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An analysis of the teacher load in the high schools of San Francisco

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AN ANALYSIS OF THE TEACHER LOAD
IN THE HIGH SCHOOLS OF SAN FRANCISCO
A T h esis
P re se n te d to
th e F a c u lty o f th e S chool o f E d u c a tio n
U n iv e r s ity o f S o u th srn C a lif o r n ia
In P a r t i a l F u lfillm e n t
o f th e R e q u ire m e n ts f o r t h e D egree
M a s te r o f S c ie n c e i n E d u c a t i o n
by
C h a r l e s R. S c h e f l i n
J u n e 1942
UMI Number: EP54301
All rights reserved
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Th is thesis, w ri t te n under the direction of the
Chair man of the candidate's Guida nce C o m m i t t e e
an d a p p r o v e d by all me mb ers of the C o m m it te e ,
has been p r es e n te d to and a c ce pt e d by the F ac u lt y
of the Sc h o o l of E du c at io n of Th e Univers ity of
Southern California in par ti al fu lfillment of the
requirements f o r the degre e of M a s t e r of Science
in Education.
D ean
Guidance C om m ittee
Paul Fisher
Chairman
Theodore H. B. Chen
D. Welty Lefever
TABI S OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.
PAGE
‘ p r e s e n t a t io n OF THE PROBLEM.....................................
The p r o b l e m ..........................................
1
S ta t e m e n t o f t h e p r o b l e m * .......................
1
I m p o rta n c e o f t h e s t u d y ............................
2
L im ita tio n s o f th e stu d y .
.............................
5
D e f i n i t i o n o f te r m s u s e d ..........................................
6
I n s t r u c t i o n a l load*
. •
6
P u p i l r e c i t a t i o n ........................ • • .......................
6
S u b je c t d i s t r i b u t i o n .
6
. . . . . . . . . .
N o n - i n s t r u e t i o n a l f a c t o r s .................................
........................ ....
.
7
P rep ared s u b l e t *
.................................
7
* .......................
7
R s l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e .........................................................
8
O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y ............................
METHOD OF PROCEDURE.........................................................
. . . . .
12
14
........................
14
W r i t t e n r e p o r t s ........................................................• •
15
V e r b a l r e p o r t s ..................................................................
15
S ta ti s tic a l research .
III.
7
S e m e s te r p e r i o d . . . . .
U n p re p a re d s u b j e c t ...................
II.
1
GENERAL PRACTICE IN ASSIGNING TEACHER
LOAD............................................................. ............................
17
F a c t o r s i n t h e t e a c h i n g l o a d .................................
17
iii
CHAPTER
IV.
PAGE
B ackground and t h e t e a c h i n g lo a d . . . . . .
17
Humber o f d a i l y r e c i t a t i o n s ......................................
18
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF SAN FRANCISCO
BOARD OF EDUCATION IN ASSIGNING
TEACHER LOAD . . . . . . . . ............................. .
24
F a c to rs in flu e n c in g e a rly p ro ced u re.
24
. . . .
G en eral o b s e r v a tio n o f s c h o o ls i n th e
stu d y .
V.
. . . . . . . . . .
.................................
SUMMARY OF THE PROBLEM................................................
’.
P u p i l and t e a c h e r e n r o l l m e n t . . . . . . . .
29
32
32
D i s t r i b u t i o n o f s i z e s o f c l a s s e s by
s c h o o l s ................................... * .........................
A c tu a l p e r io d s i n c la ss*
. . . . . . . . . .
S u b j e c t r a n g e ........................................................
36
37
40
E x tra -c u rric u la r d u tie s a f t e r
s c h o o l h o u r s ..........................................
D u tie s o th e r th a n te a c h in g
Home-room a s s i g n m e n t s -
V I.
45
...................
48
. . . . . . . . . . .
50
P r e p a r e d and u n p r e p a r e d s u b j e c t s . . . . . .
52
Summary o f t e a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n ............................
57
CONCLUSIONS.
..........................................................
60
BIBLIOGRAPHY..........................................................................................
63
APPENDIX......................................................................
68
L IS T OF TABLSS
TABIE
I.
PAGE
S an F r a n c i s c o P u b l i c S c h o o l E n r o l l m e n t o f
T ea ch ers and P u p i l s , F a l l S e m e ste r,
1 0 0 .................................. .
II.
.....................................
33
T e a c h in g Load by Number o f P e r i o d s
A c t u a l l y i n t h e C l a s s Room E a c h Week♦ . . .
III.
IV .
38
Summary o f S u b j e c t R a n g e ..................................
4l
Summary o f E x t r a - C u r r i c u l a r D u t i e s
A f t e r S c h o o l H o u r s ...................................................
V*
Summary o f T e a c h e r s W ith P e r i o d s D e v o te d
to D u t i e s O t h e r Than T e a c h in g C l a s s e s .
V I.
V II.
. . .
4f
T e a c h e r s W ith Home R o o m s .................................. .....
51
T e a c h e r Load i n Terms o f P r e p a r e d and
U n p re p a r e d S u b j e c t s .
V III.
46
.......................................
Summary o f T e a c h e r P r e p a r a t i o n s . .........................
•
53
58
CHAP TEH I
PRESENTATION OF THE PROBLEM
What c o n s t i t u t e s a n a p p r o p r i a t e lo a d f o r th e t e a c h e r
I s n o t a new q u e s t i o n , b u t t h e r i s i n g t i d e o f s e c o n d a r y
e d u c a tio n , w ith an a tte n d a n t b ro a d e n in g o f th e
c u r r i c u l u m and g e n e r a l e x t e n s i o n o f s c h o o l s e r v i c e , h a s
b r o u g h t s u c h r a p i d l y m o u n tin g s c h o o l c o s t s a s t o f o c u s
a n i n c r e a s e d m e a s u r e o f a t t e n t i o n on t h i s p r o b le m . 1
C om m ensurate w i t h t h i s t h o u g h t comes t h e q u e s t i o n o f
i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o s p e c i f i c f i e l d s and a r e a s i n w h ic h
e c o n o m ic an d s o c i a l f a c t o r s p l a y a l a r g e p a r t i n t h e d e t e r ­
m i n a t i o n o f t h e p o l i c i e s a l r e a d y i n p r o g r e s s c a r r i e d o u t by
th e sy stem s o f e d u c a ti o n .
T h is s t u d y d o e s n o t c a r r y r e ­
s e a r c h to th e p o i n t o f s tu d y in g a l l th e c o n d i tio n s s u rro u n d ­
in g a d e f i n i t e
situ a tio n .
T h is i s t o o b r o a d and d o e s n o t
f a l l u n d e r t h e s c o p e o f t h i s p r o b le m .
I.
THE PROBLEM
S ta te m e n t o f th e p ro b le m .
The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y
was t o p r o d u c e a c o m p le t e p i c t u r e o f t h e t e a c h e r lo a d
s i t u a t i o n i n t h e S an F r a n c i s c o High S c h o o l s .
T h is r e p o r t
was t o s e r v e a s a means o f a c q u a i n t i n g b o t h p r i n c i p a l s and
t e a c h e r s w i t h t h e p r a c t i c e s and t h e o r i e s e x e r c i s e d i n e a c h
L e o n a rd V. Koos and o t h e r s , A d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e
S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l (New Y orks A m eric an Book Company, 1 9 ^ °)#
p . 379.
2
o f th e s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n s .
I t a l s o aim ed to p r o d u c e a
r e c o r d a v a i l a b l e t o t h e B oard o f E d u c a t i o n , t a x p a y e r s ,
a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , and s t u d e n t s whose i n t e r e s t s l e a d them i n
q u e s t o f n e c e s s a r y d a t a , and whose d e c i s i o n s and s t u d i e s
l e a d t o p o l i c y m aking and p r o v i s i o n s f o r th e f u t u r e .
A n a l y t i c a l l y , i t was i n t e n d e d t o p ro b e i n t o e a c h
i n d i v i d u a l case i n a l l th e sc h o o ls under o b s e rv a tio n ;
nam ely th e f o u r - y e a r h i g h s c h o o ls o f P o l y t e c h n i c , L o w e ll,
and Commerce, and t h e t h r e e - y e a r h i g h s c h o o l s o f W a sh in g to n ,
B a lb o a , G a l i l e o , M i s s i o n , and L i n c o l n ; to s t u d y m ethods o f
t e a c h e r a s s i g n m e n t , e x i s t i n g s t a n d a r d s , c o m p le x ity o f
f a c t o r s in v o l v e d i n t e a c h e r a s s i g n m e n t , s i z e o f c l a s s e s ,
p u p il-h o u r lo a d , e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r d u tie s a s sig n e d , le n g th
o f p e r i o d s and b r i e f comments on t e a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n .
The s t u d y a t t e m p t s t o show r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n t h e
s c h o o l s , t h r o u g h a c r i t i c a l s u r v e y o f e x i s t i n g p r o b le m s .
Im p o r ta n c e o f th e s t u d y .
I t i s th e hope t h a t t h e
s y s t e m a t i c s t u d y o f t h e p ro b le m s i n t h i s f i e l d m ig h t be
f u r t h e r e d by a s y s t e m a t i c i n q u i r y i n t o t h e f a c t s a s t h e y
a r e now p r a c t i s e d .
I t i s n o t , h o w ev e r, t h e i d e a t h a t
t e a c h e r s , s u p e r v i s o r s , o r s t u d e n t s s h o u ld k e e p t h e s c h o o l
s y s te m i n a c o n s t a n t s t a t e o f t u r m o i l th r o u g h t h e i r
a t t e m p t t o do r e s e a r c h , b u t r a t h e r t h a t t h e good o f th e
c h i l d d o e s r e s t u l t i m a t e l y upon h a v in g t h e s t u d e n t - t y p e o f
3
t e a c h e r s and s u p e r v i s o r i n th e s c h o o l , f o r no I n d i v i d u a l ,
c o n t e n t t o le a v e t h e s i t u a t i o n a s he f i n d s i t , w i l l s e r v e
t h e s c h o o l s b e s t i n t h e lo n g r u n .
The i n t i m a t e d ep e n d e n c e o f th e e f f i c i e n c y o f a
s c h o o l on t h e a d e q u a c y and e f f i c i e n c y o f i t s s t a f f i s
so o b v io u s a s s c a r c e l y t o r e q u i r e m e n tio n .
C o n sid e r­
a t i o n o f t h e p r o b le m s t h a t c o n c e r n d ep e n d e n c e i s n o t
so common a s ack n o w led g em en t o f th e r e l a t i o n s h i p .
T hese p r o b le m s a r e o f w ide s c o p e , b e a r i n g a s t h e y do
on t h e w o rk in g l o a d , I n c l u s i v e o f t e a c h i n g and o t h e r
r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e members o f th e s t a f f , on t h e i r
t r a i n i n g an d e x p e r i e n c e ; on t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s to
s u p e r i o r s , c o l l e a g u e s , s t u d e n t s , and com m unity; on
t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l g r o w th a f t e r e n t r a n c e i n th e
p r o f e s s i o n ; and on r e m u n e r a t i o n .
The p r o b le m s r e l a t i n g
t o th e p r i n c i p a l s h i p a l o n e a r e a l s o o f g r e a t moment.
The p r o c e s s e s o f e d u c a t i o n a r e v e r y co m p lex , and
t h e r e i s much more t o be done b e f o r e t h e work o f t h e s c h o o l
ca n be s a i d t o be e v e n r e a s o n a b l y e f f e c t i v e .
S c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n th e t e a c h i n g lo a d and
pro ced u re in te a c h e r p r e p a r a tio n f i e l d s i s d e c id e d ly
in a d e q u a te a t th e p r e s e n t tim e .
A f i n a l p o i n t s h o u ld be made i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h
c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f th e p ro b lem o f a d j u s t i n g t e a c h i n g
l o a d s , a p o i n t w h ic h a r i s e s o u t o f th e i m p o s s i b i l i t y
o f e v e r a r r i v i n g a t a f o r m u l a , t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f w h ic h
w i l l s e t t l e a l l q u e s tio n s l i k e l y to a r i s e i n t h i s a re a
o f sc h o o l a d m in is tr a tio n * A fte r a l l , th e sc h o o l i s a
c o o p e r a t i v e e n t e r p r i s e i n w h ic h f a c t o r s t h a t d e t e r m in e
t e a c h i n g and o t h e r w o rk in g lo a d s may v a r y from day t o
d ay o r week t o w eek .
I n s u c h a n e n t e r p r i s e i t w ould be
2
L eo n ard V. K oo s, The A m erican S e c o n d a ry S c h o o l
(New Y o rk : G inn and Company, 1927)» P • 637•
u n f o r t u n a t e in d e e d i f any w o r k e r , e i t h e r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e
o f f i c e r o r t e a c h e r , w ould assum e t h a t t h e s e lo a d s ca n
he d e t e r m in e d o r a d j u s t e d on a b a s i s t h a t w i l l a s s u r e
e q u a l i t y o r f u l l j u s t i c e a t a l l tim e s u n d e r a l l
c irc u m sta n c e s .
O nly a r o u g h a p p r o x i m a t i o n t o e q u a l i t y
and j u s t i c e i s th e b e s t t h a t c a n be e x p e c t e d ; beyond
t h i s a s p i r i t o f c o o p e r a t i o n among members o f th e s t a f f
m u st p r e v a i l to make f o r a n e f f e c t i v e s c h o o l , w i t h a l l
t h a t e f f e c t i v e n e s s may mean i n Jh e way o f a c o n t e n t e d
s t a f f and w e l l - a d j u s t e d p u p i l s . 5
T h is s t a t e m e n t , by men p r o m in e n t i n th e f i e l d o f
e d u c a t i o n , r a i s e s th e c h a l l e n g e o f t h e g r e a t e r need f o r
r e s e a r c h and i n v e s t i g a t i o n on th e p a r t o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r s
t o e s t a b l i s h a b a s i s , s u b j e c t i v e o r o b j e c t i v e , upon w h ic h
more e f f i c i e n t ju d g m e n t and a k e e n e r i n s i g h t may su rm o u n t
h u r d l e s u n s u r p a s s a b l e i n t h e p a s t w i t h o u t s e e m in g ly u n ­
ju s tif ia b le d e c isio n s .
T hus, we come c l o s e r t o t h e p ro b le m
a t hand.
T h ere i s a p p a r e n t l y l i t t l e p o i n t i n a r g u i n g th e
r e l a t i v e m e r i t s o f t y p e s o f s t u d i e s em ployed i n th e s o l u t i o n
o f e d u c a t i o n a l p r o b le m s s i n c e t h e y a r e a l l a p a r t o f a
g e n e r a l m ovem ent; a l l c a n be em ployed w i t h a d v a n t a g e .
i
I t is
w i t h t h i s t h o u g h t i n mind t h a t t h e s t u d y was made.
By C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e Law t h e f i r s t r e v e n u e c o l l e c t e d
by th e S t a t e i s s e t a s i d e f o r e d u c a t i o n .
T h is shows th e
i n t e r e s t t h a t t a x p a y e r s p ay to t h i s p ro b le m .
^ Koos and o t h e r s , ojd. c i t . , p . 4 1 2 .
Vague c l u e s »
5
i n t h e n e w s p a p e r a r e s u p p l a n t e d by a c o n c i s e r e p o r t show ing
t h a t th e t e a c h e r i s n o t a t a x - p a r a s i t e m e r e ly f i l l i n g a
n i c h e i n one o f th e s p l e n d i d new b u i l d i n g s , h u t a n e n t i t y
w i t h a c l e a r l y d e f i n e d p u r p o s e , and w i t h a p l a n t o f u l f i l l
th e c r y i n g n e e d s o f a com m unity.
L i m i t a t i o n s o f th e s t u d y .
The a s s ig n m e n t o f th e
t e a c h i n g lo a d i s c o n d i t i o n e d by s u c h a v a r i e t y o f f a c t o r s
t h a t c e r t a i n l i m i t a t i o n s m ust b e imposed*
To t r y t o d e a l
w ith such f a c t o r s as te a c h e r t r a i n i n g , te a c h e r e x p e rie n c e ,
mode o f p r e s e n t a t i o n o f c l a s s w o rk , p e r s o n a l i t i e s , t e a c h e r
and p u p i l b a c k g r o u n d , eco no m ic f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g ty p e o f
i n s t r u c t i o n i n a g i v e n s c h o o l w ould make t h e p ro b le m so
e x t e n s i v e t h a t i t w o uld be i m p o s s i b l e to c o m p le te a s tu d y
w i t h i n a g i v e n tim e and w i t h any d e g r e e o f r e l i a b i l i t y .
