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central nervous system

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NERVOUS
SYSTEM 2
Functionally, the nervous system includes
2 main components:
Nervous System
Somatic nervous
system
Autonomic nervous
system
Receives different somatic
sensation from the body and
controls different voluntary
activities
Receives visceral sensation from
the viscera and controls the
activities of organs, glands
and various involuntary muscles
Structurally, the nervous system
is divided into:
Nervous System
Central
nervous system
Brain
Spinal
nerves
Peripheral
nervous system
Spinal Cord
Cranial
nerves
Autonomic nerves
and ganglia
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
пЃ®
пЃ®
It is the part of the nervous system, which is present in midline
of the body and protected within bony cages.
It is covered by 3 meninges:
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пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
It is bathed in a layer of fluid called cerebrospinal fluid, which is
present in the “subarachenoid space”.
It is responsible to :
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
Dura mater
Arachnoid mater
Pia mater
Integrate and coordinate incoming and outgoing neural signals.
Carry out higher mental functions such as thinking and learning.
The central nervous system is formed of:
пЃ®
пЃ®
Brain: lies in the skull
Spinal cord: lies within the vertebral column
Overview of the central nervous system
THE BRAIN
пЃ®
пЃ®
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Is the part of the central
nervous system, which
occupies the vertebral
canal.
Begins at the foramen
magnum as continuation
of medulla oblongata.
It ends opposite the
lower border of 1st
lumbar vertebra.
THE SPINAL CORD
пЃ®
It shows enlargements in
the regions giving rise to
large nerves of the limbs.
These enlargements are:
пЃ® Cervical
enlargement: Is
found opposite the brachial
plexus.
пЃ® Lumbar enlargement: Is
found opposite the lumbar
plexus.
THE SPINAL CORD
пЃ®
It has:
пЃ® Anterior
median sulcus (fissure): anteriorly
пЃ® Posterior median septum: posteriorly
пЃ® 2 posterolateral sulci (one on each side)
пЃ® 2 anterolateral sulci (one on each side)
Cross section of the spinal cord shows
the following features:
The spinal segments: the part of the spinal cord
giving attachment to a pair of spinal nerves is
called the “spinal segment”.
There are 31 such segments, which give attachment
to the spinal nerves.
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
Peripheral NS
Spinal nerves
Cranial nerves
Spinal nerves
Spinal nerves
Region
No. of vertebrae
No. of spinal nerves
Cervical
7
8
Thoracic
12
12
Lumbar
5
5
Sacral
5
5
2-4
1
Coccygeal
Spinal nerve
пЃ®
Each nerve divides immediately into
anterior (ventral) and posterior
(dorsal) primary rami going to the
front and back of the body
respectively.
пЃ®
The spinal nerve
emerge from the
spinal column
through an opening
(intervertebral
foramen) between
the adjacent
vertebrae. This is
true for all spinal
nerves except for
the first spinal nerve
(pair) which
emerges between
the occipital bone
and the atlas.
Cranial Nerves
Cranial nerve
Type
Major function
I
Olfactory
Sensory
Smell
II
Optic
Sensory
Vision
III
Oculomotor
Motor
Movement of the eyeball
IV
Trochlear
Motor
Movement of the eyeball
V
Trigeminal
Mixed
Sensory from head and neck
Motor to muscles of mastication
VI
Abducent
Motor
Movement of the eyeball
VII
Facial
Mixed
Motor to facial muscles
Secrtomotor to the salivary, lacrimal glands
Taste sensation from the tongue
VIII
Vestibule-cochlear
Sensory
Hearing
Sense of equilibrium
IX
Glossopharyngeal
Mixed
Motor to some muscles of pharynx
Secrtomotor to the parotid gland
Taste sensation from the tongue
X
Vagus
Mixed
Motor to muscles of the larynx
Parasympathetic supply to the heart, smooth muscles of
digestive and respiratory tracts
Taste sensation from palate and epiglottis
XI
Accessory
Motor
Motor to muscles of the palate and pharynx
XII
Hypoglossal
Motor
Motor to muscles of the tongue
Cranial Nerves
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