activity; in others at least two of the groups are called
in to aid in the development o f the ourrioulum.
In eleven of the twenty-
four high sohools reporting the businessmen participate in this matter.
(Table LXXXV, page 137.)
CHAPTER DC
TEACHER PERSONNEL
The status of the business eduoation teacher in Utah is presented
in this chapter.
The replies of the principals in the high sohools of
Utah to the fourteen questions ccnoerning business teachers, in the fourth
section of the questionnaire sent to them, are presented in the order in
which they appeared on the questionnaire.
TABLE LXXXVT
Have the teachers in business, in your sohool, been more
or less active in advanced study than have other teachers?
Business teachers were
to be:
Less aotive
More aotive
in advanced
in advanoed
study
study
12
Number of replies
4
reported
About a v e r ­
Total
age in a d ­
vanoed study17
When all the reports are considered, the teachers of business e d u ­
oation seem t o have a v e r y good record in the matter of advanced study*
One principal who reported that business eduoation teaohers were less active
added this c eminent £
"Standards in business eduoation in the past have not
been as higji, nor a s important as at the present time."
Another principal
■who added a comment, but without a report on the aotivity of the teaoher
in educational matters said, "We do not have specially trained teaohers to
teach these s u b jects•"
The last comment is indioative of the practice —
144
55
145
whioh is, however, rapidly waning —
of employing teaohers for general
eduoation subjects and then shifting them into business eduoation oourses
■with little or no training in the field*
The increase in the number of
institutions providing preparation for teaohers of business education will
result in a supply of trained teaohers and will do muoh to decrease the
number of untrained teaohers in this field*
The report of the principals shows that in twelve of the thirtythree high schools teaohers of business eduoation subjects are more aotive
in advanoed eduoation than are other teachers in the high school*
In four
of the thirty-three oases reported the business eduoation teaohers were
less aotive in advanoed eduoation than were other teaohers, while in seven­
teen of the thirty-three high sohools the business teaohers were about as
aotive as other teaohers.
In twenty-nine of the thirty-three high schools,
business teaohers were either up to the standard of other teaohers, or
1
above it*
This oompares with the findings of File
who, in his study of
business eduoation in the public high sohools of the State of Pennsylvania,
found that high school business eduoation teaohers were up t o standard in
the amount and regularity of graduate study and in the frequency with
which this study was pursued*
1*
Clinton M* File, A Study of Business Education in the Publio Seoandary
Sohools of Pennsylvania, p* 160.
146
TABLE LXXXVII
Do your business teaohers spend their incomes mare -wisely,
less wisely, than do other teaohers?
Salary expenditure
Number of reports
More wisely
Less wisely
Abo u t the same
Do n o t know
9
1
10
11
Total
31
This question was asked to determine, if possible, -whether the
business eduoation teaoher had learned, through hie study of business,
to manage his personal affairs more efficiently than did -the teaoher who
had not had the advantage of this training*
Nine of the -thirty-one prin­
cipals -who answered this question reported that the business eduoation
teaoher -was more efficient in his spending, one reported him less effi­
cient, and ten reported that he was about as efficient as other teaohers
in this respect*
Eleven reported that they did not know*
A total of
thirty-one reports were reoeived on this question*
In the smaller distriots the teaoher is muoh better known and his
habits are the oommon knowledge o f the community*
In the larger communi­
ties the teaoher merges more with the general population, and his spending
habits are less well known*
No conclusive data is available, sinoe these
reports are all subjective opinions.
However, indications point to the fact
that the business eduoation teaoher makes better use of personal inooxne
sinoe nine principals reported a b e tter use of income and but one a poorer
use, in comparison wi-th other teachers.
147
TABLE LXXXVIII
Do new business teaohers in your distriot furnish creden­
tials equal to those of other new teaohers?
Credentials equal to other teaohers
Number of reports
"Yes"
"Ho"
32
_2
Total
34
In this question, "credentials" refer to degree attainments to meet
State Board of Eduoation requirements for certification
Thirty-two of the thirty-four principals w h o reported on this
question state that the business eduoation teaoher furnishes credentials
equal to those furnished by other teaohers in the school system.
One
oomment added to a "yes" report was that "They do now," indicating that
this has not always been the situation.
TABLE LXXXIX
Is the teaoher load heavier for business teaohers generally
than for other teaohers?
Teaching load
Number of reportB
"Yes" (load is heavier)
"No" (load is not heavier)
Same
11
22
_1
Total
34
Thirty-four answers to this question were received.
Twenty-two of
thirty-four principals reported t h a t the teaohing load was no heavier for
the business teaoher than it was for other teachers.
This report agrees
148
1
almost exactly with that of File
teaohers in Pennsylvania.
on the oondition of business eduoation
He found that in sixty-eight per cent of the
oases reported 'the teaching load for business teaohers was no heavier
than that for other teachers in the sohools o f the State.
TAB IE XC
About how many years has the average teaoher in your school
been teaching?
The average business teaoher?
Mean years
Teaohing experience of teaohers
M e a n from thirty-two reports for business teaoher
M e a n from twenty-nine reports for nanbusiness teaoher
7
5
The mean number of year6 of looal teaching experience was reported
as seven for the business eduoation tdaoher and as five for the nonbusiness
2
teacher.
File
found the mean number of years of teaching experience to be
nine and nine tenths far the teaohers in Pennsylvania.
TABLE XCI
Do the teaohers of business have personalities that you
would rate as equal to the personalities of other teaohers?
Personality of teachers
Number of reports
"Yes"
"No"
_Z
Total
34
1.
File, op. pit., p. 173.
32
149
The investigator has assumed that the personalities of other
teaohers are positive, in whioh case the business eduoation teaohers can
be assumed to have a pleasant personality*
The teaoher of business eduoation should himself be endowed with
a pleasing personality in order to be in a position to help the pupil of
high sohool age develop along this important line of personal improvement.
1
Nichols
points out that "Commercial teaohers should possess the personal
characteristics and occupational intelligence which they are expected to
develop in their pupils*"
TABLB XCII
Do you oonsider the personality of your business teachers
an important item in their equipment at the time of em­
ployment?
Personality considered
Number of reports
"Yes"
"No"
34
0
Total
34
The reports of ihe principals indicate that all of them oonsider
personality an important factor in the personal equipment of the teaoher
of business eduoation*
If business teaohers with positive personalities
are employed, the groundwork is thus laid for the development of pbsasing
personalities in the pupils of the business departments in Utah high schools*
It is, of course, necessary that adequate training in personality improve -
1.
Frederick G. Nichols, Commercial Eduoation in the High Sohool. p. 161.
150
ment be given by well-prepared teaohers, sinoe this is an important phase
of the pupil's business preparation*
TABLE XCIII
Do you believe there should be same definite administrative
plan for keeping teaohers in oantaot with business? Can
you suggest a plan for this purpose?
In favor of same plan
Number of reports
35
0
6
"Yes"
"No"
Principals suggesting plan
Thirty-five of the forty-four principals replied to this question.
All of them reported themselves in favor of some plan to keep teaohers of
business eduoation in aotive touoh with business.
replies to this question.
There were no negative
Six of the thirty-five principals suggested
plans for this purpose, among -whioh were the followings
"Survey business,"
"Work with coordinator," "Continue eduoation," "Teaohers desiring to keep
their effioienoy will do this themselves," and "Speoial problem oases."
These suggestions seem muoh less effective than those offered by the
superintendents (Chapter VI, page71 )•
The superintendents suggested that
business teaohers help revise the curriculum and that they obtain summer
work in business to inorease their store of information concerning current
business praotioes*
This pauoity of suggestions from the prinoipals is
at variance with their unanimous approval of the idea that some plan to
keep business teaohers in aotive touoh with business praotioes be adopted.
151
TABLES XCIV
Please suggest a desirable subjeot matter training for
business teaohers to have -when you emjioy them®
Subjeot matter training suggested
Number of reports
A good oollege course and oontaot with business
Typewriting and bookkeeping
General world affairs
Eduoation
Broad view of scope
Major and minor in what they teaoh
General
Business experience praotioe
Keen intere st
Guidanod
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Total
10
Ten of the forty-four principals replied to this question.
No
one suggested that business teaohers should have training in methods of
teaching business subjeots.
Table XC7II, page 155, shows that in thirty-eight per cent of the
high sohools reporting, business teaohers are not trained to teaoh the
business subjeots assigned to them; therefore, the suggestion that they
have a "major” and "minor" in what they teaoh seems well put*
TABLE XCV
Bo you believe previous business experience is necessary
or desirable for business teaohers?
Number of reports
Previous business experienoe desirable
Previous business experienoe neoessary
28
5
Total
33
Comments added
2
152
Thirty-three of the forty-four principals replied to this ques­
tion, with twenty-eight reporting that previous business experienoe was
desirable and five that it was necessary.
One principal commented
"Valuable," and another "Desirable in the past, necessary now."
TABLE XCVI
How many teaohers, including all, are there in high school?
Men, Women. How many business teaohers? Men, Women.
All teaohers
Men
Women
NumPer
Num.- Per
ber
oent
ber
oent
Number of teaohers
Number of reports
419
59
65
223
39
35
Busine ss teaohers
Men
Women
Num- ter
Num- Per
ber
oent
ber
oent
52
24
45
39
55
27
Sixty-five per oent of the teaohers in the high sohools of Utah
are men, the remainder women.
In the business eduoation department,
however, the situation is reversed with but forty-five per oent of the
teaohers men.
153
TABLE XCVII
How many teaohers not educated in business are there in
your sohool teaohing one or more business subjeots?
Number of sohools
Number
Per oent
Teachers not trained in business who
are teaohing business subjeots
Not any
One teaoher
Two teaohers
Four teaohers
18
9
1
1
62
31
3.5
3.5
Total
29
100.0
Subjeot8 taught without training
Commercial arithmetio
Junior business
typewriting
Twenty-nine of the forty-four principals replied to this question,
with eighteen of them reporting that none of the teaohers of business sub­
jeots in their high sohool were untrained in business education*
In
eleven of the high sohools teachers of business subjeots had no training
in this field*
One untrained teaoher was reported by nine sohools, two
untrained teaohers by one school, end four by another*
The percentage of
untrained teaohers permitted to teaoh business subjeots seems muoh too
high*
The subjeots taught by these teaohers were reported to be ocmneroial
arithmetic, typewriting, and junior business*
With an ewersupply of
teaohers throughout the country during the past ten years it seems that
no prinoipal should allow a condition so detrimental to the welfare of the
pupil to exist*
154
TABLE XCVIII
How many business teaohers do you have who have had prac­
tical business experience within the last five years?
Within the last three years? How many have had no prac­
tical business experienoe?
Praotioal business experienoe
Number of reports
Per oent
Number
Within the last five years
Within the last three years
Wo business experienoe at all
J_
39
44
17
Total
41
100
16
18
Forty-one of the forty-four principals replied to this question*
Thirty-nine per oent of the teaohers have had praotLoal business experienoe
within the past five years, forty-four per oent within the last three years,
and seventeen per oent have had no business experienoe at all*
A total of
eighty three per cent of the business teaohers have had some business ex­
perienoe within the last five years, compared with eighty-five per oent
1
of the business eduoation teaohers in Pennsylvania, as reported by File
in his Survey of Business Eduoation in the Publio High Sohools of Penn­
sylvania*
1*
File, _0£. oit», p. 174*
155
TABLE XCIX
Do you believe the oommeroial oontests held in Utah are a
positive or negative factor in teaohing of your school?
Cammeroial oontest
Number of reports
20
7
6
Positive
Negative
Neither
Do not participate
_2
Total
55
Per oent
60
21
19
100
Thirty-five of the forty-four principals reported that the oommeroial oontest, sponsored by Brigham Young University, -was a positive
factor in sixty per cent of the high sohools; a negative faotor in twentyone per oent; and as neither positive nor negative in nineteen per oent of
the high sohools.
In an earlier chapter (Table XXx.ll , page 74 ) fifty-
six per oent of the superintendents reported that they believBd this oontest
to be a positive faotor, while sixty-eight per oent of the teaohers of aooountlng and sixty per oent of teaohers of stenography reported it positive.
Two high sohools report they do not participate in the oontests.
Summary of the Chapter
Advanoed Study Done by Business Eduoation Teaohers
1.
The teaohers of business eduoation were reported more aotive
in advanoed eduoation than -were other teaohers by twelve of thirty-three
principals; less aotive by four principals; and of about average activity
by seventeen prinoipals.
2.
(Table LXXXVI, page 144.)
Thirty-two of Hiirty-Four prinoipals reported that business
156
eduoation teaohers were required to furnish credentials equal to those
furnished by other teaohers in order to seoure oertifio at ion by the State
Department of Eduoation*
3.
(Table IXXXVTII, page 147•)
A somewhat varying report was received on the subjeot matter
a teaoher of business should have studied*
Agreement was expressed that
it should consist of sound oollegiate training in business eduoation courses,
of experienoe in business, and of trailing in fields of a broader soope
than purely vocational.
(Table XCIV, page 151*)
Management of Income
4*
A tendency for the business eduoation teaoher to spend his ineame
more wisely than do other teaohers was reported by nine of the thirty-one
prinoipals in the high sohools of the State*
(Table LXXXVII, page 146*)
Teaohing Experienoe of Business Eduoation Teaohers
5*
The mean number of years of teaohing experienoe for the busi­
ness eduoation teaoher was reported to be seven; the mean for other teaohers
was five*
6*
(Table XC, page 148.)
Thirty-eight per oent of the teaohers of business eduoation in
the twenty-nine high sohools reporting on the question are teaohing one or
more business subjeots with no oollegiate training in this field.
(Table
XCVII, page 153.)
Business Experienoe of Business Eduoation Teaohers
7.
Unanimous agreement was expressed by thirty-five prinoipals
that there should be some administrative plan to ksep business teaohers in
aotive touoh with present dey business methods and praotioes.
Six of
1S7
these prinoipals suggested plans for this purpose.
8.
(Table XCIII, page 150.)
Twenty-ei$it of thirty-three prinoipals reported that business
experienoe gained previous to employment as a teaoher was desirable, and
five that it was necessary.
7.
(Table XCV, page 151.)
Forty-four per oent of the business eduoation teaohers in the
forty-one high sohools reporting have had praotioal business experienoe
within the last three years and thirty-nine per oent within the last five
years.
Seventeen per oent have had no business experienoe at all.
(Table XCVIII, page 154.)
Sex of Business Bduoatian Teaohers
8.
Sixty-five per oent of all the teaohers in the thirty-nine
high sohools reporting are men.
In the business eduoation department,
however, but forty-five per oent are men.
(Table XCVI, page 149.)
Personality of Business Eduoation Teaohers
9.
Thirty-two of thirty-four prinoipals reported that business
eduoation teaohers have personalities equal to those of other teaohers.
Unanimous agreement was expressed by thirty-four principals that the per­
sonality of the business eduoation teaoher was an important item in his
equipment.
(Tables XCI and XCII, pages 148 and 149.)
Bffeot of State Camne roial Contest on Business Eduoation Teaohing
10.
The oommeroial oontest, sponsored annually by Brigham Young
University, was reported to have a positive effeot upon the teaohing of
business eduoation Bubjeots —
particularly those of shorthand, typewrit­
ing, and bookkeeping — by sixty per oent of the thirty-five prinoipals
reporting.
Twenty-one per oent"reported it to be negative, and nineteen
158
per oent neither positive or negative.
(Table XCIX, page 155.)
Teaohing Load of Business Education Teaohers
11*
Eleven of thirty-four prinoipals reported that the teaohing
load of the business eduoation teaoher was heavier than that of other
teaohers*
The remaining twenty-three reported the load no heavier*
(Table LXXXIX, page 147.)
CHAPTER X
EXTENSION EDUCATION
Extension eduoation refers to cooperative, evening, and part-time
eduoation.
The information presented in this ohapter was drawn from the
fifth seotion of the questionnaire sent to the principals of the high sohools
in Utah.
The replies to the twelve questions in this seotion will he pre­
sented in the order in whioh they appeared on the questionnaire.
TABLE C
Do you have a cooperative arrangement with the merchants
of your 0!%- for pupils of your sohool to attend sohool
part of the day and work in the stores part of the day?
Yes, No. If not do you feel that suoh an arrangement
should be made? Yes, No.
Number of replies
Cooperative Arrangement
Do you have a cooperative arrangement?
"Yes”
"No"
1
J35
Total
36
Do you think you should have one?
"Yes"
"No"
14
J5
Total
20
Comments added
14
Only one of thirty-six prinoipals replying to this question re­
ported the existence of a cooperative retail agreement with the merchants
159
160
of the city, while thirty-five reported there was no such arrangement in
their high schools.
Fourteen of -these prinoipals reported that they
should have a course of this kind, while six reported that they did not
think they should.
Fourteen of the principals added oomments -which seem to amplify
their belief s on the que stion.
These oomments follows
"They (the pupils)
are under legal working age"; "I favor this idea but we have two small
stores in our community that need little help"; "Local business does not
use enough workers"; "Impossible"; "Business not adequate"; "We have none
of this"; "Not at present"; "The community business district is too small";
"We do not offer this course"; "We are thinking of doing this now"; "If
occasion requires"; "It would be very fine"; "When necessary"; and "We
do have few oases of such."
These oomments generally indioate that the courses in cooperative
retail selling are desirable for the larger communities, but that few of
these larger communities exist*
This type of course is, therefore, not
suited to the needs of the majority of the high sohools in the State, in
the opinion of those who replied*
In seme of the communities the solution
may lie in the consolidation of the smaller high sohools into larger
units*
Enrollment in such courses should be adjusted to the ability of
the stores in the communities served by the consolidated high sohools to
absorb the graduates so trained.
161
TABLE Cl
If so (you do have a cooperative arrangement with the
merohantB of your city for retail training of high school
pupils), how many pupils take this course eaoh year?
Number of pupils
in the oourse
Number of high
sohools reporting
1
Number of ireports
3
One high sohool reported that there were three pupils taking the
course in retail training.
If the larger communities can find employment
for pupils in this oourse, perhaps those communities should expand their
programs.
TABLE ClI
How much time, in hours per week, is spent in olass? How
much time on the job? Is it a one or a two year oourse?
Time
Average (hours per week)
In olass
On the job
One or two year oourse
13
22
No report
Only one high sohool principal reported the existence of a co­
operative retail training oourse, yet five prinoipals reported on the
number of hours spent on the job and in classes in this kind of oourse.
The time spent in olasswork and the time spent on the job in the
cooperative retail oourse were reported to be thirteen and twenty-two
hours per week, respectively.
Three high sohools reported on the number
162
of hours spent in olassss and on the job, -with two other sohools reporting
that one half the time was spent in olasses and one half the time on the
job.
No report on the length of the course in years was received.
TABLE G U I
Under a cooperative arrangement suggested above, what would
you regard as an adequate seleotion of pupils to enter such
a training plan?
Method of seleotion of pupils
Number of reports
Ability
Attitude and ability
Training and adaptability
Enough ability to make good and an intention
to go into business
1
1
1
1
Only four prinoipals reported an the guiding principles they be­
lieved should be used to seleot pupils to enter into a ret ail-training
oourse.
Ability is mentioned specifically by three of the prinoipals end
iB indicated by the fourth.
No definition of ability is given, although a
natural aptitude or ability for business is suggested.
No mention is made
of demonstrated ability in high sohool olasses although it is indicated
in the oomments of the prinoipals.
The use of some form of ability test for the purpose of aiding the
principals in selecting pupils for retail cooperative oourses is not men­
tioned.
It seems that this is a me-ttiod that could well supplement those
suggested.
163
TABLE CIV
Should sohool oredit,in the plan above, be given for
work done in the store?
Should oredit be given for store work?
Number of replies
"Yes"
"No"
Undecided
22
4
_1
Total
27
Twenty-seven prinoipals reported on this question, although but
one of the prinoipals stated (Table C, page 159) that a cooperative re­
tail training oourse was in aotual operation in his sohool.
Evidently
these reports represent the beliefs rather than the aotual praotioes of
the prinoipals.
Twenty-two of the twenty-seven principals reported that they were
in agreement with the idea that school credit be given the pupil for the
work in the store.
Pour did not think oredit should be given for store
service, and one principal was undecided on the question.
It seems fairly well agreed upon that oredit should be given for
the time spent in store servioe as a part of the retail training oourse in
oooperatioh with local merchants j at least oredit for the oourse should
include oredit for the time spent in the store.
164
TAB IE OT
Should the sohool in such a retail training plan assume the
responsibility of arranging the hour and payment plans of
the pupil with the retail store manager?
Sohool should make these arrangements
Number of replies
"Yes"
"No"
12
_8
Total
20
Tima and payment plans in this question refer to the time the pupil
is to spend in the store and the payment he is to receive for this Bervioe.
Twelve of the twenty prinoipals who answered, reported that the
sohool should make the necessary arrangements with the store.
imperative that the sohool should perform this function.
It seems
Without it the
pupil would be in danger of exploitation and the time for stare servioe
would have to be fitted into the sohool program arranged without regard
to the service to be rendered the manager of the cooperating store.
TABLE CVI
Do local merchants look to your sohool as a training field for
their future employees? If not, do you think suoh an attitude
oould be developed, or should be developed?
Sohool regarded as training field
Number of reports
"Yes"
"No"
Total
15
17
32
This attitude oould bedeveloped
This attitude should be developed
Total
10
5
15
Comments added
7
165
Fifteen of thirty-two prinoipals answering this question reported
that their high sohools are the source t o which local merchants turn for
trained personnel*
Ten prinoipals reported that they believed this attitude
could be developed and five that it should be developed.
Seven oomments were
added to the effeot that business in the communities w a s not adequate for
this plan.
TABLE CVII
Do you think the retail selling field offers more jobs to your
graduates than any other single field of employment? Please
rank the fields that offer employment to your pupils in the
order of the greatest number affected.
Retail selling offers more jobs
than a ny other field
Number of replies
"Yes"
"No"
Total
Rank order of fields
of employment
Agriculture
Retail selling
Mining
Teaching
Stenography
Common labor
Selling, not retail
Bookkeeping and business
Industrial arts
Railroading
Service stations
Household
Mechanics
Private business
Salt manufacture
Nursing
Total
*
11
16
27
First
Seoond
11
3
1
0
0
1
2
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
__ 0
1
0
2
3
4
2
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
20
Third
Weighted total
_0
0
3
1
2
0
0
0
5
0
0
0
0
0
2
1
_1
35
12
8
8
8
7
6
5
3
3
2
2
2
2
1
_1
15
15
105
A weight of three was given first place, t w o second place, and one third
place.
The table should be read as follows; Agriculture was placed
first in importance b y eleven prinoipals, seoond by one, and third
b y none* The weights assigned to the three places results in a total
score of thirty-five.
—
166
Eleven of twenty-seven prinoipals reported that retail selling
offered more jobs to the graduates of high sohool than did any other field
of employment, the remaining seven reported that it did not.
Twenty of these twenty-seven prinoipals listed the fields of em­
ployment for high sohool graduates that they regarded as first in importance,
fifteen listed the seoond m o s t important fields, and fifteen the third most
important.
Agriculture was plaoed first w i t h a weighted score of thirty-
five; retail selling seoond w i t h twelve; and mining, teaohing, and steno­
graphy were third with a soore of eight eaoh.
Common labor was ranks d
next, followed by nonretail sell ing and bookkeeping.
TABLE CV III
Do you think "over the counter selling" oan be taught more,
or less successfully than oan typewriting, shorthand, and
bookkeeping?
"Over the oounter" selling
Number of reports
Taught more successfully
Less successfully taught
2
22
Total
24
Twenty-two of twenty-four prinoipals report that "over the oounter"
selling cannot be taught in olass as successfully as oan bookkeeping,
shorthand, and typewriting.
It seems that if this type of selling skill
is to be taught successfully in the high sohools of Utah some arrangement
should be made to provide actual praotice under business conditions.
167
TABLE CIX
Do y o u have a continuation school in your district for
business subjeots?
For other subjeots? If in other s u b ­
jects please list the fields oovered.
Continuation sohool
Number of replies
For business eduoation pupils:
"Yes”
"No"
Total
3
26
29
In other subjeots:
"Yes"
"No"
Total
3
14
17
Continuation sohools are defined by Lyon in a quotations
Ha
part-time or continuation school or class is a school or olass for beys
and girls between the ages of fourteen and eighteen years who are not
high sohool graduates and w h o have discontinued attendance upon the regu-
1
lar full-time sohools."
Lyon reports continuation sohools in twenty-
eight States and includes Utah in this list.
Most of the high schools in Utah have no ocmtinuation departments
for either business or nonbusiness pupils.
Uteh is eighteen years.
The compulsory school age in
The pupil who graduates from high sohool is
normally eighteen years old, mature enough to seek employment and beyond
the legal age of continuation sohool attendance.
When it is recalled that
in Utah a great proportion of the high sohool pupils in the business e d u ­
cation department do not remain in sohool to graduate, it seems that there
are not enough continuation sohools in the State to care for the pupils who
drop out of high sohool.
1.
Lerverett S. Lyon, Eduoation for Business, pp. 459, and 468.
168
TABLE CX
Do you have evening sohools for secondary pupils in business
subjeots? For adults?
In other subjeots?
If in other sub­
jeots please list the fields oovered for secondary pupils and
for adults.
Number of replies
Evening classes for seoondary p u p i l s :
In business subjeots
"Yes”
"No"
Total
4
17
21
In other subjeots
"Yes"
"No”
Total
4
18
22
Evening olasses for adultss
In other subjeots
"Yes"
"No"
Total
6
13
19
Evening classes for business pupils, or for adults in either busi­
ness or other subjeots, are not numerous in Utah.
Evening sohools for
secondary sohool pupils of business eduoation are in operation in four of
twenty-one of the high sohools reporting;
in other subjeots, in four of
twenty-two of the high schools; and for adults in other subjects, in six
of nineteen of the high sohools.
The subjeots taught are largely agri­
culture and English, with domestic art and leather work mentioned.
Busi­
ness subjeots are in the distinct minority, entirely seoondary to the
offerings in agriculture and English.
Perhaps the agricultural offering
is more useful to the seoondary pupil and to the adult than business e du­
oation courses would be.
169
Summary of the Chapter
Cooperative Retail Training
A.
Prog r a m
1.
B u t one high sohool of thirty-six represented b y replies to
this question reported the existence o f a cooperative r e t a i l training pro­
gram, including an arrangement with the merchants of the community for
training pupils in retail selling procedure.
Fourteen o f twenty principals
reported that they believed such a program should b e adopted.
pupils w e r e r e p o r t e d taking this oourse.
Only three
They spent t wenty-two hours per
week in the store and thirteen hours per week in class.
Pupils are se­
lected for this oourse upon the basis of their ability a n d aptitude for
retail store training.
B.
(Tables C-CIII, inolusive, pages 159-162.)
Credit for Store Work
2.
Credit should be given f o r the time spent in the store, a c ­
cording t o the report of twenty-two of the twenty-seven who replied to
this question.
The high sohool should make the necessary time and pay­
ment arrangements with the store, in the opinion of twelve of the twenty
principals reporting.
C.
(Tables CI7 and CV, pages 163 a nd 164.)
Source o f employees
3.
Fifteen o f thirty-two principals reported that local merchants
look to the higfr sohool as a source o f new employees, w h i l e seventeen re­
ported this w a s no t the case.
Ten of fifteen principals stated that this
attitude o n the part o f the local merchants could be developed and five
reported that it should b e developed.
(Table CVI, page 164.)
170
D.
Fields of Employment
4.
Eleven of twenty-seven principals reported that retail selling of­
fered more jobs to high school graduates than did any one other field; the
remaining sixteen reported that it did not.
Twenty principals reported
the fields of employment that offered the greatest number of positions to
the high sohool graduate, fifteen the
the third greatest number.
seoond greatest number, and fifteen
If the first place is weighted three, the
seoond two, and the third one, the
following ranking is secured: agri­
culture first, with thirty-five points; retail selling seoond, with twelve
points; mining, teaching a n d stenography third, with eight points each;
common labor fourth, with seven points; non-retail selling fifth, with six
points; and bookkeeping sixth, w i t h five points.
pations were listed.
E.
A total of sixteen occu­
(Table CVII, page 165.)
Ease of Teaching ’’Over the Counter” Selling
5.
Twenty-two of twenty-four principals reported that ‘'over the
counter” selling could nob b e taught as successfully as could shorthand,
bookkeeping, and typewriting.
(Table CVIII, page 166.)
Continuation and Evening Schools
6.
Three of twenty-nine principals reported the existenoe of
continuation schools for business education pupils whioh offered business
education subjects.
Three of seventeen reported continuation schools
offering other than business education subjeots.
7.
(Table CIX, page 167.)
Four of seventeen prinoipalB reported evening sohools for
secondary pupils offering business subjeots; four o f eighteen reported
evening sohools for seoondary pupils giving other than business education
171
subjeots; and six of nineteen reported evening sohools for adults offer­
ing other than business subjeots.
168.)
(Tables CIX and CX, pages 167 and
CHAPTER XI
ADMINISTRATION
Twenty questions concerning the administration o f business edu­
cation in the high sohools of the State were asked the principals in the
sixth, and last, seotion of the questionnaire addressed to them.
Their
replies are presented in the following tables.
TABUS CXI
Is there a demand in your district or county f o r courses
in business education subjects for adults; e.g., for the
parents and business men of the community?
If so, please
list the types of training they need.
A d u l t education
Number of replies
Is there a demand for adult education?
"Yes"
"No"
Undecided
33
5
JL
Total
39
Courses suggested;
Consumer education
Salesmanship and finance
Bookkeeping and farm accounting
Typewriting
Law and contracts
Shorthand
General education
11
10
9
3
2
1
1
There appears to be a demand for oourses in business education in
the communities of thirty-three -of the thirty-nine principals who answered
172
173
this question.
These courses would of neoessity have to be given in the
evening a n d brings into contrast the statements in Chapter X, page 168,
where the principals reported that there were but six communities in whioh
evening classes are held at the present time.
The subjeots that are in
demand were reported b y the principals a s follows:
First, consumer educa­
tion; seoond, salesmanship and finance; third, bookkeeping and farm aooounting; fourth, typewriting; fifth,
law a n d oantracts; sixth, shorthand; and
seventh, general education subjeots.
Consumer education, salesmanship,
and accounting were reported by thirty principals.
Evidently the demand
for these courses is articulate enough t o require positive action by the
administrators.
All the courses reported are vocational in nature, with
the exception of consumer education and general education.
Perhaps it
might be well to begin these evening ocurses with vocational subjeots.
Lyon reports that evening schools "should be regarded as vooatiohal in the
1
strictest sense."
He believes these courses
should be short in length
and concentration in subject matter, offering speoifio vocational train­
ing only.
He adds that nonvocational courses to supplement the vocational
might be added as the sohool increases in enrollment and gains experience
in offering the materials that s e e m to fill the needs of the communities
concerned.
It is questionable whether this plan should be followed in
Utah since many of the reports are for nonvocat ional courses.
necessary to go slowly and to develop the offerings gradually.
1.
Leverett S. Lyon, Bduoation for Business, pp. 501-502.
It may b e
174
TABLE GXII
Do you offer instruction in. the new and expensive types
of machines? What are your most pressing problems here?
New types of machines
Number o f reports
2
"Yes'’
"No"
34
Total
36
Courses in the more expensive types of business machines, suoh as
bookkeeping machines, posting machines a n d the liks, arenot offered in
the high schools of Utah to any great extent.
The reasons for not offer­
ing these courses were that the employment demands were slight and the
finanoial cost of installation and maintenance of the machines was so
great as to discourage offerings in this direction.
These seem to be suf­
ficient reasons for not offering these courses.
TABLE (XIII
To what extant, in hours p e r week, should full time teachers
be permitted to teaoh in evening sohools?
To work in other
line8 out of sohool time?
M e a n time in hours
per w e e k
For evening classes
For other than sohool work
Number of reports
2.7
4.8
Number reporting
"none"
9
6
28
One prinoipal reported that teachers should not teaoh in the
evening unless paid for it.
Ctae-other principal stated that teaohers
175
should spend a "limited" amount of time on evening w o r k other than teach­
ing, and two others reported "very little" time should be spent on this
activity.
From these reports of twenty-eight of the forty-four principals
it is evident that those who replied to this question believe that teachers
in Utah high schools should not be permitted to spend muoh time in remunera­
tive w o r k outside the schoolroom.
Perhaps this attitude can be explained
when w e recall that the teacher carries a rather heavy schedule during the
day.
The scarcity of jobs may be another reason why teaohers should not
be permitted to do other work.
TABLE CXIV
Do you have a head, or chairman for the commercial department?
If so, does he administer the department budget alone? With
the help of his teachers? With help from the superintendent
or principal?
Does he have a reduced teaohing load? If so,
what does he do with the time made available by the reduotion?
Business Education Department
Number of reports
Head of business department
“"Yes"
"No"
Total
13
19
32
Budget planning
With superintendent and principal
With teachers, superintendent and principal
Total
11
4
15
Teaching load reduced
"Yes"
Questions receiving no answer
With help of teacher is$
Does department head administer budget alone?
H o w is extra time spent?
4
176
Thirteen of the thirty-two principals who reported on this ques­
tion have a n appointed head of the business education department.
The
budget is administered with the help of the superintendent and the princi­
pal in eleven high schools, and w i t h the help of the two administrators and
the teachers in four high schools*
Administration of the budget by the d e ­
partment head alone was not reported by any of the thirty-two principals
reporting*
In only four high sohools is the teaching load of the head of
the department lessened, but the nature of the reduction was not given b y
any of the principals.
TABLE CXV
Does your school have a oommerce supervisor? If so,
what per cent of his time is devoted to teaching?
To observation?
To demonstrating teaching? To mak­
ing contacts with business firms? Other?
Commeroe supervisor
Number of reports
Do hare one
Do not have one
2
30
Total
32
Only two of the high sohools of Utah have a commerce supervisor.
These two schools are in Salt Lake City and both reported the common
supervisor of the Salt Lake City schools.
Neither of the two principals
reported the amount of time the supervisor spent in observation, in demon­
stration teaching, in teaching, or in making contacts with businessmen for
the further progress of business eduoation within the various communities.
177
TABLE CXVI
Who decides upon the employment of business teachers?
Officers who employ teachers
Number of reports
Superintendent
Superintendent and prinoipal
Superintendent and board of education
Superintendent, principal, and board
Superintendent and supervisor of business education
25
7
2
1
1
Total
36
In twenty-five of the thirty-six high sohools reporting, the
superintendent of the school district employs the business eduoation
teachers*
I n seven districts the superintendent is aided b y the princi­
pal, in two b y the board of eduoation, in one other b y the board of educa­
tion and the prinoipal, and in still another b y the supervisor of business
education*
This last mentioned district is, of oourse, Salt Lake City*
TABLE CXVII
Do any of the commercial teaohers handle two olasses during
the same period? If so, please list the classes*
Two classes at the same period
Number of reports
6
"Yes"
"No"
29
Total
35
Classes taught
Typewriting and shorthand
Typewriting and bookkeeping
Typewriting and general business
4
1
1
178
Six of the thirty-five principals reporting on this question
stated that business eduoation teachers were teaching two classes during
the same period.
These classes were typewriting and shorthand in four
high schools, typewriting and bookkeeping in one high sohool, and type­
writing and general business in one high school.
Typewriting is the subject that is taught in combination with other
subjeots in all six schools, perhaps due to the nature of the classwork,
which permits pupils to work alone with no guidance except an occasional
check to keep discipline in hand.
This practioe of teaching two subjects at the one time adds
measurably to the w o r k of the teacher because of the difficulty of main­
taining order and proper effort in both classes.
The greatest loss, how­
ever, is to the class in typewriting, which is left to itself*
The work
of the teaoher in the second olass is less effective than it would be if
his entire attention could be given to it.
Since it is impossible for a teacher to do justice to two classes
at the same time, in two different rooms, this practice should be dis­
couraged in the high sohools of the State.
TABLE CXVIII
Which single periods have reoently been changed
to double periods? W h i c h double periods to
single?
Classes changed
Single period in typewriting to double period
Double period to single period
Number of replies
Number of reports
1
none
£3
179
Of twenty-three principals replying, only one reported a change
—
wh i c h was a single period in typewriting changed to a double period*
TABLE CXIX
KShat do you regard as the chief difficulties in
organizing homogeneous, or ability groups in
business eduoation?
Difficulties
Number of reports
Physical facilities too limited
Classes too large
Classes too small
Administration
Interests of pupils too diversified
Artioulation
Sooial methodological
2
2
1
1
1
__1
7
Total
15
Only fifteen of the forty-four principals replied to this ques­
tion*
The reliability of the returns is, therefore, questionable*
Tendencies may b e indicated, nevertheless*
Limited physical facilities ranks first among the difficulties
of organizing homogeneous, or ability, groups in business education
classes*
Two principals reported that classes were too large for this pur­
pose, while two other principals reported that classes w e r e too small*
180
TABLE CXX
Do you make use of oommerolal pupils as office assistants or in
clerical work without remuneration? With remuneration?
Pupils Employed
Number of reports
With remuneration
"Yes"
"No"
Total
14
6
20
Without remuneration
"Yes"
"No"
Total
30
8
38
Thirty-nine principals replied to this question* with some oheoking both "without" and "with" remuneration*
This accounts for the fact
the number of reports is greater than the number of principals who re­
turned the questionnaire*
Forty-four
principals reported that they employ business educa­
tion pupils in the sohool office; i n fourteen oases pupils receive payment
for their services and in thirty
they do not.
Fourteen reported that
they did not employ pupils in the school office, either with or without
payment for their services.
One eohool reported that credit in office
praotioe was given for this offioe and olinioal work*
Nine of the principals who employ pupils use funds from the
National Youth Administration for this purpose; the remaining number did
not state where funds for this service were obtained*
This seems a desirable praotioe, even if the pupil performs this
servioe without payment —
tained*
particularly if employment standards are main­
It gives praotical experience to the pupil and should enable him
181
to find employment more easily than he would without this practice.
TABLE CXXI
In w h a t way or ways might the superintendents cooperate
to make business education courses more effective in
your school?
More effective cooperation
Number of replies
Provide additional equipment, rooms andteaohers
Decrease teaching load
Help plan a oourse
Provide more teachers
Visit classes frequently
Make courses available and provide competent teachers
Number of reports reoeived
4
1
1
1
1
1
9
Only nine of the forty-four superintendents replied to this
question; the returns may, therefore, be unreliable.
stress the need for more equipment and teachers.
Six of the reports
Since the superintendents
are direotly in contact with the board of education, it seems that an
appeal of this type should be addressed to them.
Perhaps it might tend to
increase the interest of the superintendent in the needs of business edu­
oation.
The remaining comments indicate the desirability of having the
superintendent in more direct contact with the actual operation of the
high school.
TABLE CXXII
In large schools do you feel it would be a better plan to
have general commercial work under one person, the book­
keeping under another and the shorthand under a third?
Should business departments be increased
Number of "yes" answers
Number of "no" answers
Total
Number of reports
18
8
26
182
Eighteen of the twenty-six principals who reported on this ques­
tion are of the opinion that the commercial work in the larger high schools
would fare better if it were broken up into departments and an individual
plaoed in charge of each section*
It is interesting to note that the
principal of one of Salt Lake City's largest high schools reported that it
was a good idea but they "can't stick to it on acoount of numbers*"
It
is to be remembered that further sectioning of the business education de­
partment is a debatable question*
The principals merely indicate that
they believe it would be desirable in their high school*
TABLE CXXIII
Do you believe there are too many pupils in high school for the
best good of the most able of your pupiisi
Size of classes
Number of reports
"Yes"
"No"
14
19
Total
33
Nineteen of the thirty-three principals replying to -unis ques­
tion do not believe that
there are too
for the best good of the
most able pupils.
many pupils in business education
The United States Office of
Education found that Utah had taken into the high schools such a large
proportion of the population that the pupils in each grade were retarded
in their progress because of the lack of ability of the additional groups
drawn into high school *1
1*
Furthermore, Utah
has drawn into high school a
United States Office of Eduoation, Biennial
Bulletin No. 20, Vol. I, p. 210.
Survey of Education,
183
larger proportion of the population than has any other State in the Union*
1
Douglass found
that the average youth of high sohool age today has an
I*", between 86 and 106*
He states that only thirty-five per cent of
all children have I*Q*'s as high as 105, but the program is adjusted to
those with I.Q.'s of 105 or better.
The program of secondary education,
including the first two years of what we now call college education, must
be reformulated for the total population of these ages*
This appears to be
doubly significant for Utah since a larger proportion of pupils —
hence a larger proportion of lower ability pupils —
and
are in high school in
that state even though nineteen of the thirty-three principals reported
there were not too many pupils in high school for the best good of the
more able pupils*
TABLE CXXJV
In your duties as administrator, please indicate in which
of the following y o u spend the most time, the second most,
etc*, by numbering them 1, 2, and so on* Personally ad­
vising pupils. Adviser of men. As one of a group of ad­
visers, Chairman of general committee, Making studies to
provide for better guidance, Personally recommending stu­
dents to higher institutions.
Time spent
Advising pupils
Studies for guidance
As one of group
Adviser of men
Chairman of committee
College recommendation
Teaching
General administration
Other
Total
1.
Number of reports
First Second Third Fourth Fifth Sixth Seventh
16
4
3
2
2
10
8
4
4
5
2
1
8
6
1
4
3
1
4
5
2
1
4
2
1
1
3
1
4
24
15
8
5
5
1
2
1
35
34
1
Harl E. Douglass, Seoondary Education for Youth, pp. 28-29*
I
184
The first six item 6 have to do quite directly with the counseling
of pupils.
Taken together, these duties were reported as first in import­
ance b y thirty-five
four
principals.
principals and as second in importance by thirtyStudies to provide better guidanoe occupies an import­
ant place in the h i g h school's efficiency.
teaching d u t y as the first in importance.
Five principals reported the
These principals all represent
small high schools where extra-classroom activity is less extensive than
in the large high sohool, although probably more needed.
TABLE CXXV
Do you believe that the social and economic shifts of
recent years place an additional burden upon business
education in your school to help your students to live
more successfully in a growing complexity of living
conditions?
Responsibility
Number of replies
Help pupil adjust to changing living conditions
"Yes”
"No"
34
JL
Total
35
The thirty-five principals who replied expressed almost unanimous
agreement w i t h the idea that the burden of preparing pupils to faoe modern
living conditions falls upon the business education department.
This de­
partment should take steps to revise both the vocational and the nonvocational courses offered, with the aim of offering pupils the type of
preparation they will need to face the changing conditions they will find
as they leave high school*
185
TABLE CXXVI
■Which of the courses offered in your school do most to
prepare for proper consumer education of your pupils?
Courses
Number of reports
Business Education
6
6
2
2
Economics
General business and business of life
Typewriting and stenography
Bookkeeping
16
12
2
1
1
Home economics and management
Agriculture
Industrial arts
Social soience
16
32
Total
Sixteen principals reported some phase of business education as
doing most in the field of consumer education*
Bookkeeping, shorthand,
and typewriting were reported as subjects contributing to this training
goal*
The home economios department was reported second in this activity*
Industrial arts and sooial science were each reported by one principal.
The home economios department seems to be the second outstanding
department that is going ahead w i t h training for consumer education as a
part of its program.
Perhaps this is the logical department to assume this
activity, particularly f r o m the viewpoint of
the girls in the high school
classes* The tendency of these two departments to assume
leadership in
consumer
education indicates that eventually the business education depart­
ment may
offer this type of w o rk to the boys and the home economics depart­
ment to the girls of the h i g h schools.
186
TABLE CXXVII
Would you add a course to care for consumer education
mentioned in the above question?
Course needed
Number of replies
"Yes'*
"No"
_8
18
Total
26
Eighteen of twenty-six principals would add a course to the cur­
riculum to care for the consumer education needs of all pupils in the high
schools of Utah*
Eight would not add such a course*
Three principals
added the comment that they "would make it a part of the course in eco­
nomics," another that he would add it to "production and markets"; and
a third would add "consumer education for boys*"
This last comment indi­
cates that a course in consumer education for girls is taught in his high
school*
If so, this plan would fit in well with the statement made in an­
swer to the previous question —
that all boys be given consumer education
in the business education department and all girls in the home eoonomics
section of the high school*
TABLE CXXVIII
Do y o u have a high school of commerce in your district?
School of commerce
Number of Replies
"Yes"
"No"
0
36
Total
36
187
There is
no high school of commerce in Utah, according to
the reports of the principals of the high schools represented b y the
thirty-six replies made to this question.
In Table XXXVIII, page 81, the
superintendents reported two high schools of commerce.
There appears to
be little need for this type of school, however.
Summary of the Chapter
Curriculum in Business Eduoation
A.
Adult Education
1.
The need for adult business education courses was expressed by
thirty-three of thirty-nine principals.
The courses suggested by the
principals for this purpose were: oonsumer education, insurance, salesman­
ship, finance, bookkeeping and farm accounting, typewriting, law and con­
tracts, shorthand, and general education, reported as important in the
order named.
These courses would, of necessity, have to be taught in the
evening to accomodate the adult population of the communities concerned.
(Table CXI, page 172.)
B.
Curriculum in Machine Operation
2.
Only two of thirty-four principals reported that courses in
the new and more expensive types of machines were offered high school
pupils.
These machines may be identified largely as bookkeeping and post­
ing machines.
(Table CXII, page 174.)
188
C.
Need for Economic Education
3*
Thirty-four of thirty-five principals reported that the busi­
ness education department should assume the responsibility of preparing
high school pupils m o r e adequately to understand the present complex
economic and social conditions,*
D.
(Table CXXV, page 184.)
Effectiveness of Present Courses
4*
The business education department was reported by s ixteen of
thirty-two principals to be doing more than other departments to help pre­
pare the pupil to m e e t more effectively the difficult economic and social
conditions that face all citizens today*
was reported second in this matter*
The home economics department
It might be possible for the home
economics department to assume this responsibility for high school girls
while the business education department assumes it for the boys in high
sohool*
E.
(Table CXXVI, page 185.)
Consumer E d u cation
5.
Eighteen of twenty-six principals were in agreement that a
course in consumer education be added to the curriculum to be taken b y
all high school pupils to help prepare them to live more wisely in the
present complex social and economic world*
(Table CXXVTI, page 186.)
Extrasohool W o r k of Business Education Teachers
6*
Thirteen of twenty-eight principals reported that business
education teachers should n o t b e permitted to spend more than three to
five hours per week in employment outside of their high school work*
The
remaining nine were of the opinion that teachers should spent no time on
189
outside employment*
(Table CXIII, page 174*)
Organization for Administration and Supervision
of Business Education
F*
Administration of Budget
7*
Thirteen of twenty-two principals reported a department head
for the business eduoation department*
The budget for this department is
administered b y the department head, with the help of the superintendent
and the principal in eleven of fifteen high schools, and in four schools
wi t h the additional help of the teachers in the department*
The depart­
ment head was reported to have a decreased teaching schedule to compensate
for his administrative duties*
G.
(Table CXIV, page 175.)
Supervision of Instruction
8.
Only two high schools reported a commerce supervisor; these
two were in Salt Lake City and reported that he was supervisor for all
the high schools in the City.
H.
(Table CXV, page 176.)
Employment of Business Education Teachers
9*
N e w business education teachers are employed b y the superin­
tendent alone in twenty-five of the thirty-six high schools reporting; by
the superintendent and the principal in seven high sohools; b y the superin­
tendent and the board of education in two others; b y the superintendent,
the principal,
and the board of education in one; and by the superintendent
and the supervisor of business education in one high school*
page 177.)
(Table CXVI,
190
I.
Scheduling of Classes in Business Education
10.
Of thirty-five high sohools, each of six reported one teacher
of business education teaching two business classes at the same period.
It was reported that typewriting is taught with bookkeeping, shorthand,
or general business b y the same teacher during the same period.
(Table CXVII,
page 177.)
J.
Trend in Length of Periods in Business Education
11.
There appears to be little shifting from single to double
periods, or from double to single periods, in business eduoation classes.
One school reported a change from a single to a double period in type­
writing.
K.
(Table CXVIII, page 178.)
Ability Grouping in Business Education
12*
The difficulty of arranging homogeneous, or ability groups,
in business education classes was reported b y but fifteen of the fortyfour principals.
These difficulties were: administration with limited
physical f a cilities,
too large and too small classes, and the diversified
interests of business education pupils.
L.
(Table CXIX, page 179.)
W o r k Experience for Pupils in Business Education
13.
Business education pupils are given a n opportunity to get
practical experience in the high school office, according to forty-four
reports from the principals.
In fourteen of these high schools the pupils
receive payment for this service,
and in nine of these fourteen sohools
the funds for the payment of pupils is taken f rom funds supplied by the
National Youth Administration.
(Table CXX, page 180.)
191
M.
Advising Pupils
14.
Most of the time of the principals was spent advising pupils,
according to the reports of thirty-five of the forty-four principals.
(Table CXXIV, page 183.)
Improvements in Business Education Facilities
15.
But nine of the forty-four principals reported ways by which
the superintendent might cooperate more fully to make business education
more effective.
These suggestions were that more teachers, equipment, and
courses should be provided; the teaching load should be decreased;
they
should help plan a course; and they should visit classes more frequently.
(Table CXXI, page 181.)
Departmental Organization
16.
The break-up of the business education department, in the
larger high schools into smaller departments, such as bookkeeping,
short­
hand, etc., was recommended b y eighteen of twenty-six principals report­
ing.
(Table CXXII, page 181.)
Size of Pupil Population
17.
Fourteen of thirty-three principals believed there were too
many pupils in the high schools of Utah for the best good of the more able;
the remaining nineteen did not subscribe to this belief.
(Table CXXIII,
page 182.)
Special High Schools of Commerce
18.
According to the reports of thirty-six of the forty-four prin-
192
cipals there are no high schools of commerce in the State.
The superintend­
ents reported in Table XXXVIII, page 81, that there were two such high
schools in the State.
(Table CXXVIII, page 186.)
CHAPTER XII
PUPIL PERSONNEL
The material in this chapter consists of replies to nine ques­
tions sent the teachers of accounting as shown in section two of the
questionnaire*
These questions deal with the practices of these teachers
in the field of pupil personnel and guidance in the high schools of the
State.
The replies are presented in the order in which the questions ap­
peared on the questionnaire.
TABLE CXXIX
Do you follow up the graduates of the commercial
department to see whether or not they make good
on the job?
Do you follow up graduates?
Number of replies
"Yes”
"No"
16
JL3
Total
29
Thirty-two teachers of accounting in the high schools of Utah re­
turned a questionnaire properly filled out.
Of these thirty-two teachers
twenty-nine answered this question.
Sixteen of the twenty-nine teachers reported that they follow up
the graduate of the business eduoation department to see whether or not
he makes good on the job#
This appears to be an excellent practice and
193
194
should be encouraged until this service is given to all high school gradu­
ates*
Those w h o answered "no" gave the following reasons for their atti­
tude: "Courses here are inadequate to qualify pupils for positions";
"Our community is small; few are placed here"; and "Department is not
well enough equipped•"
The business firms in the small rural communitieshave few posi­
tions available to the graduates of the business education department*
The
paucity of equipment in the high sohool adds to the difficulty of provid­
ing proper business training.
This condition can be improved by a full
knowledge of the shortcomings of the business department and by a conse­
quent readjustment of the commercial curriculum to meet local needs more
fully than at present*
TABLE CXXX
Do you k n o w whether or not your pupils have used the
business subjects taught them in sohool after they
got a job?
Subjects used in business
Number of reports
"Yes"
"No"
21
_6
Total
27
Twenty-one of twenty-seven teachers of accounting report that they
know whether or not their pupils, after they are plaoed in a position in
business, make use of the business subjects they learned in high school*
This is an encouraging fact and provides an excellent opportunity for the
teacher of accounting to participate intelligently in a revision of the
195
curriculum if and w h e n a revision is attempted by the administration and
the businessmen.
TABLE CXXXI
Is individual, personal guidanoe given pupils either
before or after they graduate?
Guidanoe
Number of reports
22
"Yes"
"No"
_5
Total
27
Twenty-two of twenty-seven teachers of accounting who answered
this question report that they give the pupil individual, personal guid­
anoe,either before or after he graduates from high school.
It seems im­
portant that this guidanoe b e given before the pupil graduates, since
this w i l l assist h i m to make a more satisfactory choice of an occupation,
and to prepare for it.
If guidance is offered after graduation the pupil
c a n be given aid in fitting into his job and, if necessary, in taking steps
to find one more suitable to his training and needs.
To w h a t extent this
guidance is given by one trained in this field is no t indicated.
It is
assumed, however, that guidance, on a personal basis, is given to the pupil
by the classroom teacher, who has not been trained specifically in the
technique of guidance.
The investigator has taught guidanoe to teachers
throughout the State ~
in extension olasses —
and has found little or no
evidence of specially trained guidance teachers in the high schools.
It
is an excellent indication, however, that the high schools are offering
this service to the pupil, even though it may not b e done as skillfully
195
curriculum if and w h e n a revision is attempted by the administration and
the businessmen*
TABLE CXXXI
Is individual, personal guidanoe given pupils either
before or after they graduate?