W ith t h i s t h o u g h t i n mind th e p la n n e d method o f
s t u d y i n g th e s i t u a t i o n was t o l i m i t th e a p p r o a c h to th e
fo llo w in g :
1.
C la ss s iz e in a l l f ie ld s
2«
F u p il-te a c h e r ra tio
3*
The num ber o f c l a s s e s a s s i g n e d
4.
C lo c k - h o u r s s p e n t i n a l l s c h o o l w o rk , i n c l u d i n g
e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a s s ig n m e n ts
5*
C o m p a ris o n s , from d a t a o f s u b j e c t a s s i g n m e n t s ,
6
d e p a r t m e n t a s s i g n m e n t s , s c h o o l a s s ig n m e n ts
II.
DEFINITION OF TEMS USED
Common s t a n d a r d s a r e n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o show
c o m p a r is o n s b e tw e e n t h e s c h o o l s i n t h e m a t t e r o f c l a s s
s i z e , i n s t r u c t i o n a l l o a d , and t e a c h e r - p u p i l r a t i o .
The
te r m s d e f i n e d h e r e a r e t o r e l a t e e q u a l l y t o a l l s c h o o ls *
I n s tr u c tio n a l lo a d *
The number o f r e c i t a t i o n s
c o n d u c te d d a i l y by th e t e a c h e r *
When t h e lo a d i s c o n s i d e r ­
ed by s u b j e c t s and s u b j e c t g ro u p s a good d e a l o f v a r i a t i o n
i s f o u n d , b u t f o r u s e i n t h i s s tu d y t h e d e f i n i t i o n a p p l i e s
t o one f i e l d o r m ixed f i e l d s .
g u p 11 r e c i t a t i o n .
A p u p i l r e c i t a t i o n i s one p u p i l
t a u g h t d u r i n g one c l a s s p e r io d *
fie ld *
T h is a p p l i e s a l s o t o an y
D ouble p e r i o d s im p ly two r e c i t a t i o n s .
S u b je c t d i s t r i b u t i o n .
a s in g le fie ld *
A t e a c h e r may be w o rk in g i n
Then a g a i n , a t e a c h e r may have t o t e a c h
a v a r ie ty of s u b je c ts f a l l i n g w ith in d if f e r e n t f ie l d s .
The te rm i m p l i e s t h e s i n g l e s u b j e c t t a u g h t th r o u g h o u t t h e
day.
O th e r te r m s a p p l i c a b l e an d w h ic h may be u sed i n l i e u
o f t h i s a r e th e f o l l o w i n g two w o rd s :
s i n g l e , im p ly in g one
s u b j e c t , and m u l t i p l e , im p ly in g a v a r i e t y o f s u b j e c t s .
7
Non- I n s t r u e t l o n a l f a c t o r s *
The t e a c h e r ' s r e s p o n s i ­
b i l i t i e s o th e r th a n d a i l y r e c i t a t i o n In c lu d e v a r io u s d u tie s
a s c o u n s e l i n g , c o p y in g r e c o r d s , c o a c h in g te a m s , s u p e r v i s i n g
p la y s , b an k in g , r a d io b r o a d c a s ts , e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r
a c t i v i t i e s s u c h a s d e b a t i n g , cam era c l u b s , h o n o r s o c i e t i e s ,
la n g u a g e c l u b s , e t c . , n o t t o m e n tio n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r
c la sse s.
The t e r n i s a p p l i c a b l e to any d u t y o u t s i d e
r e g u l a r c la s s r o o m w o rk .
S e m e s te r p e r i o d .
The r e v i s e d s t a n d a r d s g iv e us a
new term t o r e p l a c e t h e o l d " c r e d i t * "
A se m e ste r p e rio d
i s d e f i n e d a s one p e r i o d o f f o r t y t o s i x t y m in u t e s p e r
week t h r o u g h o u t one s e m e s t e r o f n o t l e s s t h a n s e v e n t e e n
weeks*
A s t u d e n t c a r r y i n g an y s u b j e c t f i v e d a y s a week
f o r t h e l e n g t h o f t h e p e r i o d and s e m e s t e r s t a t e d r e c e i v e s
f i v e s e m e s t e r p e r i o d s f o r s u c c e s s f u l w o rk .
P rep ared s u b j e c t .
A p r e p a r e d s u b j e c t i s one i n
w h ic h a d a i l y a s s i g n m e n t o f work i s t o be done o u t s i d e o f
r e c i t a t i o n p e rio d .
U n p re p a re d s u b j e c t .
T h is i s a s u b j e c t r e q u i r i n g
o n ly c la s s r o o m work w i t h o u t any a d d i t i o n a l home p r e ­
p a ra tio n .
8
III.
RELATED LITERATURE
E d u c a t o r s h av e a t t a c k e d t h e t e a c h i n g lo a d s i t u a t i o n
from many p o i n t s .
E a c h s tu d y h a s r e a c h e d t b s u l t i m a t e
c o n c l u s i o n o f d e v i s i n g some sy ste m o f s t a n d a r d s w hereby
more e f f i c i e n t and more e q u a l a d j u s t m e n t s may be made.
4
D o u g la ss,
i n a s t u d y o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l lo a d o f
t e a c h e r s i n t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s o f Iow a, used th e f i l e s
o f t h e S t a t e D e p a rtm e n t o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n a t Des
M o in e s, and s e n t a q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o th e p r i n c i p a l s o f t h a t
sta te .
Ife sum m arized h i s d a t a u n d e r ( 1 ) number o f c l a s s
p e r i o d s t a u g h t w e e k ly ,
( 2 ) number o f s u b j e c t p r e p a r a t i o n ,
( 3 ) number o f p e r i o d s s p e n t i n s u p e r v i s i n g s tu d y h a l l s ,
l i b r a r i e s , and home ro om s.
As a n added a s p e c t he o f f e r e d
t h e D o u g la s s t e a c h i n g - l o a d f o rm u la w h ic h was d i s c u s s e d i n
h i s book on o r g a n i z a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f s e c o n d a r y
sc h o o ls.
T h is p h a s e o f th e p ro b lem i s t r e a t e d more f u l l y
i n a l a t e r c h a p t e r on " G e n e r a l P r a c t i c e i n A s s ig n in g
T e a c h e r L o a d ."
5
K o o s 1 s t u d y o f 236 M in n e s o ta t e a c h e r s l i s t e d t h e i r
2,1 Ifeirl R. D o u g l a s s , "The P r o f e s s i o n a l Load i n th e
S e c o n d a ry S c h o o ls o f I o w a , ” S c h o o l R eview , 4 3 : 4 2 8 - 3 3 ,
J u n e , 1935.
F ra n k H. K oo s, "The Load o f th e High S c h o o l T ea ch ­
e r , ” The A m erican S c h o o l B oard J o u r n a l , 6 5 * 4 7 -9 ; 133”^ ,
A u g u s t, 1922.
a c t i v i t i e s f o r a s i x - d a y w eek.
sum m arized i n s e v e r a l t a b l e s .
These r e s u l t s w ere
The f o l l o w i n g a r e a few o f
th e p o in ts in c lu d e d i n th e q u e s tio n n a ire stu d y :
tim e s p e n t
a t s c h o o l ( d a y ) , s i z e o f s c h o o l , s a l a r y r e l a t i o n to t e a c h ­
i n g d a y , tim e e le m e n t i n t e a c h i n g i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t s ,
v a r i a t i o n s i n tim e e l e m e n t , c l a s s s i z e , and t e a c h i n g .
A more r e c e n t an d c o m p re h e n siv e r e v ie w o f th e
s i t u a t i o n i n g e n e r a l i s Newsom1s "C om puting T e a c h e r Load:
A n a l y s i s and C o m p ariso n o f V a r io u s M e th o d s,
a s t u d y w h ic h
d i s c u s s e d t e n m e th o d s o f co m p u tin g t h e t e a c h i n g lo a d and a n
e v a lu a tio n a n a ly s is of each.
An i n v e s t i g a t i o n was made upon th e " D i s t r i b u t i o n o f
..7
t h e Time o f High S c h o o l T e a c h e r s i n C a l i f o r n i a .
I t was
c o n d u c te d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e l e n g t h o f t h e w o rk in g week f o r
h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s , t h e tim e d i v i s i o n s i n t o w h ic h th e
s c h o o l d a y i s d i s t r i b u t e d i n t h e p e r f o rm a n c e o f t h e s e v e r a l
d u t i e s and a c t i v i t i e s i n w h ic h t e a c h e r s p a r t i c i p a t e , t o
show t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n s i z e o f s c h o o l s , s u b j e c t s
t a u g h t , and t o com pare t h e w o rk in g week o f t e a c h i n g w i t h
6 W illia m N. Newsom and R ic h a rd S. P o l l a c k ,
"C om puting T e a c h e r L o ad : A n a l y s i s and C om parison o f
V a r io u s M e th o d s ," S c h o o l Bev i e w , 4 7 : 5 8 6 - 9 6 , O c to b e r , 1939*
^ J . W* G ro v e s , " D i s t r i b u t i o n o f th e Time o f High
S c h o o l T e a c h e r s i n C a l i f o r n i a , " The A m erican S c h o o l B oard
J o u r n a l , 6 7 : 4 8 - 5 0 , November, 1923*
10
o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s i n w h ic h th e y p a r t i c i p a t e .
I t i s an
e x c e l l e n t su rv ey s tu d y in g th e C a lif o r n ia s c h o o ls .
I t was
*
a q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t u d y i n v o l v i n g r e p l i e s from 2 ,5 6 2 t e a c h e r s
from 177 h i g h s c h o o ls *
th e s iz e o f sc h o o l.
Hep l i e s w ere t a b u l a t e d f i r s t a s t o
T here w ere t h r e e s i z e s :
s m a l l , h a v in g
tw e lv e o r l e s s t e a c h e r s ; medium, h a v in g tw e lv e t o f i f t y
t e a c h e r s ; and l a r g e , h a v i n g more t h a n f i f t y t e a c h e r s .
The
f i n d i n g s showed t h a t 68 p e r c e n t o f th e t e a c h e r s i n
C a l i f o r n i a h i g h s c h o o l s have a w o rk in g week o f t h i r t y - f i v e
to f i f t y h o u rs .
On a b a s i s o f a f i v e - d a y w eek, t e a c h e r s
spend from s e v e n t o t e n h o u r s p e r day r e n d e r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n ­
a l se rv ic e s.
An a n a l y s i s o f th e f a c t o r s i n t o w h ic h t h e
t e a c h e r *s s c h o o l d a y i s d i v i d e d i n d i c a t e s t h a t from 4 5 p e r
c e n t t o 62 p e r c e n t o f th e t e a c h e r *s w o rk in g day i s s p e n t
w i t h c l a s s g r o u p s ; from 8 t o 15 p e r c e n t i s d e v o te d to
o t h e r a s s i g n e d d u t i e s ; from 13 t o 3 0
c e n t i s d e v o te d
to t h o s e d u t i e s w h ic h a r i s e i n t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s u b j e c t
t a u g h t , s u c h a s m a rk in g p a p e r s , p r e p a r i n g l e s s o n s ,
m a te ria ls, e t c . ,
f o r c l a s s u s e ; from 5 to 15 p e r c e n t i s
d e v o te d t o e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s ; and from 3 t o 5
p e r c e n t i s d e v o t e d t o p r o f e s s i o n a l m a t t e r s c o n n e c te d w i t h
th e s c h o o l .
The n a t u r e o f th e s u b j e c t i s c o n s i d e r e d to
some e x t e n t i n a s s i g n i n g t e a c h e r s t o d u t i e s w i t h c l a s s
11
gro u p s.
Out o f t b s f i n d i n g s o f t h i s p ro b lem some E n g l i s h
t e a c h e r s have b e e n r e l i e v e d o f c l a s s d u t i e s b e c a u s e t h e
n a t u r e o f t h e i r work c a l l s f o r many h o u r s t o be s p e n t
o u t s i d e th e c l a s s r o o m o n i n s t r u c t i o n a l work*
An e l a b o r a t e and e x t e n s i v e s t u d y o f t h e t r e n d s i n
th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s was c o n d u c te d by
8
ffc tz.
The d a t a w ere t a k e n from a n n u a l r e p o r t s f o r 1934“
1935 i n c l u d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n from 2 ,5 5 8 s c h o o l s .
The d a t a
w ere t a b u l a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o th e f o l l o w i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n :
1.
S c h o o ls e n r o l l i n g u n d e r 200 p u p i l s
2.
S c h o o ls e n r o l l i n g 200 t o 4 9 9 p u p i l s
5.
S c h o o ls e n r o l l i n g 500 t o 999 p u p i l s
4.
S c h o o ls e n r o l l i n g 1 ,0 0 0 o r more p u p i l s
C o n c lu s io n s w ere sum m arized on one l a r g e t a b l e .
The ite m s
o f I n t e r e s t and e v i d e n c e s o f t r e n d s showed a n i n c r e a s e i n
l e n g t h o f s c h o o l y e a r , i n c r e a s e i n number o f m in u te s i n
c l a s s p e r i o d s , and a n a b n o r m a lly h eav y t e a c h i n g s c h e d u le *
In th e m a tte r o f l i t e r a t u r e
r e l a t i n g to th e San
F r a n c i s c o s i t u a t i o n , a b u l l e t i n was i s s u e d i n t h e s p r i n g
o f 1940 d e a l i n g w i t h t h e p u p i l - t e a c h e r r a t i o i n a c t u a l
8
H. G-. H btz, " F iv e - Y e a r T ren d s i n t h e D evelopm ent
o f th e N o r t h C e n t r a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f High S c h o o l s , 19301 9 3 5 , 11 N o r th C e n t r a l A s s o c i a t i o n Q u a r t e r l y . 1 0 :4 1 2 - 2 1 ,
A p r i l , 1936*
1
c l a s s r o o m a s s ig n m e n ts *
I n A p r i l , 1930, a s tu d y r e l e a s e d
by t h e D e p a rtm e n t o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h and S e r v i c e , 9
d e a l t more s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h th e t e a c h e r lo a d and a c t u a l
tim e in v o l v e d i n a r e g u l a r s c h o o l d a y .
R ev iew in g th e a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e i n th e f i e l d o f
t e a c h e r lo a d g i v e s am ple e v i d e n c e o f t h e n e e d f o r more and
more r e c o r d s f o r t h e f u t u r e a n a l y s i s and d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f
t e c h n i q u e s i n t h e a s s i g n i n g o f t h e t e a c h e r load*
IV*
ORGANIZATION... OF THE STUDY
The c h a p t e r s o f t h i s s t u d y w ere d i v i d e d i n t o s t e p s
w h ic h l e a d t o f i n a l c o n c l u s i o n s .
G h a p te r I i s d e v o te d to
th e s t a t e m e n t and v a l i d a t i o n o f th e problem *
The method
o f p r o c e d u r e i s d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p te r I I *
G h a p te r I I I I s
a g e n e r a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e t e a c h i n g load*
I t re fe rs fre e ly
t o t h e b e l i e f s o f p r o m in e n t men i n t h e f i e l d o f t e a c h e r
t r a i n i n g , t e a c h e r l o a d , and s u p e r v i s i o n o f t e a c h e r s *
In
C h a p te r IV th e aim s and o b j e c t i v e s o f th e S an F r a n c i s c o
B oard o f E d u c a t i o n a r e s t u d i e d , o r g a n i z e d , and r e c o r d e d .
G h a p te r V i s d e v o t e d t o th e a n a l y s i s o f t h e s i t u a t i o n a s
fo u n d i n San F r a n c i s c o High S c h o o l s .
T a b le s, p e r s o n a l
9 D e p a rtm e n t o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h and S e r v i c e ,
B u l l e t i n No. 1 5 . S an F r a n c i s c o S c h o o l s , A p r i l , 1930*
13
i n t e r v i e w s , and o b j e c t i v e o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n
t h i s se c tio n *
t h e stu d y *
C h a p te r VI i s d e v o t e d t o c o n c l u s i o n s o f
CHAPTER I I
METHOD OF PROCEDURE
C o l l e c t i n g d a t a i n many c a s e s i s a f a r s i m p l e r
p ro b le m t h a n th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f p r o d u c t i v e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .
