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AN X-RAY STUDY OF THE TIME-RATE OF PRECIPITATION FROM A SOLID SOLUTION OFCU IN AL

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The P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e C o l l e g e
The G r a d u a t e S c h o o l
D epartm ent of P h y sics
AN X-RAY STUDY OF THE TIME-RATE
OF PRECIPITATION FROM A SOLID SOLUTION
OF CU IN AL
A T hesis
C h a r l e s H. Townes
S ubm itted i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t
of th e re q u ire m e n ts f o r th e degree of
D o cto r of P h ilo so p h y
A u g u s t , 1 94 2
Approved
Head o f D e p a rtm e n t
M ajor P r o f e s s o r
D ate of A pproval
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I w i s h t o e x p r e s s ray g r a t i t u d e a n d t h a n k s t o
D r. W h e e le r P . Davey f o r h i s d i r e c t i o n and i n t e r e s t
d u r i n g t h e c o u rs e o f t h i s work.
It
is
a p l e a s u r e t o e x p r e s s my t h a n k s t o t h e
G e n e ra l E d u c a ti o n B oard and to t h e Rosenwald F o u n d a tio n
f o r f e l l o w s h i p s w h i c h made i t
p o s s ib le to undertake
t h i s vrork.
I
250329
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
In tro d u ctio n
...................
1
A p p a r a t u s , M a t e r i a l and T ech n iq u e
E xperim ental R e s u lts
.............. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D iscu ssio n of R e su lts
B ibliography
.................
..........................
................................
A p p e n d i x . * .............................................
1
5
9
14
17
FIGURES
Page
X -Ray D i f f r a c t i o n
C urves; S o lid S o lu tio n .
6
X -R a y D i f f r a c t i o n
C u r v e ; QD * .................................
7
X~Ray D i f f r a c t i o n
C u r v e s ; 9 . . ..............................
8
X-Ray C i r c u i t
......................
G e ig e r-M u lle r C o n sta n t V oltage
S t a b i l i z e d Pow er S u p p l y
P re-am p lifier
A m p lifier
18
Supply . . . .
19
f o r A m p lifier . . . .
SO
.....................................
..........................................
A u x ilia ry A m p lifier
........................
21
22
23
P r e c i p i t a t i o n from a b i n a r y
(or even te rn a ry )
so lid
s o l u t i o n l ia s b e e n s t u d i e d f o r many y e a r s b y many
i n v e s t i g a t o r s u s i n g many m e t h o d s W e
system a s a t y p i c a l ex am p le.
I t a p p e a rs ths.t th e
p r e c i p i t a t i o n o f a Cu-Al i n t e r m e t a l l i c
s o l i d s o l u t i o n o f Cu i n A l ,
The f i r s t
step y ie ld s
may u s e t h e C u - A l
compound f r o m a
t a k e s p l a c e i n two s t e p s .
a tetrag o n a l m ateria l,
c a l l e d QT,
c o n s i d e r e d by m e t a l l u r g i s t s t o be a n a l l o t r o p i c
CuAl2 , w h o s e l a t t i c e
A =a/b=0.71.
co n stan ts are,
T h is m a t e r i a l i s
second t e t r a g o n a l m a t e r i a l ,
constants are,
It
a o= 6 . 0 4
form o f
a o= 8 . 2 0 , b 0= 1 1 . 6 $ ,
supposed to change i n t o a
c a l l e d 9 , w ho se l a t t i c e
b 0= 4 . 8 6 R, A = a / b = 1 . 2 4 .
i s th e p u r p o s e o f t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o add t o
t h e above a r a t h e r d e t a i l e d know ledge o f t h e t i m e - r a t e
o f grow th o f i n d i v i d u a l c r y s t a l l o g r a p h i c
p rec ip ita te ,
(C u A1 2 ) •
p lan es in the
T h i s was made p o s s i b l e by t h e u s e
o f G e i g e r - M u l l e r quantum c o u n t e r s t o m e a s u re t h e i n t e n ­
sitie s
o f x - r a y beam s d i f f r a c t e d b y t h e p r e c i p i t a t e .
