close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

ch05-Histology

код для вставкиСкачать
Chapter 5-- Histology
(microscopic anatomy)
1
Ch. 5 Study Guide
1. Read Chapter 5 up to page 170 right
before 5.4 Nervous and Muscular Tissue
2. Comprehend Terminology (those in bold in
the textbook)
3. Study-- Figure questions, Think About It
questions, and Before You Go On (sectionending) questions
4. Do end-of-chapter questions
 Testing Your Recall— 1-4, 6-10, 13, 17, 18, 20
 True or False– 1, 2, 5, 6, 10
пѓј Testing Your Comprehension-- #4, #5
2
5.1--The study of tissues
3
В§ The Study of Tissues
1. Whole body contains only 200 different types
of cells
2. Four tissue classes (Def. of tissue--?) See
Table 5.1.
3. Histology (microscopic anatomy)
– study of tissues and how they form organs
4. Organ = structure with discrete boundaries
– composed of 2 or more tissue types
– Examples:
4
В§ Differences among 4 Tissue Classes
1. Types and functions of cells-• For example: Epithelial, CT, Nervous,
Muscular
2. Characteristics of the matrix
(extracellular material)
• Rubbery, stony, or gelatinous
3. Relative amount of space occupied by
cells versus matrix
• CT vs. muscle and epithelium
5
В§ Embryonic Tissues
1. Embryo begins as a single cell
– divides into many cells that form layers (strata)
2. Three primary germ layers
A.ectoderm (outer) gives rise to: epidermis +
nervous system
B.endoderm (inner): mucous membranes: GI
tract and respiratory linings; digestive glands.
C.mesoderm (middle) forms mesenchyme
(gelatinuous tissue) and then give rise to
muscle, bone, and blood
6
В§ Tissue Sectioning (1)
1. Preparation of histological specimens
– fixation
– sections
– mounted on slides & stained
2. Sectioning (slicing) an organ or tissue
reduces a 3-dimensional structure to a 2dimensional slice (see the next 3 slides)
7
Tissue Sectioning (2)
1 2 3 4 5
1
2
•Slices 1 & 5
miss the yolk
/ cell nucleus
5
3
4
•Cell nucleus
is smaller in
sections 2 &
4
8
Tissue Sectioning (3)
A
B
• Image A is a cross
section of elbow
macaroni,
resembling a blood
vessel, piece of gut,
or other tubular
organ.
• Image B is a
longitudinal section
of a sweat gland.
Notice what a single
slice could look like
9
В§ Types of Tissue Sections (1)
• Longitudinal section
– tissue cut along the
longest direction of an
organ
• Cross section
– tissue cut perpendicular
to the length of an
organ
• Oblique section
– tissue cut at an angle
between a cross &
longitudinal section
10
Types of Tissue Sections (2)
Practice at home.
• Would you classify
the egg sections as
longitudinal, cross,
or oblique sections?
• How would the egg
look if sectioned in
the other two
planes? (Fig. 5.2
question)
11
5.2--Epithelial tissue
12
В§ Epithelial Tissue Introduction (1)
1. One or more layers of closely adhering cells
2. (Top) Forms a flat sheet with the upper (______)
surface exposed to the environment or an internal
body cavity
3. (Bottom) Sits on basement membrane (basal
surface of cells); Fig. X
– anchors epithelium to underlying connective tissue
4. (Nourishment) No room for blood vessels; . . .
CT
13
What are the
functions of
the basement
membrane?
14
В§ Epithelial Tissue Introduction (2)
Arrangement and Cell Shape—
1.Simple epithelium
– contains one layer of cells
– named by shape of cells
2.Stratified epithelium
– contains more than one layer
– named by shape of apical cells
Fig. 5.3
15
16
§ 1.Simple Squamous Epithelium—
17
1. (Structure) Single row of flat cells (scaly)
2. (Functions) Allows rapid diffusion of
substances; secretes serous fluid
3. (Locations) in alveoli, glomerular
capsule, endothelium (blood vessels and
heart), and serosa (external surface)
such as stomach & intestines
18
§ 2. Simple Cuboidal Epithelium—
1. (Structure) Single row of cube-shaped
cells, often with microvilli
2. (Functions) Absorption & secretion;
produces mucus
3. (Locations) Liver, thyroid, mammary,
salivary and other glands, bronchioles, and
most kidney tubules
Fig. 5.5
19
20
§ 3.Simple Columnar Epithelium—
1. (Structure) Single row of tall, narrow cells
– vertically oriented, oval nuclei in basal half
of cell
2. (Functions) Absorption & secretion; secretion
of mucus
3. (Locations) Inner lining of GI tract from
stomach to the anus; ducts of gallbladder;
uterus, and uterine tubes; some kidney tubes;
a few portions of upper respiratory tract
21
22
§ 4. Pseudostratified Epithelium—
1. (Structure) Single row of cells not all of
which reach the free surface; nuclei at
different levels.
