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THE RELATION OF SELECTED STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL MEASURES TO SUCCESS IN COLLEGE ATHELETICS

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The r e l a t i o n o f s e l e c t e d s t r u c t u r a l
,D5
and f u n c t i o n a l m easures to success in
co lleg e a t h l e t i c s . . .
Nev.- Y o r k , 1942.
v ii,1 7 5 ty p e w ritte n leaves.
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A84 391
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TH IS D I S S E R T A T I O N H A S B E E N M I C R O F I L M E D EX A C T L Y AS R E C E IV E D .
Thesis accepted
/ > '7
THE HEUTIQN OF SELECTED STHUCTUBAL AND
FUNCTIONAL MEASURES TO SUCCESS IN
COLLEGE ATHLETICS
Vincent Di Giovanna
Submitted in p a r t i a l f u lf illm e n t o f the
requirem ents fo r the degree o f Doctor o f
Philosophy in the School o f E ducation o f
New York U n iv e rs ity
1942
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study.
To a l l o f them he *vishes t o e x p r e n - h i s n p p r e c i a t i o n *
The i n v e s t i g a t o r i s d e e p ly i n d e b t e d t o h i s
Lloyd,
sponsor,
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Tor h i s p a i n s t a k i n g c r i t i c i s m s and h e l p f u l s u g g e s t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t
the
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S o u t h e r n I l l i n o i s Normal U n i v e r s i t y .
It
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p r o f i t thereby.
A84391
ii
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TABLE OE COITTERTS
ihapter
I
Topic
The P u r p o s e o f the S t u d y ....................................
Page
1
Statement o f the P r o b l e m ......................................................................... 1
Si r i f i c r n c e of t h e P r o b l e m .................................................................. 2
II
h i s t o r i c a l Review...............................................................................................4
H i s t o r i c « l Survey o f T a i n t e d I n v e r t ! a r t i o n s ............................ 4
The R e l a t i o n o f Body S t r u c t u r e t o A t h l e t i c
Succe ....................................................................................................... 5
The R e l a t i o n o f M u s c u l a r S t r e n g t h and Power
t o A t h l e t i c S u c c e s s ..............
20
The d e l a t i o n o f M u s c u l a r S t r e n g t h to A t h l e t i c
Succe bo................................................................................................22
The R e l a ti o n o f Power t o A t h l e t i c Succe go......................41
Summary...........................
51
III
The P r o c e d u r e ..................................................................................................... 52
The S e l e c t i o n of t h e S t r u c t u r a l and E u n c t i o n a l
Ilea pure ................
l .................. 52
The S e l e c t i o n o f S t r u c t u r a l M e a s u r e s ...................................... 52
The S e l e c t i o n o f S t r e n g t h l ! e a s u r e r ........................................ . 5 5
The Sele ct,i on o f Power ilea s u r e ....................
.56
The S u b j e c t s ................................................................................................... 56
Group A...........................................
56
Group B .
................................................................................... 57
Group C..........................................................................................................57
Anthropometi’i c I n s t r u m e n t s and Equipment Used
i n t h e S t u d y . . . . ..................................................................................... 58
O r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e E x a m i n a t i o n . . . . . .
............... . . . . . 5 9
A n a l y s i s of B a t a . . . . ........................................
62
IV
R e l a t i o n o f S t r u c t u r a l and E u n c t i o n a l Measures t o
Success i n S p e c i f i c S p o r t s .......................................
66
R e l i a b i l i t y of th e T e s t s ....................................................................... 66
O b j e c t i v i t y o f th e T e s t s ....................................................................... 68
R e l a t i o n o f the Measures t o S u cc es s i n S p e c i f i c
Sport ............................................................................................................71
Summary. ...............
105
iii
C hapter
V
T o p ic
Summary r n d C o n c l u s i o n s ................................................
Page
106
G e n e r a l Summary...................................................................................
106
Summary o f R e s u l t s ..................................................................................... 108
Con c l u s i on s ................. ................................................................................ .. 109
VI
D i s c u s s i o n and R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s .................................
Bibliography
..........................................................................
Ap pendix. ..................................................................
iv
110
110
11?
LIST OP TABLES, LIAGRAMS, FIGURES, AI'TD PLATES
Ta bl e
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X
XI
XII
XIII
XIV
XV
XVI
XVII
XVIII
XIX
T itle
Ps£e
Summery of F a c t o r A n a l y s i s S t u d i e s I n d i c a t i n g F a c t o r s
I nv ol v ed i n Su cce ss in P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n A c t i v i t i e s ...............21
S t r e n g t h I n d i c e s o f C e r t a i n Groups - R o g e r s ’ L a t a
........... ?6
Summary of F a c t o r A n a l y s i s S t u d i e s I n d i c a t i n g Zer o- Or der
C o r r e l a t i o n Between V a r i o u s M e a s u r e s o f S t r e n g t h
40
and A t h l e t i c A b i l i t y ..............................
Summary of F a c t o r A n a l y s i s S t u d i e s I n d i c a t i n g Zer o- O rd er
C o r r e l a t i o n s Between Power a s Measured "by t h e Sargent
Lump and Va rio us M ea s ur es o f A t h l e t i c A b i l i t y .................................. 50
Summary o f Recent E x p e r i m e n t s I n d i c a t i n g F r e q u e n c y o f
Occurrence o f S t r u c t u r a l M ea su re s S e l e c t e d f o r
I n v e s t i g a t i o n .......................................................................................................... 54
R e l i a b i l i t y o f the T e s t s ...........................................
67
O b j e c t i v i t y o f the T e s t s ......................................................................................69
S i g n i f i c a n c e o f Mean L i f - e r e n c e s Between Group A
A t h l e t i c Groups and the Fo rmal Group i n S t r u c t u r a l
and F u n c t i o n a l M ea s u r em e n ts ..........................................................................79
M a r i t i m e o f L i f f e r e n c e s Bet we en Group A A t h l e t i c
Groups and t h e Normal Group i n S t r u c t u r a l and
F u n c t i o n a l Measurement ................................................................................. . 3 0
Magnitude of L i f f e r e n c e s Between Group 3 A t h l e t i c
Groups and t h e Normal Group i n S t r u c t u r a l and
F u n c t i o n a l Measurement s. . . . . . ...................................................................8?
Magnitude of L i f f e r e n c e s Between t h e Normal Group
and th e Gymnasts o f Groups A and C in S t r u c t u r a l
and F u n c t i o n a l Meas urem en ts.
.................................................................. 91
Summary o f R e s u l t s I n d i c a t i n g t h e M agnitude o f
L i f f e r e n c e s Between Groun A A t h l e t i c Groups end
t h e Normal Group i n S t r u c t u r a l and F u n c t i o n a l
Measurement s .
................
104
Leg Length L a t a ...........................
118
S i m i f i c a n c e o f Mean L i f f e r e n c e s Between Group A
and Group 3 A t h l e t i c Groups ir . S t r u c t u r a l and
Fun ct i onal Me a sure m e n t s .................................................................................119
Means and Standard L e v i a t i o n s o f Groups Used i n
L e t e r m i n i n g O b j e c t i v i t y ° “Ue M e a s u r e s ...........................................120
S t a n d a r d E r r o r s - Group A..................
1?1
Sta n da rd E r r o r s - Group 3 ................................................................................ 125
S t a n d a r d F.rrors - Group C......................................................................... . . . 1 2 3
Bank Order Arrangement o f t h e S t a n d a r d S c o r e s o f
S u c c e s s f u l B a s e b a l l P l a y e r s i n Group A i n
S t r u c t u r a l and F u n c t i o n a l M ea s u r e m e n ts ........................................... . 1?3
v
Ta ble
XX
XXI
XXII
XXIII
XXIV
XXV
XXVI
XXVII
XXVIII
XXIX
XXX
XXXI
XXXII
XXXIII
XXXIV
XXXV
T itle
P age
Rank Order A rr an ge me n t o f t h e S t a n d a r d Sco res o f
S u c c e s s f u l B a s k e t b a l l P l a y e r s i n Group A in
S t r u c t u r a l and F u n c t i o n a l M easurem ent ......................................... 133
Bank Order A rr an ge m en t o f t h e S t a n d a rd Scores o f
S u c c e s s f u l F o o t b a l l Backs i n 'Group A in
S t r u c t u r a l and F u n c t i o n a l M eas ur em en ts .................
134
Bank Order A rr an g em en t o f t h e S t a n d a r d Scores o f
S u c c e s s f u l F o o t b a l l Linemen i n Group A inSt r u c t u r e l and v un ct i on s i Me a s ur e men t s ......................................... 135
Bank Order A r ra n g em en t o f t h e S ta n d a rd Scores of
S u c c e s s f u l Gymnasts i n Group A i n S t r u c t u r a l
and F u n c t i o n a l M e a s u r e m e n ts ....................
130
Rank Order A rr an g em en t o f t h e S t a n d a r d Sc or es of
S u c c e s s f u l T e n n i s P l a y e r s i n Group A i n
S t r u c t u r a l end. F u n c t i o n e l Measurements .................
....1 3 7
Rank Order A rr an g em en t of t h e S ta nd a rd Scores o f
S u c c e s s f u l T r a c k and F i e l d A t h l e t e s i n Group A
i n S t r u c t u r a l and F u n c t i o n a l M e a s u r e m e n t s . . . . ........................133
Rank Order A r ra n g em en t of t h e S t a n d a rd Sc ore s o f
S u c c e s s f u l Shot and D i s c u s Thro-rers i n Group A
in S t r u c t u r a l an d F u n c t i o n a l Measurements............................ . . 1 3 9
Rank Order Ar ran gem ent of t h e S ta n d a rd Scores of
S u c c e s s f u l O n e- S p or t A t h l e t e s i n Group A in
S t r u c t u r a l end F u n c t i o n a l M easurements ........................................140
Rank Order A rr an g em en t of t h e S t a n d a rd Sc ores of
S u c c e s s f u l T<.yo-Sport A t h l e t e s i n Group A i n
S t r u c t u r a l and F u n c t i o n a l Mp --.curenent ......................................... 141
Bank Order A rr an ge me n t o f th e S ta n d a rd Score® o f
S u c c e s s f u l T h r e e —Sp or t A t h l e t e s i n Group A in
S t r u c t u r a l and F u n c t i o n a l Measurement ......................................... 143
Rank Order Ar ran gem ent o f th e S t a n d a rd Scores of
S u c c e s s f u l B a s e b a l l P l a y e r s i n Group B in
S t r u c t u r a l and F u n c t i onal Measurement ......................................... 145
Rank Ord-r A rr ang em ent o f t h e Sta nd ard Scores o f
S u c c e s s f u l 3 a. sk o tb e.i l P l a y e r s i n Group 3 in
S t r u c t u r a l and F u n c t i o n a l Measurement ......................................... 147
Rank Order A r r a n g e m e n t rr t h e Sta nd ard Sc ores of
Su cc es sf u l F o o t b a l l Backs i n Group 3 i n
S t r u c t u r a l and F u n c t i onal Measurement s. . ..................
..143
Rank Order A rr an ge m en t o f t h e S ta n da rd Score® of
S u c c e s s f u l F o o t b a l l Linemen i n Group B i n
S t r u c t u r a l and F u n c t i o n a l Me asurements .........................................149
Rank Order A r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e Sta n da rd Scores o f
S u c c e s s f u l T e n n i s P l a y e r s i n Group B in
S t r u c t u r a l and F u n c t i o n a l Meas urem en ts .............................. . . . . . 1 5 0
Rank Order A rr an ge me n t
t h e S t a n d a r d S cor es of
S u c c e s s f u l T r a c k and F i e l d A t h l e t e s i n Group 3
i n S t r u c t u r a l a n d F u n c t i o n a l Measurements.................................151
vi
T ab le
XZVrj
XXXVII
XXXVIII
XXXIX
XL
Blaaran
1
p
3
4
5
f ig u r e
1
?
7
Plate
1
T itle
Page
Rank Order Arrangement o f the S t a n d a r d S co r es
o f S u c c e s s f u l Shot and D isc us Throwers i n
Grout) 3 i n S t r u c t u r a l and f u n c t i o n a l
. 15 .?
Measurement s ................................................ ...........................
Sank Order Arrangement o f the S ta n da rd S co r es oj
S u c c e s s f u l One-Sport A t h l e t e s i n Group 3
i n S t r u c t u r a l and f u n c t i o n a l M eas ur em en ts. . • • «
Rank Order Arrangement o f the S t a n d a r d S c o r e s of
S u c c e s s f u l Two-Sport A t h l e t e s i n Group B
i n S t r u c t u r a l and f u n c t i o n a l Measurements..........
1 • 1 hi
Rank Order Arrangement o f the Sta n d ard S co re s
o f S u c c e s s f u l T h r ee - Sp o^ t A t h l e t e s i n Group 3
,155
i n S t r u c t u r a l and f u n c t i o n a l Measurements..........
h a n k Order Arrangement of the Stand ard S c o r e s o f
S u c c e s s f ’!1 Gm nr
in Groun C i n S t r u c t u r a l
and f u n c t i o n a l Measurements......................................................... 156
T itle
3 ago
Magnitude of "d if f e r e n c e s Between Group A A t h l e t i c
Groups and th e Normal Group i n S t r u c t u r a l and
f u n c t i o n a l Measurement .....................................................................P!
Magnitude of D i f f e r e n c e s Between Group 3 A t h l e t i c
Groups and the Hormol Group i n S t r u c t u r a l and
f u n c t i onal Me n s u r e a e n t s .....................................................................S3
Magnitude o f D i f f e r e n c e . ' Between t h e Xo-nral Group
and the Gymnasts o f Groups A and C i n S t r u c t u r a l
and f u n c t i on al Me a sure men t s .
.................................................. 92
S t a n d a r d S c t b D i s t r i h u t i o n s and I n d i c e s of
S i g n i f i c a n c e of Group A A t h l e t i c Groups i n
I n d i v i d u a l S t r u c t u r a l and f u n c t i o n a l Measurement e . • .1 2 9
S t a n d a r d Score D i r t r i h u t i o n e and I n d i c e s o f
S i g n i f i c a n c e of Group 3 A t h l e t i c G^oivos i n
I n d i v i d u a l S t r u c t u r a l and f u n c t i o m l M e a s u r e m e n t s . . .143
Title
Page
A View o f t h e f x ar ni n a tio n Room w i t h I l l u s t r a t i o n s
o f V a r i o u s Me asuring T e c h n i q u e s .................................................. 61
Sample O r i e n t a t i o n Sheet Deed i n t h e B y a m i n o t i o n ............ .158
Sample. Bynrvi n a t i o n Record B l a n k .....................................................159
An A d d i t i o n a l Vie’" of the 3x a m in p ti o n Room ' f i t h
I l l u s t r a t i o n s o f V a r i o u s M e a s u r in g T e c h n i q u e s ................ 165
T itle
Page
I l l u s t r a t i o n s o f Var iou s Measuring T e c h n i q u e s .................... 170
v ii
CHAPTER I
THE PURPOSE OP THE STUDY
Statem ent o f th e Problem
The f a c t o r s which make f o r a t h l e t i c su ccess are in tr ig u in g and.
f a s c in a tin g and knowledge o f them I s o f fundam ental im portance to any
guidance program in p h y sic a l e d u c a tio n .
Prom a p ro fe s s io n a l stan d p o in t many f a c to r s may he recognized as
c o n tr ib u tin g , d ir e c tly o r i n d i r e c t l y , to p ro fic ie n c y in a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s .
I f th e e n t i r e gamut of th e se f a c to r s could he measured o b je c tiv e ly , th e
r e s u l t s would in th e ir summation in d ic a te th e p a tte r n s o r types o f in d iv id ­
u a ls who succeed o r f a i l in a t h l e t i c s .
However, the s u b tle n atu re of some
o f th e f a c t o r s and the g e n e ra l d i f f i c u l t i e s surro u n d in g experim ental work
m i l i t a t e a g a in s t the d isco v e ry of such d a ta .
P ro g re s s i s n e c e s s a rily slow
and p ie ce -m ea l in o rig in .
Of th e many f a c to rs involved in th e a b i l i t y to succeed in a t h l e t i c s
n o t th e l e a s t im portant appear to be th o se o f s k e le ta l s tr u c tu r e , muscular
s tr e n g th , and explosive power.
has been done.
Yet even h e re r e l a t iv e ly l i t t l e research
There i s need f o r much f u r t h e r in v e s tig a tio n i f the many
gaps in o u r u n d erstan d in g o f th e r e l a t iv e im portance of these f a c to rs are
to be f i l l e d .
S c ie n tif ic d a ta must re p la c e s p e c u la tiv e judgem ents.
The purpose o f th is study i s to add to the knowledge o f the re la tio n *
sh ip o f th e s e f a c to r s to su ccess in c o lle g e a t h l e t i c s .
The problem is
5
2
to determ ine th e r e l a t i o n o f s e le c te d s tr u c t u r a l and fu n c tio n a l m easures
to success in each o f s e v e ra l s p o rts , namely, b a s e b a ll, b a s k e tb a ll, fo o t­
b a l l , gym nastics, te n n is , and tra c k and f i e l d , and to a s c e rta in i f th e re
are p a tte r n s o r com binations o f th ese measures which are a sso c ia te d w ith
such success.
In t h i s study th e term a t h le te in d ic a te s an in d iv id u a l who i s a
member of a v a r s ity s p o rt t r a v e l l i n g squad;* s tr u c tu r a l measures r e f e r to
a group of s k e le ta l and g i r t h measurements of the human body; and fu n c tio n ­
a l measures are in te r p r e te d in terms o f m uscular stre n g th and power, in
which stre n g th i s thought o f a s the a b i l i t y o f the major muscle groups to
overcome re s is ta n c e as m easured by dynamometers, and power as the e f f e c tiv e
speed a p p lic a tio n o f t h i s s tre n g th as suggested by the mechanical p r in c ip le
th a t power eq u als fo rce tim e s v e lo c ity .
S ignificance of the Problem
One o f the major p u rp o se s o f measurement in p h y sica l education i s the
improvement o f in s tr u c tio n through th e medium o f a b e tt e r guidance program,
a program which i s bo th s u f f i c i e n t l y s c i e n t i f i c to d isco v er the needs, the
p o t e n t i a l i t i e s , and th e i n t e r e s t s of the in d iv id u a l and s u f f ic ie n tly e l a s t i c
to provide opp o rtu n ity f o r ex p ressio n in s u ita b le a c t iv it y .
The need f o r
such a program i s c le a r ly f e l t in to d a y 's c r i t i c a l hours when so much
emphasis is being p laced on th e p h y sic a l e f fic ie n c y , the mental hygiene,
and the morale o f the p eo p le a s e s s e n tia l s fo r n a tio n a l defense.
The
c o n trib u tio n s o f a w ell a d m in iste re d program o f p h y sical education to th e
development o f these a t t r i b u t e s may be r e a d ily recogpized.
*
The tim es,
That s e le c t group o f in d iv id u a ls which re p re s e n ts the in s t i t u t i o n in
out-of-tow n a t h l e t i c co m p etitio n .
3
however, m erely serv e to a ccen tu ate a need which should always command
serio u s a t t e n t i o n .
Any in fo rm atio n , th e re fo re , which w ill serve to make
th is phase o f o u r ed u catio n more s c ie n ti f i c and more e f f i c i e n t than in th e
p ast i s h ig h ly d e s ir a b le .
In th e f i e l d today one can f in d several e x c e lle n t t e s t s o f g e n e ra l
a t h le tic a b i l i t y and many more t e s t s o f achievement in s p e c ific s p o rts based
on th e s k i l l s in v o lv e d th e r e in , but nowhere, except to a lim ite d d eg ree, i s
th e re to be found any group o f raw measures used as p r e d ic to rs of a b i l i t y
in s p e c ific s p o r ts .
Inasmuch as the raw s tr u c tu r a l and fu n c tio n a l m easures
se le c te d f o r t h i s experim ent are commonly claim ed to be a s so c ia te d w ith
success in s p e c if ic a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s , i t seems advisable to determ ine
i f such claim s a re v a lid by d isco v erin g the e x te n t to which those who are
successful in th e se a c t i v i t i e s tend to have d iffe re n c e s from th e o rd in a ry
e x p e c ta tio n , o r to become a ty p ic a l, and the e x te n t to which they p re s e n t
p a tte rn s o f asymmetry in th e se f a c to r s .
S ig n ific a n t fin d in g s would in d ic a te
means whereby th e guidance program in p h y sic a l education might be f a c i l ­
ita t e d as w e ll a s pro v id e p o in ts of dep artu re fo r probable fu tu re r e s e a rc h .
0
CHAPTER I I
HISTORICAL REVIEW
H is to r ic a l Survey of R elated In v e stig a tio n s
While the o r ig in o f th e science of anthropom etry i s shrouded in the
a n tiq u ity o f th e an cien t c iv iliz a tio n s o f In d ia
1
and Egypt,
2
i t was not
u n t i l the re v o lu tio n a ry works of Q p etelet, which were p u b lish e d in 1835,
th a t i t a c q u ired i t s name and took on the appearance of th e science as we
know i t to d ay .
The e a r l i e r emphasis had been c e n te re d in th e attem pt to
e s ta b lis h a canon of p ro p o rtio n o f the id e a l human body, u s in g some one
s tr u c tu r a l elem ent as a measuring ro d .^
Q p e te le t, however, broadened the
scope o f th e f i e l d to in clu d e not only a study o f the physique o f man, but
5
h is l i f e expectancy, s tre n g th , a g i lity , and o th e r p h y s ic a l f a c to r s .
These
o r ig in a l works o f Q petelet are the in s p ir in g source o f most of our p re se n t
day re se a rc h r e l a t iv e to the stru c tu re and fu n ctio n o f the human body and
g
i t s f it n e s s f o r perform ance in a th le tic a c t i v i t i e s .
1.
E. H itchcock, Method o f P hysical Measurement. American A sso c ia tio n f o r
the Advancement o f P h y sical E ducation, (1886).
2.
J . W. Seaver, Anthropometry and P h y sical Exam ination, p . 10.
3.
I b id . . p . 11.
4.
R. T. McKenzie, The Quest for Eldorado, American P h y sic a l Education
Review. XVIII (May, 1913), pp. 296-297.
5.
E. M a illy , Eulogy on Q uetelet, Annual Report o f th e Board o f Regents
o f th e Smithsonian I n s t i t u t i o n . (1874), pp. 180-181.
6.
McKenzie, pp. p i t . , pp. 299-300.
5
The B elatlon o f Body S tru c tu r e to A th le tic Success
Most a u th o r itie s have agreed t h a t "body p ro p o rtio n s influence a th le tic
perform ance, yet th e re is c o n sid e rab le divergence o f opinion as to the
r e la tiv e importance o f the v ario u s s t r u c t u r a l elem ents to success in
s p e c ific a c t i v i t i e s .
The s itu a tio n has n o t "been c l a r i f i e d to any n o tic e ­
able e x ten t by a c tu a l in v e s tig a tio n .
In 1887 D. A. Sargent reported^- one o f th e e a r l i e s t s c ie n tif ic attem pts
to show the a sso cia tio n between body b u ild and a d a p ta b ility in various sp o rts.
From th e measurements of 2300 H arvard s tu d e n ts , 600 o f whom were c la s s if ie d
as a th l e t e s , norms were e s ta b lis h e d f o r a t h l e t i c and n o n -a th le tic groups.
By means o f a diagram atic comparison o f averages a s u p e rio r ity in several
d ire c tio n s was in d icated fo r the a t h l e t i c c la s s .
The conclusions were held
to be te n ta tiv e , because i t was f e l t t h a t th e a d d itio n or su b tra c tio n of a
few a t h l e t i c s p e c ia lis ts might have a l t e r e d the r e s u l t s .
Sargent h o ld s,
however, t h a t there i s a development p e c u lia r to th e runner, jumper, gymnast,
fo o tb a ll p la y e r, and baseb all p la y e r which can be e a s ily reco g iized and
proves h is p o in t in p a rt by comparing o u tsta n d in g a t h le te s to the e s ta b lis h ­
ed norms.
The r e s u lts show th a t th e ty p ic a l sh o rt d ista n c e runner i s
c h a ra c te riz e d by lo n g le g s, a sh o rt body, a f u l l c h e s t, and small bones.
The long d ista n c e runner has a b ro ad , deep, and mobile c h e s t.
The h u rd le r
has a small chest, i s ra th e r t a l l , and h a s th e advantage o f short le g s ,
long th ig h s, and a comparatively s h o rt body.
The broad jumper is p ic tu re d
w ith a deep ch est, broad w a ist, and w ell-d ev elo p ed th ig h s , le g s , and g lu te a l
m uscles.
1.
The pole v a u lte r has s h o rt arm s, and a c h e s t and shoulders which
The P h y sical C h a ra c te ristic s o f the A th le te , Scribner* a Magazine. II
(July-D ee ember 1887), pp. 541-561.
6
are d is tin c tiv e o f the gym nast.
The f o o tb a ll linem an i s d is tin g u is h e d by
a long body, sh o rt th ig h . l a r g e b ones, f u l l c h e s t, short upper arm, and fin e
muscular development th ro u ^ io u t th e whole physique.
ty p ic a l o f b aseo all p la y e r s .
Lack o f eh est depth is
Some b a s e b a ll p la y e r s are f u r th e r marked by
g reat neck g ir th , broad w a i s ts , and very sh o rt upper arms.
Sargent sta te d *
th a t the p hysical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which have been found p e c u lia r to d if f e r e n t
types o f a th le te s have in a m easure been acq u ired by long and arduous p r a c tic e
in t h e i r re sp e ctiv e s p o rts .
He added, however, th a t in many cases the s p e c ia l
q u a lific a tio n s th a t make a man a f i r s t - c l a s s a th l e t e are g i f t s o f n a tu r e .
p
Bemies rep o rted a somewhat s im ila r study in which th e averaged measure­
ments o f fiv e o u tstan d in g Jum pers and ru n n ers were compared w ith p re v io u sly
derived norms of o th e r u n i v e r s i t y s tu d e n ts .
He b eliev ed th e re i s a ty p e fo r
each c la s s of a th le te s and a n o th e r f o r th e average man, and s ta te d t h a t the
sp e cia l a th le te i s out o f p r o p o r tio n , n o t so much in the g ir th s as in th e
bony s tru c tu re .
He concluded^ t h a t th e ru n n er and jumper i s about two
Inches t a l l e r than the average and f o r h i s h e ig h t h as lo n g er le g s , a s h o rte r
body, an e x tra long arm span, and a eh est which i s deeper in p ro p o rtio n to
i t s w idth; th a t while h i s s h o u ld e rs and h ip s a re narrow, he has a g r e a te r
g irth o f h ip and w aist, and a s m a lle r g i r t h o f arm, thigh, and c a lf , th e
l a t t e r f a l li n g considerably below av erag e.
Bemies fu rth e r s ta te d , " a l l of
these v a ria tio n s o f bo d ily s t r u c t u r e , w ithout ex cep tio n , give t h e i r p o sse sso r
a marked s u p e rio rity in a t h l e t i c s o v er h i s fe llo w who is b u i l t in the normal •
p ro p o rtio n s."*
1.
I b i d . , p. 559.
2.
C. 0. Bemies, P h y sical C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f th e Hunner and Jumper, Aib* h « ^
P hysical Education R eview . T (Septem ber, 1900), pp. 235-245.
3.
^ b i ^ . , p . 245.
4.
Loc. e l t .
,;.f
7
L a te r, th e S o ciety o f D ire c to rs o f P h y sic a l E ducation in C olleges seek­
in g to c re a te a s ta tu e whose measurements would re p re s e n t th e id e a l American
s tu d e n t a th le te o b ta in e d the average p ro p o rtio n s o f 400 p ic k e d a t h l e te s .
I t was found t h a t t h i s id e a l b u ild ranked about f i f t e e n p e r c e n t l a r g e r in
most re sp e c ts th a n t h a t o f th e average in d iv id u a l.
In th e p u r s u i t o f an answer to the question o f s u i t a b i l i t y of body b u ild
f o r s p e c ia l p h y s ic a l a c t i v i t y , Mumford2 conducted a study w ith 524 M anchester
Grammar School boys between th e ages of fo u rte e n and s ix te e n in which each
was c l a s s i f i e d a c c o rd in g to th e sp o rt in which he p a r tic ip a te d m ost.
The
r e s u l t s o f th e s tu d y , w hile n o t co n clu siv e , seemed to j u s t i f y f u r th e r in ­
q u iry and an a d d itio n a l group was in v e s tig a te d , c o n s is tin g o f 84 boys over
seventeen y e a r s o f age who e x c e lle d in the s p o rts involved, nam ely, c r ic k e t,
f o o tb a ll , g y m n astics, la c r o s s e , swimming, and tr a c k .
The most s i& ilf lc a n t
fin d in g s showed t h a t , "In a l l forms o f p h y sic a l prowess good p ro p o rtio n s o f
e h e s t were d i s t i n c t l y in ev id en ce; la rg e shoulder g ir th a lso predom inated,
ex cep t in swimmers, where a medium p ro p o rtio n o f sh o u ld er g i r t h , whose
g ra d in g i s p erh ap s in some degree due to a lo n g tru n k , was more common.
The
h i go. p ro p o rtio n o f u p p e r- and fo re-arm g ir th in d ic a te d throughout i s , of
c o u rse, a sig n o f h ig h range o f m uscular developm ent."
3
Schmidt and K o h lran sch ,^ German p h y s io lo g is ts , approached the problem
o f th e body b u i l d from th e p o in t o f view of th re e ty p e s, the a s th e n ic , th e
1.
R. T. McKenzie, The Quest f o r Eldorado, American P h y sic a l Education
Review. X TIII (May, 1913), pp. 300-301.
2.
A. A. Mumford, Types o f Body B u ild and T h e ir R e la tio n to S p ecial A p titu d e s
and C a p a c itie s , J o u rn a l o f Hygiene. XXX (April-Novem ber, 1930), pp. 490504.
3.
4.
, pp. 503—504.
P. A. Schm idt, and W. K ohlrauseh, Physiology o f E x e rc is e .
8
p y k n ic , and th e a t h l e t i c types.
The a s th e n ic type in c lu d e s th e very t a l l ,
narrow shouldered, f l a t ch ested , weakly m u scu latu red in d iv id u a ls ; th e pyknics,
a t th e o th e r extrem e, are the sh o rt people w ith v ig o ro u sly developed abdominal
c a v i t i e s ; and the a t h l e t i c or m uscular type f a l l between the two and are some­
tim es c a lle d th e w ell-p ro p o rtio n ed o r middle ty p e .
The d i f f i c u l t y w ith th is
•ft'.
co nception o f p o la r types l i e s in the f a c t t h a t i t im p lies a trim o d a lity of
d i s t r i b u t i o n which I s untrue to life .'* ’ Tor t h i s reaso n , the types f a i l to
be m utually e x c lu s iv e .
Schmidt and K ohlrausch them selves, experienced
d i f f i c u l t y in d isc rim in a tin g between th e ty p e s when, in f u r t h e r d e s c rip tio n ,
th e y p o in te d out th a t a th le te s and reco rd h o ld e rs a re fre q u e n tly found among
o
th e pyknics and a s th e n ic s.
The s itu a tio n became fu rth e r confusing, b u t none th e l e s s s ig n if ic a n t,
when th ey s ta te d t h a t , in th e ir exam inations o f prom inent a th le te s , they
found t h a t evexy sp o rt re q u ire s a d e f in ite body b u ild .
They p o in te d out
3
t h a t th e weight man i s powerful and o f m assive b u ild ; th e long d ista n c e runner
i s sm all, w ith lo n g leg s and vexy slen d e r m u scu latu re; th e middle d ista n c e
ru n n er i s d ecid ed ly slen d er, with a lo n g tru n k and long le g s ; the s p rin te r
does n o t conform to any s p e c ific type; the h i ^ i jump s p e c i a l is t i s exceeding­
ly t a l l and s le n d e r, but freq u en tly the t a l l and broad ty p e a lso a t t a i n a
good re c o rd ; th e gymnast i s sh o rt, and has b ro ad sh o u ld ers and narrow h ip s,
m arkedly developed arm and shoulder m uscles, and com paratively l i g h t le g s;
th e m a jo rity o f b a sk e tb a ll and f o o tb a ll p la y e r s a r e of medium h e ig h t; end
1.
W. H. Sheldon, S. S. Stevens, and W. B. T ucker, The V a r ie tie s o f Human
P hy siq u e. An In tro d u ctio n to C o n s titu tio n a l Psychology, p. 25.
2.
Schmidt and Zohlrausch, £|>. c i t . , pp. 197-198.
3.
I b id . , p p 201—208.
]
9
th e all-a ro u n d a th le te is r a t h e r l a r g e , "broad shouldered, and narrow hipped.
The two authors added th a t, w hile e r e iy sp o rt r e q u ire s a d e f in ite body "build,
outward appearances are not th e so le c r i te r i o n .
They granted th a t "the
a b i l i t y of attainm ent i s dependent upon a very la r g e number of combined
c h a r a c te r is tic s ." *
I r e i t i n g e r 2 studied body form and the a t h l e t i c achievement of some
3000 Munich high school boys from th e ages of te n and o n e-half to twenty.
Eleven s tr u c tu r a l elements and f iv e achievem ent ev en ts were included in the
stu d y .
The ev en ts were the 6 0 -m eter s p r i n t , sta n d in g broad jump, running
h ig h jump, b aseb a ll throw f o r d is ta n c e , and p u ttin g the 1000 grams medicine
b a ll.
A p o s itiv e c o rre la tio n was found between h e ig h t and sp rin tin g a b i l i t y
from age twelve through age sev en teen y e a rs and p r a c t ic a lly none before or
a f t e r those ages.
The broad jump and th e high jump also showed a moderate
p o s itiv e c o rre la tio n to h eig h t between tw elve and e ig h teen y e a rs.
No connec­
tio n was found between h eig h t o r le n g th o f arm and a b i l i t y to throw a base­
b a ll.
Zt was in d ic ated th a t h e ig h t and w eight were r e q u is ite s o f successful
w eight throwing.
The general c o n clu sio n was reached th a t individual s tru c ­
t u r a l t r a i t s "do not in d ic a te a m echanical or p h y s io lo g ic a l s ig iif ia n c e ;
r a t h e r , the t o t a l performance i s determ ined by th e p h y sio lo g ic a l age and the
c o n s titu tio n a l ty p e."
3
Cozens* stu d ied the r e l a t io n o f s ta tu r e to p h y sica l performance among
c o lle g e men and found d i s t i n c t d iff e r e n c e s in th e a b i l i t i e s of various
1.
I M d ., p . 201.
2.
Emil B re itin g e r, Body Form and A th le tic Achievement o f Youths, ( tr a n s ­
la te d from the German and condensed by E rn s t Thoma) Research Q u arterly .
VI (May, 1935), pp. 85-91.
3.
I b i d . . p . 90.
4.
P. ff. Cozens, A Study o f S ta tu re in R e la tio n to P h y sic a l Performance,
Research .Q uarterly. I (March, 1930), pp. 38-45.
10
s ta tu r e groups.
He d iv id ed a p o p u latio n o f approximately 4000 s u b je c ts i n ­
to th re e groups, t a l l , medium, and s h o rt, and f u r th e r su b-divided each in to
s le n d e r, medium, and heavy, making n in e c la s s e s in a l l .
On the b a s is o f
t h i s heig h t-w eig h t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n device, th e achievement reco rd s o f an
a d d itio n a l s ix hundred and one c ases were analysed in the twelve fo o t b ase­
b a ll throw, f o o tb a ll p u n t, d iv e f o r d is ta n c e , standing broad Jump, dip on
p a r a l l e l b ars, dodging, and q u a rte r-m ile run.
In general i t was shown th a t
sh o rt and slen d e r men a re m a te r ia lly i n f e r i o r in performance a b i l i t y .
In
s p e c ific ev en ts, th e fo llo w in g s ta tu r e groups proved superiors*
B aseball Throw-
Medium-Heavy w ith Tall-Medium and Tall-H eavy
a c lo s e second.
F ootball Punt
— T all-H eavy
Long D ive------------- — Medium-Heavy
Standing Broad Jump- Tall-Medium
Dip ------- -— - —— - Short-Medium
Dodging-— — Medium-Heavy and Short-Heavy
Q uarter-M ile—— — Tall-M edium and Medium-Heavy
Cozens concluded w ith the s ta te m e n t, " I t i s unquestionably tru e th a t th e re
are d is tin c t and r e a l d iff e r e n c e s between the general performance a b i l i t y of
p
a number of s ta t u r e groups."
A pioneer attem p t to c l a s s i f y boys f o r com petition in the sp o rt of
b a sk e to a ll on an age, h e ig h t, w eight b a s is was rep o rted by Schrock and
McCloy, ^ who in c lu d e d in t h e i r study f o r ty - th r e e in d iv id u a ls twelve y e a rs
of age and over.
C o rre la tio n s were derived between b a s k e tb a ll a b i l i t y , a s
r a te d by competent Judges, and age, h e i g h t and w eight.
Weight alone gave
as sa tisfa c to x y an index f o r th e p re d ic tio n o f b ask etb all a b i l i t y as d id any
1.
, p. 43.
2.
I b id . . p. 42.
3.
H. D. Schrock and C. H. McCloy, A Study o f the B est Combination o f Age,
H eight, and Weight f o r B a sk e tb a ll C la s s if ic a tio n , Jo u rn a l o f P h y sic a l
E ducation. XX7II (O cto b er, 1929), pp. 34-38.
11
com bination o f th e th re e f a c to r s .
Ia a l a t e r p u b lic a tio n McCloy s ta te s *
t h a t i t i s p o s s ib le th a t o th e r s tu d ie s would show h eig h t, as a more impor­
t a n t f a c to r th an had been in d ic a te d . Bookwalter s u b s ta n tia te s t h i s s ta t e 2
m ent, q u o ting an o r ig in a l unpublished study which p o in ts out t h a t those
s u c c e s s fu l in c o lle g e b a s k e tb a ll tend to be e it h e r ta ll- h e a v y o r tall-m edium
as measured by Cozens Height-W eight C la s s if ic a tio n .
'
—
T h is 3ame study fin d s weight to be an im portant s e le c tiv e f a c to r in the
d e te rm in a tio n o f c o lleg e f o o tb a ll squads inasmuch a s the m a jo rity of the
men stu d ie d proved to be e i t h e r ta ll-h e a v y o r medium-heavy. *" A ccording to
4
McCloy t h i s f a c t d id not hold tru e in W ells' unpublished study w ith high
school boys in which f o o tb a ll a b i l i t y c o rre la te d w ith ag e, h e ig h t, and'w eight
to th e e x te n t o f .4 5 2 , .1 0 5 , and ,106 re s p e c tiv e ly .
The d iff e r e n c e in the
age le v e ls inv o lv ed in th ese two s tu d ie s , as in the b a s k e tb a ll in v e s tig a tio n s ,
may account somewhat fo r t h e i r sharp lack of agreement.
Horace G ray 's in v e s tig a tio n ^ of the body b u ild of c o lle g e f o o tb a ll p lay ­
e r s showed by means o f a comparison of averages and the employment o f the
c r i t i c a l r a t i o technique t h a t "In young men of s im ila r a g e , r a c e , and econ­
omic s ta t u s , th e f o o tb a ll p la y e rs were la rg e r both in a b s o lu te measurements,
0
and a lso in th e same c h a r a c te r is tic s w ith s ta tu re kept c o n s ta n t."
Moreover,
1.
C. H. McCloy, T e sts and Measurements in H ealth and F h v s ic a l E ducation, p . 51.
2.
K. W. B ookw alter, A C r itic a l E valuation of the A p p lic a tio n o f Some of the
E x is tin g Means of C la s sify in g Boys fo r P h y sical E du catio n A c t i v i t i e s .
P . 38.
3.
I b id . . p . 67.
4.
McCloy, op. c i t . , p . 51
5.
Body-Build in F o o tb all P la y e rs , He search Q u a rte rly . T i l (O ctober, 1936),
pp. 47-57.
6.
Ib id . , p . 56.
12
"The c e n te rs were l i g h t e r than th e guards and ta c k le s .
t i c a l l y no t a l l e r than the c e n te r s .
The ends were p rac­
The ta c k le s averaged both th e h e a v ie st
and t a l l e s t o f a ll." * 1 A sc ru tin y of the d a ta a lso r e v e a ls th a t the back2
f i e l d men were s h o rte r and l i g h t e r than the linem en.
In h i s d o c to ra l t h e s i s , ^ Lawrence T. Roger a in v e s tig a te d th e r e la tio n ­
sh ip o f tw e n ty -fiv e measures of physique to s p r in tin g a b i l i t y in co lleg e men.
The c r i t e r i a f o r s p rin tin g a b i l i t y were the t o t a l tim e re q u ire d to run 100
y a rd s and th e minimum time re q u ire d to run any measured te n y a rd in te r v a l o f
th e 100 y a rd s.
On the b a s is o f c o rre la tio n s computed between th e in d iv id u a l
t r a i t s o f physique and the c r i t e r i a i t was concluded t h a t "no s in g le p h y sic a l
t r a i t i s a s s o c ia te d , to a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s ig n if ic a n t d eg ree, w ith e i th e r
measure o f s p r in tin g a b i l i t y ." *
F u rth er in q u iry showed a m u ltip le c o rre la tio n
o f .2685 between the nine t r a i t s most h ig h ly a s s o c ia te d w ith th e b e tt e r c r i ­
t e r io n o f s p r in tin g a b ility and s p rin tin g a b i l i t y , a f a c t which drew the
statem en t th a t "so f a r as t h i s technique can d eterm in e, th e re would seem to be
no such th in g as a s p rin tin g build."®
In a c lo s e ly a l l i e d study Hjyman Irakewer® re p o rte d on the r e la tio n of
w eig h t, h e ig h t, le g len g th , fo o t breadth, and h ip g i r t h to high jumping
1.
2.
3.
Lee, c i t .
, p . 55.
A Itufly a £ R e la tio n sh ip s Between P e rta in A spects &f Physique £&& iBZifit
Ifig A klll& Z.'
4.
I b id . . p . 41,
5«
• P* 54.
6,
The R e la tio n o f P h y sical S tatu re to A b ility ftp th e Running Hlah Jump.
13
a b ility .
He found th a t th ese m easures e x e rte d l i t t l e in flu en ce on the h e ig h t
t e which in d iv id u a ls Jump, b u t in s o f a r as th e r e was a re la tio n s h ip i t was b e st
r e f l e e t e d hr a combination o f h e ig h t, le n g th o f le g s , and breadth of f o o t.
T h is th re e -v a ria b le com bination r e s u lte d in a m u ltip le c o rre la tio n of .4378
f o r one group stu d ie d and .2560 f o r a n o th e r.
A ll the ex p ert Jumpers con­
s id e re d in the study e x h ib ite d g r e a te r measurements in the th ree f a c to rs than
th e average f o r the n o n -tra c k group.
A com parison o f the b e s t and p o o rest
Jumpers in the l a t t e r group a lso showed th e b e s t Jumpers as having g re a te r
h e ig h t, le n g th o f le g , and b read th o f f o o t.
R egression equations were form ula­
te d from th e n e n -tra e k d a ta t e determ ine th e e x p e c ta tio n o f s k e le ta l symmetry.
These eq u atio n s were then a p p lie d t e the d a ta f o r th e ex p ert group and to the
members o f th e n o n -track group, who were s im ila r te th e e x p erts in gross
measurements, te determ ine th e s k e le ta l sym m etries p e c u lia r to the e x p e rts.
I t was found th a t f o r t h e i r h e ig h t e x p e rt Jumpers have unusually long le g s ,
s h o rt b ed ies, and f e e t which do n e t vary d i s t i n c t l y in breadth from the
e x p e o ta tio n .
An in v e s tig a tio n w ith c o lle g e women t e determ ine the r e la tio n between
t h ir te e n s tr u c tu r a l measures and th e a b i l i t y t e threw fo r d istan ce and f o r
accuracy was conducted by Wat son* i n 1935.
A ll se re o rd er c o rre la tio n s be­
tween d ista n c e and the m easures o f physique f e l l below .2 0 .
th e physique measures and accuracy were even lew er.
These between
M u ltip le c o rre la tio n s
between a l l body measurements and d is ta n c e and accuracy re sp e c tiv e ly were
•2480 and .2005.
1.
Arm span and e h e s t w idth, and arm span and combined eircum -
E. 0. Watson, £ & U & SL & £
Women & Throwing A b i l i t y .
SlL P w tftjp Mff.fiffiffigRfBjffl SL SsUSAS.
14
fe re n c e s o f l e f t and r i ^ i t forearm s y ie ld e d m u ltip le c o r r e la tio n s w ith d ista n c e
and accuracy throw ing re s p e c tiv e ly which clo se ly approached th o se d e riv e d from
a l l th e "body m easurem ents.
I t was concluded. "There i s a very lew r e la tio n ­
ship he tween the c o lle g e woman* s body measurements and h e r a b i l i t y to threw
1
a b a s e b a ll e i t h e r a c c u ra te ly o r f o r a d ista n c e ."
B ec en tly , J . Q-. McMurray 2 stu d ie d the r e la tio n between s e v e ra l a s p e c ts
of physique and th e a b i l i t y to perform in the broad Jump, th e h u rd le ru n , and
the sh o t p u t.
The s k e le ta l t r a i t s examined were w eight, h e ig h t, s i t t i n g h e ig h t,
sh o u ld er w idth, c h e s t b re a d th , ch est depth, h ip width, and arm span.
Sub­
s ta n t i a t i n g r e s u l t s were o b ta in e d from d ata c o lle c te d from two d i s t i n c t groups
e f c o lle g e men.
Zero o rd e r and m u ltip le c o rre la tio n tech n iq u es were employed.