A pparatus. M a te ria l,
a n d T e c h n i q u e -.
A m o ly b d e n u m t a r g e t C o o l i d g e ( G . E . X - r a y C o r p . )
was o p e r a t e d a t 25 m a . ,
tube
42 K v ( m£X) w i t h b a l a n c e d Z r 0 2 a n d
SrC03 ( P a t t e r s o n S c r e e n C o.)
filte rs.
The f i l t e r s
c o n t a i n e d r e s p e c t i v e l y 0 . 0 7 2 gm Zr and 0 . 1 5 8 gm S r p e r s a .
cm.
Three le a d
slit
system s,
e a c h 0 . 0 1 i n c h wide and 5 / 4
i n c h h i g h a nd 6 i n c h e s l o n g , w e r e m o u n t e d o n a S p e n c e r
L e n s Co.. (Mo. 3 1 8 )
sp ectrom eter.
custom ary c o l l i m a t i n g s l i t
m o u n t e d on t h e
system ;
One o f t h e s e was t h e
a second sy stem ,
s w i n g i n g arm, was u s e d i n t h e u s u a l way
to m easure th e a n g le o f d i f f r a c t i o n f o r v a r i o u s d i f f r a c t e d
b e a m s ; t h e t h i r d was m o u n te d r i g i d l y t o a d m i t t h e beam
from t h e
(311)
p lan e s of the s o lid
The beam p a s s e d b y t h i s t h i r d
slit
s o l u t i o n o f Cu i n . A l .
system s e r v e d ,
th erefo re,
as a s t a n d a r d o r p i l o t t o i n d i c a t e t h a t 'a l l o p e r a t i n g
c o n d i t i o n s were c o n s t a n t w h i l e r e a d i n g s were b e i n g t a k e n
on t h e beam s p a s s e d b y t h e s e c o n d s l i t
system .
The ( 5 1 1 )
p l e n e s o f t h e s o l i d s o l u t i o n were c h o se n m e re ly b e c a u s e
t h e i n t e n s i t y w a s h i g h and t h e a n g l e was l a r g e e n o u g h t o
avoid c o n ta c t w ith th e s l i t
sy s te m on t h e s w in g in g arm .
The two G e i g e r - M u l l e r q u a n tu m c o u n t e r s w e r e o f t h e
argon-oxygen ty p e .
v o ltag e
own h i g h
s u p p l y and w i t h i t s own a m p l i f y i n g a n d p u l s e -
lev elin g c ir c u it,
ty p e,
E a c h was p r o v i d e d w i t h i t s
e tc.
These c i r c u i t s were o f t h e u s u a l
s u c h a s h a v e b ecom e s e m i - s t a n d a r d i n t h i s
C o u n t s w e r e made on C e n co i m p u l s e c o u n t e r s
S cien tific
Co. No. 7 3 5 1 1 ) .
lab o rato ry .
(C en tral
A m ercury s w itc h ta p e d t o th e
h a n d l e o f a C e n c o i n t e r v a l t i m e r (Mo. 7 3 4 0 5 ) was i n s e r t e d
i n s e r i e s w i t h t h e i m p u l s e c o u n t e r so t h a t a l l d a t a were
ta k e n o v er 5 + 0 .0 2 m inute i n t e r v a l s .
E x p e r ie n c e h a s shorn
3
th a t over t h i s
(statio n ary )
t i m e i n t e r v a l t h e c o u n ts on t h e t h i r d
c o u n t e r were s u b s t a n t i a l l y u n i f o r m .
The e l e c t r i c
fu rn a c e used f o r h e a tin g th e
specim ens
was o p e r a t e d o n a c o n s t a n t v o l t a g e c i r c u i t so t h a t i t
was e asy t o m a i n t a i n a s u b s t a n t i a l l y
c o n sta n t tem perature.
T e m p e r a t u r e s w e r e m e a s u r e d by a c h r o m e l - a l u m e l t h e r m o ­
couple .
