THE BRITISH ISLES Travail rГ©alisГ© par les Г©lГЁves de 4G et 4H " option Langue & Civilisation " annГ©e 2008-2009 Merci particuliГЁrement Г Juliette, CГ©cile, Fiona, MГ©lissa, HГ©lГ©na, Marianne THE BRITISH ISLES One country ? What are the British Isles ? вЂў In the British Isles there are five countries : вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў - England - Wales - Scotland - Northern Ireland - The independent Republic of Ireland. What is Great Britain ? вЂў Great Britain or Britain is an island. It consists in - Scotland - Wales - England. What is the United Kingdom ? вЂў The United Kingdom - consist in 4 countries: England Scotland Wales Northern Ireland. The capital of UK is London but it is the capital of England too. The UK is situated in the north-west of Europe. It is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea. It has a total land area of 244,100 square kilometres. From north to south it is about 1,000 kilometres long. The UK comes within 35 km of the northwest of France, and it is separated by the English Channel. Ben Nevis 1343 M The Royal Coat of Arms of the UK is the official coat of the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II. In the middle there is a shield divided into 4 parts. You can see the harp of Ireland on the left, and there are 3 lions above. On the left of the shield there is a lion with a crown. And on the right there is a unicorn, symbolizing Scotland. The motto of the English monarchs is В«Dieu et mon droit В» The motto of the Order of the Garter is В« Honi soit qui mal y pense В». Help : Shield : bouclier Order of the garter: ordre des chevaliers britanniques. Motto: devise Unicorn: licorne HISTORY The national anthem is God save the Queen. The first verse: God save our gracious Queen! Long live our noble Queen! God save the Queen! Send her victorious, Happy and glorious, Long to the reign over us, God save the Queen. The British National Anthem represents the whole of the UK. However, Wales and Scotland have other songs that they sing. Wales, - Hen Wlad Fy Nhadou Scotland, - Flower of Scotland and Scotland the Brave The Union Jack is composed of 3 flags in one: вЂў UK flag: This is the flag of Wales: The name of the red Dragon is: Y Ddraig Goch in celtic traditions. TIMELINE Romans Saxons Vikings Normans Tudors Victorians WW ll 43 450 793 1066 1485 1837 1939 The Roman Empire The Romans were the first to invade Britain in 55 B.C. They came to Britain nearly 2000 years ago. HadrianвЂ™s wall was built in 2000 BC by the Romans. It is in Scotland. In 43 AD Julius Caesar, the famous emperor tried to invade England in 55 BC but he didnвЂ™t manage to do it. By the time the Roman armies left around 410 AD, they had established medical practice, a language of administration and law and had created great public buildings and roads. The Saxons The Roman army left Britain in about 410 AD. When they had gone there was no strong army to defend Britain, and tribes called the Angle, Saxon, and Jute (the Anglo-Saxons) invaded the country. They came from Northern of Europe. The Vikings The VikingsвЂ™ age in Britain began about 1,200 years ago, in the 8th century AD and lasted for 300 years. The Vikings had a lot of different religions. The Normans The Middle Ages in Britain cover a huge period. In 1066 William the Conqueror won the battle of Hastings. Then he stayed for 23 years and imposed French as the official langage. The Normans built beautiful castles. He lived in the White Tower in London The Tudors The Tudors were a Welsh-English family that ruled England from 1485 to 1603. They ruled for 118 years. The first Tudor king was Henry Vll. He was followed by his son, Henry Vlll. His son, Edward VII ruled after him, followed by his daughters Mary I and Elizabeth I. The Victorians Victorian times means during Victoria's reign. Britain managed Henry Vll to build a huge empire during the Victorian period. In 1837 most people lived in villages and worked on the land; by 1901, most lived in towns and worked in offices, shops and factories. During the 1800s the Industrial Revolution spread throughout Britain. Famous