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A Guide to Project Management

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A Guide to Project
Management
6 Basic Principles to
Project Management
•
•
•
•
Define the job in detail
Get the right people involved
Estimate the time and costs
Break the job down using the
40-hour rule
• Establish a change procedure
• Agree on acceptance criteria
Project Management
Framework
• Introduction
• Project Management Context
• Project Management Process
Introduction
• What is a Project?
• What is Project Management?
• Relationship to Other
Management Disciplines
• Related Endeavors
What is a Project?
• Performed by people
• Constrained by limited
resources
• Planned, executed and
controlled
What is Project
Management?
• Competing demands for:
•
•
•
•
•
Scope
Time
Cost
Risk
Quality
• Stakeholders with differing needs
and expectations
• Identified requirements
Relationship to Other
Management Disciplines
• Functional departments and
supporting disciplines
• Technical elements
• Management specializations
• Industry groups
Related Endeavors
• Programs
• Project portfolio management
• Subprojects
Project Management
Context
• Project Phases and the Project
Life Cycle
• Project Stakeholders
• Organizational Influences
• Key General Management Skills
• Social-Economic-Environmental
Influences
Project Management
Processes
•
•
•
•
Project Processes
Process Groups
Process Interaction
Customizing Process
Interactions
• Mapping of Project Management
Processes
Mapping of Project
Management Process
Process Group
Knowledge Area
Initiating
Project Scope
Management
Project Scope
Management
Planning
•Project Plan Development
•Initiation
Executing
•Project Plan Execution
Controlling
Closing
•Integrated Change
Control
•Scope Planning
•Scope Definition
•Scope Verification
•Scope Change
Control
Project Time
Management
•Activity Definition
•Activity Sequencing
•Activity Duration Estimating
•Schedule Development
•Schedule Control
Project Cost
Management
•Resource Planning
•Cost Estimating
•Cost Budgeting
•Cost Control
Project Quality
Management
•Quality Planning
•Quality Assurance
Project Human
Resource Management
•Organizational Planning
•Staff Acquisition
•Team Development
Project
Communications
Management
•Communications Planning
•Information Distribution
Risk Project
Management
•Risk Management Planning
•Risk Identification
•Qualitative Risk Analysis
•Quantitative Risk Analysis
•Risk Response Planning
Project Procurement
Management
•Procurement Planning
•Solicitation Planning
•Quality Control
•Performance
Reporting
•Administrative
Closure
•Risk Monitoring and
Control
•Solicitation
•Source Selection
•Contract Administration
•Contract Closeout
Project Management
Knowledge Areas
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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Project
Project
Project
Project
Project
Project
Project
Project
Project
Integration Management
Scope Management
Time Management
Cost Management
Quality Management
Human Resource Management
Communications Management
Risk Management
Procurement Management
Project Integration
Management
• Project Plan Development
• Project Plan Execution
• Integrated Change Control
Project Plan
Development
• Inputs
•
•
•
•
•
Other planning outputs
Historical information
Organizational policies
Constraints
Assumptions
• Tools and Techniques
• Project planning
methodology
• Stakeholders skills
and knowledge
• Project management
information systems
(PMIS)
• Earned value
management (EVM)
• Outputs
• Project plan(s)
• Supporting detail
Project Plan Execution
•
Inputs
•
•
•
•
•
Project plan
Supporting detail
Organizational policies
Preventive action
Corrective action
•
Tools and Techniques
•
Outputs
• General management
skills
• Product skills and
knowledge
• Work authorization
system
• Status review meetings
• Project management
information system
• Organizational
procedures
• Work results
• Change requests
Integrated Change
Control
• Inputs
• Project plan
• Performance reports
• Change requests
• Tools and Techniques
• Change control
system
• Configuration
management
• Performance
measurement
• Additional planning
• Project management
information system
• Output
• Project plan updates
• Corrective action
• Lessons learned