Specim ens f o r
£5 S a l l o y k i n d l y
B arrett*
and t h e
th e
f u r n i s h e d b y Dr s . R* F . M e h l a n d C. S.
The c o m p o s i t i o n o f £5 S i s
Handbook),
cent S i,
e x a m in a tio n were c u t from a s h e e t of
as 4 .5
g iv en (M etals
p e r c e n t C u , 0 . 8 p e r c e n t Mn, 0 , 8 p e r
b a la n c e A l.
The p r e s e n c e " o f t h e s e e l e m e n t s
s u b s t a n t i a l a b s e n c e o f o t h e r s was c o n f i r m e d by
spectroscope.
The s t r i p s
c u t from t h e o r i g i n a l s h e e t,
were p u l l e d t h r o u g h a d i e - p l a t e
0.0 4 3 in c h e s i n
in the a i r
diam eter.
to
give c y l i n d r i c a l w ires,
The w a r e s w e r e t h e n h e a t e d
i
i n t h e f u r n a c e a t 54 0°C f o r 2 4 h o u r s ,
to put a l l th e
Cu i n s o l i d
th e n quenched i n
s o l u t i o n i n th e A l,
i n order
a n d were
w a t e r a t 2,0°C.*
*The M e t a l s H a n d b o o k ,
1939 e d . ,
4 p e r c e n t Cu,
96 p er cen t A l,
s o lu tio n range
and th a t t h is
p r e s e n t work se e m s t o
p g . 1 2 2 2 sh ow s t h a t a t
540°C l i e s
in the
solid
range, i s v e r y n a r r o w .
show t h a t
The
s m a l l a m o u n t s o f Mn and
4.
Si do n o t a l t e r
tm s
^
proxim ate t e m p e r a t u r e
S - h r am g r e a t l y
ax-^
&
i im its
—
since the api
f o r 25 S t u r n e d o u t t o b e
504°C and 5 4 8 ° C .
t slu e d , on f i n e
They were t n e n p o J - > ^
•
t r a c e s oi o x i d e .
„
n
a t 509°C m o r d e r
emery c l o t h t o r em o v e
-fcbiev w e r e o u t b a c k i n t h e f u r n a c e
m en
4.
c i l i t a t e t h e m i g r a t i o n o f Cu i n
to x
,
4-fc t h a t t e m p e r a t u r e e x c e p t when
t h e A l , and w e r e k e p t «=?- ^
,
.
t i m e t h e w i r e s were t a k e n o u t o f
under e x a m i n a t i o n ,
_ n u e n c h e d i n w a t e r a t 2 0°C. Wo
the f u r n a c e , t h e y w e r e
. - 4. • ^ ^ o u l d h e f o u n d i n t h e s e Que nched
evidence of o x i a a t i o n o
4.
was r e c k o n e d f r o m t h e t i m e
s p e c i m e n s . Tim e o f a g i * 0
._
t h e f u r n a c e an d i n c l u d e d a l l
of f i r s t i n s e r t i o n i n t o
n_
a t 2 0 ° C was n o t c o u n t e d a s
the tim e a t 3 0 9 °C .
T iir.^
4.-^/=,
1 ^
man y c a s e s , t h e e x a m i n a t i o n
p a rt of the a g in g t i m e ui.,,
c o u n t e r w a s p a r a l l e l e d by a n
w ith th e G e i g e r - M u l l e d
4- c
s p e c i m e n on a n o t h e r x - r a y o u t f i t ,
ex p o su re of a d u p l i c a t e
. -p*'T I f f l .
I n some c a s e s , f u r t h e r c h e c k s
u s i n g a p h o t o g r a p h i c x u^ ^ r - o v e a t 1 0 0 X, s i n c e t h e p r e c i p i t a t e
were made w i t h a m i c r o b e i
- n e 1 .c h . e s .
S in c e a l l sp ecim en s were
was i n d i c a t e d b y b r o w n
^ . - r n p e r a t u r e h i s t o r i e s , th e tim e
g i v e n i d e n t i c a l t i m e - - ' fc:j
- i ^ e - e e x a m i n a t i o n a t 20°C v a r i e d f r o m
re c u ire d fo r t h e com pl® ^
X.