2. (Functions) secretes propels mucus
3. (Locations) most of the upper respiratory
system from nasal cavity to bronchi; part of
male urethra
Fig. 5.7
23
24
В§ Stratified Epithelia
• Composed of more than one layer of cells &
named for shape of __________ cells
• Deepest cells sit on basement membrane
25
В§ 5A. Keratinized Stratified Squamous
Fig. 5.8 Skin from
the sole of the foot
• Layers of epithelium covered with compact, ______
squamous cells (no nuclei) packed with protein keratin
• Retards water loss, prevents entrance of organisms
• Forms epidermal layer of skin (esp. soles and palms)
26
В§ 5B.Nonkeratinized Stratified Squamous
Epithelial
layer
Fig. 5.9
Mucosa
of the
vagina
• Multilayered epithelium that lacks surface layer of
dead cells forming moist, slippery layer
• Locations: tongue, oral mucosa, esophagus & vagina
27
Pap smear/test
•
•
•
•
What? Examination of exfoliated cells
Where? The cervix
Why?
How? Loose cells are examined
microscopically for abnormal cells
• Who? Between 30-50 years old
Fig. 28.5
28
Fig. 28.5—Pap smears
Which one is
normal cells?
29
В§ 6. Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium
Fig. 5.10—Sweat
gland ducts
• (Structure) Two or more layers of cells; surface cells
square or round
• (Functions) Secretion and production
• (Locations) Sweat glands, mammary glands, salivary
glands, ovarian follicles, seminiferous tubules
30
В§ 7. Transitional Epithelium
1. (Structure) Multilayered epithelium with
rounded (not flattened) surface cells
2. (Functions) Allow stretches and distension
3. (Locations) Urinary tract--part of kidney,
ureter, urinary bladder, part of the urethra
Fig. X
31
32
Qs from Before You Go On (p. 162)
пѓјDistinguish between simple and stratified
epithelia. Explain why pseudostratified
columnar epithelium belongs in the former
category?
пѓјDistinguish a stratified squamous
epithelium from a transitional epithelium.
пѓјHow do the epithelia of the esophagus
and stomach differ? Respective
functions?
33
5.3--Connective tissue
34
В§ Connective Tissue (CT) Overview
• Most abundant and variable tissue type
• 3 structural elements –
– Consists mostly of (a) G________; (b) F_______
– (c) with widely spaced cells
• Functions of CT:
– Binding of organs --Ex. a tendon connects
muscle to bone
– Support, protection, movement -- Ex. bones
– Storage – (energy, electrolytes) Ex. Fats/bones
– Transport -- Ex. Blood
35
В§ 1. Ground Substance of C.T.
• Gelatinous or rubbery material found in
between cells – Function?
• Consists of 3 classes of large molecules
– Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) –
• Polysacharides that attract sodium & hold water
• Ex.--
– Proteoglycan is bottlebrush-shaped molecule
• Forms thick gel that slows the spread of pathogens
– Cell adhesive glycoproteins
• Allow themselves bind to matrix elements
36
В§ 2. Fibers of C.T.
• Collagen fibers--called white fibers (Fig. 5.13)
– Most abundant protein of the body
– Thick, tough, resist stretch yet flexible
– Ex. tendons, ligaments & dermis
• Elastic fibers--called yellow fibers
– made of E______; recoil like rubberband (elasticity)
– Ex. skin, lungs & arteries; ability to recoil
• Reticular fibers
– Thin collagen fibers coated with glycoprotein
– Ex. form framework for spleen & lymph nodes
37
Collagen
Tendons
(collagen)
Figure 5.13
В§ 3. Cells of C.T.
• Fibroblasts -- produce fibers & ground substance
• WBCs -- wander (mostly in CT) in search of
bacteria
– Macrophages – large phagocytic cells-- arise from
monocytes (WBC); function? phagocytosis
– Plasma cells -- arise from lymphocytes; antibodyproducing cells
• Mast cells – oval shaped; clustered along blood
vessels; secrete heparin and histamine
• Adipocytes or fat cells --store triglycerides
39
5.3--Connective tissue
A. Fibrous CT
40
В§ Five Types of Fibrous C.T.