Project Scope
Management
•
•
•
•
•
Scope
Scope
Scope
Scope
Scope
Initiation
Planning
Definition
Verification
Change Control
Scope Initiation
• Inputs
• Product description
• Strategic plan
• Project selection
criteria
• Tools and
Techniques
• Project selection
methods
• Expert judgement
• Outputs
• Project charter
• Project manager
identified/assigned
• Constraints
• Assumptions
Scope Planning
• Inputs
•
•
•
•
Product description
Project charter
Constraints
Assumptions
• Tools and
Techniques
• Product analysis
• Benefit/cost
analysis
• Alternatives
identification
• Expert judgement
• Outputs
• Scope statement
• Supporting detail
• Scope management
plan
Scope Definition
• Inputs
•
•
•
•
Scope statement
Constraints
Assumptions
Other planning
outputs
• Historical
information
• Tools and
Techniques
• Work breakdown
structure
• Decomposition
• Outputs
• Work breakdown
structure
• Scope statement
updates
Scope Verification
• Inputs
• Work results
• Product
documentation
• Work breakdown
structure
• Scope statement
• Project plan
• Tools and
Techniques
• Inspection
• Outputs
• Formal
acceptance
Scope Change Control
• Inputs
• Work breakdown
structure
• Performance
reports
• Change requests
• Scope management
plan
• Tools and
Techniques
• Scope change
control system
• Performance
measurement
• Additional planning
• Outputs
•
•
•
•
Scope changes
Corrective action
Lessons learned
Adjusted baseline
Project Time
Management
•
•
•
•
•
Activity Definition
Activity Sequencing
Activity Duration Estimating
Schedule Development
Schedule Control
Activity Definition
• Inputs
• Work breakdown
structure
• Scope statement
• Historical
information
• Constraints
• Assumptions
• Expert
judgement
• Tools and
Techniques
• Decomposition
• Templates
• Outputs
• Activity list
• Supporting detail
• Work breakdown
structure
updates
Activity Sequencing
• Inputs
• Activity list
• Product description
• Mandatory
dependencies
• Discretionary
dependencies
• External dependencies
• Milestones
• Tools and Techniques
• Precedence
diagramming methods
(PDM)
• Arrow diagramming
method (ADM)
• Conditional
diagramming methods
• Network templates
• Outputs
• Project network
diagram
• Activity list updates
Activity Duration
Estimating
• Inputs
•
•
•
•
Activity list
Constraints
Assumptions
Resource
requirements
• Resource capabilities
• Historical information
• Identified risks
• Tools and Techniques
• Expert judgement
• Analogous estimating
• Quantitatively based
durations
• Reserve time
(contingency)
• Outputs
• Activity duration
estimates
• Basis of estimates
• Activity list updates
Schedule Development
•
Inputs
• Project network
diagrams
• Activity duration
estimates
• Resource requirements
• Resource pool
description
• Calendars
• Constraints
• Assumptions
• Leads and lags
• Risk management plan
• Activity attributes
•
Tools and Techniques
•
Outputs
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Mathematical analysis
Duration compression
Simulation
Resource leveling
heuristics
• Project management
software
• Coding structure
• Project schedule
• Supporting detail
• Schedule management
plan
• Resource requirements
updates
Schedule Control
• Inputs
•
•
•
•
Project schedule
Performance reports
Change requests
Schedule management
plan
• Tools and Techniques
• Schedule change
control system
• Performance
measurement
• Additional planning
• Project management
software
• Variance Analysis
• Outputs
• Schedule updates
• Corrective action
• Lessons learned
Project Cost
Management
•
•
•
•
Resource Planning
Cost Estimating
Cost Budgeting
Cost Control
Resource Planning
• Inputs
• Work breakdown
structure
• Historical
information
• Scope statement
• Resource pool
description
• Organization
policies
• Activity duration
estimates
• Tools and
Techniques
• Expert judgement
• Alternatives
identification
• Project
management
software
• Outputs
• Resource
requirements
Cost Estimating
• Inputs
• Work breakdown
structure
• Resource
requirements
• Resource rates
• Activity duration
estimates
• Estimating
publications
• Historical information
• Chart of accounts
• Risks
• Tools and Techniques
•
•
•
•
•
Analogous estimating
Parametric modeling
Bottom-up estimating
Computerized tools
Other cost estimating
methods
• Outputs
• Cost estimates
• Supporting detail
• Cost management