90 t o 270 m i n u t e s .
5.
E xperim ental R e su lts
The G e i g e r - M f t l l e r c o u n t e r p r o v e d t o b e m ore
sen sitiv e
th an th e p ho tographic film ,
in d icated
clearly
sin ce i t
often
t h e p r e s e n c e o f l i n e s w hich c o u ld n o t
be se e n w i t h c e r t a i n t y above t h e b a c k g r o u n d on t h e f i l m .
The t i m e h i s t o r y
1, 2,
of a ty p ic a l
specim en i s
shown on F i g s .
and S.
Fig. 1 .
T i m e - i n t e n s i t y ciirves f o r ( 1 1 1 ),
and ( 2 1 1 )
plan es of the
F ig.
T i m e - i n t e n s i t y c u r v e s f o r (224)
2.
so lid
(100),
(110),
s o l u t i o n o f Cu i n A l .
plan es of the 9 !
phase.
F ig.
5.
T im e -in te n s ity curves fo r (2 1 1 ),
(210),
(202),
(00o)
In a l l
cases,
th e tim e o r d in a te i s
(112),
p la n e s of the 9 p h ase.
quantum c o u n t s p e r m i n u t e ,
made d u r i n g t h e
(220),
i.e.
e x p re sse d in term s of
one f i f t h
of th e counts
s t a n d a r d 5 m inute c o u n t i n g p e r i o d .
The d i f f r a c t i o n
p a t t e r n of the
(224)
planes of the 9 ’
p h a s e c o u l d b e f o u n d e a s i l y by p h o t o g r a p h i c m eans a t
h e a tin g tim es
(309oc)
b e t w e e n 20 a n d 60 m u n u t e s w i t h a n
a p p a r e n t maximum i n t e n s i t y
a t a b o u t 60 m i n u t e s , b u t t h e
l i n e c o u ld n o t be found p h o t o g r a p h i c a l ly i f
t h e t i m e was
Intensity of diffracted beam >n terms
500r
w 1®
quantum counts per minute
40
80
120
160
200
240
280
320
Intensity of diffracted beam in term s
of quantum counts per minute
8 7 phase
o
oo
a>
ro
J
®
-----------
•V
o
/Q
V* J
x
o
<a
%
?
ro
c
-I
If)
o
O
<a
o
a.
o
Oi
o
o
m
O
Q
ro
ro
ft
-
O
<£> ro
o
O
O
ro
oj
ro
o
n
VS
(224)
ao
O
ft)
-V?
Intensity of d iffra c te d beam In term s of qu an tum counts p e r m inute
0 ph ase
in creased to
d etected
9 hours.
T h is l i n e
co u ld ,
h o w e v e r, be
e a s i l y by t h e q u a n tu m c o u n t e r f o r h e a t i n g t i m e s
u p t o 980 h o u r s , — l o n g a f t e r
t h e 0 p h a s e had become
co n stan t.
Wo o t h e r l i n e s
o f t h e O’ p h a s e c o u l d b e f o u n d ,
in d ic atin g
perhaps th a t th e p a r t i c l e
s i z e was s m a ll o r
t h a t t h e 9 r p h a s e was o r i e n t e d w i t h i n r a t h e r n a r r o w l i m i t s .
D iscu ssio n of R e s u lts
It
Cu i n
is
t o be assum ed,
so lid
th a t th e presence of
s o l u t i o n i n th e Al w i l l te n d to p roduce
d isto rtio n s
in the c r y s ta ls
th ese d is to r tio n s
of the
of course,
so lid
o f A l.
In a cu b ic c r y s t a l
should " av e rag e out"
so lu tio n
sh ould s t i l l
la ttic e
param eter
Al ^~^.