Number of reports
Guidanoe
22
"Tea"
"No"
.JL
Total
27
Twenty-two of twenty-seven teachers of accounting who answered
this question report that they give the pupil individual, personal guid­
ance, either before or after he graduates from high school*
It seems im­
portant that this guidanoe be given before the pupil graduates, sinoe
this will assist h i m to make a more satisfactory choice of a n occupation,
and to prepare for it*
If guidance is offered after graduation the pupil
c a n be given aid in fitting into his job and, if necessary, in taking steps
to find one more suitable to his training and needs*
To w h a t extent this
guidance is given b y one trained in this field is not indicated*
It is
assumed, however, that guidance, on a personal basis, is given to the pupil
by the classroom teacher, who has not been trained specifically in the
technique of guidance*
The investigator has taught guidance to teachers
throughout the State —
in extension classes ~
and has found little or no
evidence of specially trained guidance teachers in the high sohools*
It
is an excellent indication, however, that the high sohools are offering
this service to the pupil, even though it may not be done as skillfully
196
as might be desired*
The State department of education has recently made the intro­
ductory course in guidanoe mandatory for all high sohool teachers*
TABLE CXXXII
Does local business absorb most of the graduates
from your business department?
Does business absorb graduates?
Number of replies
8
"Yes"
''No"
i£
Total
27
Most of the graduates of the business education departments in
the high schools of Utah are not employed by local business firms, accord­
ing to the opinions of nineteen of the twenty-seven high school teachers of
accounting who answered this question*
The high schools of the State are generally small*
Forty-three
1
per oent
of them have a total enrollment of less than five hundred pupils.
This fact may account for the condition reported*
Perhaps this oondition could be alleviated by the addition of more
courses of the newer type, such as retail store cooperative courses, ad­
vanced clerical training, agricultural marketing, and farm bookkeeping*
The consolidation of high schools that is going on at the present
time should make it possible to give training better fitted to the needs
1*
Utah School Report, 1936-38, p* 149*
197
of the high sohool pupil than that available to him under the present
arrangement, where the classes are small and the teaching personnel
limited*
TABLE CXXXIII
Do y o u make special provision for the strong pupil in
business education? For the weak pupil?
Humber of reports
For the strong pupil
21
"yes"
"No"
Total
3
24
For the w e a k pupil
12
12
"Yes"
"Ho"
Total
24
Twenty-one of the twenty-four teachers of accounting who answered
this question reported that their high school made provision for the strong
pupil in business education while only one half made provision for the weak
pupil*
This seems to indicate that the weak pupil, who needs special help,
fails to get it, while the strong pupil is provided for*
This situation is
satisfactory for the strong pupil but undesirable for the pupil of under
1
average ability*
File
found that two thirds of the high schools in
Pennsylvania favored the slow pupil, which compares with fifty per cent
in Utah*
1*
Clinton M* File, A Study of Business Education in the Public Secondary
Sohool 8 of Pennsylvania, p. 49*
198
Indications are that the high schools in Utah should favor the
slow pupil because he is a greater problem here than in other States,
1
since Utah
has succeeded in enrolling in its high sohools a larger per­
centage of the population than has any other State,
As a result, the re­
tardation of pupils in Utah high schools is definitely marked, grade for
grade, throughout the school system.
This makes it of paramount import­
ance that the administrators of Utah high schools take steps to assure the
slower pupil an equal opportunity to progress in his high school work.
TABLE CXXX.IV
Please list, in order of their importance, what you
think are the best means of determining the potential
abilities and interests of pupils who w i s h to take
commercial subjects to prepare them for a vocation.
Potential abilities
Aptitude and ability
Interest and attitude
Past record in classes
Personality and adaptability
Personal interview
Report on visit to business houses
Advice of counselors
Family position and approval
Total number of reports
Number of teachers reporting them as:
First
Third
Total
Second
10
4
5
5
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
21
1
1
1
0
11
Number of teachers reporting
3
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
15
7
5
4
3
35
1
1
1
1
25
Aptitude and ability were reported as first in importance by ten
teachers, second by four, and third by one.
Survey of Eduoation in Utah, p, 169*
These are by far the most im-
199
portant items reported.
Interest and attitude and past record in classes
were rated as second and third, respectively, by the teachers.
These
three items appear to be quite closely related because interest and atti­
tude are reflected in the record made in classes*
They are important fac­
tors and could well be used as determiners of ability to carry on success­
fully in future commercial activity.
ported by four teachers*
Personality and adaptability were re­
Although their relative rank is low, they are
important factors, particularly in the field of business.
Lyon and Nichols
both point out the importance of these traits in the young commercial
worker*
Lyon says: "In the minds of employers the personality of the boy
1
hired is almost as important as his education,"
and Nichols reports that
"educators content that personal development should be a desirable aim of
business training and that materials of instruction, teaching methods, and
2
the curriculum itself should reflect this point of view*"
TABLE CXXXV
By the end of wh i c h year in school do you plan to
prepare most of your business education pupils to
enter business?
Year in sohool
Senior year in high school
Third and fourth year in high sohool
Seoond year in high school
Postgraduate
Junior college
Senior college
Total
1.
2.
Number of reports
15
1
3
1
1
1
22
Leverett S. Lyon, Eduoation for Business, p. 142.
Frederick G. Nichols, CommercTal Education in theHjgh Sohool, p. 185.
200
Fifteen of the twenty-two accounting teachers who anwered this
question reported the fourth year in high school as the best year in which
to prepare pupils to enter business;
one
reported the
third and fourth
years; and three the second year in high
school* The
remainder reported
postgraduate, junior college, and senior college as the years in whioh most
of the pupils were prepared to enter into active business positions.
The principals in the high schools of Utah reported in Chapter VII,
page 99, that twenty-two per cent of the second year pupils did not return
to high school for the third year and that twenty-nine per cent of the
second year pupils did not return to high school for the final year*
In
1
contrast to this heavy high school mortality in Utah, File
found that in
the public high schools of Pennsylvania only eleven per cent of the pupils
left high school before they graduated.
With such a large percentage of the pupils in Utah leaving high
school before they graduate, it seems imperative that some provision be
made in the school curriculum to give these pupils some vocational train­
ing before they leave school*
The difficult problem of determining in ad­
vance which pupils will remain until graduation and which will leave
sohool —
and, therefore, should receive advance vocational training —
is
not insoluble.
2
Lyon
deals with this question directly when he says: "Put af­
firmatively, direct technical, vocational, commercial training is always
1.
2.
Clinton M. File, A St u d y of Business Education in the Public Secondary
Schools of PennsylvanTa, p. 52*
Lyon, o p . cit«, pp* 555-554*
201
properly drop-out or post-graduate training*
It follows from. • .^this/r
that such courses when given for vocational purposes only should come at a
time w h e n the student is reasonably sure that he is about to discontinue
formal school work."
"School authorities cannot act more wisely (in de­
termining beforehand who will not finish high school) than on the informa­
tion which students give them as to their best judgment concerning the
length of time they will remain in school."
If some such policy were adopted in the high schools of Utah and
training in vocational commercial education given these potential dropouts,
supplemented b y postgraduate training as indicated by Lyon, a great service
to these pupils would be performed.
TABLE CXXXVI
Please list the chief weaknesses, as you see them of the com­
mercial graduates as they plan to enter business, in eaoh of
the following fields: Personal qualities, General education
subjects, Business education subjects.
Weaknesses
Personal qualities
Lack of initiative
Immaturity
Lack of personality and industry
W e a k in personal qualities
Do not apply education received
Total
General Education Weaknesses
Insufficient English training
Poor spelling
Lack of arithmetic skill
Insufficient general education
Not enough training
Lack of efficiency
Total
General education satisfactory
Business Education Weaknesses
Not enough specialization
Poor preparation
Insufficient business education
Lack of power to assume responsibility
Poor business English
Number of reports
8
3
2
2
1
16
5
4
2
2
1
1
15
1
3
2
2
1
1
202
TABLE CXXXVI (Continued)
Business Education Weaknesses (oontinued)
Business education
Lack of experience
Not enough business
Lack of accuracy
Total
Generally good
greatest weakness
1
1
1
_JL
13
1
praotioe
Sixteen of thirty-two teachers replied to the first section of
this question; sixteen to the second section; and fourteen to the third
section*
This is slightly less than one half the teachers who answered the
questionnaire and represents but a fair degree of validity*
The personal weaknesses reported d u s t e r around lack of initiative,
immaturity and undeveloped personalities*
Guidance and counseling upon
this phase of pupil preparation could contribute a great deal to the self-
1
assurance with which the pupil faces the world of business*
Nichols
re­
ports that "Such business traits as initiative, courtesy, dependability,
loyalty, and ambition should be given their due weight in counselling*"
In general education the weaknesses seem to d u s t e r around inade­
quate training in English, spelling, and arithmetic, with one accounting
teacher reporting "General education satisfactory*"
These basic subjects
are taught the pupil throughout the elementary and high school course and
are so fundamentally a part of his equipment for any field of endeavor that
it seems both branches of education should take steps to stress them to a
1.
Nichols, op. cit., p* 115
203
1
greater extent than is apparent at the present time.
File
found in Penn­
sylvania that more than one half the pupils were well prepared in reading,
arithmetic, a n d spelling, and that slightly less than one half were well
prepared in oral and written English.
The weaknesses found in business education were ba s e d largely on
the lack of enough training in this field to overcome inaccuracy and lack
of skill.
These weaknesses were found in the student at the time of
graduation f r o m high sohool, when, presumably, he was prepared to enter
employment.
It seems that these weaknesses might be caused largely by
the poor business education offerings in the high sohools of Utah.
It will
be remembered that the superintendents reported in Chapter VI, page
76, that
the teaching in the commercial department tended to be of higher quality
than in other departments.
The principals reported in Chapter IX, page 144 ,
that business education teachers were more aotive in advanced education
than were the teachers in other departments.
This evidence seems to lend
support to the belief that the ourrioulum rather than the quality of teach­
ing done in the majority of business eduoation departments of the high
sohools of the State is at fault.
It will also be remembered that these same principals reported in
Chapter IX, pagel53 , that in thirty-eight per cent of the hi^i sohools
of Utah teachers w i t h no training in business education were assigned to
teach business subjects.
This situation might well b e responsible f or the
poor showing o f the business eduoation pupil at the time o f graduation from
high sohool, w h e n his skills and attitudes should be a t their peak.
1.
It is
Clinton M. File, A Study of Business Eduoation in the Public Secondary
Sohools of Pennsylvania, p. 52.
204
perhaps needless to say that a strong recommendation will he forthcoming
that this situation be remedied in those high schools where it exists*
Meanwhile, the reports of the teachers themselves on means of overcoming
the weaknesses reported will be considered*
TABLE CXJQOril
Hon do you think these weaknesses (reported in Table
CXXXVI) might be b e s t overcome, in each of the fields?
Number of reports
Personal Qualities
Develop personality
Develop initiative
Learn to work
M d class in salesmanship
Provide guidanoe
Provide for contact with businessmen
Make oommeroial training practical
Teaoh personal development all t hrough sohool
JL
Total
11
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
General Eduoation Weaknesses
Insist on solid standard courses
Give better English and spelling instruction
Stress industry and insist on w o r k
Demand efficiency before graduation
Set up higher standards of achievement
General eduoation satisfactory
2
2
1
1
1
1
Total
8
Business Eduoation Weaknesses
6
1
1
1
1
Enlarge curriculum, with skill courses
Provide for more time with individual
Begin business eduoation later in sohool life
Establish apprentice system in business
Establish cooperation of business with the sohool
Demand efficiency before graduation
JL
Total
11
205
Sinoe but eleven of the aooounting teaohers replied to this seotion, the returns ars not as representative as they should be.
The personal qualities weaknesses of graduates oan be overcome,
aooording to the reports of the eleven aooounting teaohers, by personality
development and by stressing -ttiis all through the sohool life of the pupil.
The general eduoation weaknesses oan be overcome by insisting that
pupils take standard courses in the fundamentals of English, spelling, and
arithmetic all through the sohool period, in the opinion of ei$it of the
thirty-two teaohers.
Perhaps the high sohool itself oan do as muoh as the
elementary sohool in this respeot by providing olasBes in these fundamental
courses and insisting that the pupil be well prepared before he leaves high
school, or as a prerequisite t o graduation.
Business eduoation oan be improved by the addition of more skill
and general business courses, b y providing for the participation of the
businessman in the ourriculum-building program of the high sohool, and by
insistence u p o n efficient business skill prooedures before graduation is
permitted, aooording to the report of eleven of the thirty-two teaohers of
aooounting.
Summary of the Chapter
Follow-up of Graduate s
1.
Sixteen of twenty-nine aooounting teaohers reported that they
follow up the pupil after graduation to see if he makBS good on the job.
(Table CXXIX, pagel93 .)
2.
Sixteen of twenty-one aooounting teaohers state that they
know whether or not the pupil trained in business eduoation uses the
206
business subjects taught h i m in high sohool, after he obtains employ­
ment.
(Table CXXX, page 194.)
Pupil Guidanoe
A.
Personnel for Guidanoe
3.
Twenty-two of twenty-seven teaohers of aooounting report that
the pupil is given individual, personal guidanoe either before or after
he obtains employment —
before he is employed, in the techniques neces­
sary to find a job; and after employment in the qualities that will tend
to advance him in his chosen occupation.
4.
(Table CXXXI, page 195 •)
Twenty-five of the thirty-two aooounting teaohers reported
that the best means at their disposal to determine the potential ability
of prospective business eduoation pupils were the aptitude and ability of
the pupil.
The second best means w a s the interest shown in business courses;
the third best means was the r e o o rd of the pupil in business subjeots;
and the fourth best were the personality and adaptability of the pupil as
revealed in high sohool classes.
(Table CXXXIV, page
198.)
Placement
5.
Nineteen of twenty-seven teachers of aooounting reported that
local business does not absorb most of the graduates from the business ed u ­
oation department of their high sohool.
(Table CXXXII, page 195.)
Provision for Individual Differenoes
6.
Twenty-one of twenty-four aooounting teaohers reported that
provision is made, in the business eduoation department, for the strong
pupil.
But twelve of the twenty-four reported that like provision is made
for the weak pupil.
( Table CXXXIII, page 197 .)
207
Plaoement of Vooational Business Eduoation Pupils
7.
Fifteen of twenty-two aooounting teaohers reported that they
attempt t o prepare most of their business eduoation pupils to enter b u s i ­
ness at the e n d of their fourth year in high sohool; one reported the
third a n d fourth years; three the seoond year in high sohool; and ■three
others reported postgraduate high sohool, the senior, a n d the junior
oollege,
respectively•
(Table CXXXV, p a g e l 9 9 . )
Weaknesses of Business Eduoation Graduates
A.
Personal Qualities
8*
The ohief weaknesses observed in the business eduoation
graduate as he is ready to seek emjioyment, according to the report of six­
teen of thirty-two teachers,
is the lack of the ability to take the initia­
tive; weaknesses in personality traits; laok of ability to apply the in­
formation taught h i m in high sohool; and that they are too immature to
meet successfully the employment demands in business#
(Table CXXXVI,
page 201*)
B.
General Eduoation Subjeots
9.
Sixteen of thirty-two teaohers reported pupils w e a k in the
fundamentals of English, spelling, and arithmetic.
ported them w e l l prepared in general education.
C.
But one teaoher re­
(Table CXXXVI, page 201*)
Business Education Subjeots
10.
Pupils were found to be poorly prepared in their major field
of preparation by fourteen of the thirty-two teaoherB of aooounting.
The
narrowness of the offering in business eduoation was cited as the ohief
oause of difficulty —
this did not permit the pupil to develop sufficiently
208
in the business field*
One teaoher reported pupils well prepared in
business eduoation at the time of graduation from high sohool.
( Table
CXXXVI, page 201.)
Suggested Remedies for Weaknesses of Business Eduoation Graduates
A.
Personal Qualities
11.
Training in personality development should be offered pupils
in high sohool to help overcome personal weaknesses, aooording to the r e ­
ports of eleven of the thirty-two aooounting teaohers.
Pupils should be
taught to w o r k precisely a n d accurately, and careless work should not b e
aooepted b y the teaoher.
A course in salesmanship was suggested for this
purpose, as was guidanoe and a n opportunity t o contact businessmen during
the high sohool period.
B.
(Table CXXXVII, page 204.)
General Bducatioh Subjeots
12.
Eight of the thirty-two teaohers of aooounting suggested that
pupils take "good, solid standard" courses in the fundamentals, with stress
upon industry and proper habits of work, as a means of overoaming w e a k ­
nesses in general eduoation.
C.
(Table CXXXVII, page 204.)
Business Eduoation Subjeots
13.
Eleven of the thirty-two teaohers of aooounting suggested
that more skill courses be added to the business department i n the high
sohools of the State.
No mention w a s made of the kind of skill courses
that should be added.
More time with the individual pupil should be p ro­
vided; cooperation w i t h business should be stressed; business eduoation
should be begun later in t h e sohool life of the pupil; and efficiency
should be demanded before graduation is permitted -- all these were s u g ­
209
gested as means of overcoming the weaknesses found in business eduoa­
tion pupils a t the time of graduation from high sohool.
page 204.)
(Table CXXXVII,
CHAPTER XIII
CURRICULUM
Ten questions -were asked the teaohers o f aooounting in -this, the
third section of the questionnaire, returned b y the thirty-two teaohers
of this subject in the high sohools of Utah.
The similarity of textbooks used in the h i g h sohools of the State
may b e a ccounted for by the f a o t that the State Textbook Commission makeB
official adoption, usually upon a five-year basis,
of textbooks to be used
in the e lsmentary and seoondary sohools of the State.
These textbooks are only suggested to teaohersj any of the high
sohools m a y adopt other books if they wish.
The faot that a universal use
of c e r t a i n texts in shorthand, -typewriting, and bookkeeping was reported
indioates that the selection made by the Commission is aooepted by the
various schools throughout the State.
These books seem to be quite satisfactory sinoe they agree quite
1
closely w i t h textbooks used throughout the country.
File
found a similar
list in use i n the seoondary sohools of Pennsylvania.
There were n o classes reported in the following subjeots in the
field of business educations advertising, oommeroial geography,marketing,
penmanship, spelling, and retailing.
General business and junior business
were reported b y six and five teaohers, respectively, and the same textbook
was reported for both classes.
A.
1.
Clinton M. File, A Study of Business Eduoation in the Public Secondarft
Sohools of Pennsylvania, p. 199.
210
211
TABLE CXXXVIII
Please list the textbooks used in the fol­
lowing oourses.
Class
Textbook
Advertising
Aooounting, first year
Aooounting, seoond year
Commercial arithmetic
No textbook reported
Twentieth Century
Twentieth Century
Arithmetic of Business
Twentieth Century
Business English, Ross
Business English, Ross
Modern Business English
Efficient Business Correspondence
Peters and Pomeroy
Introduction t o Business Law
Commercial Art, Jaetsan
Show-card and Poster Technique
Taught, no text used
Corre 8p ondeno e
Business English
Business Law
Commercial Art
Commercial Geography
Consumer Eduoation
Economics
Eoonomio Geography
Filing
General Business
Junior Business Training
Marketing
Oooupations
Office Maohines
Offioe Practice
Penmanship, Retailing,
and Spelling
Shor thand, fir st yea r
Shorthand, second year
Transcription
Typewriting, first jear
Typewriting, seoond year
Number of reports
Number of
rep ort«
Consumer Eduoation, ZuTavern
Business Eooncmios Problems
Elementary Economics, Carver
Elements o f Economics, Fay
Eoonomios, Fairchilds, et al
Every-day Eoonomios, Stephenson
Geography, Chamberlain
Filing
Business of Life, ZuTavern
Business of Life, ZuTavern
Business Behavior
Burroughs
Fundamentals o f Offioe Practice,
Gregg
0
30
15
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
6
5
0
1
1
8
0
Functional Manual, Gregg
Speed Builder, Gregg
Introduction to Transcription,
Skimin
Twentieth Century, Lessenberry-Jevon
Twentieth Century, Lessenberry-Jevon
28
14
8
26
25
30
212
TABLE CXXXIX
Do you have a separate course of study for the pupil -who
plans to drop out o f school before he graduates?
Special course
Number of reports
"Yes"
"No"
3
27
Total
30
Twenty-seven of thirty teaohers of aooounting reported that no
special course o f study was provided for the pupil who drops out of sohool
before he graduates.
The number of pupils who do not remain until gradua­
tion is unusually large in the business eduoation department of the hi$i
sohools of Utah.
Apparently no effort is made to give this class of pupils
any training other than the regular high sohool w o r k as long as they remain
in school.
TABLE CXL
Do you believe that more subject matter in English, in
addition to the present requirement, should be added to
the course of study for the business pupil?
Is more English needed?
Number of reports
"Yes"
"No"
_9
Total
29
20
Five of the twenty aooounting teaohers who answered this question
in the affirmative suggested that business English be made a requirement
for business eduoation pupils.
One teaoher who answered "no" added the
213
oomment,
"If business English is included."
Twenty of twenty-nine teaohers
reported the need for more English in the curriculum.
TABLE CXLI
Do y o u believe timt additional requirements in arithmetic*
or in mathematios, should be made of all business pupils?
Additional requirements should be made
Number of reports
"Yes"
"No"
22
_6
Total
28
Number of comments added
7
Twenty-two of the twenty-eight teaohers of aooounting reported
that more arithmetic should be required of business education pupils.
Arith­
metic should be stressed more and algebra less, aooording to the reports
of these teachers.
1
Nichols
points out the fact that m a n y writers on commercial edu­
cation r ega r d commercial arithmetic as a part of the core of the business
eduoation curricula.
arithmetic he states;
In concluding his statement concerning commercial
"A recent study to determine the justification for
commercial arithmetic as a separate subjeot in the commercial ourrioulum
shows that there is no justification for it on a n y grounds.”
The teachers of aooounting reported that pupils were "lacking in
arithmetic fundamentals” and that "Too muoh algebra is given now, not
enoiigh arithmetic."
1.
Perhaps this insufficiency in commercial arithmetic
Frederick G. Nichols, Commercial Eduoation in the High Sohool, p. 375.
214
•was the underlying reason for the suggestion that more training in the
fundamentals of arithmetic should "be made a requirement of all business
eduoation majors.
Efficiency in arithmetic can be achieved if the pupil is required
to perform accurately all arithmetic problems that he is required to work
out throughout his high sohool course.
Requiring another course in this
subject may not solve the problem as well as requiring that all arithmetic
given at present be accurately and carefully performed.
IA.BLE CXLII
If you have a prerequisite for any of the oourses listed
on the chart in question 1, will you please list the num­
ber of the course and the prerequisite for it in the spaces
provided below, for example, if cammeroial arithmetic is
required before accounting oan b e taken, list it as fol­
lows: No. 2, commercial arithmetic.
Course
Prerequisite
^typewriting 11
Shorthand 11
Shorthand 1
Office practice
Bookkeeping 1
Bookkeeping 11
Typewriting 1
Transoription
Typewriting 11
Bookkeeping 1
Typewriting 1
Shorthand 1
Typewriting 1
Shorthand 1
Commercial arithmetic
Bookkeeping 1
Shorthand 1
Typewriting and shorthand
Shorthand 1
Junior business training and
typewriting 1
Number of reports
Number of reports
3
3
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
10
Only ten of the thirty-two aooounting teaohers reported that the
high schools in their districts have prerequisites for oourses in business
education.
Of these ten, only two were subjeots not immediately preceding
215
the subject for w h i o h it was set up as a prerequisite.
These exceptions
■were the requirement of typewriting and junior business before bookkeep­
ing could b e taken, and oornmeroial arithmetic before bookkeeping could be
taken.
These prerequisites seem to be of little consequence since they
consist, with these two exceptions, of the completion of the first year
of a skill subjeot before the second year oan be taken, a requirement
that seems self-evident.
The faiilure of the remaining seventeen high
sohools to report on this question oa n be explained only on the ground that
they probably do not set up prerequisites at all,
TABLE CXLIII
Do you know definitely, through a survey or otherwise,
that the kind of business training you teach is the
kind of business training actually used in business?
Is business training applied
Number of reports
"Yes"
"No"
11
Total
28
17
The faot that, of a total of twenty-eight replies to this ques­
tion, there are seventeen positive reports indioates that the aooounting
teachers have done enough follow-up work to know what kind of business
skills are required of the pupil in business.
This is encouraging and
follow-up should be extended until every high sohool in the State oan re­
port a similar condition.
216
TABLE CXLIV
Do you think it practical, in your sohool, to give oourses
in new and expensive business machines?
Are expensive machines practioal?
"Yes"
"No"
Number of reports
4
25
Total
29
Twenty-nine of forty-four teachers of accounting replied to this
question, -with twenty-five of t h e m of the opinion that courses of this
type should not be given in their high sohools.
But four of twenty-nine aooounting teachers reported they thought
it practioal to offer courses in expensive business machines.
This report closely parallels that of the principals (Table CXII ,
page 174 ),
Evidently preparation in this type of business training does
not fill a need in the communities of the State, except in the larger
centers.
Another factor that is prohibitive to this type of training is
the initial cost of the machines.
TABUS CXLV
Do y o u believe that selling oan be taught successfully
in your high school without actual "over the counter"
selling experience?
Is selling experience necessary?
Number of reports
"Yes"
"No”
19
Total
25
6
217
Nineteen of the twenty-five aooounting teaohers who replied b e ­
lieve that selling cannot be taught successfully without actual ex­
perience in over-the-counter selling.
same -rein (Chapter X, page 166).
The principals reported in the
If selling is t o be taught successfully
it should be taught in conjunction with a oourse in which over-the-counter
selling oan be an actual part of the training of the pupil.
TABLE CXLVI
Does your high sohool offer oourses in the management and
operation of small, individually owned businesses of various
types to help pupils prepare to enter business for them­
selves? If not, do you t h i n k it should?
Are small store managemaat oourses given?
Number of reports
"Yes"
"No"
5
23
Total
28
Should suoh a oourse be given?
Number of reports
"Yes"
"No"
13
n
Total
24
Twenty-three of twenty-eight high sohools represented by the a o ­
oounting teaohers who replied do not offeranycourses in the management
and operation of small, individually owned retail stores, -while thirteen
of twenty-four of these same teaohers believe that such a oourse should
be given.
218
TABLE <20,VII
Tflhat type of errors, or diffioulties, do you find oc­
curring most frequently in bookkeeping?
In other b u s i ­
ness e ducation courses?
Type of errors
Number of reports
Bookkeeping
15
3
3
Arithmetic skill weaknesses
Posting to ledger
Transposing figures
Adjusting end closing aitries
Debit and credit relationships
Reversing entries
Lack of logioal thinking
2
2
1
_1
Total
27
Shorthand
English weaknesses
Spelling
6
Total
8
2
Typewriting
Errors in punctuation
Lack of initiative
Comprehensive reading need
Figures and third finger
1
1
1
1
Total
4
Twenty-seven of thirty-two accounting teaohers replied to the
first part of this question, concerning bookkeeping errors.
Eight of these
teaohers added errors in shorthand, and four in typewriting.
In the field of bookkeeping, the most common error reported was
in arithmetic, with more than one half of the errors reported ooourring
in this subject.
219
VariouB bookkeeping difficulties, common to all pupils studying
the subjeot, were reported b y the remaining teaohers of accounting.
The errors in shorthand reported b y the bookkeeping teaohers -were
due largely to insufficient preparation in the fundamentals of English.
This makes it necessary for the shorthand teaoher to spend considerable
time reviewing English and consequently diminishes the time that should
be spent on shorthand.
Spelling was listed as a weakness, seoond to
English in importance, b y the teaohers of shorthand.
Four teaohers of accounting reported the errors enoountered were
due to incorrect English, poor initiative, and lack of manipulative skills.
Summary of the Chapter
Textbooks Used in Busine ss Bduoation Classes
A.
Policy of Text Adoption
1.
The Utah State Textbook Commission makes, each five years, a
seleotion of -the textbooks that are to b e used in the secondary schools
of the State.
texts.
Teachers are requested, though not required, to use these
Evidences are that the textbooks used in Utah are comparable to
those used in other sections of the country.
of the textbooks in bookkeeping,
This is particularly true
shorthand, and typewriting.
(Table
CXXXVIII, page 211.)
B.
Bookkeeping
2.
Bookkeeping for the first year were reported b y thirty teaohers
and for the seoond y e a r b y fifteen.
Twentieth Century texts.
All of these teaohers reported 1he
(Table CXXXVIII, page 211.)
220
C.
Typewriting
3.
Typewriting teaohers reported texts for the first and second
years in tweniy-six and twenty-five ,schools, respectively.
These texts
were also published by the Twentieth Century Publishing Company.
(Table CXXXVIII, page 211.)
D.
Shorthand
4.
Texts w e r e reported for the first and seoond year shorthand
by twenty-eight and fourteen teachers, respectively.
published by the
E.
Gregg Publishing Company.
(Table CXXXVIII, page 211a)
Office Practice and Transcription
5.
Office praotioe texts were reported b y eight teachers, all of
them reporting the Gregg textbook.
cription texts, edited by Skimin.
F.
Eight teaohers also reported trans­
(Table CXXXVIII, page 211.)
General Business and Junior Business Training
6.
Eleven teaohers reported using the Z u T a v e m textbook in general
business and junior business training.
Evidently these two courses are
identical and were reported under both names.
G.
These were all
(Table CXXXVIII, page 211.)
Other Business Education Courses
7.
One or t w o texts in the field of business education were re­
ported b y twenty-one other teaohers.
(Table CXXXVIII, page 211.)
Provision for Drop-outs from Accounting Courses
8.
Three of "thirty teaohers of accounting reported provision for
the pupil who drops out of high school before he graduates.
CXXXIX, page 212.)
(Table
221
Subjeot Disabilities of Accounting PupiIs
9.
Twenty of twenty-nine acoounting teachers reported the need for
better training in English in business education.
10.
(Table CXL, page 212.)
Fifteen o f twenty-seven acoounting teachers reported arith­
metic errors in bookkeeping pupils.
The remaining number reported the
usual errors common to pupils studying the subject.
Six o f eight teaohers
reported English weaknesses in shorthand, the other two reporting spelling
errors.
Four accounting teaohers reported errors in punctuation, lack
of initiative, poor reading, and manipulative difficulties, respectively,
in typewriting pupils.
11.
(Table CXLVII, page 218.)
Twenty-two of twenty-eight teachers of accounting replied
that additional requirements in arithmetic or mathematios should be made
of business education pupiIs.
(Table DXLI, page 213.)
Curriculum
A.
Prerequisites to Courses Offered
12.
Prerequisites for business education oourses consist almost
entirely of tiie completion of the first year of a skill subjeot before
the seoond year is taken.
The exceptions to this were that commercial
arithmetic, typewriting, or general business be completed before book­
keeping is taken.
B.
(Table CXLII, page 214.)
Adjustment of Curriculum to Community Needs
13.
Seventeen of twenty-eight accounting teachers reported that
they were quite sure that the subjeot matter they were offering pupils in
business education was the type the pupils would need in business posi­
tions.
(Table CXLIII, page 215.)
222
C.
Instruction in Business Maohine Operation
14.
The praotioe of offering instruction in the more expensive
type of business machines was reported impractical by twenty-five of
twenty-nine teachers.
D*
(Table CXLIV, page 216.)
Courses in Salesmanship
15*
A course in salesmanship oould not be taught successfully in
the olassroom without the aid of "over the counter" selling practice, ac­
cording to the opinions of nineteoi of twenty-five teaohers reporting on
this question.
E.
(Table CXLV, page 216.)
Retail Store Management
16.
A course designed to train pupils to operate a small, i n ­
dividually owned retail store, or other small business, was not offered in
twenty-three of the twenty-eight high schools represented b y the reports
of accounting teachers.
Thirteen of twenty-four teaohers reported that
such a course should be added t o the offerings of the high sohools in
their cities.
(Table CXLVI, page 217.)
CHAPTER X IV
TEACHER PERSONNEL
This chapter presents information from aooounting teaohers in
thirty-two of the high schools of the State.
In this section of the questionnaire fifteen questions o o n o e m i n g
teaoher personnel -were addressed to thirty-two teaohers of aooounting.
The replies are presented in the order in which they were listed on the
questionnaire.
TABLE CXLVIII
Do you feel there should b e some administrative plan to
keep teaohers intouoh with praotioal business?
Do you fa v o r some administrative plan?
Number of replies
"Yes"
"No"
Question not answered
27
_3
Total
32
2
1
Comments added
Twenty-nine of the thirty-two teaohers of aooounting replied to
this question, which was also addressed to t he superintendents and the
principals.
The replies of the aooounting teaohers, whioh are recorded
in the foregoing table, are in complete agreement with the replies of the
administrative officers (Table XXIX, page
70, and
XCIII, page 150 ) to
the effect that some plan should be adopted to keep teachers in actual
223
224
contact w i t h b u s i n e s s practices.
Only one oomment was added to these re­
plies, that by a teaoher who answered "no" to the question.
as follows:
He commented
"I think it is a personal in-training problem," indicating
that he was not opposed to teachers* gaining actual business experience,
but b e l ieved that t h e individual teacher should have complete freedom in
the matter.
A c c o r d i n g t o the replies, a plan should b e adopted a nd put into
operation in Utah to provide business experience for teaohers of business
subjects, after the matter has been studied b y the administrators and the
teachers.
TABLE G X L K
Please suggest a plan you think praotioal (to provide a c ­
tual b u s i n e s s experience for teachers of business subjects)
for this purpose.
Number of reports
Methods suggested
8
Summer w o r k in business
Personal contacts w i t h businessmen
Plaoe pupils in business for short periods
Require praotioal business experience for State
certification of business teaohers
Business should publish a bulletin
Surveys. Better college training in methods o f
teaohing.
State department should oheok on
needs a n d trends in business education
Question not answered
16
Total
32
4
1
1
1
1
One half of the teaohers of aooounting who returned the question­
naire replied to this question.
Twenty-seven of twenty-nine of these
teaohers reported that some administrative plan whereby business teaohers
225
oould get actual business experienoe should be in operation, but only
sixteen of this number suggested aotual plans for this purpose.
Summer w o r k in business and oontaots with businessmen aooount for
three fourths of the suggestions made by the teaohers.
intendents
Three of the super­
(Chapter VI, page 71 ), suggested summer worifcfor business
teaohers, and two o f the principals (Chapter IX, page 151 ) suggested prao­
tioal experienoe in business for this purpose but did not specify w h e n it
should be obtained.
The -value of summer work in business lies in the fact that it can
be made a continuous matter, and the teaoher can constantly l©ep abreast
of the procedures in business, at the same time adding t o his income.
A
difficulty, however, with summer w o r k is the loss of a much needed v a c a ­
tion.
Perhaps a plan requiring the teaoher to spend alternate summers, or
each third summer, in business oould be agreed upon.
This w o u l d be f re­
quent enough to m a i ntain business oontaots,and not too strenuous*
1
File found that in Pennsylvania a substantial majority of the high
schools subscribe to the theory that business teaohers should spend seme
time in practical business occupations to keep to to date with business
praotioe.
Few of these high sohools carried this theory into practice,
however.
One other suggestion merits mention, that of providing b e tter col­
lege training in methods of teaching business subjects.
From the personal
knowledge of the investigator, this field is particularly weak in Utah, and
oould b e strengthened by each of the three senior colleges in the State.
1.
Clinton M. File, A Study of Business Bduo at ion in the Secondary Sohools
of Pennsylvania, p. 106.
226
TABLE CL
At what college or university d i d you reoeive the inaj<
major
part of your training? W e r e y o u graduated? Year? D
De­
<
gree held. Major preparation.
Major teaohing
teaching field.
Minor teaohing
teaching field.
Have you done graduate work in
addition to your last degree? What was the last year of
such work? At which university? What teaohing oerti;
oertifisuoh
oate do you now hold?
Number of reports
Institutions attended
Brigham Young University
University of Utah
Utah State Agricultural College
University of California
New Y ork University
Question not answered
Total
15
6
5
1
1
4
32
College graduates
Graduated from college
Attended but did not graduate
Question not answered
Total
26
2
4
32
Degree held
B.S.
degree
B.A.
degree
M.S.
degree
M.A.
degree
Bachelor of Secretarial Methods
M.B.S. degree
Question not answered
Total
17
3
4
1
1
1
_J3
32
(Continued)
227
TABLE CL (Continued)
Major field of preparation
Accounting and Business A d ­
ministration
Secretarial soienoe
Sociology
Romantio languages
Physical education
Sconanice
History
Question not answered
Total
Number
18
4
1
1
1
1
1
5
32
M i n o r field of preparation
Economics
Accounting and commerce
Physioal eduoation
Social soienoe
Shorthand and mathematics
Sooiology
English
Question not answered
Total
Question not answered
Total
Number
Aooounting and Business
Administration
Secretarial science
Commeroe
Business
Commeroe
Commerce
Business
Question not answered
Total
18
1
4
1
1
1
1
5
32
Minor teaohing field
10
8
1
1
1
1
2
8
32
Major and Minor Preparation
Aooounting and commerce
Economics
Secretarial science
Sociology, Social science
Romantio language
Physioal eduoation
History
English
Major teaohing field
Economics
Aooounting and commerce
Mathematics
Sooial soienoe
Typewriting, Stenography,
Offioe Praotioe
Botany
English
Eduoation
Speech
Question not answered
Total
4
3
1
3
3
1
3
1
1
12
32
Major and Minor Teaohing
26
11
5
3
1
2
1
2
13
64
Aooounting and commerce
Economics
Seoretarial scienoe
Sooiology, Sooial soienoe
Mathematics
Botany
English
Education
Speech
Question not answered
Total
29
4
4
3
1
1
3
1
1
17
64
Graduate Study
Have had graduate work
Have had n o graduate work
Question not answered
Total
22
5
5
32
(Continued)
228
TABLE CL (Continued)
Number
Last graduate work in
Last graduate work in
Last graduate work in
Last graduate wo r k in
Last graduate work in
Question not answered
Total
1
1
1933
1935
1936
1937
1938
3
6
11
10
32
Universities Attended for Graduate Work
University of Utah
Brigham Young University
Utah State Agricultural College
Armstrong College
University- of Idaho
Columbia University
University of California
University of Southern California
University not speoified
Question not answered
Total
6
5
3
2
1
1
1
1
2
10
32
Teaohing Certificate Held
1
1
Two-year business
Three-year business
State High Sohool
Question not answered
Total
25
5
32
A l l of the teachers w h o reported inoluded both the major and the
minor fields o f preparation.
This accounts for the total of sixty-four
reports from the thirty-two teaohers in the seotion of this table dealing
with the "major and minor preparation,"
Twenty-eight of the thirty-two aooounting teaohers reported the
oollege or university they attended, with only two reporting out-of-theState universities.
All but two of these teachers graduated from oollege.
229
These two reported, as indioated in the last section of the table, that
they were teaohing on a special certificate.
Twenty-one teaohers have a baohelor's degree, six a master's de­
gree, and five did not answer this question.
This is a fairly satisfactory
situation, since eighty-four per cent of the teaohers reporting hold a
college degree, as oompared with the same percentage in Pennsylvania as re—
1
port e d b y File.
The major and minor preparation of t he teaohers of acoounting, t o ­
gether with the major and minor teaohing assignments, show that in all
oases except four the teacher has either a major or a minor preparation in
the fie l d of business in whioh he is teaching.
the principals reported (Chapter IX, page
It wijl be recalled that
153) that thirty-eight per cent
of the teaohers of business subjeots were teaohing without preparation in
business subjects.
This compares with the r e p o r t of the aooounting teachers
themselves that four of twenty-eight, or fburteen per cent are teaohing
business subjeots without special preparation.
The reasons for this dis­
crepancy are, perhaps, that the p rincipals’ and the teachers' reports come
from different high schools in some cases a n d that all teaohers did not
reply to all the questions.
Steps have been taken b y the State of Utah to end the practice of
permitting teachers to hold classes in subjeots
in -which they have had no
2
preparation.
The State Board of Eduoation
matter as follows!
1.
2.
has set up standards in this
"High school teaohers are now required, unless a par-
File, _0£. cot., p. 173.
The Twenty-first Report of the*’Superintendent of Public Instruction
of the State of Utah, for the Biennial Period Ending June 30,
1936, p. 38.
230
tioular situation prevents, to teach t h e i r ma j o r subjeots, or at least
their major and minor subjeots and not just any high sohool subjeot in
•which they ma y have had inadequate preparation."
It must be remembered that only forty-five per cent of the account­
ing teaohers in the State returned a questionnaire in this investigation.
This forty-five per oent amounts to just thirty-two teaohers and of this
number only twenty-seven replied to this question.
In other words, the
best side of the pioture may be presented here sinoe it may fairly be as­
sumed t h a t those teaohers with ample preparation a n d training were more
willing to fill in t h i s section of the questionnaire t h a n were those with
less than the average credentials.
Of the twenty-seven teaohers reporting on this part of the ques­
tion, twenty-two have had graduate training.
hold m a s t e r s ’ degrees.
This includes the six who
This training is of recent date, ranging from
1933, -when eleven t o o k sudh training, to as late as 1938, when one teaoher
did this work.
This represents a situation qhite satisfactory for any
teaohing foroe and one that the State high sohools should strive to e m u ­
late in all departments.
The universities in whioh this graduate work was
taken represent a fairly wide geographioal area, including the three uni­
versities in Utah, the University of California, the University of Southern
California, the University of Idaho and Columbia University.
Twenty-five of the twenty-seven teaohers vho replied stated that
they had standard State oertifioation for high sohool teaohing.
teaohing on special certificates.
Two were
231
TABLE CLI
Please fill in the fora below for the business e x p e r ­
ienoe you have had.
Kind o f work.
Months of work.
Name of Company.
Year.
Type of position held
Number of reports
10
Stenography
Aooounting and auditing
Clerioal and general office
Retail olerk
Salesman
Treasurer
Advertising manager
Banking
President a n d general manager
Office manager
Purchasing agent
Contingent and extra, Hollywood
Total
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
12
Number of teaohers reporting
25
Number of months spent b y aooounting
teachers in business occupations
Range, in months
Median, in months
Mean, in months
9
7
4
3
Number of reports
4 to 192
36
55
Number of teaohers reporting
Kind of business represented
Agricultural and cooperatives
Retail stares
State a n d Federal agencies
Universities
Banks
Manufacturing and public utilities
Certified Public Accountants
Moving picture companies
Insurance companies
General business experience
Individually owned stores
_
Total number of different businesses reported
Number o f teaohers reporting
23
Number of reports
11
11
8
5
4
3
2
1
1
1
1
11
21
232
TABIE CLI (continued)
Calendar years spent in full-time or
part-time business activity
Number of reports
1
1
1
1
1911 to 1938
1918 to 1923
1923-1925 and 1938
1924-1925 and 1935-1936
1924
1926 and 1930-1931
1926-1938
1927 to 1932
1928 to 1930
1929 to 1935
1930 to 1938
1930 to 1936
1933 to 1936
1934 to 1937
1935 and 1936
1936 and 1937
1937 and 1938
1938
1
_1
Total number of repo r t s
20
1
1
1
1
1
£
1
1
1
1
Not all the aooounting teaohers -mho returned the questionnaire re­
plied to all parts of this
ever, to make the
question.
A sufficient number did reply, how­
returns quite reliable.
Twenty-five of the -thirty-two aooounting teaohers o f the State
reported on the first section of this question.
They have had business
experienoe in stenography, aooounting and auditing, clerical a nd general
offioe work, retailing, and selling, and as treasurer.
In addition, seven
other oomnBrcial occupations were listed.
The number of months spent in business, either full time or p a r t
time, ranges f r o m f o u r months to one hundred ninety-two months, aocording
to the reports of twenty-three teaohers.
The median is thirty-six months
233
and the mean is fifty-five months.
Eleven different types of commercial aotivity are represented in
the experience of the twenty-one teachers who reported.
Agriculture,
retail-stare work, State and Federal agencies, universities, banks, m a n u ­
facturing and public utilities, and certified public aooounting lead in
the number of times reported.
The accounting teachers
of the State began to acquire this prao­
tioal experience in business as early as 1911 and as late a s 1938, from
the reports o f twenty teachers.
N o teacher reported having had his last
business experienoe earlier t h a n 1923.
All but t wo accounting teaohers
have had praotioal business experienoe since 1930.
This xnakeB the work of
such recent date as to r ake it very useful t o the teaoher in his everyday
teaohing.
The academic and practical experience of the accounting teachers
of the State, coupled w i t h their stated desire to have some administra­
tive plan adopted t o compel the teaoher to keep
indicated by the reports
in touch with business, as
of the teachers who replied to the questionnaire,
speaks very well for this phase of business eduoation in the State.
TABLE CL II
Please fill in the following fora for the professional
teaching you have done.
City or State where y o u taught •
High school, elementary, etc.
Subjeot taught.
Length of sohool term.
Number of years taught.
Professional teaching
City or State
Utah only
Utah and %-oming
Utah and Nevada
Total
Itfumber of reports
25
2
_1
28
(Continued)
234
TABLE CLII (Continued)
Professional teaohing
SohooJ level of experienoe
H i g h sohool only
Elementary and high school
Junior a n d senior high sohool
High sohool and junior college
Total
Number of reports
21
4
1
2
28
Subjeots taught in sohools
Bookkeeping and stenography
Bookkeeping and other oanmeroial subjects
Commercial subjeots only
Stenography and other subjects
Total
22
4
2
1
29
Number of commercial subjeots taught
Two commercial subjeots
Three commercial subjeots
Pour commercial subjeots
Commercial subjeots
Five commercial subjeots
Six commercial subjeots
ComnBrcial and elementary subjeots
Total
3
10
9
1
4
1
1
29
Number of years teaching experienoe
Range, In years
Median years
M e a n years
Number of reports
1 to 24
2
4.7
28
Of the twenty-eight teaohers reporting on their geographical
teaohing experienoe, twdnty-five have taught only in Utah, two in Wyoming
and Utah, and one in Nevada and Utah*
Of twenty-eight teaohers who replied, twenty-one reported having
ha d experienoe teaohing in high sohools only; one in junior and senior high
schools; two in high sohool and junior oollege;
and four in elementary a nd
235
high sohool.
Twenty-two of the twenty-nine teaohers h a v e h a d teaohing experienoe
in both bookkeeping and stenography; four reported bookkeeping and other
oonaneroial subjeots; one stenography and other subjects; and two reported
oommeroial subjeots only.
Of the twenty-nine teaohers, one has had teaohing experience in
just "oommeroial subjeots"; three in two different oommeroial subjeots; ten
in three commercial subjeots; nine in four commercial subjects; four in
five commercial subjeots; one in six oommeroial subjeots; and one in com­
merc i a l and elementary subjeots.
The range in the number of teaohing years
is f r o m one to twenty-
four, the m e d i a n is two, and the mean is four and seven-tenths years.
The facts reported above indicate a rather thorough preparation
in teaohing experienoe, which, coupled with the teach i n g credentials re­
ported in Table CL, page 227, and the praotioal busi n e s s experienoe re­
ported in Table CLI, page 231, make it possible f o r the teaohers of b u s i ­
ness in the State to give pupils thorough training in the business subjeots
offered b y the various high sohools.
The daily teaching schedules presented in the following table r e ­
veal the actual teaohing load as well as the extracurricular activities
that are a s s igned to the teaoher of business eduoation.
236
TABLE CLIII
Please fill in the form below for your daily teaohing schedule.
Period
Subjeot or subjects taught during this period
No. in
class
Period time
in minutes
Your duties, as
teaching, oversee­
ing, eto.
First
Seoond
Third
Fourth
Fifth
Sixth
Seventh
Eighth
Other duties, not
listed above, as
extraourrioular, etc.
Teaching schedule
Hours per
week of
activity
Number of
pupils in
aotivity
Number reporting
Periods taught per day
Eight periods
Seven periods
Six periods
Five periods
Four periods
Total
2
S
17
5
1
28
Glass size
Range
Median class
Mean
8 t o 54
28
29
Extraourr 1oular activities
Class or student adviser
Sohool treasurer
orstenographer
Sohool paper or yearbook
Assembly
Credits
Photography
Debating
11
10
8
1
1
1
1
(Continued)
237
TABUS CLIII (Continued)
Teaching schedule
Number reporting
Contests
Bookstore manager
Manager of roller-skating rink
Tiokets for school affairs
Irregular
Total
38
Number of reports
25
1
1
1
1
1
Average number of pupils in activity
162
18
Average hours per week spent in extra­
curricular activities
21
Eight
Length of class period
Range, in minutes
Mean, in minutes
40 to 60
50
In the extracurricular activities section of this table some
teaohers reported more than one aotivity; this accounts for thirty-eight
reports from twenty-five teaohers.
The median number of periods per day taught b y the teacher of a c ­
counting is six, with t w o teaohing eight and one teaohing only four periods
per day.
The mean length of the class period is fifty minutes; the range
is f r o m forty to sixty minutes in length.
The range in class size is from eight to fifty-four pupils; the
med i a n is twenty-eight; and the mean is twenty-nine.
1
File
1.
found that the median class periods of business eduoation
File, op. o i t ., p. 179.
238
high sohool teaohers in Pennsylvania also was six, and the m e a n class
size was thirty-seven, compared with a mean of twenty-nine in Utah.
A total of thirty-eight extracurricular activities was reported by
twenty-five teachers.
These activities are usually class or student a d ­
viser, school treasurer or stenographer, and activities connected with the
publication of the school paper or yearbook.
The average number of hours
spent in extraeurrioular activities is eight per week, and the average num­
ber of pupils
in these activities is 162.
TABLE CLI7
Please list below magazines, books, etc., that you read
regularly that have stimulated your thinking.
Outside reading
Number of reports
Magazines
Balance Sheet
Gregg Writer
Reader's Digest
Business Eduoation World
Business Education Quarterly
Colliers
National Education Association
National Business Journals
Life
Forum
Journal of Business Eduoation
Think
English Journal
Consumers Union
American Observer
News W e e k
Scholastic Eduoation
Saturday Evening Post
Business W e e k
Utah Eduoation Association
N a t i o n ’s Business
Phi Delta Kappa
Journal of Aooounting
Business Life
Total number of magazines
Number of teaohers reporting
15
12
10
9
4
3
2
2
2
2
2
24
28
(Continued)
239
TABLE! CLIV (Continued)
Number of reports
Outside Reading
Books
W e Are Guinea Pigs
Problems in Business Eduoation, Lomax
Home Room Guidance, McKown
Skill Development, Morrison
Psychology of Typewriting
Business English and eoonomios textbooks
She Strives to Conquer
Principles of Eoonomios
Forward
Aooounting and Eoonomios
How to W i n Friends and Influenoe People, Carnegie
Business Education for Tomorrow
Total number reported by twelve teaohers
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
12
Other
1
1
2
Salt Lake Tribune
LaSalle Extension Pamphlet
Total
The M a n o e
Sheet leads in the number of readers reported*
Since
this magazine is furnished free of charge to the teaohers it is quite
natural that it should be first in popularity.
1
Norton
found that the journal most often read by teaohers in New
York City high sohools was the house organ of a leading oommeroial pub­
lishing house which is sent to t h e m without charge.
This house organ is,
of course, the Balanoe Sheet published by the Southwestern Publishing Com­
pany of Cincinnati, Ohio.
The Gregg Writer is a d o s e
1.
seoond to the Balanoe Sheet, with the
Thomas L. Norton, Education for Work, p. 99.
240
R e a d e r 1s Digest,
The Business Education W o r l d , Business Eduoation Quar­
terly, Colliers, National Eduoation Association Bulletins, National Busi­
ness Journals, Life, Forum, and the Journal of Business Eduoation follow­
ing in the order named.
each b y one teaoher.
Thirteen additional magazines were mentioned,
This makss a total of twenty-four magazines reported
b y the teachers of aooounting in the high schools of Utah.
1
File found in his study of business eduoation in Pennsylvania
that the magazines read b y the teaohers ranked as follows:
The Balanoe
Sheet firBt, the Gregg Writer seoond, the Business Education World third,
and the Journal of Business Eduoation fourth.
Eleven books were reported by eleven teaohers, with seven of the
eleven pertaining directly to business eduoation.
TABLE CLV
Please list below the state, regional, or national com­
mercial teaoher organization to which you belong, stat­
ing office held in each.
Professional assooiation
Number of reports
Utah Eduoation Assooiation
National Eduoation Assooiation
Looal Teaohers Associations
American Assooiation of College Instructors
California State Teaohers Assooiation
National Business Teaohers Assooiation
N o membership
12
6
1
1
1
_2
Total
37
Number of teaohers reporting
20
!•
File, 0£. oit., p. 199.
14
241
Twenty aooounting teaohers reported membership in thirty-seven
associations (some teaohers reported more than one).
The first three associations mentioned account for praotioally all
the teaohers of the State.
Twenty of the thirty-two teaohers who answered
the questionnaire replied to this question, with five reporting that they
had served as officers.
A greater number of Utah high sohool teaohers of
aooounting should affiliate themselves with some professional teachers'
organization t o help them keep abreast of professional activities.
TABLE CLVI
Please list the community organizations to whioh you be­
long; if an officer in the organization, please indioate.
Community organization
Number of reports
12
Latter D a y Saint Church Office
Sooial clubs
Lions Club
Chamber of Commeroe
Junior Chamber of Commeroe
City Council
Community Chest
National Guard, officer
Welfare and Loan Organization, auditor
Boy Scout, distriot commissioner
Parent Teaoher Assooiation, vioe-president
No community work
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
_2
Total
29
Number of teachers reporting
21
4
Twenty-one acoounting teaohers reported servioe in twenty-nine
activities, in addition to their teaohing schedule.