I t was found th a t w eig h t, shoulder bread th , and chest b read th c o r r e la te d sub­
s t a n t i a l l y w ith th e shot p u t, c o e f f ic ie n ts ranging in v e rse ly from .3310 te
• 4534.
Chest d ep th , h ip b re a d th , and arm span with c o e f f ic ie n ts ex ten d in g
from .2 6 to .3 2 in d ic a te d some degree o f asso c ia tio n w ith t h i s e v e n t.
Mul­
t i p l e c o r r e la tio n s , however, showed t h a t weight and shoulder w idth accounted
fo r most o f th e r e la tio n s h ip involved.
In both the broad Jump and th e
h urdle run, w eight proved to be somewhat a handicap to perform ance.
tio n s f e l l between -.1 3 2 2 and -.1 9 4 1 .
C o rre la ­
With the exception o f sh o u ld er w idth,
which y ie ld e d a maximum c o r r e la tio n o f .2668 w ith the h u rd le ru n , a l l o th e r
s k e le ta l t r a i t s showed n e g lig ib le c o rre la tio n s with th e se two e v e n ts .
In
beth th e se a c t i v i t i e s , f iv e v a r ia b le m u ltip le c o rre la tio n s were n e c e ssa ry to
approximate th e t o t a l m u ltip le .
I t was concluded th a t weight and sho u ld er
1.
I b i d . . p . 55.
2.
The B e la tlo n o f S k e le ta l Bymawtrw to A th le tic Prowess.
15
w idth axe th e most im portant p h y sica l t r a i t s f o r s u c c e s s fu l shot p u ttin g ; in
so f a r a s w eight h as any r e la tio n a t a ll to h u rd lin g and broad jumping
perform ance, i t seems to be a handicap; and the b ro ad jump and h u rd le run
axe more com p licated events than th e shot put and axe n o t as much in flu en ced
by th e s k e le ta l m easures used in th e study.
In 1939, E liz a b e th B eall^ published the r e s u l t s o f h e r d is s e r ta tio n fo r
th e d o c to ra te which was concerned w ith the r e l a t io n o f eig h teen anthropom etric
measurements o f co lleg e women to success in c e r ta in p h y s ic a l a c t i v i t i e s , in ­
c lu s iv e o f b a s k e tb a ll and te n n is.
She s ta te d , " I t i s f u l l y recognized th a t
many f a c t o r s make f o r success in physical a c t i v i t y , and th a t one o f th ese
2
may be bony s tr u c tu r e ."
By means of the c r i t i c a l r a t i o tech n iq u e comparisons
were made between the su ccessfu l and the n o n -su c c e s sfu l in d iv id u a ls w ith in a
sp o rt and among a th le te s who were successful in d i f f e r e n t s p o rts .
The r e s u lts
showed t h a t su c c e ssfu l b a sk etb all p la y e rs have lo n g e r arms, lo n g er and broader
f e e t , and w ider shoulders than the unsuccessful p la y e r s .
In te n n is , standing
h e i ^ i t , w ith i t s components s i t t i n g height and le n g th o f e n tir e l e g , and
b re a d th o f fo o t seemed to favor the successful p la y e r .
In the comparison of
th e s k i l l e d exponents o f the two s p o rts , the b a s k e tb a ll p la y e rs s ig n if ic a n tly
exceeded the te n n is p la y e rs in w eight, length o f u p p e r arm, le n g th of f o o t,
b re a d th o f hand, and b read th o f shoulders.
The stu d y in d ic a te d th a t c e r ta in
s p e c if ic bony measurements are possessed by a m a jo rity o f th e s k il l e d perform­
e r s in a given a c t i v i t y , and th a t no one type o f body b u ild can be id e n tif ie d
f o r any o f th e a c t i v i t i e s in v e stig a te d .
1.
The B e la tio n o f Various Anthropometric M easurements o f S ele c te d College
Women to Success in C ertain P hysical A c t i v i t i e s .
2.
I b id . , p# 1.
16
In a most re c e n t study Cureton^ m a in tain ed t h a t "alm ost every type o f
p h y s ic a l f it n e s s t e s t u ltim a te ly must he normed o r in te r p r e te d in term s o f
c o n s titu tio n a l ty p e ."
As a r e s u lt o f p a s t p e rs o n a l In v e s tig a tio n s and a
survey o f r e la te d s tu d ie s he reached th e c o n c lu s io n t h a t "W ithin c e rta in
l i m i t s , th e re fo re , a th le te s do run to t y p e .......................Most im portant a re the
ex act r e la tio n s h ip s of muscle m echanics and th e g r o s s e r o rg a n iz a tio n o f the
hody f o r balance, range and d ire c tio n o f th e movements, lev e ra g e f o r fo rc e ,
speed, and power."®
Upon in v e s tig a tio n he found in one group o f 113 c o lle g e men, who were
c l a s s i f i e d a s l i n e a r , m edial, and l a t e r a l in hody b u ild and te s te d in f iv e
tra c k e v e n ts , th a t the lin e a r types showed b e t t e r a b i l i t y in the b a se b a ll
threw , stand in g broad jump, 50-yard dash, and 440-yard ru n , w hile the l a t e r a l
ty p e s were su p e rio r in shot p u ttin g .
In a n o th e r group o f 103 co lleg e men
th e t a l l e r , h e a v ie r, stro n g er men w ith g r e a te r arm span achieved b e tte r
average perform ances in th e b a s e b a ll throw f o r d is ta n c e .
A t h i r d group of
n in e ty co lle g e men, divided p rim a rily on a b a s is o f l i n e a r , l a t e r a l , and
heavy a t h l e t i c body ty p es, p a r tic ip a te d in a wide range o f t e s t s , includ­
in g among o th e rs , a t h l e t i c , gym nastic, s tr e n g th , and motor a b i l i t y elem ents.
Most o f the a t h l e t i c perform ances in v o lv in g s tr e n g th and power showed th e
heavy a t h l e t i c body type as s u p e rio r.
The s c o re s on th e motor a b i l i t y t e s t
were n o t q u ite so d e f in ite ly r e l a te d to th e body b u ild c la s s e s .
The gymnas­
ia
T. K. Cure to n , J r . , Body B uild a s a framework o f B eference fo r I n te r p r e t­
in g P h y sical f itn e s s and A th le tic P erform ance, Supplement, Be search
Q u a rte rly . XII (May, 1941), p p . 301-330.
2.
I b i d . . p . 301.
3.
I b id . . p . 315.
17
t i e events d id n o t show c o n s is te n t d iffe re n c e s between the extremes*
In eon-
elu sio n he s ta te d , " C la s s if ic a tio n s according to c o n s titu tio n a l type group­
in g s provide a b a s ic framework f o r th e u n d erstan d in g of . . . . many ty p e s
o f p h y sical f i t n e s s and a t h l e t i c perform ances."*
There i s ano th er group e f s tu d ie s which shed some l l ^ i t on th e problem
o f booty b u ild and a t h l e t i c perform ance.
These stu d ie s c e n te r around th e
attem pt to devise methods fo r th e homogeneous c la s s if ic a tio n of in d iv id u a ls
f o r general com petition in p h y s ic a l education a c t i v i t i e s .
While in agree­
ment th a t many f a c to r s in flu e n c e achievem ent, they are concerned w ith only
th e gross f a c to r s o f age, h e ig h t, and w eight, both fo r p r a c tic a l purposes
and f o r a d m in istra tiv e f e a s i b i l i t y . They have as th e ir in s p irin g source
o
i l l y ’ a somewhat e m p iric a lly s e t up fo u r-p o in t exponent plan o f 1917
which in clu d es the grade f a c to r in a d d itio n to th o se of age, h e ig h t, and
w eight.
The c r ite r io n fo r g en eral a t h l e t i c a b i l i t y used almost ex c lu siv e ly in
th ese s tu d ie s i s th e combined score in a number o f tra c k and f i e l d and
a l l i e d e v en ts.
Two statem en ts by McCloy support t h i s p r a c tic e .
A fte r fin d ­
in g c o rre la tio n s w ith t o t a l tra c k and f i e l d p o in ts and te c h n ic a l s k i l l s in
b a sk e tb a ll and soccer o f .92 and .8 4 re s p e c tiv e ly , he s a id , "A pparently,
th en , these tra c k s k i l l s o f ru n n in g , throw ing, and jumping measure f a i r l y
ac cu ra tely c e r ta in fundam ental s k i l l s u n d erly in g meter a b i l i t i e s o f a h ig h 1y sp e c ia liz e d ty p e ."
And speaking e f another study he s ta te d , "While
th e so in d ic e s were developed s o le ly f o r c la s s if ic a tio n f o r tra c k and f i e l d
1.
Ib id . . p . 323.
2.
P. J . Be i l l y , Ngw R a tio n a l A th le tic s f o r Boys
D. G. Heath and Company, 1917.
3.
C. H. McCloy, The Measurement o f General Motor Capacity and General
Motor A b ility , Supplement, B esearch Q u a rte rly . 7 (March, 1934),
p . 58.
G ir ls . Hew Torkt
18
a t h l e t i c s , they can be used to c la s s if y f o r o th e r sp o rts as w e ll."
In sev e ra l s tu d ie s w ith g i r l s and women, hody b u ild , as measured in
terms o f h e ig h t and w eight, h a s been found to e x e rt a n e g lig ib le in flu e n c e
on perform ance.
Delaney** found exceedingly small c o rre la tio n s between th e
age, h e ig h t, and w eight o f ju n io r h i ^ i school g i r l s and tra c k and f i e l d
a b ility .
T h is same low r e la tio n s h ip was found by Adams,3 who s ta te d th a t so
f a r as ju n io r h ig h school g i r l s are concerned, "Age, h e ig h t, and weight alo n e
are o f very l i t t l e v alu e fo r c la s s if y in g f o r a t h l e t i c com petition."*
In a
wide range o f t e s t s co v erin g tra c k and f i e l d , motor a b i l i t y , and s p o rts
s k i l l s , i d e n tic a l co n clu sio n s were reached in one study by Cozens, C ubberley,
5
and N eilson w ith s e n io r high school g i r l s and in th re e sep arate s tu d ie s
0
0
with c o lle g e women by M itc h e ll, Cozens and Cubberley, end Eum isten.
1.
C. H. McCloy, The Measurement o f A th le tic Power, p. 97.
2.
Mary Delaney, Age, H eight, Weight, And Pubescence Standards Per The
A th le tic H andicapping o f G ir ls , The American P hysical Education Be—
view . XXXIII (O ctober, 1928), pp. 507-509.
3.
E. 0. Adams, The Study e f Age, H eight, Weight, and Power as C la s s if ic a ­
tio n P a c to rs f o r J u n io r High School G irls , He search Q u arterly . 7
(May, 1 9 3 4 ), pp. 95-100.
4.
I b id . . p . 100.
5.
P. W. Cozens, H. jJ. Cubberley, and N. P. N eilson, Achievement S cales in
P h y sic a l E d u cation
£ojr Secondary School G irls £fid C ollege
jZassa.
6. A. 7 . M itc h e ll, A Scoring Table f o r College Women in the P ifty -T a rd Dash,
th e Sunning Broad Jump, and th e B ask etb all Throw f o r D istance, Beseajpeh Q u a r te rly . 7 (March, 1934), pp. 86-91.
7. P. W. Cozens and H. J . Cubberley, Achievement Seales in P h y sical Educa­
tio n f o r C ollege Women, Research Q u arterly . 71 (March, 1935), pp. 14-23.
8. D. H u aiston, A Measurement o f Motor A b ility in College Women, He se a r eh
Q u a rte rly . 71I I (May, 1937), pp. 181-185.
McCloy1- s tu d ie d th e r e l a t i v e c o n trib u tio n s of age, h e ig h t, w eight, and
o th e r f a c to rs to th e p r e d ic tio n of normal tra c k and f i e l d a b i l i t y o f boys
ranging from elem en tary school through college ages.
In a t o t a l group o f
453 twelve and f i f t e e n y ea r o ld s , e o rre la tio n s were derived between s ix tr a c k
and f i e l d e v e n ts and th e p o n d eral index, th a t i s , the cube ro o t of th e w eight
div id ed by th e h e ig h t.
S u p risin g ly l i t t l e advantage was found in the e v e n ts
f o r any p a r t i c u l a r b u ild .
The only seemingly s ig n if ic a n t c o r r e la tio n was d is ­
covered between th e sh o t p u t and the more h eav ily b u i l t post p u b e se e n ts.
In
another group o f 318 boys between the ages of te n and six teen y e a rs an a n a ly s is
was made o f th e r e l a t i o n between t o t a l score in four tra c k and f i e l d ev e n ts
and a rough in d ex o f b u ild which was computed by d iv id in g w eight by h e ig h t.
P a r t i a l and m u ltip le c o r re la tio n techniques were employed in th e a n a ly s is .
With h e ig h t and w eight h e ld c o n s ta n t, the index c o rre la te d but .141 w ith p e r­
formance.
Jin a d d itio n a l group o f d a ta c o lle c te d from 963 cases w ith in t h i s
same age group, te n to six te e n in c lu s iv e , showed th a t the in flu en c e o f h e ig h t
and weight v a r ie d f o r each o f f iv e decathlon events stu d ied .
A com bination
o f s im ila r e v e n ts gave only a s li g h t w eighting to h e ig h t, y e t i t was su r­
p r is in g to n o te t h a t h e ig h t bulked r e la tiv e ly la rg e when each event was con­
sid ered s e p a ra te ly .
p u t and w eight.
The h ig h e s t re la tio n s h ip was again shown between shot
McCloy found th a t the b est form ula f o r the purpose o f u sin g
th e v a ria b le s ag e , h e ig h t, and weight as com petitive a th l e t i c c la s s if y in g
and handicapping d e v ice s f o r boys o f a l l ages i s twenty tim es th e age, p lu s
s ix tim es the h e i g h t , p lu s th e w eight.
Per the co lleg e range stu d e n ts the
b e st form ula i s s ix tim es th e h e ig h t plus th e w eight.
1.
C. H. McCloy, The Measurement o f A th le tic Power.
He concluded th a t
20
"Body lm ild seems to be o f no sig n ific a n c e when ch ro n o lo g ical age, h e ig h t, and
w eight are in c lu d e d according to t h e i r ’b e s t' w eightings."*'
The r e s u l t s o f McCloy* s study were h ig h ly r a i l d ated by two independent
p
re s e a rc h e s , one by Cozens and N eilson with elem entary school o h ild re n and
IT
one by Cozens, T rle b , and N eilso n with secondary school boys. Both in v es­
tig a tio n s agreed t h a t th e f a c to r s o f age, h e ig h t, and w eight o p erated d i f f e r ­
e n tly f o r each a t h l e t i c event and both derived combined form ulas which
c o rre s ­
ponded c lo s e ly w ith McCloy* s c l a s s if ic a t io n form ula f o r a l l age groups.
A review o f th e re se a rc h in d ic a te s th a t body s tr u c tu r e , ir r e s p e c tiv e of
th e age and sex in v o lv e d , i s o f v arying im portance to perform ance a b i l i t y in
s p e c ific a t h l e t i c e v e n ts and s p o r ts .
C o n flic tin g r e s u l t s , meager d a ta , and
unexplored a re a s su g g est the need f o r f u rth e r ex p erim en tatio n .
The B e la tlo n o f M uscular S tre n g th and Power to A th le tic Success
M uscular s tre n g th and power a re r e c o ^ iz e d as being among th e most im­
p o r ta n t f a c to r s in v o lv e d in th e a b i l i t y to succeed in a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s .
A group o f re c e n t s tu d ie s u s in g r e la tiv e ly new s t a t i s t i c a l te c h n iq u e s, known
as "F ac to r A n a ly s is " ,
*
have v e r i f i e d t h e i r im portance, as may be n o ted in
T able I on th e fo llo w in g page.
I n v e s tig a tio n , however, h as been d ire c te d
p rim a rily toward th e u t i l i z a t i o n o f stren g th and power t e s t s as c l a s s i f i e r s
f o r g en eral perform ance.
L i t t l e h as been done to determ ine t h e i r p la c e as
p r e d ic to rs o f a b i l i t y in s p e c ific s p o rts .
1*
Xbld. . p . 95.
2,
F . W. Cozens and N. P . N eilso n , Age, H eight, and Weight a s F a c to rs in the
C l a s s if ic a tio n o f Elem entary School C h ild ren , Jo u rn a l o f H ealth and
P h y ste a l E d u catio n . I l l (December, 1932), pp. 21, 58.
*
A f a c to r a n a ly s is i s simply an o th er method o f c o r r e la tio n a l re s e a rc h .
I t i s used to analyse a b a tte r y o f t e s t s f o r t h e i r c o n s titu e n t o r
component elem en ts.
21
TABLE I
Summary o f Factor A n a ly sis 8 tu d iee In d ica tin g Factors Involved
In Success in Physical Education A c t iv it ie s *
n o
Type o f T ests
8 tu d led
XflTM tl£»tor
T .o r
e. a, *c
1931* General
c io r 1
motor capacity
Strength
T e lo c ity
Veight
fleight
or
or
or
8 need
Dead Veirht Structure
Z
X
Stren gth, S tr u c tu r e ,
Track and F ie ld
X
X
X
0oluan3
1937
Stren gth, V elg h t,
Sargent Jump, Shot-put,
A th le tic A b il it y Rating
X
X
X
E a r n , 1*
1937
Strength, V elg h t, Track
and F ie ld
X
X
X
BU’lck^
1937
8 tr e n £ i, S tr u c tu r e ,
Sargent Jump, Track and
F ie ld , R ea ctio n Time,
Muscle L atency
X
X
X
Vandl.r^
1938
Stren gth, 8 &rgent Jump,
Motor A b il it y , Many
A th le tic S k i l l T ests
X
X
Hutto?
193*
Strength, S tru ctu re,
Track and F ie ld
X
X
Matheny^
193«
Strength, Track and
F ie ld , Motor A b ilit y ,
Tumbling
X
X
Oolraaa^
19110
Strength, S tru ctu re,
Track and F ie ld
X
X
X
Caipanter?®
19U1
Strength, V eig h t,
Track and F ie ld
X
X
X
. Nc Cloy 2
•
Large
Muscle Co­
Rotor
E d u ca b ility o r d in a tio n
Muscular
Latency
BensoriMotor Cck
ordination
X
1935
1
s o b s
Ana
Strength
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
The c o n h in a tlo n e o f t e s t v n r la b lo s u sed d eterm in e th e f a c t o r s which w ill be found. A ll the above s tu d ie s show s tr e n g th a n d speed o r v e lo c ity ,
which combined r e su lt in pow er, to be prim ary f a c to r s in th e a t h l e t i c events s tu d ie d , e s p e c ia lly tro d : and f i e l d .
1.
C. B. Me Cloy, The Measurement o f General M otor C apacity and General Motor A b ility , Supplement, BeBearch Q u a r te r ly . 7 (M arch, 193*0.
2 .
3.
IV.
Cloy, Poctor A n alysis Methods in th e Measurement o f P h y sica l A b i l i t i e s , 8u p - le n e n t, Research Q u a rte rly . 71 (O c to b e r, 1935). PP*11*+-121.
J.
V.
Coleman, The D i f fe r e n t ia l Measurement o f
the Speed P a c to r in Large Muscle A c t iv i t ie s , Bcaoarch
Q u a r te r ly .
I». R arick, An A n a ly sis o f th e Speed Factor in 8 imple A th le tic A c t iv it ie s , Resoarch Q u a rte rly . T i l l (December, 1 9 3 7 ), P P- 8 9 -105.
A. J . Vendler, A C r itic a l A n a ly sis o f T e st Elem ents Used in P h y sical S d ucation, R esearch Q u a rte rly , I I (March, 1938), p p . 6U—7 6 .
8
.
9.
7111 (O c to b e r, 1937). pp. 123-130.
J . Z. H a r r is , The D i f f e r e n t i a l Measurement o f F o rce and 7 e lo c ity fo r J u n io r High 8 chool G i r ls , Rosoarch Q u a r te r ly . T i l l (December. 1937).
121.
------------
.
7.
*+6 - 6 l .
Me
5*
6
PP ■
Z.
PP.
11*+-
L. I , H utto, Measurement o f th e T e lo c ity F actor and o f A th le tic Power in High School Boys, R esearch Q u a rte rly . IX (O c to b e r, 1938), pp. 109-128.
1 . Metheny, S tu d ie s o f the Johnson T est os a Teet o f Motor E d ucability, Research Quarterly
t.
¥.
Coleman, Pure Speed a s a P o s itiv e F actor
H (December, 1 9 3 8 ), p p . 1 0 5 - llh .
in 8 one Track and F ield E vents, Research Q u a rte rly . H (May, 19*+0), pp. U7 —5 3 .
1 0 . A. Carpenter, An A n alysis o f th e R e la tio n s h ip s o f th e F a c to rs o f T e lo c ity , S tre n g th , and Dend V eight to A t h l e t i c P erfo rm an ce, R esearch Q u a rte rly ,
I I I (March, I 9 U1 ) , pp. 3 *1- 3 9 .
•aes------- **
22
The R e la tio n o f Muscular S trength to A th le tic Success
A f te r te n y e a rs o f in v e s tig a tio n Sargent* e x p ressed th e o p in io n th a t
hody measurem ents alone were inadequate as a c r ite r i o n o f a m an's p h y s ic a l
power and working c a p a c ity .
He m aintained th a t w hile th e s tr o n g e s t men
u s u a lly had th e l a r g e s t muscle measurements there was in the com position o f
many in d iv id u a ls an unknown equation th a t made f o r s tr e n g th which could only
he b rought o u t by an a c tu a l t e s t or t r i a l .
This le d him to develop the f i r s t
known system o f stre n g th t e s tin g rep o rted in th is co u n try .
The t e s t was in ­
tro d u c e d a t H arvard U n iv e rsity in 1880 in connection w ith th e r e g u la r p h y sic a l
ex am in atio n s.
I t was composed o f the stren g th s o f the hack, le g s , and r ig h t
and l e f t g rip s as measured by dynamometers, plus arm s tr e n g th , which was
computed Iy m u ltip ly in g th e sum o f the achieved number o f push-ups and p u llups by o n e -te n th o f the body weight, p lu s s o -c a lle d lu n g s tr e n g th , in which
th e p ro p u ls iv e e f f o r t s o f the e x p ira to ry muscles were m easured by a manometer.
In 1897, th e t e s t , known a s "The In te rc o lle g ia te S tre n g th T e s ts " , was r a t i f i e d
and adopted o f f i c i a l l y by f if t e e n co lleg es and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
At the same tim e,
th e s u b s t i t u t i o n o f one tw e n tie th of th e capacity o f th e lu n g s was p e rm itte d
2
f o r lu n g s tre n g th .
One of the purposes o f th is stre n g th t e s t was to determ ine which stu d en ts
were p h y s ic a lly q u a lif ie d to p a r tic ip a te in in t e r c o lle g i a te s p o r ts .
Sargent
s a id ,
A ll s tu d e n ts o f Harvard U n iv ersity d e s irin g to e n te r as
co m p etito rs in a t h l e t i c c o n te sts are re q u ire d to give
evidence o f t h e i r a b ilit y by making a s tr e n g th t e s t . . . . :
C andidates fo r th e U n iv ersity Crew and F o o tb a ll Team and
1.
D. A. S arg en t, S tre n g th T e sts And The Strong Men o f H arvard, The American
P h y sic a l Education Beview. II (June, 1897), pp. 108-119.
2.
B eport o f Committee, I n te r c o lle g ia te Strength T e s ts , American P h y sic a l
E ducation Beview. I I (December, 1897), pp. 216-220.
23
Weight Throwers are expected to make a t o t a l s tre n g th
t e s t o f 700 p o in ts . Candidates f o r th e C lass Crews and
F o o tb a ll Teams and G ym nastic,‘ W restling, and S parring
C o n te sts, 600 p o in ts . Candidates f o r th e U n iv e rsity and
C lass B a ll N ines, Lacrosse Teams, Track and F ie ld B re n ts,
500 p o in ts .*
T n is i s the f i r s t evidence we hare o f s tre n g th t e s t s used as p r e d ic to r s o f
f i t n e s s to e n te r in to a t h l e t i c c o n te s ts .
p
R aycroft p o in te d out weaknesses in the I n te r c o ll e g ia te S tren g th T est and
su g g ested methods f o r i t s improvement.
His two m ajor o b je c tio n s were the la c k
o f hom ogeneity in th e t e s t r e s u lts due to the use of the p u ll-u p s and dips
which were n o t measured d ire c tly in pounds o f f o rc e , and the lim itin g f a c to r
o f th e forearm s tre n g th in the measure o f the back and l e g l i f t s .
He s a id ,
A p lan was devised . . . . to obviate th e se d isad v an tag es in
the in te r c o lle g ia te method. This was accom plished by sub­
s t i t u t i n g fo r th e p u ll up and push up a p u ll and push th a t
was r e g is te r e d on a dynamometer; and f o r the o ld method o f
making th e le g and Dack t e s t a l i f t in a sim ple harness
w ithout th e a id o f the h an d s.3
S h o rtly a f t e r th e beginning of S a rg e n t's work w ith s tre n g th t e s t s ,
K ello g g , who was in te r e s te d in ex erc ise as a th e ra p e u tic a g e n t, designed a
mechanism which was c a lle d the U niversal fynamometer.
By means o f the in ­
strum ent he was able to measure the stre n g th of many i s o la t e d muscle groups
and hence to p re s c rib e f o r t h e i r needs more s c i e n t i f i c a l l y . 4 T his te s tin g
d e v ic e , however, has not been used e x ten siv e ly by p h y s ic a l ed u c a to rs. I t s
5
d isad v an tag es are i t s c o s ts , i t s fix e d n a tu re , and the f a c t th a t i t t e s t s
1. S arg en t, £&. c l t . . p . 118.
2.
Joseph E. Hay c r o f t , Twenty T e ars' P ro g ress in E ffic ie n c y T e s ts , American
P h y sic a l Education Review. XTIII (O ctober, 1913), pp. 446-451.
3.
I b id . . p . 448.
4.
Jay W. Seaver, Anthropometry and P h y sical Exam ination, p . 69.
5.
J . F. Bovard and P. W. Cozens, T ests find Measurements in P h y sical
E d u catio n . (Revised) p. 79.
24
muscle groups In anatomical r a t h e r than p h y B io lo g ical u n i t s , th a t i s , i t t e s t s
is o la te d muscle groups w ithout ta k in g in to c o n s id e ra tio n t h e i r interdependence
in r a tio n a l movements and so f a i l s to g iv e a measure o f o rd in a ry fu n ctio n a l
e f fic ie n c y .*
In 1915, M a rtin 's work
2
in th e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f i n f a n t i l e p a ra ly s is
v ic tim s le d him to devise a s tre n g th t e s t b ased on th e p r in c ip le of re s is ta n c e
to p u ll r a th e r than th e e x ertio n of s tre n g th in an a c tiv e e f f o r t .
M artin
needed a dynamometer which was a p p lic a b le to young c h ild re n and one which
could be s h if te d e a s ily to meet a l t e r a t io n s o f p o s itio n o f the su b je c t.
This
need was met ty u sin g an o rd in ary f l a t fa c e s p rin g balance which could be h e ld
in th e hands and re a d ily a d ju ste d fo r alig n m en t.
The o r ig in a l t e s t was made
a p p lic a b le to eleven muscle groups on each arm and ten on each le g .
For
p r a c t i c a l purposes a short b a tte r y was fo rm u lated which in clu d ed the thigh
ad d u cto rs, th ig h abductors, p e c to r a ls , forearm f le x o r s , and w r is t fle x o rs .
L a te r, the t e s t was ap p lied to a d u lts in i n d u s tr ia l s e tti n g s .
The r e s u lts
in d ic a te d c le a rly th a t in men doing r o u tin e heavy manual la b o r th ere is a
sta n d a rd stre n g th fo r evezy jo b .
M artin pointed out th a t s tre n g th t e s t s may
prove very u sefu l to personnel workers as a means of guiding in d iv id u a ls in to
manual la b o r jo b s fo r which they are b e s t f i t t e d on a s tre n g th b a s is .
The M artin type t e s t enjoys the advantages of r e q u irin g only r e la tiv e ly
inexpensive and re a d ily movaole equipment as w e ll as homogeneity of scoring.
I t s u ffe rs the same c ritic is m from p h y sic a l e d u c a to r s , however, as the
K ellogg t e s t , in th a t i t does n o t measure n a tu r a l types o f a c t i v i t i e s .
s
1.
R ay cro ft, fin. c l t . . p. 448.
2.
E. d. M artin, T e sts o f M uscular E f f ic ie n c y , P h y sio lo g ic a l Review. I
(Ju ly , 1921), pp. 454-475.
3.
A. C arpenter, A C r itic a l Study of th e F a c to rs Determ ining E ffe c tiv e
Strength T ests f o r Women, Research Q u a rte rly . IX (December, 1938),
pp. 18-19,
25
The p o p u la rity of the s tre n g th t e s t s waned co n sid erab ly In schools and
c o lle g e s a f t e r 1915.
I n te r e s t in them h a s been renewed since 1925 c h ie fly
through the e f f o r t s o f Rogers* who w ished to determ ine a method for c la s s if y ­
in g hoys fo r a t h l e t i c com petition and to f in d a measure of p h y sica l f itn e s s .
T h is he did by s lig h tly re v is in g th e I n te r c o l l e g i a t e S tren g th T ests and
e s ta b lis h in g norms fo r th e ir i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .
His "S tren g th Index" includes
back and le g l i f t s , r ig h t and l e f t g r ip s , lu n g ca p a c ity in cubic Ihehes, and
chinning and dipping scored by a fo rm u la of h ie own d e riv a tio n , namely,
(D ips 4 P u llu p s)
+ H eight - 6 0 ).
A "P h y sical F itn e s s Index" i s com­
p u ted by m u ltip ly in g the stre n g th index by one hundred and d iv id in g i t by the
in d iv id u a l's norm based on age, w eight, and sex.
In determ ining the v a lid ity o f th e S tre n g th Index as a measure of
general a t h l e t i c a b i l i t y Rogers found a product-moment c o rre la tio n of .76 and
a c o r re la tio n - r a tio of .84 between the index and a composite score on fo u r
w eighted a t h l e t i c ev en ts, namely, th e 1 0 0 -y ard dash, running h i^ i Jump,
running broad Jump, and bar v a u lt.
The s u b je c ts were 210 h ig h school p u p ils
chosen a t random from a re p re s e n ta tiv e h ig h sch o o l.
To check the v a lid ity of
th ese r e s u lts another group of a t h l e t i c t e s t s were given and weighted and a
new s e t of c o rre la tio n s determ ined from the index sc o re s.
(These t e s t s in ­
cluded a 153-yard run, standing broad Jump, ru n n in g high Jump, eig h t pound
shot p u t, b a s k e tb a ll fo u l-g o al throw ing, and b a s e b a ll and fo o tb a ll throwing
f o r accuracy).
The v a lid ity c o e f f ic ie n ts were r - .81 and n * .84.
Rogers made a second study to determ ine the r e la tio n s h ip between stre n g th
t e s t s and a c tu a l success in a t h l e t i c s a s measured by making a l e t t e r on a
high school team.
1.
The Strength In d ic e s e f th e se a t h le te s were compared w ith
F. R. Rogers, P hysical C apacity T e s ts in the A d m ln lstratlo n of P hysical
Education.
26
th o se of a l l th e "boys o f th e group from whom the a th le te s were chosen.
The
follow ing ta b le summarizes th e r e s u lts !
TABLE I I
Strength In d ic e s o f C ertain Groups - Rogers1 Data
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
3.
9.
F o o tb a ll............
B asketball
B aseb all. . . . . . . . . . . .
Track and F i e l d . . . . .
( 1 ,2 ,3 ,4 , a b o v e ) ....
Two or more S p o rts..
Five—
B e s t....................
Gantain. s . .....................
T otal Group.................
Cases
Median
90
P e r c e n tile
20
10
9
15
36
14
5
4
390
2,261
2,016
2,022
2,195
2,123
2,123
2,353
2,354
1,50?
2,106
95
P e rc e n tile
2,233
Rogers s ta te d , " I t appears t h a t the median f o o tb a ll team S trength Index i s
n o t reached by more than fiv e boys in a hundred in t h i s school in c lu d in g the
fo o tb a ll p la y e rs them selves."
1
Rogers concluded
2
th a t the average major
sp o rts a th le te who wins a school l e t t e r h as a S tren g th Index not achieved by
n in e ty p er cent o f the group from which he was chosen.
Also, th a t the
average major sp o rts team c a p ta in s and " b e st a th le te s " achieved a standing
n o t reached by n in ety -sev en p e r cent o f th e group from which they were
chosen.
While the Rogers T ests have enjoyed wide use in p h y sic a l ed u catio n ,
v ario u s in v e s tig a to rs have n o ted weaknesses in th e t e s t s and o th ers have
shown how they could be g r e a tly improved by c e r ta in m o d ificatio n s.
Glassow
1.
P. R. Rogers, Fundamental A d m in istra tiv e Measures in P hysical Education.
p. 138.
2.
P. R. Rogers, T ests and Measurement Programs in th e R edirection o f
gbys-lgflJL Education, p . 45.
and B roer s ta te d t h a t R ogers1 c r i te r i o n o f general a t h l e t i c a b i l i t y , composed
o f index sco res on s e v e ra l in d iv id u a l a t h l e t i c e v e n ts, has not been j u s t i ­
f ie d .
"In n e i t h e r Index h a s the w eig h tin g been s u b s ta n tia te d and in o n e, the
„1
t e s t f o r accuracy throw s pro b ab ly lac k e d r e l i a b i l i t y . "
Van D alen, 3 G ureton,
and Me Cloy
upheld S eav er's
G riffitts ,
2
e a r l i e r p o s itio n t h a t
lung cap acity sh o u ld be e lim in a te d from a b a tte r y o f stre n g th t e s t s .
Me Gloy
dem onstrated7 t h a t w hile R ogers' form ula f o r sco rin g chinning and d ip p in g
gives reaso n ab ly s a ti s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s w ith high school groups, " I t i s q u ite
u n fa ir to sm a lle r boys and to the boy who can chin or dip le s s than te n o r
f if t e e n tim es, and i t unduly rew ards the boy who chins over f if t e e n or tw enty
tim es."
A fte r e x p e rim en ta tio n he proposed a p re fe rre d form ula (TS 3 1 .7 7
W + 3.42 C - 46) f o r th e sc o rin g of ch in n in g and dipping, t o give a measure
of t o t a l arm s tr e n g th , which produces r e l a t iv e ly s a tis f a c to r y r e s u l t s .
9
Rogers s ta te d th a t th e u se o f Me C lo y 's form ula improves the v a l i d i t y o f th e
1.
R. B. Glassow and M. R. B ro er, M easuring Achievement in P h y sic a l Educa­
t i o n . p . 273.
2.
C. H. G r i f f i t t s , The Inadequacy o f S tren g th N0rms, Research Q u a r te r ly .
VI (December, 1935), pp. 117-124.
3.
D. Van D alen, The C o n trib u tio n of B re a th in g Capacity to the P h y s ic a l
P itn e s s In d ex , R esearch Q u a rte rly . VII (December, 1936), p p . 93-95.
4.
T. E. C ureton, A n a ly sis o f V ita l C apacity as a Test o f C ondition f o r
High School Boys, R esearch Q u a rte rly . VII (December, 1936), pp. 80-92.
5.
C. H. Me Cloy, The A pparent Im portance o f Arm S tren g th in A t h le tic s ,
Research Q u a rte rly . V (March, 1934), p . 5.
6.
Jay W. Seaver, Anthropometry and P h y sic a l Examination, p . 53.
7.
C. H. Me Cloy, A New Method o f S coring Chinning and Dipping, R esearch
Q u a rte rly . I I (December, 1931), pp. 132-143.
8» I b id . . p. 133.
9.
P. R. R ogers, A Review o f Recent S tren g th T estin g L ite r a tu r e , J o u r n a l
o f H ealth and P h y sic a l E d u c atio n . V (March, 1934), p . 9.
'1
28
t e s t , b u t t h a t i t i s too involved fo r p r a c tic a l purposes.
Mac Curdy*’
u t i l i z e d a m odified push and p u ll technique f o r measuring arm s tr e n g th by
means o f a back and l e g dynamometer a ttach ed to a gymnasium h o r s e .
Rogers
2
acknowledged a s im ila r arrangement as about fiv e p er c en t more r e l i a b l e fo r
boys and men.
He m ain tain ed , however, th a t i t s ch ie f d e fe c t i s in v a l i d i t y ,
in t h a t i t m easures few er m uscles through a very much s h o rte r range o f movem ent.
E v e rts and Hathaway
dem onstrated th a t the le g s tre n g th t e s t could
be made more v a l i d and e f f i c i e n t by fa ste n in g a b e lt about th e h ip s o f the
s u b je c t so as to r e lie v e some of the s tr a in and i r r i t a t i o n from th e arms and
thigjhs.
Rogers* had in d ic a te d e a r l i e r th a t such a m o d ificatio n m ight be
s u p e rio r to the tech n iq u e he employed.
Various in v e s tig a to rs have suggest­
ed t h a t th e an g le formed by th e le g s and th ig h s in the s t a r t i n g p o s itio n f o r
th e l e g l i f t be in c re a se d from the seventy to n in ety degrees advocated by
Rogers0 to a c o n sid e ra b ly g re a te r angle.
an g le o f about 120
©
C arpenter
dem onstrated th a t an
7
was su p e rio r; E v erts and Hathaway used an an g le o f
about 130^ in t h e i r experim ents; while Cureton and Larson quoted M ark er's
1.
H. L. Mac Curdy, £ T e st For Measuring The P hysical C apacity o f Secondary
School Boys.
2.
F . R. R ogers, Fundamental A dm inistrative Measures in P h y s ic a l E d u catio n .
p . 113.
3.
E. W. E v e rts and C. J . Hathaway, The Use of a B elt to Measure Leg
S tre n g th Improves the A d m inistration o f Physical F itn e s s T e s ts ,
R esearch Q u a rte rly . IX (O ctober, 1938), pp. 62-69.
4.
R o g ers, £&. £ l& ., p . 112.
6.
A. C a rp e n te r, A Study o f Angles in the Measurement of th e Leg L i f t ,
R esearch Q u a rte rly . IX (O ctober, 1938), pp. 70-72.
7.
E v e rts and Hathaway, op. c l t . . p. 65.
29
o
3
2
which recommended, an angle o f 102 f o r th e t e s t . Rump, Me Cloy,
4
5
6
Dunder, Cozens, and Larson gave evidence to show th a t arm stre n g th I s
stu d y
X
h ig h ly In d ic a tiv e o f th e to ta l stren g th o f the in d iv id u a l a s scored by the
R ogers S tren g th T e st and th a t i t a ay he s u b s titu te d f o r th e l a t t e r fo r
ft
c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p u rp o ses. Rogers p a r t i a l l y in d ic a te d th e same in th e short
b a t t e r y o f h i s t e s t , th e form ula fo r which i s 3 (R ig h t d rip + L eft G rip) 4
( P u ll- u p s * P ush-ups) x
4 (Height - 60), S tu d ie s by Messer8 and by
9
C ureton and Larson showed co n clu siv ely th a t the norms e s ta b lis h e d by
R ogers f o r th e d e riv a tio n of th e P hysical F itn e s s Index, which were based
on experim ents w ith ju n io r and sen io r high school boys, are n o t adequate
f o r c o lle g e men.
1.
R. M. M arker, A n aly sis of the Thlah F lex o r M uscular S tre n g th a with Re­
l a t i o n to Lumbar Curvature and A th le tic A b i l i t y . M a s te r's T h esis,
S p rin g f ie ld C ollege, R eferred to by
E. C ureton and L. A. Larson,
S tre n g th as an Approach to P hysical F itn e s s , Supplement, Research
Q u a rte rly . XII (May, 1941), p . 398.
2.
A. E. Rump, The R elativ e C o ntribution o f Arm. Back. Abdomen. and Leg
S tre n g th to the (Seneral A th le tic A b ility o f High School Boys.
M a s te r's T h e sis, U n iv ersity o f Iowa, R e fe rre d to by V. C. Dander,
A M u ltip le S tren g th Index of General Motor A b il ity , Research
Q u a rte rly . 17 (O ctober, 1933), p * .l3 5 .
3.
C. H. Me Cloy, A New Method of Scoring Chinning and D ipping, Research
Q u a rte rly . I I (December, 1931), pp. 132-143.
4.
Dunder, p p . c i t . , pp. 132-142.
5.
F. W. Cozens, S tren g th T e sts as M easures of G eneral A th l e ti c A b ility of
C ollege Men, Research Q u a rte rly . XI (March, 1940), pp. 45-52.
6.
L. A. L arson, A F acto r and V a lid ity A nalysis o f S tre n g th V ariables end
T e s ts w ith a T est Combination o f Chinning, D ipping, and V e rtic a l
Jump, R esearch Q u a rte rly . XI (December, 1940), pp. 82-96.
7.
F. R. R ogers, T e sts and Measurement Programs i n the R e d ire c tio n of
P h y sic a l E ducation, p. 155.
8.
G. N. M esser, C r i t i c a l A nalysis o f the A p p lic a tio n o f the Rogers'
P h y sic a l F itn e s s Test To F ill lams College S tu d e n ts .
9.
Cureton and Larson, op. c i t . . pp. 397-400.
30
la the course o f d e v isin g a new method f o r sco rin g chinning and dipping
Me Cloy* determ ined the r e la tio n s h ip between arm stre n g th and tra c k and
f i e l d a b ility In s e v e ra l groups o f s u b je c ts .
One group o f 420 se le c te d
elem entary school a t h l e t e s showed a c o r r e la tio n o f .4 0 between chinning
a b i l i t y end perform ance in th e D e tro it d ecath lo n .
A small group o f male
su b je c ts between th e ages o f t weI r e to f o r ty - f i v e y ie ld e d a c o rre la tio n o f
,7 5 between chinning and combined perform ance in fo u r tra c k and f i e l d ev e n ts.
A t h i r d group composed o f high school boys showed a c o rre la tio n of .72 be­
tween chinning and d ip p in g and a b i l i t y in tra c k and f i e l d .
T otal p u ll-u p
s tre n g th , coaputed by th e ex p erim en tally d eriv e d form ula TS = 1.27C*
133
W,
r e s u lte d in c o r r e la tio n s w ith e ig h t in d iv id u a l tra c k and f i e l d events be­
tween .4 4 and .6 7 , in a group o f 295 elem entazy school boys.
Me Cloy n o ted
t h a t t o t a l stre n g th by I n te r c o l l e g ia te form ula, with h is method o f scoring
(diinning and d ip p in g , c o r r e la te d w ith tra c k and f i e l d a t h l e tic s , r a .64.
In conclusion he s ta te d th a t ch in n in g o r d ip p in g scored as above Hi s more
s ig n if ic a n t than t o t a l s tre n g th a s a p r e d ic to r o f a t h l e t i c ability."**
Dunder
stu d ie d th e r e la tio n s h ip o f s tre n g th to motor a b i lity in a
group o f 275 h igh school boys.
The Rogers S tren g th T est was used w ith the
ex cep tio n th a t lung c a p a c ity was o m itted and the p u ll-u p and push-up
ev en ts were scored by Me Cloy1 s method.*
The c r i te r i o n fo r general motor
a b i l i t y co n sisted o f a com posite score on tw e n ty -th re e t e s t s in v o lv in g
1.
Me Cloy,
£ i t . , pp. 132-143.
2.
I b id . . p. 139.
3.
Dunder, ££. c i t . . p . 136.
4.
Me Cloy.Loo, c i t .
31
p rim a rily such fundam entals as running, jumping, leaping, clim b in g , and
throw ing.
The use o f a l l th e s tre n g th f a c to r s p lu s weight r e s u lt e d in a
m u ltip le c o r r e la tio n w ith the c r i te r io n o f ,6631.
Omitting le g s tr e n g th
and hack s tre n g th th e c o r r e la tio n dropped to R w .644 showing t h a t t h e i r
c o n trib u tio n was n e g lig ib le .
Py f u r th e r a p p lic a tio n of m u ltip le m d p a r t i a l
c o rre la tio n te c h n iq u e s i t was found t h a t with age and w e l^ it h e l d co n sta n t
to both the m otor a b i l i t y and s tre n g th c r i t e r i a a high c o r r e la tio n (.5 4 0 )
e x iste d between th e s e f a c t o r s .
Dunder concluded, HThls would in d ic a te
th a t stre n g th i s an Im portant f a c to r in gen eral motor a b i lity ." *
Messer2 d e riv e d new s tre n g th index norms f o r Williams C ollege s tu d e n ts
and fu rth e r atte m p ted to determ ine whether the same r e la tio n s h ip e x is te d be­
tween stre n g th and a t h l e t i c a b i l i t y w ith in h is experim ental group as Rogers
had p rev io u sly found w ith h ig h school groups.
In the freshman c l a s s he
discovered a c o r r e la tio n o f .8443 between S trength Index and a t h l e t i c
a b i l i t y , as m easured by a combined score in the one hundred y a rd dash,
running high jump, s ta n d in g broad jump, and b ar v a u lt.
Within th e rem ainder
of th e student body th e c r i te r i o n of a t h l e t i c a b ilit y used was t h e combined
score in th e ru n n in g h i ^ i jump, fo u r la p run, standing broad jump, end
twenty fe e t rope clim b.
In t h i s group the f i r s t fiv e p lace w inners in th e
a th l e t i c t e s t p roved to be honor men in P hysical F itness c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ;
in the sophomore c la s s a r e la tio n s h ip o f r ■ .92 P E ,0091 was found be­
tween the two f a c t o r s ; and w ith in a combined group of v a rs ity f o o t b a l l ,
so ccer, and c ro s s co u n try team members the average a th le te "achieved a
1.
