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Sewing Machine

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Presented By
Adnan Mazari
1790:The first workable sewing machine was invented and
patented by the British inventor Thomas Saint.,
Limitation:thread has to go all the way in the fabric with needle
and mechanical fingers were used,
1830 : French tailor, Barthelemy Thimonnier
(1793-1857), patented the first practical
sewing machine.
1834 :The earliest idea for a double-thread sewing machine
came from Walter Hunt (1796-1860) of New York in 1834.
In 1851, Issac M. Singer (1811-75) patented the first rigid-arm
sewing machine.
1856:The sewing machine combination was formed consisting
of Singer,Howe,Wheeler& Wilson and Grover &Baker,
Other known names in the sewing machine history are Allen
Wilson(reciprocating shuttle),Wheeler(Hook),Miller(button
A machine is a thing that helps a person
to do something by using or changing
Definitions of sewing :
Sewing or stitching is the fastening of cloth, leather, furs, and
other flexible materials, using needle and thread.
Sewing Machine:
Any mechanical or electromechanical device used for
fastening of cloth, leather, furs, and other flexible materials,
using needle and thread.
Sewing machines Parts
Sewing Machine Basic Mechanism
Feed Dog and Bobbin Mechanism
Classification of Sewing machines
Sewing machines can be classified or categorized by
type of use
(leather,button hole,carpet,etc ..)
Bed shape
(cylinder bed,flat bed,post bed, etc..)
stitch formation
(chain stitch ,lock stitch etc)
Classification of Stitch (Stitch Type):-
Class 100 - Chainstitch
a : Needle thread slacks at the position
where needle slightly goes up from its
lowest position, and looper catches the
needle thread which has become like a
b : Needle comes off the cloth and the
cloth is fed.Looper rotates and removes
the thread which the looper caught
before while pulling in the needle
thread. Needle bar continues going up
and needlethread take-up lever lifts the
c : Looper continues rotating and pulls
in the thread in the centre of the looper
and thread take-up lever tightens the
thread which the looper removed before.
d : Cloth feed is finished and a stitch is
Needle penetrates the cloth to continue to
next stitch,
Stitch Type - 101
Approximate Seam length:Thread
Consumption ratio = 1:5
Single thread chainstitch’s are often used for temporary
Class 200 - Hand Stitch
This type of stitch is formed with one thread. It is a machine
made version of traditional hand stitching
sometimes referred to as Saddle Stitch.
Applications of Hand Stitch
Decorative stitch of suits or the like Kimono (Japanese national
dress) Button sewing of coats, suits, etc. (FBS-340N-1)
3) Class 300 – Lockstitch
Approximate Seam:Thread consumption ratio = 1:2.5 for stitch
type 301
Applications of Lockstitch
General sewing ,2-needle lockstitch (LH-3128-7), Zigzag stitch
(LZ-2288N-7), Plain stitch, Decorative stitch, Bartacking (LK1900), Lockstitch buttonholing (LBH-790RS-1), Button sewing
(LK-1903/BR25), Pocket sewing (APW-196) and Pattern sewing
4) Class 400 - Double Chainstitch
For class 401.
Approximate Seam:Thread consumption ratio = 1:5.5
Stitch Type – 407
Approximate Seam:Thread consumption ratio = 1 : 20
Applications of Double Chainstitch
General sewing (MH-481-5) Rubber tape attaching, Lace
attaching to underwear, swim-suit, etc., Eyelet buttonholing
(MEB-2688), Side seam (MS-1190), Belt loop making (MFB2600).
Class 500 - Over-edge Chainstitch
Stitch Type – 503:Approximate Seam:Thread consumption ratio
= 1:10.5
Cloth which is largely expanded, blind over-edging, prevention of fray at material
end (ASN-397/serging machine), Overlock sewing machine (MO-3904, Cylinderbed overlock sewing
machine (MOC-3914).
Class 600 - Covering Chainstitch
Approximate Seam:Thread consumption ratio = 1:20.0
This type of stitch is formed with 4 threads: two needle threads
(A) and (A1) ; one looper thread (B); and one cover thread (C).
Loops of thread (A) and (A1) are passed through loops of thread
(C) already cast on the surface of the material, and then
through the material where they shall be interlooped with loops
of thread (B) on the underside.
Decorative stitch for lace attaching to underwear, swim-suits,
Sewing Needles,
A sewing needle is a long slender object
with a pointed tip. The first sewing needles
were made of bone or wood; modern ones
are manufactured from high carbon steel
wire, nickel- or gold plated for corrosion
resistance. The highest quality embroidery
needles are made of platinum.
1) Shank
2) Shaft
3) Groove
4) Scarf
5) Eye
6) Point
The upper thick part of a sewing machine needle is called the
shank. This part of the needle is inserted in the machine.
Home sewing machine needles are composed of a flat and a
round side, to assist in always having the needle in the correct
The shaft of a sewing machine needle is the area from the
bottom of the shank to the point. The shaft contains the
groove, scarf, eye and point of the needle.
A groove is in the side of the needle leading to the eye. The
groove is a place for the thread to lay into the needle.
The scarf is a groove out of one side of the needle. The scarf
allows the bobbin case hook to intersect with the upper thread
and form stitches.
The eye of the needle carries the thread so the machine can
keep forming stitches.
The point of the needle is the first contact with the fabric and
responsible for how the needle pierces the fabric.
Hand sewing needles.
Machine sewing needles.
Special purpose needles.
Sharps are needles used for general sewing. They have a sharp point, a
round eye and are of medium length. The difference between sharps and other
sewing needles can mainly be seen in their length.
Embroidery needles, also known as Crewel needles, are identical to sharps
but have a longer eye to enable easier threading of multiple embroidery threads and
thicker yarns.
Betweens or Quilting needles are shorter, with a small rounded eye and are
usually used for making fine stitches on heavy fabrics such as in tailoring, quilt
making and other detailed handwork.
The most common machine needles for standard running stitch
are universal &ball point needles,
Category according to use are
1. stretch needles
2. Jeans needles denim needles
3. leather needles
Stitch Fault
•Grace Rogers Cooper ,the Invention of Sewing
Machines,Washington 1968
•Grace I. Kunz , Ruth E. Glock,Apparel Manufactruing ,Sewn
product analysis,,4rth Edition,
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