The greatest numberof
teaohers do active work in the Latter Day Saint Church organizations.
teaohers serve the community in o^jer than ohuroh activities, tfcile two
Eleven
242
reported no community activity at all and four reported sooial clubs*
TABLE CUTII
Please list b e l o w the titles of articles or books published
by you d uring the past five years.
Title
Published by
An Analysis o f School Population
in Utah b y Means of Certain
Diagonal Squares
Polioy of Issuing Special Cer­
tificates t o Teaohers in the
State of Utah
Newspaper artioles
National Education Delegates
Report
Date
Utah Academy of Science
1936
1937
Utah Education Assooiation
Two teaeners reported theses, one published and one unpublished.
Newspaper artioles were reported by one teaoher and a National Eduoation
Delegate report b y another.
TABIE CLVIII
How often do you give written tests, by semesters?
(Circle) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 S 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
Tests
Number of reports
Median number reported
Mean
Number of reports on this question
5
4
19
In addition to the nineteen reports above, one teaoher reported
that she gave "eleven weekly" tests, another "weekly in bookkeeping," and
a third "daily in shorthand, weekly in bookkeeping."
If these three re­
243
ports are included in the table above, the number reoeived is raised to
twenty-two.
These three teachers evidently use these short daily tests as
a part of their daily teaching plan.
The intent of the question was to
determine the number of formal tests given eaoh semester; therefore, these
three reports were not included in the table presented above.
TABLE CLIX
Please check the method, or methods, you use t o aid in
determining the p u p i l ’s grade in the course. Class par­
ticipation, General attitude, General impression, Appli­
cation, Series o f tests, Term papers, Oral tests, Labora­
tory work, Attendance, Performance standards, Final tests.
Which of the above do you rank as first, seoond, and third
in importance?
Methods used
Number of reports
Class participation
Series of tests
General attitude
Attendance
Application
Performance
Laboratory work
Final tests
Oral tests
Term papers
General impression
Number of teachers reporting
Rank of Methods Used
23
19
19
16
15
15
14
9
6
4
3
27
Importance of methods
First
Seoond
Third
Class participation
10
Series of tests
3
Performance
1
General attitude
3
2
Laboratory work
Application
1
1
Attendance
Final tests
1
Oral tests
Number of Teaohers ranking tests
3
3
3
5
4
3
3
7
2
2
4
2
2
1
2
1
Weighted Total*
39
22
20
21
18
11
8
5
1
23
♦Weights of one, two a n d three are assigned third, seoond and first
place respectively.
244
Twenty-seven teachers reported using the tests, -which are listed
in the first section of Table CLIX according to the number of times each
was mentioned b y teaohers.
In the second section of the table the tests
are listed as ranted by the teaohers as first, seoond, and third in im­
portance.
The weighted total shows class participation first; a series
of tests seoond; and general attitude third.
It is interesting to note that only two teachers reported the
final e s s a y t e s t as either first,
seoond or third.
This seems to indicate
that the accounting teaohers in t he high schools of Utah are using objec­
tive a n d performance tests as a means of helping them determine the final
grades of the pupils in the olasses.
tab
i® ax
Please list the problems in business education, as you
see them, from a looal and from a national viewpoint.
Problems in business education
Number of reports
Looal problems
A more direct contact with business
Too limited equipment
Plaoement of graduates
Limited ourrioulum
Too many pupils with low I.Q.'s
Administrators not awake to Business Education needs
Poor application of theory
Relation to State Board of Education too remote
Researoh to find what is needed in business eduoation
Failure of ptipils to see importance of adequate
preparation
Inexperienced, inadequately trained pupils
Family budget
Total
3
3
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
20
(Continued)
245
TABLE CLX (continued)
Problems
in business education
Number of reports
National problems
Plaoement of graduates
Small communities handicap pupils
Application of theory
Up-grading the curriculum
Administrators stress business education too
little, college education too much
Failure to recognize needs of business education
National standards should be set up
Failure to appreciate needs arising ffam social
seourity legislation
_1
Total
11
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
Twenty of the thirty-two teaohers of accounting listed local prob­
lems; eleven listed national problems as well.
The national problems may
not be representative of the group beoause so few reported on this.
The plaoement of high school graduates is a problem b o t h local
and national in its scope.
The lack of equipment, not enough contact
with business, a too limited business education department, too many
pupils w i t h low I.Q.'s in business education, and the failure of the a d ­
ministrators t o recognize the needs of business education are all listed
as looal problems i n business education.
Placement opportunities for pupils in business education is a
rather direct result of little or no planning on the part of high sohool
offioials to limit the number of pupils permitted to enter training in the
different fields of business, and of the kind of training offered in high
sohool.
Much could b e accomplished both locally and nationally if atten­
tion were given, before training began, to the employment possibilities in
246
eaoh community available to graduates.
Training oould them be adjusted
to the employment needs.
1
File
found the five outstanding problems reported b y the teaohers
of business education in Pennsylvania to be:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
A need for olerioal a n d general office training
A need for retail selling oourses in high schools
A need for personal use courses in insurance, budgeting,
use of money, personal finanoing and taxation
A need for stenographic courses
A need for oourses to train for the operation of small
stores
The principals of the high schools in Pennsylvania reported the
following five problems a s the most pressing, from their viewpoints
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
How to select business education teaohers for employment
Adapting business education to looal needs
Vocational guidance
Adapting instruction to differing abilities of pupils
The need for a suitable basis for guiding pupils into
business ed u cation
The superintendents in Utah reported the following problems
in Chapter VI, page
(given
) to be the m o s t important in the high sohools of
Utah:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Making businessmen conscious of their social obligations
Finding jobs for b u s i n e s s education graduates
Selection of pupils to enter training in business eduoation
Revision of the business eduoation currioulum
The looal prcblems reported in Utah and in Pennsylvania are not
altogether in agreement.
It is probable that the looal problems in the
two States do differ widely.
1.
File, 0£. p i t ., p. 107.
Another contributing factor to the differences
247
is the
fact that File listed the problems and asked the teaohers and a d ­
ministrators t o cheolc them, whereas this investigator asked the teaohers
and the administrators to list the problems as they saw them, with no sug­
gestions.
File's method would normally result in a more uniform listing
of problems than would be the oase under the method followed b y this in­
vestigator.
The national problems in business eduoation deal with the plaoement
of graduates a n d the failure of the administration to reoognize the needs
of business eduoation.
a looal nature.
Both of these problems were inoluded in those of
Six other problems were
listed, e a o h b y a single teacher
of accounting.
TABbE CLXI
Do you feel that the oorameroial contests held in Utah
are a positive, or a negative faotor in your teaohing?
Commercial oontest
Number of reports
Positive
Negative
15
_7
68%
52%
Total
22
100%
Twenty-two of the thirty-two accounting teaohers replied to this
question, enough, perhaps, to be representative o f the group.
This question was reported in Chapter VI, page
74, with sixty-four
per oerrfc of the aooounting and stenographio teaohers and the administrators
of the State reporting favorable reaotions and thirty-six per oent report­
ing negative responses to tiie contest a s it affects their teaohing.
The
248
teaohers o f accounting reported sixty-eight per oent in favor of the oontest, a n d thirty-two per oent against it.
It is the opinion of the investigator that if the persons in
charge of the contest were made aware of the objections held b y some
teaohers of business eduoation, steps could be taken to eliminate the nega­
tive factors so that this activity might prove beneficial to a greater
number of pupils.
TABLE CLXII
Please oheok the kinds of tests used b y you during a
regular course. Matching, True false, Completion,
Essay, Comprehensive, Best answer, Multiple ohoioe,
and Other.
Type of test used
Number of reports
25
24
23
15
14
9
True false
Multiple ohoioe
Completion
Matching
Comprehens ive
Essay
Best answer
Problem
Performance
Oral
Shorthand and typewriting
Speed
1
1
1
__1
Total
126
Number of teachers reporting
8
4
27
Twenty-seven teaohers reported on this question, with true false,
multiple ohoioe, completion, matching, comprehensive, and essay tests
used more frequently than others.
The last five tests in the table were
added b y the teaohers under the "other” oaption of the question, indicating
249
that t h e y were sufficiently interested in the questionnaire to add teste
that were not listed in the question.
The essay test was reported in
only nine of the 126 oases reported.
Summary of the Chapter
Preparation of Teaohers of Accounting;
A.
Plan for Securing Business Experience
1.
Twenty-seven of the twenty-nine teaohers of accounting favor
the adoption of some administrative plan t o keep business teaohers in touoh
with practical business.
The teachers suggested summer work in business,
oontaot with businessmen during the school year, and that a better teacher
training plan be adopted in the universities of the State.
(Tables CXLVIII
and CXLIX, pages 223 and 224.)
B.
College Training
2.
Twenty-eight of the thirty-two accounting teachers reported
attendance at college.
Of this number twenty-six graduated a nd six of
the twenty-six have the master's degree.
All graduate work of the twenty-
two teaohers w h o have had this training has been taken sinoe 1933.
(Table CL, page 226.)
C.
Major and Minor Fields of Study
3.
The major a n d minor fields of teaohing closely follow the m a ­
jor a n d minor fields of preparation.
The exceptions to this are that one
teaoher in each of the fields of sooiology, Romantio languages, physical
eduoation, and history is teaohing business subjects with no training in
these subjects.
(Table CL, page 226.)
250
D.
Certification of Teaohers
4.
Twenty-five of the twenty-seven acoounting teaohers reporting
hold regular State high sohool certificate, the remaining two teaohers
are teaohing on a special oertifioate.
E.
(Table CL, page 226.)
Actual Business Experienoe
5.
The practical business experienoe reported b y twenty-five of
the thirty-two acoounting teaohers covers twelve different occupations.
Stenography and acoounting lead the list, closely followed by clerical
and general office work, salesman, and treasurer.
These twelve different
occupations represent eleven different kinds of business aotivity.
The
most frequently mentioned type o f business in whioh the teachers reported
having had experienoe were,
in the order of number of times mentioned:
agriculture and cooperatives, retail stores,
State and Federal agencies,
universities, banks, manufacturing and public utilities, and certified
public accounting.
The length of time spent in praotioal business ranges
from four to 192 months; the m e a n is fifty-five months, and the mediaft
thirty-six months.
The years spent in either part-time or full-time em­
ployment extend from 1911 to 1938, with all but two teachers reporting this
experience since 1930.
F.
(Table CLI, page 231.)
Teaohing Experienoe, Place and Type of School
6.
The professional teaching experienoe was gained in Utah, with
the exception of three teachers who reported experience in Wyoming an d
Nevada as well as in Utah.
Twenty-eight teachers reported the level of
their teaching experienoe.
Of these twenty-eight, twenty have had high
school experienoe only, four elementary and high sohool, one junior and
251
senior high school, a n d two high sohool and junior college teaohing ex­
perienoe*
G.
(Table CLII, page 233*)
Subjects Taught
7*
Twenty-nine acoounting teaohers repor t e d on the business sub­
jects they have taught*
Twenty-two have taught stenography and account­
ing at one time or another, four have taught bookkeeping and other commer­
cial subjects,
one has taught stenography and other subjects, and two have
taught commercial subjects only.
The entire group has had teaching ex­
perienoe in more than one commercial subjeot*
The range
of teaching e x ­
perienoe is f r o m one to twenty-four years, the m e d i a n is two years,
the mean is four and seven-tenths years.
H.
and
(Table CLII, page 233.)
Teaching Load, Classes Taught
8.
The length of the daily class period ranges from forty t o sixty
minutes in length, with a mean of fifty minutes.
periods taught ranges from four to eight each
heavily around six periods.
The number of clasB
day, with the mode oentering
The number of pupils enrolled in classes ranges
from eight to fifty-four, the median number is twenty-eight and the mean
is twenty-nine.
I*
(Table CLIII, page 236.)
Extracurricular Activities
9*
activities.
Twenty-five of thirty-two teaohers reported extracurricular
The greatest number serve as adviser t o some sohool class,
to the school paper or yearbook, or as sohool treasurer or stenographer.
The average number of hours spent in this aotivity e a c h week is eight, the
average number of pupils per teaoher is 162.
(Table CLIII, page 236.)
252
J.
Reading —
10.
Magazines
The magazines read by the twenty-eight teaohers of aooount-
ing, are as follows:
The Balance Sheet, reported b y fifteen teaohers; the
Gregg Writer, reported by twelve; the Readerfs Digest, reported b y ten;
The Business Eduoation WorId, reported by nine; the Business Education
Quarterly, reported by four; Colliers, by three; the National Eduoation
Journal by two; and t w o teaohers each reported National Business journals.
Life, Forum, and the Journal of Business Education.
In addition to this
list thirteen teachers reported one other magazine each, making a total
of twenty-four different rragazines reported by these teaohers of a coount­
ing.
K.
(Table CLIV, page 238.)
Reading —
11.
Books
Eleven books were
reported by eleven teachers.
eleven are directly concerned w i t h business eduoation.
Eight o f the
(Table CLIV, page
239.)
L.
Membership in Educational Associations
12.
The professional activities reported b y the teaohers are
lead b y membership in the Utah Education Association, with membership in
the National Education Association running seoond and in looal a s s o c i a ­
tions third.
M.
(Table CLV, page 240.)
Membership in Community Activities
13.
Membership in tirenty-seven community organizations were re­
ported by twenty-one teaohers of accounting.
Activity in the Latter Day
Saint Churoh leads the list with twelve reporting this type of aotivity.
Four reported social clubs, two the Lions Club, and boo the Chamber of
253
Cammeroe.
Seven other activities -were reported b y one teaoher eaoh.
(Table CLVI, page 241.)
N.
Publications
14*
Publications were reported during the past five years by but
three teachers.
articles.
They represent t w o master's theses and two newspaper
(Table C L V I I , page 242.)
Testing and Grading Procedures
A.
Number of Tests
15.
Written tests are given b y the teachers on the average of
four times a year.
This does not inolude the report of three teachers
who reported daily tests.
B.
(Table CLVIII, page 242.)
Kinds of Measurement Used
16.
Means used by the teachers of accounting to aid them in d e­
termining the grade of the pupils are: class participation o f the pupil, a
series
of tests, general class attitude, class performance, laboratory
work, application, attendance, and final and oral tests, ranked in the
order named.
(Table CLIX, page 243.)
Local and National Problems in Business Education
A.
Local Problems
17.
counting.
Twelve local problems were reported b y twenty teaohers of ac­
Those most frequently mentioned, reported in order of the number
of times mentioned, were: The need for a more direct oantaot between
businessmen and pupils;
insufficient equipment; difficulty of plaoing pupils
in positions for which they were treined; the limited offering in business
254
education; too many pupils -with }ow I.Q.'s in business education; and the
seeming indifference of the administration to the needs of business edu­
cation.
Six other problems were listed, each b y one teaoher.
(Table
CLX, page 244.)
B.
National Problems
18.
Prom t h e national viewpoint the problems listed urere: The
difficulty of placing graduates of tiie business eduoation department; the
handicap small communities plaoe upon the pupil; the application of theory;
the necessity o f upgrading the business eduoation curricula; the need for
more stress upon business eduoation preparation and less upon college en­
trance; the need of national standards in business education; and the need
of business eduoation to stress the demands of social security legislation
upon business training.
(Table CL X, page 245.)
Value of Commercial Contest
19.
The commercial contest was reported a positive factor in the
teaohing of business eduoation subjects b y fifteen of the twenty-two
teachers of accounting vho reported on this question.
247.)
(Table CLXI, page
C M P TER XV
TEACHING METHODS
This chapter presents data on teaohing methods and olassroom pro oedures gathered from the replies sent in by the teaohers of aooounting
in the high schools of Utah to section fire of the questionnaire.
Fourteen questions -were presented, the replies to which are de­
tailed in the following tables in the order in which they appeared on the
questionnaire.
TABLE CLXIII
Do you teaoh pupils studying business subjeots for voca­
tional preparation and those studying them for personal
use in ihe same olass?
Are vocational and personal-use
pupils taught in the same olass?
Number of replies
'•Yes"
"Ho"
30
JO
Total
30
The teaohers of aooounting in all of the thirty high sohools re­
porting state that pupils studying business subjeots for vocational use
and those studying for personal use are taught in the seme olass.
In one
high sohool the teaoher commented that this was true for the first year of
the course, but in the seoond year praotioally all the pupils were study­
ing the subject for vocational use only.
255
266
The tendency should be in the direotion stated by this teacher
since the personal-use pupij. -will usually tend to drop out of the course
very soon after, or just before, the point of intense skill development is
reached.
If this situation holds time in general, perhaps no serious ob­
jection to the practice would be raised.
It should be stressed, however,
that both olasses of pupils should not be taught in the course where more
intense vocational emphasis is being placed upon the subjeot.
Utah is largely rural, with small olasses in business subjects
the general rule.
This fact makes it diffioult to separofcepupils into two
olasses, particularly in the first year of the skill subjeot.
TABLE CLXIV
If you teaoh both types of pupils in the same class, do
you differentiate in the subjeot matter you offer to the
two groups, or in the stress you place on phases of the
subject?
Do you differentiate in subjeot matter?
Number of rep lie s
"Yes"
"No
15
14
Total
29
Comments added
2
The reports presented in this table indioate that fifteen of the
twenty-nine teaohers of aooounting who reported are oonsoious of the dif­
ference in the needs of the two groups of pupils and attempt to meet this
difference by the method of presentation of the subjeot matter and by the
stress they plaoe upon different phases of the subjeot as the olass pro­
gresses.
Two teaohers tfio reported "no" to the question added a oomment
257
that their olasses were too large to permit of differentiation in the sub­
ject matter or in the teaohing methods to accommodate the needs of either
group.
TABLE CLXV
Do you teaoh your olasses in bookkeeping or aooounting
in suoh a maim sr that all the pupils in the olass sure
on the same assignment at the same time?
All pupils kept on same assignment
Number of replies
"Yes"
"No”
13
18
Total
31
Pupils studying bookkeeping are more frequently permitted to pro­
gress individually as rapidly as possible, the teaoher oheoking off the
exeroises as they are oompleted and offering the neoessary explanation of
the new phases of the subjeot to eaoh individual as he finishes a section
of the work.
This necessitates a repetition of explanation approximately
as many times as there are pupils in the olass.
If classes are large the
time and energy of the teaoher is dissipated over too many individual ex­
planations.
These explanations might just as well be given to the entire
group, at the same time, provided that all pupils are on the same assign­
ment at the same time.
Thirteen of the thirty-one teaohers of aooounting
who reported use this mare eoaaomioal method of presenting bookkeeping.
258
TABLE CLXVI
Do you follow a definite oourse of study in bookkeeping?
Number of replies
Follow a oourse of Btudy
"No"
19
11
Total
30
"Yes"
Nineteen of the thirty aooounting teaohers who reported on this
question follow a oourse of study*
The experienced teaoher oan quite
easily make up his own oourse of stuty, and follow it during the sohool
year*
The in experienced teaoher oannot do this so well beoause of his laok
of experienoe*
It would be better if the sohool administration would fur­
nish an adequate oourse of study for all teaohers to follow*
be of great service to the new and inexperienced teaoher*
This m u l d
One teaoher re­
ported that he followed a oourse of study but not one provided by the ad­
ministration*
TABLE CLXVII
Do you think that bookkeeping should be taught before the
pupil reaohes the tenth grade? Before the eleventh grade?
Number of replies
Before the tenth grade
"Yes"
"No"
Total
0
30
30
Before the eleventh grade
"Yes"
"No"
Total
5
16
21
259
The opinion of thirty a o oounting teaohers seems to be m i l e s ­
tablished that pupils should n o t b e t a u g h t bookkeeping before they reaoh
the tenth grade*
But five o f the twenty-one teaohers reporting would offer
it before the eleventh grade.
P resumably the last two years of high sohool
should be reserved for the two years of bookkeeping.
It will b e reoalled
from Table LII, page 100# that in the business eduoation department sixtyone p e r oent of the tenth-grade pupils enter the eleventh grade, that
forty-seven per oent of the tenth-grade pupils enter the twelfth grade,
and that but sixteen per oent of the t e n t h grade remain in sohool t o
graduate.
If bookkeeping is n o t given pupils until they reaoh the eleventh
grade it means -that not more than three in five will reoeive training in
this subject.
In the last year of h i g h sohool but little more than two in
five will begin the oourse and little more than one in six w i l l remain in
sohool to oomplete the two years' training offered.
With this heavy mor­
tality it seems that oourses of a vocational nature should be made avail­
able to the five ottt of six pupils who begin the tenth grade bu t d r o p out
of high sohool before graduation.
However, an incomplete oourse in book­
keeping has value as a noxrvooational subjeot for most people.
Perhaps this
mortality helps t o prevaat an oversupply of high-sohool-trained b o o k ­
keepers.
matically.
What these oourses should be made up of oannot be stated d og­
This will not be known until research in the various communi­
ties has discovered the kind of t r a i n i n g needed to fill the needs o f the
community and the pupil.
260
TABLE CLXVIII
Do you oorreot, a n d hand b a o k t o t he pupil, all papers of
a major nature in bookkeeping?
Correot w o r k
Number of reports
28
"Yes”
"No"
_1
Total
29
This question was asked to determine h o w many of the teaohers made
use of oorreoted papers as a teaching devioe in bookkeeping*
All but one
of the aooounting teaohers tho replied to the question reported that they
ootrreot a n d return papers t o the pupil and therefore oan make use of this
method of teaohing if they wish*
TABLE CLXEX
Do y o u make use of praotioe sets in first-year bookkeep­
ing?
In seoand-year bookkeeping?
Are praotioe sets used in t
First-year bookkeeping
"Yes"
"No"
Total
Seoond-ysar bookkeeping
"Yes"
"No"
Total
Number of reports
28
2
30
14
2
16
The response to this question indicates that praotioe sets are used
extensively, both in first-year and in seoond^year bookkeeping*
261
TABLE! CLXX
Are objeotive tests made by the publisher for the text
y o u use in bookkeeping? Are achievement tests made for
the text? Do y o u use these tests?
Number of reports
Ye s
No
Tests
Are objeotive tests available?
Do you use them?
Are achievement tests available?
Do yon use them?
31
27
21
21
0
0
0
0
A l l the teaohers of aooounting reporting on this question have
available both achievement and objeotive tests, prepared b y the publisher
of the t e x t b o o k t h e y use*
A l l the teaohers reporting use these tests*
The t e x tbook us e d in bookkeeping was reported (Chapter XIII, page
211) to be Twentieth Century Bookkeeping, published by the Southwestern
Publishing Company of Cincinnati, Ohio*
This company furnishes the teaoher
with a oomplete set of achievement and objeotive tests w h i o h v e r y thoroughly
oover the text material*
of the subjeot*
These tests are an effioient a i d to any teaoher
They are particularly valuable to the n ew teaoher in that
they furnish an excellent means o f checking the information the pupil has
been able to get f r o m the presentation of the subjeot matter*
TABLE CLXXI
Do you use the radio or visual eduoation as a n a id in
teaohing bookkeeping?
Aids
"Yes"
"NoM
Total
Number of reports
'
4
23
27
Unfortunately no comments -were added b y the teaohers who answered
"yes" to -this question, therefore
it cannot be determined just h ow either
visual eduoation or the r a d i o is u s e d as an aid to the teaoher i n his b o o k keeping olasses.
It seems that there is a possibility of using visu a l edu-
oation in this field, through the medium of slides to illustrate the various
phases of the subjeot*
table: c l xx ii
Do you feel that the instruction in the business education
department of your s o h o o l is as efficient as is the instruc­
tion in other departments?
Is instruction in business e d u oation
as effioient a s in other departments?
Number of replies
"Yes"
"Ho"
19
JD
Total
19
Only nineteen of the thirty-two aooounting teaohers reported on
this question.
The superintendents m h o reported on this question ( Chapter VI, page
felt that instruction in the business eduoation department was more e f f e c ­
tive in five districts, less effective in none of the districts, a n d of
about the same effectiveness in eleven districts*
The report o f -the superintendents was not as enthusiastic as is
the report of the teaohers themselves, yet both indicate that the business
eduoation department is a w a k e to its responsibilities and that the teaohers
themselves believe in the efficiency o f their department*
263
TABLE CLXXIII
Please list, in tiie order o f your own preference, the a p ­
proaches or methods y o u use t o present bookkeeping, as for
example, the balance sheet approach*
Approaches
First
Balanoe Sheet
Equation
Journal entry
Work sheet
Asset a nd liability
Debit and oredit
Trial balanoe
Bookkeeping oyole
Financial statements
6
7
2
1
1
1
0
0
0
Seoond
6
2
3
0
3
0
1
1
0
Third
2
0
2
0
0
2
1
0
0
Fourth
Total
1
0
2
1
0
0
0
0
1
Humber of teaohers reporting
14
9
9
2
4
3
2
1
1
20
The equation, balance sheet, and journal entry methods lead in popu­
larity in the subjeot of bookkeeping, if w e oonsider only the first ohoioe
indicated by twenty of the thirty-two teaohers w h o answered this question*
If the first ohoioe is given a weight of four, the seoond ohoioe a
weight of three, the third a weight of two, and the fourth ohoioe a weight
of one, the methods of a p proa oil receive the following ratings the balance
sheet first, with a soore of forty -three j the equation seoond, with a
8core of thirty-four j the journal entry third, w i t h a soore of twenty-three;
the asset and liability fourth, w i t h a soore of thirteen; the debit a n d
oredit fifth, with a soore of eight; the w o r k sheet and the trial balanoe
sixth, w i th a soore of six eaoh; the bookkeeping oyole seventh, w i t h a
soore of three; and the financial statement method last, with a soore of
one*
This report seems t o indicate a mar tod approval of an integrated,
or whole, approaoh to the subjeot*
264
The balanoe sheet approaoh probably owes its popularity to the faftt
that this method is used in the Twentieth Century bookkeeping text that has
been adopted by the State for use i n the h i g h sohools.
A ll the teaohers
reported t h a t they use this textbook for bookkeeping instruct ion.
TABLE CLXXTV
If y o u take your olass on excursions, please oheok the fol­
lowing uses you make of the information gained.
To find how successfully you are presenting information the
pupil will need after graduation
To help create plaoement jobs
To give tiie pupil actual business contacts and information
To stimulate pupil interest
Other
Number of reports
Uses made of excursions
To oheok on teaohing methods
To aid in placement of pupils
To give business oontaots and information
To stimulate pupil interest
Excursions not used at all
Total number o f teaohers who use excursions
2
1
8
9
3
12
Twelve of the thirty-two teaohers o f aooounting who returned the
questionnaire reported that they conducted olass excursions to business
firms.
The use made of these excursions is largely to supply business
information and t o stimulate pupil interest in business olasses.
Perhaps
a further use oould be made of these excursions -- that of oheoking the
type of training given in tiie high sohool with the information the pupil
w i l l need after graduation.
Two teachers reported this use and it seems a
very desirable application of this type of informstion.
265
TABLE CLXXV
In y o u r business eduoation teaohing, do y o u give the
greatest stress to skills or t o broader social needs?*
Number of reports
Stress skills or sooial needs
12
Skills
Sooial needs
Both
16
_3
Total
31
* This t e r m is used to indicate general business information as against
speoifio vooational information and skills.
Aooording t o the report, sixteen of the thirty-on© aooounting
teaohers who replied stress sooial needs m o r e t h a n skills*
Skills should
be given great stress in bookkeeping and other vooational skill subjects,
leaving the general business information for such subjects as economies and
general business.
However, it should be remembered that skills should not
be emphasized to the exclusion of sooial needs*
If business eduoation is
to f i l l its rightful place ih eduoation, it m u s t be a s a vooational sub­
jeot a n d neither the skill phase nor the social needs must b e nsgleoted
b y the t e a o h e r of these subjects.
The w o r d "broader” in the question
m a y have had an influence on the w a y the question was answered*
266
TABLE CLXXVI
In w h a t way, or ways, might the superintendent an d the princi­
pal cooperate to make business eduoation more effective in
your sohool?
Suggested ways of improvement
Number of reports
Provide better equipment, more teaohers, and
a n enlarged ourriculum
Present cooperation satisfactory
Become better acquainted with the problems
Keep low I.Q.'s out o f business department
Sohool too small for expansion
2
1
_1
Total
19
11
4
Summary o f t h e Chapter
Provision for Individual Differences
A*
Differentiation of Vooational and Nonvooational Bookkeeping Pupils
1.
A l l of the thirty aooounting teaohers itho answered the question
reported that pupils studying business subjects for vooational needs were
taught i n the sane olass wiih pup. Is studying it for personal use.
Fif­
teen of twenty-nine teachers reporting m ake an effort t o differentiate
the subjeot matter in these classes in such a manner that the vooational
and the personal-use pupils are given training best suited to their needs.
(Tables CLXIII and CLXIV, pages 255 and 256.)
B.
Class Organization
2.
Thirteen of thirty-one aooounting teaohers reported that they
keep the bookkeeping pupils an the same assignment at the same time.
remaining number permit the pupil to w o r k on at an individual paoe.
The
Nine-
267
teen o f t hirty teaohers follow a definite oourse of study*
(Tables
CLOT a n d CLXVI, pages 257 and 258.)
C.
Use of Tests
3.
Objeotive tests are used by twenty-seven of thirty-one
teaohers reporting; achievement tests are used by a l l of the twenty-one
teaohers reporting.
(Table CLXX, page 261.)
Grade Plaoement in Bookkeeping
4.
The thirty teaohers of aooounting reporting -were unanimous an
the opinion t h a t bookkeeping should not b e taught before the tenth grade.
Sixteen of twenty-one teaohers would not permit it t o b e
the eleventh grade.
taught before
(Table CLOT1I, page 258.)
Methods of Instruction
A.
Assignments i n Bookkeeping Corrected
5.
Twenty-eight of twenty-nine aooounting teaohers reported that
they oorreot and h a n d b a o k to the pupil important assignments in bookkeep­
ing.
Twenty-eight of thirty teaohers report the use of praotioe sets in
the first year of bookkeeping, and fourteen of sixteen teaohers report the
use of these sets in the seoond year of the subjeot.
(Tables CLOTIII and
CLXIX, pages 260.)
B.
Effectiveness of Instruction
6.
N i n e t e e n teaohers were unanimously of the opinion that the
instruction in the business eduoation department w a s as effective as in
other departments of the high sohool.
This opinion was substantiated by
the superintendents a s reported in Chapter VI, page
page 262.)
(Table CLXXII,
268
C.
Approaches to Bookkeeping*
7*
Nine methods, or approaches, to the study of bookkeeping were
reported by the accounting teachers.
They were asked to list these as
first, seoond, third, and fourth, in the order of their preferences.
If
only the first choice is considered the equation methods ranks first, the
balance sheet seoond, and the journal entry method third*
If, however,
all of the four places are considered and are given a weight of one, two,
three,and four, the balance sheet method is rated first with forty-three
points, the equation second with thirty-four points, and the journal entry
method third with twenty-three points.
D*
(Table CLXKIII, page 263*)
Field Trips
8*
Twelve of the thirty-two accounting teachers reported the
praotioe of taking the business education classes on excursions to business
fixms*
These trips are used to stimulate pupil interest in business edu­
cation, to provide business contacts and gain practical information, to
cheok on the teaohing methods used by the teacher, and as an aid in place­
ment of pupils at the time of graduation*
B*
(Table CLXXIV, page 264*)
Bmphasis upon Vocational Skills or Social Needs
9*
Sixteen of thirty-one accounting teachers who reported on
this question stated that in bookkeeping classes they place more emphasis
upon the social needs of the pupils than they do upon the vocational re­
quirements, twelve teaohers report more stress upon the vocational skill
phase of the subjeot, and the remaining three reported that both skills
and social needs were stressed. (Table CLXX7, page 265.)
269
F.
Visual Aid and Radio in Business Education
10*
Four of twenty-seven teachers of aooounting reported that they
make use of the radio or of visual eduoation in the presentation of book­
keeping.
(TablefiLXXI, page 261.)
Improvement in Business Eduoation
11.
The aooounting teachers ■were asked in what way, or ways, the
administration might more fully cooperate to make business eduoation mare
effeotive in their high schools.
Eleven of nineteen teachers reported
that more equipment, additional teachers, and an enlarged ourrioulum were
the greatest needs.
factory.
Four teaohers reported the present oooperation satis­
Two would like the superintendents to beoome mare thoroughly
acquainted with the problems of business eduoation, and one would prefer
that pupils with low I.Q.'s be kept out of business eduoation olasses.
(Table CLXXVI, page 266.)
CHAPTER XVI
EXTENSION EDUCATION
Data concerning cooperative, evening, and part-time sohool prooeduree
secured from replies to Seotion Six of the questionnaire to the teaohers
of aooounting are presented in this ohapter.
The replies of the principals
to these questions, reported in Chapter X, frill be compared with those of
the aooounting teachers.
TABLE CLXXVII
Do you have a cooperative arrangement with the merchants of
your oity for the pupils of your sohool to attend sohool part
of the day and work in the stores part of the day? If not,
do you feel such an arrangement should be made?
Number of replies
Do you have a cooperative arrangement?
"Yesw
"No"
Total
1
29
30
If not, should such an arrangement be made?
"Yes"
"No”
Total
16
9
25
The fact that this type of oourse is given only infrequently is
borne out by the teaohers of aooounting who report only one sohool with
this kind of oourse.
This agrees with the statement of the prinoipals
(Chapter X, page 161) who also reported one sohool with this type of
oourse.
Fourteen of twenty prinoipals reported that this oourse should be
270
271
added to the business eduoation ourrioulum, compared with sixteen of
twenty-five teaohers of aooounting.
the prinoipals —
Comments were similar to those of
that the oommunity was too small and that suoh a oourse
would be desirable if it oould be established.
The reports of the prinoi­
pals sind of the teaohers of aooounting are very much in agreement that a
cooperative retail training oourse should be added to the business eduoa­
tion department of the high sohools in the communities where this type of
oourse is needed.
TABLE CLXX7III
If so (if you do have a cooperative retail training oourse)
how many pupils take this oourse eaoh year?
Number of replies
1
15
Number of teaohers reporting
Number of pupils taking oourse
Only one retail training oourse was reported by the teaohers of
aooounting,with an enrollment of fifteen pupils.
The prinoipals also re­
ported but one suoh oourse; they, however, reported an enrollment of
three pupils.
TABLE CLXXXX
How much time, in hours per week, is spent in olass (in
the oooperative oourse?) How muoh on the job? Is it a
one-year or a two-year oourse?
Number of replies
Number of teaohers reporting
Time spent in olass, in hours per week
Time spent on the job, in hours per^week
One or two-year oourse
1
30
40
1
272
The teacher of aooounting reported that more time was spent in the
olass and on the job than did the prinoipal (Chapter X, page 161 ), but the
proportion is about the same — one -third to one fourth more time spent
on the job than in sohool*
TABLE CLXXX
Under a cooperative arrangement suggested above* what
would you regard as an adequate selection of the pupils
to enter suoh a training plan?
Basis of seleotion
Number of reports
Demonstrated ability* personality* and skill
in business subjects
High grades in business subjeots
Those pupils who would otherwise drop out of sohool
9
3
_1
Total
13
Thirteen teaohers reported on the basis of seleotion of pupils for
this oourse* while but one reported suoh a oourse given in the high schools
of the State.
Teaohers of accounting were more speoifio in their replies to this
question than were the prinoipals.
Nine of the teaohers would permit only
those of demonstrated ability* personality* and skill to take this type of
oourse; three* only those with high grades in business subjects; while one
teaoher would seleot only those pupils who would otherwise leave sohool.
It seems that a logioal selection would be made by all of these teaohers*
particularly if the last mentioned item were eliminated.
273
TABLE CLXXXI
Should sohool credit in the plan above be given for
work done in the store?
Credit
Number of reports
••Yes'1
"No"
17
J5
Total
22
Reasonable agreement is shown between the prinoipals and teaohers
of aooounting in answer to this question.
Twenty-two of the prinoipals
reported "yes," with four answering "no."
The teaohers reported "yes"
seventeen times and "no" five.
One other teacher added a comment that
"If stenography is taken, yes; if olerking only, no."
If suoh a training
plan is to be suooessful, oredit must be given for the oourse, whioh would
inolude oredit for work done in the store —
store work is an integral
part of the training program and must be treated as suoh.
TABLE CLXXXII
Should the sohool, in suoh a retail training plan, assume
the responsibility of arranging the hour and payment plans
of the pupil with the retail store manager?
Sohool assume responsibility
Number of reports
"Yes"
"No"
20
_1
Total
21
Twelve of twenty prinoipals answered in the affirmative to this
274
question (Chapter X, page 164 ) whioh oompares with twenty of twenty-one
teaohers.
Apparently the neoessity of high sohool supervision of this
plan is olear to both the teaohers and the prinoipals who replied.
TABLE CLXXXIII
Do looal merchants look to your sohool as a training field
for their employees?
Sohool as training field
Number of reports
"Yes"
"No"
14
12
Total
26
Fourteen of twenty prinoipals reported "yes" to this question
(pagel£4 ), compared with fourteen of twenty-six of the teaohers of ao­
oounting.
TABLE CLXXXIV
If not (the merchants do not look to your sohool as a
training field) do you think suoh an attitude should be
developed, or oould be developed?
Attitude
Number of reports
Should be developed
Could be developed
9
12
Total
21
Nine of twenty-one teaohers and five of fifteen prinoipals report
that suoh a plan should be developed.
The majority, however, report that
275
it oould rather than should be developed.
TABLE G L U M
Do you think the retail field offers more jobs to your
graduates than any other single field of employment?
Please rank the fields that offer employment to your
pupils in the order of ttie greatest number affected.
Number of reports
Retail field
"Yes"
"Bo"
12
JJ
Total
20
Fields offering the greatest
number of employment oppor­
tunities to pupils
Retail selling
Selling, not retaij.
Stenography and ■typing
Agrioulture
Railroad
Clerioal and offioe
Bookkeeping
Service station
Advanced study
Industrial
Housekeeping
First
6
2
4
3
1
©
0
0
0
0
0
Order in rank
Seoond
Third
1
0
3
3
0
4
4
1
1
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
2
2
0
0
1
1
Total
7
2
9
6
1
6
6
1
1
1
_1
Total
41
Total number of reports
16
Twelve of twenty teaohers reported that retail selling offered
more jobs to the high sohool graduate than did any other single field of
employment •
Forty-one occupations in whioh pupil3 of the high schools of the
State find anployment were reported by sixteen teaohers of aooounting.
276
Stenography and retail selling lead in the number of times reported, fol­
lowed by agriculture, olerioal work, and bookkeeping, with five other oc­
cupations listed by one teaoher each*
If weights of one, two, and three
are given to the three places in whioh each occupation was listed, 1he
following ranking is secured: retail and other selling positions first,
with twenty-six points; stenographyand typing seoond, with twenty points;
agrioulture third, with fifteen points; and olerioal and office work and
bookkeeping fourth, with ten points each*
The prinoipals (Table CVII,
page 165) reported retail selling first, with agrioulture seoond, whioh
agrees well with -the reports of the teaohers, exoept that stenography was
ranked higher by the teaohers than it was by the prinoipals.
The faot that
suoh a large percentage of graduates are placed in retail selling although
they have had no speoial training in it seems to indioate that the field
would have real opportunities if pupils reoeived training in the subject.
TABUS CLXXXVI
Do you think "over the oountsr" selling can be taught more
or less suooessfully than oan shorthand, typewriting and
bookkeeping?
"Orer the counter'1 selling
Number of reports
More suooessfully
Less suooessfully
3
18
Total
21
Eighteen of twenty-one teaohers believe that "over the counter"
selling oan be taught less suooessfully than stenography and bookkeeping,
oompared with two of twenty-two prinoipals who reported on the same
277
question*
This report indicates that if selling is to be taught in high
sohools, some plan to permit him to get aotual selling experience should
be available to the pupil.
TAB IS CLXXXVII
Do you have a continuation sohool in your district for
business subjects? For other subjects? If in other
subjects* please list the fields covered*
Continuation sohool
Number of reports
Business subjects
"Yes"
"No"
Total
4
21
25
Other subjects
"Yes"
"No"
Total
2
18
20
Continuation sohools for business eduoation pupils, or for pupils
in other subjects,are not common in Utah, aooording to this report*
The
prinoipals reported in a similar manner as reoorded in Table CIX, pagel67 .
The rural nature of the communities served seems to maloe this type of
eduoation less necessary than in communities more olosely allied to the
manufacturing and business enterprises*
278
TABLE CLXXXVIII
Do you have evening sohool for secondary pupils in busi­
ness subjeots? For adults? Evening olasses in other
subjects for secondary pupils? For adults? If in other
subjeots please list the fields covered.
Number reporting
No
Yes
Evening olasses
Evening sohool for business eduoation
pupils of secondary sohool age
Evening sohool for adults, in business
eduoation subjeots
Evening olasses in other than business
eduoation for secondary pupils
Evening olasses for adults in other than
business eduoation subjeots
Nonbusiness subjeots
2
24
5
18
2
16
7
12
Number of reports
Agricultural meohanios
English
Foreign language
Social science
Speeoh
Law
Hygiene
Art
Sewing
Cooperative bookkeeping
4
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
_1
Total
14
Few teachers reported evening sohools for either secondary p u pilB
or for adults.
Agricultural subjeots and English lead in the evening olasses in
nanbusiness subjects*
This agrees well with the principal's report on this
phase of the subject (page 168)*
Very few olasses are held for business
eduoation pupiIs, fewer than for pupils in other subjects*
This seems a
rather natural oondition for a State that is largely agricultural and rural
in nature*
279
Summary of the Chapter
Cooperative Retail Stare Training
A.
Humber of Sohools Having Cooperative Course
1.
A cooperative arrangement for retail store training is in
operation in but one of the thirty high sohools reported by the teaohers
of aooounting.
Sixteen of nineteen teaohers reported tint a oourse of
this type should be added to the present offering in the business eduoa­
tion department.
This agrees with the report of the prinoipals, recorded
in Table C, page 159 .
B.
(Table CLXXVII, page 270.)
Enrollment in Cooperative Course
2.
The single sohool with a cooperative oourse reported fifteen
pupils enrolled.
They were reported to be in the store forty hours per
week and in classes thirty hours per week.
The prinoipals reported (page
79 ) that -there were three in this type of olass and that the pupils spent
twenty-two hours an the job and thirteen hours in olass eaoh week.
(Tables
CLXXVIII and CLXXIX, page 271.)
C.
Flans for Selooting Pupils for Cooperative Course
3.
Thirteen of thirty-four aooounting teaohers reported that they
would seleot pupils for -this type of oourse upon the following basest demon­
strated ability, personality, and skill in business subjeots, reported by
nine teaohers; high grades in business subjeots, reported by three teaohers;
and those pupils who would otherwise drop out of sohool, reported by one
teaoher.
Seventeen of twenty-two teaohers of aooounting would allow oredit
to be given for store work, and twenty of twenty-one teaohers reporting be­
lieve that the store should assume the responsibility for making the time
280
and payment arrangements vrith the retail store manager.
(Tables CLXXX,
CLXXXI, and CLXXXII, pages 272-273.)
D.
Use of High Sohool Courses as a Source of Employees
4.
Local businessmen regard the high sohool as a training agenoy
for their future employees, according to the report of fourteen of twentysix teaohers of aooounting.
In those oases where the businessmen do not
regard the high sohool as the training agenoy for future employees, nine
of twenty-one teaohers reported that this attitude "should" be developed
and the remaining twelve that it noould" be developed.
(Tables CLXXXIII
and CLXXXI7, pages 274.)
8.
Instruction in Selling Courses
5. Eighteen of twenty-one teaohers reported that "over the oounter"
selling oannot be taught in high sohool olasses as suooessfully as oan other
business oouraes, compared with the report of twenty-four of the prinoipals
on the same question.
(Table CLXXXVI, page 276.)
Oooupational Opportunities for High Sohool Graduates
A.
Retail Selling Positions Ranked with Other Positions
6.
Twelve of twenty aooounting teaohers reported that retail sell­
ing offers high sohool graduates more opportunities for positions than does
any other single field of esployment.
The fields of employment that offer
opportunities to the high sohool graduate were ranked as follows*
retail
selling first; stenography and typewriting seoond; agrioulture third; and
olerioal and office work and bookkeeping fourth.
The prinoipals reported
retail selling first and agrioulture seoond, in Table CEII, page 165.
(Table CLXXX7, page 275.)
281
Continuation Sohools
A*
Business Courses
7.
Continuation sohools in -whioh business subjeots were offered
pupils were reported in operation by only four of the twnty-five aooount­
ing teaohers reporting.
B.
(Table CLXXXVII, page 277.)
Nonbusiness Courses
8.
Continuation sohools in other than business subjeots were re­
ported by two of twenty aooounting teaohers.
(Table CLXOCVII, page 277.)
Evening Sohools
A.
Business Courses
9.
Evening sohools offering oourses in business subjeots to pupils
of seoandary sohool age were reported by two of twenty-six teaohers of ao­
oounting, while evening sohools giving business oourses for adults were
reported by five of twenty-three teaohers.
B.
(Table CLXXX7III, page 278.)
Nonbusiness Courses
10.
Evening sohool in nonbusiness subjeots for secondary sohool
pupils was reported in operation by two of eighteen teaohers of aooounting
and for adults in nonbusiness subjeots by seven of nineteen teaohers.
Agrioulture and English lead in the nonbusiness subjeots offered in even­
ing sohools.
(Table CLXXXVIII, page 278.)
CHAPTER XVII
CURRICULUM
A series of twenty-three questions oonoerning the curriculum in
business eduoation was asked the teaohers of aooounting in Section Seven
of the questionnaire*
These questions were presented in a form to permit answers with
oheoks* initials* letters, or figures*
Some of the questions are elaborated
on in other sections of the questionnaire*
four*
An example of this is question
"Do you take the olass on excursions as a part of the oourse?"
Thh
question is to be answered "yes" or "no*" but is more fully elaborated on
in Seotion Five of Chapter XV.
Twenty-eight questions were prepared in order to cover the field
of business eduoation* inoluding all the business subjeots offered in the
high schools of the State*
Space was provided for other subjeots not in-
oluded in the list furnished the teaohers*
The fact that none of the
teaohers added a subjeot gives weight to the investigator's assumption that
the list was complete •
Two methods of presenting the returns from the quAstiannaire were
apparent to the investigator*
The first was to present the replies of all
of the teaohers to the first question in one table.
The seoond was to pre­
sent the twenty-three answers to eaoh of the subjeots contained in the
original list of twenty-seven subjeots contained in the questionnaire*
The
seoond method was used sinoe it seemed to be the better means of showing the
pattern of business eduoation within the State.
282
283
TABLE CLXXXIX
In whioh year should the subjeots listed below be taught?
First
year
Subject
Advertising
Aooounting, first year
Aooounting, second year
Cammeroial arithmetic
Cor rasp ondenoe
Business English
Cammeroial law
Cammeroial art
Cammeroial geography
Consumer eduoation
Boonomios
Eoonomio geography
Filing
General business
Junior business training
Occupations
Office machines
Offioe praotioe
Penmanship
Retai ling
Salesmanship
Spelling
Shorthand, first year
Shorthand, seoond year
Transcription
Typewriting, first year
Typewriting, second year
Seoond
year
1
2
1
5
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
3
6
Fourth
year
1
21
1
2
1
1
1
5
15
1
2
1
1
1
3
1
2
6
10
Third
year
3
1
5
1
2
1
1
1
1
15
6
1
1
1
2
2
1
23
2
3
5
12
Total number of replies
5
7
2
3
5
6
1
4
9
1
2
3
1
3
18
10
1
7
Number re­
porting
2
29
16
9
2
8
7
5
2
5
6
5
7
9
11
6
5
11
7
5
5
6
27
20
14
27
25
29
Opinions expressed in this table seem to be quite representative
since they are similar to those reported by the aooounting teaohers
(Chapter XIII, page 211 ) and since they are those of twenty-nine of the
thirty-four teaohers reporting.
The table above is self-expianatory•
Same oeminent, however, should
be provided concerning eertain phases of the report.
The placement of
284
first-year aooounting in the third year and seoand-year aooounting in ths
fourth year, on whioh there is almost thorough agreement, will probably
be advantageous to the pupil who remains in high sohool four years.
The
problems of the pupil tiio leaves high sohool during the first two years is
aggravated, however, by the f aot that he will be unable to receive instmo­
tion in either first- or seoond-year aooounting before he is fbroed to leave
school.
Only three sohools offer first-year aooounting before the third
year of high sohool and no sohool offers seocnd-year aooounting before the
third year.
Only one offers it in the third year.
While each year of high sohool has at least one teaoher recommend­
ing it as the best one in whioh to teaoh commercial arithmetic, there is
a oonoentration of opinion on the seoond year, on whioh five teaohers agree.
Business English, a subject olosely allied to oommeroial arithmetic in its
universal usage, has some advocates for eaoh of the high sohool years, with a
oonoentration of opinion centering on the fourth year.
While it is probably
true that high sohool pupils generally are in need of more thorough instruc­
tion and drilling in the fundamentals of both arithmetic and Bnglish, the
pupils of the high sohools of Utah seem to be in speoial need of better
training, as is evidenoed by the faot that freshmen pupils entering Brigham
Young University have scored in the lower quartile of the Thurstane Psy­
chological Examinations in both the Bnglish and arithmetio sections.
The
investigator has oonduoted freshmen examinations in these Thurstane tests
1
for ten years
and has found the freshmen particularly weak in both English
and arithmetio fundamentals.
Only five high sohools believe oconsumer eduoation should be offered,
1.
Reoords of Personnel Department, Brigham Young University, 1927-1937.
285
and they believe it should be given in. the first, seoond, and fourth years.
Data showing whether departments other than business eduoation offer courses
in consumer eduoation are not available*
As far as the business eduoation
departments are oanoerned perhaps more high sohools Bhould offer this subjeot sinoe only five of the thirty-two high sohools reporting teach con­
sumer education.
In twenty of the thirty-two high schools it is recommended that
pupils takB general business or junior business training in the first and
seoond years of high sohool.
This seems to be satisfactory beoause oourses
of this kind should be given as a preparation for the study of bookkeeping*
A oourse in oooupations should be given in the seoond year, accord­
ing to five reports, and in the fourth year, according to one*
This oc­
cupations oourse should be given early in the sohool life of the pupil for
two reasons:
first, beoause the guidance offered by suoh a oourse oan be
made to help in planning future study; and, seocnd, it is of value to the
pupils who leave high sohool before graduation*
Penmanship and spelling are recommended by more than one third of
the high sohools in eaoh year of the high sohool course.
Retail selling
is recommended in less than one-sixth of the high sohools reporting, en­
tirely in the high sohools of the four or five larger oities of the state.
First-year shorthand is recommended predominately for the third
year of high and seoond-year shorthand for the fburth year.
This practice
coincides with that of bookkeeping and offers the same advantage to the
high school graduate— the skill subject is fresh in mind and is at its
highest development.
The first year of typewriting is recommended for all four years of
high sohool. The greatest number of offerings occur in the second year.
286
TABLE CLXL
Is this oourse (the oourses listed below) required in the
business curricula?
Number
required
Courses
Advertising
Aooounting, first year
Aooounting, seoond year
Cammeroial arithmetic
Correspondence
Business English
Cammeroial law
Cammeroial art
Cammeroial geography
Consumer eduoation
Eoonamios
Economic geography
Filing
General business
Junior business training
Occupations
Office machines
Offloe praotioe
Penmanship
Shorthand, first year
Shorthand, seoond year
Transorip ti on
Typewriting, first year
Typewriting, seoond year
Total number of reports
16
4
3
1
1
2
2
1
2
10
4
4
13
13
Number not
required
2
7
7
2
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
4
2
1
1
3
1
8
8
3
3
4
Total replies
2
23
11
5
2
3
3
1
1
2
3
1
2
4
3
1
1
5
1
18
12
7
16
17
23
Four subjeots are required in the business curricula of the high
sohools of the State by a distinct majority of ttiose reporting.
These
subjeots sure first-year bookkeeping, first-year shorthand, and first- and
seoond-year -typewriting.
The number of high schools making -these require­
ments range from ten to sixteen, or less than one-half of the sohools re­
porting.
The trend in the business eduoation department seems to be away
287
from definite subject requirements exoept in the three subjeots mentioned
above•
TABLE CLXLI
Is a prerequisite required for this (the oourses listed
below) oourse?
Yes
Subjeot
Advertising
Aooounting, first year
Aooounting, seoond year
Commercial arithmetio
Correspondence
Business English
Camneroial law
Commercial art
Cammeroial geography
Consumer eduoation
^bonciaios
Economic geography
Filing
General business
Junior business training
Offioe praotioe
Penmanship
Spelling
Shorthand, first year
Shorthand, seoond year
Transcript ion
Q^rpewriting, first year
Typewriting, seoond year
2
10
4
1
4
3
10
4
15
No
Total replies
2
24
2
2
26
12
4
1
2
5
2
1
2
2
1
2
3
2
5
1
1
21
15
7
19
21
2
5
2
1
2
2
1
2
3
2
1
1
1
18
5
3
19
6
26
Total number of reports
Prerequisites for business eduoation subjeots are few, exoept in
the oase of the seoond year of a two-year oourse.