Dunder, g u . c i t . , p . 136.
2.
D. N. M esser, C r i t i c a l A n aly sis q f Jhe A pplication &f Jfche R ogers
I t o l - g f ll F itn e s s £££& I f i
f ia U W Students.
32
sta n d in g n o t reach ed "by n in e ty -th re e p ercent o f the group ( th e under­
g rad u ate body, ex c lu siv e o f freshmen)* o f which he was a member, and the
average SI o f m ajor s p o rt c a p ta in s and 'b e s t a th le te s ' was n o t reach ed by
n in e t y - s i x p e rc e n t o f the group from which they were ch o sen ."*
These fin d ­
ings w ith c o lle g e men s u b s ta n tia te Rogers' r e s u l t s with h i ^ i school boys.
Messer concluded th a t "th e re i s a very fav o rab le r e la tio n s h ip between
2
s tre n g th and a t h l e t i c a b i l i t y . "
Note should be taken, however, o f the
d i s t r i b u t i o n of the P h y sica l F itn e s s c la s s if ic a tio n r a tin g s in th e d i f f e r ­
ent s p o r ts , which M esser found, to w it, f o o tb a ll, 3 A 's and 16 B 's ; so ccer,
3 A 's and 12 3 ' s; and c ro ss country 1 A, 1 3 , and 4 C 's.
Mac Curdy
u t i l i z e d a m o d ification of the Rogers S tre n g th T e st to
determ ine a Force Index.
The change involved th e om ission o f the h e ig h t,
w eig h t, and lu n g c a p a c ity f a c to r s , and the employment o f a push and p u ll
te ch n iq u e f o r m easuring arm s tre n g th by means o f a back and le g dynamometer.
This r e s u l t s in a homogeneous and pure measure o f s tre n g th , which from a
th e o r e t ic a l s ta n d p o in t, should be su p e rio r to th e Rogers T e s t.
B ookw alter,
speaking o f th e se m o d ific a tio n s, expressed t h i s stand when he s a id ,
" T h e o r e tic a lly , a l l th ese changes favor Mac C urdy's t e s t o v e r th e t e s t by
4
Rogers when Judged in th e l i g h t of the l i t e r a t u r e . . . ."
A fte r in v e s tig a ­
tio n B ookw alter concluded th a t the Force Index ap p aren tly was th e b e s t separ­
1.
I b i d . . p . 78.
2.
I b i d . , p . 79.
3.
H. L. Mac Curdy, A T e st For Measuring The P h y sic a l C ap acity o f Second­
ary School Boys.
4.
K. W. B ookw alter, A C r i t i c a l E valuation of th e A p p lic a tio n o f Some of
th e E x is tin g Means £ f C la ssify in g Boys f o r P h y sical E ducation
A c t i v i t i e s , p . 64.
*
M a te ria l in p a re n th e se s my own.
a te measure fo r c l a s s i f ic a t io n on th e c o lle g e l e v e l .
To e s ta b lis h v a lid ity
o f th e Force Index as a measure of the k in d o f m uscular fo rc e found in
a t h l e t i c s Mac Curdy c o rre la te d the index w ith r e s u l t s o b tain ed from the
M odified Cozens A th le tic Perform ance Index.*
y e a r o ld boys.
The s u b je c ts were 103 six teen
The outcome was a c o r r e la tio n o f r » .5 7 .
B i- s e r ia l
c o r r e la tio n s were also used in the same group to compare the r e la tiv e
v a l i d i t i e s of th e Force Index and the Rogers S tre n g th Index as measures of
a t h l e t i c achievem ent, in riiic h w inning a v a r s i t y s p o rts l e t t e r acted as
th e c r i t e r i o n .
The r e s u lta n t c o e f f ic ie n ts were .76 and .7 2 re s p e c tiv e ly .
Mac Curdy, th e re fo re , accep ted the Force Index as th e more v a lid measure
o f th e two.
The fin d in g s ag ain re v e a l t h a t s tr e n g th ap p are n tly i s an im­
p o r ta n t f a c to r in a t h l e t i c su c ce ss.
B i- s e r i a l r between s p e c ific stre n g th
t e s t s and the same c r ite r io n o f a t h l e t i c achievem ent w ith in a f if te e n and
a h a l f to n in e te e n and a h a l f y ear o ld group o f 206 to 266 cases, f o rty of
which were a th le te s , showed th e fo llo w in g r e s u l t s ; back s tre n g th , r a .49;
l e g s tre n g th , r = .29; b e s t g r ip , r a .4 4 ; arm p u ll-u p s , r 3 .24; arm push­
u p s, r a .3 3 .
The above b i - s e r i a l r e s u l t s , however, can be assumed to
be in d ic a tiv e only in a g en eral sense because o f the n a tu re o f the v a r s ity
group stu d ied .
There i s not only an uneven d i s t r ib u tio n o f re p re s e n ta tiv e s
in th e v ario u s s p o rts , but one which i s w eighted h e a v ily toward f o o tb a ll.
1.
I b i d . , p . 250.
*
C o n sists o f Ten second ru n + S tanding broad Jump + S ig h t pound shotput ♦
Dodge run + Arm pushups + F o o tb a ll punt f o r d ista n c e + B aseball throw
f o r d ista n c e . (Score was th e sub o f th e T sco res weighted as follow s!
Running 1 .2 ; Jumping 1 .0 ; Shotput 1 .0 ; Dodging 1 .0 ; Arm pushups 0.6;
P unting 1 .0 ; Throwing 1 .5 ) .
34
Lawrence T. R o g ers, 1 in h i s p re v io u sly quoted study w ith co lleg e men,
found th a t le g s tr e n g t h , hack s tr e n g th , and v i t a l capacity are not a s s o c ia te d
s ig n if ic a n tly w ith s p r i n t i n g a b i l i t y .
They did y ie ld a m u ltip le c o r r e la ti o n
w ith the c r i t e r i o n , how ever, which was alm ost as la rg e as th a t d eriv e d from
th e group o f n in e m easures o f physique stu d ied .
Rogers concluded t h a t t h i s
"may very p o s s ib ly in d ic a te t h a t t e s t s of fu n ctio n are in general r e l a t e d
2
more highly to s p r i n t i n g a b i l i t y than are t e s t s of physique."
In an a r t i c l e on th e im portance o f arm stren g th in a th le t ic s , Me Cloy
3
re p o rte d the end r e s u l t s o f e ig h t d if f e r e n t s tu d ie s made by graduate
stu d e n ts a t th e U n iv e rs ity o f Iowa.
ly th e same.
The method used in each study was rough­
A c r i t e r i o n o f a t h l e t i c a b i l i t y was e s ta b lis h e d and th e R ogers
S tren g th Test was a d m in iste re d .
Z ero -o rd er and m u ltip le c o r re la tio n s and
m u ltip le re g re s sio n e q u a tio n tech n iq u es were employed and conclusions drawn.
In two stu d ie s th e c r i t e r i o n was a b a tte ry o f motor a b ility t e s t elem en ts
in clu d in g tra c k and f i e l d e v e n ts , weight throwing events, and a g i l i t y t e s t s .
In th re e cases th e c r i t e r i o n was a combined score in tra c k and f i e l d e v e n ts .
One study used an a c c e p ta b le r a t i n g o f fo o tb a ll a b i l i t y and ano th er a
su b je c tiv e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f p u p ils f o r o la ss work by the p h y sic a l educa­
tio n in s tr u c to r s .
From th e evidence g athered Me Cloy concluded th a t "In
a l l o f the ca se s l i s t e d above ex cept f o o tb a ll, back and leg stre n g th seemed
to be o f r e l a t iv e ly l i t t l e
im portance fo r p re d ic tin g e ith e r general m otor
a b i l i t y , tra c k and f i e l d a b i l i t y , o r c la s s if ic a tio n ." *
A lso, "in th e f o o t -
1.
A Study o f R e la tio n sh ip s Between C ertain A spects o f Physique and S p r in t­
ing A b ility .
2.
Ib id . . pp 54-55.
3.
C. H. Me C loy, The A pparent Importance o f Arm Strength in A th le tic s ,
Research Q u a rte rly . 7 (March, 1934), pp. 3-11.
4.
I b id ., P. 7.
35
b a l l stu d y th e back s tre n g th , le g s tre n g th , and d ip p in g s tr e n g th were much
more im p o rta n t." ^
And, "th e r e s u lts . . . .
seem to in d ic a te th a t stro n g
arms and sh o u ld er g i r d l e s are o f even g re a te r im portance th an back and le g
2
s tr e n g th f o r g e n e ra l motor performance . . , . "
*Z
Wendler an aly zed th e stre n g th o f fo rty -se v e n d i f f e r e n t muscle groups
o b ta in e d on 474 men and women by means of the U niversal dynamometer, in
o r d e r to determ ine th e muscle groups th a t are the most v a lu a b le fo r p re ­
d i c t i n g t o t a l s tre n g th .
s tr e n g th c r i t e r i o n .
The sum of the measurements was used a s the t o t a l
Twenty-one of th e fo rty -sev en groups were s e le c te d f o r
f u r t h e r a n a ly s is on th e b a s is o f major importance in p h y s ic a l a c t i v i t y .
Each measure was i n te r c o r r e la te d and m ultiple re g re s s io n s were computed to
f i n d th e b e s t com binations.
I t was found th a t th e stun o f th e s tr e n g th s o f
f o u r musGle groups, the thigh fle x o rs , th e le g e x te n s o rs , th e arm f le x o r s ,
an d the p e c t o r a l i s m ajor gave a highly r e lia b le p r e d ic tio n o f t o t a l s tre n g th
o f men.
The c o r r e la tio n was .933.
For women, s ix w eighted m uscle groups
combined to y i e l d a c o r r e la tio n of .938 w ith the c r i t e r i o n .
They in clu d ed
l e g and th ig h e x te n s o rs , hand and thigjh fle x o rs , th e d e l t o i d s , and th e
p e c t o r a l i s m ajor.
On th e b a s is of a comparative study Wendler i n d i r e c tly
confirm ed th e v a l i d i t y o f the In te rc o lle g ia te S tren g th T e s t when he s ta te d ,
"The above b a t t e r i e s are alm ost as valuable for th e p r e d ic tio n o f t o t a l
s tr e n g th a s th e e n t i r e I n te r c o lle g ia te Strength T est . . . . 1,4
1.
I b i d . . p. 8 .
2 m I b id . , p. 10.
3.
A. W endler, An A n a ly tic a l Study o f Strength T e s ts U sing th e U n iv ersal
Dynamometer, Supplement, He search Q u a rte rly . VI (O cto b er, 1935),
p p . 81-85.
4.
I b id . , p. 85.
. '-
36
Cozens^- stu d ie d th e u s e f u lln e s s o f v a rio u s forms o f the Rogers S tren g th
T e st and Me Cloy1s Arm S tren g th Index in p r e d i c tin g gen eral a t h l e t i c a b i l i t y
o f c o lle g e men.
Arm push and p u ll measured by a hand dynamometer w ith
attach m en ts, and knee re s is ta n c e and knee p u l l were a ls o included in the
stu d y .
Lung cap acity was o m itted .
The c r i t e r i o n of a t h l e t i c a b i l i t y was
th e Cozens General A th le tic A b ility T e s t.*
The s u b je c ts were 250 freshm en.
In d iv id u a l elem ents o f the c r i t e r i o n c o r r e la te d between .3 0 and .47 w ith th e
Rogers S trength Index.
.5 7 .
The r e s u l tin g c o r r e la tio n with th e c r ite r io n was
The same item s tended to have h ig h e r c o r r e la tio n s w ith the Rogers Arm
S tre n g th Index.
The in d iv id u a l elem ents y ie ld e d c o r r e la tio n s w ith t h i s
measure between .30 and .54 w hile th e c r i t e r i o n had an r s .6 1 .
An index
composed o f th e sum o f c h in s, d ip s, and h e ig h t proved alm ost as e f f ic ie n t
as a measure o f general a t h l e t i c a b i l i t y as th e b e s t index rev ealed , which
in clu d ed in a d d itio n le g l i f t and knee r e s is ta n c e .
These In d ices were evolved
from experim entation w ith te n s tre n g th t e s t item s and f a c to r s o f age, h e ig h t,
w eig h t.
T h is evidence s u b s ta n tia te s in p a r t Me Cloy1s fin d in g s r e la tiv e to
th e ap p aren t importance e f arm s tre n g th in a t h l e t i c s .
Cozens also d ev ised a
sh o rt b a tte r y o f t e s t s f o r m easuring th e s tr e n g th o f c o lle g e men, which con­
s i s t e d o f fiv e weighted m easures, namely, back l i f t , le g l i f t , arm push,
c h in s, and d ip s.
c r ite rio n .
This b a tte r y r e s u lte d in an R o f .982 w ith the ten t e s t
"The muscle group sampling in th e s h o rt b a tte r y o f t e s t s agrees
f a i r l y w ell w ith Wendler1s study which u sed as a c r i te r i o n the stre n g th s o f
1.
F . W. Cozens, S trength T e s ts a s M easures o f General A th le tic A b ility
in C ollege Men, Research Q u a rte rly . XI (March, 1940), pp. 45-52.
*
A w ei^ ite d b a tte ry c o n s is tin g o f b a s e b a ll throw f o r d ista n c e , f o o tb a ll
punt f o r d ista n c e , b a r snap f o r d is ta n c e , sta n d in g broad jump,
dodging o r maze ru n , 300-yard ru n , and d ip s .
37
47 d if f e r e n t m uscle g ro u p s."^
Cozens also produced evidence to show th a t
the f a c to r s o f ag e, h e ig h t, a id weight should not be used in any b a t t e r y
p u rp o rtin g to m easure th e s tre n g th of college men.
In an a n a ly s is o f s tre n g th v a ria b le s , Larson
2
found t h a t w ith c o lle g e
men the arm s tr e n g th measure in the Hogers S trength Index c o n trib u te d approx­
im ately 90 p e r c e n t o f the 38 p e r cent co n trib u tio n of the "w eighted" t e s t
in p r e d ic tin g m otor a b i l i t y .
The c r ite r io n fo r the same was the com posite
score on a group o f f i f t e e n gym nastic, tra ck and f i e l d , and s p o rts s k i l l s .
Both chinning and d ip ping had h ig h er c o rre la tio n s (.6 8 and .6 3 ) w ith th e
c r ite r io n than th e t o t a l index scores of the Rogers S tren g th Index, Rogers
P hysical F itn e s s Index, and th e Mac Curdy P hysical Capacity T e s t.*
These
in d ices showed c o r r e la tio n s w ith the c r ite r io n of .5 9 , .5 6 , and .48 re sp e c ­
tiv e ly .
T h is a g a in in d ic a te d th a t s tre n g th , p a r tic u la r ly arm s tr e n g th , is
highly im p o rtan t to success in gen eral motor a b ility and a t h l e t i c e v e n ts .
Several s tu d ie s o f the r e la tio n o f stren g th to performance a b i l i t y in
a th le tic s have been conducted w ith women.
One of the f i r s t of th e se i n n
v e s tig a tio n s , which was re p o rte d by T heresa Anderson, attem pted to p r e d ic t
the a t h l e t i c a b i l i t y o f high school g i r l s by means of w eighted s tr e n g th
te s ts .
The c r i t e r i a used were a combined score on four tra c k and f i e l d
events and the R ogers S tre n g th T e st, w ith lung capacity o m itted , th ig h
stren g th added, and ch in s and d ip s scored by Me C loy's method.
hundred s u b je c ts were employed.
Three
The r e s u lts le d to the statem en t t h a t ,
1.
I b id ., p . 51.
2.
L. A. L arso n , A F acto r and V a lid ity A nalysis of S trength V a ria b le s and
T e sts w ith a T e st Combination o f Chinning, Dipping, and V e r tic a l
Jump, R esearch Q u a rte rly . XI (December, 1940), pp. 82-96.
*,
Sum o f ( r i g h t g r ip , l e f t g r ip , back stre n g th , le g s tre n g th , arm p u llin g
f o rc e , arm pushing fo rc e ) tim es ( v e r tic a l jump) d iv id ed by 100.
3.
Weighted S tre n g th T e sts f o r the P re d ic tio n of A th le tic A b ility in High
School G -irls, R esearch Q u a rte rly , VII (March, 1936), pp. 136-142.
38
Meven w ith the b e s t combination and weighting of s tr e n g th t e s t s , n e ith e r the
• t o t a l strength* nor th e P h y sical F itn ess Index i s a very v a lid p r e d ic to r
o f th e 'a t h l e t i c a b i l i t y 1 of th e g i r l s te ste d ." * ’ A more e x te n siv e and
p a r a l l e l study made l a t e r by th e same in v e s tig a to r re v e a le d s im ila r f in d .
in g s .
2
C arpenter^ re p o rte d a study o f the r e la tio n o f s tr e n g th to the a t h l e t i c
a b i l i t y o f one hundred college women.
Using m o d ific a tio n s and com binations
o f th e I n te r c o lle g ia te S trength T est and of the M artin T e st as the s tre n g th
c r i t e r i a , and a combined tra c k and f ie ld score in th r e e e v e n ts as the
a t h l e t i c a b i l i t y c r i te r i o n she rep o rted c o r r e la tio n s between the two f a c to rs
ra n g in g from .3 2 to .4 0 .
"Although these c o r r e la tio n s are somewhat low,
th e y show a d e f i n it e l y p o s itiv e re la tio n s h ip between s tre n g th and a t h l e t i c
p erfo rm an ce."*
S im ila r r e s u l t s were o b tained by Scott
o f Iowa women.
5
w ith a group o f 155 U n iv ersity
C o rre la tio n s of .35 to .36 and .32 to .41 were o b tain ed be­
tween S tren g th Index and vario u s c r i t e r i a o f a t h l e t i c a b i l i t y and arm
s tr e n g th r e s p e c tiv e ly .
6
K lin g found somewhat h i^ ie r c o rre la tio n s in a n o th e r group of c o lle g e
women.
The Hogers S trength T est and a composite sc o re in fo u r ev e n ts, name-
1. I b i d . . p. 142.
2. S tu d ie s in S tren g th T estin g fo r H i^i School G i r l s , Be search Q u a rte rly .
V III (O ctober, 1937), pp. 69-73.
3. A. C arp en ter, A C r itic a l Study of the F a c to rs D eterm ining E ffe c tiv e
S tren g th T e sts f o r Women, Be search Q u a rte rly . IX (December, 1938),
pp. 3—32*
4. I b i d . , p. 23.
5. M. G. S c o tt, The Assesment o f Motor A b i l i t i e s o f C ollege Women Through
O b jectiv e T e s ts , Research Q uarterly. X (O cto b er, 1939), pp. 63-83.
6 . V. M. X lin g , The B elatio n sh ip Between P h y sic a l C ap acity and A th le tic
A b ility Among College Women, Supplement, Be search Q u a rte rly . IX
(March, 1938), pp. 60-62.
39
ly , th e ?5-yard dash, running broad jump, ru n n in g higfc jump, and bar v a u lt,
were the c r i t e r i a employed.
S tren g th and a t h l e t i c a b i l i t y c o rre la tio n s
ranged from .56 to .61.
An experim ent to determ ine the r e la tio n s h ip between s tre n g th and b a sk e t­
b a ll achievement was conducted by H inton and E arick^ with s ix ty -fo u r c o lle g e
women.
A composite score on s ix in d iv id u a l b a s k e tb a ll s k i l l t e s t s was used
as th e c r ite r io n o f b a s k e tb a ll a b i l i t y .
s tre n g th measure.
The Rogers T est was used as th e
The h i p e s t c o r r e la tio n between b a s k e tb a ll achievement
and any sin g le stre n g th v a r ia b le was found w ith arm s tre n g th with r s .5 5 .
HT hls fin d in g would le a d one to b e lie v e t h a t s tre n g th o f arms p lay s a g r e a t­
e r p a r t in th e a c q u irin g o f b a s k e tb a ll s k i l l s than would o rd in a rily be
th o u ^ it."
2
Back and le g s tre n g th s were n e x t in rank o rd er with re sp e c tiv e
c o r re la tio n s with the c r i t e r i o n o f .4 5 and .3 8 .
A m u ltip le c o rre la tio n of
.694 was found between th e th r e e v a r ia b le s , lu n g ca p a c ity , back l i f t , and
arm s tre n g th , and the c r i t e r i o n .
The S tre n g th Index and the composite score
y ie ld e d a c o e f fic ie n t o f c o r r e la tio n o f .809 a f t e r c o rre c tio n f o r a tte n u a tio n .
T his evidence im p lies a marked r e la tio n s h ip between s tre n g th and achievement
in b a s k e tb a ll s k i l l s with c o lle g e women.
The F actor A nalysis S tu d ie s, r e f e r r e d t o e a r l i e r , also shed lig h t on
the g en eral problem.
A summary ta b le o f th e se s tu d ie s , u t i l i z i n g the zero -
o rd e r c o rre la tio n s deriv ed th e r e in between v a rio u s measures of stre n g th and
a t h l e t i c a b i l i t y , i s found bn th e fo llo w in g page.
A p e ru s a l of t h i s ta b le
seems to in d ic a te th a t f o r th e groups inv o lv ed th e re i s in general a low to
1.
S . A. Hinton and L. R arlck , The C o rre la tio n of Rogers Te st o f P h y sical
Capacity and the Cubberley and Cozens Measurement o f Achievement in
B ask etb all, Research Q u a rte rly . XI (O ctober, 1940), pp. 58-65.
2.
I b id . , p. 64.
40
TA3L2 III
Surswiy o f fa cto r A nalysis S t a le s Indicating Zero-orc'^r Correlntl-r.
Betvoon Tnrleu* llwmwB of Strength anft A th letic A M 'lty
a a
Strongth
Crltorlon
Inrestlcfttor*
C. H. Ko Cloy
a! J 3«S
3sn* II
nn5n n n
I H
s
M
& s
h
1
*•
s
vi
f,
►1
2
2 2
••
«•
+1
Vi
s
CO
3
3
VO
to
a
rj
to
•3
VO
>
?.
«*
£3
rj
as
&#
8
S •
d
Is
H■
• a
mn
75High Pul 1-irp
73
«"
Va si- -aIt *•* C It
»
3,. 2?. is
s hI'll<
Strength^
.069
High
School
Pull-uy
Strength
.-36
Otrls
272 Hlgi Leg l i f t
3nefc L ift
Seheol
Grips
Boy*
Chine
Dips
Pool o f T este
100
College
Men
1 6 3 Jun­
io r Etc*
School
Girls
. ’ oS
.'m
.V 4 C
.r r ~
. ^ 7 .3 2 7
.^72 . ’ 'I?
•r>2C
M
.^ 7 * .te c
.7 1 0
.U 2
t
liodif led
Rogers
Strength
Ir.dex
Modified
R o g e rs
• x r' l
.2 C 7
.G 'L
.5 9 2
•
Stren g th
Ir.dex
.te h
P u ll-u o
S tren g th _
-0 6 5
Leg L i f t
- . ‘-vl?
3ftch L i f t
Grips
-.3 6 0
7? Col­ Modified
leg e Me: Rogers
Strength
Index
•
.teo
- .* 6
Rogers
Stren g th
Ir.dex
5£D
• ’ To
. ' rl
ho6 Higi Ifc ilfie d
Scho-1
Boys
• 751*
.6on
.759
.^0- .cyi
.6 1 2
01 Col- Leg L ift -.076
lee® !'-o- Bach L i f t .075
L o ft S r i- .P 2 S
Right Orly •197
.271
. 3 '-
• r ?3
.6 3 6
.390
332
. 62 ?
.6 6 3
•3te
775
.?hs
.'-95
.206
-? 6
.-S 6
- **59
.te l
330
.flL
.5 6 9
.7lU .llU
t e 2 . 1’ 2
.3 1 6
.367
160 Col­ Weighted
leg e Her Rogers
Strength
Index
•592
Bad: L ift
•?72
Leelift
• 379
.63 U
Dips
Chins
^
100 Col- Total
S tre n g th
1 ego
Vonen
Boro
(Martin Test
Plus Inter­
c o lle g ia te
Pest)
•
•*
2 *3
A
School
Bojrs
66
S . Me Cl07
♦»
t
P ut
r-t e
2
.660
.2 0 6
•56 5
See Table I , y . 21 fo r references.
1 . L. A. Larson, A Pactor and V a lid ity Analysis of Strength Variable
t e r lr . H (Decenbcr, 1 9 ^ ) , pp. 22-96.
and Tests with a Test C->-.blnntlon o f Chinning, D ly-ln g, and V ertical Jusn, Bescqrch Quor--
41
m oderate p o s itiv e c o rre la tio n between v a rio u s s tre n g th measures and a host o f
in d iv id u a l a t h l e t i c events which are p r im a r ily o f the tra c k and f i e l d type.
Evidence to th e co n trary is found in th e H utto and th e H arick stu d ie s in the
case o f the s p rin t e v en ts.
o th e rw ise .
The preponderance o f evidence, however, is
Of the in d iv id u al v a r ia b le s , th e sh o t-p u t events show the high­
e s t c o rre la tio n s w ith stre n g th .
The com posite c r i te r i o n measures of a th le tic
a b i l i t y , general motor a b i l i t y , and t r a c k and f i e l d show more s ig n ific a n t
r e la tio n s h ip with stre n g th , c o r r e la tio n s ran g in g in degree from s u b sta n tia l
to h ig i.
A review of the l i t e r a t u r e re v e a ls t h a t s tre n g th apparently i s an im­
p o r ta n t f a c to r in a t h l e t i c a b i l i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r success in v a rs ity
s p o r ts .
Strength t e s t s , however, have been used in schools p rim a rily as
c l a s s i f i e r s f o r general performance.
L i t t l e inform ation i s a v a ila b le con­
c e rn in g stren g th and i t s a d a p ta b ility f o r s p e c if ic s p o rts .
To quote
Me Cloy, "The place o f stren g th t e s t s a s p r e d ic to r s o f a b i l i t y in sp e c ific
s p o rts needs f u rth e r in v e stig a tio n ." *
The R elation o f Power t o A th le tic Success
Dudley Sargent, who pioneered th e s tr e n g th t e s t i n g movement, l a t e r
o
came to th e conclusion th a t th e se t e s t s had d e f i n it e lim ita tio n s in reveal­
in g g en eral a t h l e t i c p o t e n t i a l i t ie s .
He b e lie v e d th a t th e t e s t s were more
a p p lic a b le to gymnasts than to o th er a t h l e t e s .
A fte r s e v e ra l years of
experim entation he proposed a simple t e s t , which he c a lle d "The P hysical
T e st of a Man".
The t e s t measured the a b i l i t y of th e in d iv id u a l to over-
1.
C. H. Uc Cloy, The ip p aren t Im portance o f Arm S tren g th in A th le tic s,
He search f la a rte rly . V (March, 1 9 3 4 ), p . 8.
8.
Twenty T ears' P ro g ress in E ffic ie n c y T e s ts , American P hysical Education
Heview. XVIII (October, 1913), p p . 452-456.
42
come the force o f g r a v ity hy jum ping as high as p o s sih le s tr a ig h t up in to
th e a i r .
The le a p was scored by s u b tra c tin g the in d iv id u a l's h e ig h t from
th e h eig h t reached in th e jump hy the crown of the head.
This sc o re was
then combined w ith h e ig h t and w e i^ it to determine the s u b je c t's e f f ic ie n c y
in the follow ing manner* Index a
S argent s ta te d , "The t e s t
as a whole may be c o n sid e re d a s a momentary try -o u t of o n e 's s tre n g th ,
speed, energy and d e x te r ity combined . . . .
I th in k i t should p reced e any
„1
o th e r a ll-a ro u n d p h y s ic a l t e s t in b a s ic value."
This t e s t , commonly c a lle d e i t h e r the Sargent Jump o r v e r t i c a l jump,
was stu d ied s t a t i s t i c a l l y by L. ff. Sargent and rep o rted on
2
in 1924.
He
found th e jump to be independent o f both height and w e i^ it and o th e r s tr u c ­
tu r a l elem ents in s tu d e n ts above high school age.
He suggested th e p o s s i­
b i l i t y o f making com parisons on th e b a s is o f work p er u n i t of w eight r a th e r
than on th e t o t a l en erg y expended in the Jump, which would r e s u lt in u sin g
th e h e i^ it of jump alo n e as th e e ffic ie n c y measure.
He says,
O bviously, th e p ro d u ct o f 'jum p' and weight g iv e s the
work done o r energy expended . . . .
I f Instead, of mak­
ing th e com parison on the b a s is o f t o t a l work o f jump,
we d e s ir e an e x p re ssio n o f work p e r u n ity of w eight,
th i s can be o b ta in e d by d iv id in g the ex p ressio n fo r work
by w eig h t, wiiich o f course g ives us h e i ^ i t o f jump a lo n e .
Hence h e ig h t jumped above stan d in g h e ig h t, . . . . is
a measure o f work done p e r u n it o f body w eight.
Sargent m aintained t h a t th e jump i s a t e s t o f power, or th e time r a t e o f
doing work.
He p o in te d out t h a t th e more speed involved in the Jump, th e
1.
D. A. S argent, The P h y s ic a l T est of a Man, American P h y sic a l E ducation
Heview. XXVI ( A p ril, 1921), p . 191.
2.
Some O bservations on the Sargent T est o f Heuro-Muscular E ffic ie n c y ,
American P h y s ic a l E ducation Heview. XXIX (F ebruary, 1924), pp. 47-56.
3.
I b i d . . P. 48.
43
s h o r te r the space o f time to perform a s e t amount o f work, and hence the
g r e a te r th e power developed.
Me Cloy* v e r i f i e d th e jump as a te a t o f power.
He s ta te d t h a t th e Jump i s p rim a rily a t e s t o f the a b i l i t y of the body to
develop power r e la tiv e to the w eight o f th e In d iv id u a l h im se lf.
He also
a s s e r te d , "The Sargent type jump is n o t th e one p e r f e c t t e s t - but i t is
p ro b ab ly th e one b est t e s t we have fo r p r e d ic tin g th e ex p lo siv e energy
(p o w e r).H^
S arg en t, in a study w ith c o lle g e women, found
th a t o f a groiq? se le c te d
f o r t h e i r p ro fic ie n c y in a t h l e t i c s , s ix ty -e e v e n p e r cent were found in the
h ig h e s t q u a r tile w ith resp ec t to the jump and none in the fo u rth .
The same
experim ent w ith groups o f fe e b le minded boys and g i r l s showed th a t f i f t y fo u r p e r cen t o f the boy a t h l e t e s and seventy-one p e r cent of the g i r l
a t h l e t e s jumped a s high as the f i r s t q u a r t il e in t h e i r re sp e c tiv e groups.
He concluded th a t there was a h ig h c o r r e la tio n between a t h l e t i c a b il ity
and perform ance in the v e r tic a l jump.
That same y e a r, Schwegler and E ngelhardt
A
expressed the opinion that
th e t e s t would be improved i f i t were re v is e d so as to be more of a measure
o f su sta in e d d riv in g power.
They suggested u s in g an accumulated score made
by re p ea te d jumps w ithin a f i f t e e n second p e rio d and devised apparatus to
measure the same.
They recommended th e fo llo w in g form ulas fo r computing
..
,
. . . . . .
„
Xfeg § m Sit lh fl. Jyaap.lB. ,.X VBp,1&1
th e p h y sic a l index: fo r co lleg e men!
H eight
» an^...
The Sum o f the Jumna x 7 Weight
fo r
school boys!
Age x H eight
1.
C. H. Me Cloy, Hecent S tu d ies in th e S argent Jump, He search Q uarterly.
I l l (May, 1932), pp. 235-242.
2.
Me Cloy,
3.
S arg en t, pjD. c i t . , p . 54.
4.
H. A. Schwegler and J . L. E n g e lh a rd t, A T e st o f P h y sic a l E fficien cy ,
American P h y sical E ducation Heview , XXIX (November, 1924), pp. 501-505.
c i t . , p. 242.
44
Bovarcl and Cozens'*' I n v e s tig a te d th e p o s s i b i l i t i e s of both the S arg en t
T e st, using b e s t junrp, and th e Schwegler and Engelhardt Test as m easures o f
the general a t h l e t i c a b i l i t y o f c o lle g e men.
They confirmed th e f in d in g s
o f L. W. Sargent t h a t th e jump was independent o f height and weight and
hence need n o t be c o n s id e re d in th e index form ula.
They also found t h a t th e
Schwegler - E n g elh ard t T e s t was o f l i t t l e value in p re d ic tin g g en eral a t h l e t i c
a b i l i t y , b ut th a t th e S arg en t T e st o ffe re d some p o s s i b ili ty f o r use i n
measurement o f t h i s k in d .
The l a t t e r conclusion was based on a c o r r e la tio n
o f .55 between the b e s t jump and a combined score in the high jump, s ta n d ­
ing broad jump, rope clim b , and a te n - la p run (980 y a rd s).
2
The Sargent Jump was in v e s tig a te d by Trethaway to determ ine w hether
i t might be used to f o r e c a s t gym nastic a b i l i t y .
A group of n in e ty - f iv e
co lleg e majors in p h y s ic a l ed u catio n were scored in a ro u tin e f in a l exam­
in a tio n in gym nastics and th e r e s u l t s were c o rre la te d with t h e i r v e r t i c a l
jump scores.
The r e s u l t was a .418 c o e f f ic ie n t.
Trethaway say s, "Such a
c o rre la tio n c o e f f ic ie n t h a s a f o re c a s tin g e ffic ie n c y o f only e ig h t p e r
c e n t, and th e re fo re i s n o t o f much sig n ific a n c e in p ro g n a stie a tin g gym nastic
success according to th e Gymnasium T est which we set up."
Me Cloy^1 s tu d ie d th e r e la tio n s h ip between th e Sargent Jump and "power
a th le tic s " , as r e f l e c t e d by a combined score in fo u r tra c k and f i e l d e v e n ts .
1.
J . P. Bovard and P. W. Cozens, The "Leap-Meter" . An In v e s tig a tio n in to
the P o s s i b i l i t i e s o f th e Sargent T est as .g. Measure of General
A th le tic A b i l i t y .
2.
Edwin Trethaway, A -Study o f C e rta in T e sts And Measurements Used in
P h y sical E d u c a tio n .
S.
I b id . , p . 35.
4.
C. H. Me Cloy, R ecent S tu d ie s in the Sargent Jump, Research Q u a rte rly .
I l l (May, 1932), p p . 235-242.
;;3
45
H is s u b je c ts were se v e ra l groups o f boys and g i r l s ran g in g from elem entary
through c o lle g e age le v e ls .
The Sargent Jump, a f t e r s u f f i c i e n t p r a c tic e
in tec h n iq u e, showed a s e lf - c o r r e la tio n of .95 between the b e s t jump of
each o f two s e r ie s o f th re e jumps.
eq u a lle d .9 8 .
When c o rre c te d f o r a tte n u a tio n i t
The tra c k b a tte r y composed o f the 100-yard dash, running
hig£i jump, sta n d in g broad jump, and e i ^ i t pound shot had a r e l i a b i l i t y of
.3 9 .
I t was found th a t in th e groups Btudied c o r r e la tio n s between the two
measures ra n g e d from .582 to .752.
When combined w ith an a p p ro p ria te age,
h e i ^ r t , w eig h t form ula th e c o rre la tio n s between the v e r t i c a l jump and tra c k
and f i e l d ra n from .661 to .874.
Me Cloy concluded t h a t " th e Sargent jump
when combined w ith some a p p ro p riate fo rm u la -c o n s te lla tio n o f age, h e ig h t,
and w eight, does p re d ic t th e power type o f a t h l e t i c a b i l i t y very a c c u ra te ly
in d eed ."^
And " i t would seem th a t the Sargent jump when sta n d a rd iz e d ,
p r a c tic e d and c o r re c tly ad m in istered is undoubtedly a v a lu a b le t e s t . . . .
T h is t e s t m easures only th e a b i l i t y to develop power . . . .
S h o rtly a f t e r t h i s in v e s tig a tio n Me Cloy
3
made an o th e r b r i e f re p o rt
on th e c o r r e l a t i o n o f the fo rc e used in the Sargent Jump w ith s tre n g th .
An a p p ro p ria te form ula was used to compute the fo rc e .
Z e ro -o rd er, m u ltip le
and p a r t i a l c o r r e la tio n techniques were employed to f in d th e r e l a t io n w ith
s tre n g th o f b ack, le g s , and arms.
The back and le g l i f t gave in s ig n if ic a n t
p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s , w hile arm stren g th gave a la rg e p a r t i a l c o r re la tio n
w ith back and le g s tre n g th h e ld co n sta n t.
Arm s tre n g th re tu rn e d alm ost as
1.
Ib id . . p . 241.
2.
In c. c i t .
3.
C. H. Me Cloy, The Apparent Importance o f Arm S tre n g th in A th le tic s ,
Be s e a rc h Q u a rte rly . V (March, 1934), pp. 3-11.
46
h ig h a c o rre la tio n as d id t o t a l s tre n g th ( r ^
a .8 1 , E ^
a .8 3 ).
It
was concluded th a t arm s tre n g th i s th e most im portant stren g th element in
t h i s jump.
A re c e n t attem pt to v a lid a te v a rio u s methods o f perform ing the Sargent
Jump was undertaken by Van Dalen^ w ith h ig h school hoys.
Among o th er
tech n iq u es in v e stig a te d were th e jump w ith w eights and th e jump w ithout th e
use o f the arms.
A composite sco re on fo u r tra c k and f ie ld events ( s i x -
second ru n , running high jump, s ta n d in g "broad jump, and the shot p u t) was
u sed as th e c r ite r io n .
The jump w ith h a l f pound w eights and th e re g u la r
jump proved "best with c o r r e la tio n s w ith th e c r ite r io n o f .824 and .810
re s p e c tiv e ly .
Van Dalen f e l t t h a t the s lig h t d iffe re n c e did n o t seem to
J u s t i f y the use o f w e i^ its in ro u tin e measurement.
The jump without th e use
o f th e arms showed a c o r r e la tio n o f only .5 1 6 , in d ic a tin g the importance o f
th e arm swing in the su cc essfu l ex ecu tio n o f the jump.
The study ag ain re­
v ea le d th a t power i s h ig h ly e s s e n tia l to success in tra c k and f ie ld a t h l e t i c s .
2
In 1935 Howard Mac Curdy p u b lish e d th e r e s u l t s of a study of a t e s t o f
power which he devised fo r m easuring th e p h y s ic a l cap acity of secondary school
boys.
He based h i s t e s t on th e m echanical p r in c ip le th a t power equals fo rc e
tim es v e lo c ity .
The v e r tic a l jump and h i s Force Index,* which is a mod­
i f i c a t i o n o f the Eogers S tren g th T e s t, are u sed as the measures of v e lo c ity
and fo rce re sp e c tiv e ly in h i s t e s t .
T h e ir product i s divided ty one
hundred to give an index fig u re o f the power developed by the in d iv id u a l.
1.
0. Van Dalen, New S tu d ies in the S argent Jump, He search Q u arterly . XI
(May, 1940), pp. 112-115.
2.
A T est fo r M easuring the P h y sic a l C apacity o f Secondary School Boys.
*
See page 3? f o r a d e s c rip tio n o f th e t e s t s involved.
The s u b s t i t u t i o n o f stre n g th f o r the force or load f a c to r in th e power equa­
tio n i s n o t e x a c tly tr u e p h y s ic a lly .
However, the t e s t , c a lle d HThe P h y sic a l
C apacity In d e x " , ap p ears to be an ex c e lle n t measure of th e k in d o f m uscular
c a p a c ity found in th e perform ance of a t h l e t i c s k il l s .
A c o r r e la t io n o f
.8 3 was o b ta in e d between t h i s measure and the Modified Cozens* A th le tic
Perform ance Index* in a group o f 103 six teen y ear old boys.
U sing b i - s e r i a l
r , c o r r e la tio n s o f .88 and .86 were found in two groups between P h y sic a l
C apacity Index and a t h l e t i c achievem ent, as measured by making a v a r s ity
le tte r.
The c o r r e la tio n d eriv ed between the Physical C apacity Index and
r a tin g s o f b a s k e tb a ll a b i l i t y was only .3 8 .
Mac Curdy concluded th a t th e
t e s t does n o t m easure s p e c ific a th le ti c s k i l l to a hig£. d e g re e .
a b i l i t y o f th e P h y sic a l C apacity Index was found to be v e ry h ig h .
The r e l i ­
The s e l f
r o b tain ed was .9 3 w ith a group o f 220 cases from f if te e n and a h a l f to
twenty y e a rs o f ag e.
The v e r t i c a l jump, used by most i n v e s ti g a to r s as the
power m easure, showed s u b s ta n tia l re la tio n s h ip s with a t h l e t i c perform ance
(M odified Cozens* A th le tic In d ex ), r a .6 8 , and with a t h l e t i c achievement
(making a v a r s i t y l e t t e r ) , b i - s e r i a l r a .84.
The jump a s m easured w ith
s p e c ia lly b u i l t ap p a ra tu s had a r e l i a b i l i t y o f .98.
Mac Curdy concluded, "The
P h y sic al C ap acity Index was proven to be a r e lia b le and v a l i d in stru m en t f o r
m easuring th e power o f th e la rg e muscle groups . . . .
(s n d ) i s an e x c e lle n t
measure o f th e m uscular p o t e n t i a l i t i e s req u ired fo r p h y s ic a l achievem ent."^
Hogers ag reed
t h a t t h i s index i s a more v a lid measure o f g e n e ra l a t h l e t i c
a b i l i t y th an th e S tre n g th Index and recommends i t s use in p re fe re n c e to th e
*
See page 33 f o r a d e s c rip tio n o f the events u t iliz e d .
Ib id . . p . 40.
2.
P. R. R o g ers, A Review o f Recent S trength T esting L i t e r a t u r e , Jo u rn a l o f
H e a lth and P h y sic a l E d u catio n . 7 (March, 1934), p . 1 0 .
48
l a t t e r to determ ine p re se n t a t h l e t i c a b i l i t y .
H oskins,* working w ith members o f fo u r freshm an v a r s ity co lleg e sp o rts
squads, c o rre la te d th e Sargent Jump w ith a s u b je c tiv e p ro fic ie n c y r a tin g in
each s p o rt.
He found the fo llo w in g c o r r e la tio n s :
f o o tb a ll a b i l i t y ,
r a .238; boxing, r s .288; tr a c k , r - .442; and swimming, r
c o r r e la tio n s were lower than was ex p ected .
a
.6 1 8 .
The
H oskins s ta te d th a t t h i s may
have been due to the u n r e l i a b il i t y of th e s e v e ra l d if f e r e n t examiners who
were in v o lv ed in making th e su b je c tiv e r a t i n g s .
The sm all siz e and r e la tiv e
homogeneity o f the groups d o u b tle ssly ten d ed to low er the c o e f f ic ie n ts .
I t i s otherw ise d i f f i c u l t to ex o lain why f o o tb a ll a b i l i t y should show so
much lower a r e la tio n s h ip w ith th e power f a c t o r th an swimming.
A power t e s t designed to measure th e horsepow er developed by a charging
f o o tb a ll lineman was o rig in a te d i?y C le v e tt
o f Purdue U n iv e rsity .
The
a p p aratu s has the general appearance o f a linem an1 s charging sled w ith
a p p ro p ria te instrum ents fo r measurement.
power.
The t e s t aimed to measure native
I t was found th a t "by and la r g e , th e h e a v ie s t men scored h ig h e st in
horsepow er, although many men in th e m iddle w eig h ts r e g is te r e d g r e a te r
j5
power than men with f o rty o r even f i f t y pounds a d v an tag e."'
C lev ett f e l t
th a t th e t e s t s i l l u s t r a t e d the r e l a t iv e e f f ic ie n c y of good and bad form.
He s ta te d , "Native power, i t was shown, i s one th in g ; th e a b i l i t y to use
4
i t i s a n o th e r."
1.
R. N. H oskins, The R e la tio n sh ip of M easurements of General Motor Capacity
to the Learning o f S p ecific Psycho-M otor S k i lls , Research Q u a rte rly .
V (March, 1934), pp. 63-72.
2.
M. L. C le v e tt, Power T e sts fo r F o o tb a ll P la y e r s , A th le tic J o u rn a l. XVII
(March, 1937), pp. 7-8.
3.
I b id . . p. 8.
4.
I b id . . p . 7.
49
A group o f s e v e ra l independent s tu d ie s w ith g i r l s and women conclu­
s iv e ly showed th e S argent Jump to he an im portant t e s t elem ent f o r th e
p r e d ic tio n of g e n e ra l a t h l e t i c a b i l i t y .
Although th e c o r r e la tio n s ran some­
what lo w er, the r e s u l t s in g en e ral were s im ila r to th o se found w ith hoys and
men.
AdamB^ found a c o r r e la tio n w ith ju n io r high school g i r l s o f .604 be­
tween th e jump and a t h l e t i c a b i l i t y (combined score in a p o ta to r a c e , stand­
in g broad jump, and b a s k e tb a ll throw fo r d is ta n c e ),
Anderson^ used a sub­
j e c t i v e r a tin g and a t o t a l tr a c k and f i e l d score f o r c r i t e r i a and o b ta in e d
r e s p e c tiv e c o r r e la tio n s o f .609 and .540 with the jump in a group o f high
sch o o l g i r l s .
C arp e n te r
t e s t e d one hundred co lleg e women and d isco v e red
a c o r r e la tio n o f .527 between the jump and general t r a c k and f i e l d a b i l i t y .
S c o tt
found s im ila r r e s u l t s in an o th er group o f c o lle g e women.
She con­
clu d ed t h a t the S argent Jump was one of th e b e s t s in g le item s f o r e v a lu a tin g
th e g e n e ra l m otor a b i l i t y o f c o lle g e women.
