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Central Nervous System

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THE CENTRAL NERVOUS
SYSTEM
D. C. MIKULECKY
PROFESSOR OF PHYSIOLOGY
AND
FACULTY MENTORING PROGRAM
ORGANIZATION OF THE
NERVOUS SYSTEM
BRAIN
SPINAL CORD
CENTRAL
NERVOUS
SYSTEM (CNS)
AFFERENT
EFFERENT
NERVES
NERVES
EXTEROINTERORECEPTORS RECEPTORS
EFFECTOR
ORGANS
PERIPHERAL
NERVOUS
SYSTEM
SOMATIC
SKELETAL
MUSCLES
AUTONOMIC
SMOOTH AND
CARDIAC MUSCLES
AND GLANDS
MAINTENANCE AND
PROTECTION OF THE CNS
пЃєGlial Cells: physical and metabolic support
пЃєSkull and Spinal Column
пЃєCerebrospinal fluid
пЃєBlood-brain barrier
пЃєBlood supply
GLIAL CELLS OR NEUROGLIA:
пЃєPHYSICAL AND METABOLIC
SUPPORT
пЃє90% OF CELLS IN BRAIN
пЃєFOUR TYPES: ASTROCYTES,
OLIGODENDROCYTES, EPENDYMAL
CELLS, AND MICROGLIA
Skull and Spinal Column
пЃєPROVIDE MECHANICAL SUPPORT
пЃєPROTECTS THE NEURAL AND
SUPPORTING TISSUE
CEREBROSPINAL FLUID
пЃєDENSITY IS THE SAME AS BRAIN
пЃєSHOCK ABSORBER
Blood-brain barrier
пЃєLIMITS ACCESS OF BLOOD
MATERIALS TO BRAIN TISSUE
пЃєPROTECTS BRAIN FROM
FLUCTUATIONS IN BLOOD LEVELS
STRUCTURE OF THE
BRAIN
пЃєBRAIN STEM
пЃєCEREBELLUM
пЃєFOREBRAIN
THE FOREBRAIN
пЃєTHE DIENCEPHALON
пЃєTHE CEREBRUM
THE DIENCEPHALON
пЃєHYPOTHALAMUS
пЃєTHALAMUS
THE CEREBRUM
пЃєBASAL NUCLEI
пЃєCEREBRAL CORTEX
WHITE AND GRAY
пЃєGRAY MATTER - MAINLY CELL
BODIES
пЃєWHITE MATTER - MYELINATED
AXONS
SUBCORTICAL
STRUCTURES
пЃєBASAL GANGLIA
пЃєTHALAMUS
пЃєHYPOTHALAMUS
пЃєLIMBIC SYSYTEM
BASAL GANGLIA
пЃєPLAY A COMPLEX ROLE IN THE
CONTROL OF MOVEMENT
пЃєINHIBIT MUSCLE TONE
THROUGHOUT BODY
пЃєSUPPRESS USELESS OR UNWANTED
PATTERNS OF MOVEMENT
THALAMUS
пЃєRELAY STATION
пЃєHELP US DIRECT OUR ATTENTION
пЃєFILTERS OUT INSIGNIFICANT
SIGNALS
HYPOTHALAMUS
пЃєREGULATES HOMEOSTATIC
FUNCTIONS
пЃєTHIRST AND URINE OUTPUT
пЃєFOOD INTAKE
пЃєHORMONE SECRETION
пЃєBODY TEMPERATURE
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM’S
COORDINATING CENTER
LIMBIC SYSTEM
пЃєCOMPLEX NETWORK OF FOREBRAIN
STRUCTURES
пЃєEMOTIONS
пЃєBASIC SURVIVAL
пЃєSOCIOSEXUAL BEHAVIOR
пЃєMOTIVATION
пЃєLEARNING
BEHAVIOR AND
NEUROTRANSMITTERS
пЃєNOREPINEPHRINE
пЃєDOPAMINE
пЃєSEROTONIN
LEARNING AND MEMORY
пЃєSHORT TERM VS LONG TERM
пЃєWORKING MEMORY
пЃєASSOCIATIVE VS CONDITIONED
пЃєMULTIPLE LOCATIONS
THE MOTOR CORTEX
пЃєSOMATOTOPIC ORGANIZATION
пЃєDESCENDING PATHWAYS
пЃєSENSORY FEEDBACK
CORTICAL AREAS INVOVED