T h ere a r e a n i n f i n i t e number o f p o i n t s o f v ie w from w h ic h
f a c t s may be a r r a n g e d .
The p a t t e r n s s e l e c t e d s h o u ld n o t
grow o u t o f some I n c i d e n t a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e d a t a ,
b u t o u t o f f u n d a m e n ta l r e l a t i o n s h i p s l i k e l y t o p ro d u c e
re su lts*
The s c i e n t i f i c m ethod o f i n q u i r y may t a k e on a
number o f f o r m s :
( 1 ) n o rm a tiv e -su rv e y r e s e a r c h ;
( 2 ) c o m p a r a t i v e - c a u s a l r e s e a r c h ; ( 3 .) e x p e r i m e n t a l
r e s e a r c h ; ( 4 ) s p e c i f i c a p p l i c a t i o n s o f th e f o r e g o i n g :
( a ) l a b o r a t o r y r e s e a r c h , (b ) g e n e t i c m e th o d , and
( c ) c a s e s t u d i e s ; and ( 5 )- s t a t i s t i c a l r e s e a r c h . 1
S ta tis tlc a 1 research .
The s t a t i s t i c a l method
s u p p l i e s b o t h a means o f t r e a t i n g t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d
t h r o u g h a p p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e o t h e r m etho ds o f r e s e a r c h and
a m eans o f r e s e a r c h i n i t s e l f .
T re a tm e n t o f th e t h e o r y o f
c o r r e l a t i o n c a n be fo u n d i n any good book on s t a t i s t i c s .
The u s e o f t h i s m eth od h a s s p r e a d r a p i d l y d u r i n g th e l a s t
f i v e o r t e n y e a r s , and i t o f f e r s an e f f e c t i v e means o f
* A. S . B a r r and o t h e r s , S u p e r v i s i o n (New Y ork:
D. A p p le t o n - C e n tu r y Company, 1 9 3 8 )V p* 90 1.
15
r e s e a r c h f o r th o se m a th e m a tic a lly in c lin e d *
/
I n t h i s s t u d y , i n v o l v i n g v e r b a l and w r i t t e n r e p o r t s ,
many f a c t o r s e n t e r e d .
From th e r e c o r d e d f a c t s ,
th e w r i t e r
a n a ly z e d th e same d a t a from s e v e r a l a n g l e s and v i e w p o i n t s ,
e a c h o f w h ic h may r e v e a l a p o i n t o f v i t a l im p o rta n c e *
W ritte n r e p o r t s *
F or t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and s u p e r ­
v is o r y in fo rm a tio n th e P r i n c i p a l o f e a c h h ig h sch o o l i n
San F r a n c i s c o s u b m i t t e d a n e x t e n s i v e r e p o r t to t h e
S u p e r i n t e n d e n t ’ s O f f ic e *
to in s u r e u n ifo rm ity .
Forms w ere p r o v i d e d by t h e o f f i c e
I t was from t h e s e fo rm s t h a t th e
s tu d y was d e r i v e d .
C o o p e r a t i o n o f t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t ' s O f f i c e made i t
p o s s i b l e t o have a l l t h e s e r e p o r t s a v a i l a b l e .
These
r e p o r t s w ere t a b u l a t e d , an d by th e u se o f t a b l e s , f i n d i n g s
o f th e s t u d y have b e e n p r e s e n t e d t o show t h e r e a d e r
im p o rta n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s .
V e r b a l r e p o r t s '.
The p e r s o n a l I n t e r v i e w w i t h e a c h
p r i n c i p a l was s u b j e c t i v e b u t i t was p r e s e n t e d t o h e lp
c o r r o b o r a t e th e o b j e c t i v e .
I t was a l s o p r e s e n t e d t o i n s u r e
th e u n d e r s t a n d i n g a s r e g a r d s te a c h e r s * a s s ig n m e n ts t h a t do
n o t f o l l o w a r e g u l a r p a t t e r n ( f o r e x a m p le — t e a c h e r a s s i g n e d
b a n k in g d u t i e s p l u s r e g u l a r w ork)*
No a t t e m p t was made t o show t e a c h e r c r e d e n t i a l s ,
y e a rs o f p r e p a r a t io n , p la c e on s a la r y sc h e d u le , e t c . , f o r
t h o s e it e m s i n v o l v e m a t t e r s o f i n t e r e s t t o o p e r s o n a l and
o f no v a l u e t o th e s o l u t i o n o f th e p ro b le m u n d e r t a k e n i n
th is th e s is .
From t h e t a b u l a t i o n s , c o m p a r is o n s w ere made b e tw e e n
s c h o o l s , and c o n c l u s i o n s r e a c h e d .
CHAPTER I I I
GENERAL PRACTICE IN ASSIGNING- TEACHER LOAD
F a c t o r s I n t h e te a c h in g ; l o a d .
The p ro b le m o f t e a c h ­
e r lo a d I s on e w i t h w h ic h e v e r y a d m i n i s t r a t o r m ust d e a l#
T here a r e s e v e r a l f a c t o r s t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g
j u s t w hat c o n s t i t u t e s a t e a c h e r ’ s l o a d .
Brown, o f K an sas
S t a t e T e a c h e r s ’ C o l l e g e , o f f e r e d t h e f o l l o w i n g to be
c o n s i d e r e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g t e a c h e r lo a d s
1#
R e la tiv e d i f f i c u l t y i n te a c h in g d i f f e r e n t
s u b je c ts *
2#
Number o f p u p i l s i n c l a s s .
3>
Number
of d if f e r e n t p re p a ra tio n s.
/•
4.
Number o f d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s i n w h ic h t e a c h e r
w o rk s .
5*
Some r e c o g n i t i o n o f t e a c h e r s ’ e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r
d u ty .1
B a ck g ro u n d and t h e t e a c h i n g l o a d .
The p u p i l - t e a c h e r
r a t i o , s t i l l u se d t o a g r e a t e x t e n t a s a r o u g h b a s i s f o r
a l l t e a c h e r a s s i g n m e n t s , was one o f th e f i r s t m o st w id e l y
em ployed means o f t e a c h e r a s s i g n m e n t . . The p u p i l - t e a c h e r
r a t i o m e a s u r e s th e e x a c t number o f t e a c h e r s em ployed p e r
1 E . J . Brown, ’’Some F a c t o r s i n M e a s u rin g T e a c h e r
L o a d ,11 E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and S u p e r v i s i o n .
1 7 :4 7 - 6 4 , J a n u a r y , 1931-
18
p u p il*
Harwood
o
o f Richm ond, V i r g i n i a , e n d e a v o r i n g t o
e v a l u a t e t h e s t a n d a r d s o f t h e S o u th e r n A s s o c i a t i o n o f
S e c o n d a ry S c h o o l s , w r o t e t o o t h e r A s s o c i a t i o n s f o r t h e i r
sta n d a rd s*
Some o f h i s f i n d i n g s a r e h e r e c o n d e n s e d :
S t a n d a r d s o f T e a c h e r Load
P* T* R a t i o
Max
E e c it*
M iddle S t a t e s
Assoc*
N o r th C e n t r a l
Assoc*
N o r th W est
Assoc*
S o u th e rn
A ssoc•
30
25
30
25
30
C la sse s ta u g h t
d a ily
Max
R e c it*
5
P u p il C o n tra c ts
Max
R s c it*
150
6
150
5
30
6
150
160
6
P u p i l - t e a c h e r r a t i o d ep e n d s v e r y l a r g e l y on th e
v a r i e t y o f c o u rse s o f f e r e d in th e sc h o o l.
The more s p e c i a l
c o u r s e s , th e more t e a c h e r s a r e r e q u i r e d , an d t h e s m a l l e r
w i l l he t h e p u p i l - t e a c h e r r a t i o *
Number o f d a i l y r e c i t a t i o n s *
A f a c t o r o f te a c h in g
lo a d t o he c o n s i d e r e d i s t h e number o f c l a s s e s t a u g h t
d a ily .
D o u g l a s s , i n d i s c u s s i n g t h e p ro b lem o f t e a c h e r
o
T* C* Harwood, " S t a n d a r d s o f O th e r R e g io n a l
A s s o c i a t i o n s on P u p i 1 - T e a c h e r R a tio and T e a c h e r L oad , 11
High S c h o o l Q u a r t e r l y . 1 8 :7 1 -5 *
l o a d , a a l d , "The number o f c l a s s e s I s a much more s e n s i b l e
m easu re t h a n t h e num ber o f p u p i l s -
The s t a n d a r d
recommended by v a r i o u s A s s o c i a t i o n s a s l i s t e d above i s
f i v e c l a s s e s d a i l y , w i t h s i x a s a maximum.
4
Hudson o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f P i t t s b u r g m e n tio n e d
l e n g t h o f d ay and l e n g t h o f p e r i o d a s b e i n g i m p o r t a n t
fa c to rs,
He r e f e r r e d t o one more f a c t o r a s t h e " f o r g o t t e n
f a c t o r , " and a s k e d t h e q u e s t i o n , "How many d i f f e r e n t p u p i l s
a r e co m m itted to a t e a c h e r d u r i n g a g i v e n s e m e s t e r o r
y ear?"
ffe e m p h a s iz e d t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n l o a d o f m e e tin g
f i v e c l a s s e s o n ce a week a g a i n s t m e e tin g one c l a s s f i v e
tim e s a week.
S e v e r a l f o r m u la e have b e e n d e v e lo p e d f o r d e t e r m i n i n g
th e lo a d i n te r m s o f some o f th e f a c t o r s g i v e n ab o v e .
5
Hudson o f f e r e d th e f o l l o w i n g f o r m u la f o r d e t e r m i n i n g
te a c h e r lo a d :
Number o f p u p i l s m eet a
week
_______
•
Number o f tim e s a week
T o t a l number o f p e r i o d s
x c o m p r is in g t e a c h e r ' s w ee k ly lo a d
T o t a l number o f p e r i o d s
d e v o te d t o t h i s g ro u p
^ H. R. D o u g l a s s , " M e a su rin g T e a c h e r Load i n High
S c h o o l , 11 N a t i o n 1s S c h o o l s . 2 : 2 2 - 4 , O c to b e r , 1928.
4
P . W* Hhdson, "A N e g le c te d F a c t o r i n T e a c h in g
L o a d ,” S c h o o l R ev iew . 4 0 :1 9 2 - 2 0 3 , M arch, 1932.
5
tb ia .
E f f o r t h a s b e e n mad© to d e t e r m i n e r e l a t i v e d i f f i c u l t y i n
6
t e a c h i n g d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s . Almach and B u r s c h com puted
th e r e l a t i v e d i f f i c u l t y by w e i g h t i n g e a c h s u b j e c t by th e
s u b je c tiv e o p in io n of te a c h e r s .
An E n g l i s h c l a s s was
a r b i t r a r i l y g i v e n a v a l u e o f one d o l l a r , and o t h e r c l a s s e s
w ere t h e n e v a l u a t e d by t i e
te a c h e rs .
On th e b a s i s o f th e
e v a l u a t i o n , Brown* o f f e r e d t h e f o l l o w i n g f o r m u l a f o r th e
d e te rm in a tio n of te a c h e r lo a d :
W e ig h te d s u b j e c t X l e n g t h o f p e r i o d X p e r i o d s
p e r week X num ber o f p u p i l s .
T h is f o r m u la a p p l i e d t o e a c h s u b j e c t o r p e r i o d o f t h e
t e a c h e r 1s work g i v e s a f i g u r e r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e l o a d .
D o u g la s s ^ o f f e r e d t h i s f o r m u la f o r l o a d :
Number o f c l a s s e s p l u s t o t a l o f p u p i l s
m in u s (num ber o f c l a s s e s X 2 5 )
C r o f o o t , ^ i n a s t u d y on s u b j e c t d i s t r i b u t i o n and
6
J . 0* Almack and J . F . B u r s c h , The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n
o f C o n s o l i d a t e d and V i l l a g e S c h o o ls ( B o s to n :
Houghton
M i f f l i n Company, 1925'), Chap. V.
7
* Brown, o p . c i t .
® D o u g l a s s , ojo. c i t .
9
h
M. C r o f o o t , Amount o f Time S p e n t i n S c h o o l, Week
i n Terms o f P u p i l Hours and T e a c h in g H o u rs ," E d u c a t i o n a l
A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and S u p e r v i s i o n . 1 7 :4 4 5 - 5 2 , S e p te m b e r, 1 9 3 1 .
21
s i n g l e and m u l t i p l e f a c t o r s o f s u b j e c t a s s ig n m e n t and
n o n - i n s t r u e t i o n a l d u t i e s , i n d i c a t e d t h a t th e g r e a t e r p a r t
o f a t e a c h e r * s work i s c o n d i t i o n e d by t h e number o f p u p i l
h o u r s a s s i g n e d , s i n c e p u p i l h o u rs a f f e e t r e c i t a t i o n s , s t u d y ,
c o r r e c t i n g p a p e r s , p r e p a r i n g a s s i g n m e n t s , d i r e c t i n g make­
u p, and d i s c i p l i n e .
A t e a c h e r ’ s tim e i n S e n i o r High S c h o o l
g ro u p was fo u n d t o t o t a l 485 h o u r s f o r t h e p e r i o d o f t h e
s t u d y , and was d i s t r i b u t e d a s f o l l o w s :
R e c ita tio n
D ir e c tin g stu d y
Go r r e c t i n g p ape r s
P re p a r in g a ssig n m e n ts
33-2 p e r c e n t
it
tt
19*3
t»
ft
1 5 .5
it
1 0 .8 n
E x tra -c u rric u la r a c tiv ity
8 .4
n
n
M is c e lla n e o u s
6 .0
it
it
D i r e c t i n g m ake-up
4 .3
n
t«
tt
ft
D isc ip lin e
•5
Even p r e p a r a t i o n o f a s s ig n m e n t i s a f f e c t e d
o f th e c l a s s .
K oos,
10
i n a s tu d y o f t h e t e a c h i n g lo a d i n
t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h in g to n , fo u n d t h e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r
a c l a s s o f o v e r t h i r t y r e q u i r e d more tim e t h a n p r e p a r a t i o n
f o r a s im ila r c la s s under t h i r t y .
10
L* V. K oos, The A d ju s tm e n t o f t h e T e a c h in g Load
I n a U n i v e r s i t y ( W a s h in g to n , D . C . : Government P r i n t i n g
O f f i c e , 1 9 1 9 )•
The p ro b le m o f l a b o r a t o r y work h a s b e e n a s o u r c e
o f tro u b le .
T h is i s d u e , no d o u b t , t o th e f a c t t h a t
a c c r e d i t i n g a g e n c i e s a l l o w c r e d i t to p u p i l s o n t h e b a s i s
o f two l a b o r a t o r y p e r i o d s a s th e e q u i v a l e n t o f one p e r i o d
of re c ita tio n .
T h i s , h o w ev e r, d o e s n o t s i g n i f y t h a t
t e a c h i n g lo a d i s m a t e r i a l l y d i f f e r e n t f o r a p e r i o d o f
la b o r a to r y th a n a p e rio d o f r e c i t a t i o n .
T h is f a l l a c y i s
due t o l o o s e t h i n k i n g , and s h o u ld be c o r r e c t e d -
A sta te ­
ment on t e a c h i n g made by t h e Com m ittee a t t h e V i r g i n i a
Academy o f S c ie n c e s u p p o r t e d t h i s c o n t e n t i o n :
E x p e r i e n c e d o e s n o t s u s t a i n th e i n f e r e n c e t h a t an
h o u r ’ s t e a c h i n g i n th e l a b o r a t o r y r e q u i r e s l e s s t o t a l
t i m e , e n e r g y , o r q u a n t i t y o f e f f o r t t h a n one h o u r o f
in stru c tio n in c la ss.