A survey o f s t i l l a n o th e r group o f s tu d ie s (th e F a c to r A n aly sis Group)
r e v e a ls , a s in d ic a te d in Table 17 on the follow ing page, th a t power, as
m easured by the v e r t i c a l jump, has a d e f in ite p o s itiv e r e la tio n s h ip to a
number o f in d iv id u a l and g e n e ra l measures of a t h l e t i c a b i l i t y .
sh ip v a r ie s m arkedly w ith th e type o f t e s t involved.
The r e l a t io n ­
The sh o t-p u t ev e n ts
1.
B. G. Adams, The Study o f Age, H eigfrt, Weight, and Power as C la s s if ic a ­
ti o n F a c to rs f o r J u n io r Hi^h School G ir ls , R esearch Q u a rte rly . 7
(May, 1 934), p p . 95-100.
2.
T h e resa A nderson, S tu d ie s in S trength T estin g f o r Higfr School G ir ls ,
Research Q u a rte rly . T i l l (O ctober, 1937), pp. 66-73.
3.
A ile e n C a rp e n ter, S tre n g th , Power, and "Fem ininity" as F a c to rs In flu e n c ­
in g the A t h l e t i c Perform ance of College Women, Research Q u a rte rly .
IX (May, 1938), p p . 120-127.
4.
M. G. S c o tt, The Assessm ent o f Motor A b ilitie s o f C ollege Women Through
O b jectiv e T e s ts , R esearch Q u a rte rly . X (OctoOer, 1939), p p . 63-83.
50
TABLE IV
Summary o f F acto r A nalysis S tu d ies I n d ic a tin g Z ero -o rd er C o rrelatio n s
Between Power as Measured "by th e Sargent Jump and Various
Measures o f A th le tic A b ility
In v e s tig a to r*
C. H. Me Cloy
Subjects
75
75
66
66
H.
H.
H.
H.
S.
S.
S.
S.
Boys
Boys
G irls
G irls
A t h le ti c C rite rio n *
Zero-Order
C o rrelatio n s
G eneral Motor A b ility Index
T o ta l Track & F ie ld P o in ts
G eneral Motor A b ility Index
T o tal Track & F ie ld P o in ts
.747
.641
.661
.569
Coleman
100 College Men
4 l b . S hot-put
8 l b . Shot-put
12 l b . Shot-put
16 l b . Shot-put
24 l b . Shot-put
Indoor B aseb all Throw
A t h le ti c A b ility R a tin g
.557
.444
.333
.392
.247
.312
.451
H a rris
165 J r . H .S .G irls
3 lb . Shot-T>ut
12 l b . S hot-put
40 Yard Dash
S tanding Broad Jump
B a s k e tb a ll Throw
O b stacle Relay
.582
.531
.595
.731
.563
.617
R arick
51 College Men
30 Yard Dash
4 l b . S hot-put
.642
.432
Motor A b ili ty Index
(G ym nastics, Track & F ie ld ,
and S p o rts S k ills )
.652
Larson^-
160 College Men
*
See Table I , p . 21 fo r re fere n ces and t e s t item s in clu d e d .
1.
L. A. L arson, A Factor and V a lid ity A n a ly sis o f S tren g th V ariables and
T e sts w ith a Test Combination o f C hinning, L ipping, and V e rtic a l Jump,
Be search Q u arterly . XI (December, 1940), pp. 82-96.
51
e x h ib it a low r e la tio n s h ip w ith th e jump f o r th e h eav ier weights to a marked
re la tio n s h ip fo r the l i g h t e r w eig h ts; th e runs and jumps show s u b s ta n tia l
and high c o rre la tio n s and a r e a p p a re n tly more dependent upon power fo r
success; th e general m easures o f a t h l e t i c a b i l i t y demonstrate approxim ately
th e same dependency upon power f o r success as do the runs and jumps.
In b r ie f summary, i t m ight be s a id the l i t e r a t u r e re v e a ls th a t the
Sargent Jump and the Mac Curdy P h y sic a l C apacity Index, from both th e o r e tic a l
and p r a c tic a l view points, have been dem onstrated to be e x c e lle n t measures of
th e type o f power developed in v ig o ro u s a t h l e t i c a c tiv ity .
These measures
show conclusively th a t power i s e s s e n tia l to p ro fic ie n c y in such forms o f
endeavor, p a r tic u la r ly in t r a c k and f i e l d and in general a th le tic perform ­
ance.
There i s , however, a d e a rth of d a ta as to the r e la tiv e importance of
th e power f a c to r to success in d if f e r e n t s p o rts .
Summary
In exhaustive survey o f th e re se a rc h d is c lo s e s th a t:
1, Body s tr u c tu r e , ir r e s p e c tiv e o f the age and sex involved i s
o f varying importance to perform ance a b i l i t y in s p e c ific a t h l e tic events
and sp o rts.
2 . C o n flic tin g r e s u l t s and meager d a ta add to the confusion which
e x is ts concerning a d a p ta b ility o f body b u ild to a th le tic achievement.
S.
Muscular s tre n g th and power are h ig h ly important to success
in vigorous a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s .
4. Muscular s tr e n g th and power t e s t s have been used p rim a rily as
c l a s s i f ie r s fo r general a t h l e t i c perform ance.
5. There i s a d e a r th o f inform ation a v a ila b le as to th e r e la tiv e
importance o f both th e s tr e n g th and power f a c to r s to success in s p e c ific
s p o rts.
CHAPTER I I I
THE PROCEDURE
C ertain d e f i n i t e p ro ced u res were e s ta b lis h e d in o rd e r to in su re a
s c i e n t i f i c a t t a c k o f t h i s problem of th e r e la tio n o f phy siq u e, s tre n g th ,
and power to su cc ess in c o lle g e a th l e t i c s .
A group of re le v a n t and
r e lia b le m easures were s e le c te d fo r study.
These were a p p lie d w ith accept
ed stan d ard s o f anthropom etry to a s u ita b le group o f s u b je c ts .
The r e s u lt
an t measurements were then tre a te d with s t a t i s t i c a l tech n iq u es which were
p e rtin e n t to th e problem.
A d e ta ile d d isc u ssio n o f th ese p ro ced u res may
be found below.
The S elec tio n o f th e S tru c tu ra l and F unctional Measures
Since t h i s resea rch proposed to study th e r e la tio n of physique,
m uscular s tr e n g th , and power to success in a wide v a r ie ty o f a t h l e t i c s a
la rg e number o f the more im portant of th ese t r a i t s were s e le c te d f o r study
in clu d in g th o se which a survey of the l i t e r a t u r e re v e a le d as most worthy
o f in v e s tig a tio n .
The S e le c tio n of S tru c tu ra l Measures
In th e adoption o f a d e f in itio n of general body b u ild , Jorgensen and
H a tle sta d s a id , in a re c e n t study of the determ ination and measurement o f
body b u ild in c o lle g e s tu d e n ts ,
In c o n sid e rin g a concept of b u ild i t seems n ec e ssa ry
t h a t! ( l ) i t re p re s e n t the c h a r a c te r is tic morphology
o f th e in d iv id u a l as a whole . . . . , (2) th a t i t
re p re se n t as n e a rly a9 p o s s ib le th e s k e le ta l elem ents
o f the in d iv id u a l, (3 ) th a t i t be as sim ple as p o ssib le .
Thus body b u ild i s d e fin e d as the w idth-depth r e la tio n ­
ship o f a person compared to h i s s ta tu r e .
2
Somewhat e a r l i e r , Qjiimby ex p ressed much th e same view in a study to de­
term ine a man's weight by b i s body b u ild .
He m aintained th at a r e lia b le
index of weight should be made up from a le n g th , depth, and width measure
o f the sk eleto n .
He s a id , "The m easuring o f th e skeleton in th is th re e -
dim ensional manner would le a d to the ta k in g of h e ig jit, th e shoulder width,
th e chest w idth, the h ip w idth, a id th e ch est depth.
These fiv e measure-
ments give a very accu rate index o f the s iz e of the sk eleto n ."
3
In o rd er to insure a good p ic tu r e of th e body b u ild of an individual
th e p re se n t study u t i l i z e d th ese th ree-d im en sio n al s k e le ta l measures of the
body p lu s o th e rs which th e l i t e r a t u r e of the su b jec t seemed to in d icate
were p e rtin e n t to the s p e c ific problem at hand.
These a d d itio n a l measures
a re : s i t t i n g h eight (which with h e ig h t g iv es a r e f le c t io n of le g le n g th ),
arm span, w eight, and arm g i r t h .
Ann g i r t h , th e only n o n -sk eletal measure
in v e s tig a te d was added because, w ith the apparent importance of arm stre n g th
in a t h l e t i c s in mind, more in fo rm atio n was d e s ir a b le .
The s p e c ific s tr u c tu r a l
t e s t items se le c te d f o r study a re as fo llo w s:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Weight
Standing h e ig h t
S ittin g h e ig h t
Width of sh o u ld ers (b isa c ro m ia l diam eter)
Breadth of c h e st ( e x p ir a tio n and in s p ir a tio n )
Depth of c h e st (e x p ira tio n and in s p ir a tio n )
Width of h ip s ( b i- tr o c h a n te r ic )
Arm span
Arm g irth (b ic e p s, f le x e d and re la x e d )
1.
N. M. Jorgensen and S. L. H a tle s ta d , The D eterm ination and Measurement
of Body Build in Men and Women C ollege S tudents, Research Q u arterly .
XI (December, 1940), p. 63.
2.
B. C. Quimby, What a Man Should Weigh, Research Q u arterly . V (March,
1934), pp. 91-109.
54
TABLE T
Summary o f Recent Sbcperinente I n d ic a tin g Proruency of Occurrence o f
S tr u c tu r a l Measures S elected f o r In v e stig a tio n *
I n v e s tig a to r
8 chnidt^
Rogers
T ear
S tru c tu r a l Itdm s S elected fo r Invr‘9 t i g n t i nn
S u b je c t
S tu d ie d
V e irh t
H eight
S i t t in g
H eirh t
Shoulder
Cheat
Wiath Breadth
Chest
Donth
Him
Width
Arm
Suan
Arm
G irth
1931
A t h l e t i c Types
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
1933
S p r in ti n g
A b ility
X
X
Trunk
Length
X
X
X
X
Arm
Length
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
9
Qninbj^
1931* W eight
P r e d i c t io n
X
X
Irak o v o r1*
1931* High Jump
A b ility
X
X
Log
Length
B re ltln g e r^
1935
T rack A P i e ld
A b ility
X
X
X
X
Batson®
1935
Th ro v in g
A b ility
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Me Ifarray?
1937
T rack A P ie ld
A b ility
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
B e a ll 8
1939
A t h l e t i c T^pes
and A b i l i t y
X
X
X
X
X
X
Arm
Length
G irth
G ir th
G irth
Metheny^
1939
R a c ia l A t h le tic
A b ility
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Arn
Length
Jorgensen 1 0
1 9 U0
Body B u ild
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
^
X
She SQ joejy does n o t i n d ic a te a l l item s included lr. th ese s tu d ie s .
1. P. A. Bchsddt and V. X o hlrauech, P hysiology o f E x e rc ise .
2*
3.
k.
5.
6.
L. T . R o g ers, £ S tudy o f ifelA tlonshloB S etveen C ertain Aspects o f Physique and S p rin tin g A b i l i t y .
R. C. (feiimby, Vhat a Man S hould Weigh, Research Q u a rte rly . V (March, 193*0 . ^ • nl - l n0H. I ra k o v o r , J ^ s . B e la tlo n
si P h y sica l
S ta tu re & A b l l l t ; - In the ayyilflr. High Ju m .
1 . B r e ltln g e r , Body Torn and A th le tic Achievement.
I . 0 . V ateon, A S tudy
si 122£ g e la tio n si C e rta in
si S k e le ta l
Measurements o£ C o lle y Womento Throwing A b i l i t y .
7.
J . 0 . Me H urray, 2 h £ B e la tlo a
g r a f f i t o to A *hl£Ut t a f f l '
8.
B. B e a l l. The H a la tio n o f T arieu e A n thrononetrlc Measurements o f S elected Coller.o Women to SuccesB In C e rta in
Physical Actlrltlea.
9.
B. Metheny, Some D if fe r e n c e s In B odily P ro p o rtio n s Between American Tier,to and White Hale C ollege S tu d e n ts aa
Belated to A th le t ic P erform ance, Beeearch Q u a rte rly . Z (December, 1939), pp. Ul- 5 3 .
10. E. E. Jorgensen and 8. L. B a tle s ta d , The D eterm ination and Measurement of Body B uild In Men and Women C o lleg e
S tu d e n ts , B eeearch Quarterly. XI (December, 1 9 ^ ) , pp. 60-77-
55
T ab le V on th e p reced in g page in d ic a te s th e frequency o f occurrence of the
m easures used in t h i s study in o th er recen t experim ents of a s im ila r or
r e l a t e d n a tu r e .
The S electio n o f S tren g th M easures
The m uscular stre n g th s e x h ib ite d in a t h l e t i c movements are centered in
th o se fo rc e s used in vigorous s t a r t s , s to p s , d ash es, th ro w s, p u lls , and
p u sh es o f game a c tio n .
These are ex p ressed p rim a rily by the la rg e muscle
groups o f th e le g s , th ig h s, back, arms, and hands.
The Mac Curdy Force Index and th e Eogers S tre n g th Index, which i s the
m ost w idely u sed and d iscu ssed stre n g th t e s t in th e f i e l d to d ay , have been
proved adequate measures of th e kind of m uscular fo rc e found in a th le t ic s .
From b o th a th e o r e tic a l and an experim ental s ta n d p o in t, however, the
form er h a s been found to be a su p erio r t e s t on th e c o lle g e le v e l.*
The
l i t e r a t u r e rev e a le d th a t Mao Curdy overcame the o b je c tio n s to the Rogers
T e s t by employing a more d ir e c t and homogeneous measure o f arm stre n g th in
p la c e o f ch in n in g and dip p in g , and by e lim in a tin g the lu n g c a p a c ity , h e ig h t,
and weight f a c t o r s , thus re ta in in g th e p u r ity o f h i s s tr e n g th t e s t .
view o f th e se f a c t s , the t e s t items of the Mac Curdy Force Index were
s e le c te d fo r purposes o f t h i s in v e s tig a tio n .
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
*
Right g rip fo rce
L e ft g rip force
Back force
Leg fo rce
Arm p u llin g fo rce
Arm pushing fo rce
T o tal fo rce (Force Index)
See C hapter I I , pp. 22-41,
They are as follow s:
In
56
The S e le c tio n of Power Measures
The V e r tic a l Jump, which i s commonly accepted by the f i e l d as th e b e s t
sin g le measure f o r p r e d i c t in g ex p lo siv e power, wss used as th e t e s t f o r
power in t h i s in v e s tig a tio n .
I t i s a t e s t o f the a b ility of an in d iv id u a l
to develop power r e l a t iv e to h i s own w eight.
Mac Curdy1 s P h y sic a l C apacity Index was also included in th e study
because i t combines th e two fundam ental f a c to rs of power, namely, fo rc e
and v e lo c ity , in to a power index which, w hile not exactly tru e p h y s ic a lly ,
appears to be an e x c e lle n t measure of the kind of muscular power found in
the perform ance o f a t h l e t i c s k i l l s .
These two m easures of power are expressed ty the follow ing form ulas:
1 . V e rtic a l Jump m H eight A tta in e d - Standing Height
2 . P h y sica l C ap acity Index m I gXcg—
The Sub.iects
The s u b je c ts f o r t h i s stu d y were c o lle g e men between seventeen and
twenty fo u r y e a rs o f a g e , who had been determ ined f i t to p a r tic ip a te in
the re g u la r program o f p h y s ic a l ed u catio n by medical exam ination.
The
su b jects o r ig in a te d from th re e sources.
Croup A
The b a s ic source o f d a ta involved 836 stu d en ts, in clu siv e o f 102
a th le te s , from th e Southern I l l i n o i s S ta te Normal U niversity.
These
students were s e le c te d f o r study because they represented a normal group
of co lleg e men and because i t was p o s s ib le fo r the in v e s tig a to r, as the
D irecto r o f P h y sic a l E ducation f o r Men at the above i n s t i t u t i o n , to measure
the student body under e x c e lle n t a d m in istra tiv e and experim ental c o n d itio n s .
The number o f stu d e n ts t e s t e d clo se ly approximated the to ta l male popula­
tio n .
H e re a fte r
th e se s u b je c ts w ill be re fe rre d to as Croup A.
5?
S to u t)
B
A sam pling o f n in e ty -fiv e a th le te s from th re e a d d itio n a l I l l i n o i s
s t a t e te a c h e rs' c o lle g e s , lo c a te d a t C harleston, Macomb, and Normal, were
grouped to g e th e r and stu d ie d as supplementary d a ta .
These i n s t i t u t i o n s
were s e le c te d f o r study because of th e ir r e l a t iv e hom ogeneity and gen eral
s im i l a r i t y to th e above i n s t i t u t io n p ro v id in g Group A.
The s u b je c ts in
t h i s second group were measured during th e ir v i s i t s to th e Southern campus
f o r th e purpose o f in te r c o lle g ia te a t h le tic c o m p e titio n .*
This f a c t a ffe c te d
e x p erim en tal c o n d itio n s and r e s u lts somewhat by r a i s i n g a d d itio n a l in flu e n c ­
in g f a c t o r s of a p sy ch o lo g ical and p h y sio lo g ic a l n a tu r e .
The in te r p r e ta tio n
o f r e s u l t s n e c e s s a r ily r e f l e c t s these circum stances.
For th e above rea so n s, p lu s seeming la c k of m o tiv a tio n on th e p a r t of
th e f i r s t s e c tio n o f Group B measured, only those m easurements over which
th e se in d iv id u a ls had no immediate voluntary c o n tro l were in clu d ed in th e
s tu d y .
Hence, th e s tr u c tu r a l measurements were r e t a in e d w hile th e fu n c tio n a l
s c o re s were d e le te d from c o n sid e ratio n .
cases.
T his d e le tio n a f f e c te d tw enty-one
No o th e r incom plete case records were in c lu d e d in 1he stu d y with
th e e x c e p tio n o f one te n n is p la y e r who, because of a m inor in ju r y , was ad­
v is e d not to attem p t two o f the stren g th t e s t s .
T h is s u b je c t's rem aining
measurements were u t i l i z e d because of the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f a d d itio n a l d a ta
w ith re s p e c t to t h i s p a r tic u la r type of a t h l e te .
H e r e a f te r th e se s u b je c ts
w ill be r e f e r r e d to as Group B.
Group C
No gymnasts were a v a ila b le fo r study in Group 3 .
However, a supple­
m entary in v e s tig a tio n was made o f a group o f t h i r t e e n gymnasts from the
U n iv e rs ity o f I l l i n o i s and the U niversity o f M innesota.
*
Included in t h i s
Except f o r fo u r b a se b a ll p la y e rs who were m easured on t h e i r own campus.
58
group were se v eral Big-Ten, N a tio n a l C o lle g ia te , and N ational A. A. U.
champions.
A lthou^i in theory th e se men were n o t s t r i c t l y comparable to
th e gymnasts in Group A, i t was f e l t th a t
re le v a n t inform ation might be
suggested o r confirmed through the study o f such a group.
The exam ination
r e s u l t s were conditioned by th e same g en eral f a c t o r s which operated in
Group B.
H e re a fte r these s u b je c ts w ill be r e fe r r e d to as Group C.
A nthropom etric Instrum ents and Equipment Used in the Study
A C on tin en tal platform sc a le ^ was u sed to o b ta in weight in pounds.
2
H eights in inches were tak en w ith a sta n d a rd stad io m eter.
Ann g i r t h was measured w ith a s te e l
m e tric tape r o lle d in a sp rin g
c o il case 3 w ith a Gulick sp rin g handle attachm ent. 2
Arm span was taken with a s p e c ia lly c o n s tru c te d w all c h a rt, 28 inches
wide and 22 inches higfc, c a lib r a te d by means o f a stan d a rd yard ru le in to
in ch es and q u a rte r inches.
T h is c h a r t was lo c a te d on a w all 48 inches
above the f lo o r and 56 inches from th e a d jo in in g w a ll.
Chart read in g s s t a r t ­
ed a t 56 in ch es.
O ther s k e le ta l measurements o f b re a d th and depth were made in m etric
4
u n its w ith a la rg e s lid in g wooden c a l i p e r .
A hand dynamometer of th e r e c ta n g u la r type was employed f o r te s tin g
g rip s tre n g th .^
1.
Manufactured by The C o n tin ental Scale Works, Chicago, I l l i n o i s .
2.
M anufactured by N arrag a n sett Machine Company, Providence, Ehode Is la n d .
3.
M anufactured by K euffel and E sser Company o f New York City.
4.
M anufactured by
Medart M anufacturing Company, S t. L ouis, M issouri.
59
Back and le g dynamometers co n stru cted by the Marine Compass Company
o f Hanover, M assachusetts^ were used to secure the o th e r measurements o f
s tre n g th .
A ll m easures o f stre n g th were taken in pounds.
V e rtic a l Jump sco res were secured with th e help o f a w all c h a r t,
22 inches wide and 56 in ch es lo ng, c a lib ra te d into inches and h a l f inches
by means o f a sta n d a rd y a rd r u le .
from the f lo o r .
The chart was lo c a te d on a w all f iv e f e e t
Chart re a d in g s s ta r te d at 60 inches.
Wooden angle ro d s o f 120° and 135° were co n stru cted and checked w ith a
p r o tr a c to r .
These were used to f a c i l i t a t e the measurement o f the an g les
advocated f o r the le g l i f t and arm push t e s t s .
A web b e l t was c o n s tru c te d 53 inches long and 4 inches wide w ith one
looped end la rg e enough to h o ld a dynamometer rod.This b e l t was used as
an a id in m easuring le g fo rc e .
A back and le g dynamometer was attach ed by means of web b e l t s to a
gymnasium h o rse which r e s te d on a wooden platform one fo o t h ig h .
A p a ir
o f web b e lts which were th re e f e e t long, looped at th e ends, and a tta c h e d
to a p a i r o f o rd in a ry gymnasium rin g s were slip p ed over the ends o f the
dynamometer ro d .
T his a p p aratu s was used in the arm n u ll and arm push
stre n g th t e s t s .
O rganization o f th e Examination
The ex perim ental s u b je c ts were given a b r ie f d e s c rip tio n o f th e pur­
pose and s ig n ific a n c e o f th e experim ent in the form o f an o r ie n ta tio n sheet*
which a lso c o n ta in e d g en eral inform ation concerning th e s tre n g th t e s t s and
the v e r t ic a l jump t e s t .
T h is l a t t e r inform ation was re p e a te d v e rb a lly f o r
1.
P urchased th ro u ^ i Medart M anufacturing Company, S t. L ouis, M isso u ri.
*
See Appendix, p . 158.
60
em phasis and was supplemented by a d e ta ile d d e s c rip tio n and dem onstration
o f th e form involved in the v e r tic a l jump.
Each s u b je c t was given an examination record b lan k (se e Appendix, p . 159),
and re q u e ste d to f i l l in h is name, age to th e n e a re s t y e a r , and c la s s if ic a tio n .
The s u b je c ts were asked to s t r i p fo r the exam ination.
In a few cases they
were p e rm itte d to wear a supporter or th in s h o rts which in no way in te r f e r e d
w ith th e exam ination.
The su b jects then were given th e o rd e r o f th e ad­
m in is tr a tio n o f th e t e s t elem ents and were d ire c te d to th e f i r s t exam iner.
To h e lp in su re dependable r e s u lts , a d e f in ite arrangem ent was follow ed
i n ta k in g th e measurements.
The order was a s fo llo w s: ( l ) w eight; (2) stand­
in g h e ig h t; (3) s i t t i n g h e ig h t; (4) arm g ir th ; (5 ) arm span; (6) shoulder
b re a d th ; (7) c h est bread th ; (8) chest depth; (9) h ip b re a d th ; (10) v e r tic a l
jump; (11 and 12) r ig h t and l e f t g rip , a lte r n a te ly ; (1 3 ) back fo rc e ;
(14) le g fo rc e ; (15) arm p u ll fo rce; (16) arm push f o r c e .
Ten tr a in e d te c h n ic ia n s , a supervisor, and an a d d itio n a l re c o rd e r were
employed in th e conduct of the t e s ts .
a re a s o f r e s p o n s ib ility .
Each examiner was assig n ed d e f in ite
For ad m in istrativ e f e a s i b i l i t y and f o r improve­
ment o f technique two examiners co llab o rated in each of th e follow ing
t e s t s : the v e r t i c a l jump, the back and leg l i f t s , and th e arm push and
p u ll.
The exam iners making the instrum ent read in g s re c o rd e d the same in
a l l b u t two c a s e s, namely, in the v e rtic a l jump t e s t and in the s tr u c tu r a l
t e s t s o f b read th and depth.
In both cases, in o rd e r to avoid e r r o r , the
re c o rd e r re p e a te d the announced measurement before l i s t i n g i t .
D eta ile d
d e s c rip tio n o f th e d u tie s of the various examiners may be found in the
Appendix, pages 160-169, in connection with th e te c h n iq u e s employed in
o b ta in in g th e measurements.
I llu s tr a tio n s o f v ario u s m easuring techniques
u sed may be found on th e follow ing page and on pages 165 and 170 in the
Appendix.
61
62
The in v e s tig a to r a c te d in a su p e rv iso ry capacity during th e conduct o f
th e t e s t s .
A nalysis o f Data
The s tr u c t u r a l and f u n c tio n a l measures u t i l i z e d in t h i s study a r e th o se
commonly u sed in s im ila r and r e l a te d re s e a rc h .
They have been proved high­
ly r e lia b le by o th e r in v e s tig a to r s as in d ic a te d in Chapter IV, Table VI
(page 67).
The o b je c tiv ity o f th e t e s t s was computed by c o rre la tin g th e measures
made independently by two exam iners on th e same su b je c ts.
The r e la tio n s h ip between th e t e s t v a r ia b le s and a t h l e t i c success was
determ ined f o r each source o f d a ta .
In Group A, d is tin c tio n s were made
in in d iv id u a l t e s t v a r ia b le s between each a t h l e t i c group and the normal
group, by th e comparison o f av erages.
The d is tin c tio n s were made to
e s ta b lis h th e p r o b a b ility th a t th e r e were r e a l d iffe re n c e s among the groups
which might c o n trib u te to su ccess or f a i l u r e in the p a r tic u la r sp o rt in
q uestion.
T his procedure in v o lv ed th e a p p lic a tio n of the usual stan d a rd
d iffe re n c e o r c r i t i c a l r a t i o tech n iq u e, in which a l l r a t io s of 2.00 o r more
were accepted as in d ic a tiv e o f s ig n if ic a n t d iffe re n c e s .
In o rd e r to f u r th e r ex p lo re th ese d iff e r e n c e s other methods of
s t a t i s t i c a l technique were employed.
S tandard scores in the t e s t elem ents
were computed f o r die in d iv id u a ls in each a t h l e t i c group.
These were
arranged in ran k o rd e r and p l o t t e d g ra p h ic a lly to show by in sp e c tio n both
th e degree o f n o rm a lity o f d i s t r ib u tio n w ith in each group and th e g en eral
d iffe re n c e s between the groups.
(Had i t seemed d e s ira b le a f u r th e r r e ­
finement o f technique m ight have been a p p lie d to these scores in the form
63
of th e C hi-S quare T e s t.* )
The most p e r tin e n t s t a t i s t i c a l procedure was applied to th e d a ta in the
form o f a s ta n d a rd d iffe re n c e measure, which i s an a d a p ta tio n o f th e u su al
c r i t i c a l r a t i o form ula.
T his measure i s a mathematical statem en t o f the
d iffe re n c e betw een groups both as to t h e i r averages and as to th e d is tr ib u ­
tio n o f th e in d iv id u a ls around the averages which perm its due c o n s id e ra tio n
of the o v e rla p p in g o f th e groups and d e le te s any e f f e c t due to dichotomous
s p li t s i n th e p a re n t group.
By means o f t h i s process a comparison between
each a t h l e t i c group and th e normal group was undertaken to d em onstrate the
magnitude o f t h e i r d if f e r e n c e s , as opposed to dem onstrating m erely th e
chances t h a t th e r e were r e a l d iff e r e n c e s .
In th is way, i t was p o s s ib le to
dem onstrate t h a t th e d iff e r e n c e s o ccu rrin g between any d efin ed g ro u p s in one
v a ria b le were l a r g e r than the d iffe re n c e s found in another v a r ia b le .
Through such com parisons i t was p o s sib le to determine the f a c to r s which were
r e la te d to the v a rio u s a t h l e t i c a b i l i t y d is tin c tio n s .
treatm en t i s term ed th e Index o f S ig n ific a n c e .^
K erein, t h i s s t a t i s t i c a l
The c r i t i c a l re g io n f o r
accep tin g or r e j e c t i n g such an index as in d ic a tiv e o f s ig n if ic a n t d iffe re n c e s
was a r b i t r a r i l y s e t f o r t h i s study as fo llo w s:
an in d ex from .00 to - .50 denotes n e g lig ib le o r low s ig n if ic a n c e ;
.X
an in d ex from - .50 to - 1.00 denotes a moderate or s u b s ta n tia l
s ig n if ic a n c e ;
an in d ex from - 1.00 and above denotes g re a t to very g re a t s i g n i f ­
ic a n c e .
*
The C hi-S quare T e st i s u s e fu l f o r te s tin g whether c e rta in ex p erim e n ta lly
o b ta in e d r e s u l t s d i f f e r s ig n if ic a n tly from those to be e x p ected by
Hchance*’ . I t p ro v id e s a measure o f th e p ro b a b ility th a t two s e t s of
d a ta a re dependent o r are s ig n if ic a n tly d if f e r e n t. For f u r t h e r des­
c r i p t i o n see H. 1 . G -arrett, S t a t i s t i c s in Psychology and E d u c a tio n ,
p p . 119-129; 377-387.
#
For a d e t a i l e d d e s c r ip tio n o f t h i s s t a t i s t i c a l technique see Raymond
F ran zen , An E v a lu a tio n q£ School H ealth Procedures, pp. 35-41,
106-108. Also see C hapter IV, pp. 72-73.
** As su g g e ste d by Raymond Franzen in an in terv iew , January 4, 1941.
64
The -p atte rn o f success fo r each a t h l e t i c group was determ ined "by com­
b in in g i t s in d ic e s o f s ig n ific a n c e of moderate magnitude and above.
This
was done in o rd e r to o b ta in a general p ic tu re of the s u c c e ss fu l s p e c ia l
a th le te in term s o f th e v a rio u s elements of physique, s tr e n g th , and power
which seemed to be s ig n i f i c a n t to h is success.
Prom th e computed in d ic e s of sig n ific a n c e between each a t h l e t i c group
and the norm al group d i r e c t comparisons of the d iffe re n c e s between the
v ario u s a t h l e t i c groups was p o s s ib le .
These d iffe re n c e s were compared in
o rd er to determ ine the r e l a t i v e importance of the s tr u c t u r a l and f u n c tio n a l
measures to su ccess in th e d if f e r e n t s p o rts included in the stu d y .
In th e B and C Group d a ta , the above standard score and index o f
s ig n ific a n c e tech n iq u es were again ap p lied in id e n tic a l fa sh io n and fo r the
same p u rp o se s u s in g the Group A normal group as the b a s is f o r com parison.
Data on th e normal grouos o f sources B and C were n o t a v a ila b le .
In o rd e r to determ ine w hether or n o t the r e s u lt s o b tain ed from Group A
might p o s s ib ly have g en eral a p p lic a tio n , d ire c t comparisons were made w ith
the fin d in g s in Groups B and C.
This was done in term s o f b o th th e re sp e c tiv e
stan d a rd sco re d i s t r ib u tio n s and the in d ic e s of sig n ific a n c e of the a t h l e t i c
groups in in d iv id u a l t e s t v a ria b le s .
For supplementary ev id en ce, th e
c r i t i c a l r a t i o technique was applied to determine w hether o r n o t r e s p e c tiv e
a t h l e t i c groups in the A, B, and C sources were d ir e c tly com parable.
The r e s u l t s and fin d in g s from the d a ta are given in th e c h a p te rs
im m ediately fo llo w in g .
Standard score d is tr ib u tio n s in th e t e s t elem ents
f o r the in d iv id u a ls in each a t h l e t i c group and corresponding graphs may be
found in th e Appendix, pages 129-156. The c r i t i c a l r a t i o s which were d eriv ed
in th e com parison o f th e re s p e c tiv e a t h l e t i c groups in the v a rio u s sources
65
a re ta b le d on page 119 of the Appendix.
The form ulas used in th e computations
and d e ta ile d d e s c rip tio n s of tech n iq u es may a lso be found in th e Appendix
on pages 172-175.
CHAPTER IV
RELATION OP STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL MEASURES
TO SUCCESS IN SPECIFIC SPORTS
As Indicated, in o re v io u s d isc u s s io n t h i s in v e s tig a tio n was concerned
with the problem of d eterm in in g the r e la tio n of s e le c te d s tru c tu ra l and
fu n ctio n a l mea-sures to su ccess in each of se v e ra l s p o rts , and to
a s c e rta in i f th ere were com binations o f th ese measures which were
a sso ciated w ith such su cc ess.
The a n a ly s is of the d a ta and the findings
p e rta in in g to the problem are d isc u s s e d in t h i s ch ap ter.
R e lia b ility of the T ests
The s tr u c tu r a l and f u n c tio n a l m easures u t i l i z e d in th is study have been
commonly used in sim ila r and r e l a t e d re se a rc h by o th e r in v e s tig a to rs .
Table VI (p. 67) gives th e r e l i a b i l i t y of the t e s t s as rep o rted in several
d iffe re n t s tu d ie s .
The f ig u r e s re p re s e n t pro&uct-moment c o e ffic ie n ts of
c o rre la tio n and are in d ic a tiv e o f the c o n sisten cy w ith which the t e s t s
y ie ld e d s im ila r r e s u lts when re p e a te d by th e same examiner on the same
su b je c ts.
S e lf- c o r re la tio n s o f .84 f o r ch est b rea d th and .79 fo r back force
were the low est r e l i a b i l i t i e s re p o rte d f o r s tr u c tu r a l and fu n ctio n al
measures re sp e c tiv e ly by any one of the exam iners.
In both cases other
in v e s tig a to rs found c o n sid e ra b ly h ig h e r c o e f f ic ie n ts of r e l i a b i l i t y fo r the
measures.
67
TABU
n
R e l ia b il i t y o f U u l o t i
MaMerrer1
r
ManOnrdr8
r
1 B eeere3
1
r
>
.9 9
1
1
.9 9
I
s
.9 8
* •1 .4 *
.9 9
.98
B e l* t
.9 9
.99
S it t in g Belght
.98
Shea ld e r Breadth
.9 8
.9 #
t
.9 3
Sh eet Breadth
.88
.09
.8 4
Cheat Depth
.9 8
• 94
1
s
2
■ lp Breadth
.9 8
.9 0
2
2
A n Olrth
A n Spaa
i
Hntto*
r
:
r
:
HcClor7
r
.8 9
.9 7
.91—.99
.8 9
T e r tle a l J n p
. 9 3 - . 99
B ight drip
.9 4
h e ft flrlp
S
1
1
2
t
1
1
2
Baok Foroe
•88
Leg Force
•92
:
1
t
A n P a ll
.9 6
1
A n Peril
•94
T o ta l Boroe
.9 6
P hyeloal
Capacity Index
.93
2
1
<
S
■
1
1
Beaber o f Oaeee
1 Boecra4
1
r
38
100-330
1
1
.96
.9 2
.98
.7 9
.8 8
.92
.8 6
.86
.98
6 0 -64
744
406
.9 9
100
1.
J . 0. MoMerny, The h l t l l i a o f
> w » t » r to A t h le t ic fr o — a . p, 33.
3.
B. L. MaeCnrdy, A Taat fo r M eeanrlne tf i t P h ralcal Capacity o f Saoondary School B o n , p. 17.
3.
L. T. Bogart. ± Study o f R e la tio n ahloe Beteaan Certain Aenecta aX Phralqpe fla i Borlntlng A b ility .
pp. 37-31.
4.
r . B. Bogart, P h ralcal C apaoltr Teata l a !)& A d .fn l.tr a tlo n
6.
L. I , Hat to , Heaaureaent o f th e T e lo c ity Taotor and o f A th le tic Poaer In High School Boy a, Batoaroh
Quarterly- IX (O etober, 1 9 3 8 ), p. 116.
6.
J . S. Cole a m , The D if f e r e n t ia l Beaeereoent o f th« Speed F actor In Large Unicle A o tly ltle a ,
Heeeaireh Ih ia r lcr lr . T i l l (O otober, 1937), p . 136.
7.
fliy ilg a l »<fagpUgn. I™- 73-37.
C. B. lioCloy, Beoent Btudlee in the Sargent Jnnp, Be te a r oh Q u arterly . I l l (liny. 1932), p. 238.
68
O b .iectivity o f the T ests
The o b j e c t iv it y o f the t e s t s was determined by computing the produ ctmoment c o e f f ic ie n t o f c o r r e la tio n o f s in g le measurements made independently
by the tr a in e d examiners and the in v e s tig a to r on the same group o f s u b je c ts .
This was done to determ ine the co n sisten cy with which d if f e r e n t exam iners
might be exp ected to get the same r e s u lts when measuring the same t r a i t s .
T h ir ty -fo u r v o lu n te er ca ses were used fo r th e f i r s t s e t o f c o r r e la tio n s
d erived .
I t w i l l be noted in Table VII (p . 69) th at w ith the e x ce p tio n o f
the measures o f back fo r c e , arm p u ll, and arm push, the o b j e c t iv it y o f the
t e s t s i s reason ab ly higfr. w ith c o r r e la tio n s o f .8 7 or b e t t e r fo r the str u c tu r a l
items and .3 0 or b e tt e r fo r the remaining fu n c tio n a l ite m s.
In view o f the demonstrated high r e l i a b i l i t y o f th e se t e s t s a s reported
by other in v e s tig a to r s * and the improved measuring techniq ues employed in
th is study, p a r tic u la r ly in the le g l i f t and arm push t e s t s , somewhat h igh er
c o r r e la tio n s o f o b j e c t iv it y might have been expected in some c a s e s .
On the assum ption th at the group of th ir ty -fo u r v o lu n te er c a se s stu d ied
was r e la t iv e l y homogeneous,^ and not a random sample, h en ce, one not tr u ly
r e p r e se n ta tiv e o f th e parent pop ulation, another group o f tw e n ty -six c a se s
was in v e s tig a te d to measure fu rth er the o b j e c t iv it y o f the t e s t s .
Inasmuch
as the b a s is o f comparison used in t h is study was the normal group o f
students i t was e s s e n t ia l th at a normal spread o f data be used to determine
the o b j e c t iv it y o f th e m easures.
In order to h e lp insure random s e le c t io n
or norm ality o f d is tr ib u tio n w ithin th is second group o f s u b je c ts the Cozens
*
See Table VI, p . 67.
#
The more homogeneous the group, the lower the c o r r e la tio n s tend to b e .
See H. E. G arrett, S t a t i s t i c s in Psychology and E d u cation , p . 322.
69
TABLE VII
O b j e c t iv it y o f the T ests
34 Cases
r
siema*
60 Cases
siema^
r
r
26 Cases*
sisma,r
Weight
.99
1 4 .4 0
.999
23.70
.0003
Height
.99
2 .4 7
.999
2 .9 4
.0003
S it t in g H eight
.99
1 .3 4
.9 9
1 .2 4
.0026
Shoulder Breadth
.90
1 .4 3
.9 7
2 .4 7
.0078
Chest Breadth
.87
2 .8 9
.9 6
4 .1 3
.0104
Chest Depth
.87
2 .2 0
.9 2
3.28
.0203
Hip Breadth
.98
1 .5 6
.9 6
2 .0 4
.0104
Arm Girth
.99
3 .2 7
.997
6.09
.0008
Arm Span
.99
2 .8 5
.998
3.76
.0005
V e r tic a l Jump
.96
2 .8 6
.9 5
2 .8 1
.9 4
2 .6 8
.015
R i^ it Grip
.91
2 0 .2 2
.9 0
2 0 .3 0
.9 0
20.38
.025
L eft Grip
.83
1 8 .1 2
.8 0
18.77
.8 0
19.56
.048
Back Force
.64
3 6 .5 6
.7 5
54.16
.8 3
65.37
.041
Leg Force
.80
2 0 1 .0 2
.8 4
252.86
.8 7
306.51
.032
Arm P u ll
.71
6 1 .5 2
.8 2
7 1 .7 0
.89
78.82
.028
Arm Push
.6 6
31.29
.76
3 5 .6 4
.8 2
40.21
.043
T otal Force
.89
289 .4 0
.9 1
381.68
.9 2
475.10
.0 2 0
P. C. I .
.93
102 .4 7
.9 4
120.07
.9 5
138.80
.013
See verb al d escrip tio n o f the method o f s e le c t io n , pp.
#
Sigmas o f the f i r s t group o f mea&urements tak en .
68,
70.
70
Height-W eight C la s s if ic a t io n Scheme fo r C ollege Men was u t i l i z e d a s a rough
guide.
Cozens found^ th at c o lle g e men could be c la s s i f i e d on a h e ig h t b a s is
into t a l l , medium, and s h o r t, and fu rth er sub-divided on a w eig h t b a s is
into slen d e r, medium, and heavy, making nin e c la ss e s in a l l .
He u sed one
probable e r r o r on each sid e o f the mean to determine the medium groups which
included f i f t y p e r cen t o f the cases in each d iv isio n .
T w en ty-five per cent
o f the c a s e s f e l l on e it h e r sid e o f the cen tra l group.
With th e se n in e
heigh t-w e ig h t c l a s s e s and the general d is tr ib u tio n in mind, th e tw e n ty -six
ad d ition al c a s e s stu d ied , fo r purposes o f fu rth er determ ining o b j e c t iv it y of
the t e s t s , were s e le c t e d f o r measurement on a voluntary b a sis so th a t they
roughly conformed to the same.
In t h is way, from a str u c tu r a l stan d p oin t
at le a s t , a r e l a t i v e l y normal spread w ith in t h is sample o f c a s e s was assured.
I t was r a th er e x p e c te d th at the same would hold true fu n c tio n a lly .
As may be n o te d in Table VII (p . 6 9 ), th is second group o f c a s e s proved
to be the more v a r ia b le o f the two groups in v e stig a te d , in d ic a tin g th a t the
assumption, th a t the group o f th ir ty -fo u r cases f i r s t measured was r e la t iv e l y
homogeneous, was v a lid .
In g en era l, the c o rr e la tio n s o f o b j e c t iv i t y showed
an increase over th ose found in the f i r s t group stu d ied .
r e la tiv e ly the same.
A few remained
The la r g e s t numerical decrease in any s in g le c o r r e la ­
tio n was found i n l e f t g rip which dropped from .8 3 to .8 0 .
the o b j e c t iv it y o f the t e s t s proved acceptably h igh .
In a l l c a se s
The s tr u c tu r a l item s
y ie ld e d c o r r e la t io n s ran gin g from .9 2 to .99 and the fu n c tio n a l t e s t s y ie ld e d
c o r r e la tio n s ran gin g from .8 0 to .9 5 .
1.
P. W. C ozens, A Study o f Stature in R ela tio n to P h y sica l Perform ance.
R esearch Q u a rterly . I (March, 1 9 3 0 ), pp. 38-45.
71
R e la tio n o f the Measure3 to Success In S p e c ific Soorts
To in su re c la r it y o f thought and understanding the fo llo w in g s ta te ­
ments a re made at t h is p o in t by way o f r e it e r a t io n and added exp lan ation .
The b a sic data were obtained from the measurements o f 836 stu d en ts, in­
c lu s iv e o f 102 a th le te s , from the Southern I l l i n o i s S ta te Normal U n iv ersity ,
known h erein as Group A.
Supplementary m a ter ia l was secured from a sampling
o f n in e t y - f iv e a th le te s from th ree a d d itio n a l I l l i n o i s s ta te teachers'
c o lle g e s (Group B) and from th ir te e n gymnasts from two m id-western univer­
s i t i e s (Group C).
These supplementary data were used to suggest whether or
n ot the Group A fin d in g s might p o s s ib ly have g en era l im p lic a tio n s.
The problem was in v e stig a te d by su b je c tin g th e data to three s t a t i s t i c a l
m an ip u lation s, each o f which determined d if fe r e n c e s between the measurements
o f a number o f s p e c if ic a t h le t ic groups and th e normal or average group.
The l a t t e r group was composed o f a l l the in d iv id u a ls in Group A. The s t a t i s /
t i c a l m anipulations involved the c r i t i c a l r a t io method, standard score
com parisons, and the index o f s ig n ific a n c e tech n iq u e.
Through the use o f th e usual standard d iffe r e n c e or c r i t i c a l r a tio
technique the sig n ific a n c e o f the mean d if fe r e n c e s in the t e s t v a r ia b le s be­
tween each a t h le t ic group and the normal group was in d ic a te d .
Stated
o th erw ise, i t was p o s s ib le by means o f t h is techniq ue to determine the
p r o b a b ility th at r ea l d iffe r e n c e s e x is t e d between the groups compared.
Since
the c r i t i c a l region fo r the acceptance o f d if fe r e n c e s as b ein g s ig n ific a n t
may be s e t a r b itr a r ily , a r a tio o f 2 .0 0 was used in t h is study.
Such a
r a t io may be in terp reted in terms o f the normal p r o b a b ility curve as
fo llo w s:
th ere are 98 chances in 100 th at th e ob ta in ed d iffe re n c e
is r e a l,
th a t i s , g r e a te r than zero; or the chances are 98 in 100 th a t o f sim ila r
72
groups one w i l l , on the average, always score above the o th er .*
A r a tio
greater than 2 ,0 0 may be taken as ju s t so much a d d itio n a l evidence o f a
r e a l d iffe r e n c e .