M i g r a t i o n o f Cu i n t h e
so t h a t t h e c r y s t a l s
be c u b i c ,
but w ith a
somewhat d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t o f t h e
so lid
s o l u t i o n m ust r e s u l t
i n t h e f o r m a tio n of n u c l e i o f an i n t e r m e t a l l i c
9 T,
( c o n s i d e r e d by m e t a l l u r g i s t s
a t o m s o f Cu w i l l f i n d i t
t o b e C uA1 2 ) .
more d i f f i c u l t
It
is
to be e x p e c te d ,
planes of th e
d isto rte d
free
so lid
T h is s h o u ld t e n d t o p ro d u c e a n enorm ous number
of n u clei of 9 ’ scattered
A l.
S ucceeding
t o m i g r a t e away
from th e s e n u c l e i th a n to m ig r a te i n t h e
so lu tio n .
compound,
so lid
p r e tty uniform ly throughout th e
th erefo re,
so lu tio n
d u rin g the f i r s t
th at
th e atom ic
s h o u l d become v e r y b a d l y
p a rt of th e
"aging"
a t 309°C,
10.
and t h a t
th erefo re th e ir
m ark ed ly .
F ig .
p lanes of th e
It
1 sho w s t h a t ,
so lid
was i n d e e d t h e
d iffractin g
power s h o u ld d ecrease
fo r a l l four cry stallo g ra p h ic
s o l u t i o n t h a t were i n v e s t i g a t e d ,
case.
h a s b e e n assumed above t h a t t h e
o f Q1 i s
th is
grow th o f n u c l e i
d u e , n o t t o a u n i d i r e c t i o n a l f l o w o f Cu t o w a r d
th e n u c le i,
b u t only t o
the f a c t
th at th ere
is
less
chance
f o r f l o w o f i n d i v i d u a l a t o m s o f Cu away f r o m t h e n u c l e i .
T h e - l a r g e r t h e n u c l e i t h e more s t a b l e
and t h i s
l e a d s a t once t o
th e
th e y m ust become,
co n clusion th a t
n u c l e i m u st grow a t t h e e x p e n s e o f t h e
I f we o n c e g r a n t t h i s ,
it
is
p rec ip ita te ,
less
and l e s s
the d i s to r tio n s
u n til
sm aller n u c le i.
ev id en t t h a t ,
im m ediate n e ig h b o rh o o d o f t h e
seg reg atio n s
except in th e
of the
of th e Al l a t t i c e
ev en tu ally ,
t h e Cu h a s b e e n c o n v e r t e d i n t o
m ust become
whe n p r a c t i c a l l y
p rec ip ita tio n ,
fra c tio n
oower o f t h e A l l a t t i c e
norm al.
We may e x p e c t ,
a ll
th e d i f ­
m ust become n e a r l y
th erefo re,
more p l a n e s o f t h e Al l a t t i c e ,
the la rg e
th at
some o n e o r
(w hich w i l l be th e p la n e s
a lo n g w hich th e p r e c i p i t a t e f o r m s ) , w i l l c o n tin u e to
im paired d if f ra c tin g .p o w e r ,
w h ile th e r e s t
show
of th e plan es
w i l l sh o w a r e c o v e r y o r e v e n a f i n a l
in crease
frac tin g
1 shows t h a t t h i s
pow er.
E x am in atio n o f F ig .
in d if ­
is
the esse,
for
in te rp la n a r
th e
(111)
p lan es,
(w ith th e b ig g e s t
s p a c i n g i n t h e w hole Al l a t t i c e ,
fo re th e p lan es
alo n g w hich a p r e c i p i t a t e
ex p ected to
seg reg ate),
d iffra ctin g
p o w e r f o r a b o u t 120 h o u r s ,
d iffra ctin g
power rem a in s c o n s t a n t .
th at a ll
and t h e r e ­
m i g h t be
sho w a c o n s t a n t l y d e c r e a s i n g
a f t e r w hich th e
F ig .
1 shows a l s o
t h e o t h e r p l a n e s o f t h e Al i n v e s t i g a t e d
show ed
a decrease in d if f ra c tin g
power f o l l o w e d by a s u b s t a n t i a l
rise.
(110)
In th e
d iffractin g
c a s e of th e
and
(100)
power becam e c o n s i d e r a b l y
p lan e s the f i n a l
more t h a n a t t h e
b eg in n in g .