people : Lord Shaftesbury Lewis Carrol Charles Darwin Alexander Graham Bell Charles Dickens FAMOUS BRITISH KINGS AND QUEENS WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR William the Conqueror was born in 1027 and he died in 1087. He was known as "William the Bastard" (French: Guillaume le BГўtard) because of the illegitimacy of his birth. He became Duke of Normandy in 1035 and invaded England in 1066, leading an army of Normans to victory over the Anglo-Saxon forces of Harold (who died in the conflict) at the Battle of Hastings. He was crowned King of England in Westminster Abbey in 1066. William is also referred to as "William IВ» It was the Norman Conquest. King Henry VIII Henry was born on June 28 1491. He was 17 years old when he became king in 1509, after his father died. When he became king, most people belonged to the Catholic Church, which was headed by the Pope, in Rome. In 1534, Henry broke away from the Catholic Church because he wanted to get divorced and proclaimed himself head of the Church of England. King Edward VI Edward was born on 12 October 1537. He became king of England and Ireland on 28 January 1547 at the age of nine, when his father died. His nickname was вЂњ The Boy King вЂќ. EdwardвЂ™s reign was marked by economics problems. Edward died at the age of 16 in 1553. Queen Elizabeth She was the Queen of England and Ireland. She was born on 7th of September 1553 and died on 24 march 1603. She reigned from 1558 until her death. She was the fifth and last monarch of the Tudor dynasty. Her mother was Anne Boleyn and her father was Henry Vlll. Queen Victoria Victoria was born on 24 May 1819 and she became Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 20 June 1837. Queen Victoria was 18 when she came to the throne. Her reign as Queen lasted 63 years and seven month. VictoriaвЂ™s reign was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire by the Industrial revolution, period economic and technological change. She arranged marriages for her nine children and forty-two grandchildren. Her nickname was вЂњ the grandmother of Europe вЂќ. She died the 22 January 1901. FAMOUS BRITISH PEOPLE 400 years ago !!! William Shakespeare. He was the greatest British poet and playwright. He was born on 23 April 1564 in Stratford upon Avon and he died on 23 April 1616, at the age of 52. He wrote Romeo and Juliet and 37 other famous histories, tragedies and comedies. In the 40s Winston Churchill was the British Prime Minister during World War II. He was a writer too. In the 60s The Beatles was and still is one of the most famous British groups. They were famous in the 60s and had millions of fans in the world. Some of their hits were : Yesterday вЂ“ Yellow submarine - In the 80s - 90s Lady Diana was Prince CharlesвЂ™ first wife. They got married in 1981 and had two sons : William and Harry. But they divorced a few years later and she died in a car crash in Paris in 1997. She was very popular Tony Blair was the British Prime minister for 10 years, from 2 May 1997 to 27 June 2007. POPULATION Population in Great Britain. There are 60.2 million inhabitants in Great Britain. Great Britain is the twentieth most populated country in the world 50.4 million inhabitants in England. 3 million inhabitants in Wales. 5.1 million inhabitants in Scotland. Total Population in April 2001 Minority ethnic population per cent Thousands per cent 54,154 677 92.1 1.2 14.6 1,053 747 283 248 1.8 1.3 0.5 0.4 22.7 16.1 6.1 5.3 All minority ethnic population 566 485 98 247 231 4,635 1.0 0.8 0.2 0.4 0.4 7.9 12.2 10.5 2.1 5.3 5.0 100 All population 58,789 100 White Mixed Asian or Asian British Indian Pakistani Bangladeshi Other Asian Black or Black British Black Caribbean Black african Black other Chinese Other LONDON London, Capital of England and the UK, is the most populated city in the European Union, with over 7 million residents. More than 250 languages are spoken and there are lots of different cultures. Britain and London became a mixed race society because a lot of immigrants left the former British colonies to find a job in Britain. Population by ages in