This is especially pro­
nounced for seoond-year bookkeeping, shorthand, and typewriting.
Corres­
pondence, offioe practice, first-year shorthand, and transcription all
have prerequisites.
All of these, exoept shorthand, will of neoessity be
288
taken only after English, shorthand, and first-year -typewriting oourses
have been taken*
Only a few additional scattered courses for whioh a re­
quirement in subject matter existed were reported*
TABLE CLXLII
Do you take the olasses (listed below) on excursions as
a part of the course?
Subject
Yes
Advertising
Aooounting, first year
Aooounting, seoond year
Cammeroial arithmetio
Correspondence
Business English
Cammeroial law
Cammeroial art
Cammeroial geography
Consumer eduoation
Boonomios
Economic geography
Filing
General business
Junior buBindss training
Occupations
Offioe practice
Shorthand, first year
Shorthand, seoond year
Typewriting, first year
Typewriting, seoond year
8
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
3
1
No
2
18
8
4
1
3
5
1
1
1
2
1
2
3
1
3
18
11
15
16
Total reports
2
26
10
4
1
3
5
2
1
2
2
1
2
3
3
1
4
19
12
18
17
Number of subjeots reported
21
Number of teaohers reporting
26
Aooounting seems to be the olass most frequently taken on business
exoursians*
289
TABLE CLXLIII
Is the oourse (listed below) usually taken for occupa­
tional or general use?
Course
Advertising
Accounting, first year
Aooounting, seoond year
Commercial arithmetio
Corre spondeno e
Business English
Cammeroial law
Cammeroial art
Cammeroial geography
Boanomies
Filing
General business
Junior business training
Oooupati ona
Offioe machines
Office praotioe
Penmanship
Retailing
Salesmanship
Shorthand, first year
Shorthand, seoond year
Trans or ipti on
Typewriting, first year
Typewriting, seoond year
Oooupational
General
1
2
1
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
Oooupational
and General
1
17
7
1
3
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
6
4
1
1
4
1
1
6
4
9
4
2
10
9
Total number of reports -<■ 22
In general, all the oourses reported above seem to be taken for
both occupational and general use.
If both occupational and general uses
are considered, aooounting leads, with typewriting and shorthand follow­
ing in the order named.
The praotioe seems to be to encourage pupils to
take bookkeeping, shorthand, and typewriting for both personal and occu­
pational use.
290
TAB IB CLXLIV
Hon many minutes out of the olass do pupils study for
the oourses listed below?
Class
Average time,
in minutes
Advertising
Aooounting, first year
Aooounting, seoond year
Cammeroial arithmetio
Business English
Cammeroial law
Cammeroial art
Consumer eduoation
Economics
General business
Junior business training
Oooupations
Offioe praotioe
Sharihand, first year
Shorthand, seoond year
Transcription
Typewriting, first year
Typewriting, seoond year
Range in minutes
Mean in minutes
Number of reports —
60
45
49
37
40
46
55
30
45
75
30
30
45
68
45
60
43
54
Number of reports
1
21
8
3
4
4
2
1
2
2
1
1
1
23
14
1
3
1
0 to 120
47
28
The minutes of preparation reported above are, at best, estimates
made by the teaohers.
Although turenty-eight teaohers replied to the ques­
tion, so few reports were made for some of the subjeots that -the results
seem to be meaningful in only the first and second years of bookkeeping and
shorthand.
In these olasses approximately one period eaoh day is spent in
preparation for one period of re citation.
General business and first-year
shorthand seem to require more preparation than the other classes.
291
TABIE CLXLV
Is subjeot open to business and nanbusiness pupils? ( If
the olass is open to both olasses of pupils) what per cent
of olass are nanbusiness pupils?
Open to both types of pupils
Yes
No
Class
Aooounting, first year
Accounting, seoond year
Cammeroial arithmetio
Correspondence
Business English
Cammeroial law
Cammeroial art
Consumer eduoation
Boonomic s
Eoonomic geography
Filing
General business
Junior business training
Oooupati ons
Offioe machines
Offioe praotioe
Penmanship
Retai ling
Salesmanship
Shorthand, first year
Shorthand, seoond year
Transcription
Typewriting, first year
Typewriting, seoond year
Number of reports —
23
5
2
1
4
2
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
4
18
9
5
19
18
2
5
1
1
1
1
Per cent of
nonbusiness
pupils
49
50
20
20
40
20
75
8
1
1
1
75
30
1
1
2
2
3
5
1
3
2
65
46
43
31
59
51
25
Five olasses were reported open only to business eduoation pupils.
These olasses were oorrespondenoe, occupations, penmanship, retailing, and
salesmanship.
All of these oourses were reported by only one or two schools
eaoh and, therefore, represent a small part of the oammeroial ourrioula of
the State.
The first and seoond years of shorthand, typewriting, and bookkeeping
292
classes are made up of approximately fifty per oent general nonbusiness
pupils and fifty per oent business pupils.
These olasses represent by far
the greatest number of business pupils in the high sohools of the State
and indicate the nanprofessional nature of the commercial instruction in
the high schools.
The per oent of nonbusiness pupils runs higher in con­
sumer eduoation and in general business*
This seems to indicate that these
subjeots are, and should be, open to all high sohool pupils, whether for
business or for nonbusiness information and use.
TABLE CLXLYI
How many minutes (outside olass time) do teaohers spend
in preparation and paper work?
Class
Advertis ing
Accounting, first year
Aooounting, seoond year
Cammeroial arithmetio
Business English
Commercial law
Cammeroial art
Consumer eduoation
Economics
General business
Junior business training
Offioe praotioe
Shorthand, first year
Shorthand, seoond year
Transoription
Typewriting, first year
typewriting, seoond year
Mean
Range
Number of reports
Average time,
in minutes
60
51
71
32
42
44
50
30
47
70
45
33
46
40
110
33
26
Number of reports
1
25
9
3
3
5
2
1
2
2
2
5
21
14
3
17
17
49
26 to 110
25
293
Teaohers appear to spend just more than one class period in prepara­
tion and paper work for eaoh class reoitation*
Transoription, general busi-
ness, and accounting were reported as requiring more time than other courses*
Typewriting, consumer eduoation, offioe praotice, and commercial arithmetic
seem to require the least amount of preparation time*
If teaohers are re­
quired to teach six periods eaoh day, as reported in Chapter XIV, page 236,
the preparation and paper work would require an average of five hours per
day*
Perhaps these reports are somewhat overstated since they are the
teacher's own report of his schedule.
If they are not overstated the daily
load appears to be too heavy to pemit the most satisfactory teaohing.
TABLE CLXLVII
Is course taught by a teacher niio majored in business?
Subject
Aooounting, first year
Accounting, second year
Commercial arithmetic
Business English
Commercial law
Commercial art
Consumer eduoation
Economics
General business
Junior business training
Offioe practice
Shorthand, first year
Shorthand, seoond year
Transoription
Typewriting, first year
Typewriting, seoond year
Total
Yes
No
25
9
1
2
3
1
1
1
2
2
2
20
11
3
18
17
2
0
2
1
2
1
0
1
1
0
1
4
2
1
4
_Z
118
23
Number of teaohers reporting
Total number reporting
27
9
3
3
5
£
1
2
3
2
3
24
13
4
22
20
141
27
■**
294
In only three subjects —
seoond-year accounting, consumer edu­
oation, and general business — were all of the classes reported taught by
a teacher who majored in business*
In the remaining classes in business
eduoation 118 of the 141 reported are taught by teaohers who majored in
business*
This report agrees with the desirable training pattern teaohers
of business subjeots should have.
The three classes most often taken by the high school pupil for
vocational preparation —
shorthand, bookkeeping, and typewriting — were
taught by teaohers who majored in business subjeots in one hundred of one
hundred and fifteen oases reported.
This indicates a satisfactory reoord since it shows that few busi­
ness courses are taught by teaohers who were not trained direotly in the
field of business.
It does not agree, however, with the report of the
principals (Table CXLVII, page 218), which was that in eleven of twentynine high schools reported by them teaohers without business training were
teaching business subjeots.
295
TABLE CLXLVIII
Are pupils selected in any way before taking course?
Class
Yes
No
Number of reports
Accounting, first year
Accounting, seoond year
Commercial arithmetic
Business English
Commercial law
Commercial art
Consumer eduoation
Eooncmios
General business
Junior business training
Office praotioe
Shorthand, first year
Shorthand, second year
Transoription
Typewriting, first year
Typewriting, second year
2
5
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
4
4
0
0
_5
24
5
3
1
5
2
1
1
2
2
3
18
9
4
22
15
26
10
3
2
5
2
1
1
2
2
4
22
13
4
21
20
Total number of reports
22
116
138
Number of teaohers reporting
26
In Utah the only oourses for whioh students are seleeted seem to
be first- and seoand-year bookkeeping, business English,offioe praotioe,
first- and seoond-year shorthand, and second-year -typewriting.
Tests of
any kind were not mentioned as factors in the selective process by any of
the teaohers reporting*
Petiiaps the unspeoialized nature of the oourses
and the small high schools so common in Utah account for the faot that few
selective devioes have been used in any of the classes.
296
TABLE CLXLIX
Are pupils plaoed in jobs because of skill from course?
Yes
No
Number of reports
Accounting, first year
Aooounting, seoond year
Commercial arithmetic
Business English
Commercial law
Commercial art
Consumer eduoation
Boonomics
General business
Junior business training
Offioe praotioe
Shorthand, first year
Shorthand, seoond year
Transcription
Typewriting, first year
Typewriting, seoond year
14
6
2
1
3
1
0
0
1
0
3
9
7
1
9
11
10
3
0
1
2
0
1
1
0
1
1
9
4
2
6
_6
24
9
2
2
5
1
1
1
1
1
4
18
11
3
15
17
Total
68
47
115
Courses
Number of teaohers reporting
24
Sixty-eight of one hundred and fifteen reports of sixteen subjects
made by teaohers of accounting were said to be helpful in placing pupils
in jobs*
The skill subjeots were plaoed ahead of the semiskill subjeots
in helpfulness in this matter*
The second year of the skill subject was, in all cases reported,
exoept typewriting, more helpful than the first year of the same subject
in placement of pupils in jobs.
This fact indicates an increase in skill
and probably an increase in employable characteristics in the seoond year
of the skill subject*
The seoond year of the skill subjeot may also be
accompanied by an increase in the maturity of the pupil, a faotor of im­
portance in employment equal perhhps to the increased skill resulting from
an additional year of study*
297
TABLE CC
Do you know whether pupils use this subjeot (listed
bdow) on the job?
Subj eot
Number of reports
Yes
No
Accounting, first year
Accounting, second year
Commercial arithmetic
Business English
Commercial law
Commercial art
Commercial geography
Economics
General business
Junior business training
Offioe praotioe
Shorthand, first year
Shorthand, seoond year
Transoription
Typewriting, first year
Typewriting, sec end year
15
6
2
2
3
2
0
0
1
1
2
13
7
3
21
13
9
3
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
2
5
3
1
6
_6
24
9
2
2
4
2
1
1
2
1
4
18
10
4
27
19
Total
91
39
130
Number of teaohers reporting
24
The fact that in ninety-onei of 130 reports on sixteen subjeots the
teaohers know whether or not the pupil uses on the job Idie subjeots taught
in business eduoation is in itself desirable.
made of this fact is in ourrioular revision.
A praotioal use that may be
It is also indicative that
teaohers of business eduoation are awake to the neoessity of following up
the pupil onto the job and that they do this to the extent of knowing
whether or not the subjeot is used vocationally.
298
TAB IE CCI
W as a job survey made to help set up the course?
a job survey be made to revise the oourse?
Survey was made
Total
Yes
No
Courses
Accounting, first year
Accounting, seoond year
Commercial arithmetic
Business English
Commercial law
Commercial art
Consumer eduoation
Economics
General business
Junior business training
Offioe praotioe
Shorthand, first year
Shorthand, seoond year
Transcription
typewriting, first year
Typewr it ing, seoond year
Total
Should
Survey should be made
Yes
Total
No
22
5
5
2
1
1
0
1
0
20
11
2
1
1
2
2
4
3
21
12
10
4
4
4
3
20
21
10
6
1
2
0
2
2
1
1
0
0
0
10
6
1
8
_0
19
19
9
_7
4
18
16
11
120
131
65
47
112
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
1
4
1
1
0
1
23
9
24
9
2
2
2
2
16
6
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
Number of teaohers reporting
7
2
1
3
2
1
1
1
1
3
20
10
24
B u t eleven of 131 replies stated that oourses were set up as a
result of a job survey t o indioate the need for the course and to suggest
the p r o p e r material to be included in the subject matter of the oourse*
In sixty-five of 112 replies the twenty-four teaohers reporting suggest
that a job survey be made to revise oourses at th e present time*
Per­
haps the question of oourse revision as a result of job surveys should
be brought into the forefront and consideration given to -the naed for
this type of help in business eduoation within the State*
299
TABLE CCII
Is (the) subject integrated (with other business subjects)?
Yes
Ho
Accounting, first year
Aooounting, seoond year
Commercial arithmetic
Business English
Commercial law
Commercial art
Consumer eduoation
Eoonomios
General business
Junior business training
Offioe praotioe
Shorthand, first year
Shorthand, second y e a r
Transoription
Typewriting, first year
Typewriting, seoond y e a r
19
5
3
24
9
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
2
Total
Subje ots
6
2
2
3
1
1
1
2
2
3
Number of reports
4
1
1
1
2
2
12
8
2
1
2
14
16
_1
3
17
9
4
17
17
94
21
115
5
3
Humber of teaohers reporting
24
"Integration of business eduoation subjeots" was intended b y the
investigator to indicate the active attention of the teacher of a given
subject t o see that information, skills, and personal uses taught in other
classes were linked to the information presented in his olass.
It is as­
sumed that this was the interpretation made by those reporting*
The subjeots listed above were reported as integrated with other
business subjeots in every case, although all high schools do n o t arrange
their courses in s u c h a manner that integration with other oourses is ac­
complished*
Integration was reported the greatest number of times in the
skill subjects o f accounting, shorthand, and typewriting, particularly in
the seoond year of typewriting*
300
TABLE CCIII
What is enrollment of olass?
('What is the number of)
minutes in class?
Credit given?
(How many) periods
(per day does olass meet)?
Average e n ­
rollment
Subject
35
16
25
30
32
27
35
48
Accounting, first year
Accounting, seoond year
Commercial arithmetic
Business English
Commercial law
Commercial art
Consumer eduoation
Econamios
General business
Junior business training
Offioe praotioe
Shorthand, first yeftr
Shorthand, seoond year
Transoript ion
Typewriting, first year
Typewriting, seoond year
Range of averages
Mean
Minutes in
olass
53
53
52
55
54
55
50
55
60
50
55
50
50
46
51
50
30
50
22
27
23
27
58
45
16 to
35
Number of teaohers reporting —
Units of
credit
h
i &
i & i
l & §
i & |
i
l
l
ii
Periods
per d ay
1& 2
1
1
1
1
1
1
i
a
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
&
i
1
1
& $
& |
& f
& S
& a
& i
1
1
1
1
1
1
&
2
& 2
& 2
& 2
58
52
22
The enrollment in the classes does not appear to be excessive as
reported, ranging from sixteen in second-year accounting to fifty-eight in
first-year typewriting.
tual enrollment reported.
These figures, however, are averages of the aoIn first-year accounting, for example, the
actual enrollment ranges f r o m ten t o one hundred twenty.
Clearly the
latter figure is excessive, and satisfactory instruction in a skill subjeot oan hardly be given in such a class.
The median aarollment is forty -
four and the average, as reported in the above table, is thirty-five.
The total range in enrollment in first-year shorthand is from
301
five to one hundred twenty, the median is twenty-three, and the mean
twenty-seven.
This skill subjeot is offered to far too many pupils in one
olass at the extreme end of the range.
The first-year typewriting total enrollment shows a range of from
eighteen to one hundred fifty, with a median of fifty-one and a mean of
fifty-eight.
This subjeot represents a type of instruction that oan
better be carried on with large numbers than oan either shorthand or a c ­
counting* even though the upper range of one hundred fifty is too large
for desirable instruction.
The time spent in class is b etween fifty and sixty minutes through­
out the State.
The units of credit vary in the various high schools for
the same subjeot, with one unit or one-half unit oommonly offered for the
same business education subject*
The periods per day devoted to business
eduoation subjects varies f r o m one to two, with only one period reported
in approximately two-thirds of the high schools.
Summary of the Chapter
Grade Placement of Business Subjects
1*
A majority of the teaohers of accounting reported that junior
business training, general business, penmanship, and spelling should be
taught in the ninth grade; that courses in occupations, commercial arith­
metic, and first year typewriting should b e offered in the tenth grade;
that first-year bookkeeping, first-year shorthand, seoond-year typewriting,
and economic geography should be taught in the eleventh grade; and that
seoond-year accounting, second-year shorthand, business English, commer­
cial law, filing, eoanomios, office maohines, office practice, transoription.
302
and salesmanship should be taught in the twelfth year,
(Table CLXXXIX,
page 283,)
Required Business Sub.jeots
2.
A majority of the accounting teaohers reported that the follow­
ing subjects are r e t i r e d in the commercial curriculum of their high
schools: first-year accounting, commercial arithmetic, commercial law,
economics, first-year shorthand, transoription, and first- and seoond-year
typewriting.
A very definite majority reported that first-year bookkeep­
ing, first-year shorthand, and f i rst- and seoond-year typewriting were
required.
(Table CLXL, page 286.)
Prerequisites far Business Subjeots
3.
Prerequisites for business eduoation subjeots were reported b y
all of the twenty-six accounting teaohers
in but four cases: commercial
arithmetic, correspondence, first-year bookkeeping, and first-year typevn'iting.
In seven other subjeots some of the twenty-six teachers reported
prerequisites and some did not.
prerequisite was reported.
In the remaining fourteen subjeots no
In a ll oases of a second-year subjeot, the
first year of that subject was reported as a prerequisite.
(Table CLXLI,
page 287•)
Field Trips in Business Eduoation
4.
Twenty-six teaohers of accounting reported twenty-one subjeots
in reply to this question.
as a part of the oourse.
In eleven of the subjeots field trips are taken
In the remaining ten subjeots these trips were
reported as not a part of ihe course.
(Table CLXLII, page 289.)
303
Purpose of Business Hduoation Instruction
A.
Occupational Business Courses
5*
The following courses were repo r t e d b y twenty-two of the thirty-
four accounting teaohers as taught for ocoupat ional use a n d n ot for ether
purposes; commercial art, filing, office machine s, office praotioe, retail­
ing, salesmanship, and transcription.
B.
(Table CLXLIII, page 289.)
Nonoooupational Business Courses
6.
The following courses were reported by twenty-two of the thirty-
four t e a c h e r s of accounting as taught for general u s e only; oorrespondehoe,
commercial law,
commercial geography, economics, general business, junior
business training, occupations, and penmanship.
C.
(Table CLXLIII, page 289®}
Occupational and Nonoooupational Courses
7.
The following courses were reported by twenty-two of the
thirty-four accounting teaohers as taught for both occupational and non­
oooupational use; aocounting, ocmmercial arithmetic, business English,
shorthand, and typewriting.
(Table CLXLIII, page 28 9.)
Out-of-Class Preparati on
A.
Pupils
8*
Twenty-eight of thirty-four accounting teaohers reported that
pupils spend a mean of forty-seven minutes i n preparation for olasses.
The range is from n o time at all to 120 minutes.
B.
(Table CLXLIV, page 290.)
Teaohers
9.
Twenty-five of thirty-four teaohers of accounting reported
that t h e y spend a mean of forty-nine minutes
in preparation for classes.
304
The range was from twenty-six to 110 minutes.
(Table CLXLVI, page 292,)
Sub.jeot Specialization of Teaohers
10.
Twenty-seven of the thirty-four accounting teaohers reported
that of a total o f 141 subjeots reported, 118 were taught by a teacher whose
major training w a s in business eduoation subjeots.
This leaves twenty-
three subjeots, or sixteen p e r cent, in which the teaoher was not trained
in business subjeots.
The principals reported in Table
XCVII, page l.53 ,
that in eleven of twenty-nine high schools, or thi. riy-eig^it p er cent of the
oases reported, the teaoher of business eduoation subjeots h ad not b e e n
trained in business eduoation subjeots,
(Table CLXLVII, page 293,)
Selection of Pupils
11.
Twenty-six of thirty-four accounting teaohers reported that of
a total of 138 business eduoation subjects reported, in b u t sixteen urere
pupils selected in any manner before the oourse could b e taken.
These
oourses were; bookkeeping, business English, offioe praotioe, shorthand
and seoond year typewriting,
(Table CLXLVIII, page 295,)
Placement of Graduates of Business Education Curricula
A.
Number Seouring Positions
12.
Twemty-four of thirty-four teaohers o f aooounting reported
that of 115 busin e s s subjeots reported, pupils were plaoed in business p o ­
sitions in sixty-eight oases beoauae of the skill they had learned in the
oourse.
B.
(Table CLXLIX, page 296.)
Use on the Job of Business Subjeots Studied in High Sohool
13.
Twenty-four of thirty-four aooounting teaohers reported that
305
of a total of 130 subjeots reported,
the pupils vho had graduated and
were working in business occupations were using these courses in ninetyone of the oases*
The skill subjects were reported more frequently t h a n
were the semiskill, or general business information oourses, (Table CC,
page 297,)
Basis for Constructing the business Education Curricula
14.
Twenty-four teaohers of aooounting reported that of 120 su b ­
jects in their high schools, b u t eleven w e r e set up as a
survey.
result of a job
These same teaohers reported that o f a total of 112 subjeots
re­
ported, a job survey
should be made to revise the present course in sixty-
five of the subjeots
reported, (Table CCI, page 298,)
Integration o f Business Eduoation Courses
15.
Tmenty-four of thirty-four teaohers of aooounting reported
that of a total of 115 business eduoation oourses reported, the subject
was integrated with other business eduoation subjeots in ninety-four oases.
(Table CCII, page 299,)
Enrollment in Business Eduoation Classes
16.
Twenty-two accounting teaohers reported the enrollment in
sixteen oourses, the
length of the olass period, the unit of oredit offered
for the oourse, and the periods the olass met daoh day.
The average e n ­
rollment ranges from sixteen in seoond-year bookkeeping to fifty-eigjit in
first-year typewriting.
The m e a n enrollment is thirty-five.
class period is fifty-two minutes i n length.
The mean
Either one or one-half unit
of oredit is offered for eleven of the sixteen oourses reported.
One-
half period was reported for eoanomios, one period for ten other oourses,
306
an d on© o r t w o periods for five oourses,
17,
(Table CCIII, page 300.)
Twenty-five of thirty-two teaohers o f aooounting reported a
total of t w enty-four subjeots that were open to both,
or nanbusiness eduoation pupils.
or t o either, business
In but five of these olasses —
pondence, oooupations, penmanship, retailing, a n d salesmanship —
business eduoation pupils permitted to enroll.
corres­
were only
In t h e remaining nineteen
olasses b o t h b u s iness and nonbusiness eduoation pupils were permitted to
enroll.
(Table CLXLV, page 291.)
CHAPTER XVIII
PUPIL PERSONNEL
Eleven questions were askBd, in Section Two of the questionnaire,
of the teachers of shorthand concerning the personnel and guidance features
of business eduoation in the high sohools of Utah.
The replies to these
questions are presented in this chapter.
TABLE CCIV
By the end of whioh year in high sohool do you attempt to
prepare most of your pupils in business eduoation to be
best equipped to enter business?
Year
Number of reports
0
0
First year
Second year
Third year
Fourth year
4
29
Total
33
The replies
of twenty-nine
of the thirty-four teaohers of short­
hand indioate that the pupil is fully prepared for business only at the
end of the high sohool course.
Comments added indioate that teaohers
sometimes believe that the high sohool is not the agenoy to give vocational
training —
rather that it is the province of the oollege or the private
business sohool.
The preparation given the pupil who leaves high sohool
early, even though he reaohes the halfway mark or even the junior year,
seems to be nil as far as vocational training in shorthand is oonoerned.
307
308
TABUS GOT
How many of your pupils,majoring in business subjeots,
go into business directly from high sohool?
Number of pupils
Number of reports
12
Mean, reported in numbers
Range, reported in percentages
Mean, reported in percentages
Number of reports
2 to 75
20
26
According t o the replies of twenty-six of the thirty-four short­
hand teaohers in Utah the number o f pupils who go into business direotly
from high sohool varies widely*
The range in percentages reported was
from two to seventy-five per oent, with but one sohool reporting two per
cent*
The mean in percentages was twenty.
Six other sohools reported "a
small per oent” or stated that "our sohool does not attempt to train for
vocations."
The mean reported in numbers was twelve.
reported one half a n d another one third*
lower percentages and the urban higher*
One high school
The rural high sohools reported
309
TABLE CCVI
How many of your pupils, trained in the following skills,
get positions in the skill, or field when they leave
sohool? How many do y o u graduate eaoh year in these
skills?
Skill subjeot
Average Number
Graduating
Average Number
Plaoed
Per oent
Plaoed
8
20
5
4
5
21
Typewriting
Shorthand
Bookkeeping
Offioe praotioe
General business
39
17
19
13
28
2
Number of reports
14
16
29
38
7
But fourteen of the thirty-four teaohers reported on the first
part of this question, and but sixteen on the seoond part.
Since these
numbers represent less than one half the teaohers, the replies oaimot be
oonsidered entirely representative of the situation in all the high schools
of the State.
Approximately one fifth of the pupils who graduate with a rajor
skill find employment in that skill.
This seems to indioate still another
need for a survey of the business of the community served by the high
sohool, with a consequent revision of the curriculum to fit the needs r e ­
vealed by the findings of the survey.
The percentage of pupils plaoed in
the skill in which they majored seems too small.
Of the skill subjeots,
offioe praotioe, shorthand, a n d typewriting lead in the percentage of pupils
plaoed, with bookkeeping following closely.
General business is reported
as preparing fewer pupils for positions directly.
Assuming "general b u s i ­
ness" is 8ynanomous with "junior business training," it is surprising that
310
any direct occupational preparation is olaimed for it, since the subjeot
is prevoeational and business background in its purposes*
Four of the
high sohools responding to the questionnaire stated that they made n o a t ­
tempt to train high sohool pupils in skills for vocational work*
TABLE CCVII
Please list the ohief •weaknesses, as y o u see them, in the
graduates of the commercial department o f your sohool in
personal qualities*
How might these w eaknesses be overcome?
Personal weaknesses
Personal weaknesses greater than general e d u ­
oation or business eduoation weaknesses
Inaocuraoy
No personal ambition
Lack of initiative
Personal weaknesses less than general eduoation
or business eduoation
Laok of real experience
Classes too large
P o o r background
Laok of friendly business attitude
Inability to assume responsibility
Poor personality
No business sense
Weak in scholarly attitude
Total
Number of reports
4
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
19
Helpful suggestions
Add oourses in personality training in business
more t e c h n i c a l requirements
Adjust preparatory work
Provide more rooms and teaohers
Provide olass in salesmanship
Emphasize value o f alertness and ambition
More e v e r y d a y business training
Provide pupil guidance
Stress dependability
Develop better scholarship
Total
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
13
311
Perhaps these -weaknesses, reported by the teaohers of shorthand
in nineteen high sohools, are weaknesses of youth, to be overcome largely
by increased maturity.
given it.
If this is the situation little attention need be
If, however, these weaknesses are o f suoh nature that they may
be continued in later life, they should b y all means be rectified, or at
least an attempt should be made to remedy them during the high sohool
period.
The weaknesses listed above seem to spring from faulty habits of
behavior.
Thirteen of the nineteen teaohers who replied suggested means
of overcoming these weaknesses.
The suggestions of the teaohers that ade­
quate guidance oourses and training in personality be provided to prepare
the pupil for more definite goals seem to be v e r y good ones.
It migjit be
possible, b y oareful guidance, to prevent thd formation of these negative
personal traits or to supplant them with positive and meaningful approaches
to the occupational training they receive.
A neoessary fir6t step toward
this more enlightened approach is a knowledge of present business conditions
in a given community* then would come adequate planning of the high sohool
curriculum in business education to meet the needs known to e xist in the
business field, followed by careful personal guidance.
The educational
opportunities for the businessman and the teaohers in this procedure
are great.
312
TABLE CCVI1I
Please list the chief weaknesses, as you see them, in the
graduates o f the commercial eduoation department o f your
school in general eduoation subjeots. How mi g h t these
weaknesses b e overoome?
General eduoation weaknesses
English
Spelling
Mathematies or arithmetic
General e d u o a t i o n weaknesses greater -than
business eduoation or personal weaknesses
General e d u c a t i o n weaknesses seoond to business
eduoation a n d personal weaknesses
General e d u o a t i o n w e a knesses third to business
eduoation and p e r sonal weaknesses
Desire f o r oredit greater than for information
Aocuraoy n e e d e d
Total
Number
of reports
6
5
5
2
1
1
1
1
22
Suggestions
More training in English
More training in spelling
More training in arithmetic
Provide more teaohers
Provide m ore money
Adjust preparatory w»rk
Do more w i t h plaoement
Provide more classes for drill work
Give more a t t e n t i o n to fundamentals
Better English teaohers
Attempt t o develop b e t t e r scholarship
Attitude
Teaoher ooope ration
Total
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
15
The stenographic teaohers in twenty-two of the high sohools re­
ported on the first part of this question, -while fifteen teaohers reported
on the seocnd part*
Two shorthand teaohers reported that t h e general
eduoation -weaknesses were greater than either the personal or the business
313
eduoation deficiencies*
One reported business eduoation seoond and another
third to general eduoation and personal -weaknesses.
Fifteen of the twenty--bwo teaohers listed means to overocme these
weaknesses.
The concensus of these opinions is that not enough attention
is given to the fundamentals o f arithmetic, spelling, and English.
The
opinion that the division of eduoation below the high sohool is responsible
was not expressed by any of the high sohool teaohers reporting*
TABLE CCIX
Please list the chief weaknesses, as you see them, of
the graduates of the business eduoation department
in the field of b u s i n e s s eduoation. How might these
weaknesses be overoome?
Business Eduoation weaknesses
Business eduoation subjects too limited
Seoond-year shorthand not given
Course in offioe machines not o f f ered
Ho opportunity for pupils trained in business
eduoation
Too little speed at end o f high sohool training
Pupils laok initiative
No apprenticeship system
Aoouraoy a n d business sense undeveloped
Business eduoation weaknesses seoond to general
education weaknesses
Business eduoation weaknesses t h i r d to general edu­
oation and personal weaknesses
Total
Number of reports
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
13
Suggestions
Add more oourses in business eduoation
Give better English training
Add more business eduoation teaohers
Give pupils inspiration
Add an apprenticeship system
All three departments oooperate for better training
Total
3
2
1
1
1
1
9
314
Thirteen of the thirty -four teaohers of shorthand replied to this
question.
It is recognized b y the investigator that the replies of this
number may not be representative of the situation in the high sohools o f
the State.
The weaknesses of the high sohool graduate in business eduoa­
tion seem to oenter around t o o little oammeroial training, with a
laok of
opportunity to increase speed in the skill subjeots of shorthand and type­
writing.
The business eduoation subjeots were reported to be doing too
little about developing business initiative in the pupil.
The small high
sohools complain that the ourrioulum offers only one year of shorthand and
typewriting, with no training cffered in bookkeeping and general business.
The means of overcoming these weaknesses, reported b y nine of the
teaohers of shorthand, were that money be spent to provide more teaohers
and a wider ourrioulum in business eduoation.
One teaoher suggested the
establishment of an apprenticeship system through whioh pupils might o b ­
tain praotioal business experienoe in addition to the high sohool training.
The shortcomings of the pupil in the field of business eduoation,
both in personal qualities and in general eduoation subjeots, as reported
by the teaohers of shorthand, seem to be weaknesses that arise from the
laok of thorough preparation in the fundamentals in the period proceeding
the high sohool course, as well as during the high sohool training.
Two
wide fields stand out in these reports, one in the personal and the other
in the subjeot natter field.
Both of these deficiencies might b e remedied
to a certain extent, in the opinion of the teaohers reporting, if the sohool
boards would provide a larger teaching foroe and a broader ourrioulum,
particularly in the fields of subjeot matter and personal adjustment.
The prinoipals reported (Tables LVI and LVII, pages 105
and 106
)
315
the same general type of weaknesses in the business eduoation graduate#
The aooounting teaohers made a similar report (Tables CXXXVI and CXXXVII,
pages 201 and 204)*
The administrators and the two groups of teaohers
agree that an enlarged business eduoation offering is needed in the high
sohools to help alleviate the weaknesses observed in the pupils at the
time of graduation.
TABLE OCX
Do you follow up your business graduates after they get
a job, to see if they "make good?"
Number of reports
Follows up
"Yes"
"No"
16
J3
Total
24
Sixteen of twenty-four teaohers of shorthand reporting on this
question state that they follow up the pupil after he gets a job to see if
he "makes good" in his chosen vocation#
is to b e commended.
This is a desirable praotioe and
Sixteen of twenty-nine aooounting teaohers reported
(Table CXXIX, page 211) that they followed u p -the pupil from high sohool
into his oooupation.
TABLE CCXI
Have your pupils generally used the business subjeots taught
them in the sohool after they get a position in business?
Application of training
Number of reports
22
"Yes"
"No"
J2
Total
24
316
Twenty-two of twenty-four teaohers reporting on this subject in­
dioate that the pupils get a position in business.
taught them in sohool.
They use the subjeots
Twenty-one of twenty-seven aooounting teaohers re­
ported (Table CXXX, page 1.94 ) that pupils used the skills learned in sohool
after they were plaoed in positions.
Neither group of teaohers indicated
how they determine whet h e r the pupil has used these subjeots.
The faot
that twenty-two of the twenty-four teaohers reporting on this question re­
plied in the affirmative is a good indication as far as this question is
oonoerned.
T4BLE CCXII
Does looal business absorb most of your business graduates?
Looal employment
Number of reports
8
"Yes"
"No"
16
Total
24
But eig h t of the twenty-four teaohers who replied report that lo­
oal business absorbs m o s t of the business graduates.
It is unfortunate
these graduates.
that the looal businesses do not employ more
The rural nature of the majority of the communities
of
in
which the high sohools are looated makes it diffioult for the graduate to
find aaployment at home.
The teaohers of aooounting reported (Table CXXXII,
page 196 ) that looal business does not absorb the business eduoation graduate
in more than two-thirds of the ooramunities reporting.
317
TABLE CCXIII
How many of your business majors go into business posi­
tions direotly from sohool?
Positions for graduates
Number of reports
A n average of twenty-two per cent eaoh year
Very f e w
Five eaoh year
Three eaoh year
Twelve eaoh year
Twenty-five each year
5
4
3
1
1
1
Total
15
But fifteen of the thirty-four teaohers of stenography reported
on this question.
The reports from this question seem to indioate that approximately
one fifth of the business majors go into jobs directly from school.
It seems
that too few of those trained in business eduoation b y the high sohool are
plaoed in business.
Perhaps it is, in part, the result of training pupils
in business eduoation without having a definite idea of the number to be
plaoed in any given field.
Also, due to the lack of guidance, many graduates
do not intend t o go into business occupations.
This suggests the necessity
of a survey of the oommunity to help give the administrator of the sohools
an idea of the number of workers needed in a given field or skill before
pupils are permitted to enroll for training in that field.
318
TAB IE CCXIV
A t what wage, per month, do your business majors start work
in bookkeeping, stenography, typewriting, clerking?
Type of position
From
Bookkeeping
Stenography
Typewriting
Clerical
Other business subjects
$40.00
40.00
30.00
30.00
40.00
to
Wages______________
Average
6
11
10
10
$57.00
60.00
50.00
43.00
47.50
$80.00
80.00
65.00
60.00
50.00
Number of
reports
4
11
Number of teachers replying
The small number of stenographic teachers replying to this state­
ment makes the returns inconclusive, serving merely as indications of
trends a n d in no manner thoroughly reliable.
The table should be reads
six teachers reported salaries from $40 to $80, etc.
The beginning wage in Utah for workers trained in the skills
listed ranges from an average of $47.50 t o $60.00 per month.
Pupils
trained in diorthand earn on the average more per month than do pupils
trained in other business subjects.
Clerical training brings the smallest
average salary of any of the subjects mentioned.
TABLE CCX7
Please ohedk the items you use as aids in determining the
apparent intelligence of the pupil.
Aids
Grades in sohoolwork
Teacher observation
Intelligence tests
Other methods
_
Number of reports________________________________
Number of times reported
26
29
9
5
31________
319
Grades in school -work, as an aid in determining pupil intelligence,
•was reported b y twenty-six teaohers.
Nine
of these teachers also used
intelligence tests, and twenty-nine used teaoher observation in addition
to school grades.
The nine
who reported the use of intelligence tests also
reported the use of teacher observation for the purpose.
One teaoher r e ­
ported the u s e of school grades as the sole means for intelligence deter­
mination.
Twenty-nine teachers reported observation of the pupil in his
sohoolwork as an a i d in determining his apparent intelligence.
Three
teachers reported this observation as the only means u s e d to gauge intel­
ligence.
Twenty-two teachers reported teaoher observation and school grades,
while seven r eported intelligence tests in addition to these two methods.
Intelligence tests are used as an aid in determining the ability
of the pup i l b y nine of the ■tfiirty-one teaohersof shorthand w h o filled in
this seotion of the questionnaire.
Only one teacher reported these tests
as the sole means of determining the intelligence o f the pupil.
Intelli­
gence tests alone are not regarded as an adequate means o f intelligence
1
determination.
A practice of teaohers of shorthand in Utah, therefore,
seems to be in line with accepted practice with this one exception.
Five teaohers reported ’’other means" than those
listed.
In all
five oases these other aids were used in addition to some other method or
methods f o r ■ttiis purpose, therefore none of these "other means" were used
alone.
The additional means mentioned were individual discussion, pupil
history, activities, standard tests a n d speed tests —
1.
e a o h reported b y
L. L. Thurstone. The Fundamentals of Statistics, pp. xviii and 238.
320
one teaoher*
Since these means -were used with other methods it seems that
this phase of teaoher and pupil activity are flairly well taken oare of by
the means reported*
Summary of the Chapter
Grade Plaoement of Vooational Preparation in
High Sohool Curricula
1*
Twenty-nine of thirty-three shorthand teaohers reported that
they attempt to have their pupils best equipped to enter business by the
end of the fourth year in high school,and four reported the third year*
No
teaoher reported that he prepared pupils to enter business b y the end of
either the first or the seoand year of high school*
(Table CCIV, page 307.)
Occupational Plaoement of Business Eduoation Pupils
A*
Number Going into Business
2*
Twenty-six of thirty-four shorthand teaohers reported that from
two to seventy-five per oent of their pupils go into business directly from
high sohool.
The mean, reported in percentages, was twenty, and the mean
number reported w a s twelve.
The rural high sohools reported lower percent­
ages than did the urban high schools*
B.
(Table CCV, page 308.)
Number Securing Positions in Subjects Studied in High Sohool
3*
Fourteen of the thirty-four shorthand teachers reported on the
number graduating from high sohool and sixteen reported on the number
placed.
The per oent of pupils who graduated from high sohool in given
skills and who were placed in positions in these skills wass twenty per cent
in typewriting; twenty-nine per oent in shorthand; twenty-one per oent in
321
bookkeeping; thirty -eight per oent in office practice; a n d seven per oent
in general business.
C.
(Table CCVI, page 309.)
Plaoement in Looal Business
4.
Twenty-four of thirty-four teachers reported on the number of
pupils, graduating f r o m the business education department, that were a b ­
sorbed b y looal business.
Eight reported that most o f the pupils w e r e so
absorbed and sixt e e n that most of them were not.
D.
(Table CCXII, page 316.)
Average Salary Earned
5.
But eleven of the thirty-four teachers of shorthand reported
concerning the beginning salary of the business education pupil.
Average
salaries of #43.00 per m o n t h for clerical workers to $60.00 per month for
stenographic workers were reported.
E.
(Table CCXIV, page 318.)
Plaoement Directly in Business
6.
Fifteen of thirty-four shorthand teaohers reported that an average
of twenty per oent of the business education graduates were placed in busi­
ness directly from high sohool.
Other reports of these fifteen teachers
range from a few to twenty-five each year.
(Table CCXIII, page 317.)
Weaknesses of Business Education Graduates
A.
Personal Qualities
7.
Nineteen of thirty-four teaohers of shorthand reported weaknesses
of business education graduates in this field.
These weaknesses were
lack
of: accuracy, personal ambition, initiative, real experience, adequate
background, friendly attitude toward business, ability t o assume responsi­
bility, personality, and scholarly attitude.
Four teaohers reported personal
322
•weaknesses greater t h a n either business eduoation or general eduoation
weaknesses, and one p o r t e d t h e m less than these other two.
(Table CCVII,
page 310.)
B.
General Education
8.
Twenty-two of thirty-four shorthand teachers reported weaknesses
in the field of general e d u oation t o be lack of: English, spelling, a r i t h ­
metic, proper desire for credit, a n d aocuracy.
Two teaohers reported general
eduoation weaknesses greater t h a n either personal or business eduoation
weaknesses, one reported t h e m seoond to these two fields, and one other re­
ported them third.
C.
(Table CCVIII, page 312.)
Business Eduoation
9.
Thirteen of thirty-four shorthand teaohers reported the w e a k ­
nesses in the business eduoation pupil at the time cf graduation to b e as
follows:
business eduoation subjects too limited in the ourriculum, no
opportunity for pupils trained in business, too little speed, poor initia­
tive, a n apprenticeship system needed, and poor aoouracy a n d business sense.
Two other teaohers reported weaknesses in this field seoond to those in
general eduoation and one teaoher reported them third to general eduoation
and personal weaknesses.
( Table CCIX, page 313.)
Means of Overcoming Weaknesses of Business Eduoation Graduates
A.
Personal Qualities
10.
Thirteen of thirty-four shorthand teaohers reported means
of
overcoming the weaknesses of business eduoation graduates in the personal
field.
These means were: add oourses in personality training, make re­
quirements more teohnioal, adjust "preparatory work, provide more room a nd
323
teaohers, add a course in salesmanship, emphasize value of alertness and
ambition, provide more e v e r y d a y business training, stress dependability,
and develop better scholarship.
B.
(Table CCVII, page 310.)
General Eduoation
11.
Fifteen of thirty-four shorthand teaohers reported means of
overooming the weaknesses of business eduoation graduates in the field of
general eduoation.
These means were i provide more training in English,
spelling, and arithmetic, provide more teaohers and money, adjust prepara­
tory work, do more with plaoement, provide classes for drill work, give
more attention to fundamentals, provide better English teaohers, develop
better scholarship and attitude, and provide teaoher cooperation.
(Table CCVIII, page 312.)
C.
Business Eduoation
12.
But nine of thirty-four teaohers of aocounting m a d e suggestions
for overooming the weaknesses of business eduoation graduates in the field
of business eduoation.
These suggestions were: add more courses t o the
business education department, provide better English training, ad d more
business eduoation teaohers, inspire pupils to achieve, add an apprentice­
ship system, and provide oooperation between the departments in charge of
personal eduoation, general eduoation, and business education.
(Table
CCIX, page 313.)
Follow-up of Business Eduoation Graduates
A.
Suooess on the Job
13.
Sixteen of twenty-four shorthand teaohers follow-up the pupil
after he gets a job to see if he mates good.
(Table OCX, page 315.)
324
B.
Uses on the Job of Business Eduoation Subjects Studied in High Sohool
14*
Twenty-two of twenty-four teaohers of shorthand reported
that their pupils generally u s e d the subjects studied in high sohool after
they were placed in positions in business.
(Table CCXI, page 315.)
Determination of Learning Ability
15.
Thirty-one of thirty-four shorthand teaohers reported means
of determining the apparent intelligence of the pupils.
Grades in sohool
were reported twenty-six times, teacher observation twenty-nine times,
intelligence tests nine times, and other methods five times.
page 318.)
(Table CCXV,
CHAPTER XIX
CURRICULUM
This third section of the questionnaire t o the teaohers of short­
ha n d deals wi t h the curriculum in the high schools of the State*
The re­
plies to the fourteen questions are considered in the order in which the
questions appeared on the questionnaire*
TABLE CCXVI
If y o u have any active demand for busi n e s s subjects that
are n o t taught in your sohool, please list them*
Subjeots
Number of reports
4
3
3
Retail store olerks
Business English
Bookkeeping
Coraneroi&l arithmetic
Personality training
Consumer education
Office praotioe
General olerioal
Stenotype shorthand
Machine operators
Printing
JL
Total number of reports naming courses
18
Number of replies
21
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Twenty-one answers to this question were received from the thirtyfour teaohers of shorthand*
In addition t o the eighteen replies listed
above, three teaohers made the following statements: One that they were
experimenting wi t h the needs of.the rural high sohool and had come to no
325
326
oonolusicn; another that there -ware no requests made; and -the third that
the high sohool offered no majors in special departments and therefore no
requests for additional subjeots had been made*
The four requests for
oourses dealing with retailing indioate that need for this type of training
is reoognized in seme of the larger high schools of the State*
English and bookkeeping were eaoh reported three times*
Business
The single request
for consumer eduoation is interesting in that it is at least the beginning
of a consciousness on the part of the consumer that he is in need of more
information than he has at present to oope wuooessfully with this increas­
ingly difficult problem*
TABLE CCXVII
About what number of business pupils are trained in your
sohool in eaoh of the following fields* as a major subject?
Do more or fewer pupils major in the following fields than
you can place in positions? Shorthand* bookkeeping, typ­
ing* selling* olerioal, other*
Subjeots
Shorthand
Bookkeeping
Typewriting
Selling
Clerioal
Retailing
Other
Number of replies
Average number
trained
Number re­
porting
27
31
66
15
27
17
14
20
1
2
30
1
Plaoement
Train too Train Number
many
too
repcrtfew
ing
11
7
1
-
12
7
3
2
2
1
-
3
2
3
20
13
Typewriting leads in the number of pupils trained and selling
represents the field in whioh the fewest were trained*
The principals
327
_ reported (Table CLXXXV, page 275) that more pupils find employment in
selling than in any other Bingle field, yet few pupils are trained in this
oooupatlon.
The relatively small number of pupils trained calls attention
to the paucity of positions available to graduates of the business eduoation
departments in the high schools of the State*
It seems that business edu­
cation in the high schools is generally a minor curriculum offering*
The
need for an efficient business eduoation department, however, should not be
overlooked.
The teaohers also reported that more pupils were trained in
eaoh of these fields than oould be placed in positions*
The situation re­
ported in this question seems rather representative of the State since
twenty of the thirty-four teaohers of shorthand returning the questionnaire
replied to the first part of this question, but only thirteen replied to the
seoond part*
TABLE CCXVIII
About what number of your business graduates, on the average,
do you think will not oontinue their eduoation further? About
what number will not go into business?
Graduates
Reported in
numbers
Reported in
percentages
Graduates who will not oontinue
further in eduoation
32
Average number
Mean percentage
Median percentage
Range in percentage
Number of reports
Graduates who will not go into
business
Average number
Mean percentage
Median
Range in percentage
Number of reports
65
75
20 to 95
17
29
39
40
25 to 50
n
15
328
From the mean peroentage reported it seems that thirty-nine per
oent of the graduates of the business eduoation departments of the high
schools -will not go into business, the oooupation for which they were
trained, and sixty-five per oent of the graduates of the business depart­
ment will not oontinue their eduoation further*
In some sections of the
State as many as ninety-five per oent of the graduates of the business edu­
oation departments of the high schools will not oontinue their eduoation
further and as many as fifty per oent will not go into business.
TABLE CCXIX
Please enter the minimum speed, in words per minute, that
you require for a passing grade in the following subjeots.
Average speed per minute
Dictation Transcription Typewriting
1st
2nd
1st
2nd
1st
2nd
year
year
year year
year year
Subjeots
Shorthand
Dictation
5-minute
15-minute
5-minute
15-minute
business letters
business letters
paragraph material
paragraph material
Transcription of notes
65
54
64
74
98
85
96
92
35
42
Number of
replies
1st
2nd
year year
14
8
8
8
11
5
5
5
5
6
Typewriting with shorthand
3 minutes straight oopy
10 minutes straight oopy
15 minutes straight oopy
50
42
36
76
54
49
7
6
9
7
6
8
For pupils who take
writing only
3 minutes straight
10 minutes straight
15 minutes straight
35
31
39
51
48
46
16
16
21
16
16
21
type­
copy
oopy
oopy
329
Fourteen of the thirty-four shorthand teachers answered the ques­
tion oonoeming dictation of five-minute business letters in the first
year and eleven in the seoond year.
The remainder of the question regard­
ing dictation was answered by eight for the first year and by five for the
seoond year*
It seems significant that in no oase did the diotation speed
average as much as one hundred words per minute*
The transoription question was answered by five teaohers far the
first year and by six for the seoond year*
The question dealing with three-minute straight oopy typewriting
and shorthand was answered by seven teaohers in the first and seoond years*
The rest of ttiis section was answered by six and nine teaohers for the
first year and by six and eight for the seoond year*
For pupils who take typewriting only, sixteen teaohers replied for
the first and seoond years in the first two items, and twenty-one for both
years in the last item*
The reported speeds in typewriting are consistently higher for the
pupils who take shorthand and typewriting than far those who take typewrit­
ing only*
This seems a satisfactory situation in that it indioates greater
speed in the stenographer than in the less highly skilled typest or personalpuae pupil*
sso
TABLE CCXX
In which year of the oourse do you require transcribed
letters to be perfect? Malfeble? Do you require trans­
cribed letters to be accompanied by carbon oopies? By
addressed envelopes?
Requirements
Number of reports
Transcribed letters must be
Mailable in the first year
Perfeot in the first year
Mailable in the seoond year
Perfeot in the seoond year
Mailable in the first or seoond year
Perfeot in the first or seoond year
7
3
10
Is
9
4
4
14
8
16
Number of replies
Transcribed letters must be aooampanied by*
Carbons
"Yes"
"NoM
Addressed envelopes
••Yes”
"No"
Sometimes oarbon oopies requested
Sometimes addressed envelopes requested
7
17
9
11
6
8
24
20
17
Number of replies
Sixteen teaohers replied to the first and seventeen to the seoond
section of this question*
This is very nearly one half the number of
teaohers who returned the questionnaire and probably represents enough of
the high sohools to make these reports reasonably representative.
Transcribed letters must be perfeot in both the first and seoond
years of the oourse in some of the high schools*
The greater number re­
ported that this skill was required in the seoond year*
In the first year
it is required more often that these letters be maiable than that they be
perfect*
This seems a natural development from the mailable to the perfeot
331
latter*
Practical oonsiderations often require that letters be rated
satisfactory if they are mailable; that is, if the letter can be made
presentable to the reader by correcting the error or errors by erasure or
otherwise*
The perfeot letter is, of oourse, more desirable, but not al­
ways feasible due to the expense entailed*
The majority of the teachers do not usually require oarbons or ad­
dressed envelopes with -the letters*
If those who reported "sometimes" or
"occasionally" are inoluded with those who do require oarbons and addressed
envelopes, the percentage averages about fifty per oent eaoh for those who
do and for those who do not make these requirements*
The carbon copies
and the addressed envelopes constitute excellent business praotioe for
pupils and should be made requirements in all the high schools*
TABIE CCXXI
Do you permit the use of an eraser in transoription?
you teaoh the proper method of erasing?
Use of eraser
Do
Number of reports
Fe m i t use of eraser
"Yes"
"No"
Total
29
2
31
Teach proper use of eraser
"Yes"
"No"
Total
27
1
28
Fraotioally all the teaohers of the State permit the use of erasers
in transoription and also teach the pupil how properly to use the eraser
in his stenographic work*
332
Employers are generally -willing that their stenographers use erasers
-where it is practicable, in order to avoid the necessity of retyping an en­
tire letter or document*
It seems praotioal that this skill is taught pupils
while in high sohool*
TABLE CCXXII
Do you require pupils to learn to address envelopes in
all different styles? To write letters in all different
styles? In the most frequently used styles?
Number of reports
Letter writing
Envelopes in all different styles
"Yes"
"No"
Total
29
1
30
Letters in all different styles
"Yes"
"No"
Total
30
0
30
In most frequently used styles
"Yes"
"No"
Total
19
1
20
Almost unanimous opinion is held that pupils should be trained to
write letters and address envelopes in all the different styles in order
to be prepared to oarry on successfully in whatever -type of offioe they
find themselves.
Perhaps sane waste is evident here in that all types of
letters and envelopes are praotised when only a few will be used.
ThiB is
reflected by the fhot that nineteen of these teaohers require the most
frequently used styles*
The difficulty in the training program is that the
type of offioe the pupil will be placed in oannot be foreseen; therefore,
333
it seems wiser to train the pupil in the entire series of generally used
styles and thus he oertain he will have the skill when called upon to use it.
TABIE CCXXIII
Do you require pupils to take dictation direotly on the
typewriter?
Dictation direotly on typewriter
Number of reports
"No"
21
11
Total
32
"T e a "
Twenty-one of thirty-two teaohers of shorthand reporting require
the pupil to take dictation direotly on the typewriter.
TABLE CCXXIY
Do you give instruction in the use of the duplicating ma ­
chine, requiring pupils to out stencils, make oopy for
the heotograph, etc.?