This technique answers with a "yes" or a "no" the
q u estion , "Is th ere a r e a l d iffe r e n c e between the groups?"
I f th ere i s no
r ea l d iffe r e n c e , the technique shows how near the d iffe r e n c e approaches
being r e a l.
In order th a t the d iffe r e n c e s obtained through the above techniq ue
might be exp lored fu r th e r , two a d d itio n a l s t a t i s t i c a l methods were employed.
The index o f s ig n ific a n c e technique was used to denote th e magnitude o f the
d iffe r e n c e s in th e t e s t v a r ia b le s between each a t h le t ic group and the
normal group.
This technique i s a v a r ia tio n o f the usual c r i t i c a l r a tio
formula which g iv e s a mathematical statem ent o f the d iffe r e n c e between
grouos both as to th e ir averages and as to the d is tr ib u tio n o f th e in d iv id ­
u a ls around the averages.
I t uerm its due consideration o f the o verlap p in g
o f the groups and d e le te s any e f f e c t due to dichotomous s p l i t s in the
population.^1 S tated sim ply, t h is method o f a n a ly sis made i t p o s s ib le to
answer the q u estio n , "Granted there are r ea l d iffe r e n c e s between the groups,
are these d iffe r e n c e s la r g e or are they small?"
As s ta te d in the p reced in g
chapter the in te r p r e ta tio n o f the s ig n ific a n c e o f in d ic e s o f v a rio u s
magnitudes was s e t a r b it r a r ily as fo llo w s:
from .00 to - ,5 0 denotes
n e g lig ib le or small d iffe r e n c e ; from - ,5 0 to - 1.00 denotes moderate or
su b sta n tia l d iffe r e n c e ; and from - 1 ,0 0 and above denotes great to verygreat d iffe r e n c e .
In common p r a c tic e r a t io s such as th ese are u s u a lly e x -
*
For a more d e ta ile d exp lan ation o f the r e l i a b i l i t y o f the d iffe r e n c e
between two means see H, E. G arrett, S t a t is t ic s in Psychology and
E ducation, pp. 2 1 0 -2 1 7 .
#
For a d e ta ile d d e s c r ip tio n o f t h is s t a t i s t i c a l technique see Haymond
Franzen, i n E valu ation o f School H ealth Procedures, pp. 3 5 -4 1 ,
106-108. A lso see Chapter I I I , p . S3 .
73
p re sse d as
p o sitiv e figures
by s u b t r a c t i n g the
l a r g e r and
then d iv id in g by
t h e i r s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f th e d i f f e r e n c e .
th is
the normal group i s used as t h e b a s i s o f comparison which
-f udy
re s u i t s in
s m a l l e r mean sco re fromthe
i n d i c e s or r a t i o s i n b ot h p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e d i r e c t i o n s .
In
A
p o s i t i v e i n f e r i n d i c a t e s th; t the s p e c i f i c a t h l e t i c group b e i n g coup • r e d to
t h e normal g r o u r has the l a r g e r measurement, w h i l e a n e g a t i v e infe?: ir r o l ie s
n s m a l l e r a e r s ' u r f ment f o r the a t h l e t i c gr o u p .
thr
i n t c r p r e t . - t i or. of t h i s a e r s u r e .
T - o s r e c i f i e case a i l l u - t r o te
Th- b e r k “ t b s I I plr-yprs i n Group A sho­
r n i n f e r o f . RO f o r h e l p 1'.! - r i c h ir.fi c a t e o t h a t ,
a s a gr oivo, t h e y are
m ch -'r'f e-ly o~ cub s t a r t i a l l y t ' - l l or than the normal
have an i r . d e r o f - . 1 0 for tin: sere f a c t o r .
group.
Group A g n n a s t s
T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t th e
r yn naR tc a s a group a r e mo d e ra te ly s h o r t e r th an t h e a v e r a g e .
"'ho f i n a l
s t. a ti '-t i c a l method i n v o l v e d th e c o m p u t a t i o n o f s t a n d a r d
s c a r e s in "ho t e s t el em ent s fo r the i n d i v i d u a l s i n each - t h l e t i c croup.
Tiles'" were a r r a n g e d i n rank ord er and p l o t t e d , g r a p h i c a l l y t o sho- by i n ­
s p e c t i o n both th e de gr ee of n o r m a l i t y
c i e t r i b u t i on w i t h i n each group
and t h e genera-:! d i f f e r e n c e s among the g r o u p s . *
I n i n t e r p r e t i n g r e s u l t s obtained from Groups 2 and C t h r e e basico u a i i ' ! cat ions had t o he ta ken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n .
a v a i l a b l e f o r th e Group B and C normal rr-aurr:.
gr o up " v s us,ed as the b a s i s f o r c o n r a r i son.
f i r s t , no d a t a •.-.•ere
^ e n c e , th e Group A normal
Grouo 3 i n v o l v e d i n s t i t u t i o n s
"••hi cii i n g e n e r a l pvoeared to h p s i m i l a r t o t h a t t>rovidin-'r Grourt A, but
Group G d i s t i n c t l y did n o t.
The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d , however, t h a t Group B
p r o b a b l y emanated from a normal group lo w er i n r a n g e than t h a t o f Grout) A.
Asr'tming t h a t th e f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o s u c c e s s o p e r a t e d th e same i n b o th
S t a n d a r d s c o r e t a b l e s and graphs nay be found i n t h e Apoendix, pn, 129-156.
groups, Group B would "be exp ected to y i e l d comparatively lower sco res when
compared w ith the Group A norm al.
The s itu a tio n was reversed fo r Group C.
Second, incom plete samples rep resen ted the various a t h le t ic grouns in
Group B,
In view of the sm all number o f ca ses involved r e s u lt s may have been
a ltered considerably by the a d d itio n o f a few extreme c a se s.
Third, the
subjects were measured on Group A 's campus sh o rtly before or a f t e r in t e r ­
c o lle g ia te a t h le t ic co m p etitio n .*
T his fa c t r a ise d ad d ition al in flu e n c in g
fa c to r s o f a p sy ch o lo g ica l and p h y s io lo g ic a l nature.
While not true o f a l l
the in d ivid u als in Group 1, th e group, a s a whole, did n o t anoear h ig h ly
m otivated.^
Inasmuch as the str en g th t e s t s used in th is study, with the
exception o f the grip m easures, c a l l fo r huge expenditures of energy which
involve su b jectin g o n e s e lf to severe punishment, psych ological f a c to r s ,
prim arily o f m otivation, would appear to be o f major importance to the
securing o f r e lia b le r e s u lt s .
In a comparison o f r e s u lt s from the various sources o f data, in d ic e s o f
sig n ific a n c e and standard sco r e d is tr ib u tio n s in Groups B and C sim ila r to
those found in Group A su g g ested p o s s i b i l i t i e s fo r g e n e ra liza tio n s from
Group A fin d in g s.
The sp orts included in t h i s study are: b a s e b a ll, b a sk etb a ll, f o o t b a ll,
Smnnastics, te n n is, and track and f i e l d .
For the sake o f more d e ta ile d
information fo o tb a ll was d iv id e d in to b a c k fie ld and lin e , and each d iv is io n
*
Except fo r four b a seb a ll p la y e r s who were measured on th e ir own. camous.
#
This was su b stan tiated by stren g th sco res which in general were lower
than were expected . I t was most c le a r ly illu s t r a t e d by the sharp
and unexpected drop found in the arm strength measurements of
several o f the Group B a t h l e t i c groups. Prom the in v e s tig a to r 's
view point, th is gave r i s e to the b e l i e f th at the usual order fo r con­
ducting the strength t e s t s , which was the one used in t h is study, i s
not the b est and that th e arm stren g th measurements should precede
the more strenuous back and l e g fo r c e t e s t s , p a r tic u la rly where
m otivation i s an im portant fa c to r .
75
was in v e s tig a te d as an independent u n it.
Track and f i e l d was a lso d ivided
so th a t th e w e i^ it men, th a t is the shot p u tte r s and th e d iscu s throw ers,
were s tu d ie d as one u n it and the rem ainder of th e p a r t ic ip a n ts as an o th er.
Five a d d itio n a l regroupings of a l l the s u b je c ts were examined to d isco v e r
f u r th e r in fo rm a tio n
on the general q u estio n o f th e r e la t io n o f th e
sele c te d
m easures to su ccess in a t h l e t i c s . These involved a O ne-Sport Group
( a t h le te s who p a r tic ip a te d in only one s p o r t) , a Two-Sport Group (th o se
competing in two s p o rts ), a Three-Sport Group (th o se com peting in th re e
s p o r ts ) , a T o ta l A th le tic Group, and a N o n -A th letic Group.
the m easures to success o r f a ilu r e in each of th e
The r e la tio n of
s p o rts and in th e added
groups s tu d ie d i s d isc u sse d in d e ta il helow.
The c r i t i c a l r a t i o s , p resen ted in Table V III (p . 7 9 ) , show the
s ig n ific a n c e o f^ th e mean d iffe re n c e s in th e t e s t v a r ia b le s between each
a t h l e t i c group and the normal group in Group A.
The in d ic e s of sigjiifiC an ce,
p re se n te d in T ables IXand X (pp. 80 and 82) in d ic a te th e magnitude of the
d iff e r e n c e s between each a t h l e t i c
group and the norm al group in th e t e s t
v a r ia b le s f o r Groups A and 1 r e s p e c tiv e ly .
Diagrams I and I I (pp. 81 and 8.7)
give a g ra p h ic re p re s e n ta tio n of the in d ic e s of s ig n if ic a n c e f o r both
groups.
Leg le n g th , prom inently mentioned in the l i t e r a t u r e as one o f the
f a c to r s in a t h l e t i c su ccess, was in v e s tig a te d d i r e c t ly in the case of
c e r ta in a t h l e t i c groups in which le g le n g th appeared to be o f im portance as
judged by a comparison o f th e ir re sp e c tiv e h e ig h t and s i t t i n g h e ig h t in d ices
of s ig n if ic a n c e .
D ata r e la tiv e to the same may be found in Table XIII
(se e Appendix, p . 118).
NEW VOP.K U N I V E R S I T Y ]
S C H O O L OF E D U C A T IO N I
•
LIBRARY
» \
76
BASEBALL
No re g u la r v a rs ity b a s e b a ll squads were a v a ila b le f o r study.
Base­
b a ll was included in the i n v e s tig a t io n , however, because i t was f e l t th a t
valuable inform ation might be o b ta in e d by m easuring c e rta in b aseb all
groups which were a v a ila b le , namely, an a l l - s t a r team se le c te d from an
intram ural b a seb a ll league o f 179 p la y e r s in Group A, and a group composed
of a number of su ccessfu l b a s e b a ll p la y e r s in Group B, a l l but fo u r of
whom were measured as members of a t h l e t i c squads o th e r than b a s e b a ll.
Because of th e nature of th e s e groups, co n clu sio n s in resp ect to b a se b a ll
are n e c e s s a rily te n ta tiv e in c h a r a c te r .
The su ccessfu l b a s e b a ll p la y e r s in Group A e x h ib it r e a l d iffe re n c e s
from the normal group in f o u r s t r u c t u r a l item s, th re e stren g th measurements,
and in both power t r a i t s .
They a re s h o rte r in h e ig h t, in s i t t i n g h e ig h t,
and in arm span, and have l a r g e r arm g i r t h s .
They have a stro n g er arm
p u l l , stro n g er leg s, and a. g r e a te r t o t a l f o rc e .
They are more powerful as
measured bo th by the v e r t i c a l jump and the P h y sic a l Capacity Index* ( r e f e r r e d
to h e r e a fte r as P. C. I . ) .
On f u r th e r in v e s tig a tio n o f th e m agnitude of th ese d iffe re n c e s i t was
found th at o f the s tr u c tu r a l item s only arm g ir th w ith an index of .56
shows a d iffe re n c e of any s i g n i f i c a n t s iz e .
Such an index d isc lo s e s th a t
the b aseb all p la y ers have a s u b s t a n tia l ly la r g e r arm g ir th than the normal
group of stu d e n ts.
H eight, however, w ith an index o f - .48, clo se ly
approximates s u b s ta n tia l s ig n i f i c a n c e , and shews th a t these a th le te s are
moderately s h o rte r than the av erage s tu d e n t.
Both th e arm p u ll and to ta l
force measurements in d ic a te d if f e r e n c e s o f moderate magnitude in fav o r of
*
A d e sc rip tio n of the t e s t item s may be found on pp. 55-56.
77
the a t h l e t e s .
T h is i s a lso tru e of th e two measures o f power although
v e r tic a l jump h a s an index o f only .4 8 .
Aim span and le g f o r c e , with
re sp e c tiv e i n d i c i e s o f - .4 4 and .42 may p o ssib ly c o n tr ib u te in small
measure to su c ce ss in t h i s a c tiv ity .
W ithin th e l i m i t s o f th ese b asic d a ta and ex p erim en tal c o n d itio n s , the
fin d in g s i n d i c a t e th a t in d iv id u a ls who succeed in c o lle g e b a s e b a ll ten d to
e x h ib it s u b s t a n t i a l d iffe re n c e s from th e normal group o f s tu d e n ts in two
s tr u c tu r a l ite m s, two s tre n g th measurements, and in b o th power t r a i t s .
They are s h o r t e r in h e ig h t and have la r g e r arm g i r t h s .
They have a g re a te r
arm p u l l , g r e a t e r t o t a l fo rc e , and are more pow erful.
The supplem entary Group B d ata shows the above s tr u c t u r a l and fu n c tio n a l
measurements ra n g in g in the same d ire c tio n as in Group A.
Both power t e s t s
in d ic a te a d iff e r e n c e o f moderate magnitude in fav o r o f the b a s e b a ll p la y e rs .
Height h as an in d ex o f - .30 and i s low est in rank o rd e r of a l l measurements,
as i s the case in Group A.
The o th er in d ices range between .34 and .38.
Weight, how ever, r e v e a ls an index of .53 as compared to one o f .29 f o r the
same item in Group A. These v a ria tio n s may be due to f a c t o r s p re v io u sly
*
enumerated.
There i s a wide divergence in the arm spans o f the two groups
of b a s e b a ll p la y e r s which can be accounted fo r only p a r t i a l l y by th e d i f f e r ­
ence in t h e i r h e i ^ i t s .
*
As a whole, however, these r e s u l t s suggest th a t the
The supplem entary b a s e b a ll d a ta obtained from Group B a p tly i l l u s t r a t e
the need f o r th e q u a lif ic a tio n s in in te r p r e tin g the r e s u l t s which
were enum erated e a r l i e r (see pp.73-74). In Group B the a t h le t e s in the
v a rio u s s p o r ts , w ith one excep tio n , are sm aller than th o se in Group A.
T his im p lie s th e p r o b a b ility of a narrower range of s e l e c t i v i t y in
Group B. B a se b a ll i s the one exception. The s l i g h t l y g r e a te r siz e
o f th e s e b a s e b a ll p la y e rs as compared to those o f Group A i s most
l i k e l y due to th e method of s e le c tio n which p e rm itte d a somewhat
a ty p ic a l sample (se e p . 7 6 ). Of the seventeen s u b je c ts in th is group
t h i r t e e n were a ls o members of f o o tb a ll and b a s k e tb a ll squads in which
s iz e I s r a t h e r im p o rtan t. The s lig h tly lower s tr e n g th sc o re s of t h i s
g roup, in the lig fc t o f th e ir s iz e , im plies p o s s ib le la c k o f m otivation
and th e in flu e n c e o f extraneous examination f a c t o r s .
78
Group A fin d in g s may p o s s ib ly have g en eral im p lic a tio n s.
Such a stan d , never­
th e le s s , can be taken only i f rep eated and ex ten siv e in v e s tig a tio n s show
s im ila r r e s u lts .
BASKETBALL
An a n a ly sis of the b a s ic experim ental d a ta (Group A) re v e a ls, by means
o f the c r i t i c a l r a tio tec h n iq u e , th a t th e su ccessfu l b ask etb all p la y e rs
e x h ib it r e a l and p o s itiv e d iff e r e n c e s from the normal group in a l l the t e s t
elem ents of s tru c tu re , s tr e n g th , and power except back force and arm push
(see Table V III, p . 79).
F u rth e r in v e s tig a tio n , by means of the index of s i^ iific a n c e form ula,
re v e a ls th a t these a th le te s a re d if f e r e n tia te d from the normal group by
having much more ex p lo siv e power: by being s u b s ta n tia lly la rg e r in w eight,
h e ig h t, s i t t i n g h e ig h t, le g le n g th , shoulder b re a d th , chest depth, and arm
span; and by having s u b s ta n tia lly g r e a te r arm p u ll and leg s tre n g th .
The
rem aining re a l d iffe re n c e s mentioned above have in d ic e s of sig n ific a n c e
ranging between .37 and .47 in d ic a tin g th a t they may make some sm all
c o n trib u tio n to success in th e a c t i v i t y .
The s tr u c tu r a l measurements a lso
d isc lo se th a t these a th le te s a re r e l a t iv e ly sym m etrical.
A comparison o f
h e ig h t and s i t t i n g h e ig h t, w ith re s p e c tiv e in d ic e s o f .90 and .52, however,
in tim a te s th a t of the two components of h e ig h t, namely s i t t i n g h e ig h t and
le g len g th , le g len g th i s s li g h tly more im p o rtan t.
Actual c a lc u la tio n
shows th i s i s v e rifie d by an index o f .76 f o r le g len g th (see Appendix,
p . 113).
I t i s commonly accepted th a t h e ig h t p la y s an im portant ro le in b ask et­
b a l l success.
The r e s u l t s h e re in te n d to v e r ify t h i s common b e li e f as i s
in d ic a te d both by an index of .80 f o r h e ig h t and by the fa c t th a t the
b a s k e tb a ll p lay e rs were found to be the t a l l e s t group of a th le te s measured.
79
TABLE V III
S ig n if ic a n c e o f Mean D iffe re n c e s Set ween Croup A A t h l e t i c G roups and th e
N om a! Group In S t r u c tu r a l and F u n ctio n al M easurem ents*
■3
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We ig h t
1 .6 5
5 .8 5
3.&6
10.92
- .I B
.82
2 .3 0
S .3 S
- 1 .6 5
4 .9 5
2.65
4 .6 0
6.11
{
H e ig h t
- £ .5 9
4 .6 4
-.2 4
2 .7 4
- 4 .1 5
1.32
3 .4 3
2 .7 9
.8 3
1.38
1 .4 5
2 .0 3
2.31
;
- 2 .5 0
4 .0 0
.8 7
3.44
- .5 3
- .2 4
2 .7 3
1 .6 1
.00
.6 7
2.31
2.14
!
I
.9 5
1.7 9
4 .0 6
-l.ll
2.78
1.11
1.86
2.68
3.33
i
5 .7 9
- 1.11
3.51
2.17
2 .1 7
4.41
3.56
4.84
|
1
|
S i t t i n g H e ig h t
S h ou ld er
3-24
I.OS
4.42
1.29
- .6 5
C hest
B re a d th
1 .7 6
2 .6 3
3 .7 5
5.44
1.05
-1 .3 5
1.18
C hest
D e p th
1 .9 4
4 .3 3
4 .9 1
5.82
- .9 5
1 .0 5
2 .4 5
4 .6 1
-1 .2 5
3 .2 4
4 .1 3
H ip B r e a d t h
- 1 .0 3
2 .5 0
1.18
4.71
- 3 .3 3
1.22
.69
2 .6 1
.00
2 .3 5
.79
1 .4 0
2.5 0
3 .6 2
2 .6 3
4 .2 5
7 .9 3
3 .8 5
- .4 3
.3 9
4 .9 4
- 1 .6 0
4 .7 5
3.53
2.26
5.85
|
- 2 .9 4
3 .4 2
- .9 8
2.19
-2 .1 4
.16
3 .4 0
3 .6 7
.CO
2 .2 6
.57
2 .0 3
2.76
|
V e r t ic a l Jump
2 .3 8
7.07
3.60
2.47
8 .1 5
.48
6.00
1 .3 1
- 1 .9 8
5.28
5.81
3 .3 3
7.27
E ig h t Grip
1 .8 8
3 .1 5
2 .2 4
5.94
3 .1 3
.32
1 .9 7
9 .2 9
- 1 .6 7
4.79
2 .5 3
2.66
5.76
Left
1 .7 8
2 .6 8
2 .9 3
5.32
1.9 5
- 2.20
1.3 0
7 .7 8
- 1 .4 0
3 .7 2
2.16
2 .3 5
4.77
Back f o r c e
1 .1 7
1 .5 5
3.0 6
3.54
2 . 58
.1 3
3.28
4 .7 3
-1 .7 5
4 .2 7
2.75
2 .1 8
5.3 5
j
Leg F orce
2 .0 4
3 .5 6
5.64
5.04
3.39
.39
2 .2 7
3 .2 4
- 2.20
4 .9 5
4.25
2.4C
6.51
f
F u ll
3 .2 9
5 .0 2
3.35
6.18
3 .4 2
.49
2 .5 8
6.5 1
- 2 .0 6
6 .0 5
3.25
3.51
7.29
j
Arm Fufih
1 .8 5
- .3 8
3 .8 4
3.46
3.46
- .8 1
2 .1 9
2 .5 4
-5 .3 9
5 .0 6
1.89
1 .8 7
5.67
|
Total Force
2 .5 8
3 .3 6
5.81
6 .0 4
3 .9 5
.4 5
3 .2 3
4 .8 6
- 2 .3 9
6 .1 3
4.56
2 .9 2
11.61
!
3 .3 4
6 .7 6
5 .9 4
4.78
5 .5 6
.5 7
9 .0 7
|
1
i
13
16
17
19
15
B re a d th
Am G irth
Arm Span
Grip
i
Am
P h y s ic a l
C a p a c ity Index
Number
of
Cases
12
4 .3 3
2.98
- 3 .1 5
7 .2 6
6.51
3.2 6
31
7
734
81
14
7
*
A. c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f C.00 1® a c e s o t e i In t h i s stud," pa I n d ic a tiv e o** ?i r e n l d if f^ re n r# * . S-c>. a r p t l ~
n a y be l n t e r o r e t e d In t e r n s o f th e n e r a r l n r o h a b ilit.y curve n« l n d l c o t i n f 99 cher^»s.
100 t h a t
th e o b ta in e d d i f f e r e n c e I s re a l* th a t I s y r e a te r th m z e ro . A r a t i o e r e n t e r th a n ?.0C ie n o te e
a d d i t i o n a l s e c u r i t y . A n e g a tiv e r a t i o a l ^ n t f l e a t h a t the normal g ro u o h a s th e l a r r e r •no^sureaent*
f
E x c lu s iv e o f sh o t nnd d is c u s e v e n ts .
102
i
80
TABLE IX
tfAfcpitude of D i f f e r e n c e s B etw een Grout) A A t h l e t i c Groups and th e
Koraal Croup in S t r u c t u r a l en d F u n c tio n a l M nasum nnnts*
O'
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ffeigit
.29
.81
.5 3
1 .4 7
- .0 3
.1 7
.2 5
1 .6 2
- .0 6
.39
.5 3
1.01
.4 5
Height
- .4 8
.8 0
- .0 3
.48
- .6 0
.2 3
.39
.7 5
- .0 3
.11
.2 9
.51
.1 7
Sitting Height
- .3 8
.5 2
.12
.5 7
- .0 5
.3 4
.49
.05
.46
.4 7
.1 6
Shoulder Breadth
.1 7
.52
.1 7
.7 4
-.10
.21
- .1 4
.21
1 .1 3
- .0 4
.21
.20
Cheat Breadth
.3 0
.37
.5 6
.9 0
.1 9
- .2 7
.1 4
1 .3 2
- .0 4
.28
.3 5
.86
.66
.2 4
Cheet Depth
.31
.66
.7 2
.9 2
- .1 8
.21
.29
.9 5
- .0 4
.25
.7 4
.83
.3 5
Hip Breadth
- .1 6
.45
.1 9
.7 6
- .5 2
.2 4
.09
.6 2
.19
.1 6
.35
.18
.5 6
.4 0
.5 7
1 .2 7
.6 3
- .0 9
.0 5
n 27
.40
.6 2
.63
.4 3
-.4 4
.62
-.12
.3 8
-.2 7
.0 3
.4 1
.9 1
.13
.10
.59
.20
Vertical Jump
.48
1.09
.6 4
.4 4
1 .3 6
.11
.69
.43
- .0 7
.44
.9 5
1 .0 3
.5 5
Bight Crip
.4 0
.40
.3 3
.9 3
.5 2
.05
.25
1 .9 4
- .0 6
.37
.5 0
.77
.41
Left Crip
.3 5
.44
.4 6
.e o
.38
- .3 7
.17
1 .7 2
- .0 5
.30
.4 3
.63
.3 5
Baph force
.20
.24
.5 2
.67
.5 2
.03
.41
1 .5 3
- .0 6
.36
.59
.6 7
.41
Leg Force
.42
.5 5
.9 6
.9 2
.6 0
.06
.3 2
1.09
- .0 8
.42
.85
.75
.51
ArmPull
.57
• 63
.5 9
1 .0 3
.6 7
.10
.3 2
1 .7 4
- .0 7
.47
.66
1.06
.5 3
Arm Push
.29
- .0 6
.70
.69
.8 0
- .1 4
.32
.86 -.19
.44
.4 0
.69
.45
Total Force
.51
.47
.9 7
1 .0 7
.7 5
.09
. 4?
1 .5 2
- .0 9
50
.9 3
.93
.5 4
.6 4
1.C7
1 .0 5
.92
1 .1 9
.1 3
.56
1 .0 6
-.11
.61
1 .2 4
1 .1 3
.71
13
16
17
IS
15
31
7
734
81
14
7
Arn Cirth
Arm Span
Fhyelcal
Capacity
Index
Kumher of Cases
*
The i n d i c e s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e mey be
em ail d i f f e r e n c e : from * .50 t o
and above d e n o t e s g r e a t to v e r y
t h a ticrmcl g r o u p / h a s t h e l a r e e r
f c r the a t h l e t i c group.
**
E x c l u s i v e o f phot and d i s c u s o v e n t g .
12
.00
. 00.
- .0 6
.00
.3 2
1C2
i n t e r p r e t e d a s f o l l o w s : from .CC * .5 0 d e n o t e s n n e g l i g i b l e c r
A i , 0 0 d e n o t e s r. m o d e r a te o r s u b s t a n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e : and from * l.OC
g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e . A n e g a t i v e in d e x o f 3 i g n i f i c o n c e I n d i c a t e s t h a t
meanvremar.t w h i l e a p o s i t ive i r d e x i n d i c a t e s a g r e a t e r men sure ?.ont
81
V flBeSfcfe C d ft
S tr u c tu r e . .
HiMOj^wa nicrnr s
mimu
S tr u c tu r e
* *** * r 1
Punet Lea
1
nucx * rins
ru c tio n
1.5
<D
o
a
S—teLfht
■ ■ He 9bCb0dVbA(A«j J l j , l l « r i h r
1
E t - l l t t l n g H aight
ffb-lho o ld e r Braadth
a3
h
ja KV?in
function
a*
» C b c a m . agio
S tric tu r e
SHOT d DISCUS
Ch-Chaat Breadth
o
•H
Cd-Cheat Oapth
Hb-Hlp Breadth
t x - i m O lrth
is-In IDan
•H
C!
■ a H aS bC bC dH b A * * 2 J 1 1 1 1 * P F h f
Itn e ts r*
re a c tio n
................ TOOTBilJ. BACH
1
J —T a rtle a l Jimp
R—Right (trip
1 H H . 3b a Cdflh Ac At; J H I 8 I « P Fh T
S tru c tu r e
I
F u n c tio n
I
a n sport M<oup
I —L eft Ortp
V -B ack fo rc e
•H
Lg-Leg force
B-Ul Poll
tn
Ph«Ar» fuah
f —Total fo rc e
o
m
• ■%««
i>ax*r Btr i
- —S tr u c tu r e
-
«
l» F fc ra le * l ( h p e c llp Index
. - v u a e tle a
voonuu. Ltn
r H B .fb C b Q jB b k * t # n
S tru c tu re
I
taz«rphF
fu n c tio n
i
» I I t BbCb CdBbfeAe J «
S tru c tu re
L 8 I* f f t f I
F unction
m men agar
a>
o
'd
d
» T B t f c C b C d * A«*e
j i l i i f rfc r i
.fu a e iln e
onouRies
ra m
sport qkoup
____
t a I t SfcQ) QdBbAfAej <1 I
l U f l f h M
•tr e o to re
|
fu n c tio n
t o f d l iT K J T I C o a c tlf
■ • llo S b C e Q * - I
flla .k a t t ft ,
IM tltlt
.
J I L J J f f A l l
fo u tu a
Diag. 1. Magnitude o f D ifferen ces Between Grout) A A th le t ic Groups
and the Normal Group in Structural and F u nctional Measurements
82
TABLE X
i-<
a!
/a
**
4)
n
C
O
m
.tt
P)
Weight
.5 0
.5 1
Height
- .3 0
X>
T5
H
■a
C
m
o c
O—
'
*< -1
cn
—
4
c
a
£
e-
.4 7
1 .2 5
-.2 3
.3 6
- .2 3
.3 1
- .1 3
a
K
(i
Sitting Height
.00
.12
Shoulder Breadth
.3 3
.3 8
- .1 6
Chest Depth
-.02
.00
Hip Breadth
,0 flO
U
o o
O CD
m pi
.00
'a
XI
*' o
0
g g
cb ©
h cH
t*
& a
♦» o
o •
f<> s
13
S £
o cs
Three- Sport
Croup
rH
Two-Sport
Group
M a g n itu d e o f D if f e r e n c e s Betw een Group B A th le tic Groupa end th e
Norm al Group In S t r u c t u r a l end F u n c tio n a l Measurements*
s i *
eg p
o ♦» u
t< 4 e
.17
1 .5 7
.56
.66
.5 4
.5 6
.28
.CC
- .0 3
.13
.16
.1 7
.1 4
. 35
- .1 3
-.11
.1 3
.15
.07
- .1 3
.11
.5 4
-.2 3
.04
.58
.32
.28
• 05
.2 6
.3 5
-.7 5
.3 0
.10
- .0 7
- .2 5
.96
.9 1
.18
.17
.3 3
.1 8
.6 7
.23
.2 5
.04
.2 3
2 .0 5
.41
.5 1
.48
.4 4
.31
.23
.3 0
.3 5
.2 4
2 .1 4
.9 0
1.12
.2 5
.66
.44
.3 2
.00
.20
.5 9
.0 9
.1 5
.1 5
.66
Ana Clrth
.34
.1 3
.66
1.11
-.02
.00
-.22
Arm Span
.14
.49
-.12
.4 3
.03
-.21
.00
-.10
.10
.10
Vertical Jump
.7 5
1.C2
1 .4 4
1 .0 4
.4 9
1.16
.5 4
.86
1 .0 7
Bight Grip
.3 1
.19
.4 7
.66
.2 3
- .0 6
2 .3 7
.15
.6 2
Left Grip
.3 8
.21
.4 2
.7 6
- .0 9
.16
1 .5 7
seek force
-.12
- .3 0
.5 2
.6 7
- .7 4
-.04
1 .5 2
.08
.04
.34
.OS
Leg force
.31
.0 9
.7 2
1 .0 7
-.7 6
.12
1 .8 2
.33
.5 4
.10
.37
Arm Pull
.38
.1 6
.1 7
.29
.08
.13
.5 7
.14
.3 0
.7 4
.19
A n Push
.24
.09
.09
.4 2
- .2 8
.00
.02
.0 3
.3 4
.6 9
.11
Total force
.3 7
.11
.6 5
1 .0 6
- .5 4
.13
1 .7 8
.3 0
.5 7
.3 4
.35
Physical Capacity
Index
.7 3
.68
1 .3 4
1 .4 0
-.01
.74
1 .6 7
.73
1.10
1.17
.81
Humber of Cases
Structure
17
31
21
30
5
22
4
65
25
5
95
function
12
25
9
21
4 -5
18
3
54-65
16
2
73-73
Chest Breadth
- .0 7
*
Iha Indices of significance may he
small difference; fror. - .50 to
and above denotes great to very
the normal group has the larger
for the athletic group.
Interpreted as follows: from .00 - .50 denotes a negligible or
- 1.00 denotes a moderate or substantial difference; and from * 1.90
great difference. A negative index of significance indicates that
measurement while a positive Index Indicates a greater measurement
#
In clu siv e o f sh o t and d is c u s e v en ts.
8?
[\
f
n ^
J
H HeftCb
■-HJ
QtHbAfAe J I L B I « P Fh F
I
t i b sbfti QiHb
a l i!« r h i :
S tric tu re
^ in e t ls n
TRACK A FIIU 5
o
xrr
0
t- - # » l g h t
cd
B--Eel*tit
o
•H
1.5
s e - s m io *
I I F | feCb
CbBbAfi*
Sb-S no ulder B reedtb
SHOT A BISOTS
Cb-G ieet B reed th
Cd-C hett D eoth
STb-Hlo B re ed th
•rl
Ax-Af* O lr th
li-ir« Spun
U)
•H
CO
J - - T » r t l c n l Jue p
K -.R lc b t G rip
r L - n _ r - > - n
*
I 8«SbCfeCa&> A « w jJ I L > l « f P h F
S tru c tu r e
1
F u n c tio n
FOOTBAU 8ACM
I
B~ueek Tore*
-J
'U . r 'l
BBe VoCb QafeAgAe J l l l l f P B h f
• t r e e t o re
F onctloo
o n sp o rt gkop
1
I H i SbCoQl BhAfA*; J 1 L B l ( F R , r
S tru c tu re
i
f u n c tt ®
TSO SPORT (SOOT
I
*
U - L e f t O rtn
Ut-Lt fore*
t-.kim
o
Ml
P b-A rs F u rti
f - M i l fore*
I » r h r i l e i l C r 'e c lt? Indue
CO
Q)
o
n3
0
•
8 Be feCbCdHb AgA*; J l I B 1<B F h f 1
S tru c tu re
i
F u n c tio n
v d o o a u Lin
1.5
rr
* B He n C b Cd H bAf An J B
•
i i e » CbQUb M i l n
S tric tu re
Ttnii
i
111( r m
i
I t
L«B
f tl
I
THRU SPORT 5B0CP
F u n c tio n
H-- n_r-'-n -
nwil
■ H ltfc a C d H b lc A . i t L B L g P P h f
S tru c tu re
F u n c tio n
TOTAL A THirriC GROUP
1
Diag. 2 . Magnitude o f D ifferences Between Group B A th le tic Groups
and th e Normal Group in S tru c tu ra l and Ju n c tio n a l Measurements.
'•i
84
The r e s u lts a lso i n d ic a te , however, th a t weight i s e q u ally i f not more im­
p o rta n t than h e ig h t.
With t h i s p a r tic u la r group of a t h l e t e s i t seems
reasonable to "believe t h a t w hile weight may be im portant i t probably i s
im portant more as a r e f l e c t i o n of h e ig h t than as weight i t s e l f .
The s li g h t l y
h i^ ie r index f o r w eight th an f o r h eig h t (and t h i s is tru e to a g r e a te r e x te n t
in the supplem entary Group B d ata) probably s ig n if ie s th a t th e b a s k e tb a ll
p lay e rs have an average to a s lig h tly b e t t e r than average m uscular develop­
ment fo r t h e i r h e ig h t.
A survey o f th e r e s u l t s o btained from the supplementary group o f
b a sk e tb a ll p la y e rs s tu d ie d (Group B) shows both s im ila r and c o n f lic tin g
fin d in g s.
The r e s u l t s , however, appear lo g ic a l.
The s tr u c tu r a l and fu n c tio n ­
a l measurements of th e se a t h l e t e s f o r the most p a rt are somewhat low er than
those of Group A, y e t the p a tte r n i s s im ila r.
Weight, h e ig h t, arm span,
and shoulder b re a d th have in d ic e s ranging from .36 to .51 and appear to be
r e la tiv e ly im portant as was th e case in Group A.
These b a s k e tb a ll p la y e rs ,
as those in Group A, were found to be the t a l l e s t group of a th le te s
measured.
S ittin g h e ig h t w ith an index o f .12 appears alm ost of n e g lig ib le
importance, y e t i t m a in ta in s th e same re la tio n s h ip w ith h e ig h t as found in
Group A and suggeste th a t l e g len g th i s of g re a te r importance than s i t t i n g
h e ig h t.
(Leg le n g th index is .42.
See Appendix, p. 118).
The r e s u l t s of
the power t e s t s are s im ila r to those found in Group A and again in d ic a te
th a t explosive power i s a p p a re n tly of g re a t importance to b a s k e tb a ll p la y e rs .
In th is case, however, th e P h y sical C apacity Index of .68 i s due in g r e a t
measure to the speed f a c t o r r a th e r than to any o u tstan d in g s tre n g th c o n tr i­
b u tio n .
The s tre n g th measurements are lower than expected in a l l cases
except arm push.
One sharp d iffe re n c e i s noted in the fin d in g s of the two s e ts o f d a ta .
Whereas in the Group A b a s k e tb a ll p la y e rs chest depth c o n trib u te s in la rg e
85
measure to w eight, as r e f le c te d by r e s p e c tiv e in d ic e s of .66 and .81, i t
does not do so in the supplem entary group, as i3 shown hy corresponding
in d ic e s of .0 0 and .51.
Inasmuch as th e r e is known to "be a high c o rre la tio n
between ch e st depth and weight^- t h i s would imply th a t t h i s second group of
b a s k e tb a ll p la y e rs studied i s somewhat asym m etrical in t h i s resp ect.
C onsidering the q u a lify in g f a c to r s o f probable d iffe re n c e s in the
groups from which the two samples were s e le c te d and the p o ssib le lack of
m otivation on the p a rt of th e Group B a t h le te s (see pp. 73-74) these
supplem entary data tend to give some g e n e ra l im portance to the conclusions
d eriv ed e a r l i e r from the b a s ic d a ta .
These fin d in g s are supported in p a r t by th e r e s u lts o f recent re la te d
s tu d ie s .
Bookwalter quoted an o r ig in a l unpublished study** in which he
found th a t successful co lleg e b a s k e tb a ll p la y e rs tend to be e ith e r t a l l 3
heavy or tall-m edium . B e a ll found t h a t su c c e ssfu l co lleg e women b ask etb all
p la y e rs have longer arms and w ider sh o u ld e rs than the unsuccessful p lay ers.
4
Hinton and R arick reported c o r r e la tio n s o f .5 5 , .4 5 , and .38 between arm,
back, and le g stren g th s and b a s k e tb a ll achievement o f college women, whereas
t h i s study w ith college men found th a t w hile arm p u ll and le g fo rce apparent­
ly made s ig n if ic a n t c o n trib u tio n s to b a s k e tb a ll success, arm push, and back
fo rce did n o t.
1.
R. Franzen, Physical Measures o f Growth and N u tr itio n .
2.
K. W. Bookwalter, A C r i t i c a l E v a lu a tio n of th e Am plication of Some of
the E x istin g Means of C la s s ify in g Boys f o r P h y sical Education
A c t i v i t i e s , p. 38,
3.
E. B e a ll, The R elation o f V arious A nthropom etric Measurements of
S ele cte d College Women to Success in C ertain P h y sic a l A c tiv itie s ,
p . 32.
4.
E. A. Hinton and L. R aric k , The C o rre la tio n of Rogers' Test of Physical
Capacity and the Cubberly and Cozens Measxxrement of Achievement in
B a sk e tb a ll, Research Q u a rte rly , XI (O ctober, 1940), pp. 58-65.
86
FOOTBALL - BACKFIELD
The c r i t i c a l r a t io tec h n iq u e, as noted in Table V III (p .
79),
in d ic a te s th a t th e re are r e a l d iffe re n c e s between the s u c c e s s fu l f o o tb a ll
b ac k field men in Group A and th e normal group in a l l th e fu n c tio n a l measure­
ments and in f o u r s tr u c t u r a l t r a i t s .
The s tr u c tu r a l d if f e r e n c e s appear in
weight, c h e st b re a d th , c h e s t depth, and arm g ir th .
In a l l th e se c h a ra c te r­
i s t i c s th e a t h l e t e s show th e la r g e r measurements.
F u rth e r in q u iry in to th ese d iffe re n c e s by means o f the index of
sig n ifica n ce method re v e a ls th a t le g force and to ta l fo rc e y i e l d in d ic e s of
.96 and .97 r e s p e c tiv e ly which closely approximate g re a t m agnitude.
This
in d ic a te s th a t th e f o o tb a ll backs are s u b s ta n tia lly s tro n g e r in th ese
resp ects than th e normal group.
P. C. I . , one of the power m easures, shows
an index o f 1 .0 5 as c o n tra s te d with a .64 fo r v e r tic a l jump, th e o th e r
power measure u sed in the experim ent.
This denotes th a t the s tre n g th f a c to r
c o n trib u te s somewhat more th an th a t of speed to the success o f t h i s p a r t ic ­
u la r group.
B oth s tre n g th and speed, however, make s u b s ta n tia l c o n trib u tio n s
l|t
to the same.
With the ex cep tio n of r ig h t and l e f t g r ip s , w ith in d ic e s of
.33 and .46 r e s p e c tiv e ly , a l l the remaining d iffe re n c e s in d ic a te d above
y ie ld in d ic e s o f s u b s ta n tia l magnitude.
This shows the f o o tb a ll backs to
be m oderately l a r g e r in w eig h t, chest b read th , chest dep th , and arm g ir th ;
and m oderately s tro n g e r in back fo rce, le g fo rc e , arm p u l l , and arm push
than the normal group.
In summary i t may be s a id th a t the r e s u lts obtained from t h i s group
in d icate t h a t th e type or p a tte r n of in d iv id u al who succeeds a s a co lleg e
Conferences w ith the coaching s ta f f rev ealed th a t t h i s sample of back­
f i e l d men was somewhat slower than the usual group, in which case
v e r t i c a l jump might be expected to show even g r e a te r s ig n if ic a n c e
than i s in d ic a te d h e re .
87
fo o tb a ll back i s one who i s m oderately la r g e r than the normal in d iv id u al in
w eig h t, ch est breadth, chest depth, and arm g i r t h ; s u b s ta n tia lly stro n g er
in le g f o rc e , t o t a l fo rc e , back fo rc e , arm p u l l , and arm push; and who has
a s u b s ta n tia lly b e tte r v e r tic a l
jump, and a much
g re a te r
P. C. I .
t h i s in d iv id u a l mi^ht be c h a ra c te riz e d as m oderately h e a v ie r and s tro n g e r,
and much more powerful than the average s tu d e n t.
The supplementary group o f f o o tb a ll backs stu d ied (Group B) y ie ld
r e s u l t s which in larg e measure are s im ila r to those found in Group A.
Sharo divergences are found in the v e r t i c a l jurao, the chest dim ensions, and
th e arm s tre n g th t e s t s .
A ll o th e r item s P a r a l l e l each o th e r r a th e r c lo se ly .
T his group has in d ices of .17 and .09 f o r arm p u ll and arm push as c o n tr a s t­
ed w ith in d ic e s of .59 and .70 f o r the re s p e c tiv e measurements in Group A.
*
These measurements are disco u n ted, as in d ic a te d e a r l i e r , p rim arily on the
b a s is of la c k of m otivation.
The f a c t t h a t a la r g e r arm g ir th is found in
Group B than in Group A would tend to j u s t i f y th is p o s itio n .
The comparative­
ly small ch est measurements of the Group B b a c k fie ld men in the l i g h t of th e ir
w eight and o th er s tr u c tu r a l elem ents im p lie s th a t t h e i r weight ev id en tly i s
accounted f o r by la rg e r d iffe re n c e s in arm g ir th and probable larg e
d iffe re n c e s in thigh and c a lf g i r t h s .^
An index of 1.44 fo r v e r tic a l jump
in t h i s groun as compared to one of .64 in Group A in d ic a te s considerably
g r e a te r ex p lo siv e power fo r the form er.
In view of the in terv iew w ith the
Group A coaching s ta f f such a r e s u lt was somewhat expected (see footnote
p. 8 6 ).
N otw ithstanding these e x c ep tio n s, the r e s u lts obtained from these
supplem entary d ata, fo r the most p a r t, suggest th a t the conclusions deriv ed
from the Group A data may have some g en eral im portance.
*
See p. 74.
#
For an a n a ly tic a l account of w eight see R. Franzen, P h y sical Measures
of Growth and N u tritio n .
Roughly
88
FOOTBALL - LINE
As may "be n oted in Table V III (u. 79) th ere are r e a l
d iffe re n c e s be­
tween the su c ce ssfu l f o o tb a ll linemen in Group A and the normal group o f
s tu d e n ts in a l l th e t e s t item s of s tr u c tu r e , s tre n g th , and power in fav o r
of the linem en.
The la r g e s t o f th ese d iffe re n c e s (see Table IX, p. 80) were found in
weight and arm g ir th w ith in d ic e s of s ig n ific a n c e of 1.47
and 1.27 re s p e c tiv e ­
ly , c lo se ly follow ed by those in t o t a l force and arm p u ll
s tre n g th w ith
in d ic e s o f 1.07 and 1 .0 3 .
A ll these d iffe re n c e s are o f g re a t m agnitude.
With the ex cep tio n o f arm span with an index of .38 and v e r tic a l jump w ith
one o f .44 a l l the rem aining item s d isc lo se d iffe re n c e s of moderate s iz e .
Heigjit i s co n sid ered as such although i t y ie ld s an index o f only .4 8 .
in d ic es range from .67 to .9 3 .
Other
The nower t e s t s , as shown by in d ic e s o f .92
fo r P. C. I . and .44 f o r v e r t ic a l jump, imply th a t w hile ex p lo siv e power
apoarently i s o f importance to fo o tb a ll linemen s tre n g th i s even o f g re a te r
im portance.