I n d e e d , when i t i s t a k e n i n t o
acco u n t th e c o l l e c t i o n o f m a t e r i a l , th e c o n s tr u c tio n
o f e q u ip m e n t and t h e c a r e o f m a t e r i a l s and a p p a r a t u s
a r e u s u a l l y a p a r t o f th e b u r d e n o f l a b o r a t o r y
i n s t r u c t o r s , i t m u st be r e c o g n i z e d t h a t a n h o u r s p e n t
i n t h e l a b o r a t o r y r e p r e s e n t s q u i t e a s g r e a t a lo a d
a s a n h o u r o f c l a s s r o o m e f f o r t . 11
The R u le s and R e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e B oard o f E d u c a t i o n
o f O akland
12
o f f e r e d t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e on th e Range o f
I n s t r u c t i o n a l P u p il-P e rio d s D a ily :
T*1
wT e a c h in g Load i n L a b o r a t o r y S c i e n c e s , ” S c h o o l
and S o c i e t y . 3 6 : 2 3 6 - 7 , A u g u st 2 0 , 1932.
12
"The R u le s and R e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e B oard o f
E d u c a t i o n , D i v i s i o n IX , S e n i o r H igh S c h o o l s , ” A u g u st,
1936, pp* 2 4 - 3 -
23
D e p a rtm e n t
Minimum P u p i l
A ssig n m en t
E n g lish
S o c ia l S tu d ie s
M a th e m a tic s
S c ie n c e
F o r e i g n la n g u a g e
C om m ercial
Home E conom ics
Shops
D raw ing
M usic
P h y s ic a l E d u c a tio n
140
140
140
130
130
140
120
120
130
140
200
Maximum P u p i l
Assignme
180
180
180
170
170
200
140
140
170
250
25©
T h is s t u d y d o e s n o t a t t e m p t t o u se an y o f t h e s e
f o rm u la e o r t o f o r m u l a t e a new one f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f
co m b in in g th e s e v e r a l e l e m e n ts o f t e a c h e r l o a d , b u t r a t h e r
p o i n t s o u t th e p r a c t i c e s i n t h i s gro up o f s c h o o l s on th e
fo llo w in g ite m s o f lo a d :
1*
P u p il-te a c h e r r a tio
2.
Number o f c l a s s e s t a u g h t
3*
C lass s iz e
4*
P u p il c o n ta c ts
5*
Number o f f i e l d s o f woife and o t h e r t h a n t e a c h ­
in g d u tie s
CHAPTER IV
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF SAN FRANCISCO
BOARD OF EDUCATION IN ASSIGNING* TEACHER LOAD
F ac to rs In flu e n c in g e a rly p ro ced u re.
A h isto ry of
th e r i s e o f e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n San F r a n c i s c o , i t s
p o lic ie s of e d u c a tio n , fin a n c e , te a c h e r tr a in in g , p e rso n n e l,
s a l a r y s c h e d u l e , and t e n u r e , mark a c h r o n o l o g i c a l s e q u e n c e
o f ad v an cem en t i n e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s *
P u b lic i n t e r e s t ,
p r i v a t e e n d e a v o r, a b le le a d e r s h i p , a l l p la y e d t h e i r p a rt*
The a t t e m p t h e r e i s n o t t o t r a c e t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f S an
F r a n c i s c o ’s s c h o o l sy ste m from t h e s e l e c t i o n o f Jam es
Denman a s I t s f i r s t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t t o th e p r e s e n t l e a d e r s ,
b u t r a t h e r t o b e g i n r e l a t i n g p r a c t i c e s s i n c e 1926 when
t e a c h e r em ploym ent p o l i c i e s b e g a n t o assume t h e s t r u c t u r e
th e y have now a t t a i n e d , and w h ic h c a n m ost a d e q u a t e l y
I l l u s t r a t e o u r p o i n t o f e n d e a v o r*
P r i o r to t h i s d a te
s e l e c t i o n o f t e a c h e r s and a s s ig n m e n t o f d u t i e s was v ag u e
and h e te r o g e n e o u s *
The f o l l o w i n g v e r b a t i m e x c e r p t s w ere draw n from t h e
S u p e r i n t e n d e n t ’ s m i n u t e s o f Board m e e tin g s t h a t w ere
r e l a t e d to th e s tu d y :
J u n e 7 , 1 9 2 6 . Load o f t e a c h e r f o r a c a d e m ic s u b ­
j e c t s — 24 p e r i o d s p e r week* l e n g t h o f p e r i o d n o t
sta te d .
N o n -acad em ic t e a c h e r . l o a d —28 p e r i o d s p e r
week ♦
1926- 1 9 2 7 - E d u c a t i o n a l S t a t i s t i c s o f H igh S c h o o l s ,
C a l i f o r n i a S t a t s D e p a rtm e n t o f E d u c a t i o n —28 p u p i l s
p er c lassA p r i l 2 5 . 1 9 2 7 * Academic t e a c h e r lo a d 24 o r 25
p e r i o d s p e r week* Shop t e a c h e r - - ! p e r i o d p e r day­
boy ond a s s i g n m e n t o f a c ad e m ic t e a c h e r s .
J a n u a ry , 1 9 2 9 * A verage load p e r te a c h e r ( p u p ilte a c h e r r a t i o ) 2 3 .4 - 2 8 * 9 p u p i l s .
T his a v era g e ranged
from o ld s c h o o ls to th e n e w e st.
( S l i g h t l y low er
a t t e n d a n c e .)
F e b r u a r y 8 , 1 9 5 2 * From t h e m in u t e s o f th e
P r i n c i p a l s 1 m e e t i n g , t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a n d a r d s were
a d v ised ( p u p il- te a e h e r r a t i o ) :
34 p u p ils
p e r te a c h e r
26 p u p i l s p e r t e a c h e r
M e c h a n ic a l D raw ing
3^ p u p i l s p e r t e a c h e r
37 p u p i l s p e r t e a c h e r
43 p u p i l s p e r t e a c h e r
26 p u p i l s p e r t e a c h e r
in E n g lish
i n S h op , He u s e h o I d A r t s ,
in
in
in
in
p r e p a r e d C om m ercial S u b j e c t s
U n p re p a re d C om m ercial
P h y s ic a l E d u c a tio n
L a b o r a t o r y S c le n c e
F e b r u a r y 1 0 , 1 9 5 2 . from a c l a s s a v e r a g e r e p o r t by
a co m m ittee :
34 p u p i l s p e r t e a c h e r i n S o c i a l S t u d i e s , M a th e m a tic s ,
F o r e i g n L a n g u a g e , N o n -L a b o ra to ry B e l e n c e , M usicJu n e 1 , 19 32 — r a t i o o f 2 7 - 3 1 p u p i l s p e r t e a c h e r u se d
a s a n a v e r a g e o f a l l com bined.
These f r a g m e n t a r y e v i d e n c e s o f some o f th e s t e p s
t h e B oard to o k to w a rd s e t t i n g up s t a n d a r d s f o r t e a c h e r
a s s ig n m e n t g i v e r i s e
1.
to f u r t h e r ev id en ce :
The r e o o r d s i n d i c a t e d e f i n i t e
s t e p s tow ard
r e c o n c i l i n g a s s ig n m e n t t o t e a c h e r - p u p i l r a t i o *
2.
The se c o n d f o l l o w s , t h e n , t h a t
p r i o r to t h i s
e r a t h e r e was no s e t p r o c e d u r e
o f assig n m e n t.
3*
T h i r d , from t h e s e f i r s t two may be draw n th e
o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t a l l th e s c h o o l s d i d n o t use t h e
same r u l e s i n a s s ig n m e n t*
4.
The t r e n d a p p e a r s o f a s s ig n m e n t on a c a d e m ic and
n o n - a c a d e m ic b a s e s*
(Now a c c e p t e d a s th e f i r s t
r u le o f a s s ig n m e n t.)
5*
R ise i n num ber o f p u p i l s p e r t e a c h e r i n d i c a t e
g r e a t e r e n r o l l m e n t o r c u r t a i l m e n t o f p e r s o n n e l*
/
L a te r r e p o r ts in s u p e rin te n d e n t’s b u l l e t i n s
p o in t s tr o n g ly to th e fo rm er.
6.
I n e q u a l i t y i n a ssig n m e n ts i n v a r io u s d e p a rtm e n ts .
By 1932 t h e p o l i c y was i n a u g u r a t e d w h ic h to d a y i s
s t i l l f o l l o w e d i n a s s i g n i n g t e a c h e r l o a d , and a l s o ,
i n c i d e n t a l l y , p u p i l pro g ram m in g .
p e r t i n e n t p o i n t s r e l a t i v e t o p r o c e d u r e a r e th e
fo llo w in g :
T e a c h e r s a r e i n th e s e r v i c e o f th e s c h o o l d u r i n g t h e
w hole o f t h e s c h o o l day and a r e n o t e n t i t l e d to f r e e o r
o f f p e r i o d s i n t h e s e n s e t h a t t e a c h e r s a r e re_lieved from
sc h o o l s e rv ic e d u rin g th e se p e rio d s .
R e d u c tio n s i n c l a s s t e a c h i n g s h a l l conform t o t h e
r u l e s o f th e B o ard i n s u c h m a t t e r s , o r u n d e r o t h e r
s p e c i f i c a u t h o r i t y o f th e s u p e rin te n d e n t.
No r e g u l a r l y a s s i g n e d t e a c h e r s h a l l be r e l i e v e d o f
more t h a n two t e a c h i n g c l a s s e s f o r a n y p u rp o se *
A f i n e s e n s e o f J u s t i c e s h o u ld p r e v a i l i n th e a s s i g n ­
m ent ©f t e a c h e r * s l o a d s th r o u g h o u t t h e s c h o o l . Only a n
o f f i c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s h o u ld p e r f o r a t h i s d u t y .
2?
A l l t e a c h e r s 1 p ro g ra m s s h o u ld be b a l a n c e d w i t h
c l a s s e s i n th e f o r e n o o n and th e a f t e r n o o n *
A t e a c h e r whose number o f c l a s s e s i s re d u c e d by two
t o do c o u n s e l i n g s h a l l have two c o u n s e l i n g g r o u p s ,
e a c h o f s t a n d a r d s i z e f o r t h a t s c h o o l*
Only t h e f o l l o w i n g r e d u c t i o n s i n t e a c h i n g c l a s s e s
a r e p r o v i d e d by t h e r u l e s o f th e Board o f E d u c a tio n s
1.
P r i n c i p a l , no c l a s s e s
2.
V i c e - p r i n c i p a l , te a c h in g a t th e d i s c r e t i o n o f
th e p r i n c i p a l
3*
R* 0* T* <% o f f i c e r , u n d e r th e d i r e c t i o n o f
M a jo r L ew is and th e p r i n c i p a l
4.
L i b r a r i a n , no r e g u l a r c l a s s e s
5*
N u r s e , t e a c h i n g g o v e rn e d by t h e p r i n c i p a l
6.
Head o f D e p a r tm e n t, one t e a c h i n g c l a s s l e s s
t h a n n o r m a l f o r t h e d e p a r t m e n t t o co m p en sate
f o r th e d u t i e s o f h e a d s h ip *
The h ead o f a
d e p a r t m e n t may have a se c o n d t e a c h i n g c l a s s
l e s s I f he i s a l s o a c o u n s e lo r *
7*
C o u n s e l o r , one t e a c h i n g c l a s s l e s s t h a n n o rm a l
f o r t h e d e p a r t m e n t f o r e a c h g ro u p o f p u p i l s o f
s t a n d a r d num ber c o u n s e l e d , n o t o v e r two c l a s s e s
b e lo w n o r m a l .
8.
M anager o f C a f e t e r i a , one t e a c h i n g c l a s s l e s s
t o c o m p e n sa te f o r m a n a g e r i a l d u t i e s .
9*
S c h o o l T r e a s u r e r , one t e a c h i n g c l a s s l e s s t o
c o m p e n sa te f o r f i n a n c i a l and b o o k k e e p in g
o b lig a tio n s .
By a lo n g s t a n d i n g a g re e m e n t among t h e s e n i o r h i g h
s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s and i n j u s t i c e t o th e men, th e
fo llo w in g p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n i n s t r u c t o r s o f th e s p o r ts
s p e c i f i e d h e r e may h ave one t e a c h i n g c l a s s l e s s on
s c h o o l p ro g ra m h o u r s t o com p en sate f o r p a r t o f th e
o u t - o f - s c h o o l tim e s p e n t i n c o a c h in g t h e f o u r m a jo r
s p o rts d u rin g such s p o rt se aso n s, r e s p e c tiv e ly :
28
b a s e b a l l , b a s k e t b a l l , f o o t b a l l , an a t r a c k .
A l l o t h e r t e a c h e r s I n f a l l p ro g ra m , 1940, s h a l l
c a r r y t h e n o r m a l n u m b e r .o f t e a c h i n g c l a s s e s f o r th e
r e s p e c t i v e d e p a r tm e n ts *
As a g u id e t o t e a c h e r a s s ig n m e n t a s p r a c t i c e d b y
th e v a r io u s p r i n c i p a l s , th e fo llo w in g ta b le i s a u th o riz e d
by th e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t ’ s o f f i c e :
D e p a rtm e n t and Load Rs commended i n B a ch
The a s s i g n m e n t o f s i x c l a s s e s d a i l y :
A rt
T yping
M achine C a l c u l a t i o n
M achine B o o k k e ep in g
O ffic e P r a c t i c e
S e c r e t a r i a l T ra in in g
Sew ing ( Cl© t h i n g )
Shops
M e c h a n i c a l D raw ing
P h y s ic a l E d u c a tio n
M illin e ry
The a s s i g n m e n t o f f i v e c l a s s e s d a i l y :
B u s i n e s s T r a i n i n g and P r i n c i p l e s
S te n o g r a p h y
B o o k k e e p in g
S a le s
B uying
E n g lish
F o r e i g n L anguage
Home M aking
M a th e m a tic s
S c ie n c e (5 t im e s a week)
S o c ia l S tu d ie s
1 B u l l e t i n t o S e n i o r High S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s ,
A ugust 13 » 19^0.
29
C om m ercial law
Home E conom ics (5 tim e s a week)
The a s s ig n m e n t o f f o u r c l a s s e s a w eek:
( d o u b le b r o k e n p e r i o d s d a i l y )
Home E co no m ics
C ooking (7 t i m e s )
S c ie n c e
Foods (5 an d l a b o r a t o r y )
N u t r i t i o n (5 and l a b o r a t o r y )
The a s s i g n m e n t o f t h r e e c l a s s e s a w eek:
( d o u b le p e r i o d s )
C oo king (10 t i m e s a week)
C l o t h i n g ( 5 t i m e s o r 6 tim e s a week)
Buying (5 t i m e s a w eek)
G en eral o b s e r v a tio n o f s c h o o ls i n th e s tu d y *
W ith
t h e above p ro g ra m i n m in d , i t w ould n o t be i n a p p r o p r i a t e
to in s p e c t e a c h o f th e sc h o o ls under o b s e rv a tio n .
A l l o f t h e e i g h t p u b l i c s c h o o l s o f S an F r a n c i s c o
t h a t now g r a n t d ip lo m a s o f g r a d u a t i o n from t w e l f t h g r a d e
are f u l l y a c c re d ite d sc h o o ls.
The s u b j e c t s o f a c o l l e g e
p r e p a r a to r y c o u rse c o n s t i t u t e th e co re o f th e c u r r i c u l a
o f a l l th e s c h o o ls .
1.
Abraham L i n c o l n High S c h o o l, T w e n t y - f o u r t h
Avenue and R iv e r a S t r e e t , p r o v id e d f o r p u p i l s who c l a s s i f y
from l o w - n i n t h g r a d e t h r o u g h l o w - t w e l f t h g r a d e .
The h i g h -
t w e l f t h g r a d e was ad d e d a t t h e o p e n in g o f t h e f a l l te r m ,
1941.
A v e r y t h o r o u g h and i n t e n s i v e p ro g ra m o f t r a i n i n g
was o f f e r e d i n a l l t h e ac ad em ic and s c i e n t i f i c s u b j e c t s
o f t h e c o l l e g e p r e p a r a t o r y c o u r s e , c l o t h i n g , c o m m e rc ia l,
b u s i n e s s , f i n e a r t s , f o o d s , m e c h a n i c a l d r a w in g , m u s ic ,
p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , r e s e r v e o f f i c e r s 1 t r a i n i n g c o r p s , and
shops.
In s h o r t ,
i t o f f e r e d g e n e r a l l y a l l o f th e s u b j e c t s
t a u g h t i n th e r e s p e c t i v e g r a d e s i n th e p u b l i c h i g h s c h o o l s
o f th e c i t y .