United Kingdom: All ages 58.8 million Under 16 11.9 million Men 16-64 Women 16-59 36.1 million Men 65+ Women 60+ 10.8 million Males 28.6 Females 30.2 million Population density More than 200 inhabitants/kmВІ From 100 to 200 From 50 to 100 Less than 50 City more than 5 million inhabitants : LONDON From 1 to 5 million From 200 000 to 1 million New cities Migration England has the most important density and Scotland has the smallest. WHO IS THE BRITISH QUEEN ? The British Royal Family вЂў The surname of the British Royal Family is Windsor. вЂў They changed their name from SaxeCoburg-Gotha to Windsor in 1917 . вЂў They are members of the Church of England and they live at Buckingham Palace. вЂў Members of family : вЂў Queen Elizabeth II of England . вЂў Her husband is Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh . вЂў Her children are: Prince Andrew, Duke of York - Prince Charles of Wales - Princess Royal Anne - Edward Earl of Wessex . вЂў She has got 8 grandchildren : Prince William of Wales, Prince Harry of Wales; Peter Phillips, Zara Phillips; Princess Beatrice of York, Princess Eugenie of York; Lady Louise Windsor, Viscount Servern. The British Royal Family Tree Queen Elizabeth II She was born in 1926 Charles Prince of Wales He was born in 1948 Prince Prince Harry William of Wales of Wales He was He was born in born in 1984 1982 Anne Princess Royal She was born in 1950 Peter Phillips He was born in 1977 Zara Phillips She was born in 1981 Andrew Duke of York He was born in 1960 Edward Earl of Wessex He was born in 1964 Princess Princess Eugenie Beatrice of Of York Lady Louise York She was Windsor She was born born in She was born in 1988 1990 in 2003 Viscount Severn He was born in 2007 вЂўShe is the head of the Commonwealth. ItвЂ™s an organization of former British colonies. Commonwealth вЂўHer role вЂўShe can't create rules, she can't choose anything in economic and politic life of England. вЂўAt Christmas, for her birthday and for Prince PhillipвЂ™s birthday, she talks to the British people on TV. вЂўQueen Elizabeth represents the British Islands in other countries. вЂўShe is the head of England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. вЂўOnly the queen can declare a war or stop it. The queen is the head of the army forces. вЂўElizabeth II is the head of the Church of England. Sometimes, the queen organises Royal Garden parties. ItвЂ™s a big party because 8000 people are invited Who runs the country ? How is Britain governed ? Today the Prime Minister is Gordon Brown. Traditionally the residence of the Prime Minister is at 10 Downing street in London. In Great Britain there are two major parties : The Labour Party and the Conservative Party. Gordon Brown is the head of the Labour party. вЂў Gordon Brown chooses a team of people in the parliament to run the country with him. The United Kingdom is a parliamentary democracy. The QueenвЂ™s powers are limited. She reigns but she does not govern. In the House of Lords, there are 675 members and in the House of Commons there 659 members. House of Lords The House of Commons and the House of Lords meet in the House of Parliament near the river Tames. The building is very large, and beautiful there are more than a thousand rooms. House of Commons. Religion in the British Isles There are lots of religions in the British Isles. The main religion is Christianism (72%). The other religions are: Muslim, Hindu, Sikh, Jewish and Buddhists. 15% of the population donвЂ™t have religion and 1.4% have another religion. buddhists Muslim christianism jewish Hindu A BIT OF HISTORY In 1553, Henry VIII (the king) wanted to divorce because he wanted a son and the queen (his wife) couldnвЂ™t have a child. He asked the Pope for the permission to divorce but the Pope refused. Henry VIII was very angry and created his own church, the Anglicans (protestants). In 1558, Elisabeth I changed the Anglican church back to christianism and this religion became the official religion of England. Religious holidays CHRISTIANISM: MUSLIM: JEWISH : 15 March: St PatrickвЂ™s day. 23 April: St GeorgeвЂ™s day. 10 January: Al Hijra (Islamic new year). 