These r e s u l t s d isc lo s e t h a t , w ithin t h i s group, the in d iv id u a ls who tend
to be su c c e ssfu l co lleg e f o o tb a ll linemen are those who, in comparison to the
average in d iv id u a l, have much g re a te r w eight, arm g i r t h , arm p u l l , and t o ta l
fo rc e; and s u b s ta n tia lly g r e a te r h e i ^ i t , s i t t i n g h e ig h t, shoulder b re a d th ,
ch est b re a d th , ch est d ep th , h ip b read th , r ig h t g rin , l e f t g r ip , back fo rc e ,
leg fo rc e , arm push,and P. C. I .
In broad terms these in d iv id u a ls may be
d escrib ed as much h e a v ie r and stro n g e r, and m oderately more pow erful and
t a l l e r than the average stu d en t.
In th e main, the supplem entary Group B d a ta y ie ld r e s u l t s which are
reasonably s im ila r to those in Group A.
The la r g e s t s tr u c tu r a l d iffe re n c e
between th e A and B groups may be n o tic e d in ch est b rea d th where Group A
has an index o f .90 as compared to one of .35 fo r Group B.
A ppreciable
89
d iffe re n c e s may also be n o ted in th e arm p u ll and arm push measurements of
the two groups where Group B made much low er scores in s p ite of an arm g ir th
index s im ila r to th a t found in Group A.
For reasons prev io u sly enumerated*
th ese Group B arm stre n g th sco res are d isco u n ted .
Group B also e x h ib its
co n sid erab ly more explosive power than found in Group A.
In the form er,
P. C. I . and v e r tic a l jump have re s p e c tiv e in d ic e s of 1.40 and 1.0 4 , as
compared to in d ic e s of .92 and .4 4 f o r the l a t t e r group.
These d iffe re n c e s
in power may be due to v a r ia tio n s in s e le c tiv e f a c to r s on the p a rt of the
coaching s t a f f s , to e r r o r s of sam pling, or to d iffe re n c e s in the groups from
which the samples were chosen.
N o tw ith stan d in g , the r e s u lts c le a rly
in d ic a te th a t explosive power i s an im portant co n trib u to ry fa c to r to success
in t h i s a c t i v i t y .
D espite these d iffe re n c e s , th e g en eral s im ila r ity of the fin d in g s in
th ese two groups o f f o o tb a ll linem en, p a r t ic u la r l y in the lig h t of the
q u a lify in g f a c to r s involved in th e i n te r p r e t a tio n of the supplementary
*
r e s u l t s , stro n g ly suggests th a t th e co n clu sio n s derived from the b asic
d a ta may p o ssib ly have g en eral im p lic a tio n s .
GYMNASTICS
The Group A gymnasts e x h ib it r e a l d iffe re n c e s from the normal group in
fiv e s tr u c tu r a l, six s tre n g th , and b o th power measxirements.
They are sm aller
in h e ig h t, le g len g th , h io b re a d th , and arm span, and g re a te r in arm g ir th ,
r ig h t g rip , back fo rce , le g fo rc e , arm p u l l , arm push, t o t a l fo rc e , v e r tic a l
jump, and P h y sical Capacity Index.
F u rth e r in q u iry by means o f th e index o f sig n ific a n c e technique (see
Table XI, p. 9 l) shows th a t w ith the ex cep tio n o f arm span, which has an
*
See p p . 7 3-74.
90
index o f - . 2 7 , a l l the above s tr u c tu r a l and s tre n g th d iffe re n c e s have indices
o f m oderate m agnitude, w hile the power measurements have in d ic e s of g re a t
m agnitude.
S i t t i n g h e ig h t w ith an index of - .1 0 as comoaTed to one o f - .6 0
fo r h e ig h t in d ic a te s th a t m oderately short le g s are c h a r a c t e r is t i c of
gymnasts.
T his i s v e r i f i e d by an index of - .6 3 fo r l e g le n g th (se e
Aooendix, p . 113).
W ithin th e lim its o f th ese b asic data i t may be s a id th a t th e in d iv id ­
u al who te n d s to succeed in college gymnastics i s one who, compared to the
average in d iv id u a l, i s p a tte rn e d as follow s: s u b s ta n tia lly - sm aller in
h e ig h t, le g le n g th , and h ip breadth; s u b s ta n tia lly la r g e r and s tro n g e r in
arm g i r t h , r i g h t g r ip , back fo rc e , le g fo rce, arm p u l l , arm push, and to ta l
fo rc e ; and much g r e a te r in explosive power.
Diagram 3 (p . 92), c le a r ly
i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t th e gymnasts are an asymmetrical group o f in d iv id u a ls with
a very a ty p ic a l s tr u c tu r a l and fu n ctio n a l p a tte r n arrangem ent.
They may be
d escrib ed in g e n e ra l as m oderately s h o rte r, s u b s ta n tia lly more m uscular and
stro n g e r, and much more pow erful than the average c o lle g e s tu d e n t.
Bemarkably clo se agreement is found between th e se r e s u l t s and those of
Group C which i s composed o f a group o f su p erio r gymnasts from th e Big-Ten
Conference, s e v e ra l o f whom were Big-Ten, N atio n al C o lle g ia te , and N ational
A. A. U. champions.
The s tr u c tu r a l and fu n c tio n a l p a t t e r n s of th e two
groups are alm ost id e n t i c a l .
Three d iffe re n c e s o f n o te do ap p ear, however.
A ll th re e range in th e same d ire c tio n , but d if f e r in degree of d iffe re n c e
from the normal group.
The arm g irth of the Group C gym nasts i s much
g r e a te r than th a t found in Group A as i s denoted by t h e i r r e s p e c tiv e in d ic e s
of 1.36 and .5 3 .
This probably im plies th a t w hile a m oderately la rg e arm
g ir th may be o f im portance to the ordinary co lleg e gymnast, a very la rg e
arm g ir th seems to be c h a r a c te r is tic o f su p erio r p e rfo rm e rs.
The Group C
gymnasts a ls o have s h o rte r arms and a stro n g er l e f t g r ip th a n those in
91
TABLE XI
Magnitude o f D iffe re n c e s Between th e Normal Group and
the Gymnasts of Groups A and C in S tru c tu ra l
and F u n ctio n al Measurements*
Group A Gymnasts
Group C Gymnasts
Weight
- .0 3
.31
H eig it
- .6 0
- .5 7
S i t t i n g Height
- .1 0
— • V.'O
•
31
.33
Chest Breadth
.19
.47
Chest Depth
- .1 8
.28
Hip Breadth
- .5 2
- .5 4
.53
1.36
Arm Suan
- .2 7
- .5 3
V e rtic a l Jump
1.36
1.26
S ight Grip
.52
.47
L e ft Grip
.33
.66
Back Force
.52
•
Leg Force
.6 0
.4 3
Ana P u ll
.67
.52
Arm Push
.30
.93
T o tal Force
.7 5
.6 3
1.19
1 .2 0
15
13
Am G irth
P h y sic a l Capacity Index
Number o f Cases
*
CO
Shoulder Breadth
The in d ices may "be in te r p r e te d as fe llo w s: from .00 to t .50 denotes
small d iffe re n c e : from ^ .50 to - 1.00 denotes a s u b s ta n tia l
d iffe re n c e ; and from
1.00 and above denotes g re a t to v e ry g r e a t
d iffe re n c e . A n e g a tiv e index in d ic a te s th a t the normal group h a s
th e la r g e r measurement.
92
H
m
f — W eight
J —V e rtic al Juunp
H—treieht
E—R ig h t Grip
L—L e ft G rip
B—Back F orce
Lg-Leg F o rce
p—Am P u ll
Pb*Ann Puah
Ip—-Tcjtal fo rce!
1—rP hyalcal C ap acity Index
H3-sit ting HeUdit
Sb-Shoulder Breadth
Cb-Cheat Breadth, ,
Cd-Cheat Depth
Hb-Hlp Breadth
Ag-Arn Girth
Ath-Am Span
o>
o
«
CD
;O
: «H
; <h
!
ia
J uo
i c o
i
Ha Sb ChCdHb dgAs J B ; L ; B lg P .Ih, F
1o
stru c tu re
: 03
:®
j'd
!a
;
; ..... 1........L ju n c tio n
GTMHAST1CS.A GROUP
f-
1 .5
1
.5
0
-.5
D
H HaiShCbCl HbAgAe! JH 1 B i g P f h T
I
Structure
1 .
Function
GYUHASTICS-C GROUP
Diag. 3. Magnitude of D ifferences Between th e Normal Grout) and the gym­
n a s ts o f Grouos A and C in S tru c tu ra l and F u n ctio n al Measurements
93
Group A,
R e sp ectiv ely , th e com parative in d ic e s are - .5 3 and - .2 7 f o r arm
span and .66 and .38 f o r l e f t g rip .
T his seems to in d ic a te th a t s h o rt arms
and a good l e f t g r ip a re h e lp f u l to gymnasts.
(The complete d a ta show
th a t Group C has a g r e a te r comhined g rip stre n g th than Group A).
These supplementary d a ta in d ic a te th a t the conclusions derived from an
an aly sis o f the measurements o f the b a s ic group may have some g en eral
a p p lic a tio n .
This p o s itio n i s also s u b s ta n tia te d in p a rt by the r e s u l t s
obtained by Schmidt and K ohlrausch^ in t h e i r study o f the body types of
German a th le te s .
They found gymnasts to be sh o rt, w ith broad sh o u ld ers,
narrow h ip s , markedly d ev elo p ed arm and shoulder m uscles, and com paratively
li g h t le g s.
T M IS
In re sp ec t to the s t r u c t u r a l and fu n c tio n a l measures in v e s tig a te d in
th is study the te n n is p la y e r s in Group A appear to be normal in most t r a i t s .
The c r i t i c a l r a tio technique r e v e a ls r e a l d iffe re n c e s between the normal
group and the te n n is p la y e r s in only two measurements.
The l a t t e r have a
weaker l e f t grip ( r a t i o a - 2 .2 0 ) and lo n g er le g s ( r a t i o a 2.55; see Appendix,
P. 118).
F u rth er in v e s tig a tio n shows th a t th ese two measurements y ie ld th e la r g e s t
in d ices of sig n ific a n c e w ith —.37 f o r l e f t g rip and .42 fo r le g le n g th .
T his
in d ic a te s th a t a l l the measurements of th e te n n is p la y e rs d i f f e r from those
of the normal group to a low o r n e g lig ib le magnitude and im plies th a t they
co n trib u te l i t t l e o f im portance to th e success of t h i s group.
Within the range o f t h i s experim ent th ese r e s u lt s In d ic a te th a t te n n is
i s a sport in which the averag e college stu d en t has an e x c e lle n t o p p o rtu n ity
1.
P. A. Schmidt and W. K ohlrausch, Physiology of E x e rc ise , pp. 197-198.
/
94
to succeed.
The in v e s tig a to r i s o f the o pinion th a t w hile c e rta in s tr u c tu r a l
and fu n c tio n a l t r a i t s , such as h e ig h t and ex p lo siv e power, undoubtedly con­
t r i b u t e in some measure to b e t t e r te n n is perform ance, o th e r fa c to rs n o t in­
cluded in t h i s experim ent, p o s sib ly stro k e technique and a g i l i t y , may be th e
im portant d isc rim in a tin g elem ents in c o lleg e te n n is .
An exam ination o f the supplementary d a ta (Group B) fin d s two s tr u c tu r a l
and fo u r fu n c tio n a l item s w ith in d ices of s ig n ific a n c e of moderate magnitude.
Leg le n g th has an index o f .5 4 (see Appendix, p . 118) which in the l ig h t of
a .42 index f o r Group A in d ic a te s some tendency f o r te n n is p la y e rs to be
long legged.
Chest b read th shows an index o f - .7 5 as compared to one of
- .2 7 in th e b a s ic te n n is group.
D espite the f a c t th a t the Group B a th le te s
in general are l i g h t e r in w eight and narrow er ch e ste d , such a s u b s ta n tia l
n e g ativ e index appears to be s ig n if ic a n t.
The v e r t ic a l jump of th is grouo
o f te n n is p la y e rs y ie ld s an index of .49 which c lo s e ly approximates a d if f e r ­
ence o f moderate magnitude and is accepted as such.
has an index o f .1 1 .
The same item in Group A
In t o t a l fo rc e , back f o rc e , and le g fo rce Group B has
in d ic e s ran g in g from - .5 4 to - .7 6 whereas the Group A in d ic e s fo r the same
item s range between .03 to .0 9 ,
Small n eg a tiv e in d ic e s in these fa c to rs are
to be expected from Group B te n n is P lay ers inasmuch as they are s lig h tly
t a l l e r and th in n e r than those in Group A.
T his in d ic a te s th a t s tr u c tu r a lly
they are n o t so w ell adapted to such s tre n g th t e s t s .
However, th e ir extremely
low sco res in th ese measurements are probably due in g re a t measure to the
f a c t th a t th e t e s t s were taken immediately fo llo w in g a te n n is meet when the
p la y e rs were in no co n d itio n , e ith e r from a p h y s ic a l o r em otional stan d p o in t,
to take the t e s t s .
Hence, these stre n g th sco res are n o t considered r e lia b le
and are d e le te d from co n sid e ra tio n .
The r e s u l t s obtained from these supplem entary d a ta do not warrent the
b e l i e f th a t the conclusions d eriv ed from the b a s ic d a ta are of general
95
im portance.
C onsidering the q u a lify in g f a c to rs of probable d iffe re n c e s in
the grouos from which the two samples were se le c te d , the e f f e c t o f the un­
favorable exam ining c o n d itio n s , p o ssib le la c k of m otivation, and the incom­
p le te sampling o f cases in Group B, however, fu rth e r in v e s tig a tio n i s
e s s e n tia l b efo re i t can be assumed th a t the conclusions do n o t have g e n e ra l
worth,
TRACK AND FIELD*
There are r e a l d iff e r e n c e s between the successful tra c k and f i e l d
a th le te s in Group A and th e normal group in fiv e s tr u c tu r a l, f iv e s tre n g th ,
and both power m easurem ents.
The a th le te s are g re a te r in w eight, h e ig h t,
s i t t i n g h e ig h t, ch est d ep th , arm span, back fo rc e , le g f o r c e , arm p u l l , arm
push, t o t a l f o rc e , v e r t i c a l jump, and P. C. I . (see Table V III, p . 79).
Of th ese d iffe re n c e s th e index of sig n ific a n c e technique r e v e a ls th a t
only the two power measurements are of at le a s t moderate m agnitude.
V e rtic a l
jump has an index o f .69 and P. C. I . an index o f .56 (see Table IX, p . SO).
Prom th ese r e s u l t s i t may be s a id th a t in resp e c t to th e f a c to r s of
physique, m uscular s tre n g th , and power included in t h i s experim ent, th ese
tra c k and f i e l d a th le te s as a group apnear to be d if f e r e n ti a te d from the
normal group only by s u b s ta n tia lly g re a te r explosive power.
The d a ta g a th ered from the supplementary grout) of tr a c k and f i e l d men
stu d ied (Group B) a lso in d ic a te th a t o f a l l the measurements in clu d ed in
the in v e s tig a tio n only ex p lo siv e power seems of any s u b s ta n tia l s ig n ific a n c e
to the success o f th ese a t h l e t e s .
T his group has in d ic e s f o r the v e r t ic a l
jump and P. C. I . o f 1.16 and .74 re s p e c tiv e ly .
than those found in Group A.
These are s lig fa tly h ig h e r
V e rtic a l jump is somewhat h i ^ i e r in Group B
in a l l but one o f th e a t h l e t i c groups and t h i s may be due to a unique
E xclusive o f shot and d isc u s throw ers.
96
d iffe re n c e in the two groups from which th e samples were chosen.
The clo se
s im ila r ity o f the general fin d in g s in Groups A and B in d ic a te s th a t the
conclusion deriv ed from the data, in th e form er group may p o ssib ly have broad
a p p lic a tio n .
S everal experim ents have re v e a le d t h a t a number of d iffe re n t body types
may be a sso c ia te d with success in s p e c if ic tra c k and f i e l d s p o rts .
have found r e s u l t s to the c o n tra ry .^
Others
T his study fin d s no s tr u c tu r a l type
c h a r a c t e r is t i c of tra c k and f i e l d a t h l e t e s as a group.
I f a v a r ie ty of
body ty p es should be p resen t w ith in t h i s group of a th le te s the r e s u lts o f
t h i s experim ent in d ic a te th a t when s tu d ie d as a group they tend to
n e u tr a liz e one another.
SHOT AUD DISCUS
The b a s ic d ata (Group A) of the shot and d isc u s throw ers show r e a l and
p o s itiv e d iffe re n c e s from the normal group in a l l the s tr u c tu r a l and
fu n c tio n a l items measured except s i t t i n g h e ig h t and v e r tic a l jump.
The
l a t t e r two measurements have c r i t i c a l r a t i o s o f 1,61 and 1.31 re s p e c tiv e ly
which in d ic a te th a t they have g r e a te r than n in e ty out of one hundred chances
o f b ein g r e a l d iffe re n c e s .
This f a c t i s im portant in view of t h e i r r e s u l t­
an t in d ic e s o f sig n ific a n c e .
The in d ic e s of s ig iif ic a n c e r e v e a l, a s noted in Table IX ( p . 80 ), th a t
s tr u c t u r a l ly these shot and d iscu s th row ers are very much h eav ier than the
normal group; much la r g e r in shoulder b re a d th , c h e st b re a d th , and arm g ir th
dim ensions; and s u b s ta n tia lly la r g e r i n c h e s t depth, h ip b read th , arm span,
h e ig h t, s i t t i n g h eight and le g le n g th .
See Appendix, p. 118),
#
(Leg length h as an index of .69.
S ittin g h e ig h t w ith an index of .49 is accepted as
See C h a p te r I I , p p . 5 -2 2 ,
97
a d iffe re n c e o f moderate magnitude.
In s tre n g th th e se a th le te s very g re a tly
exceed th e normal group in a l l the t e s t item s except le g fo rce and arm push.
The form er item y ie ld s an index o f g re a t s ig n ific a n c e (1 .0 8 ) and the l a t t e r
has an index o f .8 6 , which i s of s u b s ta n tia l m agnitude.
y ie ld i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t s .
The power te s t s
V e rtic a l jump has an index o f .43 which, though
of low s ig n if ic a n c e , is not so low th a t i t can he ig n o red .
an index o f 1.06 appears to he of g re a t s ig n ific a n c e .
P. C. I . with
A pparently the g re a t
power of th e se a th le te s i s due much more to g re a t s tre n g th than to explosiveness o r speed in a c tio n .
In summary i t may he said th a t, w ith in the scope o f th e in v e s tig a tio n
and w ith t h i s ex perim ental group, the type or p a tte r n o f in d iv id u a l who tends
to succeed as a shot or d iscu s throw er i s one who, compared to th e average
in d iv id u a l, i s s tr u c tu r a lly : very much h e a v ie r; much la r g e r in shoulder
h re ad th , ch e st b rea d th , and arm g ir th ; and s u b s ta n tia lly la r g e r in h e ig h t,
s i t t i n g h e i g h t , le g le n g th , chest depth, h ip b re a d th , and arm span; and
f u n c tio n a lly : very much stro n g er in r ig h t g rip , l e f t g r ip , back fo rc e , arm
p u l l , and t o t a l fo rc e ; much stro n g er in le g fo rc e ; s u b s ta n tia lly stro n g e r in
arm push; and much more powerful as measured by th e P. C. I .
Shot and
d isc u s th ro w ers might w ell be described in general term s as very heavy, b ig ,
and very s tro n g in d iv id u a ls .
The supplem entary group of shot and d iscu s th ro w ers stu d ied (Group B)
y ie ld r e s u l t s s im ila r to those found in Group A in w eig h t, chest depth,
h ip b re a d th , r ig h t g rip , l e f t g rin , back fo rc e , and t o t a l fo rc e .
They are
s h o rte r as in d ic a te d by re sp e c tiv e in d ic e s of - .0 3 and .7 5 , and are somewhat
sm aller in the in te r c o r r e la te d f a c to rs o f s i t t i n g h e ig h t, le g le n g th , arm
span, sh o u ld er b re a d th , and chest b re a d th .
The l a t t e r two item s, however,
do y ie ld in d ic e s o f s u b s ta n tia l magnitude thereby ten d in g to v e r if y the
98
importance p re v io u s ly a tta c h e d to them.
These Group B a th le te s a re more
muscular than th o se in Group A as implied by an arm g i r t h index o f 2.05
to one o f 1 .2 ? .
T his h e lp s to account f o r the s im i l a r i t y in the w eig h ts of
the two groups in s p ite o f th e discrepancy in t h e i r h e ig h ts .
Group B also
shows somewhat h ig h e r sco res in le g fo rc e , v e r tic a l jump, and P. C. I.
The arm push and arm p u l l measurements o f th is group a re unreasonably low,
p a r tic u la r ly in view of t h e i r very great arm g i r t h , and are disco u n ted on
♦
the b a s is of f a c to r s p re v io u s ly enumerated.
Although th e re i s g re a t s im ila rity in many o f the r e s u l t s o b ta in e d from
both so u rces o f d a ta , p a r t ic u la r l y in the lo g ic a lly s ig n if ic a n t item s of
very g r e a t w eig h t, very g re a t strength, and b e t t e r th an average e x p lo siv e
power ( v e r t i c a l jump), th e re i s s u ffic ie n t d is s im i la r ity , p rim a rily s tr u c tu r ­
a l, to make i t im p o ssib le to suggest th a t a ll th e fin d in g s in the b a s ic data
might have b ro ad a p p lic a tio n .
On the o th er hand, some o f th e d is s im ila r ity
is d o u b tle ss ly due to th e sm all number o f cases in v o lv ed and. to th e p o s sib le
d iffe re n c e s in th e two groups from which the samples were chosen.
I t is
evident th a t a d d itio n a l experim entation i s necessary b e fo re g e n e ra liz a tio n s
can be su g g ested .
The r e s u l t s from th e lim ite d number o f s tu d ie s which a re a v a ila b le on
the s u b je c t a re in clo se agreement with the fin d in g s o f t h i s re se a rc h .
Schmidt and K ohlrausch p o in te d out'*’ that weight men a re pow erful and of
2
massive b u ild . Me Murray s ta te d th a t weight, sh o u ld er w idth, and ch est
breadth showed s u b s ta n tia l c o rre la tio n s w ith shot—p u t t i n g perform ance, while
*
See p . 74.
1.
P. A. Schmidt and W. K ohlrausch, Physiology o f E x e rc is e . pp. 197-198.
2.
J . G. Me M urray, The R e la tio n o f S keletal Symmetry to A th le tic Prow ess.
p p . 58-45.
99
chest depth, hip w idth, and arm span a lso seemed to have some degree o f
a sso c ia tio n with perform ance in the e v e n t.
He showed "by m u ltip le c o r r e la tio n
technique th a t weight and sh o u ld e r b re a d th accounted fo r most of t h i s
re la tio n s h ip .
Me Murray a ls o added th a t many of the experts o v e rra te d th e
importance o f height to su c c e ss in th e event.
This conclusion i s v e r i f i e d
by the d a ta of th is stu d y .
ORE-SPORT GROUP
The One-Sport Group is composed o f those a th le te s who are s u c c e s s fu l
in only one sp o rt, i r r e s p e c t i v e o f the s p o rt.
This body of a t h l e t e s (Group A) shows re a l and p o s itiv e d iff e r e n c e s
from the normal group i n a l l th e s tr u c t u r a l , stre n g th , and power m easure­
ments stu d ied except h e ig h t and s i t t i n g h eig h t (see Table T i l l , p . 79).
Of th ese d iffe re n c e s o n ly t o t a l fo rc e and Physical Capacity Index have
indices o f sig n ific an c e o f a t l e a s t moderate magnitude.
.50 and .61 re s p e c tiv e ly .
Their in d ic e s are
S ev eral a d d itio n a l measurements rev eal d iff e r e n c e s
which tend to approximate m oderate m agnitude.
They are arm p u ll, arm push,
v e r tic a l jump, le g f o r c e , arm g i r t h , and w eight, with in d ices ran g in g in
rank order from .47 to .5 9 .
I t may be sa id ,n e v e rth e le ss , th a t o f the
fa c to rs in v e stig a te d , o n ly t o t a l fo rc e and P. C. I . d if f e r e n tia te t h i s
group of a th le te s from th e norm al group to any im portant degree and then
only m oderately.
These a t h l e t e s as a group are moderately stro n g e r in
t o t a l force and m oderately more p ow erful, as measured l?y P. C. I . , than
the normal group of c o lle g e s tu d e n ts .
The supplementary d a ta (Group B) imply th a t v e r tic a l jump, P. C . I . ,
and weight are the most im p o rtan t d is c rim in a tin g fa c to rs to the O ne-Sport
Group with in d ice s of .8 6 , .7 3 , and .56 re sp e c tiv e ly .
Arm g ir th , le g
fo rc e , and t o ta l fo rce, as in Group A, a lso tend to d if f e r e n tia te t h i s
100
group of a t h l e t e s from the normal group.
They y ie ld in d ic e s ranging from
.41 to .3 0 .
Although th ese r e s u lts show some tendency to ag ree w ith those found
in Group A, the d is s im ila r itie s and the a d d itio n a l in flu e n c in g f a c to rs in volved in o b ta in in g Group B d a ta
in d ic a te t h a t f u r th e r in v e s tig a tio n is
e s s e n tia l b efo re any g e n e ra liz a tio n from the fin d in g s in th e b a sic group
may be su gg ested .
TWO-SPORT GROUP
The Two-Sport Group i s composed of those
a t h le te s who are successful in
two s p o rts , irr e s p e c tiv e of the s p o rts .
W ithin th e b a s ic source of d a ta the Two-Sport Group shows r e a l d if f e r ences from the normal group in f iv e s tr u c tu r a l measurements and in a l l the
fu n c tio n a l item s except arm push (see Table V III, p . 79)..
The s tr u c tu r a l
d iff e r e n c e s are in w e i^ it, s i t t i n g h e ig h t, c h e s t b re a d th , ch est depth, and
arm g i r t h .
The a th le te s are la r g e r in a l l th e measurements in d icated .
The index o f sig n ific a n c e technique re v e a ls th a t th e re i s a g reat
d iffe re n c e between the P. C. I , of th ese a th le t e s and the normal group as
shown by an index of 1.24.
S u b stan tial d iff e r e n c e s are a lso found in a l l
th e rem aining item s in which re a l d iffe re n c e s occur except s i t t i n g h e ig h t,
l e f t g r in , arm push, and ch est b read th .
The d iff e r e n c e s in v e r tic a l jump,
t o t a l fo rc e , and leg force clo se ly approach g r e a t m agnitude.
In summary i t may be s a id th a t, compared
type o f in d iv id u a l who tends to be su c c e ssfu l
to th e average stu d en t, the
in two c o lle g e s p o rts i s one
who has a much g re a te r P h ysical C apacity Index; s u b s ta n tia lly g re a te r
v e r t ic a l jump, t o t a l fo rc e , le g fo rc e , arm n u l l , back- f o rc e , and r i ^ i t g rip ;
*
See p p . 7 3 -7 4 .
101
and who i s s u b s ta n tia lly h e a v ie r and la r g e r in ch est depth and arm g i r t h .
For th e most p a r t th e d a ta obtained from the supplem entary source
(Group B) ten d to in d ic a te th a t the above fin d in g s , p o s s ib ly may have
g eneral im p lic a tio n s .
Reasonably close agreement i s found in P. C. I . ,
v e r tic a l jump, w eight, arm g i r t h , r ig h t g rip , le g f o rc e , and t o t a l f o rc e .
The l e f t g r ip o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r group of a th le te s , however, i s s lig h t ly
h ig h er than th a t found in Group A.
R espective in d ic e s are .66 and .4 3 .
Also in evidence are the sm all ch est depth, b e tte r v e r t i c a l jump, and some­
what lower s tre n g th sco res g e n e ra lly c h a r a c te r is tic o f Group B as a whole.
These v a ria n c e s might be expected in view of the a d d itio n a l f a c to r s which
q u a lify th ese supplem entary d a ta .
*
THREE-SPORT GROUP
The T h ree-S p o rt Group i s composed of those a th le te s who are su ccessfu l
in th re e s p o r ts , ir r e s p e c tiv e of the s p o rts .
The a t h l e t e s in Group A who are successful in th re e s p o rts
show p o s itiv e
r e a l d iffe re n c e s from th e normal group in a l l the s tr u c t u r a l and fu n c tio n a l
measurements in v e s tig a te d except s i t t i n g h eig h t and h ip b re a d th .
The
c r i t i c a l r a t i o f o r arm push (1 .8 7 ) which c lo se ly approxim ates the minimum
accepted as in d ic a tiv e o f a r e a l d iffe re n c e is recognized as such in t h i s
case p rim a rily because i t s index of sig n ifican ce o f .69 i s s u b s ta n tia l.
The index o f s ig n ific a n c e form ula d isc lo s e s th a t th ese a th le te s show
g re a t d iffe re n c e s in w eig h t, arm p u l l, v e r tic a l
jump, and P. C.
I.
S u b sta n tia l d iffe re n c e s are ev id ent in a l l the o th e r f a c to r s except s i t t i n g
h e i ^ i t and h ip b re a d th .
The l a t t e r two item s seem to maJce some sm all con­
trib u tio n to the success o f th ese men as im plied by in d ic e s of .47 and .3 8 .
*
Se e pp. 7 3 -7 4 .
102
I t may be s ta te d th a t w ithin t h i s group the type o r p a tte rn o f in d iv id ­
u a l who succeeds in th re e sp o rts i9 much h e a v ie r, much stro n g er in arm p u ll,
and has much g re a te r explosive power th an th e average in d iv id u a l; he i s
a lso s u b s ta n tia lly la r g e r and stro n g e r in a l l the o th e r f a c to rs in v e stig a te d
except s i t t i n g h eig h t and hip b re a d th .
In the supplementary source of d a ta (Group B) the lim ite d number of
*
cases and the o th er q u alify in g f a c to r s involved
made i t im p ractical and
unwise to attem pt any comparisons w ith the Group A f in d in g s .
I t i s in te r e s t­
in g to n o te th a t in Group B v e r tic a l jump h a s an index of very g re a t magnitude,
w hile P. C. I . and r i ^ i t g rip y ie ld in d ic e s of g re a t magnitude.
S u b sta n tia l
d iffe re n c e s from the normal grouo are a lso noted in arm p u ll, arm push, and
w eight.
Arm g ir th and l e f t g rip w ith re s p e c tiv e in d ic e s of .48 and .44
also seem r e la tiv e ly im portant in com parison with the rem aining f a c to r s .
Prom th ese data i t i s im possible to conclude w hether or not the Group A
fin d in g s may have general im p lic a tio n s.
TOTAL ATHLETIC GROUP
The T o tal A th le tic Group i s comuosed o f a l l the a th le te s measured,
irr e s p e c tiv e of sp o rt.
These a th le te s (Group A) e x h ib it r e a l , u o s itiv e d iffe re n c e s from the
normal group in a l l the s tr u c tu r a l, s tr e n g th , and power measurements in ­
v e s tig a te d .
The in d ic e s of sig n ifican ce re v e a l th a t the d iffe re n c e s in le g fo rc e ,
arm p u l l , t o t a l fo rc e , v e r tic a l jump, and P. C. I. are s u b s ta n tia l.
Weight,
arm g i r t h , r ig h t g rip , back fo rc e , and arm push w ith in d ic e s ranging between
.41 and .46 apuarently tend to make a sm all c o n trib u tio n to the success of
a th le te s as a group.
*
See pp . 7 3 -7 4 .
I t may be s a id , n e v e r th e le s s , th a t compared to the
103
norrarl group of s t u d e n t s a t h l e t e s a s e croup a r e s u b st a n t i a l l y more Tjo,i*erful,
end s u b r . t r n t i a l l y s t r o n g e r ir. l e g f o r c e , a m p u l l ,
and t o t a l f o r c e .
The s u p p l e m e n t a r y ' • P a (Group B) i n d i c a t e t h - t 'ire r t i c r l jurrp, P.
and -rpir-rt - r e the iran^rtar.t d i r c r i m i n a t i n g f a c t o r s .
i n d i c e s o^ ?ubsi a n t i a l m a g n it u d e .
C. I , ,
These i*-emp y i e l d
i r n mirth a l s o a ^ r e a r a r e l a t i v a l * / i n —
n o r t e n t - i t h an inde^' o f . 4*1 a s connared to one o f .1 3 f o r Group A.
As
e m e c t e d . , * t h e s t r e n g t h s c o r e ? of Group 2 .ore l 0 ’”e r t h ' - r t h o s e found i n
t h e b a s i c source o f d a t a .
Enmever, as i n Groun A, l e g f o r c e and t o t a l f o r c e
a g a i n a m c a r t o he a n o n 1’ th e a c r e i m p o r t a n t s t r e n g t h e l e m e n t s .
- h Dce added r e s u l t ? te nd t o a g r e e r a t h e r c l o s e l y -d.*> t h o s e found i n
Grouts A end i n d i c a t e t l v t t h e r e i s a n o s s i b i l i t y tv ..t. th e Groim A f i n d i n g s
maTr have bro.-.d s i g n i f i c a n c e .
ITPIT-at HI,:-:? I Q GHOUP
As may he n o t e d i n T a b l e V I I I ( p . 7 9 ) , t h e n o n - a t h l e t i c gromo shovs r e a l
d i f f e r e n c e s from the n o r m a l groun i n l e g f o r c e , p.rm p u l l ,
force,
rnd P. 0. I .
normal group.
I n n i l t he ?e aiessurro:er.ts t h i s
arm ouch, t o t a l
gr^ur f a l l s be l o g t h e
T h i s mould seen t o im ply th'-t s t r e n g t h and r o v e r a r e more im-
r o r t a n t t o a t h l e t i c s u c c e s s th a n b o d i l y s t r u c t u r e .
All o f t>p above d i f f e r e n c e s --re o f n e g l i g i b l e magnitude ( s e e T a b l e IX,
p . SO).
Thi s i n d i c a t e ? t h a t
c o n f o r m i t y t o a normal no t t e r n i n t h e f a c t o r s
i n v e s t i g a t e d i ? not c o nd uc iv e t o s u c c e s s in a t h l e t i c s .
Summary
1.
The r e l i a b i l i t y and. o b j e c t i v i t y o f a l l th e measures used i n t h i s
i n v e s t i r a t i o n '-rere found t o be a c c e p t a b l y high.
*
See p n . 7 3 -7 4 .
104
table x i i
■3
o
P<I0
Weight
H r-4
fM
ly& o*.a M
O' *3 a)
m
O
om
aV) e.oo a
D
«C
S
Height
-5
$
S
Sit ting Height
5
S
Leg Length
5
Shoulder Breadth
S
Chest Depth
s
S
Arm Span
s
S
3
5
S
s
G
3
S
s
s
s
-S
s
G
s
*
s
3
S
Left Grip
s
Arm Pull
s
8
Physical
Capacity Index
s
Humber of Cases
13
VG
S
S
a
s
s
s
s
VG
s
VG
s
s
s
S
s
s
G
5
s
S
3
s
G
s
VG
S
G
s
s
S
8
S
s
G
s
VG
S
s
s
s
a
S
G
s
G
s
G
J
s
17
19
31
7
81
14
7
102
&
16
15
12
s
These differences are Indicative of the extent to which the athletic groups ere atypical. The
combination of the differences presents what may be termed the pattern o f success a s re v e a le d
these measurements. The table may be read as follows:
8 - substantial difference
G- great difference
78 - very great dlfferenoe
Blanks Indicate negligible or small difference.
A negative sign Indicates that the normal groun
#
3
s
Arm Push
Total force
3
s
s
s
s
8
Back force
Xxduslve of shot and discus events.
(
I C
E
4 'V
H
3
3
s
Leg force
S
o
W
«*>20 C*-• 3
&
o
U I. 4r-1 X
♦-» tv
6 ° K-« O
G
ii a
G
8
a
♦u»
o
»a g.
oo
*<
Js3
M
s
Hl^it Grip
*
-s
s
Vertical Jump
t,c
*73
§ 3VI m
p. a
■O
HO
(A G
fit) so
t/i Q O *•
VG
-s
Hip Breadth
Arm Girth
01
ec
H
G
S
Chest Breadth
0
4tr-*
(0
1
5-
[Track and
‘field ^
t.
*
Summary o f R e s u l t s I n l l c a t l n g t h e M agnitu de o f D i f f e r e n c e s 3pt»eeri Group A A t h l e t i c Groups
and the Normal Group in S t r u c t u r a l and f u n c t i o n a l M e asu rem en ts'
hns
the larger
m easu rem en t.
734
by
105
2.
Table XII (p . 104) g iv e s a summary of the b asic d a ta .
I t shows the
types or 'p a tte r n s o f in d iv id u a ls who tend to succeed in v a rio u s c o lleg e
sp o rts and a t h l e t i c groups.
3.
The supplem entary d a ta , f o r the most p a r t, su g g est t h a t th e b a s ic
r e s u lts may p o s s ib ly have g en eral a p p lic a tio n .
F u rth er in v e s tig a tio n i s
e s s e n tia l, however, b efo re any such p o sitio n may be taken w ith any reaso n ­
able degree o f a u th o r ity .
CHAPTER V
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Senera! Summary
This study was undertaken to determ ine th e r e la tio n s h ip between nine­
teen s t r u c t t i r a l , stren g th , and power measurem ents o f co lleg e men and success
in se v e ra l s p e c ific sp o rts, namely, b a s e b a ll, b a s k e tb a ll, f o o tb a ll, gymnas­
t i c s , te n n is,a n d tra c k and f ie ld , and to a s c e r ta in i f th ere are p a tte rn s or
com binations o f these measurements which are a s s o c ia te d with such success.
In o rd er to o b tain a d d itio n a l inform ation concerning the r e la tio n of these
f a c to rs to success in a t h l e t i c s th is study a ls o proposed to determine the
r e la tio n between the s e le c te d measures and success in one sp o rt, two sp o rts,
th re e s p o rts , a th le tic s in g en eral, and f a i l u r e to succeed in any sport
in v e s tig a te d .
The b a s ic d ata fo r the study were o b ta in e d from 835 stu d en ts, in c lu siv e
of 102 a t h l e t e s , from the Southern I l l i n o i s S ta te Normal U n iv ersity .
The r e l i a b i l i t y and o b je c tiv ity o f th e m easures were determined through
the use o f th e product-moment c o e f f ic ie n t of c o r r e la tio n technique.
The
r e s u l t s from o th er in v e s tig a tio n s were used to in d ic a te the former.
The re la tio n s h ip between the measurements and the v ario u s a th le tic
a b i l i t y d is tin c tio n s was determined by th e a p p lic a tio n o f th re e s t a t i s t i c a l
tech n iq u es.
F i r s t , the c r i t i c a l r a tio form ula was used to show whether or
not th e d iffe re n c e s between the means o f the v a rio u s a t h le ti c groups and
the normal group ( to ta l group) were r e a l , th a t i s , s t a t i s t i c a l l y s ig n if ic a n t.
Second, stan d ard scores in th e t e s t elem ents were computed fo r the in d iv id -
107
u a ls in each a t h l e t i c group.
These were arranged in rank o rd e r and p lo tte d
g ra p h ic a lly to show b y in sp e c tio n hoth the degree o f n o rm a lity o f d is tr ib u tio n
w ith in each group and th e g en eral d iffe re n c e s between th e groups.
T h ird , the
index of s ig n ific a n c e te c h n iq u e, which is a m o d ificatio n o f th e c r i t i c a l r a tio
form ula, was a p p lie d to dem onstrate the magnitude o f the d iff e r e n c e s between
the a t h l e t i c groups and the normal group, as opposed to dem onstrating merely
the chances th a t th e re were r e a l d iffe re n c e s .
In t h i s way, i t was p o s sib le
to dem onstrate th a t th e d iffe re n c e s occurring between any defined groups in
one v a ria b le were la r g e r than the d iffe re n c e s found in an o th er v a r ia b le .
Through such com parisons i t was p o ssib le to determ ine the f a c to r s which were
r e la te d to the v ario u s a t h l e t i c a b i lity d is tin c tio n s .
The c r i t i c a l region
f o r accep tin g o r r e j e c t i n g such an index as in d ic a tiv e of d iffe re n c e s of
v ario u s m agnitudes was s e t a r b i t r a r i l y in accordance w ith stan d a rd s t a t i s ­
t i c a l p r a c tic e s .
The p a tte r n of success f o r each sp o rt o r a t h l e t i c group
was determ ined by combining i t s in d ices of s ig n ific a n c e of moderate magnitude
and above.
Supplementary d a ta were o btained from the measurements of 108 a d d itio n ­
a l a th le te s from two o th e r grouus o f sources.
These m a te ria ls were used to
suggest whether o r n o t th e fin d in g s from the b a s ic m a te ria l may p o s sib ly
have g en eral a p p lic a tio n .
T his was determined by again arm ly in g the standard
score and index o f s ig n ific a n c e techniques to these d a ta in id e n tic a l fashion
and f o r the same purposes as above using the normal group from the prim ary
source as the b a s is f o r comparison.
D irect comparisons were then made be­
tween th e r e s u l t s o b tain e d from the supplementary and b a s ic sources to note
th e agreement o r la c k o f agreem ent.
For t h i s same reason the c r i t i c a l r a tio
technique was a lso employed d ir e c tly in a comparison o f th e a th le te s from
th e d if f e r e n t so u rces.
Through such comparisons i t was p o s s ib le to suggest
whether or not th e o r ig in a l fin d in g s may have some gen eral v alu e.
108
Summary of R esults
1.
The r e l i a b i l i t y and the o b j e c tiv i ty of a l l th e measures used in
t h i s in v e stig a tio n were found to be a ccep tab ly h igh.
2.
The types or p a tte r n s o f in d iv id u a ls who tend to succeed in v ario u s
co lle g e sp o rts and a t h l e t i c groups are d i f f e r e n ti a te d from the average
stu d en t as follow s:
a.
B aseball:
S u b s ta n tia lly s h o r te r ; s u b s ta n tia lly g re a te r
arm g ir th , arm p u ll, t o t a l s tr e n g th , and power.
b.
B ask etb all:
Much g r e a te r ex p lo siv e power; s u b s ta n tia lly
g re a te r w eight, h e ig h t, s i t t i n g h e ig h t, le g le n g th , shoulder
b read th , chest depth, arm span, arm p u l l , and le g stren g th .
c.
Football - B ac k fie ld :
Much g r e a te r P . C. I , ( s u b s ta n tia lly
g re a te r weight, chest b re a d th , c h est depth, arm g ir th , v e r tic a l
jump, back fo rc e , le g f o rc e , arm p u l l , arm push, and t o ta l fo rc e .
d.
F ootball - Line:
Much g r e a te r w eight, arm g ir th , arm
p u l l , and to ta l s tre n g th ; s u b s ta n tia lly g re a te r h e i ^ i t , s itti n g
h e ig h t, shoulder b re a d th , ch est b re a d th , ch est depth, hip breadth,
r i^ h t g rip , l e f t g rip , back f o r c e , le g fo rc e , arm push, and
P. C. I.
e.
Gymnastics:
Much g r e a te r ex p lo siv e power; su b sta n tia lly
sm aller in h eig h t, le g le n g th , and h io b read th ; s u b s ta n tia lly
g re a te r arm g irth , r ig h t g r in , back f o rc e , le g fo rc e , arm p u ll,
arm push, and t o ta l f o rc e .
*
f.
Tennis:
No s u b s ta n tia l d iff e r e n c e s .
g.
Track and F ie ld :
l|l
S u b s ta n tia lly g re a te r explosive power.
E xclusive of shot and d isc u ss th ro w ers.
109
h.
Shot and D iscus: Very much g re a te r w eight, r ig h t g r ip ,
l e f t g r ip , hack fo rc e , arm p u ll, and t o t a l fo rc e ; much g r e a te r
sh o u ld er b re a d th , ch est b read th , arm g i r th , le g f o rc e , and
P. 0. I . ;
s u b s ta n tia lly g re a te r h e i ^ i t , s i t t i n g hei^d it, le g le n g th ,
ch est d e p th , h ip b re a d th , arm span, and arm push.
i.
One-Sport Group: S u b sta n tia lly g r e a te r t o t a l fo rc e
and P. C. I .
j,
Two-Sport Group: Much g re a te r P. C. I . ; s u b s ta n tia lly
g r e a te r w e i^ it, c h est depth, arm g ir th , v e r tic a l jump, r ig h t
g rip , back fo rc e , le g fo rc e , arm p u l l , and t o t a l fo rc e .
k.
T hree-S port Group:
Much g re a te r w eight, arm p u l l , and
ex p lo siv e power; s u b s ta n tia lly g re a te r h e ig h t, sho u ld er b re a d th ,
chest b re a d th , ch est depth, arm g ir th , arm span, r ig h t g r ip , l e f t
g rip , back f o rc e , le g f o rc e , arm push, and t o t a l f o rc e .
1.
T o ta l A th le tic Group:
S u b sta n tia lly g r e a te r le g fo rc e ,
arm p u l l , t o t a l fo rc e , and explosive power.
m,
3.
N o n -A th letic Group:
No s u b s ta n tia l d iff e r e n c e s .
The supplem entary d a ta , fo r the most p a r t, suggest th a t th e b a s ic
r e s u lts may p o s s ib ly have g en eral a p p lic a tio n .
Conclusions
1.
W ithin i t s lim its t h i s in v e s tig a tio n tends to s u b s ta n tia te th e
common claim th a t f a c to r s o f body s tru c tu re , muscular s tr e n g th , and explosive
power are a s s o c ia te d w ith a t h l e t i c success.