Duplicating machine
Number of reports
"yes”
"No"
30
JL
Total
31
Thirty of the thirty-one teaohers answering this question require
the pupil to learn to prepare duplioate oopies of diotated material.
is extremely praotioal training and should be recommended as part of a
successful training program in the department of business education.
This
334
TABLE CCXXV
Do you give instruction from rough draft, typing post
cards and legal papers?
Type of instruction
Number of reports
Instruction from rough draft, etc*
"Yes"
"No”
31
3
Total
33
Almost unanimous agreement is reported in answer to this question,
with thirty-one of thirty-three teaohers of shorthand answering "yes*"
Again -this is a practical type of training and should be continued as part
of pupils' preparation for employment in the modern offioe*
TABLE CCXXVI
Please oheok the following types of manuscript if you
teaoh your pupils to use them*
Types of manuscript
Number of reports
Reports for other olasses
Programs
Manusoript oarers
Title page8
Table of contents
Bibliographies
Citations
Footnotes
Outlines
Proofreaders' signs
Articles of business information
Inte rviews
Other items
26
27
26
29
30
20
12
24
27
22
16
10
6
Number of reports
30
335
Training in a rather wide array of manusoripts is represented in
the reports to this question*
The number of teaohers oheoking the first
five items is high enough to make these returns quite representative*
Among the "other items" listed are reported "business forms," "legal matter,"
and "announcement8•"
There is muoh opportunity for thorough training for
both oooupational and personal use for pupils who avail themselves of the
materials offered*
TABLE CCXXVII
Please list the year in your sohool in whioh you think the
following subjeots should be taught*
Subjeots
For personal use
First-year shorthand
Year
Number reporting
First
Seoond
Third
Third or fourth
Four-tii
3
4
16
2
_4
29
First-year typing
First-year bookkeeping
First
Seoond
Third
Third or fourth
Fourth
First
Seoond
Third
Third or fourth
12
8
7
2
30
1
7
14
3
25
For vooational use
First-year shorthand
First-year typing
First
Seoond
Third
Third or fourth
Fourth
First
Seoond
Third
Third or fourth
1
2
20
3
_5
4
16
9
0
31
29
(Continued)
336
TAB IS CCXOTII (Continued)
Subjeots
Year
First-year bookkeeping
Number reporting
First
Seoond
Third
Third or fourth
Fourth
2
6
15
2
4
29
From twenty-five to thirty of the -thirty-four teaohers of steno­
graphy replied to this question*
The returns, therefore, should be quite
representative•
First-year shorthand should be taught in the third year of high
sohool, if it is to be used for personal use, according to the reported
opinions of thirty of the -thirty-four teaohers answering this question*
If the subjeot is taught for vooational use, it should also be taught in
the third year of high sohool*
The vooatianal-use reports are more in agree­
ment that the third year of high sohool is the proper year to begin the
study of first-year shorthand than are the nonvooational reports*
Eaoh
year ih high sohool, however, -was reported by at least one teaoher as the
best year in whioh to begin the study, either for personal or for vooational
use.
First-year typewriting should be begun in the first year in higi sohool
for personal use and in the seoond year for vooational use*
The seoond and
third year8 were reported as desirable years in whioh to start typewriting
for personal-use and the third year, also reported by twenty teaohers, for
vooational use*
Eaoh year in high sohool was reported as a desirable year
in whioh to begin typewriting for personal-use and eaoh, except the fourth
year, as desirable to begin the Study for vooational use*
337
First -year bookkeeping should be begun in the -third year of high
sohool for either personal use or for vooational us a , according to the re­
ports.
If possible, two years of bookkeeping should be given the pupil
for either personal use or for vooational use, especially for the latter*
If -this is desirable the study should begin not later than the third year
in order to allow time for -the seoond year of the subjeot*
The same reason­
ing might apply to typewriting and diarthand, with added emphasis, due to
the fhot that the third year of either of these subjeots often adds skill
to that aoquired during the first two years of training*
In the oase of
training for personal use the study should be begun as early as possible to
pe m i t the pupil to use the subjeot as long during his sohool life as pos­
sible, particularly in shorthand and typewriting*
Summary of the Chapter
Heeded Additions to the Business Eduoation Currioula
1*
A demand for oourses in retai 1-store training was expressed in
four of eighteen reports made by twenty-one shorthand teaohers*
Six other
teaohers reported a demand for oourses in bookkeeping and in business
English*
oourse*
The remaining eight teaohers eaoh reported a demand for a single
Three additional teaohers added ocmmexxbs concerning their esqperienoe
in this matter*
(Table CCXVI, page 325*)
Plaoement of Business Eduoation Graduates
2*
More pupils were trained in the following subjeots than oould
be plaoed in business positionst shorthand, reported by eleven teaohers;
bookkeeping, reported by seven teaohers; olerioal training, rqp orbed by
338
three teaohers; retailing, reported by three teaohers; and other subjeots,
reported by two teaohers.
One teaoher reported -that fewer pupils were
trained in shorthand than oould be placed in positions and one that fewer
were trained in retailing than oould be placed*
(Table CCXS1I, page 326*)
College Attendance of Business Bduoation Graduates
3*
According to the opinion expressed by twenty-nine of the
thirty-four ahcrthand teaohers, sixty-five per oent of the business eduoa­
tion graduates
will not oontinue their eduoation further*
percentages reported was twenty to ninety-five.
The range in
These teaohers also re­
ported that in their opinion thirty-nine per oent of the business eduoation
graduates will not enter business as employees*
was from twenty-five to fifty*
The range in peroentages
(Table CCXVTII, page 327*)
Standards of Achievement In Shorthand and Typewriting
A*
Vooational Shorthand
4*
Pupils vho enroll for both shorthand and typewriting are re­
quired to develop an average speed in shorthand, by the end of the first
year, of sixty-five wards per minute for five-minute letters; fifty-four
words perminute for fifteen-minute letters; sixty-four words per minute
for five-minute paragraph material; and seventy-four words per minute for
fifteen-minute paragraph material*
For seoond-year pupils the speed re­
quired for the above material is ninety-eight, eighty-five, ninety-six,
and ninety-two words per minute, respectively*
B.
(Table OCXIX, page 328*)
Transoription
5.
The speed, in words per minute, required of first-year pupils
in transoription is -thirty-five; for seoond-year pupils, forty-two words
339
per minute*
C*
(Table CCXIX, page 338*)
Vooational Typewriting
6*
The speed, in -wcrds per minute, for first-year pupils who study
vooational typewriting, is fifty words per minute for three-minute straight
oopy, forty-two w o r d s for ten-minute straight oopy, and thirty-six words
for fifteen-minute straight oopy*
For seoond-year pupils the speed required
for the above material is seventy-six, fifty-four, and forty-nine words per
minute, respectively*
D*
(Table CCXIX, page 328*)
Personal Use Typewriting
7*
Pupils who st u d y typewriting for nonvooational use are required
to develop a speed, in words per minute, of thirty-five for three-minute
straight oopy, thirty-one for ten -minute straight oopy, and thirty-nine
for fifteen-minute straight oopy*
For seoond-year pupils the speed, in
words per minute, f o r the above material is fifty-one, forty-eight, and
forty-six, respectively*
E.
(Table CCXIX, page 328*)
Quality of Transcript
8*
Letters transoribed from shorthand notes m u s t be perfeot in
the first year in three o f ten oases reported*
must be perfect in nine of fourteen oases*
In the seoond year they
In four oases reported t hey
must be either mailable o r perfeot in both the first a n d the seoond years*
These letters must b e aooampanied b y oarbon oopies in seventeen o f twentyfour of the high aohools and b y addressed envelopes in eleven o f twenty of
the sohools reporting*
(Table CCXX, page 330*)
340
Course Content in Type-writing
A.
Letter Styles
9.
Pupils are required to write letters in all different styles in
all o f Idie t h i r t y hig^i schools reporting, and to address envelopes in all
different styles in twenty-nine of the -thirty high schools*
(Table CCSUCII,
page 332*
B.
Use of Braser
10*
Twenty-nine o f thirty-one teaohers of shorthand reported that
pupils sure permitted t o use the eraser in transoription olasses*
Twenty-
seven of twenty-eight teaohers teaoh the proper u s e o f the eraser in this
class.
C*
(Table CCXXI, page 331*)
Dio tat ion on the Typewriter
11*
Pupils are required to learn to take diotatian direotly on the
typewriter in twenty-one of thirty-two of the high schools reported by
the t e a o h e r s of shorthand*
D*
(Table CCXXIII, page 333*)
Duplication of Typewritten Material
12*
Thirty o f thirty-one shorthand teaohers reported that pupils
are required to learn to use the various duplicating machines found in the
average office*
E*
(Table CCXXIV, page 333.)
Rough Draft
13.
Thirty-one of thirty-three shorthand teaohers reported that
pupils a r e required to learn to type from rough draft a nd to type post
oards a n d legal matter as a part of the oourse in typewriting.
CCXXV, page 334.)
(Table
341
F.
Manuscripts
14*
From six t o thirty of the -thirty-four shorthand teaohers r e ­
ported that they require the pupil to -type the following kinds of material
as part of the regular oourse in typewritings reports from other classes;
programs; manuscript covers; title pages; table of contents; bibliographies;
oitations, footnotes; outlines; proofreaders' signs; artioles of business
information; interviews; a n d other itans. (Table CCXXV I, page 334.)
Grade Plaoement of Busine ss Eduoation Subjeots
A*
Shorthand
15*
Sixteen of twenty-nine teaohers of shorthand reported that b e ­
ginning shorthand should be taug ht persona 1-use pupils in the third year of
high sohool.
If shorthand is to be studied for vooational use, it should
be placed in the third year also, in the opinion of twenty of thirty-one
shorthand teachers.
B.
(Table CCXXVII, page 335.)
Typewriting
16.
First-year typewriting should be placed in the first year of
high sohool for personal-use pupils, according to the report o f twelve of
thirty shorthand teachers.
If it is t o be studied for vooational use, but
four of twenty-nine teaohers w o u ld plaoe i t in the first year.
sixteen of twenty-nine would plaoe it in the seoond year.
In this oase
(Table CCXXVII,
page 335.)
C.
Bookkeeping
17.
Personal-use pupils should study bookkeeping in the third year
of high sohool, according t o the report of fourteen of twenty-five shorthand
teaohers, and vooational-use pupils also should study it in the third year,
342
aocording t o the repcrt of fifteen of twenty-nine teaohers*
No otter
years in high sohool were reported in signifiesnt numbers by the short­
hand teaohers*
(Table CCXXVII, page 335*)
CHAPTER XX
EQUIPMENT
The equipment that is available for the use of the teacher a n d the
pupil in the high sohools of the State is considered in this chapter.
The
information ■was g a t h e r e d from replies to Section Pour o f the questionnaire
addressed to the teaohers of shorthand in the high sohools of the State.
The efficient teaoher oan give expert instruction -with little equip­
ment, and the p o o r teaoher oan be well supplied with euipment a n d still no t
give adequate training.
Both types of teaohers oan give better training
with adequate equipment, however.
It is the purpose of this chapter to
inquire into the kind, quality, and quantity of equipment available to the
teaohers of business education in the high sohools of the State.
1
Niohols
states that "No suooessful vooational commercial skilltraining o a n be given -without adequate and up-to-date equipment.... "What­
ever equipment is needed for giving instruction in any subject, should be
available."
The
large high sohool oan often give training in machines that
would be out of the question for the small high sohool.
recognize this w h e n he says,
Tonne
seems to
"Notwithstanding the large number of bookkeep-
ing-maohine operators absorbed b y present-day business, potential e m p l o y ­
ment is t o o restricted to justify any but the large higjh sohools in offer-
2
ing training in m a o h i n e operation."
1.
2.
Frederick G. Niohols. Commercial Bduoation in the H i g h Scho o l , p. 122.
Herbert A. Tonne, Business Bduoation, Basic Principles and Trends,
p • 184.
343
344
TABLE CCXXVIII
Please indioate the number of e a o h of the following items of
equipment you have in your sohool for the use of the pupils.
Items of Equipment
Number of
Teaohers
reporting
Addres sographs
Automatic timers
Bulletin boards
Copyholders
Diotionaries,unabridged
Eleotrio olooks
Pap e r outters
Paper punohes
Phonographs
Posture ohairs
0
13
23
15
26
13
22
20
20
6
Number of replies
23
Number of pieces of equipment reported
Range in
Average
Total E q u i p ­
equipment number of
m e n t reported
pieces re­
reported
ported
0
1
3
28
8
1
1
2
1
31
0
14
78
426
197
19
26
42
24
184
0
1
1
6
1
1
1
1
1
6
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
2
30
61
30
5
2
6
3
65
There are no addressographs in a n y of the high sohools of the State.
Thirteen teaohers reported autamatio timers, one sohool reported two, the
other twelve one eaoh.
Twenty-three teaohers reported an average of three
b u l l e t i n boards in use; the range was f r o m one to thirty.
Fifteen teaohers
reported an average of twenty-eight copyholders, with a range from six to
sixty-one.
Twenty-six teaohers reported an average of eight unabridged
diotionaries, with a range from one to thirty.
trio clocks, with a range from one to five.
Thirteen schools have eleo-
Twenty-two sohools have paper
outters, w i t h an average of one t o a sohool a n d with a range from one to
two.
Twenty sohools have paper punches, with an average of two to eaoh
sohool and a range from one to six.
Twenty sohools have phonographs, with
a n average of one and a range of from one to three.
But six sohools reported
345
posturo ohairs, -with an average of thirty-one to eaoh sohool and a range
from six to sixty-five.
Prom this partial list o f equipment in the business education de­
partment of the high sohools of the State, it appears that m o s t of the
sohools Heed posture ohairs.
Of the thirty-four high schools i n Utah only
six reported the use of these ohairs for pupils in typewriting.
This is a
relatively inexpensive pieoe o f equipment and one that may have a positive
effect upon the physioal well-being of the pupil.
TABLE CCXXIX
Please indicate the number of eaoh of the following items
of equipment you have in your sohool for the use of the
pupiIs•
Items of equipment
Number of
Teachers
reporting
Postal guides
Railroad guides
Radios
Stopwatohes
Stamp-affixing machines
Sealing machines
Switchboards
Stapling machines
Telejihones
Typing oharts
5
3
10
18
2
1
0
22
15
19
Number of reports
22
Number of pieces of equipment
reported
Total
Average
Range
14
32
13
27
2
1
39
25
63>
3
11
1
1.6
1
2
1.5
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
to
8
to 30
to
3
to
3
to
3
to
3
to 10
There seems to be a shortage of equipment in postal and in railroad
guides, stamp-affixing and sealing machines, and in switohboards.
The l a t ­
ter is far more serious t h a n either of the first two items mentioned.
Train­
ing in the operation of the switohboard is quite essential if the pupil is
346
to be versatile in office skills.
Frequently this ability is called for as
an adjunct to secretarial or accounting training.
To b e able to give a d e ­
quate training in business education it seems important, that, in the larger
oenters of population, switchboards be made available to the pupil.
The
shorthand teachers reported that telephones are available in fifteen of the
schools.
This is desirable, for in addition to the faot that the proper
use of the telephone is a very valuable item in the training of the busi­
ness pupil, the telephone can be used as the foundation for training in the
switohboard.
The remainder of the items mentioned are relatively minor and in­
dicate that teaohers are aware of the need of such equipment as an aid to
the efficient teaching of business education subjeots.
TABLE CCXXX
Please indicate the number of eaoh o f the following items
of equipment you have in your sohool for the use of the
pupils.
M a k e of typewriter
Number of
sohools
reporting
Underwood Standard
Remington Standard
Royal
L„ C. Smith
Remington Noiseless
MakB not specified
Woodstook
Underwood Noiseless
86
12
21
7
7
1
1
0
Number o f reports
26
Number of machines
Total
Average
536
83
77
39
47
44
2
21
7
4
6
7
Range
4
2
2
1
2
to
to
to
to
to
40
16
24
13
11
The most popular h r oh in e from the point of v i e w of the number in
347
use v&s the Underwood Standard typewriter.
All standard makes of type­
writers were used except the Underwood Noiseless.
The greatest number of
maohines of all makes i n use in a n y one high school was sixty-one; the
fewest number of all makes combined was reported as seventeen.
TABLE CCX2XI
Please indicate the number of eaoh of the following pieces
of equipment you have in your school for the use of the
pupiIs•
Number o f
Sohools
reporting
Items of equipment
Washstands
Wastepaper baskets
Adding machines
Billing machines
Bookkeeping machines
Dictating maohines
Duplicating maohines
Filing oabinets
Motian-pioture maohines
Typewriting desks
8
26
19
0
2
0
19
15
14
20
Number of reports
25
Number of pieoes of equipment
reported
------------------------Total
Average
Range
57
260
28
7
10
1
2
1
1
19
31
16
527
1
1
1 to 6
1 to 2
6 to 48
1
28
2 to 26
1 to 50
1 to 3
The first two items mentioned, washstands and wastepaper baskets,
are merely conveniences for t h e pup i l and do not materially add to, or
detract from, the training given.
One teacher reported twenty-six wash-
stands in a high school with an enrollment of approximately one thousand
pupils.
The other items in the table are more important to the pupil, sinoe
he will be better prepared to enter modern business to the extent that he is
familiar with and able to operate these maohines.
one or mare adding machines.
Nineteen sohools reported
No-billing or dictating maohines were reported
348
by any of the high schools.
Two sohools report t w o b ookke eping machines,
nineteen sohools report duplicating maohines,
fifteen report filing
oabinets, fourteen report motion-pioture maohines, and twenty report type­
writing desks.
Two sohools rep or ted "other equipment" to be one Monroe
oaloulator and one Mimeosoope.
Only one sohool reported adjustable type­
writing table 3.
Thirty-four teaohers answered the questionnaire.
In n o single case
did a sohool report all of the items o f equipment mentioned.
One m u s t con­
clude f r o m this that none of the high schools of the State have all of thee
items of equipment.
It is, therefore, apparent that the equipment of the
business education departments in some of the sohools is meager.
Some of
the larger sohools report fairly satisfactory equipment.
Summary of the Chapter
General hv&3uation of Equipment in Business Education
1.
The physical equipment in the business education departments of
the high sohools of the State is not as generous as it should b e for the
best instruction in business eduoation.
1
These findings agree with Barringer
in his study of business
2
eduoation in the h i g h sohools of Montana and with those o f White
study of business eduoation in the high sohools of California.
in her
In both of
these States the equipment in the business eduoation department was meager,
consisting largely of typewriters, adding maohines, and mimeographs.
1.
2.
Henry Barringer, The Status of Business Eduoation in Montana, 1936.
Charlotte C. White, A Survey of Business Eduoation in the Small High
Schools of California. 1934.
349
Types of Equipment for Business Education
A*
Miscellaneous Equipment
2*
The high sohools o f the State reported n o addressographs in use*
Automatic timers were reported in only thirteen of the high sohools*
Bul­
letin boards were reported in twenty-three sohools, the range in numbers of
these being from one to thirty*
Copyholders were in use in fifteen of thB
schools, with the number in eaoh sohool ranging from six to sixty*
Dio­
tionaries wdre reported in twenty-six sohools; the range was from one to
thirty in the different sohools*
Thirteen of the sohools hare eleotrio
olooks, twenty-two have paper outters, twenty have paper punches, and
twenty phonographs*
sohools*
Posture ohairs were reported in but six of the high
(Table CCXXVIII, page 344*)
Secondary materials for use in the business eduoation department
are mate rids that can be used in small quantities and yet not result in
too great a handicap for the pupil in his training for business positions.
This equipment in the high sohools of Utah ranges from a report of a single
sealing machine for letters to twenty-two reporting the use of stapling
maohines*
Perhaps the m o s t important items reported in this table are the
switohboard and the telephone*
No switohboards were reported and but fif­
teen of the -thirty-four shorthand teaohers reported the use of telephones*
(Table CCXXIX, page 345*)
B,
Typewriters
3*
Underwood Standard typewriters were reported in use in greater
numbers than was any other make of machine, with a total of 536 of these in
use in twenty-six of the thirty-four high sohools reporting.
Next in num­
bers w a s the Bonington Standard, -with a total of eighty-three maohines in
350
use in twelve o f the high schools*
Royal typewriters were rep orted third
with seventy1-seven maohines in twenty-one of the high schools*
The L* C*
Smith typewriter was reported in fburth place with thirty-nine machines in
use in seven high schools*
There were forty-seven Remington Noiseless
maohines in use in sevoi high sohools*
One high sohool reported forty-four
machines without specifying the make of any of them*
chines were r e p orted in one high sohool*
was reported*
C.
(Table CCXXX, page 346*)
A d d i n g machines were reported in nineteen of the -thirty-four
high sohools*
(Table CCXXXI, page 347*)
Bookkeeping Machine s
5*
Bookkeeping maohines were reported b y but t w o hi$i sohools,
with one machine in eaoh school*
E.
No Underwood Noiseless machine
Adding Machines
4*
D.
Two Woodstock m a ­
(Table CCXXXI, page 347*)
Duplicating Machines
6*
Duplicating maohines were reported in use in nineteen of the
high sohools, f i l i n g cabinets in fifteen, motion-pioture maohines in four­
teen, and typewriting desks in twenty of the high schools*
page 347.)
(Table CCXXXI,
CHAPTER XXI
TEACHER PERSONNEL
Section five of the questionnaire t o the teachers of shorthand had
for its purpose the securing of information f rom t h e teaohers themselves
concerning their training, teaching sohedule, extraourrioular activities,
and other duties dealing-with the general procedure of teaching business
eduoation subjeots in the high sohools o f the State.
Fifteen questions are
presented in the same order as found in the questionnaire.
TABLE CCXXXII
Do y o u feel there should be some administrative p j a n to keep
teaohers of business in touoh -with praotical business?
Should the re be an administrative plan?
Number of reports
"Yes”
"No”
33
_0
Total
33
Thirty-three of the thirty-four teachers o f stenography who answered
the questionnaire replied in -the affirmative t o this question.
The only
teacher who did not answer the question stated that stenography was not
taught in the sohool in which Bhe taught and therefore no reply oould be
made to this question.
With this exception the opinion was unanimous that
such a plan should be put into operation.
Twenty-three of twenty-five
superintendents (Table XXIX, page 70), thirty-five of forty-four principals
361
352
(Table LXLIII, page 150), and twenty-seven of thirty accounting teaohers,
(Table CXLVIII, page£23 ) reported that a plan should b e in operation to
keep business eduoation teaohers in touch with practical business*
Since
the teaohers and administrators realize the importance of such a move,
it
seems that some plan for the purpose o f keeping the teaoher in touoh w i t h
business should be developed*
What plan should b e adopted?
The teaohers
themselves have made suggestions concerning such a procedure.
These w i l l
be considered in the following table.
TABLE CCXXXIII
PleaBe suggest a plan you think praotioal for this pur­
pose (that of keeping business eduoation teaohers in
touoh w i t h practical business procedures).
Number o f
reports
Suggestions
5
3
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Summer w o r k in business for the business teaoher
Interviews a n d cooperation with looal businessmen
Placement of pupils i n business for short periods
Round table disoussions between businessmen and teaohers
Require business experience for teaching position
Bulletins issued b y business firms
Require business experience for teaoher certification
Summer sohool courses f o r teaohers
Leave for teaoher for short period of business experienoe
Praotioal w o r k in office
Part-time business employment
Professional organization oooperation between high
sohools and business
JL
Total
20
The jian most frequently mentioned by the twenty teaohers of short­
hand who made suggestions to keep the teaoher of business eduoation in touoh
with business was summer work in business*
This was the most frequently re-
35S
ported means for this purpose mentioned b y the superintendents (Table
XXXVIII, page 81) and by the accounting teaohers
(Table CXLIX, page 224 )•
The principals did not mention this means i n their report (Table LXLIV,
page 151 ).
Suoh a plan is desirable from m a n y viewpoints, particujarly the
praotioal experience the teaoher should gain.
There are, however, diffi­
culties to be enoountered, one of wh i o h is the fact that employment for
short periods of time is not easy t o find.
The employer m a y feel that the
teaoher w i l l not prove a profitable employee for suoh a short period.
Added
to this is the fhct that suoh a plan would d e p r i v e the teaoher of his vaca­
tion, a difficulty somewhat softened by the additional earnings.
In all,
the plan has merit and should be oonsidered.
Nine of twenty-five superintendents,
ten of forty-four prinoipals,
a n d sixteen of thirty-two aooounting teaohers suggested plans for this pur­
pose, oompared with twenty of thirtyi-four teaohers of stenography.
Interviews and other forms o f cooperation with businessmen was m e n ­
tioned b y six teachers.
These cooperative meetings would take the form of
round table discussions, professional cooperation, and interviews with
businessmen at regular intervals.
This suggestion has merit and should be
us e d to the fullest extent by the teaohers -idiemselves.
There should be
cooperation between business and the sohools and m a n y uses oan be made of
s u o h an interchange of ideas b y both groups.
It is perhaps needless to
m e n t i o n again at this point the advantages of suoh a plan.
In this wa y a
survey of business for the purpose of determining the needs of the com­
m u n i t y as far as employment is concerned oould easily be made, and the
sohool oculd be guided in its training program b y the findings.
354
1
Norton
recommended that businessmen oooperate with the sohool per­
sonnel for the betterment of the high sohools of New York City in his re­
port in the Regents'
Inquiry.
Plaoement of pupils
one teaoher.
in business for short periods w as suggested by
This oould w e l l be oanbined with a plan for retail training
disoussed elsewhere in this study, although oooperative training need not
of necessity be training for retail store selling.
Summer courses were suggested.
It is difficult to see how this
would offer advantage t o the teaoher as far as praotioal experience in busi­
ness is oonoerned.
One o1her suggestion w a s offered —
that of requiring actual e x ­
perience in business as a prerequisite to oertifioation for business teach­
ing.
This plan has mer i t and should b y all means be considered in determin­
ing a plan for assuring praotioal business experience.
One difficulty with
this last suggestion is that it may result in initial experience only.
A
suggestion may be made to require this experienoe to b e repeated at regu­
lar intervals for oontinued oertifioation.
1.
Norton, Eduoation for Work.
Report of the Regents' Survey, 1938.
355
TABLE CCXXXIV
A t w h a t college or university did you reoeive the major
part of your training?
College or university attended for
major part of training
Brigham Young University
Utah State Agricultural College
University of Utah
N e w York University
St. Mary's of the Wasatch
University of Montana
University of California
Total
Number of reports
18
6
5
1
1
1
1
33
Did you graduate?
"Yes"
"No"
Total
Year
1907
1923
1925
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1935
1936
1937
1938
Total
Degree held
Bachelor of Science
Baohelor of Arts
Master of Science
Master of Arts
Master of Business Administration
Total
30
__2
32
1
1
1
1
2
2
4
3
1
1
2
6
2
_4
31
20
7
1
1
1
30
356
Three teaohers of s h o rthand received degrees from colleges or u n i ­
versities not in the State
California.
of Utah* one eaoh in New York, Montana, and
Of those attending oollege in Utah, eighteen of thirty received
their training and degree a t Brigham Young University, the others at the
University of Utah, the State Agricultural College, and at St. Mary’s o f
the Wasatoh.
The t r a i n i n g is perhaps too strongly centered in Utah.
Either
more teaohers should attempt to receive their training out of the State or
more teaohers with out-of-the-State degrees should be employed.
It is sig­
nificant that all b u t two teaohers have a oollege degree.
Twenty-three of the
thirty-one teaohers reporting on the year o f
graduation received their degrees since 1930, and all but four since 1928.
Generally speaking the t i m e of graduation is within a reasonably reoent
period.
Three of the thirty-one teaohers hold the master'3 degrees; twenty
the baohelor of soienoe degree, and seven the bachelor of arts degree.
TABLE C C M
(Please indicate your) M a j o r preparation. Minor preparation.
Major teaching field. Minor teaching field.
Number of reports
Number of business teaohers w i t h a major o r a
minor preparation in b u s i n e s s
Number of these teaching a major or a minor in
business
Number of business teaohers w i t h neither a major
or a minor training i n business
Number of these teaching a major or a minor in
business
Number of replies t o this question
25
. 25
7
5
32
357
Thirty-two of the thirty-four teaohers of stenography w h o returned
the questionnaire answered this question.
Twenty-five of the thirty-two
teaohers reporting were trained in some phase of business eduoation.
of these teaohers are teaching ei-ther a
All
najor or a minor in business edu­
oation subjects.
Seven o f the thirty-two teaohers who returned the questionnaire
were n o t trained in business, eithar as a major or a minor field of prepara­
tion.
Of these seven, five are teaohing a major or a minor in business
eduoation subjects.
Thus, five of thirty-two teaohers of stenography are
teaohing business subjects with no preparation in this field.
TABLE CCXXXVI
71/hat teaohing certificate do y o u now hold?
Certificate
Utah
Utah
Utah
Utah
High
Number of reports
State H i g h Sohool Certificate
State H i g h Sohool, Life Oertifioate
a n d Idaho State Oertifioate
a n d California State Oertifioate
Sohool Speoial Oertifioate, Utah State
26
2
1
1
_2
Total
32
Twenty-six teaohers reported that t h e y held Utah High Sohool Cer­
tificates; two others hold these oertifioates fo r life.
One holds a Utah
and an Idaho oertifioate for high sohool teaohing a n d anothe r a certificate
for high sohool teaohing in Utah and California.
The remaining two teaohers
are teaohing high sohool subjeots on a special oommeroial oertifioate.
358
TAB IE CCXXXVI I
Have you done graduate w o r k in addition t o your last de­
gree? lhat was the last year of suoh work? At whioh
university?
Graduate training
Number of reports
Have y o u had graduate work?
"Yes"
"No"
Total
24
7
31
W h e n was last graduate work taken?
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
Total
■Where was graduate work taken?
Brigham Young University
University of Southern California
University of Utah
University of Washington
University of Idaho
Stanford University
Utah State Agricultural College
Latter Day Saint Business College
Woodburys Business College
Total
1
2
1
2
6
11
23
5
4
4
3
1
1
1
1
1
22
Twenty-four of the -thirty-one teaohers reporting have done graduate
■work since receiving the oollege degree.
work at same time or other sinoe 1933*
graduate work in 1938.
A ll these teaohers have done this
Almost fifty p e r oent did the last
This is a v ery creditable record for the teaohers
of shorthand of the State.
The investigator was unable to determine how
muoh of the graduate -work was
in "the fie l d of the teaohing specialization*
Ten of the twenty -thre e teaohers w ho have had graduate work, as
359
reported above, have t a k e n their work in the State of Utah, with one h a l f
of them attending Brigham Young University*
Paoifio Coast schools*
The remainder have attended
Only t w o of the twenty-three attended business
colleges, w i t h the remainder taking their work at oolleges or universities
conferring the master or doctorate degrees*
TABLE CCXXXVIII
Please fill in the form be l o w for the business experience
you have had*
Kind of work* Months of work. Name of
oompany. Y e a r .
Praotioal business experience
Secretarial and stenographic
Manager and treasurer
Clerical a n d accounting
Accounting a n d auditing
Clerical a n d retail
Bookkeeping and salesmanship
Accounting and retail
Bookkeeping and stenographic
Office work
Total
Numb er of rep carts
10
4
3
3
1
1
1
1
1
25
Years of experience
Less than one year
One to three
Three to five
Five to ten
Ten to twenty
Total
6
7
6
2
3
24
Twenty-five o f the thirty-four teaohers of shorthand who filled in
this questionnaire have had business experience of one kind or another*
The number of those hawing secretarial and stenographic experience is the
largest, as it shoulddbe, with two additional teaohers reporting office
work, and bookkeeping and stenographic experience*
The period of time this
360
experience covers ranges from twenty years to less than one year.
Those
reporting longer periods of experienoe report part-time business experience
paralleling their teaohing experienoe.
In faot, most of the business e x ­
perienoe reported seems to have been part-time, a helpful method of k eep­
ing the teaoher i n touoh with praotioal business procedure.
This plan was not
mentioned by the teaohers in Table CCXXXIII.
TABLE CCXXXIX
Please fill in the following form for the professional teaoh­
ing you have done * City or state where you taught.
High
sohool, elementary, eto. Subject taught.
Length of sohool
term.
Number of jiears taught.
Teaohing experienoe
Where taught
Utah, only, one or more sohools
Idaho a n d U t a h
M o n t a n a and U t a h
Colorado and Utah
Nevada and Utah
Arizona and Utah
Number of reports
49
2
1
1
1
_1
Total times reported
55
Number of replies
32
Number o f years taught
Average number of years teaohing experienoe
Average number of years in one high sohool
Sohool level o f teaohing experienoe
Number w i t h high sohool teaohing experienoe only
Elementary a n d high sohool teaohing experienoe
Junior high a n d senior high sohool experienoe
Junior oollege and high sohool teaohing experienoe
9
6
21
4
2
_2
Total
29
Number of replies
32
Thirty-two of the ihirty-four shorthand teaohers in Utah replied
361
t o this question*
The forty-nine reports of teaching experienoe in Utah
only include experienoe in one or more schools*
Forty -nine of the fifty-five reports are from teaohers -who have
had teaching experienoe only in Utah.
Six teaohers report five oiiier
States where they have taught before coming to Utah.
The average number of
years of teaohing experienoe is nine, witii six years the average time
spent in one sohool.
The range in years in one sohools is from one to
eighteen.
Twenty-one teaohers reported high sohool teaohing experienoe only,
four elementary and high sohool, two junior and senior high sohool, and two
junior oollege and high sohool teaohing experienoe.
TABLE CCXL
Please fill in the following form for your daily teaohing
sohedule .
Subjeots
Typewriting
Bookkeeping
Shorthand
Shorthand and typewriting
English
Office Practice
History
Physical eduoation
Commercial law
General business
Business
Meohanio arts and agri­
culture
Sooial science
Number of
times re­
ported
Business English
Speech
Geography
Economic geography
Spelling
Cammeroe
Mathematics
Elementary sohool subjeots
Junior high sohool sub­
jects taught
Business arithmetic
Citi zenship
Junior business
Soienoe
20
16
10
10
10
8
6
3
3
3
2
2
2
Total number of subjeots tau$it
Number of reports
Subjeots
Number of
times re­
ported
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
25
__ .
30
Thirty teaohers
of shorthand reported a total of twenty-six dif­
ferent subjeots that t h e y have taught in the past or are teaohing a t the
present time.
The three major business subjeots of bookkeeping, shorthand,
and typewriting were reported the greatest number of times.
reported junior h i g h sohool and elementary subjeots.
Two teaohers
The small h i g h school,
so predominant in Utah, probably aooounts for the faot that sixteen short­
hand teaohers have taught or are teaohing bookkeeping.
TABLE CCXLI
Please fill in the following form for your daily teaohing
sohedule: Number i n class, period in minutes.
Teaohing load
Mean
Number of pupils in olass
Teaohing minutes per d a y
Length of olass periods, i n minutes
Number of classes tau g h t p e r day
Number of different subjeots taught per day
29
317
53 mode 55
6
3
Range
8 - 68
240-420
25- 60
5- 8
1- 6
31
Number of reports
Thirty-one 6f the thirty-four teaohers of shorthand replied to this
question o o n o e m i n g the number o f pupils taught dnd the number of hours in
the daily teaohing load.
teaoher of shorthand.
There are twenty-nine pupils, on the average, per
The range in the number of pupils per teaoher is from
eight to sixty-eight, the former number in bookkeeping and the latter in
typewriting.
The mean teaohing load,
in minutes per day, is 317, the m e a n
number of classes taught is six, making an average of fifty-three minutes
per olass period for e a o h teaoher of shorthand.
The modal olass is fifty-
five minutes in length, ocnnpared witty a mean of fifty-three minutes.
The
363
range in the length of the class period is f r o m twenty-five t o sixty
minutes*
One teacher reported two twenty-five minute periods, and one
reported five thirty-minute periods*
The twenty-five minute period was
in typewriting and the tiiirty-minute periods were in typewriting and of­
fice practice.
Both of these short classes are in addition to other classes
of s i x t y minutes in the high sohools concerned*
The range in both the length o f the olass period and the teaching minutes per day shows too great a varianoe for the b e s t effioienoy of
the teacher*
On the one hand, one teaoher h a s the equivalent of seven
sixty-minute periods per day, while o n the other h a n d another teaches only
four sixty-minute periods per day.
The one is probably too long for effi­
cient teaohing and the other is probably too short a class period for the
most effective employment of the teaoher.
The number of olasses per day is
six per teaoher, on the average, and t he m e a n number of different subjeots
taught eaoh day is three, with a range of f r o m one to six*
One teaoher has
six different subjeotsper day and another teaches the same subject in all
periods.
It seems there is too little specialization in subject natter
teaohing schedules.
The range in the number of classes per day is from
five to eight.
IABLE OCXLII
Other duties or extracurricular activities.
Hours per
w e e k in activity. Humber of pupils in activity*
Extracurricular activity
Adviser to boys' and girls' clubs
Class adviser
Adviser to yearbook and sohool paper
Sohool office, stenography and bookkeeping
Humber of times reported
15
11
9
6
(Continued)
364
TABLE CCXLII (Continued)
Extracurricular aotivity
Number of times reported
Adviser to program ooramittee
High sohool oredit committee
Adviser to debating committee
Sohool bookstore manager
2
1
1
_1
Total
46
Range
Mean
Mean hours per week in aotivity
Range in hours
per week in activity
Mean number of pupils ih aotivity
Range in number of pupils in activity
Number of replies —
5.4
1-25
138
6-490
25
Twenty-five teaohers replied to this question.
Eight of this num­
ber reported one extracurricular aotivity in addition to the regular teach­
ing load, thirteen reported two activities, and four teachers reported
three.
The most frequently reported extracurricular activity was boys'
and girls' clubs, with olass advisers, yearbook and sohool paper, and
stenographic a n d bookkeeping work following in the order named.
Several
others were mentioned less frequently.
The m e a n time spent in extracurricular activities eaoh week by the
teaohers of shorthand w a s five and four-tenths hours; the range w a s from
one to twenty-five hours.
The mean number of pupils dealt with b y these
teachers eaoh w e e k was 138; the range was from six to four hundred ninety.
365
TABLE CCXLIII
Please list below magazines, books, eto., that you regularly
read that have stimulated your thinking#
Magazines
Number of reports
16
13
Gregg Writer
The Balanoe Sheet
Reader's Digest
National Eduoation Association Publications
Journal of Business Eduoation
Utah Eduoation Association Journal
Business Eduoation World
Time
Nat ion *s Busine ss
Harper *s Weekly
Consumer Research
ZuTavern Bulletins
Oocupat ions
National Business Eduoation Quarterly
Journal of Accounting
English Journal
Atlantio Monthly
News Letter
Think
Soribners
Forum
Banking Magazine
World Finance
Commercial magazines
Eduoation
Total different magazines
11
8
7
6
6
3
3
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
24
Books
Book of the Month
Literary Guild
Personal Efficienoy
LaSalle Booklet
We Are Guinea Pigs
Problems in Business Eduoation
Teachers Year Book
Streamlining the Mind
She Strives to Conquer
Finding Yourself
Techniques of Typing
Manners in Business
Guidanoe
Better English
Total different books
Number o f reports -- 27
3
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
14
366
The most -widely u s e d magazines, the Gregg Writer and the Balance
1
Sheet, are oommeroial magazines.
Norton
found the Balanoe Sheet first
in rank in the magazines r e a d b y the business eduoation teaohers in New
2
York.
File
found the same t o be true in the high sohools of Pennsylvania,
with the Gregg Writer second and the Business Eduoation World thir d.
Reader*s Digest is a noncarameroial magazine of general information.
The
The
next four magazines reported are oommeroial in nature, followed by o o m ­
meroial and nonocmmercial magazines, as indicated in Table CCXLIII.
The books are noncommercial generally, with five dealing with busi­
ness and the balanoe nonbusiness.
Greater effort should b e made to e n ­
courage the further use of business books,
in addition to the nonbusiness,
to help provide better subjeot m a t t e r and methods in the classroom.
The first three magazines reported by the shorthand teaohers agrees
with the first three reported b y the accounting teaohers (Table CLIV,
page238 ).
The reading lists reported b y these two groups of teaohers
are quite comparable.
TABLE CCXLIV
Please list below t h e state, regional, or national oom­
meroial teaohers o r g a n i z a tion to which you belong, stat­
ing office held in e aoh.
Name of organization
Utah Education Association
National Eduoation Association
Local Teachers' Association
California Teaohers 1 Association
Alpha Iota, Honorary Professional Total
1.
2.
Number of rq>orts
13
9
4
1
1
28
Norton, 0£. o i t ., p. 99.
Clifton M. File, The Status o f Business Bduoation in the Publio Sohools
of Pennsylvania, p. 199.
367
Seventeen of the twenty-eight teaohers who replied to this ques­
tion belong to a local or State teachers' organization.
to the Utah Education Association.
business teachers' organizations.
Thirteen belong
Only four reported membership in local
One reported membership in the California
Teachers' Association and one other in Alpha Iota, a h honorary Greek letter
professional association.
The accounting teaohers reported thirty-seven professional a s ­
sociations (Table CLV, page 240 ) compared with twenty-eight reported b y
the shorthand teachers.
TABLE CCXLV
Please list the community organizations to which you
belong) if an offioer in the organization, please in­
dicate.
Name of organization
Number of times
reported
Latter Day Saint Church organizations
Business and Professional Women
Chamber of Cammeroe
Lions Club
Junior Chamber of Commerce
Local cooperative associations
Parent Teaohers Association
W«P.A*, art instructor
Literary a n d Exchange Club
Library Board
_JL
Number of memberships reported
29
Number of reports
19
14
3
2
2
1
2
2
1
1
Office Held
One bishop
One seoretary
One director
Publicity Direol
Nineteen of thirty-four teaohers who answered the questionnaire
reported on this question.
Almost one half of the community w o r k is carried
on in organizations of the Latter 'Bay Saint, or Mormon Church; one teaoher
368
reported the office of Bishop in this church.
Eight other teachers re­
ported offices in business organizations, w i t h two additional teachers
holding membership in local consumer cooperative associations.
TABLE CCXLVI
How often do you give written tests, b y semesters?
Tests
Number of tests
Mean
Mode
Bange
Number of reports
5
4
2-12
22
Twelve of the thirty-four teachers of stenography did not reply to
this question.
The modal number of tests pe r semester vjb.b reported by the
remaining twenty-two as four, t h e mean five, a n d the range from two to twelve.
TABLE CCXLVI I
Please check the method or methods you use to aid in de­
termining the pupil's grade in course.
Kind of tests
Class participation
General class attitude
Series of tests
Application
Attendance
Performance standards
Laboratory work
Final testB
General impression from olasswork
Oral tests
Term paper
Number of replies
Number of times reported
28
26
26
25
20
19
18
13
8
6
4
31
The teachers of shorthand reported very fully on this question,
369
thirty-one of the
thirty-four teachers making a report on at least one
of these methods o f determining pupils' grades.
Class participation leads
a l l others, w i t h twenty-eight reporting this phase of the pupil's activity.
Closely following this w a s general class attitude and a series of tests,
w i t h twenty-six teachers reporting each of these activities.
Application
of effort, in class and homework, followed with twenty-five and attendance
with twenty reports.
Performance standards vas next with nineteen reports,
followed by laboratory w o r k with eighteen.
Final teste are used b y t h i r ­
teen teachers, in addition to other tests.
General information from class-
work, oral tests, and t e r m paper are used by eight, six, and four, r e s ­
pectively.
The accounting teaohers reported in Table CLIX, page 243, the same
means as first and seco n d choice for determining the pupils' grade in the
course.
Laboratory work, however, was reported third in importance b y
the aooounting teachers and in seventh place b y the shorthand teaohers .
TABLE CCXLVIII
Which of the above do you rank as first, second, a nd third
in importance?
Number of reports______________ __
First
Second
Third
Methods
Class participation
Series of tests
General attitude
Laboratory work
Performance
Final tests
Application
Attendance
Number of reports —
7
5
5
4
3
1
1
27
1
4
2
4
1
3
4
6
6
1
7
4
4
4
370
Twenty-seven of the thirty-four teaohers answered this question.
Class participation was ranked first hy seven teachers of shorthand, seoond
by one, and third b y two.
A series of tests was reported first b y five,
second b y four, a n d third b y four.
five teachers and seoond b y one.
tion of four teachers,
General attitude w as reported first by
Laboratory work was first in the estima­
seoond b y three, and third by four.
Performance in
olass was ranked first b y three teaohers, second by six, and third by six.
Incidentally, performance was mentioned fifteen times as against its nearest
rival, a series of tests, which was mentioned by thirteen teaohers.
final test was ranked first b y one teacher a nd third by one.
A
Application
was ranked first by one teacher, seoond b y seven, and third by four
teaohers.
Attendance was ranked seoond and third b y four teaohers eaoh.
TABLE CCXLIX
Please list the problems in business eduoation, as you see
them, from a local
viewpoint and from a national v i e w ­
point.
Problems in business eduoation
Number o f times reported
From National Viewpoint
Arrange in advanoe for business demands
Provide more jobs
More practical training
Better curriculum philosophy
Intelligent direction of wealth souroes
Better application of theory
More national support for building up
e d u oation departments
Conform to sound eoonomio democracy
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Total
9
(Continued)
371
TABLE CCXLIX (Continued)
Problems i n business education
Number of times reported
From a Local Viewpoint
3
Jobs for graduates
Adjustment of number trained to avoid over supply
Better courses of study
More vocational testing and guidance
More adequate background
More personal-use eduoation
More cooperation with business
More stress on aoouraoy
Better application o f theory
Better understanding of our economic setup
Not taught to follow directions
Special emphasis on business skills stressed
Too early vocational skills
Better relations with State boards of eduoation
Appreciation of democracy
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
_1
Total
21
Problems of a national character were listed as follows:
First,
the suggestion that arrangement be made in advanoe for the proper number
of pupils t o be trained in the various business eduoation skills to avoid
an oversupply in any one field.
Presumably the pupils who wished to take
the courses so arranged would be selected b y some system of testing to de­
termine, in advance, the pupils w i t h the greatest potential ability in the
various business skills.
Second, the provision of more jobs for the graduate
upon completion of his school studies.
This problem hinges upon the first
mentioned problem, sinoe it would be solved b y the adoption of such a con­
trol of the number trained.
It still remains a problem, however, and will
do so until our economic system is adjusted, b y natural or imposed forces,
to the needs of those prepared to work.
Third, more practical training for
372
business eduoation pupils —
ness.
training more adequate for the needs of b u s i ­
Four-tii, a better philosophy oonoerning our curriculum.
This problem
is again related intimately w i t h the one immediately preoeding it, that o f
more practical training of business eduoation pupils.
Fifth, the intelli­
gent direction of wealth souroes, a sooial as well as an eoonomic problem
toward the solution of w h i c h the n a tion is without doubt making some p r o ­
gress.
Sixth, a better application of the theories learned in sohool to
the needs of business.
This indicates a need for ourrioular revision in the
light of local business needs.
Seventh, more national support to build u p
local business eduoation departments,
indicates a need for the enlightenment
of both the teacher of business eduoation and of the sohool boards in oharge
of the eduoational p r o g r a m in the various communities.
Whether this na­
tional support is to consist of financial support or guidance was not stated.
Finally, the eighth problem listed —
nomic democracy —
that of conformation to sound e oo­
seems to b e a b r o a d sooial one that will gradually be
solved as smaller segments of our sooial and economio life are brought more
closely in accord with the needs o f the individual in society.
The local problems listed numbered twenty-one.
were listed first by three teaohers.
Jobs for the graduates
Adjustment to make it possible to
train only the number necessary to fill available positions was listed b y
two teaohers.
Both of these problems were listed by other teaohers as n a ­
tional problems also.
N o mention was made of the need for better local p l a c e ­
ment w o r k as an aid in finding jobs for the high sohool graduate.
Better
courses of study was listed as a looal problem b y two other teaohers; it
also appears on the list of national problems.
The need for more vocational
training with guidance following was listed by two teaohers.
More adequate
373
baokground, more personal-use eduoation, better cooperation with business,
more stress on accuracy, better application of theory, better understanding
of our economic set-up, the need to teaoh pupils to follow directions,
placing of speoial enphasis on business skills, training pupils in vocational
skills too early in their sohool careers, better relations with State boards
of education, and appreciation of demooraoy were each listed as a looal
problem b y one teacher of stenography.
The a c counting teachers reported twenty-one looal and eleven n a ­
tional problems in business eduoation (Table CLX, page 244 )•
are v e r y similar
These problems
in nature to those reported by the shorthand teaohers,
exoept the necessity of determining in advance the number of pupils needed
in a given occupation b y a given community.
This was not mentioned b y the
accounting teachers.
TABLE CCL
Do you feel the commercial contests held in Utah are a
positive or a negative factor in your teaching?
Attitude
Number of reports
A positive factor in teaching
A negative fac t o r in teaching
Both positive a n d negative
Neither positive nor negative
Could be either positive or negative
10
1
1
_1
Total
27
14
The Inter-Mountain Commercial Contest is sponsored annually b y
Brigham Young University.
Secondary sohool pupils are invited to p a rtici­
pate for awards a n d for scholarships to the University.
Medals and type-
374
■writers are awarded by the typewriter companies and scholarships are given
b y the University to the winners of this oontest.
Pupils oome from the
high schools of Utah and neighboring States t o participate in this contest.
Awards are given in first- and in seoond-year shorthand, typewriting, and
bookkeeping, on b o t h an individual and a t e a m basis.
Fourteen of the twenty-seven teachers reporting on this question
feel it a positive factor in teaching, ten feel it is a negative faotor, one
believes it is both positive and negative, one other that it is neither
positive nor negative, and one that it oould be made either a positive or a
negative faotor in teaching.
Ten of eighteen superintendents, ei^iteen of
twenty-five principals, and fourteen of twenty aooounting teaohers reported
the oontest positive in its influence upon business education teaching.
(Table XXXII, page 74).
TABLE CCLI
Please check the kinds of tests used b y y ou during a
regular course.
Kind of test
Completion
Comprehensive
True-false
Multiple ohoioe
Matching
Best answer
Essay
Diotation a n d speed
Diotation and transoription
Rough draft
Oral
Shorthand and typing
Typing, shorthand, and transcription
Transoription, net words per minute
Total
Number of replies
Number of times reported
23
21
19
16
14
8
9
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
119
31
375
Thirty-caae of the thirty-four teaohers of stenography answered this
question.
Twenty-three report that they use completion tests, twenty-one
use comprehensive tests, nineteen use true-false, sixteen use multiple
choice, fourteen report matolling tests, eight best answer, nine essay,
three diotation and speed tests,
and one teaoher eaoh reports the follow­
ing tests: diotation and transoription, rough draft, oral, shorthand and
typing, transoription (net words p e r minute), and typing, shorthand, and
transcription.
■Summary of the Chapter
Provision for Business Experience
1.
Thirty-three of thirty-four shorthand teaohers reported that
some administrative plan should b e in operation to kBep teaohers of busi­
ness eduoation in touoh with practical business conditions.
Plans to a c ­
complish this end were reported by twenty of the thirty-three teaohers, as
follows:
summer work in business, interviews and cooperation with looal
businessmen, placement of pupils in business for short periods, round table
discussions between businessmen and teaohers, require business experience
for teaching position, businessmen should issue bulletins, require business
experience for teaoher oertifioation, summer sohool courses for teaohers,
leave for teaohers for short periods of business experience, praotioal work
in offioe, part time business anployment, and professional organization oooperation between businessmen a n d teaohers.
pages 351 and 352.)
(Tables CCXXXII and CCXXXIII,
376
Preparation of Shorthand Teaohers
A.
Colleges and Universities Attended
2.
Thirty-three of the thirty-four shorthand teaohers reported the
oolleges or universities t h e y had attended.
Thirty of these teaohers r e ­
ceived their training in U t a h universities, three in universities outside
the State.
These three w e r e New York University, the University of Montana,
and the University of California at Los Angeles.
B.
(Table CCXXXIV, page 356.)
Degree Held
3.
Thirty o f the ihirty-three teaohers who reported oollege a t ­
tendance graduated.
Two d i d not graduate.
The year of graduation extends
from 1907 to 1938; in the latter year four teaohers were graduated.
Three
of the thirty teaohers hold a master's degree, seven the baohelor of arts,
and twenty the baohelor o f soienoe.
C.
(Table CCXXXIV, page 355.)
Major and Minor Fields
4.
Thirty-two of the thirty-four shorthand teaohers reported
their major and minor preparation as well as the major and minor teaching
field in the high schools.
Twenty-five were trained in business eduoation
subjeots, either as a ma j o r or as a minor field of preparation.
These
teaohers are all teaching business subjeots, either as a major or as a minor
teaching assignment.
Seven of the thirty-two were not trained in business
subjeots, and five o f these are teaching business subjeots either as a
major or as a minor teaching assignment.
D.
(Table CCXXXV, page 356.)
Teaching Certificate
5.
Thirty-two shorthand teaohers reported the teaching certificate
377
they held*
Twenty-five have the Utah High Sohool Certificate, two have
the Utah High Sohool Life Certificate, one has the Utah and Idaho Certifi­
cate, one the Utah a n d California Certificate, and t w o are teaching on the
Utah Special High Sohool Certificates.
E.