2.
B a lb o a High S c h o o l was n o t open t o n i n t h - g r a d e
3-
The H ig h S c h o o l o f Commerce p r e p a r e d f u l l y f o r
p u p ils*
c o l l e g e and u n i v e r s i t y a s w e l l a s f o r b u s i n e s s , c l e r i c a l ,
and s e c r e t a r i a l f i e l d s *
In g e n e ra l, th is scho ol o ffe re d
i n i t s p ro g ra m a l l t h e s u b j e c t s t a u g h t i n th e g r a d e s n i n t h
t o t w e l f t h i n c l u s i v e , i n th e p u b l i c h i g h s c h o o l s o f t h e
c i t y , e x c e p t t h a t t h e s u b j e c t o f f o o d s was n o t o f f e r e d ,
and t h a t i n d u s t r i a l a r t s w ere l i m i t e d t o ( l ) a r t - m e t a l
s h o p , (2 ) e l e c t r i c a l s h o p , (3 ) p r i n t i n g f o r b o y s , and
(4 ) wood s h o p .
S tro n g p re p a ra to ry co u rse s in b u s in e s s
and commerce w ere a v a i l a b l e .
4,
G a l i l e o H igh S c h o o l was n o t o p e n t o n i n t h -
g rade p u p i l s .
5*
George W a s h in g to n H igh S c h o o l was n o t o p en to
n in th -g ra d e p u p ils .
6.
L o w e ll H igh S c h o o l was p r i m a r i l y a c o l l e g e
31
p r e p a r a t o r y s c h o o l*
7*
M i s s i o n High S c h o o l was n o t open t o n i n t h - g r a d e
8.
P o l y t e c h n i c H igh S c h o o l o f f e r e d c o m p le te c o u r s e s
p u p ils.
i n a l l d e p a rtm e n ts f o r p u p i l s .
CHAFTSR V
SUMMAHT OF THE FROBLEM
I n th e p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r d a t a b e a r i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y
on t e a c h e r lo a d and t e a c h e r a s s ig n m e n t w ere g i v e n .
The
purpose o f t h i s c h a p te r i s to c o o rd in a te th e im p o rta n t
p a r t s o f t h e s t u d y an d t o c l a s s i f y th e i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o
fie ld s of in te re s t.
I n C h a p te r I I t was s t a t e d t h a t t h e s t u d y w ould
em brace t h e f o u r - y e a r h i g h s c h o o l s o f F o l y t e c h n i c , L o w e ll,
L i n c o l n , and Commerce, and t h e t h r e e - y e a r h i g h s c h o o l s o f
W a s h in g to n , B a lb o a , G a l i l e o , and M i s s i o n .
G i r l s KLgh
S c h o o l , w i t h a t o t a l e n r o l l m e n t o f 1 ,0 8 1 p u p i l s , 223 i n
g r a d e s s e v e n and e i g h t , a s c h o o l f o r g i r l s , was n o t
i n c l u d e d i n t h e s t u d y b e c a u s e i t s r a n g e o f g r a d e s I n c lu d e d
e l e m e n t a r y , j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l , and s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l .
I t p r e s e n t e d many c o m p l e x i t i e s o f t e a c h e r a s s ig n m e n t t h a t
w ould be i n d i v i d u a l b e c a u s e o f i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n and w ould
n o t a i d i n th e p r e s e n t s t u d y o f h i g h s c h o o l a s s i g n m e n t s .
F u p i l and t e a c h e r e n r o l l m e n t .
T a b le I p r e s e n t s a
c o m p o s ite r e c o r d o f t h e s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s o f San
F r a n c i s c o w i t h r e s p e c t t o t y p e , e n r o l l m e n t , p u p i l and
t e a c h e r , and t h e e l e m e n t o f tim e w i t h c l a s s a s s i g n m e n t s .
«•
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Length of
teaching day
(aetual minutes)
4
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8GO
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Average length
of period
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Number of
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00
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to
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188
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44.
Length of day
(exeluding
lunch)
•#
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m
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CM
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CM
Pupils
enrolled
8,036
d a ily
3O
0099
•H
Washington
AND PUPILS
OF TEACHERS
00
Length of term
(days)
FALL SEMESTER, 1940
SCHOOL ENROLIMENT
SAN FRANCISCO PUBLIC
to
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Length of day
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33
3*
S o a r s , i n t h e c h a p t e r "How t o M easure T e a c h in g
L oad” i n h i s s t u d y , s a y s :
The t e a c h i n g lo a d s h o u ld be exam ined from two a n g l e s ,
f i r s t t h e e x t e n t o f t h e lo a d i n h o u rs o f s e r v i c e
r e n d e r e d , and s e c o n d t h e c h a r a c t e r a n d ~ d i f f i e u l t y o f th e
s e r v i c e . *S in c e t h e r e seemed t o be no d e f i n i t e s t a n d a r d s by
w h ic h t o m e a su re t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f t h e d i f f e r e n t p h a s e s o f
s c h o o l t e a c h i n g , t h e e f f o r t h e r e was t o d e t e r m i n e a s
a c c u r a t e l y a s p o s s i b l e t h e e x t e n t o f lo a d i n te rm s o f
se rv ic e .
The num ber o f t e a c h e r s a s s i g n e d t o a p a r t i c u l a r
s c h o o l was e s s e n t i a l l y t h e d e t e r m i n a n t o f t e a c h e r lo a d f o r
t h a t sc h o o l.
The i n d i v i d u a l p r i n c i p a l , w i t h a d e f i n i t e
num ber o f t e a c h e r s a s s i g n e d , c o u l d t h e n make a d j u s t m e n t s
w i t h i n h i s s c h o o l w h ic h w ould make f o r more u n i f o r a
p ra c tic e s.
These c o u l d I n v o lv e t h e f o l l o w i n g :
(1) th e
e l i m i n a t i o n o f a n e x c e s s i v e number o f s m a l l c l a s s e s ;
(2 ) a
r e a d j u s t m e n t o f th e num ber o f p e r i o d s a s s i g n e d t o t e a c h e r s
i n d i f f e r e n t d e p a r t m e n t s ; ( 3 ) a r e a d j u s t m e n t o f th e am ount
o f tim e d e v o te d t o t e a c h i n g and n o n - t e a c h i n g a c t i v i t i e s ;
and (4 ) a l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e number o f p e r i o d s w h ic h p u p i l s
J . B. S e a r s , The S c h o o l S u rv e y ( B o s to n :
M l f f l i n Company, 1 9 2 5 ) .
H oughton-
35
a r e a llo w e d t o c a r r y .
T ab le I , p ag e 3 3 , a l a o g i v e s d a t a c o n c e r n i n g
d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t e a c h e r tim e by s c h o o l s , i n c l u d e s o n ly
t e a c h e r s em p lo yed a s f u l l - t i m e i n s t r u c t o r s , su m m arizes
w o rk in g day i n number o f p e r i o d s , m in u t e s o f a c t u a l t e a c h ­
i n g , a c t u a l t e a c h i n g d ay r e q u i r e d , and l e n g t h o f s c h o o l
y ear.
The e l i m i n a t i o n o f p a r t - t i m e t e a c h e r s was v e r y
i n s i g n i f i c a n t f o r th e y t o t a l l e d th r e e , and, th e r e f o r e , th e
change i n f i g u r e s was n e g l i g i b l e .
A t o t a l ©f 644 f u l l - t i m e t e a c h e r s w are em ployed to
t e a c h a t o t a l d a y e n r o l l m e n t o f 1 7 ,0 0 4 p u p i l s .
To d e t e r ­
mine a n a v e r a g e p u p i l - t e a c h e r r a t i o t h i s f i g u r e was fo u n d
t o be 2 6 . 4 , s l i g h t l y belo w th e recommended 2 7 - 3 1 r a t i o o f
J u n e 1 , 1932.
T h is s h o r t a g e from th e recommended f i g u r e
was e x p l a i n e d i n p a r t by th e l o s s i n e n r o l l m e n t i n one
y e a r o f 3 8 3 p u p i l s , and a s i m i l a r d e c r e a s e t h e y e a r b e f o r e .
Econom ic c o n d i t i o n s a n d t h e tre m e n d o u s n a t i o n a l d e f e n s e
p ro g ra m w ere c o n t i n u i n g to make g r e a t i n r o a d s i n th e
s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s and an y s tu d y d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d w ould
n o t r e v e a l th e r e a l p i c t u r e .
A lso , th e e l i m i n a t i o n o f
G i r l s High S c h o o l from t h i s s t u d y had some s l i g h t e f f e c t
on t h e f i g u r e s f o r i f i n c l u d e d f i g u r e s w ould te n d to
r e d u c e r a t h e r t h a n e n l a r g e th e p u p i l - t e a c h e r r a t i o .
S in c e t h e s c h o o l s v a r y i n e n r o l l m e n t from 941
p u p i l s a t L i n c o l n t o 2 ,6 2 5 p u p i l s a t B a lb o a , and s i n c e
th e d if f e r e n c e i n t o t a l o f te a c h e r s v a r ie d lik e w is e , f o r
t h e r e w ere o n ly t h i r t y - s e v e n t e a c h e r s a t L i n c o l n a g a i n s t
101 t e a c h e r s a t B a lb o a , th e o b s e r v e r w ould be l e d t o
b e l i e v e t h a t th e p u p i l - t e a c h e r r a t i o would be o u t o f
b a la n c e .
T h i s , h o w e v e r, was n o t t r u e .
The a v e r a g e p u p i l -
t e a c h e r r a t i o a t L i n c o l n was 2 5 . 4 p u p i l s p e r t e a c h e r a s
com pared to a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 6 . 0 p u p i l s p e r t e a c h e r a t
B a l b o a . . So i t was w i t h a l l th e s c h o o l s .
When t h e a c t u a l
p u p l l - t e a c h e r r a t i o f o r e a c h s c h o o l was co m pared, t h e
d e v i a t i o n s w ere v e r y s l i g h t .
D i s t r i b u t i o n o f s i z e s o f c l a s s e s by s c h o o l s .
T here
w ere no s u b s t a n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n c l a s s s i z e a v e r a g e s
a s e v i d e n c e d from a c l o s e e x a m i n a t i o n o f T ab le I , page 3 3 .
S c h o o l t o t a l s r e v e a l t h e f o l l o w i n g t o be t r u e i n te rm s
o f p u p ils p e r te a c h e rs
B a lb o a , 2 6 ; Commerce, 2 6 . 1 ;
G a l i l e o , 2 5 * 3 ; L i n c o l n , 2 5*4; L o w e ll, 2 6 .9 5 M is s io n , 2 7 . 4 ;
P o l y t e c h n i c , 2 3 .9 5 W a s h in g to n , 2 7 * 5 .
The m ed ian f u l l - t i m e
c l a s s s i z e v a r i e d o n l y b e tw e e n t h e low 2 5 * 3 p u p i l s a t
G a l i l e o t o th e h i g h 27*5- p u p i l s a t W a sh in g to n .
The r e a d e r
m ust remember t h a t t h e s e w ere o n ly a v e r a g e s ; i n d i v i d u a l
c l a s s e s u s u a l l y r a n much h i g h e r a s more and more t e a c h e r s
w ere a s s i g n e d d u t i e s o t h e r t h a n t e a c h i n g .
37
I n an a tte m p t to a d j u s t d i f f e r e n c e s i n c l a s s s iz e
i n t h e s c h o o l s c a r e was t a k e n n o t t o he u n r e a s o n a b l e -
The
need f o r a d j u s t m e n t was n o t g r e a t i n t h e S an F r a n c i s c o
S c h o o l s , due t o t h e d r o p p i n g o f f o f th e p u p i l e n r o l l m e n t
and t h e o p e n in g o f t h e new L in c o l n S c h o o l.
E lim in a tio n o f v ic e - p r in c ip a ls * d u tie s , n u rse,
l i b r a r i a n and o t h e r s p e c i a l a s s ig n m e n ts w h ic h d i d n o t
e n c o u n t e r p u p i l s i n c l a s s r o o m work and whose d u t i e s w ere
n o t t h e same a s t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r , s l i g h t l y a f f e c t e d
some o f th e a v e r a g e s and r a t i o s , b u t t h e r e a d e r may keep
t h e s e i n mind i n i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e t a b l e s s e t f o r t h i n
t h i s c h a p te r.
A c tu a l p e r io d s i n c l a s s .
A n o th e r c r i t e r i o n o f
t e a c h e r l o a d , b u t one w h ic h p r e s e n t s a n i n c o m p le te p i c t u r e
u n le s s c o n s id e re d i n c o n n e c tio n w ith av erag e c l a s s s i z e ,
p l u s a s s i g n e d d u t i e s o t h e r t h a n a c t u a l t e a c h i n g , was t h e
number o f p e r i o d s a c t u a l l y s p e n t i n th e c l a s s r o o m .
T a b le I I p r e s e n t s d a t a r e l a t i v e t o th e a c t u a l t e a c h ­
i n g p e r i o d s s p e n t by e a c h t e a c h e r i n t h e c l a s s r o o m .
The
l e n g t h o f p e r i o d may be d e t e r m in e d by c o n s u l t i n g T ab le I ,
page 3 3 , i n w h ic h e a c h i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l ’ s p e r i o d l e n g t h
was p r e s e n t e d .
The o b j e c t h e r e , h o w ev e r, was n o t to
r e d u c e t o a c t u a l f r a c t i o n a l m in u te s th e tim e a v a i l a b l e t o
TABLE I I
TEACHING- LOAD B7 NUMBER OF PERIODS
ACTUALLY IN THE CUSS RO£M EACH WEEK
Periods
per week
actual
teaching
10
15
SO
21
22
25
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
35
36
Number of teachers
Balboa Commerce Galileo Lincoln Lowell Mission Polytechnic Washington
0
5
20
1
0
0
1
45
0
0
2
2
23
0
2
0
0
2
17
2
0
0
0
49
0
0
4
0
14
0
0
1
1
1
6
1
0
0
0
45
1
0
6
0
17
0
0
0
0
3
5
0
0
0
0
17
0
1
1
1
8
1
0
0
0
3
19
3
0
0
1
51
0
2
4
0
4
0
0
0
0
6
11
2
0
0
0
48
0
0
4
0
23
0
0
0
0
1
15
0
1
2
0
35
0
1
2
0
27
0
0
0
0
0
13
4
0
0
0
39
0
0
6
0
12
0
0
0
Per cent
of
teachers
♦15
3.00
16.4
1.1
.15
.30
.30
51.0
.15
.60
4.50
•45
19.87
.15
.30
•15
Kji
Go
each te a c h e r.
The s u r v e y c o v e re d a week and c o n t i n u e d i n
t h e s e te rm s due t o t h e g r e a t v a r i a n c e i n d u t y a s s i g n m e n t s .
T h is was due t o s p l i t week s c h e d u l e s , fo u n d c h i e f l y i n
t h e f i e l d s o f s c i e n c e w here l a b o r a t o r y s p a c e was n o t
a v a i l a b l e t o g i v e e a c h p u p i l two p e r i o d s d a i l y .
A ls o ,
s e v e r a l s c h o o l s c a r r i e d a s p l i t s c h e d u le on a l l c l a s s e s
p e r week i n o r d e r t o c a r r y o n many a c t i v i t i e s o t h e r t h a n
c l a s s r o o m w o rk .
The v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e h i g h s c h o o l s w i t h r e s p e c t t o
number o f p e r i o d s a s s i g n e d was g r e a t i n so f a r a s a c t u a l
h o u r s o f t e a c h i n g w ere c o u n t e d .
A ss ig n m e n ts i n e x t r a ­
c u r r i c u l a r work i n m o st e a s e s , ho w ev er, made up th e
d iffe re n c e .
The t a b l e shows t h a t .1 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e
t e a c h e r s had o n l y t e n p e r i o d s o f a c t u a l t e a c h i n g p e r w eek.
Only one r e a s o n was a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s ; a p a r t - t i m e t e a c h ­
e r , n o t d e s i g n a t e d a s s u c h , had t h i s a s s i g n m e n t .
o t h e r e x tr e m e was fo u n d t h e same f i g u r e ,
At th e
.1 5 p e r c e n t o f
t h e t e a c h e r s , o r one t e a c h e r , had a n a s s ig n m e n t o f t h i r t y s i x p e r i o d s a w eek.