F ig .
be fo u n d
2 s h o w s t h a t o n l y o n e p l a n e o f 9 T,
to d i f f r a c t x -ra y s
and t h a t
its
power was weak i n c o m p a r is o n w i t h t h a t
th e 9 p h ase.
sm all,
its
p article
s i z e was v e r y
The d a t a f r o m F i g .
d e c id e betw een th e s e
sm all,
or th a t
c r y s t a l s was n o t
2 do n o t e n a b le u s t o
a ltern a tiv e s.
The d a t a f r o m F i g .
however of p e c u l i a r i n t e r e s t b ecau se of th e f a c t
t h a t a s m a l l p o r t i o n o f t h e 9* i s
3 09 ° C f o r a t l e a s t
F ig .
(310),
d iffractin g
of th e p lan es of
t h e r a n g e o f o r i e n t a t i o n o f m ost o f i t s
2 are,
co u ld
T h i s may m e a n t h a t t h e a m o u n t o f 9 f was
or t h a t
fav o rab le.
(£24)
shown t o p e r s i s t a t
280 h o u r s .
3 shows d i f f r a c t i o n fro m t h e
(202)
and
(003)
(211),
p lanes of th e 9 phase.
(£20),
(112),
Wo d i f ­
12.
fra c tio n
co uld be found f o r
w hich a re
(110)
and
t h e two l a r g e r i n t e r p l a n a r
be c a l c u l a t e d f o r th e
(200)
sp a c in g s w hich can
u n i t prism o f 0 .
re p r e s e n t c o n secu tiv e spacings in th e
of 9.
O bviously,
m ust assum e,
th erefo re,
tetrag o n al c ry sta ls
to
e a s y t o assum e t h a t
some e x t e n t a t l e a s t ,
amount o f m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t .
assu m p tio n , F ig .
a n d we
t h a t they have a s u b s t a n t i a l l y
T h i s makes i t
power i s ,
m easure o f th e
The p l a n e s f o u n d
t h e y h a v e n o common z o n e a x e s ,
random o r i e n t a t i o n .
d iffractin g
of 9,
3 can b e 'in te r p re te d
a
Yvith t h i s
a s show ing t h a t
th e 9 phase of th e p r e c i p it a te did n o t e x is t a t th e
m om ent t h e
s p e c i m e n s -were f i r s t
309°C, b u t t h a t
tem p eratu re,
it
But t h i s
is
f o r 9 T t o r e a c h i t s m in im um ,
The f o l l o w i n g
furnace
at
comm enced t o f o r m a t o n c e a t t h a t
a n d r e a c h e d a maximum,
a b o u t 100 h o u r s .
facts
put i n 't h e
p ictu re,
stab le,
amount i n
th e le n g th of tim e r e q u ir e d
sta b le
then,
am ount.
p red ic ts
the
experim ental
as s ta te d above.
(1)
a so lid
m aterial
I n a s p e c i m e n o f 25 S a l l o y ,
s o l u t i o n o f Cu i n Al fo rm s a c r y s t a l l i n e
( c a l l e d b y m e t a l l u r g i s t s 9 T)* u n t i l
eq u ilib riu m is
(2)
p r e c i p i t a t i o n from
r e a c h e d betw een th e
so lid
an
s o l u t i o n and 9 * .
The 9 1 p h a s e c h a n g e s q u i c k l y t o a c o m p o u n d o f
random ly o r i e n t e d
tetrag o n al c ry s ta ls,
( c a l l e d by
15.
m etallu rg ists 9),
u n t i l an e q u il i b r i u m i s r e a c h e d .
3 09 ° C e q u i l i b r i u m
i s r e a c h e d i n a b o u t 100 h o u r s .