(Table CCXXXYI, page 357*)
Graduate Work
6.
Twenty-four of -thirty-one teaohers have had graduate work.
Twenty-three o f the twenty-four reported the year in nhioh this work was
taken; the range is from 1933 to 1938, eleven reporting graduate study in
1938*
Twenty-two reported the university or college where the graduate
work had been taken*
These institutions include the three universities in
Utah, one business oollege in Utah, and four universities and one business
oolle ge outside -the State*
F.
(Table CCXXXVII, page 358*)
Business Experience
7*
Twenty-five teachers reported praotioal business experience
in stenography, treasurer ship, olerioal work a nd accounting, accounting and
auditing, olerioal work and retailing, bookkeeping and salesmanship, a c ­
counting and retailing, bookkeeping and stenography, and office work.
Ten
of these twenty-five teachers have had experience in stenographic work, one
in bookkeeping and stenographic, and one in office work*
Six of them re -
ported lesB than one year's experience; seven one to three years; six, three
to five years; two, five to ten years; and three, t e n to twenty years' e x ­
perience*
G*
(Table CCXXXVIII, page 389*)
Teaching Experience, Humber of Years
8.
Thirty-two shorthand teaohers reported forty-nine different
teaohing positions that have been K&ld in Utah;two in Utah and Idaho; one
378
in Utah and Montana; one in Utah and Colorado; one in Utah and Nevada;
and one in Utah and Arizona.
The average number of years of teaohing e x ­
perience -was nine and the average number of years of teaohing in one sohool
was six*
Twenty-one of these thirty-two teaohers reported only high sohool
teaohing experienoe; four high sohool and elementary sohool; two junior and
senior high sohool; and two high sohool and junior college experienoe.
(Table CCXXXIX, page 360.)
H.
Teaohing Experienoe, Subjeots Taught
9.
Thirty shorthand teaohers reported a total of twenty-five d i f ­
ferent subjeots they had taught.
Typewriting, bookkeeping, shorthand,
English, and office praotioe were reported more frequently than other sub­
jeots.
Eight other business subjeots and twelve nonbusiness subjeots were
reported.
I.
(Table CCXL, page 361.)
Number of Periods Taught
10.
The mean number of pupils in class is twenty-nine, with a range
from eight to sixty-eight; the mean number of minutes teaohing, per day, is
317, with a range from 240 to 420 minutes; the olass period has a mean
length of fifty-three minutes, the mode is fifty-five minutes, and the
range is from twenty-five to sixty minutes; the mean number of classes
taught eaoh day is six, and the range is f r o m five to eight; and the mean
number of different subjeots taught eaoh day is three, while the range is
from one to six.
J.
(Table CCXLI, page 362.)
Extracurricular Aotivities
11.
Forty-six extracurricular aotivities were reported by twenty-
five shorthand teaohers.
These activities
range from fifteen reports of
379
adviser to b o y s ’ and girls' olubs to one sohool bookstore manager.
The
mean number of hours spent in this activity, per week, is five and fourtenths, the range is from one t o twenty-five hours; the mean number of
pupils in this activity is 138, the range is from six to 490.
(Table
CCXLII, page 363.)
K.
Reading Habits
12.
Twenty-seven of -Hie thirty-four shorthand teaohers reported
twenty-four different magazines a nd fourteen books regularly read by than.
Sixteen teaohers reported the Gregg W r i t e r ; thirteen the Balanoe Sheet;
eleven the Reader's D i g e s t ; eight the National Education Association p u b ­
lications; seven -Hie Journal of Business Eduoation; six the Utah Eduoation
Association Journal; six the Business Eduoation World; three eaoh Time and
Nation's Business; two eaoh Harpers Weekly and Consumer Research.
teaohers reported one other magazine eaoh.
four deal with business eduoation.
L.
Fourteen
Of the fourteen books reported,
(Table CCXLIII, page 365.)
Membership in Professional Associations
13.
Twenty-eight of the thirty-four shorthand teachers reported
the professional teaohers' associations they belonged to.
The Utah Eduoa­
tion Association leads w i t h t h i rteen memberships; the National Eduoation
Association is next w i t h nine memberships; looal teaohers’ associations
are third with four; California Teaohers Association and Alpha Iota, w i t h
one eaoh.
M.
(Table CCXLIV, page 366.)
Membership in Nonprofessional Organizations
14.
Nineteen of thirty-four shorthand teaohers reported twenty-
nine memberships in ten community ^organizations in whioh they perform some
380
public e ervioe.
Fourteen of these twenty-nine are in the Latter Day Saint,
or Mormon, Church.
One teaoher reported the office of Bishop in this ohuroh.
Three reported membership in the Business and Professional Women's Organi­
zation, in which one is seoretary.
Two reported membership in the Chamber
of Commeroe (one is a director) and two in the Lions Club (one is publicity
director).
One reported membership in the Junior Chamber of Commeroe; two
in cooperative associations; two in Parent Teacher Associations; and one
each as W.P.A. art instructor, library board member, a nd Literary a n d E x ­
change Club member.
(Table CCX3LV, page 367.)
Methods of Measuring Pupil Achievement
A.
Number of Tests Given
15.Twenty-two of the -thirty-four teachers reported a
written tests eaoh semester; the mode is four a n d the range
twelve.
mean of five
is from two to
(Table CCXLVI, page 368.)
16.
Thirty-one shorthand teaohers reported a total o f 119 tests
used by them during a regular course in business education. These tests
are all objective in nature, with the exception of the essay type, reported
b y nine teaohers.
B.
(Table CCLI, page 374.)
Methods of Measurement Other than Tests
17.
Thirty-one of the thirty-four shorthand teaohers reported
methods of determining the pupil's grade in classes.
Class participation was
reported first b y twenty-eight teachers; general class attitude, by six
teaohers; a series o f tests w a s reported by twenty-six teaohers; application
b y twenty-five; attendance b y twentyy performance by nineteen; laboratory
w o r k b y eighteen; final tests by thirteen; general impression b y ei$it; oral
381
tests by six; and term papers b y four.
C.
(Table CCXLVII, page 368.)
Evaluation of Methods Used
18.
Twenty-seven shorthand teaohers reported o n the evaluation of
methods used to determine pupil grades.
The following methods were ranked
first, seocnd, or third b y these teachers as follows:
performance was m e n ­
tioned fifteen times; a series of tests thirteen times; laboratory work
eleven; application twelve; class participation ten; attendance eight; a nd
final tests were mentioned by t w o teachers.
(Table CCXLVIII, page 369.)
Problems in Business Eduoation
A.
National
19.
Problems in business eduoation from a national viewpoint w e r e
listed b y nine shorthand teaohers.
These problems are varied in nature a n d
oover a wide field, with b u t two teaohers reporting -the same problem.
was a vital ore, however —
This
that of discovering in advance die needs of
business in order to train only the number of pupils likely to be plaoeable
in a given community.
Other problems were the provision of more jobs for
graduates, more practical training for pupils in the business eduoation d e ­
partment, a better ourriculum philosophy, intelligent direotion of wealth
souroes, a better application o f theory, and more nationalsupport t o help
build looal business eduoation departments.
The teaohers of accounting r e ­
ported eleven national problems in business eduoation in Table CLX, page 244 ,
These were very much like the problems listed by the shorthand teachers.
(Table CCXLIX, page 370.)
382
B»
Looal
20.
Twenty-one looal problems in business eduoation were listed by
the shorthand teaohers, compared with twenty-one by the aooounting teaohers,
in Table CLX, page 244.
are,
These problems listed by the two groups of teaohers
like the national problems, very similar in nature.
Three teaohers of
shorthand would have more jobs provided for graduates; two would adjust the
number trai n e d to the employment demands of the community; two would provide
better oourses of study; two would provide vooational testing far graduates;
and t w o would provide a better background for business eduoation graduates.
Ten o ther problems regarding the profioienoy of the business eduoation
graduate were listed by t e n teaohers.
(Table CCXLIX, page 370.)
Value of Commeroial Contest
21.
The oommeroial oontest, sponsored b y Brigham Young University,
was reported favorable in character by fourteen of twenty-seven shorthand
teaohers; negative in character b y ten teaohers; and as neutral in charac­
ter b y three teaohers.
The superintendents reported favorably upon the oon­
test b y a v ote of ten of eighteen reporting; the principals b y a v o t e o f
eighteen of twenty-five; and the teaohers of aooounting by a vote of four­
teen of t w e n t y reporting, as reoorded in Table XXXII, page 74.
CCL, page 373.)
(Table
CHAPTER XXII
TEACHING METHODS
Teaching methods are important in the conduct of business education
since the outcomes can be n o better than the quality of instruction given.
This is the second ohapter devoted to this subject.
The praotioes of the
teaohers of aooounting were reported in Chapter XV, page
•
TABLE CCLII
Do you use objeotive tests as an a id in selecting pupils
for business subjects or to determine who shall be admitted
to the study of business?
Objeotive tests
Number of replies
"res"
"No"
6
25
Total
31
Objeotive tests are interpreted to include those that can be given
and scored by different people with comparable results.
The opposite to
this type is the essay test which must be soored b y the person who gave it
in terms of subjective judgment.
The objeotive tests were given by only
six of thirty-one of the teaohers of shorthand to aid them in determining
which pupil should take business eduoation subjeots.
This is understandable
sinoe shorthand learning is tested primari ly b y performance and not ability
to make judgments.
384
TABLE CCLIII
Is business English in your school taught by a teaoher
■mho majored in business?
Number of reports
Business English
Taught b y major in business
"Yes"
"No"
Subject not taught in our sohool
Total
2
18
11
31
Replies to this question shorn that in only two of the thirty-one
sohools is business English taught by a teaoher who majcred in business.
It is not taught a t all in eleven of the sohools and is taught in the re­
maining eighteen b y teaohers who did not major in business.
Perhaps
im­
provement in the teaohing of business English might be achieved if it were
taught by a business major.
Others may teach business English effectively
but the teaoher who majored in business, and of course studied English,
should know giore intimately the needs of the business pupil in this sub­
ject and should, ■therefore, b e able to do the job more efficiently than
other teaohers.
Nichols sayss
Surely no general English course can be expected to produoe efficiently and oertainly the speoial kind of ability
in the use of the mother-tongue vhich men engaged in any
particular kind of activity need most....it may be suggested
that such vocationalized English as is needed in a commercial
curriculum should b e coordinated with other subjeots, and thus
leave undisturbed the subject of English as an important part
of a ny high school curriculum. ^
1.
Frederick G. Nichols, Ctomeroial-Eduoation in the High Sohool, p. 384.
385
TABLE CCLTV
Is a part of the class period devoted to study in any of
the classes you teach?
Subject
Mean time for study
in minutes
Business law
Bookkeeping
Office praotice
Sho rthand
Junior business
English
Typewriting
All classes
Occasionally
None
Number of times reported
30
27
30
17
30
25
40
1
6
2
8
1
2
2
22
4
1
JL
Total
28
Number of teachers reporting
22
Twenty-two of thirty-four shorthand teachers replied to t
tion, w i t h a total of twenty-eight classes reported.
One teaoher reported
that thirty minutes of the class period in business law was devoted to study,
six reported a mean of twenty-seven minutes for this purpose in bookkeeping,
two a m ean of thirty minutes of study in office praetioe, eight a mean of
seventeen minutes for study in shorthand, one allowed thirty minutes in
junior business, two a mean of twenty-five minutes in English, two a mean
of forty minutes in typewriting, and four a mean of twenty-two minutes for
study in all classes.
One teacher reported no time w as allowed for study
during the olass period, and one other that some time was given occasionally
for this purpose*
386
TABLE CCLV
About what proportion o f time, in minutes, in the classes
you teach, is devoted to the textbook and the project
method of teaching?
Mean time given
to textbook
(minutes)
Class
Mean time given
project
(minutes)
29
31
29
40
30
Bookkeeping
Shorthand
Typewriting
English
Business law
Junior business
Business essentials
Offioe practice
History
5
9
40
24
31
10
1
1
1
1
2
__1
20
30
25
30
37
25
30
23
20
Number of
times reported
Total
31
Number of teachers reporting
18
Eighteen of thirty-four shorthand teaohers reported a total of
thirty-one classes in whioh part of the olass period was devoted to the
textbook method and part to the project method.
Five teachers reported that
a mean of twenty-nine minutes o f the bookkeeping olass period was devoted
to the textbook method and a m e a n of forty-minutes of the class period to
the projeot method.
Nine teachers reported a mean of thiriy-one minutes
devoted to the textbook a nd twenty-four to the projeot method in shorthand.
Ten teaohers devote a mean of twenty-nine minutes to the textbook and thirtyone minutes to the projeot in typewriting.
One teacher devoted forty minutes
to the textbook aad twenty minutes to the projeot in English.
law one teaoher devoted thirty minutes to eaoh method.
reported by one teaoher.
none to the textbook.
In business
Junior business was
Twenty-five minutes was devoted to projeot and
One teaoher reported thirty minutes to eaoh method in
387
business essentials.
Two teachers reported in office practice a mean of
twenty-three minutes t o the textbook and thirty-seven to the projeot.
In
history one teacher reported twenty minutes to the textbook and twenty-five
to the projeot.
The subjects of bookkeeping, shorthand, and typewriting
account for twenty-four of the thirty-one classes reported.
The time seems to be about evenly divided between the t e x t b o o k and
the projeot metiiod.
Soane of the business eduoation subjeots, particularly
typewriting and bookkeeping, are well suited to the use of the p r o j e o t
method, a n d it is encouraging t o find this method in use
in the business
eduoation departments of the h i gh schools of Utah.
TABLE CCLVI
Please list,in the order of your own preference, the methods
or approaches you use i n teaching your major subjeots, as for
example, the functional method in shorthand.
Subject and method
Number of reports
Shorthand
Functional method
Direct method
Total
18
2
20
Typewriting
Touoh method
Direct method
Projeot method
Rational
Total
8
2
2
1
13
Bookkeeping
Balance sheet approach
Problem method
Total
1
1
2
Junior Business
Projeot method
1
Number of teaohers reporting
-
20
388
The functional nBthod is used by the teachers of shorthand to pre­
sent the subject in eighteen of the twenty-two high schools reporting on
this question, and two other teaohers use the direct method.
Eight teaohers of typewriting reported that t h e y use the touoh method
in presenting typewriting, two
uses the rational method.
use the direct, two the projeot,
and cue
Two teaohers reported the methods they use in
presenting bookkeeping as the balanoe sheet and the problem method.
One
teaoher reported the projeot method as the one he used in presenting junior
business, although this is not one of the major business subjeots in the
high sohool in whioh he -teaches.
TABLE CCLVII
If you take your classes on excursions, please check the
following uses you make of the information gained.
Uses made of exoursione
To
To
To
To
Number of times reported
give pupils actual business information
stimulate pupil interest
aid in placement of pupils
oheok on teaohing methods
10
9
3
_2
Total
24
Number of teaohers reporting
13
Several o f the teaohers reported two or more of the reasons
enumerated; this aooounts for the fact that twenty-four reports were made
by thirteen teaohers of shorthand.
Thirteen teaohers reported on the use
they m a d e of olass excursions to business firms.
Ten reported that these
excursions w e r e used to give the pupil aotual business information and oontaots that w o u l d help the pupil, after graduation, bottc in securing a po­
389
sition said in holding one after it was secured.
Nine teaohers use excur­
sions to help create pupil interest in business subjeots.
Three teachers
reported that they took pupils on excursions to help oreate placement for
pupils.
Two teachers reported they used these trips to business firms as a
check on their o m
teaching methods, t o make sure they were teaohing pupils
skills and methodsthey would need in aotual business after graduation.
TABLE CCLVIII
Do you approve of extra periods in typing?
Does your sohool provide for them?
Extra periods
In shorthand?
Number of reports
Do you approve of extra periods in typing?
"Yes"
"No"
Total
23
6
29"
Do you approve of extra periods in shorthand?
"Yes"
"No"
Total
21
5
26
Does your sohool provide extra periods in
either typewriting or shorthand?
"Yes"
"No"
Total
8
19
27
Number of teachers who replied
29
Twenty-nine of thirty-four shorthand teaohers replied to this ques­
tion.
Of this number twenty-three are in favor of extra periods far type­
writing pupils, while six are not in favor of this arrangement.
Twenty-one
teaohers of shorthand favor these periods for their pupils and five do not.
Only eight of the high sohools provide these extra periods for pupils while
390
nineteen d o not.
If these extra periods provide praotioe enabling the
pupils to advance more rapidly, the sohools should make every effort to
provide them f or the better training of pupils.
TAB IE CCLIX
In what way, or ways, might the superintendent or principal
cooperate to make business education more effective in your
sohool?
Suggestions
Humber of replies
Provide more equipment and enlarge curriculum
They do oooperate fully n o w
Secure a better understanding of business eduoa­
tion problems a n d provide for selection of
pupils
Provide more rooms and teaohers
Have pupils in business education prepare all pro­
grams for sohool functions
Add two years of shorthand to oourse of study
Improve facilities for centralized business teaohing
Apply for vocational lUnd under George-Deen Aot
Provide more highly specialized courses and seleot pupils for business courses
8
5
_1
Total
23
3
2
1
1
1
1
Twenty-three of the thiriy-four diarthand teaohers answered this
question.
Eight teaohers w a n t more equipment and a n enlarged ourrioulum,
two asked for m ore rooms and t e a o h e r s ,and one asks for two years of short­
hand.
This makes eleven, almost one -half the total number reporting, ask­
ing for facilities that will cost the sohool more money than they are
ing at present.
spend­
Since the appropriation of money is the function of the
sohool boards and not of the administration, these requests should b e passed
on t o the school boards f o r solution.
A n appreciation of the need on the
part of the public will more than_likely be necessary before action on
391
this request will be taken.
Five teaohers reported full cooperation at
present; -three suggested -the administration become better acquainted with
the problems of business eduoation and that pupils be selected before
entering business subjeots; one suggested that pupils i n business eduoa­
tion, presumably in typewriting, prepare a l l school programs; another sug­
gested that business teaohing be made more oentralized in order that better
equipment and teaching might be provided; one
teaoher wants funds from the
George-Deen Act to aid his department, w h i c h is, of course, impossible; and
one asks for more highly specialized courses in business and for seleotion
of pupils for al 1 business subjects.
Summary of the Chapter
Use of Tests in >Seleot ion of Shorthand Students
1.
Twenty-five of thirty-one shorthand teaohers reported that ob­
jeotive tests to determine w h o should study shorthand were not given pupils.
Six teaohers reported that they were used to determine, in part, who should
be admitted to the study of business subjeots.
(Table CCLII, page 383.)
Teaohing of Business English
2.
Business English is taught in b u t t w o sohools by a teaoher who
majored in business education; in eighteen schools it is taught by a teaoher
who did not major in business; and in eleven high sohools the subjeot is
not given.
(Table CCLIII, page 384.)
Teaohing Methods Empl o y e d
A.
Method Used
3.
In twenty-one of the thirty-four high sohools, approximately
392
one h a l f the olass period,
is used for study*
Seventeen minutes represents
the shortest period used for study, vhioh was reported far shorthand*
The
longest time r e p orted f o r study was in typewriting where forty minutes of
the class period w a s used for this purpose.
It should b e remembered that
the m e a n olass p e r i o d was reported in Table CCXLI, page 362, as fifty-three
minutes in length.
B.
(Table CCLIV, page 385.)
Proportionate Time Various Methods Are EmjJoyed.
4.
Eighteen of the thirty-four teaohers reported that approximately
one half the olass period was devoted to the projeot method of subject m a t ­
ter presentation an d the remaining aha half to the textbook method.
Nine
subjeots were reported a total of thirty-one times by eighteen shorthand
teachers.
Twenty-four of the reports were on the three major business e d u ­
cation subjeots of shorthand, typewriting, and bookkeeping.
(Table CCLV,
page 386.)
0.
Approaohes Used in Teaching Business Subjects
5.
The m e t h o d s o f teaohing used to present shorthand a re quite
largely the functional method, with eighteen of the twenty shorthand teaohers
reporting this method and the direct method reported by the remaining teaohers.
In typewriting, eight teachers reported the touoh method,
two reported the
direot, two the projeot, a n d one the rational method of presentation.
But
two teaohers of s h o rthand reported the method they used to present bookk e e p ­
ing: one reported the balance sheet and the other the problem method.
one teaoher reported the projeot method in junior business.
page 389.)
But
(Table CCLVI,
393
D.
Use of Excursions
6.
Thirteen of the thirty-four shorthand teachers sent in twenty-
four reports on the use they mate of class excursions to business firms.
Ten teachers use them to give the pupil actual business information to
supplement classroom theory.
Nine reported that the excursions were used
to stimulate pupil interest in the business subject.
Three reported that
placement opportunities were created b y these excursions, and two reported
that they used them to oheck on the teaching methods they are using t o p r e ­
sent the subject in question.
(Table
CCLVII, page 388.)
Administrative Aid for Improved Instruction
in Business Education
A.
Additional Periods
7.
The teachers of shorthand were asked whether or not -they approved
of extra periods in shorthand and typewriting.
Twenty-three of the twenty-
nine teachers who replied to this question approve
of these extra periods
in typewriting; twenty-one of twenty-six approve of t h e m in shorthand.
In
eight of the twenty-seven high schools reporting, these extra periods are
provided a t the present time.
B.
(Table CCLVIII, page 389.)
Suggested Methods of Administrative Cooperation
8.
Twenty-three of the -thirty-four shorthand teachers suggested
means by which the administration might more fully cooperate with them to
inorease the effectiveness of instruction in the business education depart­
ment.
Eight of the twenty -three teaohers suggested the administration p r o ­
vide the department with more business eduoation equipment and an enlarged
curriculum.
Five of the twenty-three reported satisfactory cooperation on
the part of the administration at the present time.
Three teaohers sug-
394
gested the administrators secure a b e t t e r understanding of business edu­
oation and provide for some selective prooess t o limit the pupils who study
business eduoation t o those with apfcitud© and ability for business*
Two
teachers suggested that more rooms and teaohers be provided for various
business education subjects.
teacher each:
The following five needs were reported by one
have pupils in business eduoation prepare all programs for
sohool functions; add t w o years of shorthand to the course of study; im­
prove
facilities for centralized business teaching; apply for funds under
the George-Deen Aot; and provide more hi^ily specialized courses and select
pupils for business oourses.
(Table CCLIX, page 390»)
CHAPTER XXIII
CONCLUSIONS A N D H B CCMENDATIONS
Certain questions concerning the present status of business e d u ­
oation in the secondary sohools of Utah were presented in Chapter II, page 7.
These questions covered eight fields of interest in business eduoation.
Materials with which these questions might b e answered were presented in
Chapters V to XXIJ,inclusive.
It is the purpose of the investigator to
draw conclusions from t h e summaries of these ohapters and to state rec o m ­
mendations that grow out of these conclusions.
The material in this chapter
will be presented under eight headings, corresponding to the questions r e ­
ferred to in Chapter II.
I.
Cb.jeotives, Chapter V.
A.
Conclusions
1.
The acid test of the quality of any business eduoation is r e ­
vealed in the kind of thinking, or the quality of notion, or both, which a
person reveals in a business situation.
The objective of business e duoation
seems to indicate the necessity of training in both vocational skills a n d in
occupational intelligence.
That the kind of thinking, or the quality of n o ­
tion, or both, -sihioh a person reveals in a business situation is the acid
test of the quality of business eduoation is the belief of ninety-one per
cent of the teaohers and administrators in the high schools of Utah.
Ninety-
nine per cent of these men and women reported that the business education de­
partment should attempt to train- pupils in occupational intelligence.
395
This
396
training should oonsist of charaoter development and the imparting of in­
formation about the limitations of the initial position, about occupational
relationships, about promotional possibilities,and abo u t the part of the
employee in securing desired advancement.
2*
A rather definite "school centered" point of v i e w was expressed
by the administrators and teachers in reply to the question, "Do you b e ­
lieve that business eduoation tal©s place only when techniques, thoroughly
learned, are successfully put to work in a real business transaction?"
Sixty
per cent of those addressed replied that it was not necessary to put the
information to use in order to complete the process of business eduoation.
Aooording to this viewpoint, a l l that is neoessary in business eduoation is
to train pupils in the theory of the subject at hand.
It is equally un­
necessary to provide real business transactions for the application of busi­
ness education principles*
This tends too definitely to the academio pre­
sentation of business eduoation rather than t o the practical application of
principles as they are learned*
It emphasizes the tsndenoy t o regard the
sohoolrocsn as a plaoe o f preparation for life rather than a place where life
situations are met and solved much as they will have to be m e t and solved
in later life*
3.
The eduoation of every member of society should be oomposed
of both vocational and nonvooationa 1 eduoation, according to the report of
ninety-six per cent of the administrators and teachers
of the State.
in the high schools
General eduoation alone is not sufficient to train the pupil
to make wise use of his income in the provision of food, clothing, housing,
recreation for himself and his family, and to enable h im to protect himself
against the risks of fire, death, old age, sickness, unemployment, and ao~
397
oident aooording to the report of sixty-six per cent of the administrators
and teaohers.
Business eduoation should take the lead in training every
individual in these
4.
important aspeots of his life.
The vocational objective is the distinctive, but not the exclu­
sive, phase of business education, according to the opinion of eighty-four
per oent of the administrators and teaohers in the high sohools of the State.
This expression of opinion is in the proper direotion, since it will tend to
develop a program o f learning a n d doing in high sohool rather t h a n one of
preparation for life after sohool days are past.
5.
Vocational business eduoation courses in the high
the State should be so planned,
sohools of
in the opinion of seventy-seven per oent
of those reporting, that they prepare the pupil to meet the employment d e ­
mands of the community in wh i c h the pupil will be likely to find employment.
These courses should be so planned, according to the report of seventy-eight
per cent of those replying, that they enable the pupil to develop in o c­
cupations within the various fields of business —
not just for
"selling,"
"business," eto., b u t for occupations within these fields of business.
Ninety-eight p e r oent of the administrators and teaohers reported that the
curriculum in business eduoation should be developed through the enlightened
efforts of the business a n d the eduoational workers of the community, and
ninety-five p e r oent reported that the needs of the community should be c on­
sidered in this revision.
A rather definite revision of the existing b u s i ­
ness education ourricula will be necessary before this objective can be
brought into agreement with praotioes in the high sohools.
6.
If business eduoation is to be most satisfactory, it must be
based upon a p r o gram of guidance whioh includes placement in vocational p o ­
sitions and follow-up of pupils so placed, aooording to the statement of
398
ninety-eight per oent of the administrators and teaohers in the State.
This
vocational guidance must "be based upon the use of new and improved testing
devices to determine the degree of success of pupils while studying business
courses, and upon careful placement and follow-up to reveal the diortoomings
of the training they have received while in high sohool.
7.
Eighty-four per oent of the administrators and teaohers reported
that the public high sohool should provide short, intensive courses in busi­
ness eduoation subjects to enable those n o t in full-time high school to in­
crease the skills they already possess and t o learn new ones.
Presumably
this training would be largely post-high sohool training and would tend to
merge into the work of the public junior college as it is organized in Utah
at the present time.
The administrators and teachers in the high sohools o f Utah reported
very heavily that vocational business eduoation should be given largely on
the junior college and senior high school levels.
8.
Eighty-four per oent of the administrators and teaohers reported
that some plan must be adopted that will adjust the number o f pupils elect­
ing vocational business subjects to the employment demands of the community
in which they will later seek employment.
This does not mean limitation of
enrollment in any oourse or courses, except in the sense that pupils should
be guided into programs whioh prepare for those oooupations which offer
reasonable chances for employment.
The business education department must
b e able to advise pupils intelligently in this matter.
Therefore steps will
of necessity have t o be taken by this department to discover rather definitely
what the employment demands are in the various fields of business enterprises.
9.
Reports indicate that the type of business eduoation most needed
399
in Utah at the present time is agricultural business eduoation a nd personaluse business information.
The courses offered at the present time are not
meeting the expressed needs o f the communities as fully as they should,
sinoe bookkeeping and stenography were not listed as the most needed types
of business eduoation although they were both included in the list of
courses given, supplied by the administrators and teaohers.
10.
It is t h e duty of the business eduoation department to take the
lead in the development of a better understanding of both our sooial and
our eoonomio life, aooording to the report of ninety-eight per oent of the
administrators a n d teaohers.
11.
Pupils of less than average ability should be given prepara­
tion for business through the development of personal skills, aooording to
the report of forty-seven per oent of those who answered this question.
At
the same time, eighty-one P®r oent reported that these same pupils should
be given training in broad business praotioes and general information.
B.
Recommendations
1.
It is recommended that the entire business eduoation curricula
be revised through the joint effort of the business and educational per­
sonnel in the various communities of the State.
This revision should result
in the development of curricula that will provide training in occupational
intelligence stressing the "life centered" rather than the "sohool centered"
point of view, -that w i l l provide general business information f or every pupil
in high sohool, that w i l l adjust somewhat the number trained in a given
business occupation to the needs of the community in that occupation, and
that will provide specific vocational training in all branches o f a field
of business for whioh a demand has-been found to exist.
It is assumed
400
that this revision -mill also result in the determination o f the kind of
■business trailing that is most urgently needed in the various communities,
as well as the sohool level upon which this training should be given.
In
some it w i l l no doubt be found that agricultural business eduoation is the
most needed field of training, in otiiers stenographic training, an d in still
others clerical or retail store training m a y be found the dominant need in
the employment field*
2*
Complete training in vocational guidance seems to be necessary
for idle t e a c h i n g and the administrative personnel in the high sohools of the
State*
It is therefore recommended that the necessary steps b e taken to
acquaint these groups with the best guidance techniques, then t o adopt a
program of guidance in the secondary sohools that will be centered in the
classroom.
include
As far as business eduoation is concerned, this guidance should
placement and follow-up of the pupil after placement in order that
the training in vocational skills, general business information, and occupa­
tional intelligence oan be checked against the aotual needs of the pupil on
the job.
3*
It is recommended that a study b e made to determine the best
institution under publio sohool control in w h i o h t o offer training to pupils
no longer in full-time high sohool.
The possibility of Federal aid in the
training of this olass of pupil should not b e
II.
Teacher Personnel.
A.
overlooked.
Chapters VI, IX, X IV and XXI.
Conclusions
1.
Teaohers of business eduoation subjects
should be required to
keep in active touoh with practical business procedures, according to the
401
report of 119 of 122 teaohers and administrators.
Ninety-eight per oent of
the administrative and teaoher groups reported that this should h e the aim
of some administrative plan for this purpose*
The most favored method sug­
gested by these groups was summer w o r k in business firms, followed olosely
by the suggestion that teaohers a nd businessmen jointly revise the business
eduoation curriculum.
2*
The commercial contest in Utah, sponsored annually by Brigham
Young University, wa s reported as a positive faotor by approximately sixty
per cent of the administrators and teachers*
The chief criticism of the
oontest centered around the fact that t o o few pupils were drawn into aotive
participation.
This resulted in the intensive training of these few at the
expense of the majority of the class*
The superintendents were least in
favor of the oontest and the principals most heartily in aooord with it*
3.
groups*
The problems facing business eduoation were listed b y the four
The administrators believe that both vocational and general b usi­
ness eduoation should be taught a t the same time.
The teachers of stenography
would prefer knowing how many pupils areneeded in any occupational field b e ­
fore training tal®s plaoe.
The teaohers of accounting stress the desira­
bility of making more definite contacts with business during the training
period in high sohool*
All four groups mention the faot that businessmen
should be made more oonBcious of t he social obligation that rests upon them.
4.
The quality of instruction in the commercial department of the
high sohools of the State was reported b y thirty-one per oent of the super­
intendents as above the average found in other departments.
The teaohers <f
accounting reported on this question in about the same percentages as did
the superintendents*
402
5,
Forty-eight per cent of the high sohools reported membership
in an aoorediting agency.
In all oases the Northwestern Association of
Seoondary Sohools was named*
6*
There appears to be no cooperative retail training course in
ninety-three per oent of the high sohools reporting.
Seventy -two per oent
of these same sohools report that suoh a course should b e added to the
business education curricula in the high sohools.
7.
A speoial high sohool of oommeroe -was reported in but t w o of
the districts of the State.
Perhaps these are sufficient to oare for the
needs in Utah, since agriculture is the main industry.
8.
The administrators reported that most of the teaohers employed
are residents of Utah and that previous business experience is a desirable
factor for oommeroial teaohers.
There appears to be little preference for
men or w o m e n teaohers, although in the high sohools men teachers outnumber
women two to one.
In the business eduoation department, however, there are
slightly more wo m e n than men teachers.
The age group most favored at the
time of employment is f r o m twenty-six to thirty jears of age.
The principals
reported that the business teachers were more aotive in advanced eduoation
than were other teachers.
other teachers.
The daily teaching schedule w a s heavier than for
Thirty-eight per cent of the business teaohers have had n o
training or experienoe in business subjeots.
Eighty-four per cent of the
business eduoation teachers have oollege degrees and fifteen p e r oent have
the m a s t e r ’s degree*
sinoe 1933.
Approximately eighty per oent have taken graduate work
The major and minor teaching sohedules follow quite olosely
the preparation of the teaohers in business eduoation, with the exception of
those teaching with no training in business subjeots.
The teaohers themselves
403
reported (Tables CL and CCXXXV, pages
and 356) that seventeen per oent
•were teaching business eduoation subjeots without preparation.
The princi­
pals reported that thirty-eight per oent (Table LXLVII, page 153 ) were teach­
ing without preparation in business subjeots.
A definite tendency for a c ­
counting and stenographic teaohers to teadh in both branohes of business
eduoation was noted, due perhaps to the fact that both branohes were studied
in college.
Approximately eighty-five per oent of the teaohers have had
practioal business experience, most of it part-time, extending from 1911 to
the present time.
The daily teaching periods range from four t o eight, the
mean length o f the period is fifty-three minutes, a n d the number of pupils
in classes ranges from eight t o sixty-ei$it, w i t h a mean of twenty^niae
pupils in eaoh class.
Approximately eighty per cent of the teaohers do
extra our rioular work, the mean number of hours per week spent in this a c ­
tivity is six, with a range from one t o twenty-five hours.
The Balance Sheet and the Gregg Writer lead in the business eduoa­
tion magazines read.
The Journal of Business Bduoat ion and the Busines s Edu­
cation World were next in popularity.
Less than one half the teachers re­
ported membership in the Utah Educational Association.
The tests used by
the business teachers are largely objective in nature; the essay test was
reported as sixth in importance in a series of nine tests.
9.
The teaohers of shorthand and accounting reported activity in
eighty-four extracurricular activities.
B.
Reoommendat ions
1.
Same definite plan to govern the type and time of practioal
business experience for the business eduoation teacher should be worked out
end adopted on a Statewide basiB.^
404
2.
The Commercial Contest should b e oontinued, but steps should
be taken to insure the participation of more pupils in the finals held
each Maroh at Brigham Yo u n g University,
the national Clerical Ability Tests,
The possibility of making use of
sponsored b y the National Counoil for
Business Education, for this contest should not be overlooked.
3.
A careful study should b e made o f each community in the State
in which a cooperative
retail training course might appe ar to be of value.
Such a course should be established in those communities where it seems to
be justified by the results of the investigation.
4.
The practice of permitting teaohers who have hadno training
in business education t o teach these subjeots should be reduced as much as
it is practicable. The faot that in some of the small high sohools this
praotice is difficult t o eliminate is the basis for the recommendation
that the proportion be r e d u c e d rather than entirely eliminated, although
the latter would be more desirable.
5.
The bachelor degree should be required of all business educa­
tion teachers.
The practice of permitting some to continue teaching with­
out this training should be discouraged as early as is feasible.
6.
A campaign should be undertaken to increase membership in
the business eduoation department of the Utah Eduoation Association, and
this group should petition the National Counoil on Business Eduoation for
membership in that organization.
organization would help
Perhaps a vitalized program in the State
in this direction.
405
III*
Pupil Personnel (Guidance).
A.
Chapters VII, XII, and XVIII*
Conolus ions
1*
The pupils -who leave school before they graduate d o so, a c ­
cording to these data, beoause of economic reasons,
situation in the country at largo*
in contrast to the
The percentage of business education
pupils who drop out of high school before graduation is drastically higher
than for other departments.
The program of guidance for these pupils was
reported as unsatisfactory.
2.
More than two thirds as many pupils find employment in selling
occupations as in all other fields oombined.
Retail selling positions
lead within the field of selling*
3.
The personal shortcomings
evident in the pupils
of business
eduoation when they graduate from high sohool are largely inability to meet
people in an impressive manner, poor application, undesirable personalities,
and lack of real business experience.
They are lacking in ability in the
fundamental processes and have too narrow training in business education
subjeots.
Means supposedly for overcoming these weaknesses were the adap­
tation of a program of guidanoe, a reduction in teacher load and more di­
rect oooperation of high school, parent, and business organizations.
In
business eduoation a study of the entire curricular offering was suggested.
4.
Provision is made more frequently for the strong pupil in b usi­
ness eduoation than for the pupil who
is weak in ability.
frequently grouped according to their
abilityto
Pupils
learn.
are in­
Attempts are made
by the principal a n d the teachers to give pupils some guidanoe while
in
high sohool and less after they are plaoed in a position, although some
make this latter guidanoe available to pupils.
406
5.
Ninety-nine per oent of the principals reported they favored
the establishment of a course in personality training for all business
eduoation pupils.
They also reported that they regard personality traits
as first in importance in the selection of pupils for the business occupa­
tional preparing curriculum.
6.
The lowest fifth, intellectually, o f the high sohool population
is encouraged to enter trades and m a n u a l training.
Commercial -work was not
mentioned as a field in which these pupils were encouraged to study.
7.
The principals reported that the type of community from whioh
pupils cane to school was largely agricultural.
trial communities were reported.
fourths of the pupils are
Very few foreign or indus­
The parental occupations show that three
frcm agricultural homes.
The professional group­
ing is b e l o w the United States average and the agricultural grouping much
higher.
8.
Three pupils change frcm business to other curricula to one
pupil who changes from other curricula to that of business education.
9.
Local business absorbs few pupils as they graduate from high
school.
10.
Most of the teaohers plan to give pupils, during the last two
years of high sohool, most of the training needed to enter business, with
special emphasis plaoed on the last year's preparation.
This indicates
that the pupils who leave sohool before t h e y graduate tend to have little
vocational training in business.
B.
Recommendations
1.
In view of the fact that a muoh greater percentage of business
education pupils than of pupils from other departments leave school before
407
they graduate,
it is recommended that the reason for this heavy mortality
be determined through- a o a r e f u l study in the communities concerned*
2.
Provision for grouping pupils in classes according to their
ability to learn should b e made
in the larger high schools.
The reported
tendency to make provision for the strong pupil more often than for the slow
pupil should b e remedied b y this plan, particularly in the high sohools -where
grouping is put into effect.
In the smaller high sohools -where this group­
ing is difficult to accomplish, the slow pupil should be given personal a t ­
tention.
3.
Personality improvement should be stressed, perhaps not to the
exient of offering a class in personality improvement, as was suggested b y
the principals, but c e r tainly to the extent that teaohers become conscious
of the necessity of helping pupils overcome habits of manner, speech, a n d
bearing that are detrimental to their progress in school and that w i l l be
equally detrimental t o t h e m as they seek employment after leaving high
sohool.
4.
The principals reported that the pupils come into high
from agricultural homes in three oases out of four.
sohool
This condition should
be taken into consideration in the revision of the business e d u o ation c ur­
ricula as suggested under recommendation number one, page 39S*
IV.
Methods of Teaching.
A.
Chapters XV and XXII.
Conolus ions
1.
In all the h i g h sohools o f the State pupils studying business
eduoation for vocational purposes and those studying it for personal use
are taught in the same class.
Effort is made, however, by fifteen of
408
twenty-one teaohers, to differentiate in the subject matter offered to eaoh
of the two groups as well as in the emphasis placed on certain phases of
the instruction*
2*
Thirteen of thirty-one teachers of bookkeeping attanpfc to keep
all pupils on the same assignment at the same time.
The remaining number
permit the pupil t o w o r k individually at his own pace.
This latter method
has an advantage in that it permits individual instruction a nd aids the
teacher i n his efforts to place different emphasis on different phases of
the subject, thereby meeting the needs of personal-use and vooational pupils
in the same class.
Nineteen of thirty bookkeeping teaohers follow a d e ­
finite course of study*
3*
Unanimous opinion is held that bookkeeping should not b e taught
before the pupil reaches the tenth grade.
Twenty-seven per cent o f the
teaohers w o u l d permit it to be taught in the tenth grade.
The remaining
number would postpone this instruction until the eleventh grade is reached*
4.
Ninety-seven per cent of the teachers correct a n d hand back to
the pupil all papers of a major nature in bookkeeping.
Ninety-three per
oent use practice sets in the first year of bookkeeping and eighty-seven per
oent use them in the second year*
It appears from the foregoing that b u s i ­
ness education is taught in such a manner that the best use is made of
adequate textbook helps.
Objective and achievement tests are furnished
teachers, and most of these tests are used as a part of bookkeeping instruction.
5.
sixty-six
Excursions o f pupils to business firms are regularly used by
of ninety-one of the teaohers.
The uses made of the excursions
seem to b e in line with expressed needs in the field of business eduoation
in tiie h i g h sohools of the State, major emphasis being placed on pupil in-
409
formation and interest in business affairs.
6.
The fact that bookkeeping teaohers reported greater stress
upon sooial rather than vocational needs in classroom instruction seems
strange when so little attention to the social and general business objec­
tives have reportedly been given.
7.
In nine tenths of the high schools business English is taught
by a teaoher who did not major in business.
It appears that this subject,
if it is to give the best results, should be taught b y a teacher who is more
familiar with business praotices, providing that the training in English is
as thorough as it should be.
8.
The cooperation of the administrators with business eduoation
teachers appears to be quite satisfactory in nine of forty-two of the high
schools.
A definite expression of the need for more equipment, an enlarged
business curriculum, a n d additional teachers was made in twenty of sixtytwo of the cases reporting.
This expression should be considered in recom­
mendation one, page 399, concerning the revision of the business eduoation
curricula within the State.
9.
Uine methods of teaching bookkeeping were reported by the ac­
counting teaohers and one by a shorthand teacher.
proach was repotted most popular.
Nine shorthand teachers reported the
functional method of teaohing shorthand.
B.
The balanoe sheet ap­
This was the most popular means.
Recommendations
1.
Classes should be divided into two groups in bookkeeping, one
for the personal-use and general business information pupils a nd the other
for vocational training.
This re commendation should be carried out in both
first and second year classes, with particular emphasis on this procedure in
410
the seoond-year class.
Instruction in bookkeeping should be confined to
the last two years of the high school period.
2.
Glass excursions to business firms should be enoouraged, pa r t i c u ­
larly as a vehicle for making the class instruction more definitely a part
of aoutal business life.
Other means should also be used for this purpose,
such as keeping sohool activity accounts and cooperation with business
wherever possible.
Curriculum.
A.
Chapters VIII, XIII, XVII, and XIX.
Conelus ions
1.
The supervision of business education is in the hands of the
principals in all of the high sohools outside Salt Lake City.
In this oity,
and only here, is business education under the supervision of a business
eduoation specialist.
Just more than one half of these principals reported
that the courses o f study in business education were well adapted to the
needs of the pupils.
The remaining number would add courses when the need
for them has been revealed through a study of the community oonoerned.
The
following ocurses were recommended as additions to the present offering in
business education: a oourse in general business information for all pupils
in the high school, to serve as a source of ideas for consumer education; a
course in the management and operation of small, individually owned stores
and shops.
2.
The type of oourse recommended for personal use was almost en­
tirely in the skill subjects of shorthand, typewriting, and bookkeeping.
Business law was mentioned by a few principals.
These studids should be
taught to both vocational and personal-use pupils ih the same class.
411
3.
Required subjeots in business, education center largely around
shorthand, bookkeeping, and -typewriting and range from one unit to seven
units of required credit.
partment of the school.
Electives can be made in praotioally any d e ­
Practically no agreement was apparent in the num­
ber o f units of credit given for identically catalogued courses.
4.
Principals reported a somewhat cooperative method of construct­
ing the business education curricula.
The superintendent, the principal,
the teachers of business subjects, and in some cases the businessmen, were
consulted in this matter.
The principals reported that the business e du­
oation department d i o u M conduct a course in consumer education for all
high school pupils to b e taken for personal use and not as vocational pre­
paration.
Thirty-eight of forty principals reported that a course designed
to train pupils to operate a small, individually owned store or shop,
should be added to the business education curriculum.
5.
Uniformity in the use of textbooks in business education was
very marked, perhaps due to the fact that these books are adopted by the
State Textbook Commission for a period of five years.
The books appear to
be standard in every respect and represent leaders in the field.
6.
Prerequisites for business eduoation courses appear to consist
almost entirely of the first year of a skill subject for the second y e a r ’s
work.
No sequenoe in subject matter requirements was apparent.
7.
The newer courses in the more expensive type of business m a ­
chines were regarded as impractical exoept in the two or three larger
cities of the State.
Presumably placement could be found for pupils trained
to operate these machines in those localities.
8.
Courses in salesmanship cannot b e taught successfully without
practioal application of the theory studied.
Cooperation o f some kind should
412
be had -with
business firms for this purpose.
Retail-selling courses
were suggested as very satisfactory for this purpose by a number of those
questioned.
9.
Seventy per oent of the accounting teaohers are quite sure that
the subjeots taught in h i g h sohool are the subjeots the pupil uses after he
is placed in a position in industry or business.
The seoond year of a
skill subject m s much more useful in plaoement than tire first year o f the
subject.
Tire se reports indicate a somewhat well-chosen list of business
eduoaticn subjeots, although the present courses of study were not set up
as a result of a job survey of any kind.
More than one half the teachers
believe that a study of this type should be made for the revision of tire
existing course of study.
An indication that some study is needed to revise
the curriculum in this field is indicated by the ihct that the teachers r e ­
ported that in their opinion sixty-five per oent of the graduates of the
business eduoation department w i ll not continue their eduoation and that
forty per cent will not enter business occupations.
Fifty-nine per cent of
the teachers reported that business skills learned in high sohool were in­
strumental in placing pupils in business positions.
Tire average enrollment
in the business eduoation classes in the high sohools of Utah is thirty three and the average class period is fifty-nine minutes.
10.
The method of testing pupils in shorthand and typewriting
for their final grades consists almost entirely of speed, measured in net
words per minute.
tTo attempt is apparent to test them in all-round stenographic
ability, although all but t w o sohools train pupils in the use of the dupli­
cating machine and to type all high
reports, manuscript covers, etc.
school materials such as programs, class
The shorthand and typewriting classes
413
appear to b e conducted in suoh a manner that thorough training is given
the pupils,
B,
Reoommendat ions
1,
Supervisors of business eduoation should b e appointed in the
four largest cities of iiie State,
The smallest of these cities has a popu­
lation of 15,000 and seems large enough t o justify the
services of a super­
visor for both junior and senior high sohool commercial work.
In addition
to these district or city supervisors there should be a State supervisor
of business education to coordinate the activities of all these district
supervisors and the w o r k in the high schools where no supervisor is a p ­
pointed,
2,
The units of credit allowed for identioal courses in the dif­
ferent high schools of the State should b e standardized and a definite
sequence in courses set up to increase the preparation of the pupil for the
courses he elects, particularly in the last two years of -the high school
period,
3,
The measurement of efficient stenographic performance should
be less in terms of speed in wordsper minute and more in terms of all-round
stenographic ability, with stress plaoed uponability to do general office
work in addition to transcription and dictation speed.
VI,
Administration,
A,
Chapter XI,
Conelusions
1,
Adult education should be established in Utah, under the direc­
tion o f the high sohools.
This eduoation would of necessity b e evening
classes in order to permit attendance of employed adults.
The type o f work
414
that should be offered should b e
high schools.
less vocational than that offered in the
Courses reported in demand in evening schools -were,
order of the number of times reported,
in ihe
consumer education, salesmanship,
finance, book!©oping and f&rm accounting, typewriting, law and contracts,
shorthand,
and general eduoation.
form of education d i o u l d b e
tion.
From the list of subjects furnished,
this
of real educational value to the adult p o p u l a ­
If these courses could b e
taught by the regular business eduoation
faculty of the high sohool it should do m u o h to bring to the attention o f
the teachers the necessity of m a k i n g not only these evening courses but
the regular day courses also less academic and more closely related to life
problems.
The principals r e p orted that the high school teacher should n ot
be permitted to spend mere t h a n three or four hours per week in employment
outside the day olasses.
This m i g h t raise a proble m of administration
if the teachers were to conduct the evening classes.
2.
The business e d u o a t i on department in the majority of the higji
sohools has no regularly a p p o i n t e d head —
they had a department head*
only forty per cent reported
The remaining high schools evidently look to
the prinoipal for whatever guidance is necessary for this department.
The
general tendenoy seams to be to permit the department h e a d to handle the
budget only with the help o f the prinoipal or the superintendent.
In those
sohools where no department head is appointed this belongs to the principal.
The faot that the teaching load of the department head,
one is appointed,
in the schools where
is not r e d u c e d makes it seem that the position is one
with little real authority over the conduct of business eduoation within the
school.
3.
The practice o f asking a business eduoation teacher to conduct
415
two olasses
in the same period seems to be too widespread.
Sixteen p e r
.
oent o f the high sohools reporting mate this practice part of the regular
schedule.
Typewriting is taught, in the same period and by the same
teacher, with bookkeeping, shorthand, and general business.
Poorer methods
of instruction are quite certain to follow this praotioe than would be the
case if the olasses were taught singly.
4.
The high sohool offers an opportunity for pupils trained in
business eduoation to do many of the clerical and bookkeeping, as w e l l as
stanographio, tasks that must b e done by employed help if pupils are not
permitted to do this work.
Praotioally three fourths of the high schools
offer pupils this opportunity, with about two thirds of this number paying
for the
services with funds secured from the national Youth Administration.
5.
The administrators favor the idea of breaking the business
eduoation w o r k into smaller units, particularly in the larger high sohools,
and placing the accounting and allied subjects under one person's jurisdic­
tion, the stenographic under another, and the sooial business under still
a nother person's direction.
6.
The time of the principals of the high sohools is largely oc­
cupied in conferring with pupils, making guidance studies,
recommending
pupils to continue their eduoation at various higher sohools, and in class­
room teaching.
A rather large number of -the principals reported teaching
regular classes, usually one or t w o each day.
7.
The business eduoation department leads in the high sohools of
U t a h in offering oonsumer eduoation courses to the pupils
schools.
of the high
The home eoonamios department is next in this activity.
The busi­
ness education department offers this help to more boys than it does to girls,
416
while the home eoonomios department is just the reverse of tiis.
It appears
that these two departnents might well work out a cooperative plan to in­
clude all higfr sohool pupils.
B.
Recommendations
1.
It is reoommended that a study he made of the communities of the
State in order to determine in which are evening business courses for adults
in demand.
If these evening courses are offered it is suggested that the
business education teaohers in the high sohool be assigned to teach these
classes.
2.
The practice of a sking business teachers to conduct two classes
at the same period diould be discontinued as early as possible, in the in­
terest of the effioienoy of the teacher and in the quality of instruction
offered pupils in the classes concerned.
3.
The plan of permitting pupils to do the high sohool office work,
bookkeeping, and stenography should be continued and extended wherever p o s ­
sible for the purpose of providing opportunity to obtain actual experience
while still in school.
The payment of pupils for this work should be made
a regular part of the arrangement a n d standards equal to those found in
regular positions in business should be set up and rigidly maintained.
4.
The business eduoation and the home economics departments should
cooperate in offering oonsumer education courses to the pupils in the high
schools of the State.
The fhot -feat these two departments lead in this
offering at tie time o f the reports, together with the ftiot that the boys
and girls of the school c a n be so we 11 taken care of in this phase o f their
education by these two departments, makes this arrangement seem a desirable
iw* ■
one to adopt.
General business information and personal-use business edu-
417
oation should remain in the business eduoation department.
VII.
Cooperative and Evening Sohools.
A.
Chapters X and XVI.
Conclusions
1.
The superintendents reported in Chapter VI,
page 79, that a
cooperative arrangement was in effeot in four of the high sohools of the
State.
The principals and tlie teachers of aooounting agree that a coopers-
tive nrrangexaent is in effeot in but one o f the higja sohools.
Fourteen of
sixteen superintendents further stated that in their opinion suoh an arrange­
ment should be in operation in the high schools of the State.
Fourteen of
twenty principals o f the high schools believe that suoh a course should be
added to the ourriculum and sixteen o f twenty-five of the
teachers of a o ­
oounting are in agreement that this addition should be made.
crepancies
The d i s ­
shown in the first part of this statement cannot be explained b y
the investigator unless the question was misunderstood or that the meaning
of cooperative education was not clear to all recipients.
At any rate,
the administrators and the teaohers are in sufficient agreement that such a
oourse be added to the business eduoation curricula to support the recommen­
dation made
2.
in the third section on page 399..
The
merchants are inclined to regard ihe high school as the
agency
in which their future employees are trained, aooording to approxi­
mately
one half the high schools of the State.
equally divided
Opinion seams t o be quite
a l s o upon the question of making a conscious attempt to d e ­
velop this attitude in the local merchants.
3.