plan
Cost Budgeting
• Inputs
• Cost estimates
• Work breakdown
structure
• Project schedule
• Risk
management
plan
• Tools and
Techniques
• Cost budgeting
tools and
techniques
• Outputs
• Cost baseline
Cost Control
•
Inputs
•
•
•
•
Cost baseline
Performance reports
Change requests
Cost management plan
•
Tools and Techniques
•
Outputs
• Cost change control
system
• Performance
measurement
• Earned value
management (EVM)
• Additional planning
• Computerized tools
•
•
•
•
•
•
Revised cost estimates
Budget updates
Corrective action
Estimate at completion
Project closeout
Lessons learned
Project Quality
Management
• Quality Planning
• Quality Assurance
• Quality Control
Quality Planning
• Inputs
•
•
•
•
Quality policy
Scope statement
Product description
Standards and
regulations
• Other process outputs
• Tools and Techniques
•
•
•
•
•
Benefit/cost analysis
Benchmarking
Flow-charting
Design of experiments
Cost of quality
• Outputs
• Quality management
plan
• Operational definitions
• Checklists
• Inputs to other
processes
Quality Assurance
• Inputs
• Quality
management
plan
• Results of
quality control
measurements
• Operations
definitions
• Tools and
Techniques
• Quality planning
tools and
techniques
• Quality audits
• Outputs
• Quality
improvement
Quality Control
• In puts
• Work results
• Quality management
plan
• Operational definitions
• Checklists
• Tools and Techniques
•
•
•
•
•
•
Inspection
Control charts
Pareto Diagrams
Statistical sampling
Flow-charting
Trend analysis
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•
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•
•
Quality improvements
Acceptance decisions
Rework
Completed checklists
Process adjustments
• Outputs
Project Human
Resource Management
• Organizational Planning
• Staff Acquisition
• Team Development
Organizational Planning
• Inputs
• Project interfaces
• Staffing requirements
• Constraints
• Tools and Techniques
• Templates
• Human resource
practices
• Organizational theory
• Stakeholder analysis
• Outputs
• Role and
responsibilities
assignments
• Staffing management
plan
• Organization chart
• Supporting detail
Staff Acquisition
• Inputs
• Staffing
management
plan
• Staffing pool
description
• Recruitment
practices
• Tools and
Techniques
• Negotiations
• Pre-assignment
• Procurement
• Outputs
• Project staff
assigned
• Project team
directory
Team Development
• Inputs
• Project staff
• Project plan
• Staffing management
plan
• Performance reports
• External feedback
• Tools and Techniques
• Team-building
activities
• General management
skills
• Reward and
recognition systems
• Collocation
• Training
• Outputs
• Performance
improvements
• Input to performance
appraisals
Project Communications
Management
•
•
•
•
Communications Planning
Information Distribution
Performance Reporting
Administrative Closure
Communications
Planning
• Inputs
• Communications
requirements
• Communications
technology
• Constraints
• Assumptions
• Tools and
Techniques
• Stakeholder
analysis
• Outputs
• Communications
management
plan
Information Distribution
• Inputs
• Work results
• Communications
management plan
• Project plan
• Tools and
Techniques
• Communications
skills
• Information retrieval
systems
• Information
distribution methods
• Outputs
• Project records
• Project reports
• Project
presentations
Performance Reporting
• Inputs
• Project plan
• Work results
• Other project records
• Tools and Techniques
•
•
•
•
•
Performance reviews
Variance analysis
Trend analysis
Earned value analysis
Information
distribution tools and
techniques
• Outputs
• Performance reports
• Change requests
Administrative Closure
• Inputs
• Performance
measurement
documentation
• Product
documentation
• Other project
records
• Tools and
Techniques
• Performance
reporting tools and
techniques
• Project reports
• Project
presentations
• Outputs
• Project archives
• Project closure
• Lessons learned
Project Risk
Management
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•
•
•
•
•
Risk Management Planning
Risk Identification
Qualitative Risk Analysis
Quantitative Risk Analysis
Risk Response Planning
Risk Monitoring and Control
Risk Management
Planning
• Inputs
• Project charter
• Organization’s risk
management
policies
• Defined roles and
responsibilities
