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WIND ENERGY SITE ASSESSMENT

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by
ROGER DIXON
CERTIFIED WIND SITE ASSESSOR
Skylands Renewable Energy, LLC
1
UNITED STATES WIND MAP
2
OLDER NEW JERSEY WIND MAP
3
2003 NJ 50 METER WIND MAP
4
2003 NJ 30 METER WIND MAP
5
WHAT’S THE POINT??
п‚— QUALIFY THE AVAILABLE WIND RESOURCE AT A SPECIFIC
GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION
п‚— VISUALLY INSPECT AREA
п‚— QUANTIFY SITE OBSTRUCTIONS AND HEIGHT
п‚— EVALUATE POSSIBLE LOCATIONS FOR TOWER
п‚— NOTE SOIL CONDITION
п‚— LOCATE EXISTING UTILITIES
п‚— EVALUATE CRANE ACCESS (IF NECESSARY)
6
TURBULANCE
7
WIND SHEAR/SURFACE FRICTION
п‚— Smooth, hard ground, lake or ocean
0.10
п‚— Short grass on untilled ground
0.14
п‚— Level country with foot-high grass, occasional tree
0.16
п‚— Tall row crops, hedges, a few trees
0.20
п‚— Many trees and occasional buildings
0.22-0.24
п‚— Wooded country; small towns and suburbs
0.28-0.30
п‚— Urban areas, with tall buildings
0.40
Park, Jack; The Wind Power Book, Cheshire Books, 1981
8
WIND DIRECTION OR WIND ROSE?
9
INTERPRETING A WIND ROSE
п‚— A WIND ROSE GIVES INFORMATION ABOUT THE WIND
п‚—
п‚—
п‚—
п‚—
SPEED AND FREQUENCY OF WIND BLOWING FROM
VARIOUS DIRECTIONS.
THE LENGTH OF EACH “SPOKE” AROUND THE CIRCLE IS
RELATED TO THE FREQUENCY OF TIME THAT THE WIND
BLOWS FROM A PARTICULAR DIRECTION.
EACH CONCENTRIC CIRCLE REPRESENTS A DIFFERENT
FREQUENCY FROM ZERO AT THE CENTER TO INCREASING
FREQUENCIES AT THE OUTER CIRCLES.
YOU CAN ANALYZE A WIND ROSE TO DETERMINE THE
PREVAILING WIND DIRECTION AND FREQUENCY.
IN THIS EXAMPLE PREVAILING WINDS COME FROM THE
SOUTH SOUTHWEST AND THE NORTHWEST WITH
ADDITIONAL INPUT FROM A VARIETY OF DIRECTIONS.
10
SATELLITE MAPPING
11
SITE SPECIFIC EXAMPLE
12
SITE UPWIND & DOWNWIND
13
SIZE OF WIND TURBINES
14
TYPES OF TOWERS
Woofenden, Ian; Home Power, Issue #105, February/March 2005
15
TOWER SIZING
п‚— EXISTING GROUND OBSTRUCTIONS
п‚— TOWER HUB HEIGHT
п‚— ROTOR LENGTH/SYSTEM HEIGHT
п‚— FAA REGULATIONS
 “FALL” ZONES AND LOT LINE SETBACKS
п‚— MIGRATORY BIRDS
п‚— AESTHETICS
п‚— FOOTINGS
п‚— COST
16
POWER EQUATION
п‚— P=1/2d A V3 (where P=power, D=density of the air,
A=area, an V=wind speed)
п‚— TALLER IS ALWAYS BETTER
17
TOWER CONSIDERATIONS
Woofenden, Ian; Home Power, Issue #105, February/March 2005
18
ELECTRICAL USE & CALCULATIONS
п‚— RATED CAPACITY VS. KILOWATT HOURS
п‚— ANNUAL KILOWATT HOURS USED & DOLLAR VALUE
п‚— NJ NET METERING/CORE PROGRAM
п‚— ESTIMATED POWER PRODUCTION AT SITE
п‚— SWEPT AREA/BIGGER IS BETTER
19
SIZE OF SWEPT AREA
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AVAILABLE EQUIPMENT
Turbine
Rated Output
Rotor Diameter (in feet)
Bergey XLS
10 kW
23'
Abundant Renewable Energy 442
10 kW
24’
Wind Turbine Industries / Jacobs 31-20
20 kW
31'
Energie 20/32
35 kW
49’
Entergity EW-15
50kW
63'
Halus / Vestas V17
90kW
56'
Furlander FL100
100 kW
89'
Distributed Energy Systems/Northwind 100
100kW
69’
21
SUMMARY
п‚— THESE SLIDES ARE JUST SOME HIGHLIGHTS
п‚— EACH POTENTIAL SITE IS UNIQUE
п‚— MICRO SITING IS VERY IMPORTANT
п‚— TOWERS AND EQUIPMENT MUST FIT EACH SITUATION
п‚— SIZE DOES MATTER
п‚— NOT ALL LOCATIONS ARE SUITABLE
п‚— A PROPER WIND SITE ASSESSMENT IS THE SINGLE MOST
CRITICAL ELEMENT IN THE ENTIRE PROCESS - IT SETS THE
STAGE FOR ALL SUBSEQUENT DECISIONS
22
ROGER DIXON
Skylands Renewable Energy, LLC
3 Thads Hill Road
Hampton, NJ 08827
908.337.2057
www.skylandsre.com
[email protected]
23
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