More positions are available for high school graduates,
opinion of the principals and the teaohers of accounting,
in the
in the field of
retail selling than in a n y other occupation, with the exception of agriculture.
418
One more report was reoeived for agriculture than for retail selling*,
Stenography was ranked third b y the teachers of aooounting, but provided
less than one third as many employment opportunit is s as did retail selling
or agrioulture,
4.
Few continuation or evening schools are in operation in the
communities of the State.
There they do exist the courses offered are
suited to the needs of the local groups, with courses for adults and for
high school pupils combined.
B.
Reoommendati ons
1.
An attempt should be made to aoquaint the merchants of the
larger conmunities with the training possibilities within the high schools
for pupils who might became employees at a later date.
This attempt should
tend to intdrest the businessmen in the high school program and to enlist
their aid in the development of curricula that will serve the needs o f both
the pupils and the businessmen.
VIII.
Equipment, Chapter XX.
A.
Conolus ions
1.
The physioal equipment in the business education departments
of the high schools of Utah is generally meager and confined largely to
the machine s that serve in the training of stenographers.
The result of
the recommendation made in section one, page 399, for the revision of the
entire business education curricula, should reveal the need for various
business courses and,
of course, for the equipment for these courses.
Until
the business education offering is more definitely in line with the b u s i ­
ness and industrial needs of the communities any extensive recommendations
419
for additional equipment would be quite meaningless.
1-Iore attention could be given, however, at the present tine to ti-ie
addition o f more of the relatively inexpensive type of machines and a p ­
pliances that a l l stenographers and office workers should be familiar with.
B.
Recommendations
1.
Until a survey of the business education curricula in the high
schools of the State has been made, and the resulting information concern­
ing the courses and machines rdqquired is obtained, it is recommended that
such items as posture chairs be made available in typewriting classes, that
telephones and switchboards be added to the department of business education,
and that -the use of adding, calculating and duplicating machines be made a
part of the office praotice or stenographic training oourse.
aiMNOTAT tyj
BIBLI0URa-EHY
Alexander, Carter, Educational Research, Teachers College, Columbia Univer­
sity, New York City, New York, 1931.
A specific outline for the guidance of graduate study in educational
work.Methods are set up to aid in choosing a subject, defining it, out­
lining it, working it up and finally writing up the report. Emphasis is
placed upon standards for dissertations in the graduate field of education
and a list of source material is given in the field of education.
Barringer, A. C., The Status of Teachers of Business Subjects in the state
of Idaho, Unpublished ivi. a. Thesis, University of Southern California at
Los Angeles, 1935.
A questionneire study of the status of teachers of business subjects
in Idaho. He recommends a better background training in science and mathe­
matics for business teachers and notes a rapid increase in the number of
business teachers who have secured the bachelor of science degree within
the past few years.
Bedford, James H . , Youth and the World's Work, A Study for Occupational
Research, Ltd., University of Southern California at Los Angeles, 1933.
America has reached the limit in the development of its occupational
frontier. The secondary schools have been educating youth largely for the
professions and the purpose of this book is to present the facts concerning
modern youth, his vocational interests, attitudes and abilities in com­
parison with the opportunities in the m o d e m vocational world. j. very help­
ful b o o k for sound vocational guidance,
Bernreuter, Arthur, Personality Tests, Stanford University Press, Palo
Alto, California, 1934.
This series of tests is designed to discover the personality pattern
of the individual as a basis for imporvement in the behavior habits of
life. The personality is divided into five phases ana this single test is
unique in that all of these five patterns are revealed in the one test. The
test is of the group type and can be administered economically and scored
objectively.
Bradshaw, Henry, The Status of Business Education in the State of Montana,
Unpublished fcu A. Thesis, University of Lourthem California at Los Angeles,
1936.
The high schools of Montana offered courses in shorthand, typev/riting
and bookkeeping in just more than one-half the schools of the State. The
larger high schools were beginning to add courses in retail selling and
the equipment for the use of the business education teacher was meagre.
Some teachers were teaching two classes in business at the same period. There
was a tendency to eliminate double periods in the skill subjects.
4L0
421
Brigham Young University, Records of Personnel Office, Provo, Utah, 1957, 1958.
The Thurstone Psychological Examination for freshmen has been given
annually to the newly entering class. The scores in this test include a section
in English and one in arithmetic. These scores are available for the nation
at large in the colleges and universities giving this test. The results offer
a valuable comparison of the entering classes in the colleges and universities,
not only in the psychological scores, but also in the sections dealing with
English and arithmetic.
Colvin, A. 0., Commercial Education in the Secondary Schools of Colorado,
Unpublished ti. a . Thesis, craeley State Teachers College, Greeley, Colorado,
1929.
Colvin found commercial subjects offered in three-fourths of the high
schools of the State, but instruction was confined to the skill subjects
of shorthand, typewriting and bookkeeping. There was no commercial curricula,
since all business subjects were elective and the same program was offered
in the small and in the large high schools. Fifty-one percent of' the com­
mercial teachers had no recognized college degree.
Cooperative Study of Secondary School Standards, Evaluative Criteria, American
Council on Education, 744 Jackson Place, Washington, D. C., 1958.
A check-list for the evaluation of standards in secondary schools by
use of which relative values can be assigned to conditions found to exist
in any individual high school. Continual, revision is made of these criteria
in the light of information revealed through the practical use of the
evaluative standards in the secondary schools of the country.
Dewey, John, The Sources of a Science of Education, Horace Liveright said
Company, New York City, New York, 1929.
.Dewey asks, " Is there a science of education? ” and ” Can there be
a science of education? " There is an intellectual technique by which dis­
covery and organization of material go on cumulatively, and by means of which
one inquirer can repeat the researches of another, confirm or discredit them,
and add still more to the capital stock of knowledge. The question as to the
source of a science of education is, then, to be taken in this sense.
The every-day activity of the class-room teacher must be brought into active
play in the development of the seience of education.
Directory of the Public Schools of Utah, compiled by the State Superintendent
of Public Instrudtion, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1936-39.
An annual directory of the personnel in the public schoolsof the
State of Utah.
Douglass, Harl R. , Secondary Education for iouth in Modern America, American
Council on Education, 744 Jackson Place, Washington, D. C., 1937.
A report to the American Youth Commission by Professor Douglass. The
approach to a philosophy of secondary education must be on the basis of the
relationship of the schools to the rest of society. No one plan for the re­
organization of schools in the country is suggested and no one type of school
is singled out. The plans tend to fall into two types: cooperative education,
" life school ” plans, similar to the Civilian Conservation Corps; and in­
formal voluntary schools for older youth and vocational schools, and junior
colleges. The curriculum development is very helpful for youth in modern
America to-day.
422
File, Clinton M., A Study of .Business Education in the Public Secondary
Schools of Pennsylvania, Unpublished Ed. D. Thesis, New York University,
New York, 1959.
A survey of business education in the public secondary schools of
Pennsylvania that offers a pattern for future studies of a similar nature.
'Che procedure follows the outline suggested by .Reynolds in her Handbook for
the study of business education.
Good, Carter V . , How to do Research in Education, Warwick and York, Baltimore,
Maryland, 1929.
A book designed to serve as a guide to researchers in education on
the graduate level. Extensive references are given to illustrate techniques
and procedures for use in reporting research problems. An excellent re­
ference for graduate students in education.
Haines, William E., Improvement in Classroom Teaching in Introduction to
Business, Eastern Commercial Teachers Association, Twelfth Yearbook, Phila­
delphia, Pennsylvania, 1959.
The vocational approach in introduction to business has been abandoned
in view of the personal use and consumer education qualities tnat can be
made the basic ideals of the course.
Herrick, 0. a ., The Meaning and Practice of Commercial Education, The
Macmillan Company, Newr York, 1904.
An appeal is made by Herrick for the business man and the educator
to work in closer harmony in the development of business education in the
secondary schools. Commercial education in Europe is reviewed, together with
the effects of the private business college, on the development of commercial
education in the United States.
Hopkins, I. E . , The Intelligence of Continuation School Children in Mass­
achusetts, Harvard Studies in Education, Five, 1924, Quote-" by Kooe and
Kefauver in Guidance in Secondary Schools, The Macmillan Company, Hew York,
1952.
Hopkins found thot the median score for the continuation school
children was thirty-five points, or two years and six months, below that
of pupils of like age who remained in school. But six per cent of the pupils
were found to leave school because of economic necessity. Suggestions are
made to help alleviate the social loss due to the early discontinuance of
secondary school pupils.
Kalin, Joseph, and Klien, Joseph J., Principles and methods in Commercial
Education, the Macmillan Company, New' /ork, 1S14.
These authors deplore the fact that up to the time of their publica­
tion the universities have offered no teacher training courses for commer­
cial teachers. This need must be filled and the business man must be made
acquainted with the aims, the values, and the methods employed in business
education. Cooperative schools must be established to link business training
and school theory more closely together.
Kitson, Harry D., Commercial Education in the Secondary Schools, Ginn and
Company, Boston, Massachusetts, 1929.
423
This book records the steps that the secondary schools are taking to
emancipate themselves from the prepossessions and traditions of the old
orderand to lay out th9 lines along which a type of commercial education
can be set up to meet the demands of modern business. Subject matter in
commercial education must not be academic, that is, it must not be an end
in itself. Eighteen contributors present different subject matter problems
with the means of improving the presentation of each.
Koos, Leonard V., The Questionnaire in Education, The Macmillan Company, New
York, 1928.
The first book to appear that deals with the u ceof the questionnaire
in education. An analysis of a large number of monographs reporting question­
naire investigations is made and these are compared with an even larger
number of investigations made by other methods. A combined criticue and
manual of the questionnaire in education that is very much to the point and
very useful to investigators who wish to use this method of research.
Lane, John R., Present Status of Business Teachers In California, Unpub­
lished iV. a . Thesis, University of Southern California at Los Angeles, 1955.
Business education subjects were taught in all the secondary schools
of the state. Seventeen per cent of the business education teachers in the
state had the master's degree and more than one-half the remainder had the
equivalent of one year of graduate study to their credit.
Lomax, Paul S., Commercial Teaching Problems, Prentice-Hall, Inc., New
York, 1928.
This volume deals with courses of study, in secondary and higher
educational instititions, in terms of putting to 'work, in concrete teachning
materials, principles of education drawn from such sources as educational
philosophy, scoiolo.ry and psychology. With this background business education
can find its rightful place in the general education system. A book of very
excellent foundation material for business education.
Lyon, Leverett S., Education for Business, The University of Chicago Press,
Chicago, Illinois, 1932.
Business education had never been subjected to annover-view". a s
a result many capable persons planning business courses and teaching
business subjects have planned and taught often in terms of tradition,
custom, or at best, immediate goals. To determine the general objectives
of business education, to indicate the important agencies concerned and to
suggest the piece of each, is the purpose of this book.
Marvin, Cloyd H., Commercial Education in Secondary Schools, Henry Holt
and Company, New York, 1922.
The secondary schools are rapidly adjusting their work to the
changing needs of<our developing social and economic system. As a result
of this adjustment it is imperative that business education champion its
own cause or the change will be made without the information concerning
business education that only business educators can furnish. Some of
the fundamental principles which should be included in the revision of
secondary education are set up.
National Education Association Research Bulletin, The Efforts of the
States to Support Education, volume XIV, number 3, May, 1936.
424
The question of the "ability", "adequacy", and "effort" of the
states to support education is considered in the study for the first time.
The rich states provide their schools with more adquate financial support
than do the poorer states and with less effort. There is a wide range in
relative effort and adequacy of the states to support education and no
significant relationship exists between the two factors, but a high cor­
relation does exist between the factors of ability and adequacy.
Nichols, Frederick G . , Commercial Education in the High School, D. AppletonCentury Company, New York, 1924Teachers of business education must be trained to think in terms of
the field as a whole and not in terms of their subject specialization alone.
Curricula in business education must be made to fill the needs of the com­
munities in which the school is located, obviously all curricula cannot be
used in all communities. The book is foundational in that it stresses the
necessity of each locality fitting the business education program into the
demonstrated needs of its people.
Norton, Thomas L . , Education for Work, N e w York State University .Regent's
Inquiry, McGraw Hill Book Company, N e w York, 1938.
An inquiry into the character and cost of public education in the
State of New York, to find what the educational system is accomplishing,
how well it fits the present-day needs and what the costs of the program
are and should be. The investigation contains formulation of policies to
meet the immediate and the long-range objectives of the educational system
of the state.
Pennell, Organization for Commercial Education in the Public High Schools
of Michigan, Southwestern Publishing Company, Cincinnatti, Ohio, Monograph
Number 39, 1937.
Report of s study conducted in Michigan in 1935. Conclusions in­
dicate that business education is not meeting the known requirements of
the pupils in business education within the state. Suggestions are mace
to help overcome this deficiency.
Porter, Merwin D . , The Business Education Curriculum in the Small High
Schools of Arizona, Unpublished M. A. Thesis, University of Southern
California at Los Angeles, 1936.
A very restricted curricula was found, consisting of the skill
subjects of shorthand, typewriting and bookkeeping. Teachers of business
subjects were frequently trained in other fields and were shunted into the
business education department with no training in business subjects.
Rockwell, Irene S., Present Status of Business Education in the Public
Secondary Schools of Arizona, Unpublished m . A. Thesis, University of
Southern California at Los Angeles, 1934.
Rockwell found that just less than one-half the pupils in the state
were enrolled in business education courses and that these courses consisted
of the skill subjects of shorthand, typewriting and bookkeeping. Almost
one-fifth of the teachers were without a college degree.
Shuster, George N ., Inaugural Address as President of Hunter College, New
York Herald Tribune, October 11, 1940, page 23.
4-25
A relatively scientific forecast of employment could be prepared
for the city, and beyond that a probable forecast of the employment of the
entire working population of the nation, a very hopeful view-point that
could well be put into operation in various communities and from these
centers spread to the nation as a whole.
Skidmore, Charles E . , Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction,
for the Biennial period Period ending June, 1936, Department of Public In­
struction, Salt Lake City, Utah.
A report of the educational progress within the state of all educa­
tion from the kindergarten to the collegiate level under public control.
Thurstone, L. L « , The Fundamentals of Statistics, The Macmillan Company,
N e w York, 1925.
A book designed to acquaint the reader of educational literature
with statistical terns necessary to understand present-day literature in this
field.
An explanation of and illustrations to use the various statistical
aids used to present and interpret literature in the field of research
with particular emphasis upon the graduate educational field.
Tonne, Herbert A., .Business Education, Basic Principles and frends, The
uregg Publishing Company, New ^ork, 1939.
The purpose of this book is to present an understanding of the
fundamental aspects of business education. The necessity of linking, the work
of the pupil in high school with the practical business world is stressed.
Business education must give vocational training, broad basic understanding
of business itself, consumer knowledge and personal use business education.
United States Office of Education, Survey of Eduoation in Utah, 1926,
Bulletin Number 18.
A complete survey of all public education in the state from the
kindergarten to the college level. Recommendations are made to limit the
duplication of instruction in the two senior colleges and to make the secondary
and primary educational program fit the needs of the public. Utah ranks high
in the percent of the secondary school population actually in school, and
as a result of this the retardation of pupils, grade by grade, is marked.
United States Office of Education, Biennial Survey of Education, bulletin
Number 20, Volume and Volume 2, 1921 and 1934-36.
The regular survey of education in the United States with com­
parative statistics concerning the many phases of education within eadh state
and for the United °tates as a whole.
Walters, R. G . , High School Commercial Education, Issac Pittman and Sons,
New lark, 1919.
This book deals with business education from the view-point of the
administrator.
The conduct of business education in the secondary schools
is outlined and the schools part in obtaining cooperation with business
is stressed. The relation of the secondary business education program to
that of the college and the part-time school is outlined.
White, Charlotte 0., A Study of Business Education in the i=mali High schools
of California, Unpublished M. A. Thesis, University of Houthern California
at Los Angeles, 1934.
426
Very little guidance is offered the pupils in the small high
schools of the state and the range of subjects offered in business education
is wide. More than one-half the schools offered courses in business education
inaddition to the skill subjects. Nearly three-fourths of the pupils were
enrolled in business courses and the equipment in these small high schools
was meagre. About six per cent of the teachers had no college degree.
Whitney, Frederick L., The Elements of Research, The Macmillan Company, N ew
York, 1957.
A book written to serve as a handbook for graduate students m ed­
ucation for objective study of research problems. An especially helpful
book for the guidance of graduate students in education for use during the
entire preparation of the document from the outline to the finished product.
Young, fihoda. A Survey of Commercial Education in the Secondary Schools of
Montana, Unpublished M. A. Thesis, University of Southern California at
Los Angeles, 1929.
Thirty-seven per cent of the pupils in the high schools of the
state were enrolled in business education. Three-fourths of the high schools
offered instruction in the skill subjects, usually in the last two years
of high school.
% e n t y - s i x p e r cent of the teachers had no college degree.
427
October 1, 1938.
Fellow Teachers:
The enclosed check-list represents part of a national study of business
education, sponsored by the National Council on Business Education, an
organization made up of the presidents of all the local business education
associations in the United States.
Unfortunately these is no association of business education teachers
organized in the State of Utah.
Similar studies to this investigation are in progress in eight other
states at the present time. These nine investigations are preparatory
to a national study to be conducted by the National Council on Business
Education upon the completion of these nine surveys.
There has been no study of business education in Utah, although each of
the surrounding states, with the exception of Nevada, have been surveyed.
For this reason it seems important and fortunate that U tah has been in­
cluded in this group of nine states to be investigated.
Yo u will be performing a direct service to the business education in­
terests of the State, as well as a personal service to me, if you will
answer this questionnaire, which I trust you will do in true professional
spirit.
I will furnish y o u with a copy of the findings upon the comp>letion of
the study.
The office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction has been
kind enough to approve the investigation and I feel that it will be of
direct benefit to the teachers and administrators of the state in this
important end growing phase of education.
May I therefore appeal to you to aid in the investigation by promptly
filling in and returning the enclosed questionnaire, for which I sincerely
thank you in advance.
Very truly yours
Clarence 8. Boyle
3527-81 Street
Jackson Heights
N ew York
428
January 1, 1959.
Fellow Teachers:
May I impose upon your time to the extent of filling in the enclosed
questionnaire, which represents one of nine similar studies being made
in the United States this winter under the auspicies of the National
Council on Business Education.
As y o u probably know, I am on leave of absence from the Brigham
Young University this year and this investigation represents my thesis
for the doctorate, as well as the first survey of business education to
be made into this importand and growing field in the State of Utah.
Last October I sent you a copy of this questionnaire, perhaps it has
been mislaid or lost. Will you please take time now to fill in the
answers to the questions as you see them.
I realize this is no small task. But I feel sure you will agree with
me that you will be performing a direct service to the business education
interests of the State, as well as a personal service to me, if you will
return the enclosed questionnaire in the enclosed, self-addressed envelope.
Thank you very much.
Sincerely
Clarence S. Boyle
3527-81 Street
Jackson Heights
New York
429
Copy of post card mailed to the teachers and administrators of the State
of U t a h who had not returned the questionnaire on January twentieth and
on February the twelfth, 1939.
Fellow Teacher:
Your delay in returning the questionnaire
is holding up the study of business ed­
ucation in the State of Utah. It is im­
portant that this investigation be comp­
leted this year. Y o u r cooperation is very
necessary and will be appreciated fully.
Sincerely,
Clarence S. Boyle
3527-81 Street
Jackson Heights
N e w York
430
School .............................-...........
- ....... Nam e o f person answ ering quer.tionairc _______
A CHECK-LIST O N
BUSINESS EDUCATION
_______ ____ ______________
TO THE SUPERINTENDENTS
IN T H E S T A T E O F U T A H
Please read the follow ing statements concerning different phases of
business education. If you agree, in general, w ith the statem ent, check
Yes, if not, check N o. Space is provided fo r com m ents o n each
statem ent.
fields of service, n o t specific occupations for w hich prep aratio n can be
given. T h ey must be broken down in to their com ponent parts so th a t
the technical knowledge, occupational understanding, and essential skills
may be made the basis of suitable instruction, study, a n d practice.
Com m ents___________________________________________
Yes:___ N o
S E C T IO N O N E
13 — Short unit courses in such skill subjects as ty p ew ritin g and
shorthand should be organized for those w h o w a n t these subjects for
personal use. Such courses should be available o nly to those w ho can
profit by taking them , and should be given o n ly at a tim e n o t too far
removed from the need for the resultant skills.
Y es
No
C om m ents------------------- ----------------------------- ----------- -----
Objectives, Philosophies, Supervision, and O rg an izatio n
1 — T h e kind of thinking, or the quality of action, o r b o th , w hich a
person reveals in a business situation, constitutes the acid test o f any
business education.
Y es
No
C om m ents___________________________________ _______
2 — In regard to question one, do you believe th a t business education
takes place o nly when techniques, th oroughly learned, are p u t to w ork
successfully in a real business transaction?
Y es
No
Com m ents-----------------------------------------------------------------3 — In regard to question one again, do you believe th at business
education takes place w hen we thoroughly and efficiently
tra in our
p upils in business subjects, regardless o f w hether o r n o t they ever go
in to business o r what they do in business if th ey do g o into it as a
vocation?
Y es
No
Com m ents.....................
..
4 —■T h e education fo r any individual m ember o f society should tend
t o be composed of b o th vocational education a n d general non-vocational education.
Y es
No
C o m m en ts
............ ............................................................
5 — T h e tru ly distinctive place of business education in the to ta l plan
o f American school education is th at w hich has to do w ith the voca­
tional objective. We do not say that it is the exclusive phase; we do
say th a t it is the distinctive phase.
Com m ents______ _______________ _____ ________________
Yes ..... N o
6 — Business education has a distinct c o n trib u tio n to make to the
general education of every one in enabling the in d iv id u al to m ake wise
use of his income in the provision of food, clothing, housing, recreation
and education for himself and his fam ily, and o f p ro tectio n against the
risks o f fire, death, old age, illness, accident, unem ploym ent. Is the
above a result of general education and experience w ith o u t the special
need or use of business education?
Yes ... N o
C om m ents___________________________________________
7 — Facilities should be provided to enable every individual to develop
a better understanding, through business education, of econom ic princi­
ples and their application in the every day affairs o f life.
Y es
No
C o m m en ts
---- ----- --------------------------------- ----------8 — How long, in your judgm ent, w ill it require to provide such
facilities in o u r schools? ------------------------------------ ----------------------------9 — W hen they are provided, how long will it tak e in school years to
m ake these objectives a part of the student's life to the extent th a t he
w ill use them? Years— ................
Com m ents
................—...................... ............................. —-..................................
1 0 — Existing vocational business courses should n o t be utilized as the
means o f giving personal consumer education, except in a purely inci­
dental’ way.
Yes
No
C o m m en ts------------------------ --- ------- ----- ----------------------1 1 — V ocational business education courses in h ig h school should be
so planned and administered as to enable the graduates o f such courses
to meet the em ploym ent demands of the co m m u n ity to be served •—b o th in the type of position trained fo r and in the q u a lity of the
preparation achieved by the high school student.
Y es
No
Com m ents........................................... - -----------------------------12 — I t is n o t enough to prepare for "business” n o r fo r "office w o rk " ,
fo r "store w o rk ” , for "selling", o r fo r "clerical w o r k ” . T hese are
14 — T here must be a clear recognition of th e fact th a t those w ho are
accepted fo r advanced vocational business train in g , after a try -o u t of
one year in a course open to all students, o r by som e o th er selective
process, m ust possess certain aptitudes, interests, and abilities, and th at
those who are not potentially trainable for a n d placeable in commercial
jobs should be denied entrance into these courses for a second year of
training under specifically vocational-training program s o f study.
Y es
No
C om m ents________________ __________ ____ ___ _______
1 5 — Satisfactory vocational business education m ust be based u p o n a
program o f guidance which includes selection, placem ent, and follo w -u p
of all persons who take this type of training.
Y es
No
C om m ents
_________ __________________ ________
16 — T h e results of instruction in vocational business education
courses m ust be measured more efficiently and convincingly th ro u g h the
use of new testing devices, careful placement o f graduates and follow -up
w ork to determine the degree of success achieved and the shortcom ings
w hich are revealed in their w ork in the job.
Yes __ N o
Com m ents ...----- --------------- ----------------------------------------1 7 — T h e business curriculum should be developed in the light o f the
business needs of the com m unity, not necessarily of the com m unity alone
in which the pupil lives, b u t also of the one in w hich he is likely to be
later employed.
Com m ents ____
_
Yes __ N o
1 8 — T h e business curriculum can best be adjusted to meet the business
needs of the com m unity through the enlightened cooperation o f the
business workers and the educational w orkers o f that com m unity.
Y es
No
C om m ents
........... ....... ................................. — ...... ..........
19 — S h o rt intensive courses should be given by the public high
school to enable those not in the full-tim e high school to im prove
business skill already possessed and to learn new ones.
Yes __ N o
C om m ents_________________
—------------------------ -----20 — Some effort should be made to adjust the n um ber o f persons
electing vocational business courses to the em ploym ent requirem ents of
the com m unity — keeping in m ind the geographical extent o f the
em ploym ent comm unity.
Y es
No
Com m ents-----------------------------------------------------------------21 — Vocational business education m ust include specific a ttention to
the development o f job intelligence.
Yes ... N o ... C o m m e n ts--------------- ------- ---------------------------------- ------22 — Vocational business education should be given principally on the
(check choice) ju n io r high school level
senior h igh school le v e l---ju n io r college level — senior college level . . .
23 — T h e type of vocational business education needed in this
com m unity in the order of im portance is:
______ agricultural, including farm bookkeeping, m arketing, bud g et­
ing, investment, fam ily and farm purchasing. C om m ents
..............personal use business education, including budgeting, invest­
m ent, insurance, understanding of m oney, tax atio n , personal
financing. Com m ents
.
-Stenographic. C om m ents ----------------------------------------------------.clerical — "general office w o rk ". C om m ents------------------------.bookkeeping. Com m ents ----------------------------------------------------.m achine operation — calculating, posting, duplicating, dicta­
tio n machines. Com m ents----------------------------------------------------.filing. C om m ents ----------------------------------------------------------------.retail selling. C om m ents------------------------------------------------------.operation of sm all shops, filling stations, etc. C om m ents--------2 4 — Business education should develop a better understanding o f the
fo u n d a tio n s o f o u r economic order.
Y es
No
C om m ents__________________________________________
25 — Business education should strive to develop a more social view ­
p o in t th an we generally have at present o f the function o f business in
a democracy.
Y es
No
C o m m e n ts_______________________ ____ _____ ___ _____
26 — P u p ils o f less th an average ability can be served best by:
T h e subjects preparing for specific vocational business positions
w hich require personal skill.
Y es
No
C o m m en ts----------------------------------------------------------------T h e subjects dealing w ith the general business and consum er in fo rm ­
a tio n and skills o f a broader basis than personal skill.
Y es
No
C om m ents---------- --------------------------------------- --------------S E C T IO N T W O
m ent a teacher w ho has n o t made a satisfactory adjustm ent to y o u r
school ? ____________________________________________________________
12 — D o y o u follow the practice of em ploying only
o r m ainly ___
teachers w h o are residents o f y our city
of the state____o f any p a r­
ticular locality w ith in the U nited States___. C om m ents_______________
13 — D o y o u m ake use o f qualifying exam inations in the selection of
teachers
C om m ents _____________________________________________
14 — D o you prefer business teachers w ho have had teacher-training in
business subjects________ W ho have had business experience_________
W h o have had teaching experience in business subjects_________
C om m ents --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------15 — D o you prefer m en
or w o m e n ____ teachers? Single or
m arried — _______ ____ O f which religious faith ............
Do
you refuse to em ploy teachers because of their religious f a i t h
.......
D o you prefer teachers w ho have an active interest in business activities?
_______ In extra-curricular activities ............. Com m ents _____________
16 — In w hich o f the follow ing age groups do you prefer to em ploy
y o u r business teachers? 2 0 - 2 5
2 6 -3 0
3 1 -3 5
„ 3 6 -4 0 ___
4 1 - 4 5 ....... 4 6 - 5 0 —
5 1 - 5 5 ____ 5 6 -6 0 . 6 1 - 6 5 ___ Com m ents ....
Please w rite any comm ents you have on any phase o f the questionairc
in the follow ing space.
General Business E ducation Questions
1 — D o you feel there should be some adm inistrative plan to keep
teachers o f business subjects in touch with practical business?
Y es
No
C om m ents
------------------------ ---------------------------- ----2 — If you th in k such a plan should be in operation in a school
system , please suggest one th a t you feel w ould be practical.
3 — Please list the problem s in business education, as you see them ,
fro m a local and from a national view point.
Local
N ational
4 — D o you feel the commercial contests held in U tah are a positive . .
o r a negative
factor in the everyday teaching progarm ?
C om m ents ----------------------------- ---------------------------------- ------ ---------------5 — D o you feel th a t instruction in the business departments o f y our
schools is more efficient
, less efficient
, o r about the s a m e ......
degree o f efficiency as found in other departm ents? C o m m e n ts-----------6 — In w h a t way, o r ways, m ight the principals o r teachers cooperate
to m ake business education more effective in your district? ----------------7 — Please list the accrediting associations to w hich the schools in your
district belong. --------------------—................. ...
---......
8 — D o you have a cooperative arrangement w ith the merchants of
y o u r city for the pupils of your schools to attend school part of the
day and w o rk in the retail stores part o f the day? Yes .. . N o __
If not, do you feel th a t such an arrangem ent should be made?
__________________________ ___ ____
Y es .... N o
C o m m en ts
9 —- D o you feel th a t a properly organized course, or courses, in
business education should be taught to all the pupils of your district
for the purpose o f supplem enting their inform ation on general business
conditions, to aid them as citizens and not as an occupational aid?
Y es .... N o
C o m m e n ts--------------------------------------------------------------10 — D o you have a high school of commerce in your district? Yes ...
N o
If you do, d o # the curricula differ m aterially from the regular
h ig h school curricula? Yes — N o
Com m ents ........ ........... ..............
________________
—
... .............
..
1 1 — W h at procedure do you follow in dropping from your e m p lo /-
—PL-EA-SE-MAHa-TO--------------------------
T 3 ~ S ‘" B © ”Y ' t E j -----
3 5 2 7 - 81st S T R E E T ,
J a c k s o n Heights, N . Y>
431
School
N am e o f person answ ering questionaire ..
se m a i l / T C H E C K - L I S T O N B U S I N E S S E D U C A T I O N T O T H E P R I N C I P A L S
3. B O Y L E
IN T H E S T A T E O F U T A H
81st STREET,
J ^fe A S T ro a i t t e A llo w in g statem ents concerning different phases of
business education. If you agree, in general, w ith the statem ent, check
Yes, if not, check N o. Space is provided fo r com m ents on each
statem ent.
fields of service, n o t specific occupations for w hich preparation can be
given. T hey m ust be broken dow n in to their com ponent parts so that
the technical knowledge, occupational understanding, and essential skills
may be made the basis of suitable instruction, study, and practice.
Yes
No
C o m m en ts_______________________________________ ___
S E C T IO N O N E
13 — Short u n it courses in such skill subjects as typew riting and
shorthand should be organized for those w h o w ant these subjects for
personal use. Such courses should be available only to those who can
profit by taking them , and should be given only at a tim e not too far
removed from the need for the resultant skills.
Y es
No
C om m ents-----------------------------------------------------------------
Objectives, P hilosophies, S upervision, and O rganization
1 — T h e kind of th in k in g , o r the q u a lity o f action, o r both, w hich a
person reveals in a business situ atio n , constitutes the acid test of any
business education.
Yes __ N o ___ C om m ents___________________________________________
2 — In regard to question one, do you believe th a t business education
takes place only when techniques, th o ro u g h ly learned, are p u t to w ork
successfully in a real business transaction?
Y es
No
C om m ents-----------------------------------------------------------------3 — - I n regard to question one again, do you believe th a t business
education takes place w hen we th o ro u g h ly and efficiently train our
pupils in business subjects, regardless o f w hether o r n o t they ever go
into business or w hat they do in business if they do go in to it as a
vocation ?
Yes .... N o
C om m ents--------------------------4 — T h e education fo r any individual m em ber of society should tend
to be composed of b o th vocational education and general non-vocational education.
Yes ..
No
C o m m en ts----------5 — - T h e tru ly distinctive place o f business education in the total plan
o f American school education is th a t w hich has to do w ith the voca­
tional objective. W e do n o t say th a t it is the exclusive phase; we do
say th at it is the distinctive phase.
YesN o
C om m ents------------------------------------------------------------------------6 — Business education has a distinct c o n trib u tio n to make to the
general education of every one in enabling the individual to make wise
use of his income in the provision o f food, clothing, housing, recreation
and education for him self and his fam ily, and of protection against the
risks o f fire, death, old age, illness, accident, unem ploym ent. Is the
above a result of general education and experience w ith o u t the special
need or use of business education?
Yes . N o
C om m ents ----------------------------------------------------------7 — Facilities should be provided to enable every individual to develop
a better understanding, th ro u g h business education, o f economic princi­
ples and their application in the every day affairs o f life.
Yes
No
Com m ents -----------------------8 — H ow long, in your judgm ent, w ill it require to provide such
facilities in o u r schools? ----.
9 — W hen they are provided, how long will it take in school years to
make these objectives a p art of the stu d en t's life to the extent th at he
will use them? Y e a r s ---------------Com ments . ------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------10 — Existing vocational business courses should n o t be utilized as the
means of giving personal consum er education, except in a purely inci­
dental way.
Yes . . No . . . C om m ents -------- ------------ ------------------------ ---------------- 1 1 — Vocational business education courses in high school should be
so planned and adm inistered as to enable the graduates of such courses
to meet the em ploym ent dem ands of the com m unity to be served —
both in the type of position trained fo r and in the quality of the
preparation achieved b y the high school student.
Yes .... N o
C o m m e n ts ------------------------------------------------------—
12 — It is n o t enough to prepare fo r "business’’ n o r for "office w o rk ",
for "store w o rk ” , fo r “ selling” , o r fo r "clerical w o rk ” . These arc
14 — T here m ust be a clear recognition of the fact th at those w ho are
accepted for advanced vocational business training, after a try -o u t of
one year in a course open to all students, o r by some other selective
process, m ust possess certain aptitudes, interests, and abilities, and that
those w ho are not potentially trainable for and placeable in commercial
jobs should be denied entrance in to these courses for a second year of
training under specifically vocatio n al-train in g program s of study.
Y es
No
C om m ents----------------------------------------------------------------15 — Satisfactory vocational business education m ust be based upon a
program of guidance w hich includes selection, placement, and follow -up
of all persons w ho take this type o f training.
Yes
No
C om m ents----------------- ----------------------------------------------16 — T h e results of instru ctio n in vocational business education
courses m ust be measured m ore efficiently and convincingly through the
use of new testing devices, careful placem ent o f graduates and follow -up
w ork to determine the degree of success achieved and the shortcomings
which are revealed in their w o rk in the job.
Y es
No
C om m ents_______________ ___ ___ ________ _______ ___
1 7 — T h e business curriculum should be developed in the light of the
business needs of the com m unity, n o t necessarily of the com m unity alone
in which the pupil lives, b u t also o f the one in which he is likely to be
later employed.
Y es
No
C o m m e n ts
-------- --------------------------------------- ---------1 8 — T he business curriculum can best be adjusted to meet the business
needs of the com m unity th ro u g h the enlightened cooperation of the
business workers and the educational w orkers of th at com m unity.
Y es
No
C om m ents..
----- -----------------------_ ........... ........ ....... .
jg
Short intensive courses should be given by the public high
school to enable those n o t in the full-tim e high school to improve
business skill already possessed and to learn new ones.
Yes .... N o
C o m m e n ts --------- ------ -----------------------------------------------20 — Some effort should be made to adjust the num ber of persons
electing vocational business courses to the em ploym ent requirements of
the com m unity — keeping in m ind the geographical extent of the
employm ent com m unity.
Yes
No
Com m ents ---------- ---------------------------------------------------21 — Vocational business education m ust include specific attention to
the development of job intelligence.
Yes
No
C o m m e n ts ------------ --------------------------------------------------22 — Vocational business education should be given principally on the
(check choice) ju n io r high school level . senior high school level ...
junior college level .... senior college level
. .
23 — T he type o f vocational business education needed in this
com m unity in the order of im portance is:
______ agricultural, including farm bookkeeping, m arketing, budget­
ing, investm ent, fam ily and farm purchasing. Com m ents ___
personal use business education, including budgeting, invest­
ment, insurance, understanding of money, taxation, personal
financing. C om m ents -------------------------------------- --------------------
..stenographic. Com ments
clerical — "general office w o rk ” . C o m m en ts-------------------------bookkeeping. Com m ents -----------------------------------------------------machine operation — calculating, posting, du p licatin g , d icta­
tion machines. Com ments-----------------------------------------------------filing. Com m ents -----------------------------------------------------------------retail selling. Com m ents-------------------------------------------------------operation of small shops, filling stations, etc. C o m m e n ts--------2 4 — Business education should develop a better und erstan d in g o f the
foundations o f our economic order.
Y es
No
Com m ents-----------------------------------------------------------------25 — Business education should strive to develop a m ore social view ­
p o in t than we generally have at present of th e function of business in
a democracy.
Y es
No
C om m ents___________________________________________
26 — Pupils of less than average ability can be served best b y :
T h e subjects preparing for specific vocational business p ositions
w hich require personal skill.
Y es
No
Com m ents
----------------- --------------------------------------T h e subjects dealing w ith the general business and consum er in fo rm ­
ation and skills of a broader basis than personal skill.
Y es
No
C o m m e n ts___________________ _____ ______________ ___
S E C T IO N T W O
Guidance and P u p il Personnel
1 — U pon w hat basis, for example, m ental, m oral, econom ic, social,
etc., do you feel pupils should be guided in to comm ercial courses, as a
vocation? _______________________________ ___________________________
2 — Please list the reasons in the order o f their im portance w hy
business pupils leave your school before they graduate. ---------------------3 — • H ow m any of your entire graduating class received scholarships
for advanced study last year? ___
- H ow m any o f the com m ercial
graduates_______
4 — D o pupils from the commercial departm ent achieve leadership in
extra-curricular activities as frequently
, less freq u e n tly
, o r a bout
as other p upils
in proportion to their num ber, in y our school?
Com m ents ---------------- ------- ---------- ----------------------------------------------------5 — A bout how m any of y our graduates find em ploym ent in retail
store selling jobs each year?
___
H ow m an y in no n -sto re
selling jobs?..............................
6 — A bout how m any of your business graduates go in to business jobs
in their ow n com m unity each year? ---- ----------------------------------------------7 — D o you feel th at your program of guidance satisfactorily meets
challenge it faces in business education by m aking adequate p re p ara tio n
of the pupil w ho drops out of school before he graduates? -----------------8 — Please enter, in the proper spaces below , the enrollm ent o f y o u r
school for the year 1 9 38-3 9.
General
O ther
Commercial
Academic
D epartm ent Departm ent D epartm ent D epartm ents
Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys G irls B oys G irls
First year
_____
Second year
-------T h ird year
_____
F o u rth year
...........
Post G raduate
_____
H ow m any gra­
duated from each
D ept, in the
S pring of 1 9 3 8 ? .......
Please indicate
by the above
D epts. the no.
of 1 9 3 7 -3 8 gra­
duates at present,
In H igh School _____
In College
...........
D oing graduate w ork .
Regularly employed ....
U nem ployed
H ow m any grauated by the above D epts. in
Spring, 1937
9 — D o pupils in the commercial curriculum have I. Q .'s as
high..
higher
low er
as do pupils in o ther departm ents
o f y o u r school?
C om m ents _________________________________________________________
10 — A bout w hat per cent of the entering class leave y o u r school at
the end o f each of the follow ing years: F irst____ Second_________
T h ir d __________ F o u rth --------------11 — Please list the chief weaknesses of the graduates o f the com m er­
cial departm ent o f your school, as they plan to enter business, in each
o f the follow ing fields: Personal qualities.................................... .....................
General education subjects____________________________________
Business education subjects ______________________ _______ ___________
12 — H ow m ight these weaknesses be overcome in each field?
Personal qualities ____ ___ __________________________________________
General education subjects----------------- ----------------------------------------------Business education subjects---------- ---- ----- -------------------------------------------1 3 — Is there a program o f guidance for pupils, before they reach y o u r
school, th a t aims to help you distribute them in the various business
courses you offer? Y e s _ N o — C o m m e n ts_________________________
14 — In to w hat field of school w ork do you a tte m p t to guide the
low est intellectual fifth of your pupils? __________ ____________________
1 5 — D o you make a direct effort to train your pupils in commerce in
personality? Y e s
No — C o m m e n ts--------------------------------------------1 6 — If not, do you th in k a course should be given to aid in person­
ality im provem ent? Yes
No
C o m m e n ts----------------------------------17 — D o you know, rather specifically, the kind o f personality the
em ployer o f your commerce graduates w ould like them to have?
Y es
N o ..... C o m m e n ts___________________________ ____ __________
18 — If you do know, can you train them tow ard this type o f person­
ality? Y es
N o ..... C o m m e n ts
-------1 9 — Please list, in order o f their importance, w h a t you regard as the
best means of determining potential abilities and interests of pup ils w ho
w ish to take commercial courses to prepare them for a future vocation.
20 -—• D o you group business pupils in y our school according to their
ability to learn? Y e s
No
C om m ents
__________________ ___
21 — • In advising pupils concerning the advisibility o f their entering
one o r the other business fields, or other lines o f w o rk , do you talk
w ith them in d iv id u a lly
w ith their p a ren ts
in classes-------Com m ents ------- --------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------22 — Please check the type of com m unity, or com m unities, served by
y our school. A g ric u ltu ral
In d u s tria l
R e sid e n tia l
M ix e d ---R u ra l
U rb a n
Suburban
N ative W h ite
Foreign b o rn .......
N egro — O ther __________________ ___ _____________________________
23 — F o r the current year, or for last year if the data are n o t conveni­
ently available, give the num ber of pupils whose parents are found in
each of the follow ing occupational groups: Professional
...............
Clerical___________ A g ric u ltu ral
_______ Skilled la b o r
.................
U nskilled l a b o r __________ U n k n o w n ____________ Y e a r____________
24 — A bout how many pupils, after electing the com m ercial course
last year, changed to some other course?
__ ____ ___________________
Com m ents ... ------- --- --------------- ----- -------- ---------------------------------------25 — A bout how many pupils, after electing some other course last
year, changed to the comercial course? ---------------------------------------------C om m ents ----- ---- ------ ----------------------------------- ------------- --------------------S E C T IO N T H R E E
C urriculum
1 — . Please check in the appropriate space below the m ethod o r m ethods
you use in your supervision of comercial teachers in y o u r school.
Class visitation, after notifying teacher, regularly — freq u en tly —.never.. .
Class visitation, unannounced
reg ularly....frequently— never—
Class visitation, at request of teacher, regularly....frequently.—never. ...
W h at is the usual length o f your visit to the classroom ? ---------------------H ow often, during the year, do you visit the same teacher, on the
average___________ ? A fter visiting a teacher do you arrange for an inform al conference w ith the teacher
, send her a w ritten report
,
arrange fo r g roup conferences
O ther m ethods you use _.....................
Com m ents ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 — D o you feel th a t a p ro p e rly organized course, o r courses, in
business education should be ta u g h t to all the pupils in yo u r school for
the purpose o f supplem enting th eir in form ation on general business to
aid them as citizens a n d n o t as an occupational aid?
Yes
No
C om m ents----------------------------------------------------------------3 — D u rin g the last ten years w hich business subjects seem to be losing
the greatest n um ber o f p upils? _____________________________________
W hich seem to be gaining? __________________________ ___ ___________
4 — Should any courses fo r vocational purposes be offered to pupils in
your school below the te n th grade? Yes
No
If so, w hat type
of course? _________________________________________________________
T o w h at type o f p u p il? ____________________________________________
In the tenth grade? Y e s
Nc.
T o w h at type of p u p il?
..............
W h a t type o f course?
In the eleventh grade? Y es
No
T o w hat type of pupil?
W h a t type o f course?
In the tw elfth grade? Y es
No
T o w hat type of pupil? ______
___________________ W h at type o f course? _________________________
5 — Should p upils in non-com m ercial curricula be allowed or required
to take w o rk in the follow ing subjects for personal use and not as a
vocation? T y p e w ritin g , a llo w e d
required
C o m m e n ts
___
Shorthand, allowed
Bookkeeping, allowed
13 — Please list the business subjects required for those w ho w ish to
m ajo r in bookkeeping.
N am e o f subject
N um ber of U nits Year given
14 — Please list the business subjects required for those w ho w ish to
m ajo r in clerical w o rk .
N am e o f subject
N um ber of U nits Year given
15 — Please list the business subjects required for those w ho w ish to
m ajor in the distributive occupations, as selling.
N am e o f subject
N um ber of U nits Year given
1 6 — • Please list the business subjects required for those w ho w ish to
m ajo r in a general business course.
N am e of subject
N um ber of U nits Year given
re q u ire d — .. Com m ents ....... .......... ..........—.......
required ___ C o m m en ts__________ _______ _
O ther ______ ________ .... . . . allow ed ..
required
.
Com ments --------
6 — ■ Should pup ils in the above courses be tau g h t in the same classes
w ith pupils stud y in g the course for vocational purposes? Y e s ... N o....
1 7 — Please list the subjects you p erm it business majors to elect in n o n ­
business subjects, w ith the num ber o f u nits of each and the year in
w hich it is given.
N am e of subject
N um ber of U nits Year given
7 — D oes y o u r school give courses in the managem ent of small individually ow ned stores of various types, to prepare the pupil to enter
business for him self? Yes
No
If not, should it? Y e s
No . .
Com m ents ___________ _____________________ ______ ___ ____ _________
8 — D o you feel y o u r courses o f study in business education are well
adapted to the needs of the c om m unity locally? Y e s
N o ___
Com m ents ______ ___ ___________ _____ ______ ___ ____________________
9 — If you feel the conditions in question 8 could be improved, please
indicate briefly ho w you th in k it m ight be done. ____________________
-
10 — Please enclose, if possible, a copy of your high school course of
study, especially the com m ercial course of study, when you return this
questionnaire.
1 1 — ■ Please list the business subjects you require of all business
majors, w ith the num ber o f u nits of each subject and the year in which
the course is given.
Name o f subject
N um ber of U nits Year given
1 8 -— Please check the follow ing individuals or groups if they are con­
sidered in the developm ent o f the commercial curricula for your school:
T h e S uperintendent .... , the P rin c ip a l
, T h e Supervisor of C om ­
mercial E d u catio n
, Each departm ent head in your school
, T he
D epartm ent Heads in the C ity
, T h e Teachers in y o u r sc h o o l
,
T h e Teachers and D epartm ent Heads in yo u r sc h o o l
, T h e coopera­
tive activity o f the teacher, the Superintendent, and the P rin c ip a l
,
T h e cooperative activity of the Teacher, the Superintendent, the P rin ­
cipal, and Business M en o f the c o m m u n ity
, O f the above and the
housewives o f the c o m m u n ity
, O th e r-----------------------------------------Com m ents ____________________
S E C T IO N F O U R
T eacher T ra in in g and Teacher Personnel
1 2 — Please list the business subjects required, as above, for the pupil
w ho wishes to m ajo r , o r specialize, in secretarial work.
Name o f subject
N um ber of U nits Year given
1 — Have the teachers in business, in y our school, been m o re
or
le s s
active in advanced study th an have other teachers?
— ......— ...........
C om m ents _______________________
2 — D o y o u r business teachers spend their incomes m ore w isely----less w is e ly
than do other teachers? C o m m e n ts
------ ---- ----------3 — D o new business teachers in yo u r district furnish credentials equal
to those of o th er new teachers? Y e s
No
C o m m e n ts---------------4 — Is the teaching load heavier fo r business teachers generally th an for
o th er teachers? Y es
N o.
C om m ents
-----_
5 — A b o u t ho w m any years has the average teacher in your school
been teaching? ______ Years. T h e average business teacher
.Years.
-
6 — D o the teachers of business have personalities th a t y o u w ould rate
as equal to the personalities o f other teachers? Y es
N o ----Com ments __________________________________________________________
7 — D o you consider the personalities o f y o u r teachers an im p o rtan t
item in their equipm ent a t the tim e o f em ploym ent? Yes
N o ----Com ments ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8 — D o you feel there sh o u ld be som e definite adm inistrative plan for
keeping teachers in contact w ith business? Yes
No
Can you
suggest a plan for this purpose? -------------------------------------------------------9 — Please suggest a desirable subject m atter train in g for business
teachers to have w hen you em ploy them . -----------------------------------------10 — Do you feel th a t previous business experience is necessary
or
desirable
fo r business teachers? C om m ents_______________________
11 — H ow m any teachers, including all, are there in y our school?
M en____________ W om en___________ H ow m any business teachers?
M en___________ W om en ----------------1 2 — H ow m any teachers n o t educated in business are there in your
school teaching one o r m ore business subjects? -----------------Com ments __________________________________________________________
13 — How m any business teachers do you have w ho have had practical
business experience w ith in the last five years---------------- W ith in the last
three years_______
H o w m any have had n o practical business
experience___________ C om m ents-------------------------------------------------------14 — Do you feel the comm ercial contests held in U ta h are a positive
factor
, a negative factor
, in the teaching o f y o u r school?
Comments --------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------S E C T IO N F IV E
Cooperative, E vening, and P a rt-tim e Schools
1 — D o you have a cooperative arrangem ent w ith the m erchants of
your city for the pupils o f y our school to attend school p art o f the
day and w ork in the stores p a rt of the day? Y e s
No
If not,
do you feel th a t such an arrangem ent should be made? Y es
N o ___
Com ments ----- ------------------------------------ ---------------------------------------------2 — If so, how m any p u p ils take th is course each year? ______________
3 — How m uch tim e, in h o u rs per week, is spent in class? __________
H ow much tim e on the jo b ? ___________ Is it a one o r a tw o year
course? One
T w o -----4 — U nder a cooperative arrangem ent suggested above, w hat w ould
you regard as an adequate selection o f the p u p ils to enter such a tra in ­
ing plan? - ------- ------ ----------------- --------------------------------- ---------------------5 — Should school credit, in the plan above, be given fo r w ork done
in the store? Y es------- N o -- C o m m e n ts------------- -----------------------------6 — Should the school, in such a retail train in g plan, assume the
responsibility of arranging the h o u r and pay m en t plans of the pupil
w ith the retail store m anager? Yes
No
C o m m en ts------------------7 — Do local m erchants look to y o u r school as a training field for
their employees? Y es
No
C o m m e n ts
-------------- ------------------8 — If not, do you th in k such an a ttitu d e should be developed
,
could be developed?
C om m ents ---------- --------------------------------------9 — Do you th in k the retail selling field offers m ore jobs to your
graduates than any o th er single field of em ploym ent? Y e s
N o ___
Please rank the fields th a t offer em ploym ent to y o u r pupils in the order
of the greatest num ber affected. F irst ------------------------------------------ ----Second
T h ir d . --------------------------------------10 — Do you th in k "o v e r the counter selling” can be tau g h t m o r e .....
or le s s
successfully th an can ty ping, sh o rth a n d , and bookkeeping'
Comments __________________________________________________________
11 — Do you have a c o n tin u atio n school in y o u r district for business
subjects? Y es
N o .... F or o th er subjects? Yes
N o . ... It m
other subjects, please list the fields covered
___________________ ___
S E C T IO N SIX
A d m inistration
1 — Is there a need in y o u r district o r county for courses in busim
education subjects fo r the adults, eg., the parents and business men
the communities? Y es
No
C om m ents _____________________
2 — If so, please list the subjects o r types o f training they need.
3 — D o you offer instruction in new and expensive types o f busin
m achines?
W h a t are y our m ost pressing problem s here? -------4 — T o w hat extent, in hours per week, should full tim e teachers
perm itted to teach in evening classes? ___________________ T o w ork
o th er lines out o f school tim e?___________________________________
5 — D o you have a head, o r chairm an, for the commercial departm er
----------- I t so, does he adm inister the departm ent budget alone------w ith the help of his teachers_______ w ith help from the principal
superintendent------------ D oes he have a reduced teaching load?------If so, w hat does he do w ith the tim e made available by the reductio
Com m ents _______________________________ ___ ___________________
6 — Does your school have a commerce supervisor?_______ If
ab o u t w hat percent o f his tim e is devoted to teaching?___________
observation_____________ T o dem onstration teaching____________
m aking contacts w ith business firm s___________ O th e r____________
Com m ents ______________________________________________________
7 — W ho decides upon the em ploym ent o f business teachers? ____
8 — D o any of the commercial teachers handle tw o classes during I
same period?________ If so, please list the classes. __________________
9 — W h at single period classes have recently been changed to dou
periods? --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------W h at double periods to single? --------------------------- ------------------------1 0 — W hat do you regard as the chief difficulties in organizing hoir
gcneous, or ability groups in Business education? -------------------------1 1 — D o you m ake use o t commercial pupils as office assistants or
clerical w ork w ith o u t renum eration? Y e s ____ N o --- C om m ents----W ith renum eration? Y es
No
C o m m e n ts---------------------------1 2 — In what w ay or w ays m ig h t the superintendent cooperate
m ake business education courses m ore effective in yo u r school? —.....