• Template for the
organization’s risk
management plan
• Work breakdown
structure
• Tools and
Techniques
• Planning meeting
• Outputs
• Risk management
plan
Risk Identification
• Tools
• Risk management plan
• Project planning
outputs
• Risk categories
• Historical information
• Tools and techniques
• Documentation review
• Information-gathering
techniques
• Checklists
• Assumptions analysis
• Diagramming
techniques
• Outputs
• Risks
• Triggers
• Inputs to other
processes
Qualitative Risk
Analysis
•
Inputs
•
•
•
•
•
•
Risk management plan
Identified risks
Project status
Project type
Data precision
Scales of probability and
impact
• Assumptions
•
Tools and Techniques
•
Outputs
• Risk probability and
impact
• Probability/impact risk
rating matrix
• Project assumptions
testing
• Data precision ranking
• Overall risk ranking for
the project
• List of prioritized risks
• List of risk for additional
analysis and
management
• Trends in qualitative risk
analysis results
Quantitative Risk
Analysis
• Inputs
•
•
•
•
Risk management plan
Identified risks
List of prioritized risks
List of risks for
additional analysis
and management
• Historical information
• Expert judgement
• Other planning outputs
• Tools and Techniques
•
•
•
•
Interviewing
Sensitivity analysis
Decision tree analysis
Simulation
• Outputs
• Prioritized list of
quantified risks
• Probabilistic analysis
of the project
• Probability of
achieving the cost and
time objectives
• Trends in quantitative
risk analysis results
Risk Response Planning
•
Inputs
• Risk management plan
• List of prioritized risks
• Risk ranking of the project
• Prioritized list of quantified
risks
• Probabilistic analysis of the
project
• Probability of achieving the
cost and time objectives
• List of potential responses
• Risk thresholds
• Risk owners
• Common risk causes
• Trends in qualitative and
quantitative risk analysis
results
•
•
Tools and Techniques
• Avoidance
• Transference
• Mitigation
• Acceptance
Outputs
• Risk response plan
• Residual risks
• Secondary risks
• Contractual agreements
• Contingency reserve
amounts needed
• Inputs to other processes
• Inputs to a revised
project plan
Risk Monitoring and
Control
•
Inputs
• Risk management plan
• Risk response plan
• Project
communication
• Additional risk
identification and
analysis
• Scope changes
•
Tools and Techniques
•
•
•
•
•
•
Project risk response audits
Periodic project risk reviews
Earned value analysis
Technical performance
measurement
Additional risk response
planning
Outputs
•
•
•
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•
•
Workaround plans
Corrective action
Project change requests
Updates to the risk response
plan
Risk Database
Updates to risk identification
checklists
Project Procurement
Management
•
•
•
•
•
•
Procurement Planning
Solicitation Planning
Solicitation
Source Selection
Contract Administration
Contract Closeout
Procurement Planning
• Inputs
• Scope statement
• Product description
• Procurement
resources
• Market conditions
• Other planning
outputs
• Constraints
• Assumptions
• Tools and
Techniques
• Make-or-buy
analysis Expert
judgement
• Contract type
selection
• Outputs
• Procurement
management plan
• Statement(s) of
work
Solicitation Planning
• Inputs
• Procurement
management plan
• Statement(s) of
work
• Other planning
outputs
• Tools and
Techniques
• Standard forms
• Expert judgement
• Outputs
• Procurement
documents
• Evaluation criteria
• Statement of work
updates
Solicitation
• Inputs
• Procurement
documents
• Qualified seller
lists
• Tools and
Techniques
• Bidder
conferences
• Advertising
• Outputs
• Proposals
Source Selection
• Inputs
• Proposals
• Evaluation criteria
• Organizational
policies
• Tools and
Techniques
• Contract
negotiation
• Weighting system
• Screening system
• Independent
estimates
• Outputs
• Contract
Contract Administration
• Inputs
•
•
•
•
Contract
Work results
Change requests
Seller invoices
• Tools and
Techniques
• Contract change
control system
• Performance
reporting
• Payment system
• Outputs
• Correspondence
• Contract changes
• Payment requests
Contract Closeout
• Inputs
• Contract
documentation
• Tools and
Techniques
• Procurement
audits
• Outputs
• Contract file
• Formal
acceptance and
closure
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