2.
I t a ls o re v e a ls th a t th ese fa c to rs are of v ary in g im portance to
performance a b i l i t y in d if f e r e n t sp o rts as i s in d ic a te d by the tendency f o r
each sp o rt to have i t s own unique p a tte rn of success.
3.
Conform ity to a normal p a tte rn in these f a c to rs i s non-conducive to
success in a t h l e t i c s .
CHAPTER VI
DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
As in d ic a te d p rev io u sly one o f the major purposes of measurement in
p h y sica l education i s th e improvement o f in s tr u c tio n through the medium
o f a b e t t e r guidance program.
Such a program should be both s u f f ic ie n tly
s c ie n ti f i c to discover the needs, the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s , and the in t e r e s t s of
the in d iv id u a l and s u f f i c i e n t ly e l a s t i c to provide opportunity f o r ex p ressio n
in s u ita b le a c tiv ity .
Inasmuch as th e r e s u l t s of th is in v e s tig a tio n re v e a l
t h a t, fo r the group stu d ie d , d if f e r e n t s p o rts tend to favor in d iv id u a ls who
are uniquely p a tte re n e d s tr u c t u r a lly and fu n c tio n a lly , the study has educa­
tio n a l sig n ific a n c e in th a t i t should h e lp the p h y sical d ir e c to r to guide
in d iv id u a ls in to a c t i v i t i e s in which they are more apt to fin d success and
enjoyment.
I t should a lso a ffo rd th e coach rough screening measures f o r
h is a t h l e t i c squads.
While the supplementary d a ta h e re in suggest in many in sta n c e s th a t the
fin d in g s may p o ssib ly have general a p p lic a tio n no such p o s itio n may be taken
u n t i l these r e s u lts are v e r i f i e d and s u b s ta n tia te d by those of s im ila r in ­
v e s tig a tio n s in a wide v a r ie ty o f ed u c a tio n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s .
As a guide to fu tu re re se a rc h i t i s suggested th a t the arm p u ll and
arm push t e s t s precede the back and le g l i f t measures.
The l a t t e r t e s t s
are quite strenuous and where in d iv id u a ls are not highly m otivated th is
seems to be r e fle c te d in arm s tre n g th scores which are g en erally lower than
would be expected.
I t i s a lso p o s sib le th a t the arm stre n g th measures might
be improved by p relim in a ry in v e s tig a tio n s such as those made on the le g l i f t
I ll
t e s t by E v e rts and Hathaway
1
and hy C arp en ter.
2
V aluable inform ation might
also he o b ta in e d by the in clu sio n of a few added measurements such as thigji
and c a lf g i r t h and length and breadth o f f o o t.
Comprehensive and d e ta ile d
s tu d ie s o f a. s im ila r natu re fo r a s p e c ific sp o rt would be h ig h ly d e sira b le .
In such ca se s an attem pt might be made to seg re g a te th e l e a s t number of
f a c to r t r a i t s e s s e n tia l fo r s e le c tiv e and guidance purposes.
I t i s a lso suggested th a t re s e rv a tio n s be made in in te r p r e tin g the
r e s u l t s o b ta in e d in the combined a t h l e t i c groups, e. g . , th e One-Sport
Croup, Two-Sport Croup, Three-Sport Croup, and T o ta l A th le tic Croup.
H asty g e n e ra liz a tio n w ill evidence loose th in k in g .
From a d iff e r e n t mode
o f a tta c k , th e r e s u l t s in th ese groups s u b s ta n tia te the gen eral conclusions
of the study th a t fa c to rs o f s tru c tu re , s tr e n g th , and nower are asso ciated
w ith a t h l e t i c success and th a t d iff e r e n t s p o rts and a t h l e t i c groups tend to
have unique p a tte r n s o f success.
N e v e rth e le ss, i t must be remembered th a t
th ese groups a re composed c f in d iv id u a ls who are su c c e ssfu l in d iffe re n t
sp o rts and com binations of sp o rts and who do have widely varying p a tte r n s .
A p ro p er guidance program w ill require a c a r e f u l e v a lu a tio n of a l l of these
c o n s id e ra tio n s .
1.
E. W. E v e rts and C. J . Hathaway, The Use of a B e lt to Measure Leg
S tre n g th Improves the A dm inistration o f P h y sic a l F itn e s s T ests,
He search Q u arterly . IX (October, 1938), pp. 62-69.
2.
A. C a rp en te r, A Study o f Angles in the Measurement o f the Leg L if t,
Be search Q u a rterly . IX (October, 1938), pp. 70-72.
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appzpptx
a
SUPPLE1.IE3TTARY DA TA
113
TABLE X III
Leg Length Data*
Group A
11
M
SD
m
C ritic a l
E a tio #
Index of
S ig n if­
icance
- .3 *
.76
B a se b a ll
13
32.1
1.U3
.4 i
B a s k e tb a ll
16
34.2
1.71
.44
-1 .9 5
4.32
F o o tb a ll Line
19
33.6
1.^7
• 35
1.91+
.30
Gymnastics
15
1.22
.3*
.42
-4 .0 0
7
31.5
34.4
3.13
-.63
.69
Tennis
12
33-s
Two-Sport
l4
Shot & D iscus
T h ree-S p o rt
Eormal Group
1.17
.33
2.65
.42
33.1
1.11
1.26
.52
.38
.02
7
33-s
1.44
.59
1.53
• 38
236
32.9
1.24
.06
C ritic a l
E a tio W
Group B
B a se b a ll
17
1.U7
1.S 3
• 37
1.22
.09
• 33
-1 .4 5
.42
B a s k e tb a ll
31
33-1
34.0
F o o tb a ll Line
Gymnastics**
30
33-5
1.20
• 33
- .21
13
4
31.7
• 39
• 38
.92
- I .63
-.0 2
5
32.7
34.0
1.34
1.59
.87
.23
-.53
.44
.36
25
33.4
1.64
•33
.42
• 5^
.20
5
33.8
.94
.47
.00
.^3
Shot & D iscus
Tennis
Two-Sport
T h ree-S p o rt
*
See T ables T i l l and IX, pp. 79 and 80 f o r th e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of c r i t ­
i c a l r a t io s and in d ices of s ig n ific a n c e .
**
Group C Gymnasts.
#
The com parison i s between th e a t h l e t i c groups and the normal group.
##
The comparison i s between the re sp e c tiv e a t h l e t i c groups o f Group A
and Group B. A neg ativ e r a tio in d ic a te s t h a t Group A has th e l a r ­
g e r measurement.
119
TABLE XIV
■i
p
We igh t
1 .0 6
- 1 .7 2
-
.0 2
-
.5 0
H eig h t
2.19
- 2 .^ 6
- 1 .0 5
-
.79
S i t t i n g H e ig h t
1.32
- r.3 1
- 1 .'“ 3
- 1 . 75
-
-
.oC
- 1 .1 8
S h o u ld e r B rerd .th
• S'-*
.6 5
r*
■2
4-> 01
c 0
c cl
PQ
H
i~i
rj
&
+* <D
C CJ
O
w
»<
c.
t'.
0
£•
1-77
- 1.31
-
.2 6
-
-S 3
CheBt B rer-d th
-1 .U 9
- 7 .0 1
- 2 .9 7
- 2 .fi 5
.9 6
Cr.es t Do- th
- 1.29
- 3 .H 7
- r.5 6
-1.1*0
1 . 7 ’-
Hip B rcad .th
Arm G i r t h
1 .0 9
-
-75
- i . 1+9
-1 .9 0
2 . 32 -
Arm Span
V e r t i c a l Jump
R ig h t G rip
—
- 1.76
- 1.63
.2?
-
.6 3
- 1 .0 1
-
.2 8
.17
- 2 .75
- 1 .1 0
• on
^
- 1 .9 5
- 1.69
-
.5 6
- .11
- 1 .0 0
- 1 .2 3
1.07
.3 6
- 2 .3 6
-1.1*1*
- 2 .0 3
- 1.55
-1.1*5
- 2 .0 9
—r. •
-2.2'-*
.67
- 1 .9 0
op
- .59
- 2 .6 1
- 1 .6 3
- 1.67
-
-
-
.6 1
. 1+8
. 1*1
-
.1 7
.2 7
.60
.78
-
-99
• 50
• 19
1.20
1.08
.6 2
-1-75
.k u
-
. ‘7F-
.71
1 .6 0
.12
.0 0
- l . R0
- 1.21
-55
.90
2 .6 5
- 1.11
.03
.70
- 1. 5c
.oU
1.0U
1 .0 1
. 21* - 1.35
- 1.17
.0 0
Bach F o rc e
- 1 .6 1
- 2 . SO
.0 0
-
.S 5
-
.6 0
Leg F o rc e
-
.? £
- 2. 3s
-
.71
-
.6 0
-
Arn P u l l
-
.98
-2.55
- l.o l
- t . 3D
Arm P ush
- .1 2
• 76
- 2 .6 5
T o ta l F o rc e
-
-79
- 1.S8
P h y s ic a l
C a p /jo lty Index
- .1 0
•«•>
. }‘tL.
.18
.jt
3 .0 9
-
1 .5 1
.1 1
- 1.21
2.1U
.70
1.79
.?3
.0 ?
L e f t G rin
. 71+
-
*> .c c
c +» u
& < 0
.65
- 1 .0 3
-
.75
.1 6
! &
£ 0
0
-35
-
. 7-
.70
-
c
~
Cft
O P.
1 £
e g
^ 0
-
2 .6 2
.3 6
•75
<8 g.
c cc *.
0 th
.0 0
.0 0
.S K
t
c
OJ
t:
C tn
e
c tn
to P>
- L7
-
.57
Track
F ield
r-i
c
u:
ir.
c:
m
r.r.d
#
S i g n i f i c a n c e o f I'.rnn D i f f e r e n c e s B etw een Group A end Group 3
A t h l e t i c G r o u p s i n S t r u c t u r e . ! an d F unction/-.! M e aeu rcn en ts*
-
7 . 0 l*
- 1.25
•
-
.21*
.0 9
- 1 .2 c
-
.60
.65
- 1 .S 1
- 1.38
- 1 .2 6
- 2 .0 7
-t-.i-a
“ P . 07
.6 2
- 2 .2 1
- 1 .0 7
.21
- -79
- 1 .5 0
“1 •
-
.67
-
-n3
-
- 2 .6 1
- 1 .8 3
-7
- 1 .9 1
-
. 66
-
.1*1*
- 1.77
- 7.63
-
- 9S
-1.1*0
-
. 61*
- 1-55
-1.1*3
- :79
- 1.59
- 1.75
- I.9 U
-1.14S
-93
.1*6
-
-23
-
• 9 >+ - .3 9
.S I
.75
.1*1
13
16
17
19
15
12
31
7
CO
lU
7
10 2
S tru c tu r e
17
31
21
30
13
r,
0-1
1
63
95
5
95
F u n c tio n
12
9
21
13
4-5
1z
5
ni_.rr;
•1 6
2
72-73
-
.? e
-
.91
- 1 . 1*9
-
. 51*
-3 • -*7
"u n h o r o f C ases
G rour A
Group
•
B
25
A n e g a t iv e s c o re i n d i c a t e s t h a t G roup A h a s t h e l a r g e r m easu rem en t.
t
Group 0 c c m a r e d to G roup A.
#■?
E x c lu s iv e o f Bhot and d i n c u s .
120
5v
04
S'
H
S' 8
04 a»
10 r<4 -st
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vo
HV R
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w
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to I—
vo N
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to
H
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in
in
fi
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vo
r- 3
m
OJ
.st
H
in 1—
©
in
Jtenn* ani Stnndfurd Dorirvtlons of Groups flood
flo te rtln lrs O bjectivity of the Metcurca*
8
•0
m
8
m
04
m
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t
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in H“> 00
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to
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HI
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m
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0-
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£
to
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R
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si
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118.1
ft
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oj*
Cvj
o
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?1
«> H 1
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«o«<**q
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11*1
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121
TABLS XT2
S ta n fo rd E r r o r s - Group A
r e a l Group
N - 8*6
«2
82
111
B a s e b n ll
X • 1J
SEm2
3D
M1
f a
1W,
D•
3\
I
. a
Wj
K
\
“ d
SE t
D
2l*.llJ
’• M r h t
l 4 4 .7
1 9 .5 0
.6 7
15 1 . 8
1*1.72
h .? 5
7.1
4 .3 0
H eight
bQ.l
2 .4 4
.05
6 7 .6
1 .9 7
.57
- 1 .5
.5e
7.16
S i t t i n g H e lrh t
'b . l
1 .7 6
• 05
3 5 .5
.81
.23
- .6
.2 k
1.5*
Shoul *er B recrtth
?£.€
1
.0 6
79 .0
i.»*7
.4 ?
,U
.42
2 .3 1*
Chect B reM th
^fi.6
3 . 1*6
.12
5 7 .9
?.f*4
.7 ?
1.3
.7'*
5 .2 9
t?
C hest Depth
37.0
3.PO
.11
} F .?
.‘‘.1 ?
.6 1
1 .2
.6 2
3.glt
S1 t 3rer.dth
31.9
l.f E
.0 ?
3 1 .6
1 .0 0
.=9
- .3
■?9
1.87
Am O lrth
5 6 .3
5 .1 3
.IS
5 9 .7
3 .1 8
• 90
3 .4
.9 4
6 . 0U
A m S^nn
7 1 .0
:.9 i
.1 0
6 9 .5
1 . 7 **
.50
- 1 .5
.5 1
3.79
T e - t l c r i Junp
-8 .7
3 .0 6
.11
20 .7
: . b6
.57
2 .0
.6*i
!*.19
P .irh t Grip
1 1 7 .P
I f . 00
.6 2
127-7
1 9 .0 5
5 .5 6
10.5
5 .5 9
26.35
L e ft Grip
107.3
1 7 . co
.5 9
U 5 -5
15.81
4.5 7
8 .2
4 .6 1
2 3 .2 1
W - - > re*
3?’*.7
5 5 . FO
1 .9 3
3 6 8 .7
Uo.Qh
11.83
1 4 .0
1 1 .9 9
6 9 .2 1
1*08.Ol*
Force
1 1 6 0 .9
2<"o.00
9 .9 0
131 *1 . 5
2 9 1 .Oh
s h .i ?
1 7 2 .6
24.70
Am P u ll
3 9 ;.7
6 6 .6 0
c .3 0
4 4 i.j
49-39
14.27
4 7 .6
1 4 .4 9
82.92
Am Push
2 2 1 .3
U i. Cn
1.U6
2 3 6 .0
27.07
7 .K Z
14.7
7 .9 6
5 0 .l*t
. nn
7t;.r,7
2 6 3 9 .7
379.76
IOO. 7 6
£8 6 .2
1 1 0 .7 2
566.23
in .o o
L .is
5 -J-9
10!*.fig
3 0 . ?5
101.9
3°.54
1 6 0 .0 0
T r tc l Force
P h v jic a l C n p .irlt/
Index
i3 U ,.c
U4Z.C
1j 2 0
B a s k e tb a ll
w =16
SD
nt
: kd
■s*
M
1
SD
S£
"l
IN
D
SE
D
“ c+
1 5 .5
> .is
22. S5
1 57.4
14.C3
3-51
1 2 .7
3-57
lM.02
•59
2 .6
• 56
3-05
6 5 .O
1.64
.41
- .1
.9 2
1.9U
.72
.19
.6
.20
1 .5 4
36.3
.35
.2 1
.2
• ?3
1.63
i.v .
•37
1 .2
■37
2 . >2
sO.'-'
1 .4 9
■57
.4
■37
2.55
.56
1-5
.57
4 .OF
55.0
2.53
•fj
2 .4
,6U
5.28
•5°
2 .6
.6c
3-92
3 9 .s
£.24
.5 6
2.S
■57
3.91
M
1 .0
.h e
2.21
52.7
1.34
.3 4
.4
-37*
2.07
3.&n
•93
2 .5
.95
6.27
55 .7
3.13
.76
3-4
.80
6 .0 1
z .z o
.72
2 .5
.73
4.Q4
7 0 .6
l .f il
.V
- .4
.1*1
3.33
lo> .2
H eight
71.7
S i t t i n g H**l{tht
3 6 ,9
S h -u ld ^ r ?r*»ri?th
39.2
Chest BreM th
54.1
2 .1 6
ChpRt Depth
y i.i
2.27
Hip Brea'Jth
>C.C
: . r’4
Ar.T. O lrth
58.!!
Ann Spnn
73-5
P lr h t Grip
5
F o o tb a ll Bachs
M = 1?
<r,
J.G ?
V c lfh t
V e r tic a l Junp
1
<r,
ri,
/
I
ll.a 6
P2. ?
C. 1 9
.5 7
4 .1
• 5S
3 .76
21.U
?.o4
.74
2 .7
• 75
5.21*
l!5 .u
9 .7 6
2 .5 £
F .2
: .6 o
PG.Us
12>>,l‘
13,58
3*i f
7 .2
3.81
21. 96-
L e ft Grip
116.9
1 3 .6 6
3-53
0 .6
3-5S
21.81
1 1 7 .6
1 5 .6 0
3.4o
10.1
3 . 115
s i . 77
Brel* Pores
370. e
39.66
1 0.£4
1 6 .1
1 0 .U2
6 3 . ii.
3911.6
5 1 . JO
12.83
3 9 .7
18.97
75.79
1 3 6 5 .6
n o .u o
5 4 .3 ?
196.7
55.21
355. 0 6
1 5 *1 2 . 2
2 6 2 .0 1
6 5 .5 0
3 7 3 .3
66.21*
J87.S7
'.'<0.9
3 5 .^7
9.1 1
4 7 .?
9 . ho
75.76
51*8.I|
65.59
16.15
5 4 .7
1 6 .3 1
92.78
212.5
?7.E5
7.1 9
- 2 .8
7 . ; 1*
5 0.56
2 6 6 .5
ltll. 6 3
11.16
4 3 .2
1 1 .2 6
61.1*2
2577-1*
? 6 ?.3 0
67.73
C J2.9
69.07
‘55.18
£891.1
372.08
93.02
•j46.fi
9>t. 15
5 6 l.ll
60 J . 6
91.n
23-53
1 6 1 .6
2 J.9 0
1 5 1 .*M!
6 2 0 .1
118.73
29.68
178.1
29.97
169.52
Le^ 7orce
Arn P u ll
Ann Push
T otal Pores
P h y sic a l Capacity
*
StanA d l f f s r s n e s s ar« d s te ro in * d b s tv s e n th # r s s p o e t lT s a e a n s o f th e nom rvl rr® np
+ See Appendix, pp. 174»175»
***
• WJh a l h l s U e « W » «
(OmHmmA)
122
(C ontinued)
fo o tb a ll Line
H * 19
-1
-I
O yanaetloe
s ■ 15
-* v
T ~ 7
If 4
•V
W eight
1 7 9 .?
13.11
3 .0 9
36.5
H e ig h t
70.8
2.57
.6 1
1 .7
S itt in g H eight
3 7 .?
1.3 7
.32
1.1
• 3?
1.9 3
3 5 .9
Shoulder Breadth
1*0 . 5
1.82
.6 7
1 .9
>3
2 .5 7
Cheet Breadth
6 0 .9
3.30
.78
6-3
.7 9
Chett Depth
6c. 9
2.7 9
.66
3.9
.6 7
Bin B readth
3 3 .5
1.3 9
.3 6
1 .6
.5 6
Am G irth
6 5 .1
6.67
1 .1 0
8.8
Ara Span
7? . 6
3.05
.7 ?
1. 6
V e rtic a l J\um
Right G rip
2 3 .5 0
lU U .l-
12.11
3 .2 6
- .6
3 .3 1
22.95
3 .5 6
6 7 .6
1 .6 8
.6 0
-1 .7
.6 1
2.85
1 .6 6
• 38
-.2
.38
1.98
3 9 .1
1 .6 6
.3 9
.39
2.33
6 .7 8
5 7 .5
3 .1 9
.85
.9
.86
6 .7 1
6 .2 5
3 6 .2
3 .0 9
.8 3
-.8
.86
6 .6 5
2.10
3 0 .9
1 .1 2
.3 0
- 1.0
.3 0
1 .9 6
1.1 1
6 .9 6
6 0 .3
3 .8 0
1 .0 2
6 .0
1 .0 6
.77
6 .2 2
7 0 .1
1 .5 6
.6 1
- .9
.6 2
3.16
.62
•
•5
2 0 .7
3.6 o
.8 0
.81
6.5 7
2 6 .0
2 .6 1
.66
5 .3
.6 5
13 9 . 11
1 5 .6 6
3.6 9
3 .7 6
27.85
1 2 9 .2
16.15
3 .7 8
1 2 .0
3-83
6.38
3.29
3 .9 0
2 2 .9 0 -
L e ft G rip
I?!*.*
13-73
3 .2 6
1 7 .5
3 .2 9
21.85
1 1 6 .6
17 .7 6
6 .7 6
9-3
6 .7 8
26.57
Bec> fo rc e
6 1 6 .5
73.60
17.35
6 1 .8
17 .6 6
92.36
3 9 8 .9
6 3 .6 0
1 7 .0 0
h h .2
17.11
86.61
Leg fo rc e
1 5 7 7 .8
361.93
50.59
60 8 .9
8 1 .2 0
6 6 5 .7 7
1396.5
26 6.18
6 5 .7 9
2 2 5 .6
6 6 .5 3
377.36
Am P u ll
6 9 0 .6
65.70
15.68
9 6 .7
15.65
93.56
6 5 9 .6
7 1 .3 ?
19.06
6 5 .7
1 9 .2 0
97-58
A n Pu*h
27 6 .1
66.35
15.17
5 2 .8
1 5 .2 6
76.95
2 2 9 .0
73 .1 0
1 9 .5 6
6 7 .7
1 9 .5 9
8 6 .6 1
3017.8
668.77
110.68
67 3 .3
U l .6 3
6 2 9 .6 0
’7 8 7 .6
6 1 6 .6 3
1 1 1 .2 9
6 6 3 .1
1 1 2 .2 3
591.65
6 3 0 .1
166.09
39-16
182.1
3 9 .3 6
2 0 5 .6 9
67 6 .3
1 5 2 .8 6
6 0 .8 5
2 3 2 .3
6 1 .0 6
196.95
«
T o tal fo rc e
P h y sical C apacity
Index
Tonal*
Track and f ie ld *
“l- " 2
S s 12
1
SO
H » 31
SJ *#
5 tv,
0
M.
SD
12
V
’•'eight
1 6 9 .6
IS . f?
5 .6 9
6 .7
5 .7 3
2 7 .1 6
1 5 0 .6
1 3 .8 3
2.68
5-9
2 .5 7
H e ig h t
6 9 .8
1.73
.52
.7
•53
2 .9 9
7 0 .3
1.91
.3 6
1 .2
.3 5
3.10
8 1 ttln £ H eight
3 6 .0
1 .6 0
.6 2
-.1
.6 2
1 .9 5
3 6 .7
1 .1 6
.21
.6
.2 2
1.79
Shoulder Breadth
3 5 .2
2 .0 7
.6 2
-.6
.6 2
2 .7 6
3 9 .1
1 .5 3
.27
•5
.28
2.38
Cheet Breadth
5 5 .6
2.91
.82
■1 . 2
.89
6.5 2
5 7 .2
2 .7 8
• 50
.6
• 51
6.66
Cheet D*?pth
3 7 .9
7.83
.25
•9
.86
6 .2 7
38.2
2 .6 5
.68
1 .2
• 69
Hip B readth
3 2 .6
1.7 6
.6 1
•5
.6 1
2.0 8
32 .1
1.62
.29
.29
6.15
2.26
Arn O lrth
5 5 .7
6.5 5
1 .3 7
-.6
1 .3s
6.8 6
56.6
6 .1 9
• 75
.3
• 77
6.62
Arn Span
7 1 .1
2 . 0?
.61
.1
3 .5 6
7 2 .6
2.56
.66
1.6
.67
3-86
V e rtic a l Juap
1 9 .2
3.60
1.03
■5
1 .0 6
6.5 7
21.6
2 .6 7
.66
2.T
.65
3.93
R ight Grip
L e ft Grip
11 8 .3
99.9
11.32
3.61
1 " .9 9
3-31
.62
1.1
3 .6 7
2 1 .2 6
- 7 .6
3 .3 6
2 0 .2 6
123.5
111.3
23-91
17.69
3 .1 6
6.3
3.20
25.10
16.79
3.02
6.0
3.08
23.89
3 5 6 .5
6 6 .0 5
13.28
1.8
1 3 .6 2
71.09
386.0
51.99
1203. 5
296.03
89.25
3 6 .9
89 .7 9
6 1 1 .6 2
1308.2
336.67
Arn P u ll
6 0 2 .0
55.53
1 6 .7 6
8 .3
1 6 .9 0
86.71
6 2 3 .0
61.86
11.11
29.3
11.35
90.88
A n fn*fe
216.3
56.82
10.56
23.3
10.66
72.39
627.96
76.86
252.3
78.22
599.62
120.37
21.62
95.6
22.02
170.67
Back fo rc e
Leg f o rc e
T o tal f o r c e
fh y e lc a l C apacity
Index________
•
2 3 9 6 .8
666.1
28.06
J 6 5 .9 6
126.88
8.66
- 7 .0
8.59
50.68
266.6
110.32
5 0 .3
1 1 1 .2 7
557.06
2596.8
38.25
22.1
38.68
175.33
537.6
9 .3 6
60.67
31.3
9.5**
•76.27
139.J
61.27
661.75
f i t o l t u l n o f (h o t ittd A lam u m a t i .
(O sntlauA )
123
m l aad m een a
* * 7
8D
VeUM
ISO. 6
X eS*t
71 .5
S l t t l a i S ilfjh t
37.1
Shoulder B readth
ttl.ti
Cheat Breadth
65.1
Ona—S n art Ann*
S ■ 81
V *!
B
10.1*5
®v
6.30
8SD+
22.11
\f e ii* o !
|M , M,
VHa
«i
SB
S\
D
*
155.2
18.10
2.01
10.5
2.12
.29
3.51
.15
1.83
d
26.61
4.*5
35.9
5.10
. .86
2 .6
.86
3.22
69.5
2.53
.28
.u
1.53
.62
1 .0
.62
2.05
36.2
1.22
.14
.1
1.68
.69
2.S
.69
2.68
39.1
1.55
.17
.5
.18
2.39
5.31
.96
5 .5
.95
6.16
57.9
3.18
.35
1.3
• 37
4.70
Cheat Depth
1*0 .5
1.83
.75
3 .5
.76
3-69
38.1
2.9?
• 32
1.1
• 3“
4.33
Hip Breadth
33.1
1.15
.66
1 .2
.66
1.96
32.3
1.68
.16
.h
.17
2.16
A ia O lrth
1.69
8 .6
1.70
6.60
59.2
5.22
• 58
71.7
2.66
.29
20.6
3.03
.34
1.9
.36
4.31
1.88
24.12
1.91
23. 6?
64.7
6.15
A n Span
7'*.3
2.18
.89
3 .3
.90
3.66
T e r tie e l Juqp
so. 9
6.11
1 .6s
2 .2
1.68
5.12
.7
B ight Orlp
157.7
10.57
6.32
60.5
6.36
20.87
126.2
16.05
1.78
9.0
L e ft Grip
161.9
10.79
6.61
36.6
6.1*5
20.16
116.6
16. 6o
1.82
7.1
.61
7.32
.31
J-93
Back Force
’4 95.0
75.66
29-59
160.3
29.65
91.66
383.8
58.80
5-53
29.I
6 . SI
81. c6
Lee Force
1705.7
606.67
165.16
536.8
165.66
586.07
1767.0
’ 11.00
34.56
178.1
39.95
422.51
Arc P o ll
565.7
56.91
23.26
152.0
23.35
87.60
635.6
58.80
6.53
Hi. 9
6 .92
28.84
A n P ath
587.1
63.30
25.85
6 5.6
25.89
76.08
269.5
48.60
5.38
2Z.2
5.57
64.51
3331.7
696.61
202.70
987.2
503.22
650.25
5662.7
618.00
66.61*
258.2
48.66
592.56
707.6
515.38
89.17
265.6
8 °. 27
269.66
567.3
125.00
13-89
105.3
16.51
174.00
T o ta l Force
P h y sical C apacity
Index
DVMm
V «5
E ■ 16
“1
SD
32.
D
‘1
.1 ,1
k
V ".
Ml
V S j-tS j.
r ,‘
Thrf*r*-Snort Grotm
N- 7
•LI
. I
V - ', 1* o-,1
V *2
:
St
*
«D
sr.
D
"1
SD
28.11
l6 s .o
12-33
5.03
2J.3
?7
70.7
1-93
.79
1.6
• 75
3.11
. ‘**3
1.72
sed
D
Velght
159.7
20.25
5.62
13.0
5.66
E e l& t
70.1
2.69
.69
1.0
.09
23-07
S ittin g H eight
37.0
1.61
.39
•9
.39
1.96
36.9
1.06
.43
.0
Shoulder Brendtfc
39.1
1.65
.65
.5
.**5
zM
40.9
1-97
.80
2.3
,*C
2.68
.68
3.84
5**7
Chest Breadth
58.1
5.66
1.5
.£'l
**.i3
60.0
1.57
J.H
1.57
Choet Depth
60.1
2.67
.76
3.1
.75
-.17
60.2
2.17
.89
3 .2
.90
3-57
S ip Breadth
32.3
1.85
.51
.6
-51
2 .1I3
32.7
1.60
•57
.0
.57
Z .ll
6.98
Arc G irth
60.6
6.15
1.15
6.1
l.lt
t.bO
60.7
4.74
I .96
H.H
1.95
Arc Span
71.6
2.50
.69
.6
.70
3.P1'
73.6
5.S9
1.1*
2M
i.:x
4.10
T e rtlc a l Junp
5 2 .T
2.51
.61
3.6
Sz
3.77
23.5
3.53
1.44
k.s
iM
4 .67
Ri^jlt Grip
159-9
17.92
6.97
12.7
5 .c i
Z5.'*Q
136.7
17.*8
7.30
19.5
7.>3
25 37
L e ft Orip
117.6
16.57
6.60
10.1
H.6H
£3.7^
125.7
17.04
6.96
16.H
6.?g
24.07
23.63
Brek Force
'107.1
68.29
18.96
52.6
19. Oh
ES.l?
'•10.7
62.59
65-56
5&.0
Lev; Force
1561.6
313.80
87.05
372.5
57.5S
42%. 5*
1515.7
352.96
144.12
jHfi.s
657.1
69.e s
19.38
63.6
15.51
96.53
457 .6
J2.0%
29.45
103.7
29.51
9 * .ll
567.9
50.61
13.98
56.6
l>t.06
65.76
289.0
IS . 34
J6.0S
o7.7
3A.U
97.92
5900.9
627.21
121.25
556.6
1P2.12
599.09
2969.0
522.96
213.53
6 2*1.5
llH .0 2
670.72
666.9
112.56
31.21
206.9
31.^0
165.26
699.6
153.30
78.93
2r> l^
75.04
22S.05
A n P u ll
A n Push
T o tal Force
F hyeleal C apacity
_____ i B l S -------------
* 3 .6
456.27
(C o n tin u e d )
124
(Continued)
T o t a l A t h l e t i c Grottr
" l- " 2
N = 102
1
S3
3
'
\
N o n -A th le t lc Croup
til ♦
n,
nt
SE_
3
AJ
" l-« 2
K - 7>6
SE _#
0
M
2 7 .0 9
1 6 7 .1
1 9 .0 0
SD
-
Vfli
*r
SI
D
S3 ^
D
• 70
- 1 .6
• 97
27.23
- .1
”,
h e ig h t
1 5 6 .?
H eig h t
6 ? .7
*■53
.25
.6
.2 6
3.51
69.O
2 .6 1
•09
S i t t i n g H e ig h t
7 6 .5
1.3 1
.1 3
•3
.1 6
1 .8 9
36.1
1.36
.05
S h o u ld e r B re a d th
3 5 .2
1 .6 7
.17
.6
.18
2 .5 7
98.5
1 .8 2
.07
C heet B re a d th
5 S .1
5 6 .6
3 .6 6
IS.SO
3.25
1.S6
.32
1 2 .1
1-5
1 .9 8
.36
5 .7 6
C heet D epth
3 E .5
2.93
H I? B re a d th
32 .3
1.55
A rn G ir th
5 9 .6
5 .1 0
.5 0
3 .1
.53
7-23
A rn Span
7 1 .8
2.70
.2 7
.8
• 29
3-97
T a r t l e a l Jun>
2 1 .1
3.12
.31
2 .6
•33
B ig h t O rlp
1 2 7.5
16.75
1 .6 6
1 0 .2
1 .7 7
L e f t G rip
1 1 5.5
16.1(0
1 .6 2
8 .2
1 .7 2
Back F o rce
3S9-2
6 2 .1 0
6 .1 5
3 5 .5
6 .6 5
Leg F o ree
A m F u ll
A m Fueh
T o ta l F o rc e
F t y r l c a l C a p a c ity
_____ I n t o . ■ _ -
.29
1-5
.31
6 .5 6
3 6 .s
■15
.6
.1 6
2 .2 1
3 1 .9
3 .15
N,
D
■13
9">
.1 2
3.63
•07
1.92
- .1
•09
2.57
- .2
.1 8
u .s e
- .2
.1 6
6 .5 1
0
.08
1-23
•25
7 .0 0
1 .57
.0 6
0
5 5 .3
6 .7 7
.1 B
- .u
7 1 .0
2 . 9)
.1 1
0
15
613
6 -3 7
1 8.6
2 .9 3
.11
- .3
.1 6
6.25
2 6 .5 9
1 1 5 .7
1 7 .7 0
“ 1 .5
• 90
25.25
2 3 .6 2
1 0 6 .1
1 6 .8 0
.62
- 1 .2
.8 6
23.50
3 6 9 .9
53-10
1 .96
- u .s
2-75
77 . 0 )
9.S 2
- ? o .6
1 3 .9 6
390.58
8 3 .6 9
13 S 8 .7
3 2 6 .0 0
32.28
21 9 .8
53-76
6 3 3 .6 7
1138.3
2 6 6 .0 0
6 5 3 .P
6 6 .2 0
6 .3 6
6 0 .3
0 .7 6
9 2 .5 0
3 * 6 .9
6 6 .2 0
-0 7
- 6 .6
3.30
92-51
53.20
5.27
3 1 .0
5 .^ 7
6 7 .9 1
2 1 0 .3
3 8 .5 0
1M
-1 1 .0
2 .0 6
57.06
2668.5
2 2 0 .0 0
21.78
30 5 .0
2 6 .3 8
6 7 6 .1 3
2295.6
392 .0 0
1U.U7
- U 5 .I
20.51
576.51
57 1 .6
1 3 8 .0 0
1 3 .6 6
1 2 9 .6
lU .2 9
1 S J .53
6 ^6 .0
1 0 6 .0 0
>.91
- 1 8 .0
5-72
1 6 0 .St
25 2 .3
SABX1 znz
Standard Xrrora - Qrtrap B
Bernal Oroup *
H a a .b a ll
B tm o tu r e _ m 1 7
A m o tio n
12
H■8J6
SB
Hl-R,
■V
A .
165.7
19 .5 0
.67
157.9
15.61
Height
69.1
2.6 6
.0 8
68 .2
1.8 3
.66
- .9
Sitting Haight
36.1
1 .3 6
.0 5
3 6 .1
.95
.26
0
3.85
1 3 .2
26.85
3.0 5
l.«
Shoulder Breadth
38.6
1 .8 2
.0 6
3 9 .6
1.9 3
.68
1.0
Chest Breadth
5 6 .6
3.6 6
.1 2
56.5
2.3 9
.60
-.1
6.21
Chest Depth
37.0
J.20
.11
37.0
2 .7 9
.70
0
6 ,2 6
Hip Breadth
31.9
1.58
•05
32.1
1 .6 3
.36
.2
2.13
Arc Olrth
56.3
5.13
.1 8
58.6
6 .5 6
1.16
2.3
6 .8 5
Arn Span
71.0
2.91
.1 0
71.5
2 .0 0
.50
•5
3.5 3
V ertical Jucp
18.7
3.06
.11
21.5
2.1 2
.68
2 .8
1 1 7 .?
18.00
.6 2
125.3
18.83
5.68
Left Grip
1 0 7 .3
17.00
.5 9
U 5 .7
13.77
6.15
Bncl: Force
3 5 6 .7
' 5.80
367.3
20.08
6.05
-7 .6
5 9 .3 0
1 1 6 8 .9
886.00
9 .9 0
1280.6
212.76
66.16
111.7
356.65
3 9 3 .7
66.60
2 .3 0
623.0
60.30
12.15
29.3
7 7 .8 6
?36.6
36.76
1 0 .6 7
13.1
Right Orlp
Leg Force
Arr> Pull
Arn Push
Total Force
Physical Capacity
Index
1 .9 3
1.66
8366.8 620.00 16.53
881.3
66 ? .0
6 2 .2 0
6 .1 8
1 2 1 .0 0
3 .7 2
26 .0 5
2 1 .8 8
56.66
2826.0
267.97
76.76
181.5
6 8 7.73
560.5
58.80
17.73
96.5
1 3 6.53
T sotball Bnoka
8, • 9
25
8D
8.1
8.6
2 .6 5
V ";
v «
SB..
Veight
156.6
12.61
2.23
2 3 .U
157.3
18.33
6.10
12.6
Height
70.3
2.2 2
.60
1.2
3.3 0
68.6
1.80
.60
- .7
3.03
S ittin g Height
76.3
1.0 0
.1 8
.2
1 .6 9
35.9
.82
.18
- .2
1.59
Shoulder Breadth
39-5
1 .5 0
•27
.9
2 .3 6
38.6
1.68
• 33
0
M 5
Chest Srondth
55-9
2.66
.6 7
- .7
6.35
56.3
2.96
.66
Chf st Depth
37.0
2.56
.66
0
6.10
37.8
2 .6 0
.5 6
Ely Breadth
32.2
1.31
.2 6
•3
2.0 5
32.2
1.31
.2 9
.3
2.05
Arn Girth
'7 .1
3.62
.6 5
.8
6.2 8
60.3
3.19
.71
h.O
6 .oh
Arn STian
7 2 .8
2 .2 2
.60
70.6
1.82
.61
-.U
3^3
23.1
3.03
.6 2
1.8
6.6
3.66
V ertical Jump
6.31
26.6
2.75
.9 7
5.9
lt.I l
11 .7
.,3
122.0
16.96
3 .6 6
6.8
26.73
130.7
22.38
7 .9 1
13.5
L eft Grip
111.8
12.58
2 .5 7
6.5
a . 15
117.6
16.87
5 .9 7
ir .i
Leg Force
Arn Pull
Am Push
T otal Force
Physical Capacity
In lS i________
•
U.5U
.6
Riflvt Grip
Sack Force
26.76
l».00
2E.72
23.95
336.6
39.35
S .0 3
-2 0 .3
68.28
396.6
52.01
1 8 .3 9
39.7
76.28
1199.7
216.93
6 3 .6 7
30 .8
357-76
1657.2
282.22
9 9 .7 9
r s p .’
- 01 . FO
1>‘.7
67.a
??6.8 60.66
?6o i .e
116.66
607.1
' 5 6 .9
112.78
9 .6 6
13 .6
81.66
608.6
53.68
i s . 91
8 .3 0
5 .5
56.60
225.6
26.53
9 . 3s
h.r
6 6 .1 8
97 .3
526.67
2722.9
6 0 5 .6 6
1 6 3 .3 7
J7P.h
2 3 .0 2
112.9
165:60
667.0
1 1 5 .6 1
6 0 .8 8
2 2 9 .0
*F?. 7e
Group A noronl group.
i
Hear, d iffe r en ce s are deternlnad between the r e n -'o etiv e means o f tie* normal group and each n t h lo tic group.
••
See Appendix, yip. 17U-I75.
(C ontinued)
(Continued).
e n o n u n ii xjxsb
* 30 Hf . 51
T e n n l.
D
«1
“ •s
< r ,. <rt
■V-K,
I V - 6 -5
SD
38 ,,
D
•
SB
5
CO
w
' 1 -X2
177.0
I6 .9 U
3 .0 9
32.3
2 5.83
1 3 9 .6
9.6 7
6 .8 6
- 5-1
H e ig h t
7 0 .?
2.53
.U£
1 .1
3 .5 1
6 9 .9
1.10*
.72
.8
2.83
S i t t i n g H e ig h t
?6 .7
1 .0 6
.1 9
.6
1 .7 1
3 5 .9
.s u
.6 0
- .2
1 .6 0
S h o u ld e r B r e a d th
39.9
1 .5 5
.28
1.3
2 .3 9
38.1
1 .2 5
.63
- .5
8.21
2 1 .7 7
C h ee t B rendth
58.3
’ .31
.6 0
1 .7
6 .7 9
5 3.8
1 .3 6
.68
- 2 .8
3.72
C h eet B erth
39.6
3 .1 5
.58
2 .6
6 .6 9
3 6 .9
2 .U }
1 .2 2
-.1
U.02
H ip Breadth
33.3
1 . 1*3
.2 6
l.k
2.13
’ 1 .9
1 .08
.56
0
1 .*>1
A m O lrth
63.9
3 . 9S
.73
7 .?
6 .6 0
R5 . o
2 .87
1 .6 6
- 1 .3
5 . EE
A rn SYvm
7? .8
2.U1
.UU
1 .8
3 .78
71-1
.1.60
1 .3 0
.1
7 , nr,
V e r t ic a l Junp
2 2 .8
5 .U9
.56
>1.1
7 .0 5
2 0 .6
2.3U
1 .1 7
1 .9
7 .2*
133-9
17.11
x .g x
1 6 .^
2 6 .S 7
Ip ? 2
1 2 .3 0
6 .1 5
6 .0
“ 1 .S 0
l e f t Grip
125.0
1 6 .0 3
3.58
17.7
3 n eh Force
Uoc.O
38 . ?5
8.55
F ig h t G rip
•’ 3 . ’ 7
1D 5.6
9 .1 6
6 .9 8
-1 .7
1 9 .3 1
6 7 .6 6
705. 7
,!9.55
2 8 .6 1
-« Jt
7 6 .6 2
r lE .O 162.76
93-97
- 2 5 0 .9
1 ~ 0 . r.7
15?U.T
170.05
38.03
7*5.1*
7 3 2 .7 6
A m P u ll
!*19.6
‘ 8 .1 6
1 3 .0 0
pr. t n
o r . 61
>*01.0
'. 7 .1 1
8 8 .9 6
7-3
E7-73
Arr. Push
- * 6 .8
6 6 .1 9
9.88
2 5 .5
'71 .1 0
pnli . U
-l.e ?
2 0 .9 2
- 1 6 .9
c,o. U“
2 C - 7.5
5 5 5 .5 5
50.77
* 0 3 .0
h7 £ -c 9
20 * 7 .5 7 2 5.05
127.67
- 2E7 .0
"1.09
65 -n.o
*r-.?9
19.21
20S. 0
-. 6 e .3B
8 1 . 95
- 2 .2
1 5 0 .3 s
L eg Force
T o t a l Forcr
P h y s ic a l C a p a city
Index
m r r cl mu- r i o i a •
u, = r2
V = 10
‘•1 0 . F
2 9 .2 9
Shot and Dlflcue
k b = >•
r f = 9
’- I ' ” ?
1
SD
k
" --irh t
i - '. i
He I r h t
6 9 .1
1 6 ."3
2 .7 0
SE
3S **
D
D
3 -?6
b.U
•rs
0
SB
“1
32
~£
D
K,
2 5 .3 7
189.3
2 0 .7 2
3.6U
6 9 .0
2 .2 0
••
D
11.96
1*1:. 6
1 .2 7
-.1
7 .70
.in
? s .£5
l.S ?
*6 .3
S t
.2
l.* 2
2.28
h o .o
1 .5 7
■91
l .U
° .u o
h .? 9
59.E
1 .9 7
:.1>*
3 .2
3.98
3.71
Ilg.O
r .?3
1 .6 5
7.9
>-.?7
1.9C
33 • ll
1 .5 7
.51
1 .5
2 .2 }
.7
6.9 3
6 f .7
5 . IE
!.£>•
1 2 .U
6 .0 k
.It
>*.2 1
7 2 .2
2 . 5-9
l.* 0
1 .2
7.90
h .21
21. U
2 .9 2
2.07
2 .7
h.-»T
S i t t i n g H e ig h t
75 -9
1 .2 3
.87
S h o u ld e r B r e a d th
t
.7
l.? G
.3 0
C h c ~ t B re a d th
r r .7
2 .5 3
•r 5
C hest r ^ t h
37. c
1 .8 9
.61
0
Hi*} B re n d th
31.7
1 .1 9
• ?6
_0
A r n G ir th
97.0
■' .66
1 .0 5
Ar n S~>nn
71 . >*
3 .0 1*
.6 6
V '- r tlc p .l Jump
?3 -6
2.*9
.70
.1
M
1 1 5 .9
1 5 .0 1
3.66
-1 .3
pt.U U
1 6 1 .0
li. 12
'. 0 6
- 3 .8
I E .*1
L e f t G rin
11 " .9
1U.29
3.67
3 .6
•'2 .2 1
135.0
a .55
3 .2 2
27.7
1 7 .6 0
3 ac'.' Force
3 5 1 .3
1:5.56
15.90
-i.U
^6 .0 9
'.5 0 ,0
2 f .26
2 0 .0 0
° r-.3
62 , c6
l ? l h .7
258.79
0 8 .7 7
U 5.6
385.70
I 7 U . 0 1 7 6.81
n 6.75
576.1
'I7 .0 U
r r -39
1 5 .8 6
1 1.7
93.3 3
1:3 2 .7
l 7 . 57
0 .6 0
5 9 .0
* 7 . r7
30.78
7.05
-.1
57 .M
22 2 . 7
I*.07
o .o r
1 .0
k r .39
1 1 6 .6 s
r o i.5
1 r 1 . 2>i
" 2 6 .7
1 76 . o i
R i g h t G rip
L f ' r F orce
A r n P u ll
A r n Push
T o t a l Force
P h y s i c a l C a p a c it y
I " 1!” *
•
2 2 1 .2
2U19.U
399-21
96.83
57 ’ .?