IN MOTOR CONTROL
SOMATOTOPIC ORGANIZATION
OF THE MOTOR CORTEX
THE SPINAL CORD IN SOMATIC
SENSORY FUNCTION
пЃєWHITE AND GREY MATTER
пЃєSEGMENTAL ORGANIZATION
SEGMENTAL STRUCTURE
OF SPINAL NERVES
DERMATOMES
SPINAL CORD
DORSAL
HORN
DORSAL
DORSAL
ROOT
GANGLION
SPINAL
NERVE
GREY
MATTER
LATERAL
WHITE
MATTER
VENTRAL
HORN
VENTRAL
THE SOMATOSENSORY
CORTEX
SOMATOTOPIC ORGANIZATION
OF THE SENSORY CORTEX
MOTIVATIONAL SYSTEMS
пЃєHUNGER
пЃєTHIRST
пЃєSEXUAL BEHAVIOR
HUNGER
REDUCED
AVAILABILITY
OF GLUCOSE
LACK OF
FOOD
CONTRACTIONS
OF EMPTY
STOMACH
LOW
TRIGLYCERIDE
LEVELS
IN FAT CELLS
GLUCOSE
RECEPTORS
IN HYPOTHALAMUS
MECHANORECEPTORS
IN STOMACH
PANCREAS
HUNGER
THIRST
WATER
DEFICIENCY
OSMORECEPTORS
IN SUPRAOPTIC
AND SUPRAVENTRICULAR
NUCLEI OF
HYPOTHALAMUS
ADH
SERETION
BY PITUITARY
THIRST
WATER
RETENTION
BY KIDNEY
SEXUAL BEHAVIOR
пЃєANTERIOR HYPOTHALAMUS ORGANIZES
RESPONSES TO PHERMONES
пЃєOLIFACTORY CUES SENT TO PYRIFORM
CORTEX AND AMYGDALA AND
INDIRECTLY TO HYPOTHALAMUS
пЃєANDROGENS DETERMINE RELEASE OF
LEUTINIZING HORMONE- CONSTANT OR
CYCLIC
LEARNING AND MEMORY
пЃєASSOSCIATIVE VS NONASSOCIATIVE
LEARNING
пЃєSHORT AND LONG TERM MEMORY
пЃєNEURONAL PATHWAYS
пЃєSPLIT BRAIN STUDIES
пЃєCELLULAR MANIFESTATIONS
пЃєUSE AND DISUSE
LOCALIZATION OF
LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS
ASSOCIATION
COMPREHENSION
MOTOR
PROGRAMS
LATERALITY OF BRAIN
FUNCTION
пЃєRIGHT AND LEFT BRAIN
пЃєGENDER DIFFERENCES
RIGHT AND LEFT BRAIN
пЃєRIGHT HEMISPHERE: SPATIAL
ABILITIES
пЃєLEFT HEMISPHERE: MUSICAL
ABILITY
GENDER DIFFERENCES
пЃєMALES TEND TO EXHIBIT MORE
LATERALIZATION OF SPECIFIC
TASKS
пЃєFEMALES USE BOTH HEMISPHERES
MORE SYMMETRICALLY
ANATOMY OF THE CEREBELLUM
Lateral
Intermediate
Zone
Zone
Floculonodular Lobe
SOMATIC SENSORY PROJECTIONS ONTO
THE CEREBELLAR CORTEX
THE BASAL GANGLIA
THE FLEXOR
WITHDRAWAL REFLEX
пЃєPAINFUL STIMULUS DETECTED
пЃєIPSILATERAL EXTENSORS INHIBITED
пЃєIPSILATERAL EXTENSORS EXCITED
пЃєLIMB IS WITHDRAWN
пЃєIF INVOLVING ONE FOOT WHILE
STANDING, CONTRALATERAL SIDE
EXTENSORS ACTIVATED AND FLEXORS
INHIBITED TO SUPPORT GREATER
WEIGHT
FLEXOR WITHDRAWAL
REFLEX
STEPON
TACK
SENSORY
SIGNAL TO
SPINE
VIA
INTERNEURONS
IPSILATERAL EXTENSORS INHIBITED
IPSILATERAL FLEXORS CONTRACT-LEG LIFTS
CONTRALATERAL EXTENSORS CONTRACT
CONTRALATERAL FLEXORS INHIBITED- MAINTAIN
BALANCE AND SUPPORT WEIGHT
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