Divided into 2 broad categories:
• Loose CT (3 slides followed)
– contains MORE gel-like ground substance
between cells
– 3 types: A--areolar, B--reticular, C--adipose tissue
• Dense CT (2 slides followed)
– FIBERS fill the spaces between cells
– 2 types varying in fiber orientation: D--dense
regular, E--dense irregular
41
В§ A-- Areolar Tissue
Fig. Mesentery
• Loose arrangement of collagenous and elastic fibers;
scattered cell types; abundant ground substance
• Locations-- Underlying all epithelia; surrounding
42
nerves, blood vessels, esophagus, trachea
В§ B-- Reticular Tissue
• Loose network of
R_________ and cells
• Forms structural
supportive stroma for
lymphatic organs
• Locations-- lymph
nodes, spleen, thymus
& bone marrow
Fig. Spleen
43
В§ C-- Adipose Tissue (Fat)
• Large, empty-looking cells dominate with thin
margins; nucleus pressed against cell
membrane; often very pale
• Functions-- Energy storage, insulation, space
filled as cushioning
• Locations-- Subcutaneous fat beneath skin,
breast, heart surface, surrounding organs
Fig. 5.18
44
Figure 5.16b
Fig. Adipose tissue
45
В§ D-- Dense Regular CT
• Structure-- Mainly densely, PACKED,
PARALLEL C__________FIBERS;
compressed fibroblast nuclei; scanty open
space and blood vessels
• Locations-- Tendons & ligaments
Figure 5.16
46
D-- Dense Regular CT
Fig. Tendon
47
В§ E-- Dense Irregular CT
• Densely packed collagen fibers running in
________ directions; scanty open space;
few visible cells and blood vessels
• Function-- Withstands stresses applied in
MANY DIFFERENT DIRECTIONS
• Locations-- Deeper portion of skin;
capsules around organs (ex. Liver, kidney
etc); sheaths around cartilages and bones
Figure 5.17
48
E-- Dense Irregular CT
Fig. Dermis of the skin
49
5.3--Connective tissue
B. Cartilage, Bone, Blood
50
В§ Cartilage
• Supportive CT with rubbery matrix
• Chondroblasts produce matrix, surround
themselves, and become Chondrocytes
• No blood vessels; so diffusion must bring in
nutrients & remove wastes; healing . . .
• 3 types of cartilage depend upon FIBER
TYPES
– A--hyaline, B--elastic, and C--fibrocartilage
51
В§ A-- Hyaline Cartilage
• Clear, glassy matrix; invisible fine
dispersed collagen fibers; chondrocytes
in small clusters enclosed in lacunae
• Supports airway, eases joint movements
• Locations-- Over ends of bones at
movable joints; sternal ends of ribs;
supportive material in larynx, trachea,
bronchi and fetal skeleton
Fig. 5.19
52
Figure 5.19b
Fig. Fetal skeleton
53
В§ B-- Elastic Cartilage
• Hyaline cartilage with weblike mesh of
elastic fibers amid the lacunae; always
has perichondrium (a sheath of C.T.)
• Provides flexible, elastic support
• Locations— Ear + Epiglottis
• Fig. 5.20
54
Figure 5.20b
Fig. External ear
55
В§ C-- Fibrocartilage
• Cartilage containing extensive parallel
Collagen fibers; never has
perichondrium; row of chondrocytes in
lacunae
• Resists compression and absorbs shock in
some joints
• Locations-- Pubic symphysis, menisci
(pads) in knee joint, & intervertebral discs
Fig. 5.21
56
Figure 5.21b
Fig. Intervertebral disc
57
В§ Bone (osseous tissue)
• Spongy bone looks spongy in appearance
– fills heads of long bones
– delicate struts of bone
– ALWAYS COVERED BY COMPACT
BONE
• Compact (dense) bone looks solid
– No space visible to the naked eye
– External surfaces of ALL bones
58
В§ Compact bone
• Calcified matrix in concentric lamellae
around central (haversian) canal
containing blood vessels
• osteocytes in lacunae between lamellae
connected by canaliculi— delicate
narrowing canals . . .
• Physical support; leverage for muscles;
mineral storage
• Locations-- in skeleton (Fig. 5.22)
59
Canaliculi ?
Fig. Compact bone
60
В§ Blood
• Variety of cells and cell fragments;
some with nuclei & some without
• RBC, WBC, platelets
• Found in heart and blood vessels
Fig. 5.23
61
Fig. Blood smear
62
Документ
Категория
Презентации
Просмотров
19
Размер файла
5 110 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа