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Marketing 4.2-Promotion

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4.2 MARKETING – PROMOTION
IB BUSINESS & MANAGEMENT
A COURSE COMPANION (2009)
P217-219
PROMOTION
• Promotional activity is categorized into two
types: “above the line” & “below the line”
Above the Line
• This is direct advertising through consumer
channels, where the control of the process is
passed to third parties. (eg: TV, cinema,
newspaper, magazine, the Internet and radio)
Below the Line
• All other forms of promotional activity fall into
the below-the-line category and remain in the
direct control of the business.
Above the Line-Advertising
• Advertising comes in many forms and can vary
greatly in expense.
• Advertising tends to be two types:
пѓ�Persuasive
пѓ�Informative.
ABOVE THE LINE ADVERTISING
Persuasive Advertising
• This advertising is aimed to convince
consumers to buy a particular product.
• It is the most effective form of advertising, but
it can be controversial, particularly if targeted
at children.
ABOVE THE LINE ADVERTISING
Informative Advertising
• Informative advertising aims to make
consumers aware of the key features and
characteristics of a product to enable them to
decide for themselves which product to buy.
ABOVE THE LINE ADVERTISING
What type of advertising?
• What type of advertising and where to do it
will depend greatly on the individual product
being sold.
• It makes sense to target advertising towards
you key consumer groups, hence the number
of beer advertisements at half-time of football
matches.
• Specific products may be require specific
channels to be most effective.
BELOW THE LINE ADVERTISING
Price Promotions
• This could be in the form of discounts on the
selling price, for example 50% off, or offering
more for your money, for example “BOGOF”,
• The aim is to increase sales of product,
particularly to new customers who may then
buy the product again in the future.
BELOW THE LINE ADVERTISING
Direct Marketing & Direct Selling
• Mail to your door or email box are common examples
of this.
• Direct mailing is successful used by local restaurants,
(especially take-away).
• Direct selling takes this one stage further. Eg: coldcalling arranged by insurance companies
• Technology also now allows for `robo-calling` where a
computer continually dials numbers and plays a
message when the call is answered.
• However, businesses must be careful of the
reputational risk, as cold calling and email spam can
put consumers off a particular brand or product.
BELOW THE LINE ADVERTISING
Loyalty Cards & Regular Purchase Discounts
• Many supermarkets now offer loyalty cards or
programs allowing consumers to collect points
on their shopping that can be redeemed
against future purchases.
• Apart from encouraging customers to remain
loyal, it also allows businesses to create a
useful database of buying habits which can be
used to target direct mailing or even be sold
on to other businesses.
BELOW THE LINE ADVERTISING
Point of Sale Displays
• Many products are arranged in attractive
displays to draw customers attention to them.
• This will make consumers more likely to pick
the product up and it is often used for
products that are impulse buys, such as
sweets, drinks and snacks.
BELOW THE LINE ADVERTISING
Public Relations (PR)
• Companies try to create brand awareness and
positive image association by activities such as
sponsorship.
• Example: Red Bull, the energy drink company
sponsors activities such as Red Bull Flugtag for
crazy flying inventions (based on its slogan
“Red Bull gives you wings”)
PROMOTIONAL MIX
Business needs to consider the following:
• Who is the product aimed at – should I target
the whole market or smaller segments?
• How much will it cost – do I have the finance
available for all the types of promotional
activity I would like to use?
• Howe effective will my promotion be – am I
sure that I will get a return from my
investment?
PROMOTIONAL MIX
• In general businesses will adopt a number of
different methods of promotion for any given
product in order to get a good balance
between effectiveness and cost.
• The combination of these activities is known
as the promotional mix and businesses will be
continually tweaking this mix to try to attract
as many consumers as possible to their
products.
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