1 3 - —- I n large schools do you feel it w ould be a better plan to h,
general commercial w ork under one person, the shorthand under i
other, the bookkeeping under a th ird , etc? Y es
N o ----Com m ents _______________________ ___ ____ ______________________
14 — ■ D o you feel there art too m any pupils in school for the b
good of the most able of y o u r p u p ils? Y es
No
Com m ents _
15 — In your duties as ad m in istrato r please indicate in which of
follow ing you spend the m ost tim e, the scond m ost, etc., by number
them 1, 2, and so on. Personally advising students_______ Service
adviser of men ______ As one of a group of advisers
---- Service
chairm an of general c o m m itte e ----------- M aking studies to provide
better guidance_______ Personally recom mending students to hig
institutions ............ O thei ------------------------------------------------------------1 6 — D o you feel that the social and sconomic shifts of recent yc
places an additional burden upon business education in your school
help prepare your students to live more successfully in a grow ing co
plexity o f living conditions? Y es
No
C om m ents —..........
1 7 — • W hich of the courses offered in y o u r school do m ost to pr'uf
for proper consum er education o f y o u r pupils? ---------------------------- ,
1 8 — W ould you add a course to care for consum er education m
tioned in the above question? Y es
No
If yes, please na
Comments ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------course ........................................
— ----------------19 — D o you have high schools o f commerce in y o u r district?
12 — D o you have evening school for secondary pupils in business
subjects? Yes
No
o r adults? Y e s
No
E vening classes in
Y es
No
C o m m en ts------------------------------------------------------------20 — • Does the curricula in the h igh school o f commerce differ fr
other subjects for secondary pupils? Yes ... N o ... F o r adults? Yes ...
the regular high school business curricula? Yes
N o ----No
. If in other subjects, please list the fields covered______________
m ents ........
Com ments ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Com
v.uiiimtiiifl
PLEASE MAIL TO
C. S. B O Y L E
3627 -84s t S T R E E T ,
432
School
Name of person answ ering questionaire
A CHECK-LIST O N
BUSINESS E D U C A T I O N
T O THE TEACHERS OF
A C C O U N T I N G IN T H E S T A T E O F U T A H
Please read the follow ing statem ents concerning different phases o f
business education. If you agree, in general, w ith the statem ent, check
Yes, if n o t, check N o. Space is provided for comments on each
statem ent.
fields o f service, n o t specific occupations for w hich preparation can be
given. T h ey m u st be broken dow n in to their com ponent parts so th a t
the technical knowledge, occupational understanding, and essential skills
m ay be made the basis o f suitable instruction, study, and
practice.
Y es_N o ________ C om m ents____________________________________
S E C T IO N ONE
13 —
S hort u n it courses in such skill subjects astypew riting and
sh o rth a n d sh o u ld be organized for those w h o w ant these subjects fo r
personal use. Such courses should be available only to those w ho can
p ro fit by tak in g them , and should be given o nly at a time n o t too fa r
rem oved from the need for the resultant skills.
Y es_ N o ________C om m ents__________________________________________
Objectives, Philosophies, Supervision, and O rganization
1 — T h e k in d o f thinking, or the quality o f action, or b o th , w hich a
person reveals in a business situation, constitutes the acid test of any
business education.
Y es
No
C om m ents__________________________________________
2 — In regard to question one, do you believe that business education
takes place o nly w hen techniques, thoroughly learned, are p u t to w o rk
successfully in a real business transaction?
Y es
No
C om m ents__________________________________________
3 — In regard to question one again, do you believe th a t business
education takes place w hen we thoroughly and efficiently train o u r
p u p ils in business subjects, regardless of w hether or not they ever go
in to business o r w h a t they do in business if they do go in to it as a
vocation?
Y es
No
C om m ents__________________________________________
4 — T h e education for any individual member of society should tend
to be composed o f b o th vocational education and general non-vocatio n a l education.
Y es
No
C om m ents....................
-.............—
5 — T h e tru ly distinctive place of business education in the total plan
o f A m erican school education is th at which has to do w ith the voca­
tio n a l objective. W e do n o t say th a t it is the exclusive phase: we do
say th a t it is the distinctive phase.
Y es
No
C om m ents_________________________________ ___ —.......
6 — Business education has a distinct contribution to m ake to the
general education of every one in enabling the individual to make wise
use o f his incom e in the provision o f food, clothing, housing, recreation
a n d education for himself and his family, and of protection against the
risks of fire, death, old age, illness, accident, unem ploym ent. Is the
above a result of general education and experience w ithout the special
need o r use o f business education?
Y es
No
C o m m en ts---------------------- --------- -------------------------------7 -— Facilities should be provided to enable every individual to develop
a better understanding, through business education, of economic p rin ci­
ples and th eir application in the every day affairs of life.
Y es
N o.
C o m m e n ts________ ___ _____________ ________________
8 — H ow long, in your judgm ent, will it require to provide such
facilities in our schools? ----------- ----------------------------------------------------9 — W hen they are provided, how long w ill it take in school years to
m ake the^e objectives a p a rt of the student’s life to the extent that he
w ill use jthem ? Y ears----------------C om m ents ........
—........ ......................................
10 —/E x i s t i n g vocational business courses should not be utilized as the
m eans o f giving personal consumer education, except in a purely incideiUel w ay.
Y ep
No
C o m m en ts-------------------------------- ------------------ ---- -------1 if — V ocational business education courses in high school should be
so planned and adm inistered as to enable the graduates of such courses
t o meet th e em ploym ent demands o f the com m unity to be served —
b o th in th e type of position trained for and in the q u a lity of the
p re p ara tio n achieved by the high school student.
Y es
No
C om m ents
................................................................................
12 — It is n o t enough to prepare for "business” nor for "office w o rk ” ,
f o r “ store w o rk ” , for "selling” , o r for "clerical w o rk ". These are
14 — T here m ust be a clear recognition of th e fact th a t those w ho are
accepted for advanced vocational business training, after a try -o u t o f
one year in a course open to all students, o r by some other selective
process, m ust possess certain aptitudes, interests, and abilities, and th a t
those w ho are n o t potentially trainable for a n d placeable in commercial
jobs should be denied entrance into these courses for a second year o f
train in g under specifically vocational-training program s of study.
Y es
No
C om m ents__________________________________________
15 — Satisfactory vocational business education m ust be based upon a
p ro g ram of guidance w hich includes selection, placement, and fo llo w -u p
of all persons w ho take this type of training.
Y es
No
C om m ents --------------------------------------------------- ---------16 — T h e results o f instruction in vocational business education
courses m ust be measured more efficiently and convincingly th ro u g h the
use o f new testing devices, careful placement o f graduates and fo llo w -u p
w o rk to determ ine the degree of success achieved and the shortcom ings
w hich are revealed in their w ork in the job.
Y es
No
C o m m e n ts........................ ........................................... ....... ........
1 7 — T h e business curriculum should be developed in the lig h t of the
business needs o f the com m unity, not necessarily of the com m unity alone
in w hich the p u p il lives, b u t also of the one in which he is likely to be
later em ployed.
Y es
No
C om m ents ........................ .............................................. ..........
18 — T h e business curriculum can best be adjusted to meet the business
needs o f the com m unity through the enlightened cooperation of the
business w orkers and the educational workers of that com m unity.
Y es
No
C o m m en ts______________________ ___________________
19 — S h o rt intensive courses should be given by the public h igh
school to enable those n o t in the full-tim e high school to im prove
business skill already possessed and to learn new ones.
Y es
No
C om m ents.................—------20 — Some effort should be made to adjust the num ber o f persons
electing vocational business courses to the em ploym ent requirements o f
the c o m m u n ity — keeping in m ind the geographical extent of the
em ploym ent com m unity.
Y e s ___ N o
C o m m en ts ................................................ ................................
21 — V ocational business education must include specific attention to
the developm ent o f jo b intelligence.
Yes ... N o ... C o m m e n ts------------------------~........-..............
22 — V ocational business education should be given principally on the
(check choice) ju n io r h igh school level
senior high school level .....
ju n io r college level ___ senior college level ........
23 — T h e type o f vocational business education needed in this
co m m u n ity in the order o f importance is:
agricultural, including farm bookkeeping, m arketing, budget­
ing, investm ent, fam ily and farm purchasing. C o m m e n ts...........
___ _ personal use business education, including budgeting, invest­
m ent, insurance, understanding of money, taxation, personal
financing. C om m ents ----- --------- ---------------- --------- -----------------
..stenographic. C om m ents __________________________________
..clerical — "general office w o rk ” . C om m ents________________
..bookkeeping. C om m ents __________________________________
..machine operation — calculating, posting, duplicating, dicta
tion machines. C om m ents---------------------------------------------------..filing. Com m ents ----------------------------------------------------------------..retail selling. C om m ents------------------------------------------------------..operation of sm all shops, filling stations, etc. C om m ents-------24 — Business education should develop a better understanding o f the
foundations o f our economic order.
Yes
No
C om m ents_____________________________________ _____
25 — Business education should strive to develop a m ore social view­
point than we generally have at present o f the function o f business in
a democracy.
Yes
No
C om m ents....
-------------------------------------------------------26 — Pupils o f less than average ab ility can be served best b y :
T h e subjects preparing for specific vocational business positions
which require personal skill.
Yes
No
C om m ents--------------T h e subjects dealing w ith the general business and consum er inform ­
ation and skills of a broader basis th an personal skill.
Yes
No
C om m ents___________
—---- ---------------------------- ---- S E C T IO N T W O
6 — Business E n g lis h __________________________________________ 7 — Business L aw ______________________________________________
8 — Commercial A r t ___________________________________________
9 — Commercial G eography ___________________________________
10 — Consum er E ducation _____________________________________
11 — Economics -----------------------------------------------------------------------12 — Economic G eography _____________________________________
13 — Filing ___ ______ _________________________________________
14 — General Business _________________________________________
15 — J u n io r Business T ra in in g _________________________________
16 — M arketing -----------------------------------------------------------------------17 — Occupations __________________________________________ ___
18 — Office M a c h in e s__________ _________ _______ ____ ___________
19 — Office Practice ____ ____ _____________ ___ _________________
20 — Penm anship -------- ------------ -----------------------------------------------21 — Retailing -------------------------------------------------------------------------22 — Salesmanship ----------------- -------------------------------------------------23 — Spelling ----------------------------------------------------------------------------24 — S horthand, 1st year -------------------------------------------------- ------25 — Shorthand, 2nd yeat ----- -------------------------------------------------26 — T ranscription ----------------------------------------....
27 — T yping, 1st year _______________________ ___ _____________
28 — T yping, 2nd year -----------------------------------------------------------29 — O ther ---- ---------------------- ----------------------------------------- -------30 — O ther _______________________________________________ __ _
2 —- D o you have a separate course o f stu d y for the pupil w ho p
to drop out of school before he graduates? Yes __ N o —
1 — D o you follow up the graduates of the commercial departm ent to
Com m ents --------------------------------------------------------------------------------3 — ■D o you feci th at m ore subject m atter in English, in additior
see if they make good on the job? Y e s
No
Com m ents ----------the present requirement, should be added to the course of study for
business pupil? Y e s
N o — C om m ents --------------------------------2 — D o you know w hether o r n o t y o u r pupils have used the business
4 — D o you feel th at an additional requirem ent in arithm etic o
subjects taught them in school after they get a job? Y es
N o ----mathematics should be m ade of all business pupils? Y es
No —
Com ments ------------- --------------------------------------------- ---------------------------3 —- Is individual personal guidance given to pupils either before or
Com m ents ------------------ ----------------------------------- ----- --------------------5 — If you have a pre-requisite fo r any o f the courses listed on
after they graduate? Y es
No
C om m ents ------------------------------chart in question 1, will you please list the num ber of the course
4 — Does local business absorb m ost o f the graduates from your
the pre-requisite fo r it in the spaces provided below, for example
business departm ent? Y es
No
C o m m e n ts
----------------------commercial arithm etic is required before accounting can be taken, li;
5 — D o you make special p rovision fo r the w eak pupil in business
as follow s:
N o. 2 Com m ercial A rim m etic
education? Yes
No
F o r the stro n g p u p il? Y es
N o .......
N o ____________________
N o ____ _______
Com ments ----------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------6 — Please list, in order o f their im portance, w h at you th in k are the
N o _________
N o .......... ........... .
N o ___ _________
best means of determ ining p o ten tial abilities and interests of pupils who . N o _________________________
N o ____________________________
N o ......... .............. .
wish to take commercial subjects to prepare them for a vocation?
N o..
___________
N o ____________
6 — D o you know definitely, th ro u g h a survey or otherwise, that
kind of business training you teach is the kind of business trail
actually used in business? Y es
No
C om m ents-----------------7 — By the end of which year in y o u r school do you plan to prepare
most of your business education p u p ils to enter business? ----------------7 — D o you th in k it is practical, in y o u r school, to give course
8 — Please list the chief weaknesses, as you see them , o f the commercial
new and expensive business machines? Y e s
No
Comments .
graduates as they plan to enter business, in each o f the follow ing fields:
Personal qualities _____________________________ _____________________
8 — D o you th in k selling can be tau g h t successfully in your scl
General education subjects _______________________
—-- ---------------w ithout actual "o v er the counter" selling experience? Y e s
No
Business education subjects ____________
— ------------------------- -----Com m ents --------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------9 — H ow do you th in k these weaknesses m ight be ovecome, in each
9 — Does your school give a course in the management and opera
of the fields:
of small individually ow ned businesses of various types to help pi
Personal qualities ______ _________________ __ _______ _______________
prepare to enter business fo r themselves? Yes — N o
If not
General education subjects -----------------------------------------------------------------you th in k it should? Y e s
N o
C om m ents ----- -----------------Business education subjects _________________________________________
10 — W hat type of errors, or difficulties, do you find occurring i
frequently in bookkeeping? ------------------------— ---- ----------------S E C T IO N T H R E E
O ther courses?
----------------- ---- ----------------------------------------- -------C urriculum
Other courses? ---- ------ -------------------------- ----- -—....................... ...... .....
Guidance and P u p il Personnel
1■
— • Sec accompanying chart
Please list texts used in the follow ing courses:
1 — Advertising
_____ ____________________ ____ ____ _____________
2 — Accounting, 1st year ----- ------------------------------- ----- ----------- -------3 — Accounting, 2nd year _________________ _ _____________ ________
4 — Commercial A rithm etic ________________________________________
5 — Correspondence ------------------------------------------------------------------------
S E C T IO N F O U R
T eacher T ra in in g and T eacher Personnel
1 — D o you feel there should be some adm inistrative plan to
teachers of business in to u ch w ith practical business?
Yes _ N o ....... C om m ents-----------------------------------------------------------
2 — Please suggest a plan you think practical for th is purpose.
3 — A t w h a t college o r university did you receive the m ajo r p a rt o f
y o u r train in g ?
D id y o u graduate-----------Y ear____________ Degree held
M ajo r
p rep aratio n ________ -_____________________________ M in o r preparation
_______________________________________ M ajor teaching field_________
M in o r teaching field___________________________
H ave you done graduate w ork in addition to yo u r last degree? -----------W h a t was the last year o f such work? ___________A t w hich university?
____________________________________________ W h at teaching certificate
do y o u n o w h old? ---------------------------------------------------------------------------4 — Please fill in the form below for the business experience you had.
K ind o f w o rk
M onths of w o rk Nam e o f com pany
Y ear
5 — Please fill in the follow ing form fo r the professional teaching you
have done.
C ity o r State where you taught
H igh school, elem entary, etc.
T itle o f b o o k o r article
Date
P ublished by w h a t com pany
11 — H o w often d o yo'u give w ritten tests, by semester?
(C ircle)
1
2
3 4 5
6
7 8
9
10
11
12 — Please check the method, o r m ethods, you use to aid in deter­
m in in g the pupils grade in the course. Class p a rticip a tio n
G eneral
a ttitu d e .
General im pression
A pplication.
Series o f tests— T e rm
papers
O ral test
L aboratory w o rk
A ttendance
P e rfo rm ­
ance standards
F inal tests
W hich of the above d o you ra n k as
first, second, and th ird in im portance? 1st
2nd
3 rd --------13 — Please list the problem s in business education, as you see them ,
from a local and from a national view point.
Local
N ational
15 — D o you feel the commercial contests held in U ta h are a positive
______ o r a negative
factor in yo u r teaching. C om m ents...............
15 — Please check the kinds o f tests used by you d u rin g a regular
course. Com prehensive
M atching
T ru e-false
C o m p le tio n .—
Best an sw e r
M u ltiple choice
E ssa y
O th e r
---------------------S E C T IO N FIV E
Subject tau g h t
L ength o f
school term
N um ber of
years tau g h t
T eaching M ethods. Credits, and M easurem ents
1 — D o you teach pupils studying business subjects fo r vocational
preparation and those studying them for personal use in the same class?
Y es
No
C om m ents-----------------------------------------------------------------
6 — Please fill in the form below for your daily teaching schedule.
P eriod
Subject, o r subjects No. in Period, in
Y o u r duties, as
ta u g h t d uring
class
m inutes
teaching, overthis period
seeing, etc.
1st ___________________________ _______ ________________ _______ ______
2nd ____________________________ _______ _____ _______ _____________
3rd ______________________ ___________________ ______ _________ ___ _
4 th ____________ _________ ______ ________________________ ___ _______
5 th
.... ________ _______ _______________________
6 th __________ ___________ ________ _ ____________ __________________
7th
_____ _____ ____________ ______ __________ __________________
8 th _______________________ ___ ______ ______ _____________________
Ocher duties n o t listed above.
H ours per week N um ber of pupils
as extra-curricular, etc.
o f activity
in activity
7 — Please list below magazines, books, etc., th a t you regularly read
th at have stim ulated yo u r thinking.
M agazines ______________ _______ ____________________________ _______
B ooks ______________ _______ ___ __________ ____ ____ ___ _______ _____
O ther ___________
I-----------------------
3 — D o you teach your classes in bookkeeping o r accounting in such a
m anner th a t all the pupils in the class are on the same assignm ent a t the
same tim e? Yes — N o ... Com m ents -------------------------------------------4 — D o you follow a definite course o f stu d y in bookkeeping?
Y es
No
C om m ents----------------------------------------------------------------5 — D o you th in k bookkeeping should be tau g h t before the pupil
reaches the tenth grade? Y e s
No ... Before the eleventh grade?
Y es
No
Com m ents _____
—
6 — Do
n atu re in
7 — Do
In second
you correct and hand back to the p u p il all papers o f a m ajor
bookkeeping? Yes — N o — C om m ents ---------------------------you use practice sets in first year bookkeeping? Yes.
N o.
year bookkeeping? Y es_N o
C om m ents ..................................
8 — Are objective tests made by the publisher for the tex t you use in
bookkeeping? Y es
No
Are achievem ent tests made fo r the
text? Yes
No
Com m ents ___________________________ ___ ____
D o you use these tests? Achievement — O bjective
C o m m ents ___
9 — D o you use the radio or visual education as an aid in teaching
bookkeeping? Y e s N o
C o m m e n ts----------------------------------------------
8 — Piease list below the state, regional, or n ational commercial
teachers o rganization to which you belong, stating office held in each.
2 — If you teach b o th types o f pupils in the same class, do you differ­
entiate in the subject m atter you offer to the tw o groups, o r in the
stress you place on phases of the subject? Y e s
N o ----C om m ents ----------------------------------------- ---- -----------------------------------------
P •— - Please list the com m unity organizations to w hich you belong, if
an officer in the organization, please indicate.
10 — Please list below the title of articles o r books published b y you
d u rin g the past five years.
10 — D o you feel th at the instruction in the business dep artm en t of
y o u r school is as efficient as is the instruction in other departm ents?
Y es
No
C om m ents___________________________________________
11 — Please list, in the order o f your ow n preference, the approaches
o r m ethods you use to teach bookkeeping, as fo r exam ple, the balance
sheet approach. F irst------------------------------- Second-------------------------------T h ir d ___________
F o u rth ------------------------------------------1 2 — If you take y our classes on excursions, please check the follo w in g
uses you m ake of the inform ation gained. T o find h o w successfully
you are teaching the inform ation the pupil will need after g ra d u a tio n .—
T o help create placem ent jobs-— T o give p u p il actual business contacts
and in fo rm a tio n
T o stim ulate p u p il interest
O ther----------------13 — In y o u r business education teaching, do you give the greater
stress to skills
o r to broader social needs
C om m ents----------------14 — In w h a t w ay, o r ways, m ight the superintendent o r principal
cooperate to m ake business education m ore effective in your school?
S E C T IO N SIX
C ooperative, Evening, and P art-tim e Schools
1 — D o y o u have a cooperative arrangem ent w ith the merchants of
y o u r city fo r the p u p ils o f y o u r school to attend school p art o f the
day and w o rk in the stores p a rt o f the day? Yes
No
If not,
do you feel th a t such an arrangem ent should be made? Yes
N o ___
C om m ents _________________________________________________________
2 — If so, ho w m any pupils take this course each year? ______________
3 — H ow m uch tim e, in hours per week, is spent in class? __________
H o w m uch tim e o n the jo b ?
..........
Is it a one or a tw o year
course? O ne
T w o ____
4 — U n d er a cooperative arrangem ent suggested above, w hat w ould
you regard as an adequate selection of the pupils to enter such a train ­
ing plan? _________________________ ______ ____________ ______________
5 — Should school credit, in the plan above, be given fo r w ork done
in the store? Y e s------- N o ... C om m ents------------------------- ----------------6 — Should the school, in such a retail training plan, assume the
responsibility o f arran g in g the h o u r and paym ent plans o f the pupil
w ith the retail store m anager? Y es
No
Com m ents------------------7 — D o local m erchants look to y o u r school as a training field for
th eir employees? Y es
No
C om m ents--------------------------------- ---8 — If n o t, do you th in k such an a ttitu d e should be developed
,
could be developed?
C o m m en ts__________________ _____ _________
9 — D o you th in k the retail selling field offers more jobs to your
graduates th a n any o th er single field o f em ploym ent? Y es
N o ___
Please rank the fields th a t offer em ploym ent to your pupils in the order
of the greatest n u m b er affected. First ______________________________
Second ___________________________ T h ird ____ _____________________
10 — D o you th in k “over the co u n ter selling” can be tau g h t m ore___
o r less
successfully than can typ in g , shorthand, and bookkeeping'
C om m ents ----------------------------------------------------------- ------- .—__________
1 1 — D o you have a con tin u atio n school in your district for business
subjects? Y es
No
F o r o ther subjects? Yes
No
If in
o th e r subjects, please list the fields covered-----------------------------------------C om m ents ------------------------ ------------------ ------------------ --------- ---------------12 — D o you have evening school for secondary pupils in business
subjects? Y es
N o ........... o r adults? Y e s .... N o __ Evening classes in
o th er subjects fo r secondary pupils? Y es
No
For adults? Yes ...
No
If in o th er subjects, please list the fields covered______________
C om m ents ___
— ............................
Please w rite any com m ents you have on any phase of the qucstionairc
in the follow ing space.
In w hich year should this subject be ta u g h t? (A nsw er 1 for first, etc.)
Please fill in the sheet
Is tl lis course required in the business curricula?
fo r the subjects you
(A nsw er Y for Yes, N for N o)
Is a pre-requisite required f o r th is course?
teach, then hand to other
D o rou take the class o n excursions as p a rt of this course?
Is c aurse usuallytaken fo r occupational of general use?
teachers to fill in for the
subjects they teach.
How
m any m inutes, o u t o f class, do pupils study for this course?
Is subject open to business and non-business pupils?
H o w m any m inutes do teachers spenc in preparation and paper w ork?
Is course tau g h t by a teacher w ho majored n business?
Are pup ils selected in any way before taking course?
Are pupils placed in jobs because of skill from course?
Do pou know w hether pupils use this subject o n the jo b ?
1
1
11
!
1
W as a job survey made to help set up the course ?
Should a job survey be made to revise course?
Is tl ic subject open to only business pupils?
W hat % of class are non -b u s. pupils?
Is subject integrated?
W h at is enrollm ent of class?
tM inim , class standing?
|
M inutes
in
class?
C redit given?
1
pericids
1
EX A M PLE:
T y p in g
......
1
Y
3 - A ccounting, 2nd year ....
4 - Com mercial A rithm etic .. ...... ....
9 10
11
12
13
14
15
N
N
Y
..... ......
0
Y
0
......
....
.....
{
N
Y
Y
.....
N
Y
N
50
Y | 47 | F 1 45
*
1
i
...... ....... ...... ....... ......
......
......
yrs?
'
....
—
Com mercial Geography ..
-— ..... ....
......
- Consum er Education .... ----- ----- — ----- ----- ----- ----- ....
...... .... ----- ----- ----- ----- Econom ics ......................
..... ...... ......
.... .....
.... ...... ..... ..... ...... ..... ......
- Econom ic Geography . ..... ..... ...... .... .....
- Filing ..............—...........
----- ..... ----- —
----..... ....
......
....
- General Business --------.....
...... ...... ...... ■— .....
. . . . . . . . . . . . ......
......
......
- Jr. Business T rain in g .. ......
1 7 - O ccupations ----- ----.....
......
----1 8 - Office M achines ---- ---- 20 - Penm anship ---- ---------- ----2 1 - R etailing ----- ------------22 - Salesmanship ------- ----24 - Shorthand, 1st year .... .....
25 - Shorthand, 2nd year ....
30 - O th er —...........................-
-----
----.....
-----
....
......
.....
....
—
.....
.....
......
..... ......
—
.....
....
----- —
..... —-
......
:::
_ _
......
....
....
----
.....
_
..... .......
...... ....... ......
....
----- ----- —
-----
-----
....
.....
2
..... ......
— ----- __
..... ...... ......
----- ----- -----
......
...... ...... ......
-- --
......
___
...
.....
—
...... .....
....
....
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Name o f person answ ering questionaire .
A CHECK-LIST O N
BUSINESS E D U C A T I O N
T O THE TEACHERS O F
S T E N O G R A P H Y IN T H E S T A T E O F U T A H
Please read the follow ing statem ents concerning different phases of
business education. If you agree, in general, w ith the statem ent, check
Yes, if not, check No. Space is provided fo r com m ents o n each
statem ent.
fields o f service, n o t specific occupations for w hich p reparation can be
given. T h e y m ust be broken down in to their com ponent p a rts so th a t
the technical know ledge, occupational understanding, and essential skills
m ay be made the basis of suitable instruction, study, and practice.
Y es------- N o
C om m ents........................................................-...........................
S E C T IO N O N E
13 — Short u n it courses in such skill subjects as ty p ew ritin g and
s h o rth a n d should be organized for those w ho w ant these subjects fo r
personal use. Such courses should be available only to those w h o can
profit b y taking them , and should be given o nly at a tim e n o t to o far
removed from the need for the resultant skills.
Y es
N o.
C om m ents........................................... ............... ............. ...... ......
Objectives, Philosophies, Supervision, and Organization
1 — T h e kind o f thinking, o r the quality of action, o r b o th , w hich a
person reveals in a business situation, constitutes the acid test o f any
business education.
Y es
No
C om m ents-----------------------------------------------------------------2 — In regard to question one, do you believe th a t business education
takes place only w hen techniques, thoroughly learned, are p u t to w o rk
successfully in a real business transaction?
Y es
No
C om m ents-----------------------------------------------------------------3 — In regard to question one again, do you believe th a t business
education takes place when we thoroughly and efficiently tra in o u r
pupils in business subjects, regardless o f w hether o r n o t they ever go
in to business or w hat they do in business if they do go in to it as a
vocation?
Y es
No
C pm m ents-----------------------------------------------------------------4 — T h e education for any individual member o f society should tend
to be composed o f both vocational education and general non -v o catio n al education.
'
Yes — N o
C c e m e n ts
................. .....................................................
5 — T h e tru ly distinctive place o f business education in the total plan
o f Am erican school education is th at w hich has J o do w ith the voca­
tional objective. W e do not say that it is the exclusive phase; we do
say th a t it is the distinctive phase.
Y es
No
Com m ents------------------------------------------- ------------- --------6 — Business education has a distinct contribution to m ake to the
general education o f every on- in enabling the individual to m ake wise
use of h is income in the p r vision of food, clothing, housing, recreation
and education for himself and his family, and o f protection against the
risks o f fire, death, old age, ’’.ness, accident, unem ploym ent. Is the
above a result o f general education and experience w th o u t the special
need o r use o f business education?
Y es
No
Com m ents .........................
---------------------------------7 — Facilities should be provided to enable every individual to develop
a better understanding, through bus\iess education, o f econom ic p rin ci­
ples and their application in the every day affairs o f life.
Y es
No
C o m m e n ts
-------- -----------------------8 — H ow long, in your judgm ent, will it require f> provide such
facilities in o u r schools? —.------- .------ --------------- ---- ------------------------9 — W hen they are provided, ho w long will it take in school years to
m ake these objectives a part of the student's life to the extent th a t he
w ill use them ? Y ears----------------C om m ents _______________ ____ —-......................... ------------- -------------------10 — E xisting vocational business courses should n o t be utilized as the
means o f giving personal consum er education, except in a purely inci­
dental way.
Y es
No
C o m m e n ts.......................................................
..
11 — V ocational business education courses in high school sh o u ld be
so planned and administered as to enable the graduates o f such courses
to meet the em ploym ent demands of the com m unity to be served —
b o th in the type of position trained for and in the q u a lity o f the
preparation achieved by the high school student.
Y es
No
C om m ents............... ........................................................................
12 — I t is n o t enough to prepare for “ business” n o r for "office w o rk ” ,
fo r "sto re w o rk ” , for "selling” , or for "clerical w o rk ” . T hese are
14 — T h ere m ust be a clear recognition of the fact th at those w h o are
accepted for advanced vocational business training, after a tr y - o u t of
one year in a course open to all students, o r by some o th er selective
process, m ust possess certain aptitudes, interests, and abilities, and th a t
those w h o are n o t potentially trainable for and placeable in comm ercial
jo b s should be denied entrance into these courses for a second year of
train in g under specifically vocational-training program s o f study.
Y es
No
C om m ents____________________________ ______________
15 — Satisfactory vocational business education m ust be based u p o n a
p rogram of guidance w hich includes selection, placement, and fo llo w -u p
o f all persons w ho take this type of training.
Y es
No
C o m m e n ts_________________________________________
16 — T h e results o f instruction in vocational business education
courses m ust be measured more efficiently and convincingly th ro u g h the
use of new testing devices, careful placement of graduates and fo llo w -u p
w o rk to determ ine the degree of success achieved and the shortcom ings
w hich are revealed in their w ork in the job.
Y es
N o — C om m ents ..................— ......-------- ---------------------------1 7 — T.he business curriculum should be developed in the lig h t o f the
business needs of the com m unity, not necessarily o f the com m unity alone
in w hich the pu p il lives, b u t also of the one in w hich he is likely to be
later em ployed.
Y es
No
C o m m e n ts__________ __________ _______ _____ ___ ____
18 — T h e business curriculum can best be adjusted to meet the business
needs o f the com m unity through the enlightened cooperation o f the
business w orkers and the educational workers o f th a t com m unity.
Y es
No
C o m m en ts.....................................................................................
19 — S h o rt intensive courses should be given by the public high
school to enable those n o t in the full-tim e high school to im prove
business skill already possessed and to learn new ones.
Y es
N o ______ C om m ents----- -----------------------------------------------------2 0 — Some effort should be made to adjust the num ber o f persons
electing vocational business courses to the em ploym ent requirem ents of
the c om m unity — keeping in m ind the geographical extent o f the
em ploym ent com m unity.
Y es
No
C o m m en ts..............
-.......... -.........—-............ 21 — V ocational business education m ust include specific a tten tio n to
the developm ent o f job intelligence.
Y es ..
N o _ Com m ents — .................— ------------------------- ------- --------2 2 — V ocational business education should be given principally o n the
(check choice) ju n io r high school level
senior high school le v e l......
ju n io r college level ___ senior college level ........
23 — T h e type o f vocational businesseducation needed in this
com m u n ity in the order of importance is:
agricultural, including farm bookkeeping, m arketing, b u d g e t­
ing, investm ent, family and farm purchasing. C om m ents ..... ..
_______personal use business education, including budgeting, invest­
m ent, insurance, understanding of money, tax atio n , personal
financing. Com m ents ______________________________________
433
... Nam e of person answ ering questionaire .
School
A CHECK-LIST O N
BUSINESS E D U C A T I O N
TO THE TEACHERS OF
S T E N O G R A P H Y IN T H E S T A T E O F U T A H
Please read the follow ing statem ents concerning different phases o f
business education. If you agree, in general, w ith the statem ent, check
Yes, if not, check N o. Space is provided fo r com m ents on each
statement.
fields o f service, not specific occupations fo r w hich preparation can be
given. T h ey m ust be broken dow n in to th eir com ponent parts so that
the technical knowledge, occupational understanding, and essential skills
m ay be made the basis o f suitable instru ctio n , study, and practice.
Y es
No
C om m ents___________________________________________
S E C T IO N O N E
13 — Short u n it courses in such skill subjects as typew riting and
sh o rth an d should be organized for those w h o w a n t these subjects for
personal use. Such courses should be available only to those w ho can
profit by taking them , and should be given only at a tim e n o t too far
removed from the need fo r the resultant skills.
Y es
No
C o m m en ts________________
-..................-...............
Objectives, P hilosophies, Supervision, and O rganization
1 — T h e kind o f th in k in g , o r the q u a lity o f action, o r both , which a
person reveals in a business situ atio n , constitutes the acid test of any
business education.
Y es
No
C om m ents___________________________________________
2 — In regard to question one, do y o u believe th a t business education
takes place only when techniques, th o ro u g h ly learned, are p u t to w ork
successfully in a real business transaction?
Y es
No
C om m ents___________________________________________
3 — In regard to question one again, do you believe th at business
education takes place w hen we th o ro u g h ly and efficiently train o u r
pupils in business subjects, regardless o f w hether o r n o t they ever go
in to business or w h at they d o in business if they do go into it as a
vocation?
Y es
No
C om m ents___________________________________________
4 — T h e education fo r any in d iv id u al m em ber o f society should tend
to be composed o f b o th vocational education and general non-vocational education.
Y es
No
C o m m e n ts
-----------------------------------------------------5 — T h e truly distinctive place of business education in the total plan
of American school education is th a t w hich has to do w ith the voca­
tional objective. W e do n o t say th a t it is the exclusive phase: we do
say that it is the distinctive phase.
Y es
N o ......... C om m ents__________________ ______ -.................. ..............
6 — Business education has a distinct con trib u tio n to make to the
general education o f every one in enabling the individual to make wise
use of his income in the provision o f food, clothing, housing, recreation
and education fo r him self and his fam ily, and of protection against the
risks o f fire, death, old age, illness, accident, unem ploym ent. Is the
above a result o f general education a n d experience w ith o u t the special
need or use of business education?
Y es
No
C om m ents ......
-___ ____ ____________
7 — Facilities should be provided to enable every individual to develop
a better understanding, th ro u g h business education, of economic princi­
ples and their application in the every day affairs o f life.
Y e s ........ N o .... C o m m e n ts___________________ — ...... ........... — ........ .......
8 — How long, in your ju d g m e n t, w ill it require to provide such
facilities in o u r schools? ................ ............. .......... ...... .................... ........... ......
9 — W hen they are provided, how long w ill it take in school years to
make these objectives a p a rt o f the stu d e n t's life to the extent that he
w ill use them ? Y ears
----- —.
Com ments - .................................. ------------------------------------- ----------------------
_
10 — Existing vocational business courses should not be utilized as the
means of giving personal consum er education, except in a purely inci­
dental way.
Y e s _____N o C o m m e n ts
____________________ ___ __________________
11 — V ocational business education courses in high school should be
so planned and adm inistered as to enable the graduates o f such courses
to meet the em ploym ent dem ands o f the com m unity to be served —
both in the type o f position trained for and in the quality of the
preparation achieved by the h ig h school student.
Yes
No
C om m ents.......................................................................................
12 — It is n o t enough to prepare f o r "business" n o r for "office w o rk ” ,
for "store w o rk ” , for "sellin g ” , o r for "clerical w o rk ” . These are
14 — T here m ust be a clear recognition o f the fact th at those w ho are
accepted for advanced vocational business train in g , after a try -o u t of
one year in a course open to all students, o r by some o ther selective
process, m ust possess certain aptitudes, interests, and abilities, and that
those w ho are n o t potentially trainable fo r and placeable in commercial
jo b s should be denied entrance in to these courses for a second year of
training under specifically vocatio n al-train in g program s o f study.
Y es
No
C om m ents___________________________________________
15 — Satisfactory vocational business education m ust be based upon a
program of guidance w hich includes selection, placem ent, and follow -up
o f all persons w ho take this type o f training.
Y es
No
C o m m e n ts__________________________________ ________
16 — T h e results o f instruction in vocational business education
courses m ust be measured m ore efficiently and convincingly th ro u g h the
use of new testing devices, careful placem ent o f graduates and follow -up
w o rk to determine the degree o f success achieved and the shortcom ings
w hich are revealed in their w o rk in the job.
___.—-----------------------------------------------Y es
No
C o m m en ts
17 — T h e business curriculum should be developed in the light o f the
business needs o f the com m unity, n o t necessarily o f the com m unity alone
in which the pupil lives, b u t also o f the one in w hich he is likely to be
later employed.
Y es
No
C o m m e n ts_____________________ ____________________
18 — T h e business curriculum can best be adjusted to meet the business
needs o f the com m unity th ro u g h the enlightened cooperation o f the
business workers and the educational w orkers of th a t com m unity.
Y es
No
C o m m en ts..................................—........................... -...................
19 — Short intensive courses should be given by the public high
school to enable those n o t in the full-tim e h igh school to im prove
business skill already possessed and to learn new ones.
Y es
No
C om m ents
...................................................... ...................
2 0 — Some effort should be made to ad ju st the num ber of persons
electing vocational business courses to the em ploym ent requirements of
the com m unity — keeping in m ind the geographical extent o f the
em ploym ent com m unity.
Y es
No
C o m m e n ts...................................-------------------------- ----------21 — V ocational business education m ust include specific attention to
the developm ent o f jo b intelligence.
Yes ... N o
C om m ents ....:.---- ----------------------------------------------------2 2 — V ocational business education should be given principally on the
(check choice) ju n io r high school level
senior high school level —
ju n io r college level ___ senior college level ..... ..
23 — T h e type o f vocational business education needed in this
com m unity in the order o f im portance is:
..............agricultural, including farm bookkeeping, m arketing, budget­
ing, investm ent, fam ily and farm purchasing. C om m ents ------_______personal use business education, including budgeting, invest­
ment, insurance, understanding o f money, taxation, personal
financing. C om m ents .................................................... ..........................
24 — Business education should develop a better understanding of the
foundations of o u r economic order.
Yes
No
C om m ents__________________________________________
25 — Business education should strive to develop a m ore social view ­
p o in t than we generally have at present of the function o f business in
a democracy.
Y es
No
C om m ents----------------------------------------------....
26 — P upils o f less than average ability can be served best by:
T h e subjects preparing for specific vocational business positions
w hich require personal skill.
Y es
No
C om m ents...................... ................ ............... - _____________
T h e subjects dealing w ith the general business and consum er in fo rm ­
ation and skills of a broader basis than personal skill.
Y es
No
C o m m e n ts--------------------------- -------------------------------------
S E C T IO N T W O
Guidance and P upil Personnel
1 — By the end o f which year in your school do you a ttem p t to p re ­
pare m ost of y our pupils to be best equipped to enter business? F irst
year
Second
T h ir d
F o u r th
Com m ents _________ _____
2 — H ow m any o f y our pupils, m ajoring in business subjects, go in to
business directly from school? --------------------------------------------------------3 — H ow m any o f your pupils, trained in the follow ing skills, get
positions in th a t skill, or field, when they leave school? T y p i n g ______
S h o rth an d _______ Bookkeeping_______ Office practice_______ General
business_______ O th e r_______ ____
H ow m any do you graduate each year in each of these skills? T y p in g
....... S h o rth a n d ..
..... B ookkeeping___ ___ Office practice_______
General business_______ O ther......... .............
4 — Please list the chief weaknesses, as you see them , in the graduates
of the commercial departm ent of your school, in the follow ing fields:
Personal qualities ....... ............ ............... ....................... .......... ...............................
General education subjects .............................. ...................... ............................. .
Business education subjects ___ _______ _____ _____ ___________________
5 — H ow m ight these weaknesses be overcome in each field?
Personal qualities ___ _________ ____ ____________________________ ___
Business education subjects ..— ____________________________________
General education subjects ________ __________________ _____________
6 — D o you follow up your business graduates after they get a job, to
see if they "M ake good"?
Y es
No
C om m ents
___ ________________________ _______
7 — Have y our pupils generally used the business subjects taught them
in school after they get a position in business?
Y es
N o ... C om m ents
____ ______ ______ _________ ____ ____ __
8 — Does local business absorb most of your business graduates?
Y es
No
C o m m e n ts
________________ ____________ _______
9 — H ow m any of your business m ajors go in to business positions
directly from school? .............. Com m ents ... __________ ___ ________
10 — A t about w hat wage per m onth do your business m ajors start
w ork in Bookkeeping $ ______ Stenography $ ______ T y p in g $ _____
Clerking $ ______ O ther $ ........... Com m ents ________________________
1 1 — Please check the items you use as aids in determ ining the
apparent intelligence of the pupil. Intelligence t e s ts
Grades in school
w o rk
T eacher observation
O ther means _____________ _____ _
S E C T IO N T H R E E
Curriculum
1 — If you have any active demand for business subjects th a t are nc
tau g h t in y our school please list them
___________________________
2 — A b o u t w hat num ber o f business pupils are trained in y o u r schot
in each o f the follow ing fields, as a m ajor subject? S h o rth a n d --------B ookkeeping----------- T y p in g ----------- Selling------------- Clerical-------O th e r____________ Com m ents______________________________________
3 — A b o u t w hat num ber o f your business graduates, on the averagi
do you th in k will not continue their education fu rth e r................ Abov
w h a t num ber w ill not go in to business? ......... C o m en ts---------------4 — D o more or fewer pupils m ajor in the follow ing fields th an yo
can place in positions: S tenographic— ......— A c c o u n tin g ------------R etailing _______ R e ta ilin g ______ C leric al---------- O th e r--------------C om m ents ---- ----------------------- ---- ---------------------------------------------- ----5 — Please enter the m inim um speed, in w ords per m inute, in tl
proper colum n, th at you require for a passing grade, in the follow ing
1st year
shorthand
2nd year
sho rth an d
In w hich ye;
in school is
course given
T y p e w ritin g :
3 m inutes straight copy
---------- --------------------------------------------10 m inutes straight copy
------------------- _ ---- ----------- --------------1 5 m inutes straight copy
----------------- ------------------ --------------O th er _____________________
___ _____ _____ _______ ____ _________
D ic ta tio n :
5 m inutes, business letters
---—-----------------------------------------1 5 m inutes, business letters
----------------- -----------------------------------5 m inutes, paragraph material ------------- -----------------------------------------1 5 m inutes, paragraph material ---------------------— ------ -----------O th e r ___________________ _______________ _______ ___ _____ _________
T ranscription :
F ro m shorthand notes
------------ ------------------------- --------------F rom dictating machine
----------------- ------------------ --------------O ther ------ ------ ----------------- --------- -------------- ----------------------------------1st year
2nd year
In w hich ye;
typing
ty p in g
in school is
course given
T y p e w ritin g :
------ ------ —.
- --------------3 m inutes straight copy
10 m inutes straight copy
----------------- ---- ------------- --------------15 m inutes straight copy
----------------—O ther
----------------------------- ----------------- ------------------ --------------D ic ta tio n :
5 m inutes, business letters
----------------- ------------------ --------------15 m inutes, business letters
----------------- ------------------ --------------5 m inutes, paragraph material ------- .......—-.....
1 5 m inutes, paragraph material ............ ....... ............... ................... ...........
O th e r
.............................................
T ran sc rip tio n :
F rom shorthand notes
From dictating machine
O th e r ----------------------
----------------- ---- ------------- ------------------------------- ------------------ ------- -----—
-................... .........................
6 — In w hich year of the course do you require trapscribed letters to 1
perfect? ________ ___ Mailable? ---------- ------ C om m ents ------------------7 — . D o you permit the useof an eraser in transcription? Y e s—.
N o
D o you teach the proper method o f erasing? Yes---- N o -------C om m ents ------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------8 — D o you require transcribed letters to be accom panied by carbo
copies? Y e s
No
By addressed envelopes? Y e s
N o ----C om m ents ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------9 — D o you require pupils to learn to address envelopes in all tl
different styles? Y es
No
T o w rite letters in all the differei
styles? Yes ___ N o ___ In the most frequently used styles? Yes.— No.,
C om m ents ....... ................................ ............................ ...........................................
—-..........
.
_______ stenographic. Com m ents __________________________________
_______ clerical — ‘‘general office w o rk ". C om m ents________________
_______ bookkeeping. Com m ents __________________________________
_______ machine operation — calculating, posting, duplicating, dicta
tio n machines. Com m ents__________________________________
_______ filing. Com m ents ----------------------------------------------------------------_______ retail selling. C om m ents____________________________________
_______ operation o f small shops, filling stations, etc. C om m ents______
10 — D o you require pup ils to take dictation directly o n the type­
w riter? Yes
No
C om m ents---------------------------------------------------11 — D o you give instruction in the use o f the duplicating machine,
requiring pupils to cut sencils, m ake copy for the hectograph, etc. ?
Yes
No
C om m ents-----------------------------------------------------------------12 — D o you give instru ctio n from rough d raft, typing postal cards
and legal papers?
Yes
No
C om m ents___________________________________________
13 — Please check the follow ing types o f m anuscript if you teach your
pupils to use them . R eports for o th er classes
P ro g ra m s
M anu­
script covers.— T itle pages
T ables o f contents
Bibliograhpies...
C itatio n s
F o o tn o tes...
O utlines
P ro o f readers’ signs
A rti­
cles of business in fo rm a tio n
Interview s
O th e rs________________
C om m ents ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------14 — Please list the year in y o u r school in w hich you th in k the fol­
low ing subjects should be tau g h t. F o r personal use: F irst year sh o rt­
hand
First year-ty p e w ritin g -------------------- F irst year_book­
.............. --------.........................
keeping ___________ O th er -----F or vocational use: F irst year sh o rth a n d ---------- ------_ F irst year type­
w riting __________ F irst year b o o k k e e p in g --------------- O th e r..................
Com m ents -----------------------—---------------- -----------------------------------
________________________________________ M ajo r teaching field-------------____________________ M in o r teaching field___________________________
Have you done graduate w ork in a d d itio n to y o u r last degree? _______
W h at was the last year o f such w o rk ? ___________ A t w hich university?
____________________________________________ W h a t teaching certificate
do you now hold? __________________________________________________
4 — Please fill in the form below fo r the business experience you had.
Kind of w ork
M o n th s o f w o rk Nam e o f com pany
Year
5 — Please fill in the follow ing form for the professional teaching you
have done.
C ity or State where you tau g h t
H igh school', elementary, etc.
Subject taught
L ength o f
school term
N um ber of
years taught
S E C T IO N F O U R
E quipm ent
Please indicate the num ber o f each o f the follow ing items o f equipm ent
you have in your school for the use o f the pu p ils:
17 - Sw itch boards
_______
1 - Addressographs______ ________
2 - A utom atic tim ers
_______
18 - S tapling machines _______
3 - Bulletin boards
_______
19 - T elephones
_______
4 - C opy holders
_______
20 - T y p in g charts
________
5 - Dictionaries, u n abridged
___
21 - T y p ew riters
6 - Electric clocks................ ................
R em ington standard ___ ___
7 - Paper cutters________ _______
R em ington noiseless _______
8 - Paper punches...............................
U nderw ood standard ___ ___
9 - Phonographs................. ...............
U nderw ood noiseless _____ .
-----------R oyal
10 - Posture chairs
1 1 - Postal guides________ ________
W oodstock
_______
12 - Rail Road guides
_______
L. C. S m ith
_______
13 - Radios---------------------- -----------O th e r
---- ----------- ----------14 - Stop watches
_______
22 - W ash stands
_______
15 - Stam p affixing m achine
23 - W aste paper baskctts ........
16 - Scaling machines
------ ----24 - O th e r ----------------- ----------(insert makes)
25 - Adding machines ------------------------------------------ --------------------- ------26 - Billing machines ----------------------------------------------------------------------27 - Bookkeeping machines ____ ___________________________ _________
28 - D ictating machines --------------------------------------------------------------------29 - D uplicating machines ___ ______________________________________
30 - Filing cabinets, kinds ----- ----------------------- ---- ------------------------------3 1 - M oving picture m achines ____________________________________ __
32 - T y p in g desks, sizes, in inches ________________________ _______
33 - O ther ---- ------------------------------------------------------------------- ----- --------34 - O ther ________________________________________________ _______
6 — Please fill in the form below fo r yo u r daily teaching schedule.
Period
Subject, or subjects N o. in Period, in
Y o u r duties, as
taught during
class
m inutes
teaching, overthis period
seeing, etc.
1st — ------ -------------------------------------- --------- -------------------------------------2nd --------------------------------- -------------- -----------------------------------------------3rd ----------------- -------------------- --------- -------------------------------------4 th ---------------------— ----------------- ------------------------------5 th _______________ ________ ______ _______ _____ _________________
6 th ....... ......................................................................................... .................................
7th ......
- ................................................8 th ___________________ ___________________________ ___________ _____
O ther duties not listed above,
H ours per week N um ber of pupils
as extra-curricular, etc.
o f activity
in activity
7 — Please list below magazines, books, etc., th a t you regularly read
th a t have stim ulated y our th in k in g .
Magazines _______.---------------------------------------------------------------------------Books --------------------------- -----------------------------------------------------------------O ther ----- ----------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------8 — Please list below the state, regional, o r national commercial
teachers organization to w hich you belong, stating office held in each.
9 —- Please list the com m unity organizations to w hich you belong, if
an officer in the o rganization, please indicate.
S E C T IO N F IV E
T eacher T ra in in g , and Teacher Personnel
1 — D o you feel there should be some adm inistrative plan to keep
teachers of business in touch w ith practical business?
Y es
No
C om m ents
............................ .................. .................. .......
2 — Please suggest a plan you th in k practical for this purpose.
3 — A t w hat college o r university did you receive the m ajor part of
your training? _____________________ _____ D id you g ra d u ate ---------Y e ir___________ Degree held ........
M ajor
preparation...................................
— M in o r preparation
10 — Please list below the title o f articles or books published by you
during the past five years.
T itle of book o r article
D ate
Published by w hat company
H ow often do you give w ritte n tests, by semester?
H
(Circle)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12 — Please check the m ethod, o r m ethods, you use to aid in deter-
m ining the pupils grade in the course. Class participation
General
attitude
General impression— Application— Series o f tests— T erm
papers
Oral test
Laboratory work
Attendance
Perform ­
ance standards
Final tests
Which o f the above do you rank as
first, second, and third in importance? 1st
2nd
3rd---------13 — Please list the problems in business education, as you see them ,
from a local and from a national viewpoint.
Local
National
14 — D o you feel the commercial contests held in U ta h are a positive
o r a negative.................factor in y o u r teaching. C om m ents---------15 — Please check the kinds of tests used by you d u rin g a regular
course. Com prehensive
M atch in g
T ru e-false
C o m p le tio n —
Best answ er
M ultiple choice
Essay
O th e i.......................... ...........
S E C T IO N SIX
T eaching M ethods, Credits and M e a su rem e n t^ )
1 — D o you use objective tests as an aid in selecting pupils fo r business
subjects o r to determine w ho shall be adm itted to the study o f business?
..................
-........................... —
Y es
No
C om m ents
2 — Is business E nglish taught in your school by a teacher w h o
m ajored in business?
Y es
No
Com m ents-----------------------------------------------------------------3 — Is a p a rt of the class period devoted to study in any o f the classes
you teach? Class —........ ...................................— H o w m any m in u te s
.
4 — A bout w hat proportion of the time, in m inutes, in the classes you
teach, is devoted to the textbook and the project m ethod o f teaching?
C la s s ____________ T im e given to text book m ethod
T o pro ject.......
C la s s ____________ T im e given to text book m eth o d
T o p r o je c t .......
C la s s
^________ T im e given to text book m eth o d
T o p ro je c t----5 — Please list, in the order o f y our ow n preference, the m ethods o r
approaches you use in teaching your m ajor subjects, as fo r exam ple,
the functional m ethod in shorthand.
Subject ___________________ Approaches or m eth o d s------------------- -------S u b je c t
..........................- Approaches or m ethods---------------------------6 — If you take your classes on excursions, please check the follow ing
uses you m ake of the inform ation gained. T o find how successfully
you are teaching the inform ation the pupil w ill need after g ra d u atio n .—
T o help create placement jo b s
T o give pup ils actual business c o n ­
tacts and in fo rm a tio n
T o stim ulate pupil interest
O th e r
______________________________ O ther.............................................. ..................
7 — D o you approve of extra periods in typing? Yes . ........ N o -----In shorthand? Yes.
No
Does yo u r school provide for them ?
Y es
No
Com m ents
-------------------- -------------------------------------8 — In w hat way, o r ways, m ight the superintendent o r principal
cooperate to make business education more effective in y o u r school?-
Please w rite any comm ents you have on any phase o f the questionaire
in the follow ing space.
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