1 2 9 .3 ?
3 1 .3 7
7M
K79 .U 6
7 1 ^ .0
6J1.OC
1 3 1 .2
1 7 7 .1 0
66e ■7
62.15
:>.clu*’ i v f o f tihot and d le cu o evontB .
(C ontinued)
• (ContlmmO
O na-Jh'ort Group
Hf * 5**—55
va^-opor* i*roup
,<l- « 2
:ir ■ 65
Weleht
85
OS
h
I!„ ■ 25
S
' «v*
“l
161 . 3
2 2 .2 6
6 9 .6
2.81
.35
2 .7 6
1 6 .6
.5
ss
,!1
Kl - H2
Rf « 16
SS
D
"E • •
h
D
2 9.59
1 6 0 .7
16 .1 5
2.89
1 6 .0
2 6 .0 9
3 .7 2
6 9 .6
1 .8 8
.38
•5
3.08
.1
1 .5 3
S it t i n g H eight
36.>1
1.2 5
.1 6
.3
1 .8 5
3 6 .2
.70
.6 1
S houlder Breadth
39 .6
1 .7 6
.2 2
.8
2 .53
39.3
1.69
.3 6
.7
2 .6 8
Cheet Breadth
57 . 1 '
3.3 8
.1*2
•5
6 .6 6
56.3
2 .6 2
• 53
- .3
6 .3 6
Chest Depth *
6 .5 2
37-7
2 .6 8
.55
.7
6.17
2.15
3 2 .6
1.25
• 25
•5
2 .0 1
6 .E5
37.8
3 .1 9
.1*0
.8
Hip B rondth
72.5
1 .6 6
.18
.6
Arn G ir th
59.3
5 .1 2
.6U
3 .0
7.25
5 9.8
6.**6
.93
3-5
Arm Span
7 2 .0
3.27
.U l
1 .0
6.38
72.O
1 .6 6
.36
1 .0
3.35
V e r t ic a l Juan
? ? .2
2 .6 8
.36
3.5
6 .0 7
2 3 .6
3.16
.82
6.7
6 .6 0
1F0 .9
18.13
2.1*1*
3.7
25.55
1 3 2 .8
17.56
6.53
1 5 .6
25.15
2 3 .6 0
121.3
1 2 .8 7
3-32
1 6 .0
2 1 .3 2
6 3 .2 6
11.17
2.9
70.59
?S1*.66
Right Grip
l e f t Grin
11 ? .7
1 6 .0 s
2.17
“ .6
Bnck Force
761.7
6 2 . jL
8 .6 8
7.0
83.67
357.6
17 ^ 5.1
? 0 f .o 6
6 0 .2 8
1 3 6 .2
6 1 1 .6 6
1377.3
2 5 7 .2 3
6 6 .6 2
208.6
1.07,0
65.15
2.78
13.3
93.17
6 1 7 .0
' 3 9 .6 3
10.18
23.3
77.60
3 6 .8 0
6.96
1 .6
5 6 .0 0
239.1
3 2 .1 6
s . 30
17.8
53.06
•‘19 . ?6
57.16
ICO.9
5 9 3 .9 6
261*6.8
3 1 6 .1 1
8 2 .1 6
300.3
52M 7
1 1 7 .2 0
15.95
122.5
1 6 8 .6 5
6 1 6 .1
101.95
2 6 .3 2
176.1
15C. 22
> r F orce
Am P u l l
Ar- Puch
Tot.oi Force
?h;*Ficol C m n e ity
pr pr
r 6’*.r
In^ex
T h ree-S n o rt Gr«up
::B - 5
T o ta l A th le tic Group
Ill-H j
sf . 2
2S
Ht * 95
\
31
D
V *
*1
15.3
28.33
1 6 1 .0
«!
'.’eig h t
1 6 0 .0
20.55
10.28
H right
6 9 .6
1.59
• 75
.5
2 .8 6
S i t t i n g H eight
?5 . S
.98
.6 9
- .3
1 .6 8
Sh ou ld er 3 rer.dth
Sf • 73
SS
SS
•V«2
s’
1
1
fx * rt
S- •*
5m
2 0 .1 7
2 .0 7
16.3
° 8 .0 5
6 9 .6
2 .5 5
.2 6
.5
3 .5 3
3 6 .3
1 .1 3
.12
.2
1.77
38.7
. 6?
• 31
.1
1 .9 2
3 9 .3
1 .7 0
■17
■7
2 .6 9
Chost Breadth
5 5 .6
2 .07
1.0 U
- 1 .0
6 .0 3
5 7 .0
3 .5 9
.37
.6
6.99
Chest Depth
3 2 .2
1 .6 9
.85
1 .2
3 .6 2
3 7 .8
3 .0 1
• 31
.8
6.39
Hip B readth
3 2 .0
1.99
1.0 0
.1
2 .5 6
3 2 .6
1 .6 7
. .15
■5
2 .1 6
Arn G ir th
6 0 .1
6.13
3 .0 7
3-8
7.99
5 9 .6
5 .3 6
• 55
3.3
7 .6 2
Arn Snan
72.1
1 .1 6
.58
1.1
3.13
7 2 .0
2.87
• 29
1 .0
6 .0 9
V e r t ic a l Junp
2 6 .0
1 .5 0
7.3
3 . 6l
22.5
2.90
.36
3.8
6.22
123.9
1 9 .1 0
2 .2 6
6 .7
2 6 .2 6
Right G rip
1 6 0 .5
1 0 .5 0
23.3
20.86
L eft G rip
1 1 7 .5
15.50
10.2
2 3 .0 1
1 1 6 .9
15.91
1.86
7.6
2 3 .2 6
Back F orce
382.0
58.00
2 7 .3
80.68
36 1 .8
5 8 .9 5
6.90
7.1
81.17
1212.0
308.00
6 3 .1
6 2 0 .3 1
1320.7
2 9 0 .7 1
36.06
151.8
6 0 7 .8 1
665.O
20.00
6 9 . 5 1*
6 1 0 .5
5 6 .6 6
6.63
1 6 .8
87.63
6 0 .8 6
6 .7 8
Leg F orce
Ana P o ll
Ana P ush
T otal F orce
P h y sic a l C apacity
5 1 .3
255.0
25.00
3 3 .7
6 9 .0 5
2 2 7 .6
6 .3
58.73
2552.0
1*37.00
207.5
606. U
2 5 6 8 .8
397.80
66.58
2 0 6 .3
578 . 6a
6 7 0 .0
1 5 2 .0 0
228.0
196.28
579.5
H 8.55
1 3 .8 8
137.5
1 6 9 .6 0
r* * w
w
vi
^
128
TABUS XVIII
Standard E rro rs - Group C
Normal Grouo
Gymnastics
N - 836
N = 13
M_ —M
1 2
ss
M
2
SD
Weight
144.7
19.50
.67
151.3
8 .44
2.44
6.6
21.25
Height
69.1
2.44
.08
67.2
2 .2 4
.65
-1 .9
3.31
S ittin g H eight
36.1
1.36
.05
35.5
1 .04
.30
- .6
1.71
Shoulder B resd th
38.5
1.82
.05
39.4
1.64
.47
.8
2.45
Chest B readth
56.6
3.46
.12
58.5
2.09
.60
1.9
4.04
Chest Depth
37.0
3.20
.11
38.2
2.75
.79
1.2
4.22
Hip B readth
31.9
1.58
.05
30.9
.99
.29
- 1 .0
1.86
Arm G irth
, 56.3
5.13
.18
64.9
3.73
1.08
8.6
6.34
Arm Span
71.0
2.91
.10
69.1
2.13
.61
-1 .9
3.61
V e rtic a l Jump
18.7
3.06
.11
23.5
2.25
.65
4.8
3.80
S ig h t Grip
117.2
18.00
.62
129.4
18.57
5.35
12.2
25.36
L eft Grip
107.3
17.00
.59
124. 3 19.61
5.66
17.0
25.95
Back fo rc e
354.7
55.80
1.93
10.79
32.1
67.17
Leg fo rce
1168.9
286.00
9.90
Arm P u ll
393.7
66.60
2.30
441.6
64.36
18.58
47.9
92.62
Arm Push
221.3
42.20
1.46
274.2
37.99
10.97
52.9
56.78
2344.5
420.00
14.53
442.0
121.00
4.18
T otal fo rc e
P h ysical C ap acity
Index
*
Group A normal group.
#
See Appendix pt>. 174-175,
■ v ,
M
1
386.8
SD
37.39
1334.1 252.51
SE
Mi
D
D#
72.90 165.-2 383.61
2690.3 354.56 102.36 345.8 549.65
632. 3 101.70
29.36 190.3 158.06
129
-4 4 1 2 <
1.......■----r~
...... 1
r-. .. »] .u ... |
i----.... »|.Ap . .. |
r... : .
...1
1
1 • •1.. ...
r~;
. . i
f
r-... - . . ~ . |
IfaMM S p o rt Group
T*o S n o rt Croup
Om
S p o rt Group
S o a - A t h la l le Oroup
-1 -?
..p .- .-
1 ....... T "
tfJM - -
i .
. . .
i •
. -
1
]
|
. -
|
. -
I W r t.U
...
3
■
B H - i- .-
?
1
1
1
.
M
■
.«» t4 *
.
[
• * *• 1 •*
|
:□
1
t» o S o o rt Group
33
\
• *“ •“ •
|
u
.
1
1
‘ -
1
tn d ie a a of S l m l f leanea
h -t-M
4-
1
|.
T u aa ta
| f t r a a S n o rt Group
T » S p o rt O roup
Oao S p o rt Oroup
.*.. .. ..
•
1
□
tra c k A f l a l d
|
:J
1
3
|
?
-
-
-
...
.i
1
□
D
|
1
•
Is- • - M
.
B a n k a tta ll
t r a c k A f ia l A
□
□
* « a a la
3
ta a a b a ll
.
|
d jm a a tle a -
.....
|
I tir a o S p o rt Group
J J .. .L
}
T*o S p o rt Oroup
J
Ono S p o rt Group
a a w p —
333
f o o tb a ll B u k a
t o t a l A th lo tl e Oroup
S o a - A th lo tlc Group
to d le a a o f s t f s t r i e a a e a
la w n
|
|
i-
S h o t A D laeua
fo o tb a ll tto a
,
■ o o -A th lo tle O m p
c rsst
|
.... “ 1
t o t a l A th le tic Oroup
Standard Seoraa
t
......
B aaa b all
1
.
□
1
.
O y aa aa tle a
I.
3
SHffirpl SWD1H
f o o t b a l l L is*
I
1 .5
]
S ta n d a rd S c o r n .
1
B a a k a tb a ll
I
1
S m I S D ia n a
f o o t b a l l Pucka
.5
:
4
*1
|
•
P arka
q . u ..iR
b
j|
.
r a n tb a ”
V o n -A th la tle Group
J
t
33
3
3
3
1
b a a k a tb a ll
R o n - A th lr tle Group
1
.
- .b
t o t a l A th la tle Oroup
|
.
]
]
j
C
Oao S n o rt Oroup
. u. * .
..! A
r a p fk-n rt ftmun
T o ta l A th la tle Croup
1
.
33
3
T hra* S '- '.r t Grout
........"1
lad to o * o f S l f f lf ie w i e o
9
1
f
1
SJTTIS3 HH5ST
-1
P *»eb»U
G yan a atle*
TnM caa o f S l n t 't r a n e a
1
1
R r a t S p o rt Group
S ta n d a rd S e o rM
t
P arka
T ta a la
Q ja u a tle a
—
|7.., . L ’j -
...... —
■--------------- 1
•
.
i
f o e t b a 'l Baeka
- -1
B a a k a tb a ll
1........
- ■
tr a c k 4 f l u i d
Shot A S l a n t
t
-i
1
1
n
■
footbn’l
RIIGHT
33
33
33
3
f o o tb a l l U a a
3
•"anal*
S ta n d a rd V o r a a
, sii<pr
.1
1
* r« rv * * l* d
T foo-A thl»tie Group
tsaieos or sisaineaaea
a • • • -
f o o t b a l l ti n #
T o te l A th la tle Oreun
S ta n d a rd S e o raa
:—
1
ZZ3
HI
Z1
ffir-r t- M a ra *
Pna t - 'o r t Gr-'un
t o t a l A th la tle Oroup
1—
.?
- I — *,5
B a tV rtb a U
tndieaa of si«ttncMea
S t w d a r d S e ir a a
carat n r a
D iag. 4. Standard Score D is trib u tio n s and In d ic e s of S ig n ifican ce of
Group A A th le tic Groups in In d iv id u a l S tr u c tu r a l and F unctional
Measurements
(Continued)
150
(Continued)
1-----
. p a i- .- n
ro o tb « n U n *
............
«• ....... •
1
1
1
j.
.
|
. . « |
9 t 0 t & D laeu o
.
1
1 .
[ . ...
1
B a a k a tb a ll
rontboll Bw«k#
T rack A f i e l d
1
P n a a b a ll
O m n a a tle a
1
L ■ -Hl4f=i
c
cz
Z)
D ir te B p o rt Group
t-HI- -
1
•1
Am
33
□
:
i
3
3
S r o r t G roup
f» e S p o rt Oroun
. -jj. (u
3
T o ta l A t h l a t l e Oroup
S o a - A t h la t le Oroup
tn d lc e a o f S i g n if ic a n c e
S tan d a rd Seo m a
-2 4
*
3
.............
l
i
T n d ie aa o f 3 1 * n lf le * a e e
- . 5_ _ 0 _.> _X
. ..
1
| .
'■
..jj'l
f o o t b a l l L ln a
_ l
B a a k a tb a ll
■
>
>
!
J- ......................1
1
• -■*
1 • *H
1
|
tr a c k k f l a l d
Z3
Z
-1
1
H
......1
1
i ■ - s s rffc-wl “
i
}*• . . . . . .
O fa n a a tle a
B a a a b a ll
t h r e e S p o rt Group
One f t to r l G roup
fa o * o r t Group
T o ta l A th l o t l e Oroup
O y a a a Jtie a
I
-
.a . .
|
- ..................................... 1
[Z
CZ
]
. . . .
.j
. . ------------I ..
.......
B a a a b a ll
f o o tb a l l l l n a
|
* * ...........
1
Tunnla
A r a a S n o rt Oroup
1*o S n o rt Oroup
t e a S p o rt Orotip
T o ta l A t h l a t l e Group
■ o fr» A th latle S n a p
S ta n d a rd Score*
tn d ie a a o f S i g n if ic a n c e
mricii. nv
ASI VAX
■9
.
-1
}...
S hot k O laeua
a ... m
=3
Zl
□
3
13
JJ- •
1
. |
H t . . .
f o o tb a ll L i u
.
[
f o o t b a l l Baeka
.
|
B a a k a tb a ll
. |
O y u aa atlee
B «aab*ll
-T*
«
1
T rac k A f l a l d
Zl
z
3
b n a la
-1
«“
[..
--
=3
=1
.
-
-----------
f—
f'
tn d ie a a o f t l p i l f l e a a e *
? J ..
1
- -
J- •••(uH
I
•• 1
I b ra a S o o rl 0ro^>
T*o S n o rt Group
Coa S p o rt Group
T o ta l A t h l a t l e Oroup
B o n - A th le tlc O roup
S tan d a rd s c o re a
T rack k f l a l d
V iot & O laena
i ..................
B o a - A th le tic Oroup
T o ta l
B a a k a tb a ll
f o o t b a l l Baeka
..
Z3
3
1
p
n
. . p ( , .4 ...
i
[
■—
i
T ao n le
f o o t b a l l B aek a
•1
T
|
.- -.- v
3
□
t o n - A th la tle Oroup
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Measurements
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144
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AFFEITDIX B
iillTATION MATERIAIiS Al'ID TECTH'TI^USS
158
Students:
One of the means o f e d u c a tio n a l advance i s th ro u ^i the te s tin g and measur­
ing f ie ld . I t i s only "by a s c i e n t i f i c a tta c k on our problems th a t we may e v a l­
u ate o r improve our c u rre n t p r a c tic e s .
You may be in t e r e s t e d in knowing a l i t t l e about th is s p e c ific re se a rc h be­
fo re undergoing th e t e s t s . A b r ie f o u tlin e follow s:
The Problem i s to determ ine w herein su ccessfu l college a th le te s d i f f e r
from the normal group o f s tu d e n ts in th e s tr u c tu r a l and fu n c tio n a l measurements
se le c te d fo r th is t e s t .
The Purpose i s to add to the knowledge o f fa c to rs a sso c ia te d w ith success
in a t h l e t i c s . S ig n ific a n t fin d in g s w ill perm it recommendations which may
f a c i l i t a t e the guidance program in p h y s ic a l education.
The T ests in clu d e a few s tr u c tu r a l measurements such as h e ig h t, arm span,
ch est-d ep th , e tc . and s e v e ra l s tre n g th and cower t e s ts such as hand g r ip , le g
and back l i f t , e t c . (See exam ination b la n k ).
Suggest ions - I f th e r e s u l t s are to be r e lia b le and give a tru e p ic tu r e
they must re p re s e n t y o u r b e s t e f f o r t s . Experience has shown th a t on th e s tre n g th
t e s t s most s u b je c ts w ill te n d to sto p e x e rtin g themselves long b efo re they a t t a i n
t h e i r maximum sc o res. T h is i s due p rim a rily to the f a c t th a t most in d iv id u a ls
do not know t h e i r own c a p a c i t i e s . I t i s a lso due to the f a c t th a t i t ta k e s a
c e rta in amount o f courage to endure the punishment r e s u ltin g from any maximum
e f f o r t . In o th e r cases th e f e a r o f s tr a i n i s responsible fo r th e e a r ly letdown.
You might lik e to know t h a t th e s tre n g th t e s t s used here have been w idely used
in c la s s ify in g stu d e n ts from elem entary to college le v e ls and ere known to be
s a fe . E verts says, " I t h as been found th a t when le g t e s t s were given . . . the
p ressu re e x erted on the abdomen was g r e a te r when su b jects coughed o r sneezed
than i t was during the l e g l i f t ................. experim ents c a rrie d out by Dr. .
Emerson in d ic a te s th a t th e p re ss u re is s t i l l le s s when the b e lt i s u s e d ."
For the sake o f s c i e n t i f i c i n t e g r i t y w ill you, then, on these s tre n g th t e s t s ,
keep try in g -until the exam iner says, " E e la x ."
May I also suggest t h a t in the V e rtic a l Jump t e s t you l i s t e n c a r e f u lly
to the in s tr u c tio n s . Good form in ex ecu tin g the jump w ill add th re e or fo u r
inches to th e h eig h t o f y o u r jump.
The examiners jo in me in e x p ressin g our ap p reciatio n fo r your cooper­
atio n in t h i s p r o je c t.
S in c e re ly ,
V incent Di Giovanna
D ire c to r o f P hysical Education f o r Men
Southern I l l i n o i s S tate Teachers C ollege
1.
Edgar E v erts and Gordon J . Hathaway, The Use of a B elt to Measure Leg
Strength Improves th e A d m in istratio n o f P hysical F itn ess T e s ts ,
Besearch Q u a rte rly . IX (O ctober, 1938), p . 67.
Fig. 2.
Sample O rie n ta tio n Sheet Used in the Examination.
1
159
Anthropometric Examination
Date:
Name:
(L a s t)
( F ir s t)
(Middle)
C la s s if ic a tio n :
Age !
(N eare st Year)
Weight
V e rtic a l Jimp
Standing H eight
S i t t i n g H eig h t
R ieht Grip
Shoulder B read th
L eft Grio
Chest B readth
Back Force
E x o ira tio n .
Leg Force
I n s p ir a tio n
Arm P u ll
Arm Push
Chest Denth
E x p ira tio n
I n s p ir a tio n
T otal Force
Hip Breadth
Phys. Cap. I .
Arm C irth
T. F. X V. J .
100
Flexed
Relaxed
Am Span
School:
Sport:
F o o tb all
B aseball
B a sk etb all
Tenni s
Track
ftrm nastics
F ig . S.
O thers:
Sample Examination Record Blank
TECHNIQUES EMPLOYED IN OBTAINING STRUCTURAL
AND FUNCTIONAL MEASUREMENTS
Standard techniques have been used in t h i s study w ith c e rta in improve­
ments made by the a p p lic a tio n o f s lig h t m o d ific a tio n s .
I ll u s t r a t i o n s o f
v a rio u s te ch n iq u es employed may be found on pages 165,170 of the Appendix
and in Chapter I I I , page 61.
Measures o f S tru c tu re
The tech n iq u es a p p lied f o r the s tr u c tu r a l measurements in t h i s study
have been adopted with s lig h t m o d ificatio n from those o u tlin e d by Ales
1
2
H rd lic k a and Raymond Franzen.
Weight
The su b je c t was req u ested to stan d in th e c e n te r o f the scale p la tfo rm .
W ei^it was taken to the n e a re s t pound.
Standing H eight
The su b je c t was asked to stand as t a l l as p o s sib le w ith the lin e o f
v isio n h o r iz o n ta l, arms hanging n a tu r a lly a t th e s id e , and with the h e e ls ,
b u tto c k s, and th e upper back between th e shoulder b lad es touching the
v e r t i c a l rod o f th e stad io m eter.
The head b a r was lowered and ra is e d two
o r th re e tim es before read in g the h e ig h t.
f e e l sk u ll r e s is ta n c e .
S u f fic ie n t p re ss u re was used to
Readings were made to the n e a re s t te n th of an inch.
1.
A nthropom etry.
2.
P h y sic a l Measures of Growth and N u tr it io n , pp. 105-108.
161
S i t t i n g Height
The su b je c t was se a te d on the stad io m eter bench w ith the knees fle x e d
and the b u tto c k s and upper back between the shoulder blades touching th e
v e r tic a l ro d o f th e s ta d io m e te r.
The
o r th ree tim es b efo re re a d in g th e h e ig h t.
f e e l sk u ll r e s is ta n c e .
head bar was lowered and r a is e d two
S u ffic ie n t p ressu re was used to
R eadings were made to the n e a re st te n th o f an in c h .
Arm G irth (Two Measurements)
The r ig h t arm was measured with r ig h t handed su b je c ts and the l e f t arm
with l e f t handed s u b je c ts .
The su b jec t and examiner were seated on gymnasium
s to o ls w ith th e examiner f a c in g the s u b je c t's sid e.
Arm Flexed
With the arm extended a t r ig h t angles to the body, the su b ject was
asked to f le x th e arm and "make a m uscle".
muscle was marked w ith a p e n c il.
The h ig h e st p o in t of the b ic e p s
Thearm was then lowered and r a is e d f o r
purposes o f r e la x a tio n and the f in g e r t i p s
were brought to the sh o u ld er.
The measurement was taken w ith the arm m uscles relax ed .
The g ir th was taken a t th e marked h i^ i p o in t with the s te e l ta p e .
Uniform te n s io n was e x e rte d by p re s s in g the button o p eratin g the s p rin g c o il
in the tape and by p u llin g on th e G ulick handle u n t i l the plunger m arker
appeared.
Both th e tape and th e handle were h eld so th a t the a c tio n o f
t h e i r sp rin g s was n o t hampered by f r i c t i o n w ith t h e i r cases.
The read in g was taken to th e n e a re s t te n th of a centim eter.
The
s u b je c t's arm was grasped w ith one hand, h olding the tape in p lace f o r th e
next measurement.
Arm Relaxed
With the ta p e h e ld in p o s itio n as d escrib ed above, the su b jec t was asked
to drop h i s arm lo o se ly to th e side o f h is body.
The measurement was tak en
162
u s in g th e ta p e in th e same manner as d escrib ed in the arm f le x e d p o s itio n .
The re a d in g was reco rd ed to the n e a re st te n th of a c e n tim e te r.
The sum o f
th e two measurements i s the arm g ir th measure used in t h i s stu d y .
Arm Span
The su b je c t was asked to stan d with h is back to th e w a ll, f e e t to ­
g e th e r, arms o u ts tre tc h e d a t shoulder le v e l, and w ith th e m iddle f in g e r t i p
o f th e l e f t hand to u ch in g th e v e r tic a l formed by the sid e w a ll.
d ir e c te d to s tr e t c h as f a r a s p o s s ib le .
He was then
The examiner checked to see th a t
the l e f t middle f in g e r t i p was kept in co n tact with th e w all and n o te d the
f u r t h e s t p o in t reach ed on th e w all ch art by the o p p o site m iddle f in g e r t i p .
The re a d in g was reco rd ed d ir e c tly from the ch art to th e n e a r e s t q u a rte r
inch.
Shoulder B readth (B isacrom ial diam eter)
The su b je c t was se ated in a s te e l fo ld in g c h a ir w ith th e arms hanging
n a tu r a lly a t the s id e s .
He was req u ired to assume a n e u tr a l p o s itio n of
th e sh o u ld e rs.
The exam iner stood in fro n t of the subject and lo c a te d th e acromion
p ro c e ss w ith th e m iddle fin g e rs while h olding the c a lin e r s in hand.
The
c a lip e r s were p re ss e d snugly a g ain st the o u te r edge of th e acromion p ro c e ss
w ith th e body of the c a lip e r s h eld a t about 45° to a l i n e p a r a l l e l w ith
th e f lo o r , to av o id in c lu d in g the shoulder muscles in th e measurement.
The
re c o rd was taken to th e n e a re s t te n th of a centim eter.
Chest B readth (T ransverse diam eter.
Two M easurements)
The su b je c t stood in a n a tu r a l, easy, e re c t p o s itio n .
The forearm s
were fle x e d a t about rig frt an g les, and the arms were l i f t e d forw ard and up­
ward to about 30° from the body.
They were h eld limp w ith o u t any te n s io n .
163
The c a lip e r s were then ap p lied to the c h e s t so th a t the rod la y d ir e c tly
over th e n ip p le s w ith i t s plane a t r ig h t an g les to th e v e r t ic a l a x is o f the
th o ra x .
The fix e d branch was p ressed a g a in s t th e th o ra x u n t i l i t met w ith
th e re s is ta n c e of the r ib s , and the moveable branch was a p p lie d rep eated ly
to the o p posite side of the th o rax , with equal p re ss u re during in s p ir a tio n
and e x p ira tio n .
Readings were taken fo r e x p ira tio n and in s p ir a tio n to the n e a re st te n th
o f a ce n tim e te r.
The two measurements were added to give th e ch est breadth
m easures used in t h i s study.
Chest Depth (A n tero -p o ste rio r d iam eter.
Two Measurements)
The su b je c t assumed the same p o s itio n f o r t h i s measurement as in the
tra n sv e rse diam eter measurement.
The examiner stood to the l e f t of th e s u b je c t.
The body of th e c a lip e rs
was ap p lied a t rig h t angels to the long l in e o f the c h e s t, w ith the fix ed
branch a t the n ip p le l i n e , and the moveable rod on the p o s te r io r p a r t of th e
th o ra x .
With c a lip e r s p ressed snugly a g a in s t th e c h e s t, read in g s were recorded
to th e n e a re s t te n th of a centim eter f o r e x p ira tio n and in s p ir a tio n on
n a tu r a l b re a th in g .
The two measures were added to give the chest depth
measurement used in th is study.
Hip B readth
The exam iner, standing behind th e s u b je c t, lo c a te d the major tro c h a n te rs
by p a lp a tio n .
P i t t i n g the c a lip e rs c lo s e ly enough to in su re bony re s is ta n c e ,
th e measurement a t th e most l a t e r a l p o in ts were re c o rd e d to the n e a re st
te n th o f a cen tim eter.
164
Measure a of Function
The techniques employed f o r the fu n c tio n a l measurements in t h i s study
have been adopted w ith s lig h t m o d ificatio n from those o u tlin e d by MacCurdy1
and McCloy.
o
The method used f o r te s tin g le g stre n g th was d ire c tly in 'x
fluenced by th e re se a rc h e s o f E v erts and Hathaway w and C arpenter.
4
V e rtic a l Jump
Two exam iners c o lla b o ra te d in g iv in g t h i s t e s t .
One, the o b serv er,
gave the d ire c tio n s fo r jumping and measured the jump.
The o th er, the
a s s i s ta n t , stan d in g behind th e s u b je c t, checked the form in jumping, a c te d
as " s p o tte r " , and reco rd ed th e jump.
Both examiners gave in c id e n ta l coach­
ing between jumps in an e f f o r t to have the su b jec t a tta in h is maximum jump.
The form o f th e jump was explained to the su b je c t.
He was req u ested to
place a tig h t f i t t i n g b a th in g cap on h is head in order th a t a more a ccu rate
measure of th e h e ig h t o f th e jump might be secured.
He was then asked to
stand in the middle o f an e ig h teen inch c i r c l e , which was marked on the flo o r
one foot from the w a ll, so th a t the r ig h t side of h is body was toward th e
w all.
He was p e rm itte d one p r a c tic e jump and fo u r t r i a l jumps.
The o b serv er, sta n d in g on a ta b le , a d ju ste d h is eye le v e l along a y ard
s tic k to th e approximate h e ig h t he expected th e in d iv id u al to reach on h is
1.
H. L. MacCurdy, A T est f o r M aasurine the P hysical Capacity of Secondary
School Bays, pp. 45-54.
2.
H. C. McCloy, T e sts and Measurements in H ealth and P hysical E du catio n .
pp. 28-65.
3.
E. W. E v e rts and G-. J . Hathaway, The Use o f A B elt to Measure Leg
S tren g th Improves th e A d m in istratio n of P h y sical F itn e ss T e sts,
Research Q u a rte rly . IX (O ctober, 1938), pp. 62-69.
4.
A. C arpenter, A Study o f Angles in the Measurement of the Leg L i f t ,
Research Q u a rte rly . IX (O ctober, 1938), pp. 70-72.
Fig. 4.
An Additional
View of the Examination
Room With
I llu s tr a tio n s
of Various Measuring Techniques
165
'•'I
166
p r a c tic e jump.
A f te r th e jump, the o bserver c o rre c te d h i s eye le v e l to
some two inches above th e a c tu a l height reached.
T h e re a fte r, eye le v e l was
c o rre c te d to th e h e ig h t o f th e best previous jump.
corded to th e n e a r e s t o n e -h a lf inch.
The b e s t jump was re ­
The v e r tic a l jump measure was secured
by s u b tr a c tin g sta n d in g h e ig h t from the b e s t jump sc o re .
The o b s e rv e r’ s d ire c tio n s to th e su b ject were, in g e n e ra l, as fo llo w s:
"The o b je c t o f th e t e s t i s to see how high you can reach w ith th e to p o f
your head by jumping s tr a ig h t upward.
In jumping, squat down w ith your
knees b en t to about a n in e ty degree angle and swing y o u r arms downward and
backward.
Hold t h i s p o s itio n f o r a f ra c tio n o f a second and then jump
upward as h i ^ i as you can.
You w ill g et a b e tte r jump i f you swing your
arms s tr a i g h t up h ard as you jump and th en , j u s t b efo re you reach th e top
o f your jump, p u l l them down again vigorously to your s id e s .
I t w ill a lso
h e lp i f you keep your body s tr a ig h t and your d iin in as you go upward.
Jump on the s ig n a l.
Are you ready?
Jump'."
Grin S trength
B efore each s tre n g th t e s t , the su b jec t was asked to ch alk h is hands
w ith a cake o f magnesium carbonate fo r the purpose o f making the hands le s s
s lip p e ry .
The dynamometer was p la ce d in the s u b je c t's hand so th a t th e curved up
edge f e l l between th e f i r s t and second j o i n t s of the f in g e rs a id the more
rounded edge f e l l a g a in st the base of the hand.
allow ed f o r com fort.
A s li g h t adjustm ent was
The su b ject was p erm itte d to assume any p o s itio n he
wished so lo n g as the arm and hand were h e ld fre e from th e body o r any o th e r
o b je c t as he g rip p ed to h i s maximum.
Two t r i a l s w ith each hand were allow ed a lte r n a te ly .
te s te d f i r s t .
The r i ^ i t hand was
On the second t r i a l s the su b jec t was p e rm itte d to g rip the
dynamometer in a way which f e l t most com fortable to him.
167
The b e s t g rip with each hand was reco rd ed to th e n e a re s t pound.
Back Force
Two exam iners c o lla b o ra te d in g iv in g t h i s t e s t .
The o b serv er issu ed
th e d ir e c tio n s f o r l i f t i n g , re ad the measurement, and reco rd ed i t .
The
a s s i s ta n t checked the form in l i f t i n g p aying p a r t ic u la r a tte n tio n to remind
the s u b je c t, whenever n ec essa ry , not to bend h is knees o r brace h i9 arms
o r hands a g a in s t h is th ig h s d u ring the l i f t .
The dynamometer p latfo rm was p la c e d on a la rg e ta b le about th ree fe e t
high f o r the convenience o f the o b se rv e r.
The su b je c t was asked to stand e r e c t w ith the c e n te r of h is fe e t opposite
the edge of th e dynamometer and w ith h i s hands on th e f ro n t of h i s th ig h s.
The o b serv er then hooked the handle in to the chain so th a t the top of the b ar
was j u s t below the s u b je c t's fin g e r t i n s .
The su b je c t th en bent forward at
th e h ip s and grasped the b ar a t the extreme ends w ith one palm forward and
one palm backward.
He was to ld to keep h i s knees s t i f f .
The general d ire c ­
tio n s were to p u ll s te a d ily and vig o ro u sly u n t i l to ld to r e la x , and to re la x
r a th e r slowly a f t e r the l i f t .
When the su b jec t was ready, the observer urged
him to p u ll and continued to do so u n t i l i t was ev id en t th a t he would not
in c re a se h is sc o re.
The su b jec t was then to ld to r e la x .
was recorded to the n e a re st pound.
The measurement
Only one t r i a l was p e rm itte d u n le ss fo r
good cause.
Leg Force
The two examiners who o p erated the back fo rce t e s t a lso adm inistered
th is te s t.
The o b s e rv e r's d u tie s remained th e same, th a t i s , to give the
d ir e c tio n s , a d ju s t the c h ain , observe th e s c o re , and re c o rd the same.
Except
f o r th e s t a r t i n g p o s itio n , th e general d ir e c tio n s and conduct o f the exam­
in a tio n were th e same as in th e above.
168
The a s s is ta n t exam iner wrapped an e x tr a la rg e tu rk is h tow el, which was
folded double, around the s u b j e c t 's w a ist and extended i t low enough so as
to act as a fo u r-fo ld p r o te c tio n pad f o r the upper th ig h during the l i f t .
In th is p o s itio n the towel a ls o p r o te c te d th e lower back and sid es from th e
f r i c t i o n of the b e lt.
The looped end o f th e b e lt was then slipped over one
end of the dynamometer ro d .
T h is was handed to the su b jec t who was to ld to
ho ld i t in f ro n t o f h is body w ith h i s hands close together and h is arm
s tr a ig h t.
The fre e end o f th e b e lt was brought around the s u b je c t's h ip s
j u s t above th e g lu te a l m uscles, then looped over the o th e r end of the b a r,
and tucked back underneath between the towel and i t s own o u ter la y e r.
The
b e l t was then a d ju ste d so t h a t th e b a r r e s te d across the th ig h s in the
angle formed by the th ig h and tru n k .
The su b jec t assumed th e same p o s itio n w ith h is fe e t as in the back
lift.
He bent h is knees s l i g h t l y to perm it th e observer to make the
necessary chain adjustm ent so t h a t the angle between the le g and th ig h
approximated 120°.
The angle was checked by the a s s is ta n t examiner w ith the
a id of the rod co n stru cted s p e c ia lly f o r th a t purpose.
The subject was then
asked to h o ld the head e r e c t , c h e st up, hands close to g e th e r, arms as
s tr a ig h t as p o s sib le , and to p u ll as h ard as p o ssib le with leg s and arras.
The measurement was reco rd ed to th e n e a re s t pound.
Only one t r i a l was p e r­
m itted u n less f o r good cause.
Arm P u ll Force
Two examiners aided in g iv in g t h i s t e s t .
The observer issu ed the
d ire c tio n s , a d ju ste d th e in stru m en t and equipm ent, read the measurement, and
recorded i t .
The a s s is ta n t checked the s u b je c t's form during the t e s t .
The h eig h t o f the h o rse was a d ju s te d so th a t th e top was even with the
under su rfaces of the s u b je c t's o u ts tr e tc h e d arms as he grasped the handle
169
of the dynamometer.
The le n g th of the dynamometer chain was so a d ju s te d th a t
the su b ject had to s tr e t c h th e arms to grasp the handle.
The s u b je c t was in ­
s tru c te d to g rasp th e handle t i g h tly a t the extreme ends, to keep h i s f e e t
f l a t on th e f l o o r , th e knees s t i f f , and to p u ll with a l l h is fo rc e .
measurement was reco rd ed to th e n e a re s t pound.
The
Only one t r i a l was p e rm itte d
u n le ss fo r good re aso n .
Arm Push Force
The two exam iners who ad m in istered the arm p u ll t e s t s also gave the arm
push t e s t .
The o b s e rv e r 's d u tie s remained the same.
The a s s is ta n t examiner
measured th e arm angle in a d d itio n to checking the s u b je c t's form.
The su b je c t sto o d w ith h i s back to th e end of the h o rse , p laced the
s tra p s over h is s h o u ld e rs, end grasped the rin g s w ith h is hands from the
o u tsid e .
The h e ig h t o f th e h o rse was a d ju ste d so th a t the top of th e h o rse was on
a le v e l w ith th e s u b je c t's sh o u ld ers.
The dynamometer chain was a d ju ste d
so th a t w ith th e su b je c t in th e "ready" p o s itio n , the arms were bent to an
angle o f about 135°.
T h is angle was then c o rrected , to make due allow ance
fo r the s tr e tc h of th e s tr a p s , to approxim ately 130°.
The s u b je c t was th en asked to grasp the rin g s firm ly , keep the f e e t
to g eth er and f l a t on th e f l o o r , and w ith the body s tr a ig h t to push evenly
with both arms, a s h a rd as p o s s ib le , w ithout b rin g in g the hands to g e th e r.
The reading was reco rd ed to th e n e a re st pound.
u n less fo r good cau se.
Only one t r i a l was p e rm itte d
170
Arm G i r t h
M e a s u r in g Angle o f 135° F o r
Ana Push T e s t
P l a t e 1,
’’C o r r e c t e d 1' Angle o f 130° j o r
Arm Push T e s t
I l l u s t r a t i o n s o f V a r io u s M e a s u r in g Te c h ni q ue s
AFP2EBIX C
ATI STI O X TECHNIQUES
STATISTICAL TECTPTiqiJES EMPLOYED
Th z
q.L
2crr_elp.tj.oji
The P e a r s o n procluct-rcsoraent method o f c om pu tin g t h e c o e f f i c i e n t o f
c o r r e l a t i o n '"as u s e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e o b j e c t i v i t y o f t h e t e s t s .
In i t s
o r i g i n a l form t h e f o r m u l a f o r t h e sane i s ^
r = ___ £
r y
:: ( T y <fy
To f a c i ! i t p * e m a c h i n e c a l c u l a t i o n t h e f o l l o w i n g v a r i a t i o n o f t h e above
f o r m u l a '"as u s e d t h r o u g h o u t . • *”
r “
\ |b
The. P ro b a b le H erat
If
Z x ’ .X 1 e ::"
- ; 'z
z x 1
■ ':T]
- £J_|_
y z ~ ’
•• : >• • • ' ' ( ]
o£ £. SsslflsifixiL h i C o r r e la tio n
The p r o b a b l e e r r o r o f t h e c o e f f i c i e n t o f c o r r e l a t i o n
s found by
*7
applying the form ula0
P 3 r =
m L J L L r,-rjD ___
opr
The c h a n c e 3 a r e e ve n t h a t t h e t r u e c o r r e l a t i o n f a l l s w i t h i n t h e r a n g e o f th e
o b t a i n e d c o r r e l a t i o n p l u s or m inu s i t s p r o b a b l e e r r o r .
c e r t a i n (29 chancer* i n 1 0 0 ) t h a t th e t r u e
It is v irtu a lly
c o r r e l a t i o n f ? i l s w ithin the
l i m i t s of t h e o b t a i n e d c o r r e l a t i o n p l u s or minus f o u r t i m e s i t s p r o b a b l e
error.
1.
H. 3, G p r r e t t ,
7.
I b i d . , p . 277.
3.
IM 1 - , p . 230.
St a t i s t i e s i n P s y c h o l o g y and E d u c a t i o n , p . 257.
'.'tl
173
The a r i t h m e t i c mean ”’0.s found by two methods.
’Then t h e s e r i e s o f
me asu re s was ungr oup ed t h e s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d formula ’-as used*
II =
Z X
TT
Vhen grouped i n t o a f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n the "Assumed Ee.on" or Short
>-
o
Method was a d o p t e d , th e for m ul a f o r «/hi ch i s°
+ ^ E f x 1j K 1
M«A!i
TJie. StaciiaEoi H i x o r
AM M a n
The s t a n d a r d e r r o r of the mean "T-.s d e t e r m in e d th r o u g h t h e u.«e o f the
fo rmula^
S3.s
(f
.
f t ~
'Zhen th e nuiacer o f c a s e s was l e s s th a n t h i r t y t h e forniula ’re s mod if ied to
rend
s y, -
j€
f f o
.
_____
r
I t i s p r a c t i c a l l y c e r t a i n t h a t th e t r u e mean l i e s - i t h i n . t h e l i m i t s o f the
o b t a i n e d near, p l u s or minus t h r * e ti m es i t s
standard e r r o r .
The Standard. D e v ia t i on
The s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n , a measure of t h e v a r i a b i l i t y o f t h e s c o r e s ,
1.
I b i d . t p . 17.
2.
I b id .., p. C6.
o.
I b i d . . p . 201.
174
•vas computed by u s i n r the f o l l o w i n g f o r m u l a s 5^S D=
1
Z . X
bu t i o n .
- c‘-
II
=1
The former
io
s used -.'hen th e m e as u re s v/ere .oroirned i n t o a ■rreciuency d i s t r i -
The l a t t e r was employed - h e n t h e number o f c a s e s war. small and
un,-T-auoed.
Th is second method •••sr. p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l i n a v oi di n '- th e
l a rue 11-re uni n r e r r o r ,! ’"hich mi.°ht have b r e r i n t r o d u c e d 'aac] the measures
beer, get uo i n t o a. "'re auer cy t a b l e .
I n t h i s l a t t e r s p o i l cat io n the ra-v
s c o r e ' ’ ".-ere reduced to f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r a e n i u n l - • t i o n .
correlated
The S ta n d a rd E r r o r o l Ik s, i i .
In o r d e r to det erm ine - h e t h ^ r the obt,-fined nee-, d:
’e c t r d arouses - a s s t a t i s t :
t nr,p'op0
**•
’or t -o
the cc-cn?lee
c? ^C
,*“‘
’er.ee =
-
2
< Tj
iu
,
V
>
TV
.u
t.
I t i s customary to tahe a r; t i o o f t h r e e or sio-e as. i n d i c a i i v e of a si a t i stic * l! y o irn ificrn t difference.
L o - e r l i m i t s o f a, -cent/.nee o f t e n are set
up a r b i t r a r i l y .
In o r d e r t o d e m o n s t r a t e the maynitn.de r ' - the d i f f e r e n c e between o b t a i n ­
ed me an s as or/nosed t o the chan ce s t h ; t t h e r e r e a l l y i c e
1.
'I. T. G a r r e t t ,
p.
R. Franzen, An 1
d i f f e r e n c e the
i n P s y c h o l nryy and E d u c a t i o n , pp. 4 9 - f l .
tl-Oil n l S.dxO.ol H e a l t h P r o c e d u r e s , pp. 106-108.
s o - c u l l e d i n d e x o f s i g n i f i c a n c e t e c h n i q u e was employed.
The f o r m u l a f o r t h i
isl
Standorl D ifference -
11 x - 11 y_______
-i
A
o
c r" 7
^2
+ <j
t
T h i s formula overcomes t h e r e l a t i v e e f f e c t or' th e v a r i o u s diohotonour- s p l i t ?
node in the p o p u l a t i o n (when co m pa rin g the a t h l e t i c groups -vith t h e normal
grout)) and e x p r e s s e s th e s t a n d a r d d i f f e r e n c e which would he o b t a i n e d i f
p a i r e d cormnri son s were used h a v i n g e q u a l p o p u l a t i o n s i n each o f t h e two
£r ou ps conror r e d .
The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f i n d i c e s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e o f v a r i o u s
ma gni tud es ’-as s e t a r b i t r a r i l y f o r t h i s study a s f o l l o w s !
denotes n e g lig ib le
o r s m al l d i f f e r e n c e ;
from . 0 0 t o - .5 0
from £ .5 0 t o - 1 .0 0 d e n o t e s
moderate o r s u b s t a n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e ; and from £ 1 .0 0 and above d e n o t e ? g r e a t
to very great d i f f e r e n c e .
St andflm Scar.ejs..
Scores i n the d i f f e r e n t
in to standard sco res.
1 f ?t s were made comrarf hi e by c o n v e r t i n g them
m
^
-he f o r m u l a u se d i s °
Z -
X_=JL __
CT
i n - h i c h X r e p r e s e n t s the i n d i v i d u a l ' s o b t a i n e d s co r e.
1.
Doc- c l t .
2.
G a r r e t t , 0£ . c i t . , p. 178.
N E W YORK U N I V E R S I T Y
S C H O O L OF EDU CATION
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