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Apparel Construction Skills

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Apparel Construction Skills
Apparel Development 2
Objective 3.02
Standard Sewing Machine
Used For:
• Regular stitching
• Machine basting
• Reinforcement stitching
A Specialized type of sewing machine that can
stitch, trim, and finish all in one
simple step.
• Sometimes called “Overlockers”
Embroidery Machine
Used for:
• Monogramming
• Personalizing
• Special Designs
Problems and Solutions
• Skipped stitches- needle comes unthreaded, be sure to
take up lever is at the highest point when beginning to stitch
thread knots up on the underside of fabric, hold thread ends
under and to the back of the presser foot
• Stitch length – When joining 2 heavy fabrics. Keeps them
from joining unevenly.
• Tension- Check tension of upper thread if the topstitch seams loose.
• Special fabrics – Different fabrics require different types
of presser foots, Thread, and a change of settings on the sewing machine.
Parts and their uses
• Needles- Hold the upper thread on the sewing machine, comes in many
types and sizes, you must always replace when it becomes dull, bent, or rough.
• Presser Feet- holds fabric against the feed dogs which moves the
fabric forward.
• Feed regulator- Feeds fabric thru the machine while stitching.
Changes direction when the reverse stitch button is pressed.
• Types – Three-thread serger, four- thread, two-thread, two-thread
stitch, five-thread, rolled hemstitch, flatlock, and cover stitch.
• Sizes and length-
Basting is temporary stitching. Large
stitches that can be removed. May be done by hand or with a long stitch
length on sewing machine.
– Reinforced stitching is typically seen in crotches of pants. Use stitch length 1 on
sewing machine for reinforced stitching.
– Standard stitching is used most often. Stitch length 2/3 can be used.
• Tension -
the heavier the thread, the looser the tension should be
balance stitch, adjust the tension whenever you change
Special Situations
• Corners - Trim edges to reduce bulk. When
you push out corner it should be to a point.
• Curves – Make sure seam allowance is the
same even when you have a curve. Reduce
bulk to make seam lie flat.
• The bent handles on these
shears allow fabric to lie flat
on the table as you cut.
• Blades are usually 7 to 8
inches in length.
• Also know as Bent-handled
• These scissors have small
round handles.
• Blades are 4 to 6 inches in
length (the blades are
different in widths).
• Use the to trim seams, clip
curves, and cut into corners.
• With these shears, you can
finish a seam edge or other raw
edge on firmly woven fabric.
• The zigzag design helps to
prevent raveling.
• 3 to 4 inches in length,
with very pointed blades.
• Use for cutting
buttonholes & Trimming
close to the embroidery
• Resembles a pizza cutter.
• Can make straight clean cuts
through multiple layers of
• Cutter must be used with a
•Can remove stitches with
the blades on one end of
this pen-shaped gadget.
• Be careful not to cut the
• This tool ha
blades for
clipping thread
ends or stitches.
• Are manipulated by
hand along outlines of
the pattern pieces of
the marker.
• They cut multiples
layers of fabric.
• A device that generates
an intense, powerful
beam of light.
• Cut one garment a
piece at a time.
• They’re economical
because they fast and
Pressing: Equipment
•Press Cloth- A press cloth is a layer
of fabric placed between
the fabric and the iron to
protect the fabric from
scorching or shining.
•Tailor’s Ham- is convenient for
shaping the fabric when
making dressmaker
suits or coat.
•Sleeve Board- A sleeve board is a
small ironing board that is
narrow enough to fit into a sleeve.
•Seam Roll- A seam roll is a
two-sided cylinder, one side
covered with wool
and the other side
covered with cotton.
•Point Presser- section for pressing
narrow, hard to reach seams of collars; belts;
cuffs; corners; points, etc.
•Pounding Block-
Also known as a tailors clapper.
A clapper/pounding block is used to flatten a
seam, pleat, dart, lapel, buttonhole, etc.
•Needle Board- A board
that holds needles
in a loom.
•Ironing Board- A long, narrow
padded board, often with collapsible
supporting legs,
used as a working
surface for ironing.
