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The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain

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Industrial Revolution Quiz
• 1. Where did the Industrial Revolution
begin?( what country)
• 2. What two natural resources did this
country have in abundance?
• 3. Define the term enclosure movement • 4. Name two inventions of the Agricultural
revolution • 5. Name the two men associated with the
creation of the steam engine • 6. In what year did Marx and publish the
Communist Manifesto?
The Industrial Revolution -Great Britain
• The Agricultural Revolution
paves the way for the
Industrial Revolution.
• The enclosure movement
begins in England.
• New innovations in
Agriculture - seed drill, crop
rotation, mechanical reaper.
• By the 1850’s many farm
workers moved to the city.
The Factors of Production
• Great Britain had abundant
land, capital, and labor.
• Great Britain had abundant
supplies of Coal, Iron and
Natural waterways.
• Managing a business was
looked on as a good job or
• The British colonies were a
huge market and the British
navy could deliver the goods.
The Textile Industry
• Textile industry was the first
industry to use mechanization.
• The factory system replaced
the domestic system in
producing textiles.
• New inventions like the flying
shuttle, and the spinning mule
increase production.
• Cotton becomes “King”, in the
South to supply England.
Steam Engines
• Water Power drove the early
machines of the Industrial
• Thomas Newcomen produced
the first steam engine for
draining mines.
• In 1760, James Watt produced
the modern steam engine.
• Bessemer process developed to
make steel used in steam
Industrialization takes off
• Coke gas used in iron production used in
gas lights. Darby - coal to coke
• Samuel Slater smuggles textile secrets to the
• Andrew Carnegie brings the steel making
Bessemer process to the U.S.
• Samuel Morse invents the telegraph and
Morse Code.
• The Free market is allowed to determine
who will be successful and who will be poor.
The gap between rich and poor increases.
Railroads and Steamboats
• 1814 George Stephenson
perfected a locomotive, (The
Rocket)- 29 mph.
• Robert Fulton perfected the
steamboat ( The Clermont).
• The Cunard line built. Steam
ships of iron and steel.
• The Communications
Revolution Volta - the Battery,
Marconi - radio, Morse telegraph.
The Spread of Industry
• The European continent was
slow to industrialize.
• Belgium, France, and Germany
developed much later than
Great Britain.
• By 1870 the U.S. was second
only to Great Britain as
manufacturing nation.
• Eli Whitney - the cotton gin and
Cyrus McCormick - the
mechanical reaper.
The Effects of Machines on Work
• Machines allowed unskilled
workers to become productive.
• Women and children worked
for lower wages. ( Older skilled
workers became unemployed).
• Wages were paid for hours or
goods produced. Wages were
determined by supply and
• The owner of the factory owned
the means of production.
Factory Rules and Regulations
• Working in early factories was
dangerous, hard work.
• Normal work day was 14 hours,
6 days a week.
• Early factories were noisy,
unsanitary, and unsafe.
• 5 year olds were employed in
the coal mines and textile mills.
• Living conditions in homes were
cramped and unhealthy.
Development of the Middle Class
• Bankers, merchants, doctors,
lawyers, became middle class.
• The middle class became
wealthy during the industrial
• Women’s role in the economy
changed to one of lesser status.
• Domestic service was a common
job for working women.
• Middle class women became
nurses, teachers, social workers.
The New Industrial Economy
Eli Whitney
• Capitalism - When the
individual controls the factors
of production.
• Commercial capitalism trading goods and services.
• Industrial capitalism production and manufacturing
of goods.
• Division of Labor - breaking
work up into steps.
• Whitney- interchangeable parts.
The Rise of the Corporation
Model T
• Mass Production - manufacturing
a large number of identical items.
• Henry Ford’s assembly line manufactured the Model T Ford.
Cheap, reliable transportation.
• Sole proprietorship - business
owned and run by one person.
partnership is owned by two or
more people.
• corporation - owners buy stock,
Board of directors, shares.
Business Cycles
• J.P. Morgan - U.S. financier who
helped create Standard Oil and
U.S. Steel.
• monopolies - control of the total
production of a good or service by
a single firm.
• cartel - a combination of
corporations set up to control a
good or service.
• Business cycle - alternating
periods of prosperity and decline.
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