30 September :Rosh Hashanah. 1 October: New yearвЂ™s day. BUDDHIST: 8 February: New yearвЂ™s day. 3 September: GaneshвЂ™s day HINDU: ECONOMY Economy and industries in England The united kingdom is the fourth largest economic power in the world. The City is the most famous place in Europe English people trade all over the world because itвЂ™s easier with English language. They can export with farming lots of cereals, oilseed, potatoes and vegetables . Farming in England today is easy because machines are very sophisticated .With industry population goes to England Tourism is also very important to the British economy. London is Europe's largest financial centre and one of the world's largest financial centres alongside New York andTokyo WOULD YOU LIKE TO VISIT THE BRITISH ISLES ? How can you get to Great Britain? To go to England, you can travel by train, plane or ferry You can take a ferry in Calais, Boulogne,St. Malo, Caen, Roscoff and Cherbourg If you leave from Paris,Calais or Lille, You can get the Eurostar to go to London and you will arrive in St Pancras Station. It goes under the Channel. You can take a plane from anywhere in France. Transports and shopping In England, there are lots of means of transport. You can travel by car on the motorways : there are 225,000 miles ( 326 km ) of roads. You can take the bus, trains, taxis or walk !!! In London, there are beautiful red doubledeckers but the quickest way to visit London is the underground (The Tube). Shopping day, for the British, is on Saturday. There are generally shopping centres with lots of shops ( Marks et Spencer, John Levis, house of Fraser, ). If you visit London, donвЂ™t forget to visit HarrodsвЂ™s. ItвЂ™s very big and very beautiful, but very expensive too ! PUBS AND ACCOMODATIONS What is a pub ? A pub is a small public house. Pubs, for British, are a part of their lives. There are the places where they can discuss and meet new friends You can sleep in a B&B ( bed and breakfast ). They are very comfortable . But for families, villages holidays are also very well with swimming-pool, sports centres, вЂ¦ PLACES TO SEE Retour PALACES AND CASTLES St JamesвЂ™s Palace It was built between 1532 and 1540 by Henry VIII. It became the official residence of the British sovereign after the death of William III in 1837. This castle is in London. Buckingham Palace It was built in 1837 by the duke Buckingham for his wife. This is the residence of the Queen. Buckingham Palace is in London. Balmoral Castle It was built by William the Conqueror in 1080.This is the largest castle in the world. This is the oldest royal home in Britain. Balmoral Castle is in Scotland Windsor Castle It was built by William the Conqueror in 1080.This is the largest castle in the world. This is the oldest royal home in Britain. It is in the South Est of England. TOWER OF LONDON Retour _ This royal fortress was built by William the Conqueror, following his successful invasion in 1066 . SAINT PAULвЂ™S CATHEDRALE Retour The dome of St Paul's Cathedral is the second biggest dome in the world. The first St Paul's Cathedral was built in 604 AD but burnt down in 675. The rebuilt cathedral was again burnt down in the Great Fire of London in 1666. Retour The British Museum is a museum of human history and culture. The museum illustrates the story of human culture from itвЂ™s beginning to the present. THE PALACE OF WESTMINSTER Retour The Palace of Westminster, also known as the houses of Parliament or Westminster Palace. CAMBRIDGE KINGS COLLEGE Henry VI founded Kings College in 1441. ItвЂ™s situated in Cambridge. Retour BLACKPOOL TOWER Retour Blackpool tower is an attraction for the tourist. It looks much like the Eiffel tower. STONEHENGE Stonehenge means вЂњsuspended stonesвЂќ . Stonehenge is the most famous prehistoric monument in Britain. ItвЂ™s located near Salisbury. Retour HADRIANвЂ™S WALL Retour Hadrian Wall is a stone wall built by the Roman Empire to prevent military raids on Roman Britain by the Pictish tribes (ancient inhabitants of Scotland ). Today, ItвЂ™s the most popular tourist attraction in Northern England.