• Iron- A metal appliance with a
handle and a weighted
flat bottom, used when
heated to press
wrinkles from fabric.
*Make sure to keep iron clean!
Pressing: Techniques
• Specialized Fabrics- When pressing corduroy or
pile fabrics, like velvet, if you don’t press on the
wrong side of the fabric, the iron’s impression will
be left on the fabric.
• Placing these fabrics right side down on a needle
board will help preserve texture.
Use of Pressing Equipment
• The iron is the most important pressing
• Avoid pressing over pins, sippers, and
other metal objects that will scratch the
bottom of the iron.
• Most pressing equipment,
like the tailors ham, sleeve
board, point presser, etc.,
serve a certain purpose.
Types of Seams
• Plain seams should be serged and trimmed, or
stitched with a seam allowance of 5/8 of an
• Perfect for beginner projects from pillows to
Types of Seams
• A Flat-felled seam is self-enclosed and requires
no additional seam finishing technique.
• Used where durability is needed or a tailored
appearance is desired.
Types of Seams
• Welt seams give the garment a tailored look.
• They are used as a decorative accent.
Types of Seams
• A Double-Stitched is mostly used for sheer fabrics or
lightweight knits.
• Used on things such as sheer fabrics and lightweight
Types of Seams
• A French seam is a durable self enclosed
seam that is used to conceal seam allowances.
• Used on sheer fabric to prevent raveling.
Types of Seams
• The Lapped seam is a strong smooth seam that
should lie perfectly flat. It gets its strength
because its sewn with two rows of stitching.
• Used on fabrics such as leather or fleece.
Types of Seams
• A bound seam has both of the raw edges
enclosed in a strip of fabric or double fold bias
• Used mostly on lightweight fabrics such as silk
or chiffon.
Standards for Seams
• The standard seam allowance when sewing at
home is 5/8 of an inch.
Standards for Seams
• The standard seam allowance for Industrial
sewing is Вј of an inch.
Serged Seam
пѓ� Sergers stitch seams,
trim off seam
allowances, and
finish edges all in
one step.
пѓ� Sometimes used just
to finish and other
times you use it as a
plain finish.
Clean Finish “aka” Turned and Stitched
• A clean finish is turned
under 1/8 to Вј of the raw
edge of fabric and then
stitched close to the
folded edge.
• If you want a smooth
edge on the inside of the
garment you would do a
clean finish.
Pinked Finish
пЃ¶Most firmly woven
fabrics can be
trimmed with pinking
пЃ¶Pinking the fabric
doesn’t completely
prevent raveling.
пЃ¶Pinking shears give
an attractive edge.
• For more
protection, stitch
Вј inch from each
edge before
A bound finish is used
frequently on unlined
coats and jackets. Also
in dresses and other
items that have a
tendency to ravel.
• Appropriate fabrics
are medium/medium
heavy and heavyweight
woven fabrics.
Zigzag Finish
пѓјThis finish is used on a пѓјThe zigzag stitch
plain seam on woven
length must be
adjusted to
accommodate and
prevent raveling.
пѓјThis finish is used on
medium- to
heavyweight fabrics.
Piped Finish
• Piping is a narrow
band of fabric
stitched into the
seam to accent the
seam line or outer
edge of a garment.
• Piping can be
inserted into a seam
while it is stitched.
Thread Types
• Embroidery is the art or
handicraft of decorating
fabric or other materials
with designs stitched in
strands of thread or yarn
using a needle or an
embroidery machine.
Rayon Thread
• A soft thread, available in
great colors, and suitable
for all forms of machine
• It holds up well with
high-speed stitching
without breaking or
fraying and it also
consistently performs
Pearl Crown Rayon Thread
• The fibers used in this
thread are continuous
filament which is
virtually hairless.
• The fibers are twisted
to add to the sheen and
make the thread
stronger and less
prone to fraying and
more durable then
some other heavy
Metallic Thread
• Used for decoration.