The g r e a t e r p e r c e n t a g e s w ere fo u n d a t
t w e n t y - f i v e p e r i o d s p e r w eek, 51*0 p e r c e n t o f t h e t e a c h e r s
f a l l i n g i n t o t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , and a t t h i r t y p e r i o d s p e r
w eek , 19*8? p e r c e n t .
A t h i r d l a r g e g ro u p was form ed a t
tw e n ty p e r i o d s p e r w ee k , 1 6 . 4 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l number
o f te a c h e rs .
A little
a d d i t i o n p l a c e s 9 4 .8 2 p e r c e n t i n
t h e r a n g e fro m tw e n ty p e r i o d s t o t h i r t y p e r i o d s p e r week*
T hese c o m p a r a t i v e l y l i g h t lo a d t e a c h e r s w i t h f o u r p e r i o d s
p e r day up t o t h e more h e a v i l y la d e n e d s i x p e r i o d s p e r day
c o m p ris e d a l m o s t a l l t h e t e a c h e r s , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 618
te a c h e rs*
Argum ent may be r a i s e d a s t o th e i n e q u a l i t y ,
and u n l e s s e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a s s ig n m e n ts w ere i n c l u d e d i n
t h i s t a b l e , i n e q u a l i t i e s do a r i s e *
F u rth e r, in l a t e r ta b le s
♦
and i n e v i d e n c e s g a t h e r e d i t was n o t a lw a y s t h e tw e n ty p e r i o d p e r week t e a c h e r t h a t r e c e i v e d th e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r
work a s s i g n m e n t s .
The a v e r a g e num ber o f p e r i o d s p e r t e a c h e r f o r a l l
th e h i g h s c h o o l s p e r week was 2 3 . 6 7 p e r i o d s , o r i n te rm s o f
d a i l y te a c h in g a ssig n m e n ts 4 .7 3 c l a s s e s p e r te a c h e r .
T h is
f i g u r e i n d i c a t e d a f a i r l y e a s y a s s ig n m e n t p e r t e a c h e r , b u t
o t h e r f a c t o r s a r e t o be c o n s i d e r e d l a t e r b e f o r e d ra w in g
c o n c lu sio n s as to t o t a l lo a d s p e r te a c h e r.
S u b je c t ra n g e .
T a b le I I I shows th e number o f t e a c h ­
e r s i n e a c h s c h o o l who a r e t e a c h i n g o n e , tw o , t h r e e , f o u r ,
f i v e , and s i x d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s d a l l y .
By d i f f e r e n t
s u b j e c t s t h i s d o e s n o t im p ly s u c c e s s i v e c o u r s e s i n E n g l i s h ,
M a th e m a tic s , and s u c h .
One s u b j e c t means t h a t t h e t e a c h e r
h a n d le d p e r h a p s E n g l i s h I I I , E n g l i s h IV, e t c .
O u ts ta n d in g
among t h e r e s u l t s shown was th e g r e a t p e r c e n t a g e o f t e a c h ­
e r s t e a c h i n g o n l y one s u b j e c t .
F o r t y - s e v e n p e r c e n t w ere
41
TABLE III
SUMMARY OF SUBJECT RANGE
Number
of
subjects
Galileo
Num- Per
ber cent
Teachers per school
Lowell
Lincoln
Num- Per
Num- Per
ber
cent
ber cent
Mission
Num- Per
ber cent
Polytechnic
Hum- Per
ber cent
45.97
50
53.10
36
42.85
31
30
34.49
28
30.00
31
36.90
18.91
13
14.94
12
12.76
10
2.7
3
3.45
3
3.18
1
1 .1
1
1.00
Balboa
Num- Per
ber
cent
Commerce
Hum- Per
ber
cent
1
52
51.48
49
55.00
33
4 2.38
12
32.43
40
2
30
29.7
21
23.6
35
44.88
16
43.24
3
11
10.89
13
14.6
8
10.26
7
4
5
4 95
.
6
1
5
2
1 .9
0
2
6
1
1.01
0
0
6.74
0
2.25
0
1
2.7
0
0
Washington
Num- Per
ber cent
Total
number
Total
per
cent
41.89
303
4 7 .0
31
41.89
222
34.47
11.90
8
10.81
82
12.73
4
4.7 6
2
2 .7
24
3.7 2
3
3.57
2
2 .7
11
1.7
0
0
2
.31
42
i n t h i s a r e a , and i n two s u b j e c t s t a u g h t a n o t h e r 3 4 .4 ? p e r
c e n t w ere i n c l u d e d , o r 8 1 .4 7 p e r c e n t o f a l l t h e t e a c h e r s
w ere r e q u i r e d t o t e a c h o n ly one o r two s u b j e c t s .
T h is h i g h f r e q u e n c y o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n was due i n
p a r t t o t h e h i g h num ber o f s p e c i a l c r e d e n t i a l s w h ic h
C a lifo rn ia issu e d in c e r ta in s u b je c ts .
Beyond t h i s , th e
l a r g e r t h e s y s te m c o n s i d e r e d , t h e r e was a g r e a t e r te n d e n c y
f o r t h e t e a c h e r s to f i t th e m s e l v e s i n t o one f i e l d o f
s p e c i a l i z a t i o n due t o t h e l a r g e num bers o f c l a s s e s i n t h e s e
fie ld s*
A d m in is tra tiv e a ssig n m e n ts, r e g a r d le s s o f te a c h e r
w a n ts , a l s o te n d e d , t o p l a c e t e a c h e r s i n t h i s a r e a o f t e a c h ­
i n g f i e l d s a s t h e e a s i e s t m ethod o f a s s ig n m e n t i s t o
a s s ig n te a c h e r s to e a c h I n d iv id u a l f ie ld *
A bout one o u t o f e i g h t t e a c h e r s , o r 12*73 p e r c e n t ,
w ere c a l l e d upon t o t e a c h t h r e e d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s .
T w enty-
f o u r t e a c h e r s , o r 3*72 p e r c e n t o f a l l t e a c h e r s , w ere
h a n d l i n g f o u r s u b j e c t s , w h ile e l e v e n t e a c h e r s , o r 1*7 p e r
c e n t , had a c o m b in a t io n o f f i v e s u b j e c t s .
Only two t e a c h ­
e r s , o r *31 p e r c e n t o f a l l t e a c h e r s , w ere c a l l e d upon t o
te a c h s ix s u b je c ts d a i ly .
Does t h i s o b v io u s i n e q u a l i t y i n a s s ig n m e n t o f d u t i e s
n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h a t t h o s e t e a c h i n g f o u r , f i v e , and s i x
d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s had a c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y h e a v i e r lo a d ?
m o st c a s e s t h i s was n o t t r u e .
A t e a c h e r h a v in g t o t e a c h
In
E n g lish I I I ,
IV , V, V I, V II had j u s t a s g r e a t a p r e p a r a t i o n
lo a d and t e a c h i n g lo a d a s th e t e a c h e r who had a c o m b in a t io n
of fiv e d i f f e r e n t su b je c ts*
On t h e o t h e r hand t h e r e w ere t e a c h e r s w i t h one s u b j e c t
as t h e i r assig n m e n t a l l d ay .
P h y s i c s II*
The s u b j e c t i n one c a s e was
I n t h e c a s e o f some t e a c h e r s P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n
was r e p e a t i n g one s u b j e c t a l l d a y .
Too g r e a t a v a r i e t y o f
c o m b in a t io n s p r e v e n t s a c o m p le te c o v e ra g e i n t h i s s t u d y b u t
a s i s l a t e r r e p o r t e d t h e number o f a s s i g n m e n t s i n th e f i e l d
o f p r e p a r e d and u n p r e p a r e d s u b j e c t s may h e l p t o e x p l a i n
t h i s p h a s e o f t h e p r o b le m .
T a b le I I I , p a g e 4 l , a l s o r e p r e s e n t s t h e i n d i v i d u a l
s c h o o l s i n te r m s o f p e r c e n t a g e s o f t e a c h e r s i n e a c h g ro u p
of su b je c ts.
L i n c o l n H igh S c h o o l had t h e l e a s t amount o f
t e a c h e r s c a l l e d upo n t o t e a c h one s u b j e c t .
T h is was due
t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s c h o o l was o n ly b e g i n n i n g .
Commerce
had th e g r e a t e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f s i n g l e s u b j e c t a s s i g n m e n t s ,
p e r h a p s b e c a u s e i t was one o f th e o l d e s t s c h o o l s , c o n s e ­
q u e n t l y h a v i n g more o l d e r t e a c h e r s and a l s o b e c a u s e i t was
t h e o u t s t a n d i n g c o m m e rc ia l s c h o o l i n th e c i t y and had
a t t e m p t e d t o have o u t s t a n d i n g t e a c h e r s i n e a c h s k i l l e d
f i e l d i n c o m m e rc ia l w o rk .
The g r e a t e s t c o m b in a t io n o f two s u b j e c t s was fo u n d
a t G a l i l e o , and t h e l e a s t number a t Commerce.
T h is may o r
44
may n o t be i n t e r p r e t e d a s a n i n d i c a t i o n o f s p e c i a l
c r e d e n t i a l s i n one f i e l d , f o r i n t h e c o m b in a tio n o f t h r e e
s u b j e c t s Commerce was n o t found t o be l o w e s t .
The t e a c h i n g o f t h r e e d i f f e r e n t c o u r s e s fo un d
L in c o ln a g a in t i e
l e a d e r w i t h 1 8 .9 1 p e r c e n t o f th e t e a c h ­
e r s a s com pared t o G a l i l e o *s 10*26 p e r c e n t .
In fo u r
s u b j e c t s Commerce l e d a t 6*74 p e r c e n t , w h ile G a l i l e o had
none.
I n t e a c h e r s c a l l e d upon to t e a c h f i v e d i f f e r e n t
s u b j e c t s , P o l y t e c h n i c l e d w h ile Commerce and L i n c o l n had
none.
I n s i x s u b j e c t s o n l y two s c h o o l s were r e p r e s e n t e d ,
L i n c o l n w i t h 2 . 7 p e r c e n t and B a lb o a w i t h a p p r o x i m a t e l y
1 .0 1 p e r c e n t o f i t s t e a c h e r s .
I n a s u r v e y o f s c h o o l s t o d e t e r m i n e i n how many
s u b j e c t s a t e a c h e r s h o u ld be t r a i n e d , Bead
2
o f Ohio
W e sle y a n fo u n d t h a t i n a s a m p lin g o f s c h o o l s b e tw e e n e l e v e n
and t h i r t y t e a c h e r s , th e f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s e x i s t e d :
R e q u ir e d t o t e a c h
Per cent
1 su b je c t
55*5
2 su b je c ts
3 2 .5
3 s u b je c ts
8*5
4 su b je c ts
2 .7
A. B. R ead, “ How Many S u b j e c t s S h o u ld a High
S c h o o l T e a c h e r be P r e p a r e d t o T e a c h ,” P eab od y J o u r n a l o f
E d u c a t i o n . 4 : 1 9 5 - 2 0 7 , J a n u a r y , 1927*
45
5 su b je c ts
2 .8
6 su b je c ts
1 .4
T h ere a r e some who f e e l t h a t I t I s n o t t h e b e s t
t h i n g f o r a t e a c h e r t o be c o n f i n e d t o one f i e l d .
Bead s a i d :
I t i s d e s i r a b l e a l s o to c o n s i d e r t h e m a t t e r o f w hat
i s d e s ira b le i n an e f f i c i e n t te a c h e r.
The w r i t e r
p o s i t s t h a t a h i g h d e g r e e o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n one
f i e l d t o t h e e x c l u s i o n o f o t h e r s u b j e c t s i s un­
d e s i r a b l e ; and t h a t a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h many f i e l d s ,
w i t h a c o n t r o l l e d know ledge o f s t a n d a r d p o r t i o n s o f
t h r e e o r f o u r i s a much more d e s i r a b l e c o n d i t i o n . 5
E x tra - c u r r ic u la r d u tie s a f t e r school h o u rs.
The
summary p r e s e n t e d i n T a b le IV d o e s n o t i n c l u d e a s s ig n m e n t
o f d u t i e s d u r i n g t h e s c h o o l d a y b e tw e e n t h e h o u r s o f 8 : 3 0
A.M. an d 3 : 1 0 I1.Iff*, b u t r e p r e s e n t s d u t i e s d e l e g a t e d b e f o r e
o r a f t e r s c h o o l , t h e m a j o r p o r t i o n o f w h ic h a r e a f t e r
sc h o o l.
Due t o t h e g r e a t v a r i a b i l i t y o f a s s i g n m e n t , f i v e
d i v i s i o n s w ere o f f e r e d .
When a s s i g n m e n t s o f t e n h o u r s o r
l e s s p e r week a r e m e n tio n e d t h i s i m p l i e s t e n . h o u r s p e r
week down t o f i v e h o u r s p e r w eek; f i v e h o u r s p e r week
i m p l i e s f i v e h o u r s down t o two and o n e - h a l f h o u r s p e r w eek;
and w i t h t h e one h o u r o r l e s s down t o no a s s i g n m e n t s a t
3 ib ia .
46
TABLE
IV
SUMMARY OF EXTRA-CURRICULAR DUTIES AFTER SCHOOL HOURS
Balboa
Him- Per
ber cent
Conmerce
Hum- Per
ber cent
Galileo
Hum- Per
ber. cent
Teachers per school
Lowell
Lincoln
Hum- Per
Hum- Per
ber eent
ber cent
Teachers with no
extra-curricular
activities
62
60
67.41
38
48.72
12
32.39
44
Teachers with
assignments of
one hour or less
per week
0
7
7.86
21
26.92
8
22.22
61.38
Mission
Num- Per
ber eent
Polytechnic
Hum- Per
ber cent
Washington
Hum- Per
ber cent
50.57
57
60.63
40
47.62
23
16
18.4
15
15.95
18
21.42
11
12.64
7
7.44
11
Teachers with
assignments of two
and one-half hours
or less per week
19
18.81
6
6.74
2
2.56
Teachers with
assignments of five
hours or less per
week
14
13.86
14
15.73
7
8.96
11
29.70
11
12.64
8
8.51
10
Teachers with
assignments of ten
hours or less per
week
6
5.94
2
2.24
10
12*82
6
16.20
5
5.74
7
7.44
5
Total
number
Total
P©r
cent
31.08
336
52.17
25
33.78
UO
17.08
13.09
5
6.75
61
9.47
11.9
4
5.40
79
12.26
17
22.97
58
9.00
5.95
47
a ll.
I t was i n t h e f i e l d o f e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a s s ig n m e n t
t h a t t h e g r e a t e s t d e g r e e o f v a r i a b i l i t y was f o u n d .
E x tra ­
c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s h av e b e e n d e f i n e d i n t h i s s tu d y a s
a p p l y i n g t o c o a c h i n g s p o r t s , s p o n s o r i n g c l u b s , c o u n s e lin g *
k e e p in g boo k s, e t c .
To b r e a k t h e s e down a s t o d e g r e e o f
d i f f i c u l t y w ould b e t o o g r e a t a p ro b le m f o r t h i s s t u d y .
A l l a c t i v i t i e s w ere c o u n te d i n te rm s o f h o u rs o f
s e r v i c e a l o n e , o v e r and above d a i l y p e r i o d a s s i g n m e n t s .
Of t h e s e , some a c t i v i t i e s have b o t h p e r i o d a s s i g n m e n t s and
a f t e r - s c h o o l a s s i g n m e n t s , e a c h h o w e v e r, b e i n g t r e a t e d a s
s e p a ra te a s sig n m e n ts•
T h ree h u n d re d t h i r t y - s i x t e a c h e r s , o r 5 2 .1 7 p e r
c e n t , had no e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a s s i g n m e n t s .
T h is m ean t t h a t
h a l f t h e t e a c h e r s w ere f r e e t o go home when t h e b e l l r a n g
a t 5 : 1 0 P.M.
A t t h e o t h e r end o f t h e t a b l e , f i f t y - e i g h t
te a c h e r s , o r 9 p e r e e n t o f th e t o t a l ,
c a rrie d in a d d itio n
t o a r e g u l a r t e a c h i n g d ay a n e x t r a a s s ig n m e n t o f from one
to two h o u r s d a i l y .