( 3 ) T he 25 S a l l o y ,
c o m p le te ly aged a t 509°C, c o n s i s t s
of th ree phases,
(a)
so lid
(c)
a ll
in e q u ilib riu m w ith each o t h e r .
the 9 phase,
(4)
so lu tio n ,
The 9 p h a s e c r y s t a l l i z e s
d i s t o r t th e
(ill)
1
p lan es of the
1
At
(b)
t h e Qf p h a s e ,
i n su c h a manner as t o
so lid
so lu tio n .
14.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
D i x e n d R i c h a r d s o n , T r a n s . 1IME, I S ,
G w y e r , P h i l l i p s a n d Mann, J .
4 0 , 8 97 ( 1 9 2 8 )
560
of I n s t,
(1986)
of M etals,
R. F . M e h l , T r a n s . AIME, 7 6 , 4 0 5 ( 1 9 2 8 )
G o ler and S a c h s, M e t a l l w i r t s c h a f t ,
G a y le r and P r e s t o n ,
G. We s s e r m s n n ,
J.
In st,
8,
671 (1 9 2 9 )
of M etals,
Z e i t . M etallic,
22,
41,
160 ( 1 9 5 0 )
D i x , S a g e r a n d S a g e r , T r a n s . AIME, 3 9 , 1 1 9
G a y le r and P r e s t o n , J .
P h illip
and B r ic k ,
Schm id and S i e b e l ,
P. W iest,
P h illip
Z eit.
J.
of M etals,
Z eit.
P h y s.,
81,
85,
Z eit.
48,
197 (1932)
557(1933)
36 ( 1 9 5 3 )
121 (1933)
T r a n s . AIME, 1 1 1 . 9 4 ( 1 9 3 4 )
F . Schoenchen, M e ta llw ir ts c h a f t,
P. W iest,
(1932)
of F ra n k lin I n s t . , £15,
P h y s.,
and B r i c k ,
In st,
191 (1929)
13,
65 5
(1934)
P h y s . , 7 4 , 225 (1934)
W ie s t and D e h l i n g e r ,
Z e i t . M etallic,
B e c k e r and D o r i n g , Ann. P h y s . ,
26,
150
(1934)
24, 719 (1935)
F i n k and S m ith ,
M ining and M e t a l lu r g y ,
828,
(1935)
F in k and S m ith ,
M ining and M e t a l l u r g y ,
513,
(1935)
Mehl and S m ith ,
T r a n s . AIME, 1 1 6 , 330
(1935)
E. Schoenchen, M e t a l l w i r t s c h a f t ,
0. S tran sk i,
P hysik Z e i t . ,
14,
2,05 ( 1 9 3 5 )
5 6 . 5 93 ( 1 9 5 5 )
15.
W asserm ann and W e e r t s , M e t a l l w i r t s c h a f t ,
F i n k a n d S m i t h , T r a n s . AIME, 1 2 2 ,
R. B e c k e r ,
T r a n s . AIME,
29,
R. B e c k e r , M e t a l l w i r t s c h a f t ,
F ink
In st,
101 (1936)
1 2 2 . 11 (1 9 3 6 )
Z e i t . M etallic,
M. G a y l o r , J .
245 (1937)
16,
of M etals,
573 (1937)
60,
a n d ,S m i t h , T r a n s . AIME, 1 2 4 ,
R . B e c k e r , Ann.. P h y s . , 3 2 ,
24 9 ( 1 9 3 7 )
162 (1937)
128 ( 1 9 3 8 )
F ink
a n d S m i t h , T r a n s . AIME, 1 2 8 ,
223 (1938)
F ink
a n d S m i t h , T r a n s . AIME, 1 2 8 ,
244 (1938)
Mehl and R h in e s ,
G. P r e s t o n , P h i l .
G. P r e s t o n ,
T r a n s . A.IME, 1 2 8 , 1 8 5 ( 1 9 3 8 )
Ma g . ,
P ro ceed in g s,
G. W a s s e r m a n n ,
2 6 , 855 (1938)
Royal S o c ie ty ,
Z e it. M etallk ,
C a l v e t , J a c a u e t and G u i n i e r ,
5 5 , 121 (1939)
M,
605,(1 9 3 5 )
284 (1936)
F i n k and S m ith , M in in g and M e t a l l u r g y ,
R. F . M eh l,
14,
U. C o h e n , T r a n s .
30,
J.
