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Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 2
Chapter 2
Theories of
Human Development
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 2
Chapter 2: Theories of Human Development
• Theory: Ideas proposed to describe/explain
certain phenomena
– Organizes facts/observations
– Guides collection of new data
• Should be internally consistent
• Falsifiable: hypothesis can be tested
• Supported by data
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 2
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 2
Freud: Psychoanalytic Theory
• Instincts and unconscious motivation
• Id, Ego, and Superego formed from psychic
energy (Libido)
– Id: Instinctual nature of humans
– Ego: rational and objective
– Superego: internalized moral standards
• A dynamic personality system
– Regular conflicts between the three parts
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 2
Freud’s Psychosexual Development
• Child moves through 5 stages
• Stages result from conflict between Id & Superego
• Conflict creates anxiety
• Ego defends against anxiety with defense
mechanisms
• Early experiences have long-term effects on
personality
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 2
Erik Erikson
• Most influential neo-Freudian
• Some differences with Freud
– Less emphasis on sexual urges
– More emphasis on rational ego
– More positive and adaptive view of human
nature
– Believed development continues through
adulthood
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 2
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 2
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 2
Strengths and Weaknesses of Freud’s Theory
• Strengths
– Awareness of unconscious motivation
– Emphasized important early experience
– Neo-Freudians have been influential
• Weaknesses
– Ambiguous, inconsistent, not testable
– Not supported by research
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 2
Strengths and Weaknesses of Erikson
• Strengths
•
– Emphasis on rational and adaptive nature
– Interaction of biological & social influences
– Focus on identity crisis of adolescence still
most relevant
Weaknesses
– Sometimes vague and difficult to test
– Does not explain how development comes
about
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 2
Learning Theories: Classical Conditioning
• Behaviorism: Conclusions should be based
on observable behavior
• Tabula Rasa: Environmental view
• Association learning
– UCS: built-in, unlearned stimulus
– UCR: automatic, unlearned response
– CS: causes learned response
– CR: learned response
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 2
Figure 2.3
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 2
Figure 2.2
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 2
Learning Theories: Operant Conditioning
• Probability of behavior based on
environmental consequences
– Reinforcement
• Pleasant consequence
• Increases probability
– Punishment
• Decreases probability
• Unpleasant, aversive
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 2
Bandura: Social Cognitive Theory
• Formerly called social learning theory
– Humans think, anticipate, believe, etc.
• Cognitive emphasis: observational learning
– BoBo doll studies
– Model praised or punished
– Child learned to imitate rewarded model
– Vicarious reinforcement
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 2
Learning Theory: Strengths & Weaknesses
• Strengths
– Precise and testable theory
– Carefully controlled experiments
– Practical applications across lifespan
• Weaknesses
– Inadequate account of lifespan changes
– Ignored genetic and maturational
processes
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 2
Piaget: Cognitive Developmental Theory
• Intelligence: Ability to adapt to environment
• Constructivism: Understanding based on
experience
• Interactionist
– Both biological maturation and experience
required for progress
• At each new stage, children think in a
qualitatively different way
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 2
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 2
Cognitive Developmental Theory
• Strengths
– Well-accepted by developmentalists
– Well-researched, mostly supported
– Influenced education and parenting
• Weaknesses
– Ignores motivation and emotion
– Stages not universal – esp. last one
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 2
Contextual/Systems Theories
• Lev Vygotsky: Sociocultural perspective
– Cognitive development is a social process
– Problem solving aided by dialogues
• Gottlieb: Evolutionary/Epigenetic Systems
– Genes, neural activity, behavior, and
environment mutually influential
– Normal genes and normal early
experiences most helpful
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