Of t h e s e , t h e g r e a t e r p e r c e n t a g e
w ere i n t h e P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n f i e l d .
c o m p a ra tiv e ly l i t t l e
A n o th e r gro up w i t h
o r no a s s ig n m e n t w ere 1 1 0 t e a c h e r s ,
o r 17*08 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l .
I t was fo u n d t h a t 446
t e a c h e r s , o r 6 9 . 2 5 p e r c e n t o f th e t e a c h e r s , had one h o u r
t o no a s s i g n m e n t p e r week o f t h e s c h o o l y e a r .
Of a l l t h e
a s s i g n m e n t s t h e l i g h t e s t w a s _ t t e t e a c h e r who was d e s i g n a t e d
t o a i d t h e g i r l s who w ere h e l p i n g t h e r e g u l a r l y a s s i g n e d
t e a c h e r to t a k e c h a r g e o f th e ca p s arid gowns a t g r a d u a t i o n .
To o b s e r v e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n e a c h s c h o o l , th e
h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f t e a c h e r s w i t h no a s s ig n m e n t o f
e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s was fo u n d a t Commerce w here
67*4-1 p e r c e n t o f t h e t e a c h e r s had no a s s i g n m e n t s .
The
l o w e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f n o n - a s s i g n m e n t s was fo u n d a t
W a s h in g to n , a s c h o o l now f i v e y e a r s o l d .
The h e a v i e s t
a s s i g n m e n t s w ere f o u n d a t W a sh in g to n w i t h 2 2 .9 7 p e r c e n t ,
and a t L i n c o l n w i t h 1 6 .2 0 p e r c e n t .
An a v e r a g e f o r a l l
t e a c h e r s i f a s s i g n m e n t s were e v e n l y d i v i d e d w ould be t h a t
e a c h t e a c h e r w ould h ave t o p u t i n a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1*9 h o u r s
p e r w eek , o r 22*8 m i n u t e s p e r d a y .
These f i g u r e s w ere
d e r i v e d from t h e p r i n c i p a l s 1 r e p o r t s and m ust t h e n p r e s e n t
th e o n ly f i g u r e s on p a p e r a v a i l a b l e .
To ad d t o t h i s th e
few h o u r s a s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e o f tte ~ t e a c h e r s p u t i n on
g ra d u a tio n e x e r c is e s , p la y s , as su p e rv iso rs of t r i p s , e t c . ,
w ould i n c r e a s e t h i s a few m i n u t e s , b u t n o t en o u g h t o e f f e c t
a g r e a t change.
D u tie s o t t e r th a n te a c h in g .
T a b le V* i s r e l a t e d to
T a b le IV , p ag e 4 6 , b e c a u s e i t h a s i n common t h e a s s ig n m e n t
o f d u t i e s o t h e r t h a n t e a c h i n g c l a s s e s w i t h , h o w ev e r, th e
TABLE V
SUMMARY OF TEACHERS WITH PERIODS
DEVOTED TO DUTIES OTHER THAN TEACHING_CLASSES
Number of teachers
Per
Balboa Commerce Galileo Lincoln Lowell Mission Polytechnic Washington Total cent
Teachers with
no period to
other duties 26
25
16
13
13
13
35
17
158
24.5
Teachers with
one period to
other duties 44
48
49
13
36
55
38
44
327
50.76
Teachers with
two periods
to other
23
duties
10
8
9
27
18
9
13
117
18.1
Teachers with
three periods
to other
duties
8
6
4
2
10
7
1
0
38
6.0.
Teachers with
four periods
to other
duties
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
4
.6
4>
vo
c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h a t s u c h a s s i g n m e n t s w ere w i t h i n th e s c h o o l
day o f 8 : 3 0 A.M. t o 3 ; 10 P-M.
s tu d y h a l l s ,
Such a ssig n m e n ts in c lu d e
c o u n s e l i n g , b a n k i n g , r a l l y c o m m itte e s ,
p ro g ra m m in g , t a r d y d e s k , l o c k e r s , e q u ip m e n t roo m s, e t c .
T h e re w ere o n l y f o u r t e a c h e r s who had f o u r p e r i o d s d a i l y
to o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s , and 156 t e a c h e r s who had no p e r i o d s
to o th e r d u tie s *
The p e r c e n t a g e s v a r y from .6 p e r c e n t
f o r te a c h e r s w ith f o u r p e r io d s , to 2 4 .5 p e r c e n t f o r
t e a c h e r s w i t h no a s s i g n m e n t s .
The g r e a t e s t num ber o f t e a c h ­
e r s , w i t h one a s s i g n e d p e r i o d , was 3 2 7 , o r 5 0 .7 6 p e r c e n t ,
f o llo w e d by 117 t e a c h e r s , ©r 1 8 .1 p e r c e n t , w i t h two
p e r i o d s , and t h i r t y - e i g h t t e a c h e r s , o r 6 p e r c e n t o f th e
to ta l.
G la n c in g o v e r th e s c h o o l s th e h i g h e s t a s s i g n m e n t
was fo u n d a t G a l i l e o , L o w e ll, M i s s i o n , and P o l y t e c h n i c ,
w h i l e t h e l o w e s t d e g r e e o f a s s ig n m e n t was fou n d a t L i n c o l n ,
L o w e ll, and M i s s i o n .
T h is seemed t o I n d i c a t e t h a t e a c h
t e a c h e r w ould have one p e r i o d e v e r y day a s s i g n e d t o some
a c t i v i t y o t h e r t h a n a c t u a l c la s s r o o m w ork.
Heme- room a s s i g n m e n t s .
room a s s i g n m e n t s c o n tro v e rsia l.
T a b le VI c o n s i d e r s home­
The s u b j e c t o f home-room a s s ig n m e n t was
Ho d e g r e e o f e q u a l i t y i n d u t i e s was fo un d
i n an y o f t h e s c h o o l s .
I n some s c h o o l s t h e home-room
TABLE VI
TEACHERS WITH HOME BOOMS
Number of teachers
Balboa Commerce Galileo Lincoln Lowell Mission Polytechnic Washington
Total
Per
cent
82
66
65
26
66
82
63
61
511
79.35
Without 19
23
13
11
21
12
21
13
133
20.65
With
ui
H
t e a c h e r , b e s i d e s h a n d l i n g an n o u n c em e n ts and r o l l - c a l l ,
was c a l l e d up o n t o k e e p r e c o r d s o f e a c h p u p i l ' s p r o g r e s s .
The e f f o r t was n o t made t o r e c o n c i l e a l l t h e s e d u t i e s .
The tim e and e f f o r t s p e n t by t e a c h a r s i n home-room d u t i e s
o u t s i d e o f t h e s p e c i f i e d tim e was n o t c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s
s t u d y ; h e r e t h e e l e m e n t o f tim e o n l y was t a k e n i n t o
a c c o u n t.
I t was shown t h a t 511 t e a c h e r s , o r 79*35 p e r
c e n t o f t h e t e a c h e r s , had home-room a s s i g n m e n t s , w h ile
2 0 .6 5 p e r c e n t had no a s s ig n m e n t-
I n te r m s o f m in u t e s p e r
d ay t h e a v e r a g e a s s i g n m e n t was tw e lv e m i n u t e s e x c l u s i v e
o f tim e s p e n t o n r e c o r d s , r e p o r t c a r d s , d i s c i p l i n e , and
c o u n se lin g .
The p u p i l c o n t a c t w i t h t e a c h e r was m ost
p ro n o u n c e d h e r e a s t h e t e a c h e r had c h a r g e o f t h i s g ro u p
te rm a f t e r t e r n u n t i l t h e y g r a d u a t e d o r w ere r e t a r d e d .
T h is p r e s e n t e d many p r o b le m s n o t c o u n te d i n te r m s o f
m i n u t e s and p e r i o d s , p ro b le m s w h ic h do n o t e n t e r i n th e
re p o rt.
I t was s u f f i c i e n t to u n d e r s t a n d t h a t home-room
a s s i g n m e n t s m e an t a r e a l p ro b le m to th e t e a c h e r .
P r e p a r e d and u n p r e p a r e d s u b j e c t s .
T e a c h e r lo a d i n
te r m s o f p r e p a r e d an d u n p r e p a r e d s u b j e c t s i s p r e s e n t e d i n
T a b le V I I .
A l l s u b j e c t s w ere i n c l u d e d u n d e r t h e t i t l e s o f
p re p a re d o r u n p rep ared s u b je c ts w ith th e e x c e p tio n o f
53
TABLE-VII
TEACHER LOAD IN TERMS OF
PREPARED AND . UNPREFARED SUBJECTS
:
P rep ared
su b je c ts
o
.
: : :.
1
0
-
,
-
U n p re p a re d s u b j e c t s
2
4
5
3
17
68
1
8
2
5
5
2
3
I
X
2
30
3
9
126
6
1
5
237
1
6
5
3
4
4
6
7
108
2
P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n an d R. 0 . T. C. ( m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g ) ,
f h e s e w ere g i v e n no d e s i g n a t i o n , b u t i n a s s ig n m e n t t h e
u n p r e p a r e d q u o ta a s s i g n m e n t was f o l l o w e d .
One c a n n o t draw a s h a r p d i s t i n c t l i n e b e tw e e n p r e ­
p a r e d an d p r a c t i c e s u b j e c t s , s i n c e one d o e s n o t l e a r n
a n y t h i n g w i t h o u t p r a c t i c e , and s i n c e p r e p a r a t i o n i s a p a r t
of a l l courses.
A p r e p a r e d s u b j e c t i s one i n w h ic h a d a i l y a s s i g n ­
m ent o f work i s d one o u t s i d e th e r e c i t a t i o n p e r io d *
S tu d y
g o v e r n s t h e i d e a b e h i n d home a s s ig n m e n t and p r e p a r e d
su b je c ts*
A p r a c t i c e o r u n p r e p a r e d s u b j e c t i s one t o w h ic h
th e p u p i l ’ s a p p l i c a t i o n i s v e r y l a r g e l y c o n f i n e d to th e
r e c i t a t i o n p e rio d s o n ly .
S k i l l and p e r f o r m a n c e i s t h e
m a in i d e a b e h i n d c l a s s r e c i t a t i o n and u n p r e p a r e d s u b j e c t s .
B e a r i n g i n m ind t h a t t h e r e c a n be no s h a r p l i n e
d raw n b e tw e e n t h e tw o , and r e c a l l i n g f o r a e r r e f e r e n c e s a l l
o f w h ic h a r e v ag u e an d n o t c l e a r i n t h e i r a g r e e m e n t a s t o
d i f f i c u l t y i n t h e m a t t e r o f a c t u a l t e a c h i n g , many c o n ­
c l u s i o n s h ave b e e n l e f t t o t h e r e a d e r .
D o u g la s s s t a t e d :
I t i s o f te n a s s e r te d th a t te a c h in g a c la s s in
E n g l i s h r e q u i r e s m ore tim e t h a n t e a c h i n g a c l a s s i n
an y o t h e r s u b j e c t , b e c a u s e o f t h e l a r g e amount o f
p a p e r s t o be r e a d and t h e d e t a i l w i t h w h ic h th e y
s h o u ld b© r e a d .
I t Is fre q u e n tly a s se rte d th a t te a c h ­
e r s o f s c i e n c e and h i s t o r y s h o u ld spen d more tim e i n
p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h s i r c l a s s e s t h a n s h o u ld t e a c h e r s o f
m a th e m a tic s o r o f f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e s . ^
E v id e n c e s u p p o r t i n g t h e s e a s s e r t i o n s was f u r n i s h e d
i n t h e s t u d i e s o f Koos and o t h e r s . ^
The a v e r a g e o f th e
m e d ia n tim e s p e n t by t h e t e a c h e r s i n v o l v e d i n two s t u d i e s
i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t e a c h i n g d u t i e s w ere a s f o l l o w s i n t h e
v a rio u s s u b je c ts :
E n g l i s h , 93 m i n u t e s ; h i s t o r y and s o c i a l
s t u d i e s , 8 7 - 5 m i n u t e s ; l a n g u a g e s , 78*5 m i n u t e s ; m a th e ­
m a tic s , 75 m in u te s ;
s c i e n c e , 7 ^ - 5 m i n u t e s ; c o m m e rc ia l
s u b j e c t s , 73*5 m i n u t e s ; i n d u s t r i a l and h o u s e h o ld a r t s ,
58*8 m i n u t e s .
T hese d a t a w ere s u g g e s t i v e i n s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t
t h e am ounts r e p o r t e d w ere p r o b a b l y i n f l u e n c e d t o some
d e g r e e by t h e p r a c t i c e o f many p r i n c i p a l s t o a s s i g n h e a v i e r
l o a d s i n t h e num ber o f c l a s s p e r i o d s d a i l y t o t e a c h e r s o f
h o u s e h o ld a r t s , I n d u s t r i a l an d c o m m e rc ia l s u b j e c t s , f o r e i g n
l a n g u a g e s , and m a t h e m a t i c s , and l i g h t e r l o a d s t o t e a c h e r s
o f E n g l i s h , and t h e c o n s e q u e n t f a c t t h a t th e l a t t e r have
<4
H.
R* D o u g la s s , O r g a n i z a t i o n and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n
o f S e c o n d a ry S c h o o ls ( B o s to n :
Ginn and Company, 1 9 3 2 ),
pp* 1 1 9 -2 0 .
^ L* V. Koos an d o t h e r s , A d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e S e c o n d a ry
S c h o o l (New Y o rk : A m eric an Book Company, 1 9 4 0 ), p . 379*
56
more tim e t o sp e n d i n p r e p a r a t i o n *
T a b le V I I , p ag e 53» shows t h a t th e g r e a t e s t num ber
o f t e a c h e r s f e l l i n t o two g r o u p s , nam ely t h e g ro u p w h ic h
t a u g h t f i v e p r e p a r e d s u b j e c t s , and th e g ro u p w h ic h t a u g h t
s ix u nprepared s u b je c ts .
The g ro u p w h ic h t a u g h t f i v e
p r e p a r e d s u b j e c t s c o n fo rm ed r e a d i l y w i t h t h e o b j e c t i v e s
s e t up by t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s * c l a s s i f i c a t i o n m e n tio n e d
i n C h a p te r IV.
A g r e a t num ber, 108 t e a c h e r s , f e l l i n t o
th e g ro u p o f s i x u n p r e p a r e d s u b j e c t s , a l s o c o n fo rm in g t o
r e g u l a t i o n s s e t o u t i n C h a p te r IV.
These two f i g u r e s g ave
a com bined t o t a l o f 3 ^ 5 t e a c h e r s , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 53 p e r
c e n t o f a l l t h e t e a c h e r s whose l o a d s conform ed e x a c t l y t o
r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s .
I n t h e g ro u p o f f o u r p r e p a r e d
s u b j e c t s , 126 t e a c h e r s w ere f o u n d , m aking t h i s t h e g r e a t ­
e s t number o f t e a c h e r s whose l o a d s w ere c o m p a r a t i v e l y
lig h te r.
However, i t was i n t h i s g ro u p t h a t d e p a r t m e n t
h e a d s and c o u n s e l o r s w ere f o u n d , b o t h b e i n g a llo w e d one
s u b je c t le s s because o f t h e i r s p e c ia l d u tie s .
Two t e a c h e r s w ere fo u n d t o have s e v e n u n p r e p a r e d
s u b j e c t s a s s i g n e d a s t h e i r l o a d , one a shop t e a c h e r .
A
r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e t e a c h e r s had l i g h t
l o a d s , and t h e s e u s u a l l y had a m ixed p ro g ra m o f p r e p a r e d
and u n p r e p a r e d s u b j e c t s , a s s ig n m e n ts g o v e rn e d p e r h a p s by
t h e am ount o f s l a c k t o be t a k e n up on odd c l a s s e s .
Where
57
t e a c h e r s had c o m p a r a t i v e l y l i g h t t e a c h i n g l o a d s many had
b e e n a s s i g n e d e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r d u t i e s t o b a la n c e *
Nowhere
was t h e r e e v i d e n c e o f a b u s e i n th e m a t t e r o f t e a c h e r
a s s i g n m e n t , th o u g h i t was a n a t u r a l t h i n g f o r a p r i n c i p a l
to t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n p e r s o n a l i t i e s , am ount o f s e r v i c e ,
p h y s i c a l a b i l i t y , e t c * , when he was a s s i g n i n g d u t i e s and
lo a d .