AIME, 1 3 3 ,
A167,
526 ( 1 9 3 8 )
62 (1 9 3 8 )
of I n s t,
of M etals,
95 ( 1 9 3 9 )
F i n k , S m i t h a n d W i l l e y , Sym. o n P p t . H a r d e n i n g ,
Ajmer. S o c . f o r M e t a l s , 5 1 , ( 1 9 3 9 )
G o r d e n a n d C o h e n , Sym. o n P p t . H a r d e n i n g , Araer. S o c .
f o r M e t a l s , 1 6 1 , (1939)
H . Y . H u n s i c k e r , Sym. on P p t .
f o r M e t a l s , 56, (1939)
H a r d e n i n g , A m e r. S o c .
0 . L . W. K e m p f, Sym. o n P p t . H a r d e n i n g , A m e r. S o c .
f o r M e t a l s , 8, (1939)
( 4 3 ) M e h l a n d J e t t e r , Sym. o n P n t . H a r d e n i n g , A m e r . S o c .
f o r M e t a l s , 34 S ( 1 9 3 9 )
( 4 4 ) \K. P . S y k e s , Sym. o n P p t . H a r d e n i n g , A m e r . S o c . f o r
M e t a l s , 8 2 , (1939)
(45)
F i n k and S m ith ,
(46)
F i n k a n d S m i t h , T r a n s . AIME, 1 5 7 . 110 ( 1 9 4 0 )
(47)
C. S a m a n a r s ,
(48) B a r r e t t ,
T r a n s . A-IME, 1 5 7 , 8 5 ( 1 9 4 0 )
G e i s l e r and M ehl, N a t u r e ,
( 4 9 ) W. L . F i n k , J .
(50)
T r a n s . AIME, 1 3 7 , 1 0 2 ( 1 9 4 0 )
of A pplied P h y s .,
E v a n s , R eview o f S c .
In t.,
5,
559
1 4 5 , 134 (1941)
13,
75 ( 1 9 4 2 )
(1934)
APPENDIX
C ounting C i r c u i t
The v o l t a g e
s u p p l y was m a i n t a i n e d a t 800 v o l t s by
a v o l t a g e r e g u l a t o r o f th e G r i n g r i c h , Evans t y p e .
T he a m p l i f i e r c i r c u i t was d i v i d e d i n t o
th ree p arts
e a c h o f w h i c h was s h i e l d e d f r o m t h e o t h e r a n d m o u n t e d i n
a. m e t a l b o x .
The f i r s t
p a r t of th e a m p lifie r
w a s m o u n t e d o n t h e a rm o f t h e
s p e c t r o m e t e r and c o n s i s t e d
o f a 6 J 7 - G RCA t u b e f o r v o l t a g e
The p u l s e i s
(or p re -a m p lifie r)
am p lificatio n .
p a s s e d from t h e p r e - a m p l i f i e r t o t h e m ain
a m p l i f i e r w here i t
is
passed f i r s t
t h r o u g h a 6AC7-G RCA
t u b e w h i c h s e r v e s a s a b u f f e r a n d t h e n t h r o u g h a 6N7-G
RCA t u b e w h e r e i t
is
l e v e l e d and a m p l i f i e d .
P a r t o f t h e p u l s e p a s s e s t h r o u g h a n o t h e r 6AC7-G RCA
tu b e w hich o p e r a t e s a m illia m m e te r th ro u g h a c o n d e n se r
sy stem .
T his m illia m m e te r i s u sed in l o c a t i n g l i n e s .
T h e m a i n p u l s e m o v es t o
it
th e a u x ilia r y
o p e r a t e s a 6L6 RCA t u b e w h i c h i s
a m p l i f i e r where
t h e power t u b e f o r a
C e n c o c o u n t e r a n d a 6K6 RCA t u b e w h i c h s e r v e s a s t h e p o w e r
t u b e f o r a s m a l l s p e a k e r m ounted i n t h e
system as a p i l o t .
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