• Adds luminous accents
to machine
• Some offer nylon
cores, rice paper
construction, or outer
Fusible Thread
• Used for fuse basting,
quilt bindings, appliquГ©
and more. Sew into your
fabric, iron, and set your
hem or appliquГ© in
Invisible Thread
• Also known as
monofilament thread.
• Very lightweight
thread used on drapery
hems on shear or light
• Can also be used on a
serger on the looper
Crochet Thread
• Made from
cotton for
crochet items.
• May be stiffed
with starch.
Textured Nylon Thread
• Can be used wherever
silk can be used.
• Not as fragile as silk.
• Stretches much less
than silk.
• Doesn’t rot when wet.
Ribbon Thread
• Embroidery is done
with ribbon thread,
rather than standard
six-thread string.
• Silk ribbon or a silk
and organza blend
ribbon are commonly
used for this type of
General purpose
•This is all purpose thread that can be used for sewing
most fabrics
•It is strong and flexible, it shrinks less than most other
•The thread stretches slightly, it is recommended for
knits and stretch fabrics
•It Is great for machine quilting, hand quilting, or
decorative stitching
Cotton covered polyester thread
•Cotton covered polyester thread is good for for
hand and machine sewing on all natural fabrics,
synthetics, woven and knits
• It is strong and durable.
•This thread can be used in your sewing machine or by
•It is usually used for home décor projects
Button Craft
•Has great elasticity and strength
•It can be permanently stretched in sewing, and is good
for silks and wools
•Button whole twist is a strong, lustrous silk about three
times the diameter of normal sewing silk, and can be
used for sewing buttons with various decorative effects
Sizing Patterns
• In order to determine what your pattern size is you
must take your body measurements.
•After you have figured your figure type the next step is
to find your pattern size. Check your measurements and
line them up with what’s on the chart located at the
back of the patter envelope.
Pinning Patterns
• Pin the grain line first, if you don’t pin the grain line correctly
your finished garment will not hang correctly.
• Pin perpendicular to the bold line.
Pinning Continued
• Silk pins are the best pins to use in order to prevent ripping the
pattern pieces.
• Place pins diagonally in corners.
Cutting Out Patterns
• Use long strokes with your scissors.
• Cut on the bold line.
• Cut out the required number called for by the
Cutting Out Patterns Continued.
• Cut all your notches away from the seam.
• Make required marks to fabric before removing your pattern
•Transfer all your marks to the
WRONG side of the fabric before
removing pattern piece.
• Don’t iron over your markings, marks
may become permanent.
•You may use tailor’s chalk, a marking
pen, or tracing wheel and tracing
Shirt Tail
•Blind stitch
•Catch stitch
•Slip stitch
• Used on more formal
attire at bottom of
• Uses special foot to
roll the fabric while it
• Invisible machine-worked hem
• Used on dress pants
• Different type of presser
foot is used
• To sew a row of
stitching close to the
seam or edge of (a
garment) on the outer
side of the fabric.
This kind of hem is
used especially for
finishing skirts and
pants. It is a sturdy
kind of hem.
Shirt Tail
• Used on Medium to
heavy weight fabrics
that ravel easily.
•Blind stitch- Looks
professional and cannot see
stitching on the right side of
•Slip stitch- Used on the
hem of a turned in stitch or a
bias binding finish.
•Catch stitch- a large
cross-stitch used in finishing
seams and in hemming
•Choose the
right one for the
job (look at the
back of the
• Sew Through- have 2-4 holes on the
face of the button for attaching with
• Shank- is a loop on the back of the
button that allows the button to lay
hand / Machine stitched
Hook and Loop
• Two Nylon Strips, one with tiny loops
and the other with a looped pile.
Hook & Eye /
• They are used on edges that just meet
like a neck or collar line. Also they can
be used at the top of a zipper for further
•They are all different sizes.
•Smaller snaps hold edges
together where the strain or
pull is minimal.
•Larger sizes are good for
heavy duty use.
•Snaps pre-attached to fabric
tapes are ideal for
sportswear and children’s
• Used to add shape and
give stiffness to a
• Non-Fusible
– Baste stitch in.
• Fusible
– Apply with heat
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