Summary o f t e a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n *
T a b le V I I I
su m m arize s t h e p r e p a r a t i o n lo a d o f t e a c h e r s i n a l l t h e
s c h o o ls *
The b a s i s o f t h e s e f i g u r e s was r e a c h e d by g i v i n g
t h e w e i g h t o f one p r e p a r a t i o n t o e a c h d i f f e r e n t c l a s s
ta u g h t.
T h is a l s o i m p l i e d t h a t a t e a c h e r who h a n d le d
E n g l i s h I I I , E n g l i s h IV , e t c . , m ust make a p r e p a r a t i o n f o r
e a c h , h ence was g i v e n c r e d i t f o r one p r e p a r a t i o n f o r e a c h
le v e l*
I n d u s t r i a l A r t s was c l a s s i f i e d a s d i f f e r e n t
p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r e a c h p e r i o d , w h e re a s P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n ,
i n m ost c a s e s , was r e p e t i t i o n and was g i v e n o n ly one p r e ­
p a ra tio n *
The g r e a t e s t num ber o f t e a c h e r s was i n th e g ro u p o f
t h r e e p r e p a r a t i o n s , 162 t e a c h e r s , o r 25*15 p a r c e n t .
T h i r t y t e a c h e r s had s i x p r e p a r a t i o n s d a i l y , b u t t h e s e w ere
m o stly u n p rep ared s u b j e c t s -
A t o t a l o f one h u n d red t e a c h ­
e r s had o n ly one p r e p a r a t i o n d a i l y ;
th e g r e a t e s t number o f
TABLE VIII
SUMMARY OF TEACHER PREPARATIONS
Number of
preparati
§
Per
Number of teachers
Balboa Commerce Galileo Lincoln Lowell Mission Polytechnic Washington Total cent
1
23
12
9
6
15
12
12
11
100
15.52
2
19
19
18
8
22
16
9
22
133
20.65
3
29
28
11
11
19
29
16
19
162
25.15
4
19
21
20
7
22
18
21
15
143
22.20
5
7
7
15
3
9
13
19
3
76
11.80
6
4
2
5
2
0
6
7
4
30
4.65
»
VJl
GO
59
t h e s e w ere a t B a lb o a and th e l e a s t a t L i n c o l n .
The g e n e r a l
t r e n d seemed t o be a s s i g n m e n t o f tw o, t h r e e , o r f o u r
d i f f e r e n t p r e p a r a t i o n s , f o r 438 t e a c h e r s w ere c l a s s i f i e d
i n t h e s e t h r e e g ro u p s*
The g r e a t e s t number w i t h m u l t i p l e
p r e p a r a t i o n s was fo u n d a t P o l y t e c h n i c and a t G a l i l e o .
No a t t e m p t was made t o p u t p r e p a r a t i o n s i n te im s o f
m i n u t e s o r h o u r s , f o r p r e p a r a t i o n v a r i e s so g r e a t l y w i t h
t h e i n d i v i d u a l t h a t l i t e r a t u r e on th e s u b j e c t i s v a g u e ,
l a c k s a u t h o r i t y and o b j e c t i v i t y .
S u f f i c e t o sa y h e r e t h a t
th e t a b l e s i n t h i s s tu d y s e r v e t o p r e s e n t some i d e a o f th e
t e a c h e r ' s lo a d t h a t i s n o t s t r e s s e d b u t o v e r lo o k e d by t h e
a v e r a g e o b s e r v e r and t a x p a y e r .
CHAPTER V I
CONCLUSIONS
The more s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s on t r e n d s and p r a c t i c e s
a re g iv e n i n th e fo llo w in g :
1.
On t h e a v e r a g e , t e a c h e r s spen d a b o u t tw e n ty
m i n u t e s bey o nd th e a c t u a l s c h o o l d a y , r a n g i n g from 8 : 3 0
A.M. t o 3 : 1 0 J?.M.
The e x t r e m e s w ere from no tim e s p e n t a f t e r
s c h o o l h o u r s to two h o u r s b e f o r e *
The s c h o o l day a c t u a l l y ,
t h e n , v a r i e d b e tw e e n s i x h o u r s and f o r t y m in u t e s to e i g h t
h o u r s and f o r t y m i n u t e s , e x c l u s i v e o f o u t s i d e p r e p a r a t i o n .
2.
F i f t y - t w o p e r c e n t o f t h e t e a c h e r s s p e n t no
tim e i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s ;
th e burden, th e r e f o r e ,
was on 48 p e r c e n t o f t h e t e a c h e r s .
3*
S ix ty - n in e p e r ce n t o f th e te a c h e rs sp en t le s s
t h a n one h o u r p e r week on e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s ;
31 p e r c e n t c a r r i e d m o st o f t h e b u r d e n .
4.
The s m a l l v a r i a n c e i n a c t u a l t e a c h i n g lo a d
( c l a s s e s ) i n d i c a t e d t h e t r e n d to conform t o s t a n d a r d s a s
s e t by th e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t and t h e B oard o f E d u c a t i o n .
T here w ere s t i l l a few c a s e s t h a t r e q u i r e d a d j u s t m e n t to
co n fo rm .
5*
lo a d .
l e n g t h o f s e r v i c e had no b e a r i n g on t e a c h e r
61
6*
N a tu r e o f s u b j e c t - m a t t e r was c o n s i d e r e d t o a
g r e a t e x te n t i n a s s ig n in g te a c h e rs to d u t i e s w ith c l a s s
gro u p s.
T rend was l e s s c l a s s e s a s s u b j e c t became more
d i f f i c u l t to t e a c h , i . e . , p u p i l p r e p a r a t i o n and home a s s i g n ­
m e n ts a g a i n s t p r a c t i c e s u b j e c t s .
7.
A verage t e a c h e r lo a d i n c l u d e d 2 3 .6 7 p e r i o d s o f
t e a c h i n g p e r w eek, o r 4 . 7 3 c l a s s e s p e r d a y , p l u s f i v e
p e r i o d s ©f a c t i v i t y o t h e r t h a n t e a c h i n g , o r one p e r i o d p e r
d a y , p l u s one h u n d re d m in u t e s o f e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r work p e r
w ee k , o r tw e n ty m i n u t e s p e r d ay p e r t e a c h e r .
Add t o th e
4-7*5 m in u t e s p e r week o r 9*5 m in u t e s p e r d ay on home-room
a s s i g n m e n t s and t h e r e a d e r h a s t h e g r a n d t o t a l o f ( d a i l y )
2 1 3 . 7 5 m i n u t e s i n c l a s s e s p l u s f o r t y - f i v e m in u t e s o f
a c t i v i t i e s o t h e r t h a n t e a c h i n g , p l u s tw e n ty m in u t e s o f
e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r w o rk , p l u s 9*5 m in u t e s o f home-room, o r
a p p r o x i m a t e l y 288 m i n u t e s p e r d a y o f a c t u a l w o rk .
8.
The t r e n d
(‘8 1 .4 7 p e r c e n t ) was to w ard a s s i g n ­
i n g t e a c h e r s one o r two s u b j e c t s , n o t a v a r i e t y ( s u b j e c t
h e r e m e a n in g E n g l i s h I ,
II,
I I I , e t c . a s one s u b j e c t ,
E n g lish ).
9.
I n c o m p a rin g th e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f ti m e , t h e
minimum g ro u p p r e s e n t e d t h e m o st I r r e g u l a r i t i e s and
v a ria tio n s.
The r a n g e , h o w ev e r, was t o o s m a l l i n p e r c e n t ­
age t o a f f e c t th e t o t a l .
10#
The num ber o f c l a s s e s a s s i g n e d was no i n d i ­
c a t i o n o f am ount o f tim e s p e n t i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r work*
11*
A cu te d r o p p i n g o f f o f s t u d e n t s i n t h e l a s t
y e a r had a h e a r i n g o n t h e below n o rm a l lo a d o f t h e a v e r a g e
te a c h e r.
12.
Number o f p r e p a r a t i o n s d i d n o t e n t e r i n t o
a s s ig n m e n t o f t e a c h e r l o a d .
13.
Number o f d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s had no b e a r i n g on
t e a c h e r lo a d 14.
M ixed , p r e p a r e d and u n p r e p a r e d , a s s ig n m e n ts
w ere n o t s t a n d a r d i z e d a s t o l o a d .
15*
Only r e c o g n i t i o n o f t e a c h e r lo a d r e l a t i v e to
e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r w ork was w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o c o a c h in g d u t i e s
fo r a th le tic s*
BIBLIOGRAPHY
64
A.
BOOKS
A lm aek, J . C . , an d J . F . B u r s c h , The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f
C o n s o l i d a t e d and V i l l a g e S c h o o l s * B o sto n s
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M i f f l i n Company 7 1925* C h a p t e r V, 88 p p .
B a r r , A. S . , and o t h e r s , S u p e r v i s i o n . New Yorks
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D*
D o u g l a s s , H. H . , O r g a n i z a t i o n and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f
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U n i v e r s i t y . W a s h in g to n D*C.s Governm ent P r i n t i n g
O f f i c e , 1919*
________ , The A m eric an Se c o n d a r y S c h o o l .
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S c h o o l . New Y orks A m erican Book Company, 1940.
l e w i s , E . E * , P e r s o n n e l P ro b le m s o f th e T e a c h in g S t a f f .
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S m ith , Dora V . , C l a s s S i z e i n H igh S c h o o l E n g l i s h .
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B.
PERIODICAL ARTICLES
A n d e r s o n , E a r l W., f,The T e a c h in g L o a d -o f t h e B e g in n e r i n
H igh S c h o o l , ” E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h B u l l e t i n , 7 5 2 8 0 - 1 ,
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B a k e r , H. L e ig h , " C l a s s S i z e Does Make a D i f f e r e n c e , ”
The N a t i o n ’ s S c h o o l s . 1 7 : 2 7 - 8 , F e b r u a r y , 1936Brown, E . J . , ”Some F a c t o r s i n M e a su rin g T e a c h e r L o a d ,”
E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n l s t r a t l o n and S u p e r v i s i o n . 1 7 :4 7 - 6 4 ,
J a n u a r y , 1931*
65
B u l l e t i n t o S e n i o r H ig h S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s . A u g u st 13,
~ 194-0C a r r , W illia m G ., 11A New Angle o f A t t a c k Needed i n C l a s s
S i z e R e s e a r c h , ” N a t i o n ’ s S c h o o l s , 1 0 :2 7 - 3 0 , November,
1932.
v
-
■
- ......................................................................
C r o f o o t , M ., “Amount o f Time S p e n t I n S c h o o l , Week i n
Terms o f P u p i l Hours and T e a c h in g H o u rs , ” E d u c a t i o n a l
A d m l n l s t r a t i o n an d S u p e r v i s i o n , 1 7 • 4 4 5 - 5 2 , . Septem be r ,
1 9 3 1 .............................
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D o u g l a s s , H. R . , “M e a s u r in g th e T e a c h e r L o a d , “ B u l l e t i n
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M a rc h , 1 9 3 4 , p p . 152-9*
________ , “ The P r o f e s s i o n a l Load i n t h e S e c o n d a ry S c h o o ls
o f I o w a , “ S c h o o l R eview , 4 3 : 4 2 8 - 3 3 , J u n e , 1935E l i a s s e n , R. H ., “ The T e a c h e r and E x t r a - C u r r i c u l a r
A c t i v i t i e s , ” S c h o o l Review , 4 0 : 3 6 4 - 7 1 , May, 1932.
G ro v e s , J* W ., “D i s t r i b u t i o n o f th e Time o f H igh S c h o o l
T e a c h e r s i n C a l i f o r n i a , ” The A m erican S c h o o l B oard
J o u r n a l , 6 7 : 4 8 - 5 0 , November, 1923*
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Harwood, T. G ., “S t a n d a r d s o f O th e r R e g io n a l A s s o c i a t i o n s
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f f e ig e s , J . T . , "Bow Many and What S u b j e c t s S h o u ld a High
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S c h o o l R e v iew , 3 0 : 2 8 6 - 9 9 , A p r i l , 1 930.
H o tz , H. G . , “ T re n d s i n th e D evelopm ent o f S e c o n d a ry
S c h o o ls ,” N o rth C e n tr a l A s s o c ia tio n Q u a r te r ly .
1 0 :2 8 7 - 9 7 , J a n u a r y , 1936.
________ , “F iv e Y e a r T re n d s i n t h e D evelo pm en t o f N o rth
C e n t r a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f High S c h o o l s , 1 9 3 0 - 1 9 3 5 ,”
N o rth C e n tr a l A s s o c ia tio n Q u a r te r ly , 1 0 :4 1 2 - 2 1 ,.A p r il,
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Hudson, P . W ., “A N e g l e c t e d F a c t o r i n T e a c h in g L o a d ,”
S c h o o l R ev iew . 4 0 : 1 9 2 - 2 0 3 , M arch, 1932.
H u tso n , E a r l , “ H igh S c h o o l T e a c h e r s o f t h e S o c i a l S t u d i e s , ”
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L o ad : A n a l y s i s and C o m pariso n o f V a r io u s M e th o d s ,”
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P o t t h o f f , Edward F . , “S i m p l i f y i n g t h e C o m b in a tio n s o f
S u b j e c t s A s s ig n e d t o High S c h o o l T e a c h e r s , ” U n i v e r s i t y
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T e a c h e r b e . P r e p a r e d t o T e a c h , ” P eab o dy J o u r n a l o f
E d u c a t i o n . 4 : 1 9 5 - 2 0 7 , J a n u a r y , 1927*
S a u p e ; E t h e l M ., and H. R. D o u g la s s , “ The P r o f e s s i o n a l
Load o f T e a c h e r s i n t h e S e c o n d a r y .S c h o o l s o f I o w a ,”
S c h o o l R e v iew . 4 3 : 4 2 8 - 3 3 , J u n e , 1935*
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„
. . . .
S tem m etz, K a th r y n S . , " D e p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n i n th e J u n i o r
High S c h o o ls o f C h i c a g o , ” S c h o o l R ev iew . D ecem ber,
1 9 3 2 , pp* 7 6 0 - 7 1 .
S t e v e n s o n , P . R . , " S m a l l e r C l a s s e s o r L a r g e r : A S tu d y o f
t h e R e l a t i o n s h i p o f C l a s s S i z e t o th e E f f i c i e n c y o f
T e a c h i n g , ” J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n R eview . M onograph
No. 4 . B lo o m in g to n , I l l i n o i s : P u b l i c S c h o o l
P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1923*
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3 6 : 2 3 6 r 7 , A u g u st 2 0 , 1932.
67
T e r r y , P a u l ¥ ♦ , ’’C o o p e r a t i o n o f T e a c h e r A d v i s e r s : E x t r a C u r r i c u l a r A c t i v i t i e s , ” T w enty- F i f t h Y earb oo k o f th e
N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r t h e ,8 t u d y o f E d u c a t i o n * 1926.
F a r t I I , C h a p te r IX.
The R u le s and R e g u l a t i o n s o f th e B o ard o f E d u c a t i o n .
D i v i s i o n IX , S e n i o r H igh S c h o o l s , A u g u s t. 1936.
T r i t t , W. W ., and M. M. K ey e s, " E s t a b l i s h i n g T e a c h e r Load
by Means o f S u b j e c t C o e f f i c i e n t , " N a t i o n ’ s S c h o o l s ,
5 :6 1 - 5 , A p r i l , 1930.
U n z i c k e r , S . P . , "A S tu d y o f T e a c h in g Loads i n J u n i o r High
S c h o o ls i n W i s c o n s i n , ” S c h o o l R ev iew , 3 7 :1 3 6 - 4 1 ,
F eb ru ary , 1929*
;
W e t z e l , W illia m A . , " L a rg e Group I n s t r u c t i o n , ” S c h o o l
R eview , 3 9 : 2 8 8 - 9 2 , A p r i l , -1931*
A m s m ix
69
aJ
*H
Show duties of each period from ar;rival to departure. Give the general elassification of the pupils, subj act, munber of the course, and enrollment of each class,
Include regist ry and study hall enrollments. if any.
Reg.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Work or activity
with pupils
before or
after school
8
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
E-« 3
Teg. Pds.
Per week
©
Length of
Rec. Pd.
Teachers*
names
Department of
Teacher
departs
School
, Principal
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